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ABSTRACT: In this paper an effort is made to review the investigations that have been made on the composite shells

with cut outs. A number of analytical and experimental techniques are available for various analysis around the different types of cut-outs for different condition in a cylindrical shell , made up of different materials under different loading condition has been reported in this article. Object of this review is to gather all the information regarding shells with cut outs.

Thin-walled shell structures are a fundamental component found in Aircraft, spacecraft, and launch vehicles. In most applications, these structural components contain cutouts or openings that serve as doors, windows, or access ports, or used to reduce weight. Often some type of reinforcement is used around a cutout to eliminate local deformations and stress concentrations. The structural failure of many components usually begins near the cut out because of high stress concentrations. PREVIOUS WORK: S. Toda and K.Komatsu[1] [1977] conducted an experimental and analytical study on vibrations of circular cylindrical shells with cut outs to examine the effect of circular cut outs on resonant frequencies of thin cylindrical shells. Rayleigh Ritz method was used for the analytical method. They showed that the cut out had a very small effect on the frequency spectra. The General solution for the stress problem of circular cylindrical shells with an arbitrary cut out was presented by Liu Diankui, Huchao [2] [1996]. The problem to be solved is summarized into the solution of infinite algebraic equation series. The governing equations and its general solution are given based on Donnells shallow shell equations and generalized forces are computed. A numerical and experimental study of the response of selected compression-loaded shells with cut outs by Mark W. Hilburger, James H. Starnes and Anthony M. Wass[3][1998] used rectangular cut outs and the numerical results were obtained using finite element analysis. The results indicate that the local displacements and internal load distribution can be affected by the size of cut out and the material properties of the shell. The buckling load of an orthotropic shell with a cut out may be more sensitive to other imperfection in the shell than the buckling load of a quasi-isotropic shell with an identical cut out. The response of composite cylindrical shells with square cut out and subjected to internal pressure and axial compression loads by Mark W. Hilburger , James H Starnes and Anthony M. Wass [4] [1998] are obtained using a geometrically nonlinear finite element code. For sufficiently large cut out the buckling response results in a stable post buckling state consisting of large out of plane deformation and rapidly varying stress gradients. Whereas for sufficiently small cut outs the local buckling response produces enough of disturbance to the shell to cause the overall collapse of the shell. The results indicate that an increase in the cut out size can cause a significant reduction in the magnitude of post buckling load reduction. An increase in internal pressure causes an increase in initial buckling load of shell and instability. Mark W. Hilburger and James H. Starnes [5][2005] extended the above work using square cut out to study the buckling behavior of compression loaded composite cylindrical shells with reinforced cut outs. Reinforcement affects the local deformations and stresses near the cut out and retard or suppress the onset of local buckling in the shell near the cut out. Buckling load of the shell increases as the size and thickness of the cut out

reinforcement increases.Nonlinear static analysis was used to predict the stable response characteristics of the shells. The compression loaded shell with an unreinforced cut out can exhibit a complex nonlinear response that is not typically found in the corresponding shell without a cut out. Buckling and Failure of compression loaded composite laminated shells with cut outs by Mark W. Hilburger [6] [2007] was done using finite element analyses which included the effects of interlaminar and intra laminar progressive failures. The numerical results were obtained using high fidelity nonlinear finite element analysis. Tailoring the laminate orthotropy, in a compression loaded shell can result in significant increase in the buckling load of the shell and can reduce the local strains, and damage accumulation near the cut out. Buckling behavior of compression loaded composite cylindrical shells with reinforced cut outs by Ramanatha Dash, F. Anand Raja [7] [2012] proved that the cut out invariably reduces the strength of the shell and more specifically the buckling load. The maximum inter laminar shear stress is observed at away from cut out of shell with reinforcement and deformations are greatly reduced by adding reinforcement when the interlaminar shear stress are obtained from ANSYS releace -10 FEA software. Bending buckling of an elasto- plastic cylindrical shell with a circular or rectangular cut out were observed by Meng-kao Yeh, Ming Chyuan Lin and Wen Tsang Wu [8] [1998] and proved that after the limit bending buckling load the local deformation near the cut out became increasingly severe with a decrease in the bending load. For a shell with circular cut out the limiting buckling moment was decreased on increasing diameter of the cut out whereas for a rectangular cut out the limiting buckling moment was decreased on increasing the cut out size. The limiting buckling moment is smaller for the cut out on compression side of shell and vice versa. Plastic buckling of elasto-plastic cylindrical shells with rectangular and circular cut outs was presented by E. Poursaeidi , G.H. Rahimi and A.H. Vafai[9] [2004]. The strain distribution around the cut out using nine strain gauges mounted in the longitudinal and circumferential directions was investigated. Maximum stress concentration in a thin plane specimen with a hole under tension is equal to three. Comparisons of the stress concentration results of cylindrical shell with small size cut out shows that the stress concentration of thin plane is more than that of cylindrical shell with square cut out and less than that of cylindrical shell with circular cut out. Study of bending of laminated composite shells with a cut out was carried out by K.S. Sai Ram and T. Sreedhar Babu [10][2000] by considering an 8 noded degenerated isoparametric shell element with a cut out subjected to normal pressure. The normal stress in the circumferential direction at the top surface of the shell is maximum on the cut out edge or in the interior of the shell for simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. Considering internal pressure and axial compression loads, buckling and post buckling analysis of composite cylindrical shells with cut out was conducted by A. Tafreshi [11][2002] . The CAE package ABACUS has been employed for the analysis. The results show that the buckling load decreases as the cut out size increases and the buckling load increases as the internal pressure is increased. For the equivalent cut out area the cut out with higher width creates a lower buckling load. However increase in the internal pressure delays the deformation of the shell near the cut out.

Stress analysis of composite cylindrical shells with an elliptical cut out by E. Oterkus, E. Madenci, M.P.Nemeth [12] [2005] used semi analytical method to determine the stress and deformation fields. The loading conditions include uniform tension, uniform torsion and pure bending. Stationary potential energy and Lagrange multiplier are the analysis applications used. They proved that the s tress concentration has an adverse effect on cut out size, shape and orientation. Geometrically non-linear transient analysis of laminated composite shells using the Finite element method by Namita Nanda, J. N. Bandyopadhyay [13] [2009] using quadratic eight noded element was inspected. Nonlinear equations are solved using New mark Average acceleration method and NewtonRaphson iteration scheme method. The shell with cut out is more severe by having higher vertical displacement and response frequencies than those of shells without cut outs. The response frequency increases with decrease of radius to width ratio possibly due to increase in stiffness. A.Sabik, I. Kreja [14] [2011] conducted numerical analysis of an axially compressed multi layered composite shell with square cut out using computer program NX-Nastran. Stability is investigated by means of a linearized buckling analysis as well as of a nonlinear large deformations incremental analysis. Critical load values are determined for the four node element. Increase in cut out size decreased the critical load values and decrease in range of linear structure response. The presence of a cut out causes considerable changes in the stress state when compared with a shell without a cut out. Buckling response of a grid stiffened carbon fiber composite cylindrical shells with reinforced cut out by Shanshan shi, Zhisun, Mingfa Ren, Haoran Chen, Xiaozhi Hu [15] [2012] used high fidelity nonlinear analysis procedure to predict the buckling response of shell structures. An AGS shell with circular cut out possess a higher global collapse load than that of an AGS shell with rectangular cut out due to difference in cut out geometry and associated stress concentrations. Quasi vertical corners leads to premature local buckling response around the cut out area resulting in a noticeable reduction in the global load capacity of AGS shells.