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asopis EE, VOL 18.

NO 5/S, 2012, 1-4


Juraj Madars* Viktor Ferencey* Martin Bugr*
This paper deals with the problematic of simulations of an electric vehicle powertrains transmission unit, and specifically with the modeling of torque flowing in the transmission mechanism and possibilities of electric energy consumption reduction with it. For first is explained a perspective uses of multi-speed transmissions and the possibilities of their modeling and simulation in software environments. In the second part is a description of the conceptual model of the simulated powertrain with transmission mechanism of the vehicle in CAD software environment. The third part of this paper presents a mathematical-physical model of the whole propulsion system of the described electric vehicle in the computer simulation software. In the last part of this paper is analyzed impact of the use of a transmission unit in the electric vehicle powertrain and the simulation results. Keywords: energy consumption, transmission, electric vehicle, simulation, dynamic model

1 INTRODUCTION Electric vehicles drivetrain consists, as in the vehicles with internal combustion engine, from electric motor, single stage transmission mechanism or reduction gearbox, drive shafts and final drive with differential. For each type of vehicle, is looking for the most appropriate layout of the components of the electric drive system. The most commonly is used front or rear wheel drive with a central electric motor, and driven is one axle. For the electric vehicles a question is that a multi-speed transmission with frictional or hydrodynamic clutch an advantage is. [1] Using the multi-speed transmissions brings many benefits. By using the correct transmission ratio, the same as in the vehicle with an internal combustion engine can achieve savings of energy required for the electric drive.

maximum torque starts from zero speed, optimum number of the electric vehicles transmission shifting gears moves around three. Those transmissions are in most cases automatic, optionally automated, whereas during the shifting of the gears of the manual transmission, the friction clutch needed is, which the problematic node of the driving mechanism during the high torque transmission of the electric motor is. In terms of energy consumption is also important the controlling part of the mechatronic system of the electric vehicles transmission unit.

Fig. 2. The efficiency of the various gear numbers of the multi-speed transmissions during the driving cycles [2]

Fig. 1. Three stage multi-speed EV transmission Antonov[2]

Transmissions of electric vehicles compared to commercially used transmissions, have different construction and topology. Since the electric motor can work from the zero RPMs, the electric vehicles transmission mechanism doesnt need any starting clutch, or the hydrodynamic torque converter. Another difference is the reduced number of shifted gears. Given that the modern traction motors achieving a high RPMs, and the

With the optimum design of the shifting algorithms and appropriate graduation of the gear ratios, it is possible obtain significant reduction of the energy consumption. Based on this knowledge, the Antonov Company has developed a three-speed dual-clutch transmission for EVs (Fig. 1.). The transmission has its own control unit (TCU), allowing complete control over the gear selection process. For this transmission was developed a transmission performance/efficiency analysis tool for EV applications using computational modeling of different drive cycles. This tool is used for:

* Department of Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics, Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Ilkoviova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia;

asopis EE, VOL 18. NO 5/S, 2012

Optimize motor and transmission matching for a given EV application Extend vehicle range with intelligent gear selection and use of regenerative braking during a drive cycle Optimize gear ratios and final drive ratio for performance and efficiency across different drive cycles Identify performance/efficiency of single vs. multi-speed transmissions (Fig. 2.) 2 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF THE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Fig. 3. Progress to simulate the dynamic load of an electric vehicle powertrain

To simulate the dynamic loads of the powertrain is necessary to define the input characteristic load. In this case, the best choice is the driving resistances acting during the driving cycle as the characteristic load. 2.1 Description of the simulated model The target of the simulations a comparison of the electric vehicle energy consumption with single speed and multi speed transmission unit is. The simulated system will be then the mechanical part of the electric vehicles powertrain (Fig. 4.) consists of: - electric motors rotor - driving shafts - gearbox - differential - driving wheels and the energy system of the battery pack and system of the electric motor with DC/AC inverter.

Electric vehicle transmission mechanism is in principle a rotating system, in which during the operation a dynamic factors operate is. Also are here applicable physical laws as for the other rotating systems. Right at the start it should be noted that the structure and parameters of the solved rotating system model definitely influencing the obtained results. Each real system is to some degree complicated and cannot be fully resolved, suggesting that it necessary is to simplify the modeled system. In developing the model, it is important to preserve all the essential characteristics of the dynamic transmission system. To monitor the dynamic and energy parameters should be suitable to build the mathematicalphysical model in SIMULINK environment. Simulation procedure is based on given input and output parameters which by the simulated system required are. The method of creating the model and the simulation itself is based on the structure of the modeled system. In the case of electric vehicles drivetrain, the model structure depends on the vehicles drivetrain conception.

Fig. 4 Components layout of the simulated vehicle with single stage gearbox: EM- Electric motor, DC/AC DC/AC inverter, B battery pack, D differential with reduction gear, W driving wheels

Build the model (mathematical, physical)

The first simulated system is the powertrain of the electric vehicle with single stage gearbox reduction unit (can be seen on the Fig. 4.).

Inputs (Driving cycle)

Simulated system (motor, drivetrain, vehicle wheels)

Characteristic load
(driving resistances)

Results (Torques, velocities, RPMs,, SOC ,energy consumption)


Fig. 5 Components layout of the simulated vehicle with multispeed transmission: EM- Electric motor, DC/AC DC/AC inverter, T automatic transmission, TCU transmission control unit, B battery pack, D differential, W driving wheels

3.1 The electric motor subsystem The main component of the simulation model is the electric motor subsystem. The base of this subsystem is an Ideal torque source, which generates the torque for the mechanical drive system. Input for this source is a Look-up table output based on the torque characteristics of the UQM motor and the accelerator pedal position.

The results of the previous system are compared with the results of the second model, which is supplemented by a 4 speed planetary gear with its own control unit, which is forming a mechatronic system of an automatic transmission. For a better representation of the powertrain layout is designed CAD model of the simulated vehicle.

Fig. 8 Detailed view on the motor subsystem in Simulink

From the input torque signal and from the Rotational motion sensor is calculated the mechanical power according to equation

P mech =Tmot . mot [kW]


where Pmech is an mechanical power, Tmot is a motor torque and mot is an electric motor angular velocity. To achieve the electrical power needed from the batteries, the mechanical power has to be multiplied by efficiency from the electric motor efficiency map (Fig. 3.1).
Fig. 6. Components layout of the simulated vehicle: 1- Electric motor, 2 DC/AC inverter, 3 automatic transmission with differential, 4 rear battery pack, 5 front battery pack

The electrical power is then calculated according to equation:

Pel = Pmech .mot [kW]


3 SIMULATION OF THE POWERTRAIN IN SIMULINK Based the conceptions described on the Fig.4. and Fig.5. a simulation models in SIMULINK environment compiled is. The second model is essentially different by the added transmission with the transmission control unit. For this reason, it is described a model of second layout with multi-speed transmission.

where Pel is an electric power, Pmot is a mechanical motor power and mot is an efficiency of electric motor. For the generating of efficiency the value of electric current needed is. Since we consider a inverter voltage, the value of the voltage is constant. This implies, that the current equation is as follows

I mot =

Pel [A] U mot


Fig. 7 Components layout of the simulated vehicle with single stage gearbox

asopis EE, VOL 18. NO 5/S, 2012

where Pel is an electric power, Umot is a motor voltage and Imot is the electric current of the electric motor. 3.2 The automatic driver subsystem For the most precise simulation is an automatic driver subsystem needed. In this subsystem are some Simulink blocks, which calculating the demanded acceleration pedal position and also brake pedal position for following the chosen driving cycle (Fig.3.3).

The results of the simulations are time courses of physical parameters. The first parameter is desired speed compared to the reached speed. As the driving cycle, the NEDC cycle selected is.

Fig. 10. Vehicle speed during the driving cycle

Another parameters are Accelerator pedal position, electric motors torque, battery State of charge (SOC) and selected gear of the automatic transmission during the driving cycle. Few of them can be seen on the Fig. 11., Fig. 12. and Fig. 13.
Fig. 9. Automatic driver Simulink subsystem

3.3 The five speed automatic transmission subsystem This subsystem presents a physical model of the transmission of the simulated vehicle. This subsystem consists from mechanical rotational elements and shifting elements. As transmission elements the planetary gear sets (PGS) blocks used is. Every PGS block has an internal gear ratio and efficiency of power transmission defined. For change the gear ratio and gear shift a Friction clutch elements used is. For the shifting of the gear sets a Stateflow system used is [3].

Fig. 11. Electric motors torque during the cycle

Fig. 12. Battery State of Charge during the cycle

Fig. 13. Selected gear of the transmission during the driving cycle

Fig. 9. Shifting logic of the transmission in Stateflow


One of the results is also the course of the energy consumption during the driving cycle. These two results have been compared for both cases of the powertrain layout. The first graph (blue) has higher final value and presents the electric energy consumption during the driving cycle of the vehicle with single stage gearbox. The second graph (red) presents the electric energy consumption during the driving cycle of the vehicle with four speed automatic transmission. These results can be seen on the Fig. 14.


But this difference is very low, which is caused by the short driving cycle, non optimized gear ratios and non optimized shifting algorithms of the transmission control unit. By the optimization of these parameters a visible improving can be reached. Acknowledgement This work was not supported by a grant, unfortunately.

Fig. 14. Comparison of the energy consumption during the cycle
[1] MADARS, J. BUGR, M.: Modeling of Mechanical Rotational Components System of The Electric Vehicle Drive: ELITECH12: 14th Conference of Doctoral Students, Bratislava, 2012 [2] PAUL, D.: Multi-speed transmissions for Electric Vehicle applications, Low Carbon Vehicle Event 2011, Northamptonshire, 2011 [3] Matlab Simulink documentation: [4] KULKARNI, M. SHIM, T. ZHANG, Y.: Shift dynamics and control of dual-clutch transmissions: Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2006, p. 168 - 182 [5] GRUNWALD, A.: Systematic optimisation of gearboxes for hybrid and electric vehicles in terms of efficiency, NVH and durability, European Ricardo Software User Conference, Ludwigsburg, 2012

6 CONCLUSION This simulation model is fully parametric; whereby it is possible observe the impact of using an electric propulsion system for the transmission elements rotating parts during the dynamic loads, and at multiple input values. After these simulations can be concluded, that the planetary gear sets with frictional clutches as the shifting elements, is not appropriate choice for electric vehicles. The friction clutches problematically transmitting the torque with friction losses. The results also showing, that the vehicle with multispeed transmission has less electric energy consumption.