A project of Volunteers

in Asia

Small-Scale Brickmaklq

Published by: International Labour Office (ILO) CH-1211 Geneva 22 SWITZERLAND Copyright 1984 Available from: Publications
Branch, ILO, same address

Reproduced by permission. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any to the same restrictions as those of the original document.
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.

international

Labour Office

Geneva

TECHNOLOGY SERIES

Technical memorandum No. 6

Prepared under the joint auspices of the lnternationtil Labow Office and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation

International Labour Office

Geneva

Copyright 0 International Labour Organization 3984 Publications of the !nternational Lsbour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authoriaation, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to the Publications Branch (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CW!211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. The International Labour Office welcomes such applications.

lS8N 92-2-103567-o iSSN 0252-2004 Fkst publkhed 1984

The designations employed in IL0 publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authoritieqor concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, e.nd publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms ar?dcommercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour OfFice,and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or processin connection with the technologies described in this volume is not a sign of disapproval. IL0 publications can be obtained through major booksellers or IL0 local officea in many countries, or direct from 110 Publications, International Labour Office, CH-TP!?Geneva 22, Switzerland. A catalogue or list of new publications will be sent free of charge from the above address.

Printed in Switzerland

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................~................................... vii . 1x

PREFACE ................................................................

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION..............................*...............

1

I. II. III. IV. v,

Purpose and objectives of the memorandum Target audience Comparison between bricks and other building materials Scales of production covered by this memorandum Content of the memorandum

1 3 4 9 11

CHAPTER II

RAW MATERIALS

13

I. II. III.

Origin and distribution of raw materials Types of clay Clay trustingand significance of results

13 16 24

CHAPTER III

QUARRYING TECHNIQUES

35

I. II. III.

Organisation and management of the quarry Methods of winning the clay Transportation to the works

35 38 41

CHAPTER IV

CLAY PREPARATION

43

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

Main clay preparation phases Sorting Crushing Sieving Proportioning Mixing, wetting and tempering Testing

45 45 47 51 53 53 58

'iv'

CHAPTER V

SHAPING

61

I. II. III. IV. v.

Description of bricks to be produced Methods of shaping Transportation of bricks to drying areas Skill requirements and training Productivity of labour

61 64 79 79 82

CHAPTER VI

DRYING

85

I. II. III. IV.

Objectives of drying Artificial drying Natural drying Shrinkage

85 86 88 95

CHAPTER VII

FIRING

99

I. II. III. IV. v. VI. VII.

Objectives of firing Techniques of firing Kiln design Auxiliary equipement Fuel Productivity Brick testing

99 100 101 134 136 139 141

CHAPTER VIII MORTARS AND RENDERINGS

149

I. II. III.

Purpose and principles Mortar types Mixing and use

149 150 154

CHAPTER IX

ORGANISATION OF PRODUCTION

159

I. II. III. IV.

Preliminary investigations Infrastructure Layout Skill requirements

159 160 163 167

-V-

CHAPTER X

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWRK OF UNIT PRODUCTION COLTS

FOR THE ESTIMATION 169

I. II.

The methodological framework Application of the methoiological framework

169 172

CHAPTER XI

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE BRICK MANUFACTURING TECHNIWES 177

I. II.

Employment generation Total investment costs and foreign exchange savings

177

178 179 180 181 181 182

III. IV. V. VI. VII.

Unit production cost Rural industrialisation Multiplier effects Energy requirements Cone lusion

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I

Glossary of technical terms

185

APPENDIX II

Bibliographical references

195

APPENDIX III Institutes from where information can be obtained

201

APPENDIX IV

List of equipment suppliers

207

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The publication of this memorandum has been made possible by a grant from the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA). The Intexational 'babour Office and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation acknowledge this generous support.

PREFACE

This technical memorandum on small-scale brickmaking is the sixth of a series of memoranda being currently prepared by the IL0 and UNIDO. first of three technical memoranda on building materials for It is the lowcost

housing.'

The main objective of producers in developing

technical memoranda with detailed

is to provide technical

small-scale

countries

information on

small-scale technologies, which have been successfully applied in a number of countries, but are not well known outside the latter. A secondary objective

is to assist public planners identify and promote technologies consonant with national socio-economic objectives, such as employment generation, exchange savings, rural industrialisation, or needs of low-income groups. foreign

the fulfilment of the basic

The information contained in the memoranda is detailed enough to ensure that small-scale producers should be able, in a large number of cases, to identify and apply the technologies described in the memoranda without the need for further information. Thus, detailed drawings of equipment, which may

be manufactured locally, are provided, while a list of equipment suppliers, from both developed and developing countries, may be used for the acquisition of equipment which must be imported. In the few instances where the available obtain additional technical or from technology

information is not sufzicient, the raader may details fram publications listed in the

bibliography

institutions identified in a separate appendix of the memoranda.

Technical memoranda are not intended as training manuals.

It is assumed

that the potential users of the technologies described in the memoranda are trained practitioners and that the memoranda are only supposed to provide them with information on alternative technological choices. Memoranda may,

however, be used as complementary training material by training institutions. 1 The other two technical memoranda, currently under preparation, cover respectively the production of stabilised earth blocks and that of windows and doors., /

-X-

This technical memorandus on small-scale brick manufacturing is of particular importance to developing countries as low-cost housing constitutes one of the most important basic needs of low-income groups, and bricks are particularly suitable materials for the construction of this type of housing. Furthermore, the adoption of small-scale brickmaking techniques should generate substantial employment, especially in rural areas. It is hoped that

the information contained in this memorandum will slow down the adoption of large-scale, capital-intensive, turnkey brickmaking plants which have often proved to be unsuitable for conditions prevailing in the majority of developing countries.

T s memorandum contains 11 chapters, nine of these dealing with the 7 various subprocesses in brick manufacturing. Chapter X provides a methodological framework for the estimation of the unit production cost of bricks, using the technical data from the previous chapters. It is of

particular interest to potential brickmakers who wish to identify the least-cost or most profitable production technique. Chapter XI is mostly

intended for public planners and project evaluators from industrial development agencies who wish to obtain information on the various socio-economic effects of alternative brickmaking techniques with a view to identifying and promoting those which are particularly suitable to local socio-economic conditions.

This memorandum also contains four appendices which could be of interest to the reader. Appendix I provides a glossary of technical terms, and should Appendices II and III provide

therefore be of assistance to non-specialists.

sources of additional information, either from available publications (Appendix II> or from specialised technology institutions (Appendix III). Finally, Appendix IV provides a list of equipment suppliers from both developing and developed countries. It may be noted that this list is far

from being exhaustive, and that it does not imply a special endorsement of these suppliers by the ILO. The listed names are only provided for

illustrative purposes, and brickmakers should try to obtain information from as many suppliers as feasible.

A questionnaire is attached at the end of the memorandum for those
readers who may wish to send to the IL0 or UNIDO their comments and observations on the content and usefulness of this publication. These will be

- xitaken into consideration in the future preparation of additional technical memoranda.

This memorandum was prepared by Mr. R.G. Smith (consultant) in collaboration with Mr. M. Allal, staff member in charge of the preparation o;r' the Technical Memoranda series within the Technology and Employment Branch of the International Labour Office.

A. S. Bhalla, Chief, Technology and Employment Branch.

Q

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

I.

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES 3F THE MEMORANDUM

Housing constitutes one of the most important basic needs of low-income groups in develcping countries. However , it is the most difficult to satisfy as land and building costs are often outside the means of the unemplayed and underemployed in both rural and urban areas. launched various schemes with Thus, many governments have ownership by

a view to facilitating housing

low-income groups, including self-help housing

schemes, granting of housing Given the limited owners, housing it is

subsidies, provision of credit at low interest rates, etc. means at the to disposal seek ways of to governments lower the and cost potential of

home

important

lowincome

while

minimising repair and maintenance costs.

In particular, governments should
materials

promote the production and use of cheap yet durable but: iing

as the

latter constitute a very large proportion of total iow-income housing costs in developing countries(l). these building materials development objectives Furthermore, it would be useful if the production of could of contribute to the such fulfilmeiat oi as the important of

these

countries,

generation

productive employment, rural industrialisation, and a decreased dependence on essential imports. A number of traditional building materials exist which have proved

themselves to be the most suitable materials

for use in a wide variety of These

situations, and have a great potential for increased use in the future.

traditional materials, which make use of locally available raw materials, can be manufactured close to the construction site with little equipment (which may be produced locally), and are often more appropriate to the environment than modern materials. One such building material is clay bricks. The

purpose of this technical memorandum economic information on small-scale

is to provide detailed brick manufacturing

technical and a view to

with

assisting rural and urban entrepreneurs to start up new plants or improving their production techniques. in this memorandum It is also hoped that the information contained slow down the establishment of large-scale,

will help

-2-

capital-intensive

plants which

are

not

always

suitable

to

socio-economic

conditions of developing countries.

I.1 Need for improved brick production techniques Various countries. production methods are used for brickmaking and handling larger in developing

Traditional hand digging, moulding of small production units. Some

are used by a tend to use

large number

units

equipment for digging or mixing, while a number of developing countries have chosen to import large-scale capital-intensive‘ plants. The choice of brickmaking technology is mostly a function of market demand (e.g. scale and location of demand, required quality standard), availability of investment funds, and unit production techniques. production costs associated with alternative also impose various

In some cases, governments may

policy measure:; with a view to favouring the adoption of techniques consonant with the national development objectives. Whatever the adopted technique,

quality may be improved and costs reduced if appropriate measures are taken during the production process. Experience shows that a large fraction of bricks are often wasted during the various production stages. rain before firing or For example, moulded bricks get eroded by the by bad handling methods. Sometimes,

distorted

incorrectly adjusted machines yield inconsistent or inferior output which may not be marketed. more care, a With attention to the basic principles of brickmaking and number of bricks could be produced for the same

greater

expenditure of labour, raw materials and fuel. In some instances, more careful preparation of raw materials would

minimise problems at subsequent manufacturing stages.

For example, if stones

or hard dry lumps of clay are included in the moist clay used for moulding, they will exhibit different drying shrinkages from the moist clay and give rise to cracks in the dried or fired bricks. The remedy in such a case would

have been to select a more uniform raw material, or to remove the offending particles, or to break the material down to a fine size (e.g. by manual means or with a crushing machine). Use of a good product, of regular shape and size and of consistent

properties, will enable the accurate building of walls while minimising the use of mortar between bricks. Renderings, often applied in developing

countries, will also require less mix for a given wall area if the brickwork face is accurate. Alternatively, if the brick quality is sufficiently good, A good product will thus It should

it may be unnecessary to apply renderings at all.

favourably impress the customer and save materials, time and money.

-3-

therefore improve future demand

for the product.

Good bricks

should be

durable and brickwork should be long lasting.

I.2 Availability of information on brickmaking The techniques of brickmakinp are often handed down from father to son in small works, or are taught in various technical schools, training centres, etc. Articles and books have been published(2) but are often too brief or

mostly concerned with large-scale production, scientific investigations or laboratory tests. They also often relate to conditions and needs of the more With few exceptions(31, there is a lack of information

developed countries.

on practical details of small-scale production in rural or peri-urban areas. Information on sophisticated high capital cost brickmaking plants can be obtained firm published books and scientific and trade journals, or from equipment manufacturers and consultants. On the other hand, it is more

difficult to obtain information on small-scale, labour-intensive production. Many appropriate technology institutes, building research centres and

university departments do

generate

information on

appropriate production

techniques (see list in Appendix III).

However, this information is either This

not published or is not disseminated to other developing countries.

memorandum seeks, therefore, to provide information on small-scale brickmaking with a view to partially filling the current information gap. It does not

provide technical details on all possible circumstances, but will, it may be hoped, induce small-scale producers to try production techniques which have already been successfully adopted in a number of developing countries.

II. TARGET AUDIENCE This memorandum is intended for several groups of individuals in

developing countries, including the following: small-scale brickmaking producers in rural and urban areas, and those These could be in either a individual

considering starting brick production. entrepreneurs co-operative. or groups of artisans

associated

manufacturing

These producers will be mostly interested in the information

contained in Chapters II to VII, and Chapters IX and X. - housing authorities, public planners and project evaluators in various industrial development agencies may be interested in the information contained in Chapters 11 and XI. This latter chapter, which focuses on the

socio-economic implications of alternative brickmaking techniques, will be of particular interest to public planners concerned with employment generation, foreign exchange saving, etc. - financial institutions, businessmen, government officials and banks should

-4-

be mostly interested in Chapter X which provides the necessary information for costing alternative production techniques. handicraft promotion institutions, village crafts organisations and

equipment manufacturers should find the technical chapters II to VII useful. - voluntary organisations, foreign experts, extension workers and staff of technical colleges will :.rish to compare bricks with other building materials, as detailed in Chapter I (section III). They may also benefit from the

technical information contained in Chapters II to VII.

It must be stressed that this is not a technical memorandum on the use of bricks in building, although some of the information contained in Chapter VIII may be of interest to builders.

III. COMPARISON BETWEEN BRICKS AND OTHER BUILDING MATERIALS This section compares the properties of fired clay bricks with those of other alternative walling materials. of the properties discussed below. Table I.1 gives specific values for some This comparison should be useful to should be most

housing authorities in deciding which building materials appropriate for various types of housing or housing projects.

III.1. Strength Compressive strength of upon clay type and fired-clay bricks varies enormously, depending Strength requirements for single-storey

processing.

housing are easily met. Calcium silicate bricks, made from sand with high silica content and good quality, low magnesia, lime, may have strengths approaching those of good fired clay bricks. However, high capital cost machinery is used for the Furthermore, calcium silicate bricks must

mixing, pressing and autoclaving. be produced in large-scale plants.

Concrete bricks and blocks have sufficient strength, but require cement which is expensive, and must often be imported. Lightweight concrete blocks, made with either natural or artificial

lightweight aggregate, have adequate strength but require cement. Aerated concrete has low strength which may be sufficient for one-storey buildings. Particularly careful production control is necessary, using

autoclaving to reduce subsequent moisture shrinkage of blocks made from this material. Many types of soil have sufficient compressive strength when dry.

However, this strength is considerably reduced once they become saturated with water.

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-6-

Waterproofers such as bitumen, or stabilisers such as lime or cement, may be used with certain soils to improve wet strength. On the other hand, the

strength of the other previously mentioned materials is only reduced slightly when they are wetted. Gypsum, which occurs as a soft rock, or in some places as a fine sand, can be converted to plaster by gentle heating and then mixed with fine and coarse aggregate and cast into building blacks(5). Strength will be adequate for strength

single-storey constructions, though wetting will reduce compressive to 50 per cent of the dry value.

Thus bricks are.seen to be at the top of the list for strength, especially when wet. Many other walling systems exist, notably panels made either plant leaves or stems, or manufactured from woven

from cement, plastics, wood or metal.

However, the strength of walls made from these panels will depend largely upon the frame which is built to hold them.

111.2. Moisture movement Most porous building materials they dry. expand when wetted and contract again as

Excessive movement can cause spalling, cracking or other failures This reversible expansion is very small in fired clay bricks.

in buildings.

However, a slow irreversible expansion commences as soon as bricks leave the kiln. This irreversible expansion may vary from virtually zero to 0.1 per

cent linear movement. have taken place

Under normal circumstances much of this expansion will are built into walls. Thus, the remaining

before bricks

expansion is likely to be insignificant in the context of small buildings(6). Properly made calcium silicate bricks and concrete bricks are unlikely to have more than a fairly small amount units of moisture a movement. However, This

lightweight and

aerated

concrete

exhibit

greater

movement.

sometimes leads to shrinkage cracking in buildings as they dry out initially. Soil, especially plastic clay, may have a very large moisture movement of several percentage points. This is a major cause of failure in earth

building. soil.

The problem is reduced *

if stabilisers

are incorporated

into the

Timber, bamboo and other plant materials exhibit variable, but sometimes large, moisture movements. rather than in line with it. Moisture movement becomes especially important when two materials with The latter take place especially across the grain

different movement characteristics are in close juxtaposition in a building. Differential movements give rise to stress which may be sufficient to break the bond between the materials, or lead to other damage. For example, cement

renderings often become detached from mud walling, and gaps appear sometimes between timber frames and infill materials.

-7-

Bricks Moreover,

thus

compare

favourably

with without

alternative timber

constructio,l materials. thus excluding the

brickwork

can be built

frames,

possibility for differential movements.

111.3. Density and thermal properties Fired clay bricks are amongst the most dense of building materials. high density may constitute a disadvantage for transportation over This long

distances or in multi-storey be high. produced

framed buildings where the loads on frames would

On the one hand, weight is of little consequence whenever bricks are locally the for close-by high density markets of bricks and has single-storey the advantage buildings. over On the

other hand,

lightweight is sought inside

building materials of greater thermal capacity. in the tropics where extremes of

This characteristic will be

temperature

moderated

buildings made of bricks. Aerated and lightweight aggregate concretes properties but lack thermal capacity, while insulation and good thermal capacity. woven leaves and matting, metal have good thermal insulating fairly good such as

thick mud walls have

Lightweight cladding materials, cement

sheeting and asbestos

sheeting, have

neither high insulation nor high thermal capacity. Thus, bricks are particularly advantageous for low-cost housing as they

considerably improve environmental conditions within the building.

III.4. Durability, appearance and maintenance Evidence for the excellent durability of brickwork may be seen in many

countries of the world. remains.

In the Middle East, brickwork 4,000 years old still

Bricks made 2,000 years ago in Roman times are still in use today.

Indeed, properly made bricks are amongst the most durable of materials, having typical properties sunlight, heat of ceramics such as good strength, resistance excellent resistance to chemicals and to abrasion, attacks by

and water,

insects and bacteria, etc. temperature

If bricks are not well made (e.g. if the time or these desirable ceramic properties

in the kiln is insufficient),

will not be developed, and performance will be nearer to that of mud bricks. Furthermore, to achieve the best performance from brickwork, attention must be paid to the correct formulation and use of mortar. Fired without clay brickwork

should sustain the adverse impact of the environment surface protection (e.g. rendering). NC

the need of any be required

maintenance

should

subsequent to building. In some communities it is traditional to render the brick wall surface,

although this is not necessary from either the appearance or performance point of view. Furthermore, lime washing on rendering is often used to achieve a

-8-

white finish.

A white finish is beneficial

in reducing solar gain.

It may be

applied
made.

directly on the bricks without rendering, brick and block materials the lightweight may also

thus saving materials. good durability, and mud if well bricks

Other

have

However,

aggregate,

aerated

concrete

normally require rendering to improve resistance to water. The organic ultra-violet materials. component These of sunlight timber and causes other deterioration plant-derived of many

include

materials,

plastics, paints, varnishes and bitumen. are immune to sunlight deterioration.

Inorganic materials,

such as bricks,

Termites occur in many developing countries materials timber. Under such as various species of timber.

and can attack and damage soft Other insects also attack

Hard materials such as bricks are entirely resistant. damp conditions, timber and many other organic materials may rot

through attacks by fungi, moulds mould may be seen on porous

and bacteria. inorganic

Although some plant growth and materials, especially in

building

hot-damp climates, damage is unlikely. Fire can quickly destroy Cement many building materials such as timber, woven in

matting and plastics.

products do not burn, but high

temperatures

fires could break down some of the calcium and alumino silicates of which they are composed, causing loss of strength. sustain concrete spall( 7). fire, but somewhat contains elevated siliceous steel temperatures aggregates, and steel In practice concrete may successfully without such frames thus serious as flint, effect, it is though likely if to in

Reinforcing are normally

lose strength protected to a

and distort

encased,

and are

large extent.

Although clay brickwork could spall, crack and bulge in a severe fire, bricks are less likely to suffer damage they have already been exposed than concrete to fire. and calcium cooling silicate bricks as of hot areas by

Sudden

quenching with water in the course of fire-fighting does not generally affect the strength and

may cause of

spalling. the brick

This wall

stability

seriously.

111.5. Earthquake In general, concrete,

areas bricks and blocks, whether steel of fired clay, calcium in silicate, zones .

or stabilised

soil,

require

reinforcement

seismic

Mud building,

lightweight concrete

and aerated concrete materials

will also be

at risk in these areas if not similarly reinforced.

111.6. Production cost and foreign exchange The production costs of various building materials depend upon raw

materials prices, methods used, markets, etc. which vary from time to time

and

place

to

place,

making

comparisons

difficult.

However,

bricks

are

often that its

amongst the cheapest if, as stated at a

of walling United

materials.

It should be borne a house and is

in mind to retain

Nations

Conference, repaired, and

usefulness, choices

it must

be maintained, standards,

adapted

renovated. should

Thus, consider

concerning

materials

technology

resource requirements over the whole expected life of the asset and not merely the monetary cost of its initial production(8). Durable materials such as

bricks have a cost advantage in this respect. The product ion of bricks are used from indigenous clays, of especially if

labour-intensive

methods

to avoid

importation This

capital-intensive with some of

equipment, will conserve the alternative materials.

foreign

exchange.

is in contrast

IV.

SCALES OF PRODUCTION COVERED BY THIS MEMORANDUM Bricks manufacturing may be undertaken at various I.2 scales of production, the production

depending

upon

local

circumstances.

Table

summarises

techniques used at small, medium and large scales of production.

Table I.2 Scales of production in brick manufacturing

Scale of product ion

Number of bricks per day Caverage) Example of process used

Appropriate

for

market area

Small

1 000

Hand made, clamp-burnt

Rural village

,

Medium

10 000

Mechanised press, Bull’s trench ki In Near towns

Large

100 000

Fully automated Extruded wire cut, tunnel kiln

Industrialised areas of high demand and welldeveloped inf rastructure

This

memorandum

is concerned is given

primarily

with

small-scale Large-scale

production, will

though

some consideration

to medium-scale.

be mentioned

briefly for comparative purposes.

- 10 -

IV. 1

Small-scale concept

A small brickworks producing 1,000 bricks per day may supply enough bricks each week for the building of an average size house. a small village community. This may be adequate in

However, if demand were to increase suddenly,

production could be increased to several thousand bricks per day merely by making additional wooden moulds and hiring more workers. In this case, the management staff does not need to be expanded. might also be established in small towns. or when weather prevents construction This larger production unit

Conversely, at times of recession work, the demand will fall and

production can be reduced temporarily. very adaptable to a changing market.

Thus,

such small-scale industry is

Small-scale production should be undertaken near

the clay source, and This

within a short distance of the area where bricks will be sold and used. will reduce transport cost while saving fuel.

Small-scale production will not An electricity Kilns may

unduly spoi1 the landscape nor cause excessive pollution.

supply may not be necessary and fossil fuels need not be used.

utilise waste materials for fuel, such as saw dust, rice husks, animal dung and scrub wood. community. The small works will provide employment within the local

Capital investment is low for small-scale production and is thus poor communities. Furthermore, equipment for small-scale

appropriate for

brickmaking can be made and repaired within the local community.

IV.2.

Large-scale concept the introduction of large

In contrast to the points mentioned above,

brickworks necessitates capital investment of millions of dollars, mostly in foreign exchange for th.e import of the sophisticated production machines and control systems. Commissioning over a period of months and subsequent

purchase of spares will further increase costs.

Large areas will have to be The process itself prove a nuisance.

cleared not only for the works, but also for the clay pit. and the transport of raw materials and products can

Production of many millions of bricks per year necessitates the finding of sufficient markets, and involves the use of fuel for getting bricks to the building sites. Feasibility studies for large-scale plants commonly assume

several shifts being worked per day for nearly all the days of the year. Such plants are not adaptable to variations in market demand. There is no allowance for workers’ absenteeism (e.g. during the agricultural season). neither do

- 11 -

they ususally take into account the difficulty of obtaining spare parts from
overseas

in the event of a breakdown.

If the latter does occur, the whole

production ceases.

These large plants require electric power and high grades

of fuel for the kilns. In those situations where a large plant may be considered, it would be normal to conduct a full feasibility study, examining raw material quality and reserves for market
the

expected life of the works (e.g. 50 years), and a thorough A specialist consultant would be required for such a

survey.

feasibility study.

V.

CONTENT OF THE MEMORANDUM The following eight chapters of this memorandum deal with the technical

aspects of brick manufacturing. Chapter II describes various raw materialsentering in the production of bricks while Chapters III to IX describe the various production processes in the following order: Chapter III : Quarrying (methods and equipment) Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI : Preprocessing (grinding, sieving, wetting, etc.) : Forming (equipment, skill requirements, etc.) : Drying (natural and artificial, drying shrinkage, etc.)

Chapter VII : Firing (kiln types, fuels, etc.) Chapter VIII: Mortars and renderings (purpose, types, etc.) Chapter IX : Organisation of production (plant layout, water and fuel supplies, labour, etc.)

Technical details on each subprocess are provided, including advice for improving product quality, saving fuel, increasing labour productivity,

minimising losses, etc. Chapter X out1ines a methodological framework alternative for estimating unit An

production costs

associated with

production techniques.

illustrative example is provided with a view to showing how this framework may be applied to a specific bricks production unit. the various socio-economic effects of Finally, Chapter XI analyses

alternative production techniques,

including employment generation, foreign exchange savings, fuel utilisation, etc. The memorandum concludes with the following appendices: Glossary of terms, bibliography, list of institutions concerned with

technical

brickmaking, and list of equipment suppliers.

Note:

’ The references are to entries in the bibliography (Appendix II).

CHAPTER II

RAW MATERIALS

I.

ORIGIN

AND

DISTRIBUTION

OF RAW MATERIALS

Brickmaking requires sufficient supplies of suitable soil.,sand, water and
fuel.

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the various types of clay

which mav be used in brickmaking. The essential ingredient in the soil used for brickmaking is clay. The

size of each clay particle is extremely small, generally less than 0.002 mm across. Various forces act between these fine particles in a moistened clay, allowing the latter to be retained on drying. formed into the desired shape, which must be

Clayey materials can be readily identified by simple

manipulation of moist samples with a view to checking the plasticity of the latter. A wide variety of raw materials soft sticky muds to hard shales.
may

be used for brickmaking, ranging from

However, all these materials must contain a Too high a proportion of such

moderate proportion of clay-size particles.

particles will result in excessive shrinkage of moulded bricks as they dry, with consequent risk of cracking. On the ether hand, a soil with too low a

proportion of clay particles will not be cohesive enough and will fall apart. The mineralogical nature of the clay must be suiiable so that it is changed by heating in a kiln to a strong, water resistant vitrified form which can bind larger particles in the soil together. Brickmaking clays may be found in most countries of the world.

Geologically recent deposits are associated with existing valleys and rivers, and are often near the surface. Older deposits may be overlaid by other

unsuitable material of varying depth, and may have been raised and inclined from their original positions. Thus, good deposits of clay may be found in gently rolling hills, but not mountains. Information on clay deposits is available in many countries from National Geological Survey Departments, or may be obtained from Geological Institutes.

Location of existing brickworks, pottery works or other ceramic production is evidence of workable deposits. Prospecting for new clay deposits may be undertaken by first examining

river banks, and the sides of any recent road or railway cuttings which give an instant section of the soil profile. Subsequently it is necessary to

explore in more detail any newly-discovered deposits by taking samples from many points on a regular grid covering the ground
area.

The neatest and The

simplest means of obtaining a suitable sample is by using an earth auger. latter can be powered by one or two people. As it is rotated, the
cut

auger

drills its way down into the earth, providing samples of the Alternatively, a spade may be used to dig a narrow hole

out soil.

(figure 11.2).

However, it cannot go as deep as an auger.

A pit may be dug instead in such a

manner that a person with the spade can work on the floor of the pit. This will require the removal of a great volume of earth, and may not therefore constitute an efficient way of taking samples. should not be more than 2 metres deep. It is wise to keep an accurate record of such investigations.
the
Zi2S should

For safety’s sake the pit

A plan of

be drawn, and location of investigatory holes marked in and

numbered.

Samples taken out of the hole should be small enough to allow the Usually, there is a

identification of a change from one soil type to another.

top-soil in which plants grow, and which contains the decomposed products of plants. The top-soil depth should be measured and noted, as well as that of As soon as clay is found, it will be recognised by If a large stone

subsequent soil layers.

the stickiness with which it adheres to the auger or spade.

is encountered when augering , it will have to be knocked out of the way, or broken, or a different type of auger used to cut a way past. The survey will indicate the area covered by clay, its thickness and the depth at which it may be found, and the thickness of the top soil which must be removed during quarrying. If there is much top soil, it will not be worth

the cost of removing it unless there is a good depth of clay beneath. Simple testing of clay for suitability for brickmaking may be carried out on site. For more extensive testing, each soil type should be in a separate Quartering is and shape,

heap on boards or a large sheet, then reduced by quartering. done by dividing the heap into four quarters of equal

size

discarding two diagonally-opposed quarters, and recombining the other two. This procedure is repeated until a small pile of a few kilograms remains. The latter should be placed in a strong plastic bag, labelled with the hole

numbers and the depths from which the sample was extracted.

- 15 -

Figure II.1 Bucket auger for sampling soil

- 16 -

II,

TYPES OF CLAY It is essential
that the raw material used for the production of bricks

contains the following elements:

-

sufficient

clay fraction

to ensure a good plasticity

of the clay

body, thus allowing The material

the latter to be formed and retain its shape. as ‘lean’ or ‘short’ if the fine fraction a certain limit the if too is

is described

is insufficient.

The clay element should not exceed

which will render it too sticky for working.

Furthermore,

dried bricks are liable to cracking due to high shrinkage much clay is present described as ‘fat’. in the body.

In this case, the material

Some clay types with the above characteristic

have high shrinkage rates;

-

sufficient mitigate

unreactive

coarser grained material problem described above;

such as sand to

the potential

-

proportions

of silica and alumina in the clay from which the to

strong durable glassy material may be formed on heating approximately 1000°C;

-

alkalis or iron to assist in the formation

of glassy compounds;

-

constituents shrinkage

which do not produce excessive

deformation

or

at the firing temperature

in the kiln;

-

no impurities of the brick.

or inclusions which will disrupt the structure

The

size of particle

present

in the clay

body

affects

the cohesiveness,

forming characteristics,

drying and firing properties

of a clay.

II.1

Particles The various

sizes in brickmaking fractions

soils in soils are usually denoted by their

of particles

size as given in Table 11.1.

- 17 -

Table II.1 Definition of particle sizes in brickmaking soils

Fraction

Size range (mm)

Sand

Coarse Medium Fine

2 0.6 0.2

-

0.6 0.2 0.06

Silt

Coarse Medium Fine

0.06 O-02

-

0.02 0.006 0.002

0.006 -

Clay

less than 0.002

In practice, a raw material for brickmaking should contain some clay fraction (say 10 to 50 per cent) together with some silt and some sand. Depending upon

relative proportions of various elements in the raw material, the latter might be described, for example, as a silty clay or, if containing some clay and similar proportions of silt and sand, as a loam. clay and a good range of other particle sizes Since the presence of both is desirable, loams are

particularly suitable for brickmaking.

II.2

Clay minerals for -brickmaking range from soft muds thro!:gh the. partially The fine particles in

Materials

compacted clays or muds and highly compressed shales.

the clay fraction may consist of various mixtures of some 12 different groups of clay minerals. These groups are briefly described below.

The mineral. silica

kaolin

group

is common

and might

be

regarded

as

a

typical

clay

In its moiocuiar structure thousands of alternate flat layers of and gibbsite (aluminium oxide) occur, and give the

(silicon oxide)

particles their typical hexagonal plate-like structure. mm across and can be seen under the electron

They are up to 0.002 This mineral

microscope.

presents no particular problems in brickmaking.

- 18 -

The montmorillonite group,which often occurs in the drier tropics, has two silica layers for every one gibbsite. This structure allows water molecules The resulting expansion The

to enter in between the layers, forcing them apart. of the clay may continue for several weeks layers close up again when the water is

under damp conditions(l7) dried out. This has

important large The

consequences in brickmaking since montmorillonite-bearing clays have drying shrinkages.

The thin plates are generally smaller than kaolinite.

high specific surface area gives great plasticity, stickiness and strength to the montmorillonites(17).

The hydrous micas and illites, which have somewhat similar structures to the montmorillonites, are also frequently found in brickmaking materials.

Chlorites,which are related to hydrous micas, are also found in various clay materials. The latter have magnesium and potassium within their structures.

Extremely small particles from a millionth to a thousandth of a millimetre across, termed colloids, are also present in clays. They carry electrical

charges, so their movement in water and their properties are affected by the presence of salts. by additions of or
ThrlS,

the physical properties of wet clays can be altered chemicals which An may, for example, addition increase their the

some reduce

plasticity

stickiness.

acidic

flocculates

colloidal particles so they settle in water more readily whilst an alkaline addition deflocculates these particles and keeps them in suspension.

Mineralogical examination can help identify the substances present with a view to determining the likely suitability of a material for brickmaking.

II.3

Chemical analysis

Chemical analysis can help in the identification of the clay minerals present in the raw material. The relative proportions of silica and alumina

are relevant, since the higher the proportion of alumina, the higher the temperature necessary characterises ceramic to form the glassy Chemical ceramic bonding analysis can material which indicate the

products.

also

presence of water-soluble compounds such as the sulphates of potassium, sodium and magnesium. The drying out of the latter on the moulded bricks (before If still present in the fired product,

firing) produce unsightly scumming.

they may lead to efflorescence and, exceptionally, can spoil brick faces and lead to attack and expansion of cement-based mortars. also produce this undesirable effect. Calcium sulphate can these deleterious

With knowledge of

I

- 19 -

salts within the clay it might be possible to avoid problems with the bricks when finally built into walls, by choosing another clay deposit or allowing rain to wash salts out of the clay after it has been dug, or by firing the bricks to a higher temperature. Another solution to these problems is to add barium carbonate. This is, however, an expensive remedy which may not be

feasible in many situations.

If potassium and sodium are

found in the chemical analysis, but the

compounds are not water soluble, they may indicate the presence of fluxes such as the felspars or micas. These are beneficial in reducing the temperature needed for formation of glassy material. Magnesium, calcium and iron

(ferrous) compounds can also behave as fluxes.

Chemical analysis may be carried out on different size fractions of the soil. This is an important consideration since fluxes should be in the finest of particles sizes. little significance. Hence, their presence in only coarse fractions is of

Laterites occur as rock, gravel, sand, silt and clay in many tropical locations. They are high in alumina and low in silica. laterite soils for -brickmaking will require higher kiln Thus, the use of temperatures. In

practice, the presence of potassium and sodium-bearing compounds, and of iron compounds (which are often abundant and act as fluxes), should allow the

production of bricks from laterites. The latter are defined in a number of ways, but the following definition is often accepted: The ratio of silica to sesquioxides (that is iron and aluminium oxides) must be less than 1.33 for the material to be a laterite. If the ratio is between 1.33 and 2, the

material is lateriiic, and if the ratio is greater than 2, it is non-lateritic.

Marls, which are clays with a high proportion of calcium carbonate (chalk, limestone, etc.1, are identified by high calcium and high weight losses on heating in a full chemical analysis. They may have low vitrification

temperatures which extend over only a narrow range. occur in manufacture.

Thus, sudden fusion can

If the calcium carbonate is present as large lumps, the

latter will have a disruptive effect on the fired bricks after manufacture. These lumps should be removed or ground to less than 2 mm.

II.4

The drying process and drying shrinkage

A wet clay has the fine individual particles separated by films of water which are absorbed into the particle surfaces. In such a state the clay

exhibits its typical plastic property which enables it to be shaped. drying, the films are reduced and the particles get gradually closer. an overall shrinkage of the body is discernable.

On

Thus,

The shrinkage continues

until the particles touch, but water still remains in voids between the particles. The clay then has a critical moisture content (CMC). As the water continues to dry out, no further significant shrinkage occurs. This is shown diagramatically in figure 11.2. The practical significance of the process is

that bricks must be dried slowly to the CMC, thus ensuring that all parts of the brick (top, bottom and inside) are shrinking at the same rate. If one

face of a brick dries before the opposite face and becomes non-plastic, the latter face may crack as it dries while being held in position by the dried face. Different rates of shrinkage also cause bricks to become bowed, or Once the
CMC

banana-shaped by a similar process.

is reached, faster drying

may be used since there is no further shrinkage.

Clays for brickmaking should not have too high a shrinkage rate on drying if cracking is to be avoided. slowly, higher However, if the moulded bricks are dried very be used. Montmorillonite has an

shrinkage material may

exceptionally large drying shrinkage, so

soils containing it (e.g. black

cotton soils) would be best moulded from the driest possible mix. and then dried very slowly. In general, the greater the proportion of fine particles

the greater the drying shrinkage, and the finer the particles the more the shrinkage. Hence, there should not be too much clay in brickmaking soil.

To

reduce

unacceptably high

shrinkages, non-reactive coarse

grained

material may be mixed in with the soil.

The additional materials frequently

employed are sand, if it is available nearby, or ground-up reject bricks which I are referred to as 'grog'.

Drying should be as complete as possible before bricks are exposed to the heat of the kiln. Otherwise, steam may be produced in the bricks and develop

enough pressure to blow them apart (other reasons are listed in Section I of Chapter VI).

II.5 The firin 3

process and firis

shrinkage

At. a low temperature of 100°C, any moisture remaining in the bricks is removed. The nature of the clay is not changed (i.e. the cooled and wetted

clay retain its original characteristics - see figure 11.3).

- 21 -

Water

loss

Figure II.2 Drying curve

- 22 -

Mullite Deform Vitrify Carbonates decompose

Quartz inversion I

Organics burn off

De -hydroxylation

Drying
I I I I I I I I I
I

100

200

300

400

500

600 “C

700

800

900

1000

Temperature

Fiaure II.3 Effect of heat on clay

- 23 -

The first irreversible reactions start at approximately 450-500°C, when dehydroxylation takes place. Part of the actual clay structure (the hydroxyl

groups) is driven off as steam, resulting in a very small expansion of the brick.

Carbonaceous organic matter (derived from plants, etc.) in the soil will burn off in the temperature range of 400-700°C, provided sufficient air is allowed in to convert it to carbon dioxide gas. Time is required for the

brick to heat up,,for oxygen to diffuse in, and for carbon dioxide to diffuse out. If this organic matter is not completely burnt off before the

temperature rises to the point at which glassy material forms, the diffusion processes will not be possible, and carbon will remain within the bricks as undesirable black cores. The latter may also be caused by the lack of

oxygen. An "opening material", such as a burnt refractory clay, can be mixed in to aid gas diffusion.

Present carbonates and sulphides decompose at the top of the temperature range at which the organic matter is burnt, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide being given off.

Silica, which is a common constituent of brickmaking soils in the form of quartz, changes its crystal form at 573'C. accompanied by an expansion. This so-called invzrsion is

Consequently, the rate of rise of temperature

must be slow if one is to obtain near-uniform temperature throughout the brick and thus avoid excessive stresses which could lead to cracking.

The glass formation, which is necessary to bond particles together and make the product strong and durable, commences at approximately 900°C,

depending upon the composition of the soil used.

The process, known as

vitrification, involves fluxes reacting with the various other minerals in the soil to form a liquid. The higher the temperature, the more the liquid

formed, and the more the material shrinks.

In practice, the heating must be

restricted lest so much liquid forms that the whole brick starts to become distorted under the weight of the higher layers of bricks. the bricks get fused together in the kiln. faces. In extreme cases,

Gas formation can 'bloat' brick

A

few hours

'soaking' at the finishing temperature is recommended to New materials, such
as

ensure that the whole brick has attained uniformity.

- 24 -

mullite, may crystzllise from the liquid at approximately l,lr,OOC for some brickmaking

temperatures which may clays. In these

reach

ceramic

reactions, a long firing time at a low temperature can have the same effect as a shorter firing-time at a high temperature. As cooling commences, the liquid solidifies to glass, bonding other particles together. The cooling rate

should be slow to avoid excessive thermal stresses in the bricks, particularly once the quartz inversion temperature (573'C) is reached, since shrinkage occurs in the presence of quartz.

The inevitable firing shrinkage should be fairly small, otherwise it would be difficult to maintain the stability of the bricks in the kiln.

II.6 Other basic requirements Eigh technology tends to limit the range of clay types acceptable for a particular process machine, and is less versatile as regards the type and grade of fuel. On the other hand, a wide range of materials and fuels can be used with less sophisticated technologiea.$.Fuel, whether oil, gas, coal, wood, scrub or plant wastes, must be available for the brickmaking process and may be regarded as a raw material. ancillary purposes. Electricity may be advantageous for

Water is also necessary and, for highly plastic clays,

sand may also be required.

III. CLAY TESTING AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS Although highly sophisticated clay testing methods have been evolved, very simple tests can also give useful information. The former may be necessary

for large turnkey projects, where equipment is often adjusted for specific raw materials characteristics. However, they require skilled staff not only to carry out tests, but also to interpret the results. On the other hand, simple tests may often be carried out on site, by less qualified personnel, Yet, the results may be more easily related to the use of the raw material than those obtained from more sophisticated tests. The most direct test method used successfully for thousands of years involves visual inspection and the feel of the soil, and the carrying out of brickmaking trials. Tests to investigate various aspects of a soil's suitability for

brickmaking are given below, starting with the most basic field test methods. Simple, intermediate technology tests are described next. description of the more sophisticated tests which might Finally, a brief be employed if

adequate facilities exist, is provided at the end of this section.

- 25 -

III.1

Particle size of the raw material will show whether the soil

A visual inspection

cantains sand; a magnifying glass may assist in this operation. The ‘feel’ of a soil in the hand will give an indication of the proportion of different particles sizes. When dry, a sand constituent gives a sharp

gritty feel. A piece of the hard soil rubbed with the back of the finger nail cannot be polished. When wetted and broken down between the fingers, the sand particles become more readily visible. If there is a high proportion of clay the dry soil will feel smooth and powder may be scratched off it. Furthermore, a surface of a small lump can be Damp soil can be worked into any

polished with the back of the finger nail.

shape, but will tend to stick to the fingers. The more clay in the soil, the more difficult it will be to remove it from the hands by wiping or washing. A suitable brickmaking soil will have a high proportion of sand, so that it may not take a polish. to make them suitable. An estimate of the proportions of the various size fractions can be High clay content soils may need addition of sand

obtained using the sedimentation jar test. Any straight-sided, flat-bottomed, clear jar or bottle may be used. be adequate (figure 11.4). An approximately one litre capacity jar will the jar is first filled with

One-third of

broken-up soil. nearly full.

Clean drinkable-quality water is then added until the jar is

The content of the jar is next mixed up, one hand covering its

mouth to avoid spilling. The soil is then left to settle for an hour, shaken again and allowed to settle a second time. separate layers can be seen and measured. and any coarser particles. layer of clay. An hour later, the depth of the The bottom layer consists of sand

The medium layer consists of silt and the top

Often, the top two layers will merge together. The settlement The use of salty water for

of the clay fraction may be slow with some soils.

this test will flocculate the clay and help it to settle, thus giving a clearly defined level in the bottle which can be measured more easily. Where laboratory facilities exist, a wet sieving process may be used to estimate the quantities of various sizes of sand. through a nest of sieves of The soil is first washed the quantities

increasingly fine mesh, and

retained on each sieve are dried and weighed.

The difference between the

weight of these fractions and that of the initial sample is then equal to the weight of silt and clay. Further information about the composition of these

finer materials can be obtained using a sedimentation method (the Andreason pipette) or a hydrometer method. Details of these and other methods are Test for Soils for Engineering

described in British Standard Methods of Purposes - BS 1377:1975 (18).

- 26 -

Air

I
Water
-.-

I

Clay Silt

Sand

Figure II.4 Jar test

- 27 -

Soil used for the production of bricks by contain the following:

traditional methods should

- 25 per cent to 50 per cent of clay and silt; and - 75 per cent to 50 per cent of sand and coarser material. The soil should preferably contain particles of all sizes

III.2

Plasticity and cohesion (on a flat surface) into a

If the moistened soil is rolled by hand

cylinder, a sharp break of the latter when pulled apart indicates a very sandy soil with low plasticity(7). On the other hand, the soil may be considered adequate for brickmaking if the cylinder elongates to the point of forming a neck before breaking Another test consists of preparing a long cylinder of 10 mm diameter and letting it hang unsupported while holding it from one end. The length of

cylinder which breaks off will provide fairly accurate information on the properties of the soil. The breaking-off of a piece of cylinder of 50 mm or In this case,

less will indicate that the soil is too sandy for brickmaking. 'I /I

it will be necessary to add some fat clay or ant hill material to the soil. On the other hand, the breaking-off of a piece of 150 mm or more will indicate the presence of too high a proportion of clay, necessitating the addition of sand or grog to the soil. A soil adequate for brickmaking will require that

the length of the broken-off piece of cylinder is between 50 mm and 150 mm (191. The properties of the wetted soil will depend upon the moisture content. A ball of suitable soil containing the correct amount of water should break into a few pieces when dropped from the held-out arm on to hard ground. On

the other hand, a flattening out of the ball will indicate that the soil is too wet, while the breaking of the ball into a large number of small pieces will indicate that the soil is too dry. Some more precise assessment of The soil

plastic properties can be obtained by simple laboratory tests.

should be mixed up with an excess of water to make a very runny paste or slip. The latter is then poured on a dry porous plastic plate, and mixed As water is absorbed by the plate, the

continuously with a spatula or knife.

soil will become less liquid and new incisions made with the knife will take longer to close. Once an incision remains open, approximately 5 g of material should be taken from its vicinity and weighed immediately. The sample is then 0 weighed again after a few hours' drying in an oven at 110 C. The moisture content can thus be calculated as percentage of the dry weight of clay. percentage is termed the liquid limit of the soil. This

- 28 -

Some small pieces of the clay may be removed from the plate and rolled by hand of a flat-glass plate in order to make filaments approximately 3 mm diameter (figure 11.5). in

At first, long filaments may be fashioned easily.

Then, as the soil dries out there will come a point when they just start to crack longitudinally and break up into pieces approximately 10 mm long. Once

this occurs, approximately 5 g of such pieces should be weighed, oven dried, and weighed again to determine the moisture content as a percentage of the dry weight of clay. This percentage is termed the plastic limit of the soil. The difference between plastic and liquid limits is the plasticity index. When more advanced facilities are available the liquid limit should be determined with the cone penetrometer, described for example in BS1377 (see section 111.1). In this test, the penetration of the point of an 80 g metal

cone having an apex of 30' is measured as it rests for 5 seconds on the moistened soil. From a series of readings for different moisture contents the 20 mm

liquid limit is determined as the moisture content which gives a

penetration. The test for estimating the plastic limit is the same as that described above. Several other testing methods are used in well-equipped laboratories (17). Soils with a low plasticity index will be difficult to handle for

brick-moulding: the green brick will distort after demoulding if the soil contains a small excess of water while the soil will be too stiff to mould if it lacks sufficient water. A high plasticity index is therefore preferred. Soils with a high plastic limit will require a great deal of water before they can be ready for moulding. firing. Long drying is then necessary prior to

A high plastic limit and very high liquid limit may indicate the

presence of montmorillonite, with its attendant moisture movement problems. Thus, montmorillonitic soils may not be adequate for simple brickmoulding methods as the latter require a relatively high moisture content. either high compaction pressures on semi-dry mixes, or They need with

dilution

non-shrinking materials.

Montmorillonites may give rise to size changes in

the drying bricks as the humidity of the air varies naturally. In a recently published book (20) reference has been made to an earlier suggestion (21) that, within the plasticity ranges indicated in table 11.2, a soil may be adequate for the production of bricks by traditional methods. However, it may be possible to use materials with plasticity limits outside the ranges shown in the table.

Figure II.5 Plastic limit test

- 30 -

Table II.2 Plasticity limits for good brickmaking soils

....................... Plastic limit 12 to 22 ........................ Liquid limit 30 to 35 Plasticity index.................... 7 to 18

III.3 Mineralogy and geology The mineralogist recognises the presence of certain minerals in the field while the geologist identifies structures in the earth's appearance that will assist in locating suitable raw materials sources. The work of the mineralogist will consist largely of taking samples from the field and examining them under the microscope in a laboratory. On the basis of information from other tests, he may identify the components of a soil and thus determine their suitabilityfor brickmaking by the various means available. In more advanced laboratories,the electron microscope (especially the scanning electron microscope) will be a useful tool. Identificationof

minerals will also be greatly assisted by X-ray diffraction analysis.

III.4 Chemical analysis The colour of samples of materials obtained from field investigations gives some indication of the composition of the soil. Red soils may be high in iron, which can act as a flux. Very dark colours, or a musty smell in the damp soil, may indicate the presence of organic matter: it may be possible to use such soils, though their agriculturaluse should be given first priority. Dried out encrustationson the surface of the ground indicate the presence of soluble salts, which are best avoided for reasons given in Section 11.3. A simple laboratory test for the presence of sulphates consists of

dissolving these salts and adding a solution of barium chloride. The forming of a white precipitatewill indicate the presence of sulphates. On the other hand, chlorides can be detected by addition of silver nitrates. These The

chemical tests could be done on site, with a small portable test kit.

presence of calcium carbonate can be ascertained by the existence of lumps or nodules which are likely to be white, or by effervescence from gas produced by the addition of dilute hydrochloric acid to the soil. bubbling; 8 to 16 per cent in case case of sudden foaming. In a properly-equipped laboratory, a full chemical analysis may be An estimate of the

quantity of carbonate has been suggested(7):1 to 8 per cent in case of slight of pronounced bubbling; and 18 per cent in

undertaken, which, together with the mineralogical examination, can assist in identifyingthe constituentsas mentioned in section 11.3.

- 31 -

III.5 Drying shrinkage High clay content (recognisablein wet conditions by the stickiness of the soil) is in dry weather, recognisable by the presence of shrinkage cracks in exposed soil, in either vertical or horizontal faces (see figures II.6 and 11,7). To obtain a measure of the shrinkage of a moist soil, which may seem suitable for brickmaking,the most simple method is to mould a few bricks from the soil and allow them to dry thoroughly. The length of the dried bricks and of the moulds are then measured in order to obtain an estimate of the linear drying shrinkage. The latter may be obtained from the following formula: (Mould lenpth - final dry length) x 100 mould length

Linear drying shrinkage (per cent) =

The appearance of the test bricks will give some indication of the suitabilityof the soil for brickmaking. It is suitable if no cracks appear on the surface. If some slight cracks appear it would be advisable to shorten the soil by adding 20 per cent sand or grog. In case of extensive cracks, 30 per cent might be mixed in. Soil too lean for moulding will have to be made

more fat with other clays, or ant hill soil. Generally , up to 7 per cent linear shrinkage may be tolerable, depending upon the nature of the material and the rate of drying. If linear shrinkage is more than 7 per cent shortening is advisable(22). In any case, it is

necessary 60 know the linear shrinkage in order to determine the exact size of moulds needed for producingbricks of given dimensions. If more organised test facilities are available, it would be advisable to prepare special shrinkage bars. For this test, an open-topped wooden mould,

approximately 300 rnr> long by 50 mm deep and wide, should be made up by a carpenter or a sufficientlyskilled handyman (figure 11.8). The soil used in the test 8hG :ld be dried, if not already so, and broken down. Large stones

should be removed. It is ,?en mixed with just sufficient water to bring it near the liquid limit (i.e. pieces of the soil should be deformable yet retain their shape). If time permits the soil should be covered, left overnight,

then mixed up again. The mould should be lightly greased inside to prevent the soil from sticking. Some moist soil is then laid in the bottom, and the mould tapped on the bench or from the soil. ground to cause entrapped air bubbles to escape

The mould should be filled in the way described above in

several stages, and excess soil struck off the top to leave a surface level with the surface of the mould. The soil should be dried slowly at first, at

room temperature. Once shrinkage appears to have stopped, it may be tipped
out

of

- 32 -

Figure II.6 Clay shrinkage on a -7ertical face

Figure II.7 Shrinkage cracks in clay pit bottom

--//_

-----

m.

_

/

-

--

---

-

--

--\

c 0 0

\

0

8

e 1 r. ., , -.:.. !. .. /@-4 c

.c-!

i

-

: ---

‘.

.

; _’

-

m,.ll.l. ----

.

I..

.

.

+. ---i YY-’

*s

,.

‘.

._

‘, ..: .*..

-p

a

-m--w

---

n-u-, \--A

/

;

.L .

Figure II.8 Shrinkage mould

- 34 -

the mould and dried in an oven calculated as indicated above.

at 11O'C.

The

linear shrinkage

may

then be

III.6

Firing shrinkage

Some shrinkage during firing is inevitable. shrinkage is desirable (5,7). The simplest

From 6 to 8 per cent linear field test to measure firing

shrinkage is to burn a whole batch of bricks. Measurements of firing shrinkage are more readily obtained in the

laboratory than in the field. then fired to various cooled and re-measured

Small bars should be moulded, dried, measured, in a laboratory the linear furnace. They are then A special

temperatures to calculate

firing shrinkage.

furnace has been designed for this test.

It requires only one sample, since

it has a horizontal silica rod whose movement is measured outside the furnace as the temperature rises. A 'gradient' furnace of uneven temperature

distribution can also give useful information.

CHAPTER III

QUARRYING TECHNIQUES

I.

ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE QUARRY

The quarry should be located in an area with sufficient proven deposits of good brickmaking soil and, preferably, a thin layer of overburden to minimise excavationwork. The operation of mining clay from the clay pit or quarry is generally referred to as 'winning the clay'.

I.1 9ening up the quarry Access to the quarry from the bricks production plant should be quick and easy, preferably with no more than a slight gradient. A good route will minimise effort, time and expense in transporting clay, and will facilitate supervision of the pit. A track or roadway may need to be constructed,

especially if wheeled vehicles are to be used to convey thG clay to the brickworks. Trees and bushes must be cleared, and may be sold or kept for fuel. Prospecting will indicate whether the clay stratum is horizontal or sloping. If it does slope down into the ground,the worker should face that direction and remove the top soil. The top soil should be piled in two rows along the excavation. The trench thus formed will have a horizontal bottom, along the 'strike' of the clay stratum(24). The angle at which the clay stratum slopes from the horizontal is a measure of the "dip'"of the stratum. It must be borne in mind that more overburden will have to be removed as the clay winning proceeds. If there is no dip, the trench may be dug in any direction. As a general principle it is unwise to start digging for clay at the lowest part of the ground{251 since surface water from rainstorms will then immediatelyflood the clay pit and stop the work. digging at a higher point. It is preferable to start

This should be borne in mind whether the

underlyingclay has a dip or not. A sufficient area of overburden should be removed to prevent any of it falling into the clay as winning proceeds (e.g. up to 10 m may be taken off to each side of the trench). If too much is cleared weeds may start to grow

- 36 -

and will have to be cleared again. metres, along the centre line of of

Clay may then be dug to a depth of a few the exposed digging and area. The actual of depth will

depend upon extracted. small

the

adopted method

the nature

the material

Further material is then obtained by widening this deeper trench a at This a time. Eventually, material it may will be necessary be to remove to fill more the

amount

overburden.

unwanted

conveniently

used

first-opened part of the trench once all the useful clay has been excavated.
If

good clay does extend lower down,

it might

be extracted

at a much

later

date or by the method of ‘benching’ or ‘terracing’ (which is the working of two or more clay faces at different depths at the same time).

I.2

Operating the quarry

Safety It is important slippery when wet. avoided. Steep to bear safety in mind in the clay and access hazardous. pit. Clay is very

Thus steeply into the

sloping paths pit would be

routes Damp

should be is not

drops

clay

stable at a near vertical face.

Consequently , a whole portion of the material For this reason,

may undergo a rotational slip, into the bottom of the pit. it is advisable dug.

to slope back or ‘batter’ the faces of the pit as they are

The latter should not be too high.

Water If flooding of the pit bottom becomes a problem, the water may be drained away through a downhill channel. If this is not possible, a sump must be dug The latter may then be removed

in the pit bottom to collect the excess water. from the sump by pumping or with buckets. soluble salts present in the ground.

This water may be contaminated with it would be unwise to use it in

Thus,

the subsequent brickmaking process, unless tests show that it does not contain salts. In countries having a wet season or monsoon, the quarry may need to be

abandoned until the rainwater is drained off.

Rejection of impurities and reinstatement As digging proceeds, the workers should discard any plant roots, stones, limestone nodules or harder clay inclusions since they would cause problems in subsequent rather should than be processing. left Any pockets of unsuitable soil should tidy. be removed top soil into the

in place and ultimately,

the pit should on top of

be kept discarded

The

returned

material

worked-out part of the quarry. case, for example, in

Crops may where

thus be grown again. the most exploited

This is the clays for

Madagascar

brickmaking are from the rice fields. rice growing (26). One of the main

The top soil is then reinstated for sources of raw materials for the

structural clay industry in Indonesia is also the rice fields.

Rate of extraction The rate of extraction of clay from the pit must be sufficient to meet the D demands of the brick-moulders Alternatively, it may be slightly larger in

order to guard against problems which may arise unexpectedly in the pit, such as temporary flooding, presence of an unsuitable pocket of material,

contamination of the clay, etc.

In some countries the onset of the wet season During these times, the

or the monsoon may halt operations in the clay pit.

natural drying of moulded bricks will become almost impossible, building of field kilns or clamps (Chapter VII) will be impracticable, and demand for bricks will fall due to adverse weather conditions restricting building and construction activities. In such cases, the pit will be closed and the whole brickmaking operation stopped. However, in other places, although the rain

may prevent operations in the clay pit, some demand for bricks may continue, and it may be possible to carry on brickmaking and drying under cover. More In

permanent forms of kiln, also under cover, may still be in operation.

these cases, sufficient clay should be won from the pit during the dry season, and stock-piled, to meet the demand when no more can be mined. In some

communities the workforce may wish to engage in agricultural activities during the harvesting season. This factor should be taken into account in designing

the whole brickmaking process.

Working of the clay face The depth of the top-soil may vary from a few centimetres in some arid climates to several metres in hot, humid areas. Frequent ly , a layer of sand The best clay for

may occur below the top-soil and over the clay layer.

brickmaking is likely to be that immediately below the sand, since it is likely to contain a proportion of sand itself. good material may be small. addition of sand from above. However, the depth of this

Clay lower down may be too fat and will need Hence the best method of operation is to work a

quarry face in such a way as to dig both clay and sand, taking shallow slices down the face, to obtain a suitable mixture (see Figure 11.6). Another virtue of taking shallow slices of the face is that any embedded stones can be found more easily than if large cuts are taken. These stones can then be

discarded(28). If suitable soil containing the desirable proportions of sand and clay cannot be dug at one face only, it may be necessary to obtain a fat clay from

- 38 -

one face and sand or sandy clay from another.

This has often been done as,

for example, near Mombasa in Kenya, where material from two faces has been mixed in the pit bottom prior to use. If the material varies horizontally

(i.e.from one place to another) two separate faces in the pit, or two separate pits, might be worked simultaneously. If the material varies vertically (i.e. a,tdifferent depths), two faces can be operated by benching (see section 11.2).

Record-keepin For later reference, a note-book should be kept for recording.progress, and any significant happenings in the quarry. A map should be made of the quarry, showing the position of original test holes or pits, the depth of clay, and other major features such as streams, tracks, large trees and the brickworks if adjacent. The position of the clay-pit face should be drawn on the map every few months, and the date written on the line representing the face. If the floor of the pit is dug a second time or if benching is used, a second colour could be used to update the map. This will assist in an orderly .

exploitation of the reserve: haphazard digging is wasteful of material and effort(27). The rate of ingress into the reserve should be clearly visible, and if problems or complaints arise with the finished bricks, the fault may be traceable to a cause in the pit. pit should be marked on the map. The extent of any problem materials in the The supervisor should check constantly the

work at the clay face and inspect the material being won to ascertain that it is suitable and does not contain deleterious materials.

II. METHODS OF WINNING THE CLAY

Two basic methods are available ; mechanical winning and hand-digging. These are briefly described below. Mechanical winning Mechanical methods such as the use of excavator are mostly appropriate for the drag-line and multi-bucket the largest-scale brickmaking

operations. It is most unlikely that even a face shovel (figure 111.1) could be justified in works of the size considered in this memorandum, unless it is available on hire from a nearby depot for a short period of time each year, (e.g.in order to build a stock pile). It seems unlikely that mechanical

winning could be economical for output of less than 14,000 bricks per day(22).

- 39 -

On the other hand, the more commonly available and versatile bulldozer could have a place in the laborious task of clearing overburden on infrequent occasions. It might be brought in on hire, or when available from nearby road construction or other civil engineering works (e.g. against payment of a fee). Most of the clay resources utilised by the small-scale manufacturer are likely to be of the soft plastic type. In some areas, when only hard shales

are available, blasting might be undertaken occasionally to loosen material from the quarry face.

II.2

Hand-diggin&

Hand-digging has been widely used even for medium-size production plants, because of its versatility in dealing with all clays from soft muds to shales or even with ant hills. Hand-digging can also be adjusted to various types

of work, and allows workers to sort out unwanted stones, limestones, roots, etc. It also avoids large amounts of capital investment, the stocking of

spares and the organisation of maintenance of machinery.

In many situations,

hand-digging may be the only possible means of winning clay. The rate of winning clay will depend upon the type of clay, the nature of the pit and the productivity of labour. Productivity rates for one man

digging enough clay for the production of approximately 3,500, 1,500 and 4,000 bricks per day have been estimated(5,25,8). However, these estimates are not strictly comparable as some of them include an element for the transport of clay over a short distance. Measurement of shovelling rates in the American mines(29) indicated an optimum working day of 6.5 hours. result in lower outputs. Once clay has been dug, there will be a natural reluctance to reject any which may prove unsuitable, especially after the hard work of winning it. In Longer working hours

particular, the workers paid according to quantity excavated may be reluctant to reject unsuitable material. Hence the importance of supervision,

inspection and quality control. If the face is benched, the separate levels need be only 1 m different(25) and 0.5 m wide(5), especially if materials from two or more levels are to be mixed. This can be done by throwing all materials down to the lowest level

for mixing, and subsequent transportation away to the works. The details of working the pit must be decided locally. For example, at

Asokwa in Ghana (figure 111.2) the clay was hand-dug from a face which was approximately 2.5 m high in places(30). Steel bladed, medium-weight spades are well suited for digging plastic clays. Preferences in blade design vary from country to country. It is,

I

-

40 -

Fieure
i‘ l!.‘t‘

III.1

shovel or single bui:het t~xcavator

Figure

III.2

Clay-pit at small brickworks (Ghana)

- 41 -

nowever, recommended to use narrow and slightly conical blades for the digging of this type of clay. The handle of the shovel should be shorter whenever In places where this is not done,

the foot is used on the top of the blade. the handle is traditionally very long.

If hard, dry clays are to be won (figure 111.3) it may be necessary to loosen them from the face with a pick, then shovel the material away. In many countries, the hoe and mattock are more generally used and are suitable for winning clay.

III. TRANSPORTATION TO THE WORKS In large works, clay is conveyed from the pit in various ways, inc’luding the use of lorry or truck, large dumper truck, small-gauge railway systems, aerial ropeway or belt conveyor. Capacity, capital cost, maintenance and

repair militate against the use of these methods for the smaller works. While heavy transport equipment may not be suitable, the use of a small diesel-powered dumper or a front-end loader may become feasible on a hire basis. Similarly, an agricultural tractor may be used to haul a loaded

trailer of clay.

Alternatively, a draught animal may be useful for pulling a

trailer if the road is not too steep and muddy. The wheelbarrow is a versatile and low-cost device for moving clay. It

need not be all-steel or specially imported and can be locally produced from available materials. It can be taken from the clay face to any desired point

at the plant site, on a narrow path or a plank on muddy ground (figure 111.3). The larger the wheel, the more easily the barrow will pass over irregularities in the ground. The wheel should be as close to the load as possible in order to take the weight off the hands. The handles should also be approximately 50

mm lower than a standing person’s palms when the barrow is at rest on the ground. Thus, the arms are just slightly crooked when the barrow is wheeled. A simple aid for carrying clay and other materials is the litter (figure 111.4). Its use by two people avoids twisting the body. Large loads may be

carried over rough terrain, or up steep slopes. It may be fabricated easily by unskilled labour using cheap, locally available materials. The most simple devices for transporting clay are the basket and headpan, both of which will be available in many communities.

-

1+2

-

Figure

III.4 (Sudan)

Litt,?r for c.3rryinF,wet clay

:

CHAPTER IV

CLAY PREPARATION

Good bricks of consistent quality and free from defects will only be obtained if the materials used are of suitable and uniform nature. rarely will such a material be won directly from the clay pit. Only

Commonly, some

preparation and pre-processing is necessary to remove unwanted inclusions, add non-clay materials, or mix the materials for uniformity. In most cases, water must be added in order to bring the clay to a suitable consistency for forming into shape. Adequate careful preparation will mitigate the following problems which might otherwise arise with the bricks.

Overall cracking on the surface due to the use of too high a proportion of clay fraction in the mix. grog. Localised cracking over a hard piece of clay (figure IV.11, or a large stone; mitigated by crushing or removing such inclusions. Limeblowing (figure IV.2) which may be avoided by removing the larger limestone pieces and reducing any remaining limestone to less than 2 mm across pieces, or smaller pieces if the quantity of limestone is high. Indian research(31) suggests that the addition of 15 kg common salt added to the clay per 1,000 bricks should minimise limeblowing. Low green strength of dried brick, possibly due to insufficient clay in the mix. Lack of plasticity, making the forming process difficult; also due to insufficient clay in the mix. Non-uniformity of size, shape and strength due to insufficient mixing of the materials. Efflorescrnce and sulphate attack of cement-based mortars (see Chapter VIII), which might be reduced by rejecting surface clay where the salts may have accumulated naturally. There is also an expensive option of It is extremely difficult to This may be minimised by adding sand or

chemical treatment with barium carbonate.

wash salts out of clay, as it is difficult to mix the latter with water. Furthermore, large quantities of water will be required for this purpose.

,

P

- hh -

- 45 -

Efflorescence on bricks made from clay containing high concentrations of soluble salts is shown in figure IV.3 In some circumstances, salts

crystallise beneath the surface, buidling up stresses which can force flakes to spa11 from the surface as shown in brickwork in a boundary wall in India (figure IV.4).

I.

MAIN CLAY PREPARATION PHASES Clay preparation includes the following operations: - sorting (or picking) and washing; - crushing or grinding; - sieving or screening; - proportioning; - mixing, wetting and tempering.

A whole range of motor-driven machines is available for these operations, including belt-conveyors, jaw-crushers, kibblers, hammer mills, grinding pans (both wet and dry), rolls, de-stoning machines, vibrating wire screens, However,

proportioning feeders, double-shafted trough mixers, and pug mills. few of these capital-intensive items will be appropriate to production described in this memorandum.

the type of

In a labour-intensive set-up, a

mixing machine may be the most useful piece of equipment if diesel or electric power sources can be used. Animal power may also be worth considering. It is best to prepare clay in a very dry or a very wet condition. Damp clays are difficult to crush, they stick on sieves, are awkward to handle and require much power to mix.

II. SORTING An essential part of clay preparation is that carried out in the pit. This includes the discarding of unsuitable pockets of soil, roots, stones, limestone nodules, etc. and the winning and preliminary mixing of clayey and sandy materials. Visual inspection of the clay in the works is not easy to

carry out or enforce, but is done on a routine basis whenever the clay can be moved on a narrow conveyor belt past workers who pick off any unwanted material. It is advisable to have the supervisor check the clay coming into

the works from time to time. Unwanted materials detected at this or any subsequent stage should be removed. Where stones or limestone nodules constitute a particular problem they can be removed in a washmill (see Section IV.3).

- 46 -

Figure

IV.3

White efflorescenc :e on brickwork (Middle East)

Figure

IV.4

Flaking of the type produced by soluble salts (India)

- 47 -

III.

Crushing

In the tropics, clay will generally be dry when won from the pit. Thus the centres of large lumps will be difficult to wet. Non-uniform material is likely unless the dry clay is first crushed to less than a few millimetres across. Where capital cost is justified by a sufficiently large production

scale, and where power sources are reliable, crushing rolls may be useful. Figure IV.5 shows crushing rolls in Ghana.

III.1

Manual pounding and the. hammer hoe

Manual pounding with a hammer or punner may be used in small works but is very laborious. There is a tendency for already broken pieces to be compacted again, forming a hard material. broken. lump which prevents the tool from breaking fresh

It is thus necessary to clear away material as soon as it is

In favourable circumstances, two tonnes might be prepared per day by

a team of four men (e.g. enough for 1,000 bricks). The hammer-hoe (figure IV.61, which is used in Malawi, is a useful

dual-purpose tool, having special uses not only in the works, but also in the clay pit. Material can be won, turned over, and mixed with the hoe. If hard

lumps are found in the mix, it is not necessary to exchange tools as a half-turn rotation of the handle will bring the hammer into position for breaking the lumps.

III.2 The pendulum crusher A labour-intensivecrushing machine has been developed by the Intermediate Technology Workshop in the United Kingdom especially to meet the needs of the small-scale brick-maker as identified in an earlier survey(l0). It is easily built from mild-steel sections, and works on the pendulum principle. The

soil, which is placed in a feed hopper at the top of the pendulum, comes into contact with a static grinding head and a curved moving grinding head. The

latter is attached to the top of the heavy pendulum which is kept swinging by two people (figure IV.7). heads which entrap The moving head is studded with protruding bolt as the head rotates in a downwards

and crush clay

direction. Ground clay falls through by gravity on to a built-in sieve which can be of any desired T.:sh size. On the upward return move, any remaining

clay is cleared from , -he grinding surfaces prior to the next downward swing, so that a slight dampness of the clay is not a great problem. shows details of the components of the crusher. To operate the machine, two men start the pendulum swinging. Once the Figure IV.8

latter has reached a maximum angle, a third man starts feeding material. If exceedingly hard pieces are encountered or if, for example, a steel tool is

- 48 -

Figure Motor-driven

IV.5 rol Is (Ghana)

crushiq

Figure Hammer

IV.6 hoe

- 49 -

Figure Manually-powered

IV.7 pendulum crusher

- 50 -

Static

and Moviag

Cmrhing

Heads

Crnshin,

Y a 0 0 n iii

Pendulum
Arm9

hln.dingg9

.,“--I---_
Plain Fkame Push-pull

interchangeable

Screens

ndulum iglit

(Additional

safety

guards

not

sholsn)

Figure IV.8 Manually-powered pendulum clay crusherDetailed drawing of parts

- 51 -

accidentally dropped nor will the machine the rectangular

in the hopper,

the grinding

heads will

not be damaged, can run up in machine is

stop since the pivot bar of the pendulum box, as a safety measure. The

bearing

whole

guarded to minimise

the risks to operators.

A fourth man should be available

to remove the ground clay and return rejects from sieving to the pile of clay yet to be crushed, Periodically (e.g. each time the container the operatives would moving between be well advised to change is full of finely ground clay) tasks on a regular 2: pendulum discharge rotation, (right

jobs as follows: handle

1: feeding clay;

handle

side) ; 3: pendulum

(left side); 4:

attending

and resting,

then back to feeding again. An extensive series of tests has shown some variation of production rates depending upon clay type< On averages a four man team may produce crtished clay at a rate of 20 tonnes per day, (i.e. enough for 10,000 bricks). average for the easier alluvial and sedimentary clays. If harder This was an shales are

used, enough material may be produced for 8,000 bricks per day. The same team may also prepare a tonne of grog by crushing underfired bricks in 2.25 hours. Occasional greasing of the bearing of the pendulum necessary. is the only servicing for wear. The

Prom time to time the machine should be inspected protruding from the moveable head are

pivots and the bolts likely to deteriorate.

the parts most

They should be simple to replace when worn out. in several countries, can None the less,

The pendulum crushers, which have been operated be fabricated from readily available steel

sections.

entrepreneurs should first refer to the innovators adopting obtained the from method. them Ready-made machines IV). or

for precise details before can also be

sub-assemblies under

(see Appendix

Manufacture

licence

is being

arranged in several countries.

III. 3

Animal-powered roller

A traditional crushing method in India uses a heavy stone roller pulled by a bullock over centre of which the dry clay. The latter is laid out in a circle draught at the animals

the axle for the roller is pivoted.

Other

could perfirm this task.

IV.

SIEVING Crushed clay must be sieved to ensure that over-size pieces are not used.

These should be returned

for further

crushing.

The

finer

the material

the

better the quality of the brick. should be satisfactory.

However, clay passing through

a 5 mm sieve

The simplest device for sieving is a screen of wire

mesh, fastened on to a rectangular frame resting on the ground at one end and supported on legs at the other at a 45’ angle to the ground (figure IV.9).

material to be for brickmaking

‘Reject size material to be re-crushed
Figure IV.9 Sieving

- 53 -

v.

PRO-PORTIONING The mixing and is of sieving two . since different Quantities this in method order dry of is to materials clays, generally get a in is grog, best sand, undertaken etc. than product give after be should quality.

crushing measured Measures

by volume should

much easier consistent turn, to

weighing.

Measurement

advisable be taken

from each

constituent

a preliminary

amount of mixing.

VI. sand

MIXING, WETTINGAND TEMPERING Dry and of ingredients grog, of solid the bricks colour purposes, bricks, must may be mixed fuel (See may be Chapter can soluble with VII). hoes or spades. the clay should salts A fixed since the In to addition assist to with until the problem, on the of the be clay, the no mixed with Mixing sulphate

burning difference For per

be continued to place in a constitute quantity, it will

or texture where

be seen

from place

pile.

special 1,000 of Water

barium carbonate extent

(precipitated)

may be added.

such as 10 kg depend surface

may not be a priori be added to most layer for is wet

recommended soils, over

the problem. whole material, or as each is deposited with a rose the laborious such clay, mixes This that slips too will the off wet in a pile. spray, task of Water should device. and kneading inside. pass rise. be about could the

spread-out sprinkled the clay.

with a watering Concrete of any only and mixers

can fitted have

or a similar mixing can the just paddles

Mechanical The consistency through, Consequently, mixed with

power may be used

a rotating

drum with

attached paddles

wet concrete
adhering an extremely mixer mixes

paddles when for

concrete

brickmaking, adhere in to

in a concrete For stiff paddles to design fixed from involves be too . rotating

as stiffer it is best

merely be borne

paddles equipped rotating mixing. readily of are this not

and drum. attempting on bearings A available equipment may also so efficient unsatisfactory

to use should

a stationary For example,

container an oil-drum effective and this mixers

or blades. clay-mixing

mind by any person

equipment. generally trough suppliers. investments. production to thin be very a gauge

to each end will double-shafted equipment capital small too for high major large

fail

to achieve is

mot or-powered

mixer

ideal, acquisition of

However, units. strong steel

The capacity Single-shaft and

equipment

Trough mixers if made of

need

and powerful, undersized (32).

and may be bearings.

They are made and used

in Ghana by a number of

brickworks

- 54 -

Much of the work of mixing water and soil may be avoided by the simple expedient of waiting for the water to percolate right into the structure of the clay. The thoroughly mixed dry constituents, having been wetted and piled up as described above, should be covered with sheeting evaporation and drying.
or

sand to prevent

This long-term wetting process, known as “tempering”

or “souring”, allows chemical and physical changes to take place in the clay, thus improving its moulding characteristics. These benefits may be achieved within a day or two with many clays, though others (such as the harder shales) may require weeks.

VI.1 A

Pugmills pugmill is a most useful machine for mixing wet clay ready for

moulding.

High capital-cost machines from the major suppliers of brickmaking

equipment have a series of angled blades rotating on a horizontal shaft within a closed barrel. the barrel. These blades mix the clay and force it out by an opening in

Electric or diesel power are used for this type of machine

(figure IV.10). Cheap, animal-powered pugmills may also be produced locally. These

pugmills have been used for centuries (33) and continue to prove successful. For example, they were in use in England a recently in Turkey(10). few decades ago(34), and more

Indonesia may also start using these pugmills .’ (27). Animal-powered pugmills (See figure IV.111 are made of a strong circular metal or wood tub, approximately 1 m high, with a vertical driven shaft in the centre, fitted with near-horizontal blades. Wet clay is driven downwards by

the rotation of angled blades, gets cut and mixed by other blades and emerges from a small hole near the base of the tub. Animals are yoked to a beam which rotates the shaft (figure IV.12).

VI.2 A

Foot-trew simple and labourintensive method of preparing the more plastic

fine-grained clays is foot treading. Clay can be trodden in the quarry, but it is advisable to carry out this operation on a concrete at the plant site (figure IV.13).
or

brickwork surface

Ideally, a circular or rectangular surface The soil, straight from the

should be bounded by a 300 mm high upstand.

quarry if suitable, or after some crushing, is spread 50 to 100 mm deep on the surface. If both fat and lean materials are needed, they should be layered. All the constituents must be thoroughly wetted, turned spades, and left covered up to temper for a few days.
over

with hoes or

The workers then puddle The total volume

the clay by treading in it , mixing and working the water in.

of clay must be trodden systematically. It is advisable to turn it over with

Figure

IV.10 --

!4ot :or-drive n Pug mill

(Madaga scar>

Moist clay in

/--(=’

Ir

Figure -. IV.11 Animal-powered pug mi (Schematic drawing)

Pugged clay ready for moulding

- 56 -

Figure

IV.12

Animal-powered pug mill (Tur key)

, w

,*

., I. .* _.(‘: ‘.” .

Figure Foot-treading floor

IV.13

clay on concrete (Ghana)

- 57 -

hoes and retread it.

The mix should not be too dry as it will be difficult to On the other hand, At best, foot

move the feet up and down repeatedly.

if it is too wet, it will not be suitable for moulding. treading is a very tiring work.

If any treader feels a stone in the clay, he Unfortunately, this is an operation which Fortunately, a few stones left in
ThUS,

should pick it out, and discard it.

is easy to neglect and difficult to check. the clay will only damage a

few bricks.

for practical purposea,

complete elimination of stones is not necessary for simple brick-moulding techniques. However, if bricks were to be wirecut (Chapter V), to include perforations, or to be made into extruded hollow blocks with thin walls the presence of stones would create problems. In practice, it may be possible to get the workforce together just before the end of the working day in order to tread the wetted clay for the next or a later day's moulding. moulding process. Leaving the clay for a while may further improve the

VI.3

The washmill

The washmill is a labour-intensive method of cleaning clay in order to free it from stones, limestone nodules and other large particles. It

requires fairly large quantities of water and produces a moulding material with a fairly high moisture content. The clay from the pit is preferably

broken down prior to mixing with water in order to speed the process. A large brick-built or metal tank approximately 1 m deep and several metres across is filled to one-third of its height with the soil. Water is then added until it

is two-thirds full. The mixture is stirred to disperse the soil up to the point where a clay slip or slurry is formed and the unwanted inclusions fall to the bottom of the tank. The clay slip, with sand suspended in it, is then run off into one of a series ~'f lagoons or ponds where it will settle. After treatment of several loads of clay, the accumulated stones
must

be removed

from the bottom of the washmill. Weeks may be required for the clay to settle in the lagoons, during which time the supernatent water can be run off a little at a time over a simple, variable-height sluice, and re-used in the washmill. Eventually, the last of-the water will be drained off and the solid material will start to dry, though it must not dry completely. bear a person's weight, the material can be re-dug. Once it can

Cuts should be taken from

top to bottom to ensure an even mix of fine clay and sand at all times.

Washmills have been

used

with success in many places.

One such washmill

was operated at Bricket Wood, in the United Kingdom, prior to developments

- 58 -

on the brickworks site by the Building Research Establishment. Recently, the washmill has solved a particular limestone problem in India(351, and is widely used at nearby Indore and other areas of Madhya Pradesh, where it is known as the ‘ghol’ method. The shape of manually* the washmill is not important if the slip is stirred On the Animal

In this case it is easier to build a rectangular washmill.

other hand, the use of other power sources requires a circular tank.

power could well be used for this purpose (figure IV.l/:>. The size of mill will depend upon the nature and quantity of clay
to

be

processed, the

proportion of impurities and the planned brick production rate. The washmill achieves most of the stages of clay preparation.

VII.

TESTING

Testing methods described in Chapter II could be applied to check if the material is suitable or whether modifications need to be made. In practice,

this information is difficult to apply for a given batch of clay since the latter must often be used before the test results are available. This

emphasises the need for careful preparation to produce a material of constant properties, and the need to check the quality of the final product (Chapter VII) and to relate any problems to clay preparation.

Outlet

gate

Figure

IV.14 washmill

Animal-powered

CHAPTER V

SHAPING

I.

DESCRIPTION

OF BRICKS TO BE PRODUCED

This section will provide the main characteristics of the bricks covered by this memorandum.

I.1

Size, shape and weight In general, a brick should be of such a size and weight that it can be

lifted in one hand. wide.

In almost all cases, a brick is twice as long as it is

Its height is usually one-third of its length (including the width of For example, the dimensions

one mortar joint added to each end of the brick.)

specified in the Indian Standard(36) are 190 x 90 x 90 mm and 190 x 90 x 40 mm. The 2~1 ratio is often adopted as it is highly suitable for bonding. The In some countries, it is standardised so

brick height is a matter of choice.

that it may fit to standardised dimensions of other components, such as window frames. The British Standard Specification for Bricks(37) requires that they be 215 x 102.5 x 65 mm or 225 x 112.5 x 75 mm if a 10 mm mortar joint is added. The 11-hole machine-extruded perforated brick (figure V.1) made in This type of brick may,

West Africa is too wide to be held in the hand. however, be required for special purposes.

Bricks produced in small-scale plants do not generally have holes. some cases, a frog is indented into one bed face. assumed to increase wall strength, but may

In

The single frog cannot be some

assist in moulding in

circumstances.

It may also shorten the drying time, slightly reduce the

amount of fuel for firing, and reduce weight for transportation. However, it

- 62 -

requires more mortar for wall building, especially if the brick is laid frog up . Frogs may be made on both bed faces in some shaping processes. They

Perforated bricks (figure V.l> are only produced by extrusion machines. have advantages similar to those listed for frogged bricks.

Bricks which are accurate in shape and size are good to handle, transport, stack and build into a good wall with flat faces. If walls are to be

rendered, less material is required than if they had an irregular surface. Furthermore, less mortar is Chapter VIII>. required between accurately made bricks (see

Bricks of special shape may be produced, for example, for building wells and circular chimneys, or for joining walls of different thicknesses without silarpsteps. blocks and Roofing tiles can also be made by similar methods. decorative screen blocks are produced by machine Big hollow extrusion.

However, this memorandum concentrates on the production of brdlnary-shaped bricks.

The size of the brick mould, die, etc. must be larger than the brick specification to allow for drying and firing shrinkages.

I.2

Faults in bricks A number of faults in the finished product can be attributed to bad

shaping.

In

extruded

bricks,

S-shaped

cracks

are

caused

by

the

clay-impeller’s design or use.

Saw tooth or dog-eared corners are caused by Internal cracks along the line

poor lubrication of the die near the corners.

of extrusion indicate an unequal extrusion rate in the centre as compared to that on the edge. Uneven heights of extruded bricks may be due to uneven Drag marks on cut surfaces are often due to dirty Irregular sizes and shapes Weaknesses

spacing of cutting wires.

cutting wires in extruded and hand-made products.

of hand-moulded bricks may oe due to inaccurate and bent moulds. may result from layers of sand being folded into the clay.

Odd flashes may

result from old clay stuck in narrow gaps of the mould or from overfilling of the would. Missing corners, bent bricks, trapezoidal shapes and indentations

may be due to incomplete filling of the mould, careless demoulding, setting down the green bricks sharply on the drying ground, squashing the demoulded bric’ks too tightly between pallets or marking them with the fingers.

-I;~---,..,-----

---

- 64 -

II.

METHODS OF SHAPING It has often been thought that machine-made bricks are better than if

hand-made bricks.

This, however, should not

be necessarily the case

hand-moulding is carried out with care.

Furthermore, a comparative study of

the economics of production in developing countries (see Chapter X) clearly indicates that hand-made production is still competitive in spite of

technological developments.

Ready-made equipment may be imported, for both large-scale plants (e.g. equipment for a highly automated plant imported from Europe, by Ghana, shown in figure V.2) and small-scale units. In the latter case, equipment is used

in a very few operations which complement the predominant use of labour. Mechanised shaping methods will be considered briefly first, followed by the labour-intensive shaping methods. Finally, simple and cheap methods of

assisting the hand-moulding process will be described.

The choice of shaping method should take into consideration the following: capital cost and expected life of equipment; maintenance and spares service; availability and cost of fuel (including reliability of electricity supply); scale of production in relation to raw materials supply; and market demand at time of installation and throughout the planned life of the installation. These points will be amplified in Chapters X and XI.

II.1

Mechanised shaping methods

11.1.1 Wire cut bricks A method of producing machine-made bricks, which is commonly used in developing countries, is that of extrusion from an auger machine. is, for example, used in Madagascar (see figure V.3). This method

In this machine, which

is similar to a horizontal pugmill, the clay is impelled by an Archimedean screw. Taut wires cut brick sizes off the continuous column of clay (figure

V.4 shows an automated cutter, manufactured in the Federal Republic of Germany and used in a brickmaking plant in Ghana).

This type of equipment is often imported by most developing countries. One exception is India where research 'was carried out into the construction of indigenous plants for making 20,000 bricks per day(38). have since been built and operated(39). provided in Appendix IV. A Several such plants

supplier list of equipment is

However, the wire cut-process is used at scales

outside those considered in the memorandum.

Figure

V.3

Figure

V.4

Wire- ,cutter and wirecut bricks (GhaIi-m)

- 66 -

11.1.2

Soft mud process

Soft alluvial clays, such as those suitable for hand-moulding, may be processed by the soft-mud process. One of the smallest machines available

produces approximately 14,000 brieks per day, a scale of production larger than those considered in this memorandum. This particular machine, originally made in the United Kingdom as the Berry Machine, was bought up by another company which is now producing it in the Netherlands (see Appendix IV). It

has a horizontal pugmill followed by a set of cams which force moist clay through the side of the containing barrel into a quartet of iron-clad wooden moulds (see Figure V. 5). This can be done by hand. To prevent clay from sticking, moulds are sanded. The whole process is fairly labour-intensive. The

pugmill section alone could be used to prepare clays for hand-moulding.

11.1.3 m Bricks can be pressed, but commercially available machines are expensive and have high production rates. However, smaller hand-powered machines have

been used in the past (33) and could still be employed, provided that the extra cost and time could be justified by an improvement in quality.

II.2

Hand-moulding In the earliest techniques, soil was shaped by hand into lumps. The use

of a mould to give shape to the soil resulted in more accurate and better bricks. Wood moulds should be soaked in oil for a few days before use. They

are best made from a hard wood, shod on corners with iron or steel, and preferably lined with metal sheet. A handle bar is needed at each end. Metal

moulds must be of a sufficient thickness to resist bending in use.

II.2.1 In

Slop-moulding slop-moulding , a very wet mix of clay is thrown into a wetted

bottomless mould of wood or metal (figure V.6) as it rests upon a wooden pallet. Excess clay is scraped off either with the hand or with a striker (a straight wooden bar; see figure V.7). cannot be harden. As the mix is very sloppy the mould sufficiently dried or started to the some

removed until the brick has Usually, the mould is

removed immediately and tub of water, and used

returned to again. In

moulding bench, re-wetted in a

instances, moulding is done on the ground without the use of pallet (40).

- 67 -

Prepared soft

nPtY

Moulded brick OUT

Figure V.5 Soft mud brickmoulding machine

Figure V.6 -Slop-moulding in double cavity metal mould, with moulder standing in deep hole (West Sudan)

Figure V.7 -Strikil ng off excess clay in slop-moulding (Ghana)

- 69 The slippery Two main shrinkage. The separation bottoms incorporated stickiness of fixed to the of of air the clay Thus, used in slop-moulding gap between slides the mould, carry sanded of complicates of bottom and side the is nature of the wet clay this allows the demoulding are of the brick. high

disadvantages

with

moulding

method

distortion

and

the base to allow

the mould from the brick. a small to pass in of dust the of in as the brick Madagascar sand is the base utilise of the

Some types out. following a tub of thus their side the

mould have

sides.

The artisan the whole V.8). clay the after island. The sand from sticking drying the

brickmakers A basket is used to to

method water preventing own bricks is

over the to

kept

alongside

(figure

the base. practice rates is

These brickmakers mould so that the top and the recommended as it

ground

and invert This

uppermost thus

demoulding. distortions. brickmakers which is

minimises

the difference brick,

between avoiding The technique the the

evaporation

bottom

from not

Madagascar used smaller

utilise elsewhere,

another but

very is V.9). sand,

simple laid at and

moulding adopting. on top of of is in the

normally

would be worth upstands of

A wooden plate, latter. plate while from until

slightly the

than the top of removed by a (see

the brick, figure operation. any design

The thumbs are then placed mould is to for the being brick next the brick, sticking required the

on triangular layer

the ends The plate is left on to

prevented position trade

demoulding using

A maker’s embossed

mark or

mark can be moulded

into

wooden plate. 11.2.2 used. mould prevent wet sides bottom drying yields of Sand-moulding of slop-moulding of of then on V.ll). of this sand is are that partly the clay in of clot be overcome brick and India clay. are from the will the if not a stiffer slip V.10) out surfaces sands at mix of is the will the the One disadvantage easily. sticking. of with ground bricks a A layer the mould, trade-mark (figure with

Disadvantages

between moulder his

mould

The traditional throws it. shape

(figure finally

The mould has a fixed demoulded figure, the this fine method detail

The bricks seen

As can

a regular in the frog

and good

finish,

including

the trade-mark

the bricks.

Figure V.8 Moulding with sandcovered mould base. (Madagascar)

Figure V.9 Derr loulding by pushing on tri.angular end pie ces (Madagascar)

Figure V.10 Moulder using sand to prevent sticking (India)

Figure V.ll Two moulds demouldf ?d at the drying ground. Good finish of produced bricks (India)

- 72 -

Attempts having into V.12) (figure bench, the

are

often

made to

utilise are sawdust available.

the sized

moulder's pieces at of

skills clay a works to

to ready in

the for

full,

by

clotlnakers mould. V.13). since and used

prepare Elongated

suitably balls works moulds

throwing

prepared is used

Ghana (figure productivity to assist at the sand

in multi-cavity In it this is readily

in an attempt

increase of are area

instead

demoulding
on

The bricks to the drying method of

demoulded five

to a wooden pallet, continues texture Details of with wire of

then carried as a commercial satisfy Instead this excess or

at a time. of at the figure hand-made for is of a bench clot top V.14. which for this

Sand-moulding bricks bricks with Given the consists purpose. Given Workshop Instead lifting of the the (ITW) covered in single in the with

production market the work in

United

Kingdom to wood moulds. the mix, hands

a particular of sanding are cannot or

requirement

variable cavity sand.

and appearance. method clay a striker. stick

The moulders illustrated be removed Instead, wooden frame,

mould,

the stiffness of a taut

from the is used

mould by pushing

a bow cutter,

on a bent

advantage in the air from

of inlet one

using slits end.

stiffer at This countries the

clays, base,

the the has

Intermediate a hinged air could

Technology mould. by in used

United

Kingdom has

developed

bottom

having base bricks. the the

be admitted V.151,

device

been

successfuly

commercial well-formed

production

in several

in Africa

(figure

producing

Recently, commissioned processes of the to

United Intermediate

Kingdom

Building the

Research to of use sand,

Establishment develop since be used in the the the

has latter the use a

Technology without

Workshop

hand-moulding

improve ground

slop-moulding locations.

is not available dry clay clot

in all

One improvement The latter provided it as the

proposed may then remains

by ITW is

up finely in

to dust. the mould, is difficult.

to preveL:t mould for clot makes

from sticking Quick sticky,

few seconds. the dust

demoulding

necessary

dampness of

and demoulding

I'I'W has developed published provided document below.

two improved (41). A

moulding

devices

which of

are

described two devices

in

a is

summary

description

these

Figure

V.12

Figure

V.13 and moulded Sudan)

Hinged-bottom mould brick (Southern

Figure

V.14 clot. Use of (Ghana)

Moulder throws preformed five cavities mould

An essential part of good brick q oulding is to dust the throwing clot on five of its six surfaces to prevent it sticking to the sides of the mould. Experienced individual illustrated moulders develop their own techniques and the system is just one of many alternatives. I . Starting with the CUL off piece from the previous brick, put a new lump of clay on top,

.:;

2.
thl*

Using the ‘heels’ of roll new of forward 11 previous cu comes
1 IIt! iOlJ.

3. Press down making a wedge shape wi Lh sand now covering bo t Ir large surfaces oi’ the clot.

4. Lift the clot up on edge to sand the narrow edges.

OVC'I

5. Apply sand to both

edges so that now four sides are covered.

After sanding the second narrow edge, roll the clot forward to apply sand to the end.
(J.

7. The clot should now be tapered with a wide top and narrow bottom end, ready to throw in1 the mould cavity.

Figure V.15 A technique for preparing a clot of day

- 75 (i) The turnover The turnover locally. for is It is mould mould is a four-sided cut after off, a another moulding device which may be easily steel After are lining the produced turned freeing pivot an end in the on a stop with

wooden mould with the clay the base 180'
out

a sheet sides plate. sharp a

3 mm at the bottom thrown and excess brick bearing, and from the

to hold fixed

in the mould. mould frog

sanded clot

four

lifted, on

moulded simple causes

and its rotation,

The sides knock

the moulded brick Figure

to drop

on to a pallet the device

(which can be rotated operation.

the mould). (ii)

V.16 illustrates

and its

The table The local order off

mould production of to into with by ensure the use of long table. of tc the a second moulding performance. the sanded clot the brick device, for the table V.17 been mould, of some and

requires parts mould excess the bricks device. pallets normally materials fabricated (figure sheet be built moulding in

the skill recessed
cut

a carpenter

or metalworker reliable Once cutter, arrises

the manufacture Figure has (figure with

shows the thrown by raising Stiff moulding wooden are and be timber with of

the built-in

may be ejected

mould It

bottom is

foot-operated them on the

lever

V.18). this hand-held skills

of excellent in order stiff to

shape and clean avoid

may be produced light-weight surface. the smooth of V.18), to the base.

advisable enough

transport

finger-marking the only main steel (figure

The bricks mould and be lined may

to be stood

on edge. structure (figure V.19).

Depending

upon local table angle

availability, from V.171, or timber

box-section plate

steel

The mould should instead.

steel

and a frog

may be fixed bow cutter V.19. this

The cutter

can either

in or

a separate

can be used

The sequence

is illustrated or supply of the

in figure of parts system, Sri allowing improving for

Advice the several is being on of top the

moulding This

device

may be sought has been A new feature slightly However,

through used in which down a

developers African of clay, the

ITW.

moulding of to of a lid be the

device

countries, mould,

Lanka and the Caribbean. consists the This the base device quality raised brick.

incorporated lever further

in the device and cam.

which can be locked

through compaction it

hand-operated down production.

allows

some additional

slows

- 76 -

The mould, open, 1. Wedge shaped clot of clay is

and put aside.

3.While holding the pallet in place, the brickmaker turns the mould over on its pivot and knocks it against the atop.

Figure V.16 The turnover mould and its operation

- 77 -

Robust timber frame I

Sliding bow cutter with built in tensioner \ /

Special ejecting box

brickmould

Figure V.17 The table mould

Figure V.18 Table mould; pedal being depressed to eject brick. Each brick is handled with pallets and stacked on racks (United Kingdom)

- 78 -

ay ie

cut

off

with

e oi’f-cot

ie removed and set

is the brick.

pressed

down to ejec

Firzure V.19 Operation of the table mould

- 79 -

III.

TRANSPCRTATION OF BRICKS TO DRYING AREAS Slop-moulding requires down. fairly which barrows. hack are flat and hard, the labour before for also needed transport, the available to carry can for be of the that bricks be carried in the mould to the drying

area and set bed face Where sandmoulded minimised green transport bricks. floors bricks, by using are

generally ITW has with

demoulded developed forks V.18). on top area. are

racks

transport

Adapted

barrows

of 20 bricks bricks

at a time (figure cannot designed, at a time on than hack be to the

Sand-moulded demoulded. carry hands, V.20 on edge to

stacked

of

each These

other bricks the the in

when first used on to the can be set load load. the Figure United

Specially dry rather one

large

flat-top bed face. well if through

wheelbarrows To minimise back under many years is

may be

20 to 30 bricks the wheel of illustrates

the drying be set used

the barrow

should

barrow

Kingdom. IV.

Damage to bricks

can be minimised

the wheel

sprung.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS AND TRAINING

Mechanised well as an mould-operators maintenance also will production

brick-moulding in-depth should an also for

requires be wear

a knowledge of able mechanics to of in

of

clay and

characteristics electricity. routine to avoid the

as The

understanding

undertake the In day. strongly order

preventive They should loss of machines

and inspection through

and tear ability

equipment. practice,

demonstrate need constant Equipment used

organisational during

machine-servicing adjustment in

and repair. the working should require measures that be

hand-moulding skills in throwing. remedial so

and the

accurately of

made, of be a of the

and kept the fully clay

clean.

Hand-moulding the right various

an appreciation needed also does its clot lose for the

the nature should of side in

and experience the

In particular, He should
the

operator

aware of force

preparation throw the stick

mix with sufficient the mould. mould.

characteristics. a sanded clot

know how to not sand strike and

with

and confidence

Otherwise,

would

-

80 -

- 81 In This general, skills are passed for if on within within families. short is of There are there to avoid In addition,the of time. of for

techniques the trade', a good pushing It'is

can be learnt which may help accurate into to clay stage

elsewhere

a relatively Firstly, is

period

is particularly hard of

the case throw unfilled discard

sand-moulding. operator and the

a few 'tricks no substitute the it defective

the beginner. the areas

time-consuming bricks. the back to

production brick stages

preferable

a poorly-moulded subsequent Secondly, While such the skill is

and send is

preparation clays, frees difficult used.

than to go through

and end up with bricks used with stiff the clay table and may be the most mould is the clay with is a for

which cannot be marketed. it from the skill Thirdly, it to mould. learn,

whenever sand-moulding bumping and demoulding is not needed of

a hard bump of the mould on the bench helps

to consolidate when the

although

the

sand to of

the basic

material

preventing

from sticking, very small,

is useful

to wipe the surface type oil is

the mould occasionally The oil If training is none is available, required

a rag soaked with oil rag wetted brick with

in order

improve demoulding. needed. Little

consumption

and no special process. after

water may also

be helpful.

the sandlooulding in figure scientist suitable exist research eminently skills

For example, only

the well-formed trials. bricks

and accurately-shaped The table are required, mould seems where few

V-21 was moulded in a bottophinged a few preliminary stiff capital is available. when accurately-formed

mould by an inexperienced

and when little

Figure V.21 Brick moulded in hinged-bottom mould by non-craftsman (United Kingdom)

- 82 -

V.

I!RODUCTIVITY OF LAJ3OUR

It is not easy to measure or compare production rates as tasks are often shared. helper. For example, clots may be made by the moulder himself or by a Some moulders carry bricks to the drying area, while others have In mechanical production, it is difficult to

runners to perform the task.

assign a particular number of people to the shaping machine, since a man may be tending or servicing a variety of machines.

Table V.1 compares a number of mechanised and manual methods for the whole brickmaking process and for moulding only. Some of the estimates may include

clay preparation,clot forming and carrying, while others may not.

Table V.l Labour productivityin moulding (man/hoursper 1,000 bricks)

Area

Brick factory (complete process)

Area

Moulding only hand-made bricks -

Extruded wire cut bricks

Handmade bricks

West Africa India

37 45

97 60

East Africa Madagascar

20 8

United Kingdom (traditional)21 United Kingdom (table mould) 13 Source: 26, 33, 39, 41, 42.

Each country seems to have its own preferred method for hand-moulding: squatting and moulding on the ground in India, standing in Sudan, etc. In

Madagascar, the moulder stands and works with his mould sloping away, fixed on top of a stout post. In the United Kingdom, a moulding bench is preferred.

These methods are illustrated in some of the pictures within this chapter. These pictures also show that moulds may have one to five cavities. A simple cavity requires more running to the drying area for slop-moulding. On the other hand, five cavity moulds are very
heavy

when full.

Changes to accepted

methods of moulding would probably result in at least a temporary reduction in output. Where possible, however, it is recommended that the moulder stands rather than squats, uses the sand-moulding method and works on a table or bench.

- 83 -

A

study of

the brick industry in Colombia(43) concludes that direct relative productivity of various technology levels is

evidence on

the

inadequate. However, indirect evidence indicates that it is worth while setting up labour-intensive units. The analysis carried out on the brick

industry suggests that technologies imported from industrialisedcountries may not always be feasible.

JIand-moulding can produce bricks of technically good quality, at minimum capital cost. c This labour-intensivemethod is highly suited to the varying Some simple

market demand likely to be found in many developing countries.

devices can lighten the burden and improve the working conditions of the brick moulders.

CHAPTER VI

DRYING

I. OBJECTIVES OF DRYING

There are several reasons for the drying of bricks before firing. These are briefly described below.

- In order to obtain the high strength and water-resistant properties of ceramic materials, the bricks must be burnt in a temperature. The bricks are piled up one on kiln to a high top of another,

approximately 20 bricks high.

Thus, the bricks at the bottom must be

strong enough to carry the weight of those above. When first demoulded after shaping, the green brick may not be able to bear the weight of even one more brick without showing some distortion. When a certain amount of moisture has dried out, and the brick clay is approximatelyat the critical moisture content (see Chapter II), the bricks become "leather-hard". They handling and stacking. are then sufficiently rigid and strong for

- Once the "leather-hard" condition is reached, the bricks shrink. It is preferable that this shrinkage takes place before bricks are piled high for burning, lest the shrinkage causes the whole setting of bricks to become unstable, or to collapse within the kiln;

- Even after the "leather-hard"condition has been reached, there is much more water to be dried out of the bricks. If this is not done, the

water in the bricks nearest to the heat source will evaporate and condense on cold bricks away from the heat source. These bricks will then absorb the water and get spoilt.

- 86 -

- Another risk is that water remaining in green bricks lnay turn to steam if the heat rises too quickly. This steam will buiLd up pressure within the bricks, causing them to rupture. To minimise the risk, bricks

should be as dry as possible before being put into the kiln;

- Within the kiln, any water remaining in the green bricks will only be driven out by burning expensive fuel. Fuel costs may thus be reduced if the maximum of water is removed through natural drying.
\

II. ARTIFICIAL DRYING

Drying should be completed with a minimum loss of bricks, and a minimum cracking and deformation of the latter (see Chapter II). The rate at which

moisture evaporates from the surface should not be greater than the rate at which it can diffuse through the fine pores of the green brick. Thus, there

is no purpose in creating more draught over the surface, or in heating the outside surface over a certain temperature. In fact, such action will cause a faster shrinkage of the surface than that of the interior of the brick, and thus cracking of the latter. If drying is too slow, an opening material should be specified for the mix, or the brick should be reduced. A reduction in the volume of the brick may be achieved through the production of frogged or perf&>rated bricks. The reduction of depth cannot, however, be carried too far if bricks were to be of a minimum strength. Once bricks are leather-hard, the drying rate can be increased.

If moisture diffuses to the surface, evaporates, but then remains just above the surface of the brick as a stagnant layer of moist air, further evaporation will be depressed. This will happen even when bricks are heated in a dryer. In this case, the drying process should be modified in order to avoid the above problem.

The rate of drying depends on diffusion rate of moisture in brick, temperature, humidity and air speed. In temperate c'limates, where drying is

not possible during the cold damp winter months, medium brick plants use floors heated by fires. This raises the air temperature and reduces the

relative humidity, thus enabling drying to take place. This drying is costly as it requires large amounts of fuel. Other systems include chamber dryers

for batches of bricks and tunnel dryers which operate continuously.

- 87 In the operation of artificial dryers, energy air passing through the dryer. It is also is required for other

to supply the heat

latent heat of evaporation of the water as well as to heat the bricks and the required losses

into the surrocndings. Estimates of total energy requirements for evaporating water are provided in Table VI.1 below: Table VI.1 Energy requirements for drying bricks one kilogram of

Energy (kJ per kg water evaporated) Efficiency of process High Low Source: 45 Hot floor dryer 7 100 12 400 Chamber dryer 3 300 8 900 Tunnel dryer 3 300 7 100

Calculated 8,000 MJ per artificial

energy

requirements those yeeded 10)). is such kiln to space access mostly of

for for

the the

drying firing it

of of

bricks bricks required automated be

range (i.e. for

from 5,000

3,000 to

to

MJ per 1,GOO bricks. 1,000 bricks(8, drying may be in less

These energy Hence, needed waste itself and the

requirements should to that in heat the can

are relatively that firing.

important 16,000 for energy

when compared to drying

be realised

is of similar handling

magnitude

Artificial where automatic kiln dryers. zone, could it relatively designs but

large-scale from from is This the

works, and where kilns to and cooling

bricks that

might be justified

economically, conducted of heat it

The tunnel expensive if

lends collect

to recovery
smaller for for heat

sophisticated by placing is not

kilns drying. the kiln. drying

difficult alternative bricks,

One cheap all the

alternative

be to dry bricks

them around sufficient

may
and if

not be feasible

were to restrict A recent drying

to the kiln. the use of blasts rotating along air dryers. In these positioned

method involves applied

dryers,

hot air

is

as occasional

strategically

- 88 -

racks full of bricks, the draught removing the accumulated layer of moist air which has collected close to the brick surface.

In some tropical countries, drying is difficult during the wet season. Consequently, large plants are often equipped with air dryers. shows rotary dryers awaiting installation in a Ghanaian brickwork. Figure VI. 1

Bricks can be weighed from time to time to estimate the amount of water which has dried out. These estimates may then be used to determine the time

needed for bricks to reach the “leather-hard” stage.

In view of the high cost and/or the scarcity of fuel, the hot weather conditions in a large number of countries, overall production considerations and market requirement9, the

use

- 89 -

Figure VI.1 Rotary dryers (Ghan .a)

Figure VI.2 Bumpy drying ground covered with debrIis (Madagascar)

Figl!re VI.3 '&rmtly dried brick distorted and hovered with debris (West !Sciani

Figure Good bricks

VI.4 level ground

dried on clean, (West Sudan)

-

91 -

Sand-moulded bricks, being more firm than slop-moulded bricks, are nut likely to pick up debris or to distort easily. They may also be set down on

edge, which further reduces the chance of distortion due to uneven support.

As soon as bricks are dry enough to handle (i.e. once they have reached the leather-hard stage), they should be turned right over to allow the face which was in contact with the ground to dry. The required drying time will

vary with weather conditions, but should not generally exceed one or two days.

After approximately three more days, depending upon weather conditions, the bricks can be removed from the drying ground and built into long open work walls eight or ten bricks high. VI.5). These walls are known as hacks (figure Bricks .

The drying .of bricks should continue for a few weeks more.

become lighter in colour as they dry.

Sample bricks should be broken in order

to check whether the inside is of light colour and therefore dry.

The bottom bricks in the hack may remain wet ground.

if laid directly on the

It is therefore advisable to build the hacks on already burnt bricks

or wooden planks, which may be left in position permanently.

Although light rain may not harm exposed green bricks, heavy rain can have serious consequences, and days of hard work may be wasted in a few minutes. Figure VI.6 shows bricks damaged by rain and bricks which are -laid out for drying after the rain storms. Where the risk of heavy rains exists it is

almost impossible to carry all the bricks under cover, especially newly-made slop-moulded ones. Instead, one
may

need

to

use

plastic

sheeting for

protection against the rain,

Plastic sheeting may not, however, give the best

protection as it is difficult to lay the plastic over a large amount of bricks unless the stacks of bricks are separated by walkways. Furthermore, the

plasti., sheets must be weighted down to prevent the wind from blowing them away. Since bricks close to the edges of the plastic sheets may not be

protected effectively, it is advisable to use special cover or permanent sheds whenever drying takes place during uncertain weather conditions.

One of the chief reasons for the cracking and distortion of bricks during the drying stage is the high rate of drying. control in the open air, although the
use

This rate is difficult to

of leaves or grass on top of the A high rate of drying may

bricks may help control drying to some extent.

result from the action of the sun as well as from low humidity levels and winds. Thus, it may take place even when the bricks are shaded.

-..- .-

Figure

VI.6

,-*m 93 -

Hack drying the United bed face parallei a cross reached, in kept the ma;sner.

is

an effective

drying

method used In this of on edge

in the temperate bricks sheets are time bricks laid the of are on wooden planks

climate in

of

Kingdom over

many years.

method, thin

transported two long with on the row is those in this are them. covers
tc

down on the hack barrow rows. bar long for row. a second first Hack covers, enough to protection course of

and set

made from pairs span both against green is rows of rain. bricks

wood tied carefully the

bricks, By the laid

green bricks

end of

may be of in

without

distorting built The the are boards

A maximum of ground separation of the covers the heavy -upper corners board edge dug

six courses illustrated rest of on the

may be VI.7. fastened

Such a hack

figure batten Th2sc

at. the correct

by an occasional the bricks. falling may be placed falls is of in reset spacing into spread direction the with stage An area wall

between sloping
si;fficier;t

Only the tie-bars do not damage the protect weather Rainwater hack. raise that Figure enough becoming be this sufficiently one-tenth day(8). periods III.2 of This of rain bricks an extra The earth the plank the to VI.8

bricks.

Thus, covers rain.

from

vertically

In side

rainy facing in

and windy the side order of are hacks wind. of the to time. dry then

or sacking of the the roof from

on the a gulley between of for

from the

on either gullies the hacks equal

gulley side be

slightly.

The preferred

should

be such

sun shines shows handle, slightly after apart

on either bricks they can

periods When they the rate, of of 1,000

close-set Wider access

a covered wider has for for in increases

hack. spacings, the

higher. the to several allow

drying

which may be bricks bricks with per short

necessary

leather-hard weeks. should

been

reached.

Hacks must

and operation.

The drying an output of

method takes

the hack ground

approximately

a hectare drying

be allocated

method may be adopted

showery weather or during

in many countries.

DryinK in a shed

Provision drying shed setting be areas may,

of and,

a shed, possibly,

sufficiently the kiln, the the used

large largest of

to item

cover of only

both capital the

the

moulding

and in will used

may be considered covering

in some cases. drying drying. shed enough.

Such a

however,

constitute brickworks. improve

expenditure grounds may be

up a small and will simple if bricks

A shed

cheaper a

chances in

successful This when firm

Figure VI.9

shows

structure

Madagascar.

efficiently

can be built

up in hacks

Figure VI.7 Transferring freshly moulaed bricks from barrow to dry in hacks with moveable covers

Figure VI.8 Covered drying hack

- 95 -

The use of racks reduces the volume needed for the drying of a given number of bricks (see figure VI. 10). Such racks enable soft, freshly moulded

bricks to dry one brick high on each shelf. Thus, they will not be distorted by other bricks above them. Some cracking may take place in bricks nearest

the outside of the shed, where direct sun, low humidity and great air movement cause faster drying. Bricks should be Side screens are necessary under such circumstances. to their sides once they have reached the

turned on

leather-hard stage after a few days of drying (28).

Side screens allow a better control of the drying procedure.

They may be The most

made out of plastic, cloth, wood, metal, woven grass or bamboo,

convenient side screens should be of a type which can be rolled up easily when not required. When down, they keep off driving rain and direct sunshine,

increase and equalise humidity within the shed, and prevent excessive air circulation through the stacks of bricks. the side sheltered from the wind. raised. Access to the shed should be from

When drying is too slow, screens can be

A cheaply constructed but effective drying shed is shown in figure VI.ll. Pole timbers support a roof, high enough to allow workers to operate within the shed. use. Rudimentary but effective side screens are available for rapid

Racks for holding the green blocks consist of planks, supported at the

ends on previously-f ired bricks, thus avoiding the necessity for substantial wooden posts to bear the weight of the loaded shelves. these racks must not wobble or tilt. For safety reasons,

IV.

SHRINKAGE

Shrinkage is inevitable on drying clayware such as bricks.

The most

important rule ia to dry bricks as slowly as possible in order to minimise stresses and the incidence of cracking and distortion. A 7 per cent linear A 10 per

shrinkage should not cause difficulties in subsequent processing.

cent linear shrinkage may also be acceptable with some clays if drying is carried out carefully.

Problems may be lessened if the clay proportion in the mix is reduced by the addition of sand or grog.

Fully shrunk bricks are not completely dry. before they are ready for firing in the kiln.

Further drying is needed

-

!jb

-

- 97 -

Figure VI.11 Rack-drying under cover, with removeable side screens (Madagascar)

CHAPTER VII

I.

OBJECTIVEg OF FIRING

The firing good mechanical the

of

green

bricks

changes

their to

physical slaking the

s,:ucture by water,

and gives If of carried

them out

properties firing

and resistance should

properly, problems:

process

minimise

occurrence

the

following

the

splitting

of

bricks

due

to

the

incomplete

removal

of

moisture

before

firing;

Low strength

bricks

due to

insufficiently

hard

firing;

Slaking

by water,

due to

inadequate

control

of

the

firing

temperature;

Bricks imposed

fused

together, bricks

melted on top;

on

one

face, problems

or

distorted caused

by

the

load a

by other

these

are

by too

high

temperature;

Variety

of

sizes this

of is

fired caused

bricks by

although temperature

the

green

bricks

were

of

the

same size; parts of the

variations

between

different

kiln;

Fine

cracking either

over

brick

surfaces or

resulting cooling, or

from

a too

rapid

temperature of water

change, vapour

during

heating

from condensation

from heated

bricks

on to cooler

bricks(47);

Local

cracking

over

hard

lumps

or

stones during

mixed clay the

in

the

clay.

These although

inclusions rapid

should of

have

been

removed may have

preparation, problem;

changes

temperature

aggravated

-

100 -

-

Black

cores the

in

bricks: of

these

are

not although

necessarily the latter of

detrimental ought cost low to

if have

they been (48).

are due to burnt Black form. by up as cores Both

presence

carbon fuel to

a contributory
may

in iron

the in

interest the

reduction valency oxygen the to bricks

also

be due may be paths 1.

reduced,

ferrous (e.g. and in

causes adequate kiln(47)

remedied for the

by providing flow material of air

sufficient between need

leaving the

through the body;

An opening

may also

be mixed

- Bloating: result of

cracked the holding gases to

blisters pressure the diffuse of

appear gases

on

the

surface after at body an is

of

the

bricks

as

a

produced steady the

vitrification earlier stage permeable. material

has could The in

commenced; allow problem the clay; the

temperature out while by

still

may also

be

alleviated

incorporating

an opening

- Limebursting; pieces of

this limestone, the to

problem or

may be in formed l,lOOcC

solved

by

removal by brick

or adding

grinding salt(49). dead

of

some within (SO);

cases, the

Alternatively, by heating

quicklime

may be

burnt

approximately

- Ef florescence renderings; alternative

and this to other

sulphate problem methods may

attack be

of reduced

cement-based by (see harder Chapter

mortars firing, IV); as

and an

and precautions

- Scum on products

brick of

surfaces

may be on cold,

minimised green bricks.

by

preventing

condensation

of

combustion

11.

TECHNIQUESOF FIRING

Whatever first moisture. the heating applied

system to

of the

firing green continue

is

used,

it in

is order

recommended to steam drive is

that off

a low heat any This firing purposely only being a

be

bricks until

residual part of

This is

should

no more The iron by

evolved. of this

known as tested

water-smoking. a cold and

completion bar into

stage left few

may be simply between seconds. and bar the

by inserting in the on the kiln, bar

a space it is after still is in

bricks

withdrawing that
steam

Condensation should

indicates until take

evolved, cold

low heat after of

be continued This the kiln. could’

no condensation a whole week

found

on the

re-insertion. air through

some cases

and needs

plenty

-

101 -

Once per this rate hour

water-smoking may be safe At in

is

complete,

a

rate kilns,

of

rise which (e.g.

of are

temperature outside the

of scope

5o”c of the the

fullyacontrolled critical to

memorandum.

the

temperatures avoid partly of problem::.. becatise the

quartz In more

inversion) simple lack of kilns, of

can be temporarily rate should control in

reduced be slower

heating

o:

the

precise enough is safer,

temperature fuel faster lower heating of burning rates costs.

and partly

because

impcssibilitv a sl<~ ratz af

getting

some kiln less

designs. heating heating

Although time, rate is of firing

heating and, the

involve The

lower that

heat w+!lch

losses requires

therefore, shortest A maximum

optimal

schedule

while

yielding for

a product the whole

satisfactory process.

quality.

two weeks may be needed

Maximum temperatures hours. in order stage, various the A whole

with

little

air with of

should some kilns

be

held with

for poor

at heat

least

several

day may be ne;;led a maximum yield the “soaking” take the heat

distribution this the firing kiln, One e

to ensl*re known as

good the

quality heat

bricks. diffuses material

During through is

stage, place source

chemical is

reactions complete,

and a glassy

formed.

soaking

may be removed.

The cooling within the large

rate

should of

not

be

too of

rapid. bricks, week. to speed

In

practice, limited

natural air

cooling flow, is

mass

thousands a whole in order

with More air

satisfactory. lower

Cooling are

may take reached

may be allowed

in once

temperatures

up cooling.

III.

KILN DESIGNS In general, large heat is kilns lost are more economical the on the use of fuel outside large than small of on

kilns the

as less kiln.

through teams of

proportionally may use firing

smaller the

area kiln

Thus,

separate

brickmakers

same

a co-operative

basis,

and thus

benefit

from lower

costs.

There two major

is

a wide

variety

of

kiln

types kilns

and

sizes.

These

may be kilns.

split

into

groups:

the

intermittent

and the

continuous

Intermittent to the

kilns

are

filled

with

green

bricks

which they are

are

first out the lost to

heated from

up the

maximum temperature Thus, the all during kiln the cooling. but are not

and then structure

cooled is the

before also bricks kilns

drawn

kiln.

heated and are

during kiln is

process. into the

Consequently, atmosphere market

heat

within

Intermittent the most fuel

very

adaptable They include

changing clamp,

demands,

efficient.

the

sc ove , scotch

and downdraught

ki Ins.

-

102 -

The continuous Fired part bricks of the are kiln

kilns

have

fires

alight

in

some part

of

them all bricks rate of

the in

time.

continuously which is then The kiln, tunnel kiln,

removed heated.

and replaced

by green , the kilns trench, is a the the bricks

another is

Consequently group the The is heat or to Bull’s latter outside from dry are of

output

approximately versions draft of kilns, 1 the

constant. Hoffmann and the

continuous including kiln. which utilise air,

includes zig-zag

various and high

capital-intensive, scope cooling before in of bricks they the are use this to put of

large-scale memorandum. pre-heat into fuel. tho

continuous Continuous bricks

kilns

green kiln.

and combustion

Consequently,

continuous

kilns

economical

III.1

The clamp

The clamp is built. It

is

the

most

basic

type of the

of

kiln

since of from

no permanent bricks the

kiln

structure with moulded United are

consists

essentially
Normally,

a pile clay kilns

green which

interspersed bricks used in are the bricks,

combustible also includes

material. fuel

material. these, production

The clamp containing of bricks

were a

commonly quarter colours

Kingdom. still used

Some of for the

one of

and

million

various

and textures.

It (e.g. In

is

possible

to

use

a variety particles is

of

burnable of coke, large reduce

waste coal

materials dust with of

in brick ashes, sawdust on

clays

sifted countries with for

rubbish, where clay

small timber

breeze).
may

produced, This Waste will

quantities the should cent or

be

mixed fuel size

before the not clay

firing. bricks.

expenditure be of of

th-2 main small mixture. may be

burning

materials 5 to to

relatively total

and should the

exceed will too

in

weight difficult

10 per mould the

the

Otherwise, become too

become porous.

the’ finished fuel material

product should

weak or mixed

Furthermore,

added

thoroughly

with

the clay.

A flat, spaced by out,

dry

area

of burnt

land bricks form bricks,

is

first laid coke, covering next

chosen, down over breeze the or

and

a checkerwork of

pattern

of 15 m

already Fuel in

an area sm.all with

approximately is then at

12 m. the

the

of

coal2

spread 20

between cm thick. ’ In the subjected ihe

checkerwork Dry, green

latter

a layer upon this

least bed.

bricks

are

closed-laid

on edge

fuel

tunnel kiln, bricks stacked on heat-resistant to increasingly hotter temperatures, then is generally used in clamp kilns in a number of developing countries,

cool

trolleys or off before

cars are leaving

lIunnelCoke or breeze Small coal is used

in the United Kingdom. such as Zambia (51).

-

103 -

A clamp are holes’ the next are

is

generally for the

made up ofapproximately (see one the of fuel figures the clamp VII.1 walls

28

layers and are of

of VII.2).

bricks. Three in order fired

Its or to bricks Fired

sides four allow are

sloped at initial laid also

stability base of of of the

formed already

ignition on laid a top

bed. bricks

Two courses for sides fuel is insulation of laid the

green the

purposes. clamp at a as it

bricks

against second

sloping bed of

progresses. level in the

Sometimes, clamp( 51).

thin

higher

Once fuel latter alight. bed

several may be bricked

metres ignited

of

the

length

of

the into

clamp the

have eyes

been of

built the the the

up,

the The

with

wood

stuffed placed

clamp. fuel bed

are

up with advances,

loosely

burnt bricks

bricks are built

once into

is

As the

fire

more green

clamp.

During sometimes easily and

burning, smoke

the

heat the top

rises of

through the clamp.

the The

bricks rate

above, of

fumes is

and not

leaving and Some

burning wind

controlled direction.

depends wind

upon protection

several with burning the burnt

factors, screens rate, brick out can

including can also help be

strength the to the to

control controlled, top in of order

temperature. some clamp. speed extent For up the

Ventilation, by an

and hence of

adjustment these of the with the the

covering or

the

example, firing

bricks bricks ashes

may be in

spaced area. slow a will

removed

a given to with clamp

Conversely, down the straight tend to burning front be

they

may be It

tightened is

up or to

covered have to heat near bricks

in order

rate. a

desirable Bricks of

fire edges

advancing of This of the

at

steady as a a

rate. result little between

close

underf ired by

higher fuel top

losses. the edges

may be the

partially Extra

rectified fuel

placing be spread

more the

clamp.

may also

during

firing.

The Under

firing right

process

is

indicated the point,

by latter

the

sinking will bricks and After settle

of

the

top

of

the

clamp. fire

the

circumstances, a particular into drawn the

evenly. to Thus, of cool.

Once

the

has passed

through sorted and

the

start sold.

They may then within the of one fire a new

be withdrawn, clamp reaches clamp are the set

various

grades,

bricks weeks,

simultaneously. Before if then,

a number

end of

clamp.

construction

and lighting it.

may be started

as previously,

market

demand requires

1

These

holes

are

known as the

“eyes”

of

the

clamp.

Figure VII.1 Clamp kiln - schematic drawing

- 105 -

Figure VII.2 Clamp kiln (United Kingdom)

-

106 -

If process due to

enough will the if

air

flows

through

the

bricks Where air

during is

firing,

the

oxidising conditions bricks, will be

give gases

them a red colour. from clay the is burnt used face. fuel for

scarce, orange

reducing or yellow

will moulding.

yield

especially normal

a limy

Variations

in colours

even on a single

brick

As the of a large

fuel clamp

is of

in close 100,000 bricks).

contact to

with

the

green can will

bricks, be fairly be area only

the

fuel high

efficiency (e.g. about as volume. For low a

1 million Smaller of

bricks clamps

7,000 result

MJ per of the they

1,000 greater may be it

less for

efficient, a given bricks.

proportion operated is only they

outer

cooling with

However, production the bricks

successfully necessary are sold, to

10,000

rates, in place

fire

a clamp

occasionally

and have

until

The should best, still next

bricks

near

the

centre for

of

the

clamp They

will

be

the be cent

hardest. sorted of the for

Others sale as may the

be sufficiently “seconds”

good

many uses. bricks.

should 20 per rejects sides

and soft-burnt

However, many of these

bricks into

not be saleable. clamp for refiring,

Fortunately, or used

can or

be put

in the clamp

base,

top.

III.2

The stove

kiln

A widely called a thin burn all

used

adaptation If-the fuel of

of

the

clamp is and/or for to

is of

the

stove

kiln,

also be

mistakenly spread as to

a clamp. bed the the at

available the the in kiln need order

a type is not

which in

cannot

the bricks

base

sufficient tunnels fuel being

quantity can (figure one of

without the pile of

replenishment, feed additional latter in is

be built VII.3). the most

through This is

base

of

a suitable used the all

method fuels for

burning

wood,

the

frequently Usually, plastered stove kiln.

small-scale of the with

brickmaking bricks VII.4).

developing scoved, Thus, that the

countries. is to say the

outer over

surface its sides,

piled-up mud (figure

name of

The Previously surface. tunnels. lengths. laid course at of

construction fired Three bricks, or four of

cf if

a

stove available, of

requires lay bricks is bed are

a face used

level,

dry

area form the that

of

land. flat of the

down to to form to

a good, bottom of

layers each of

The width Three right

tunnel bricks other

approximately the

equal

two brick are by a

lengths angles to

separate (i.e. tunnels

tunnels. of

Alternate headers,

courses followed

each

a course (e.g.

stretchers).

Two short

approximately

2 m long)

may be

- 107 -

Figure VII.3 Stove (Madagascar)

Figure VII.4 Scoving face of kiln (Madagascar)

-

108 -

sufficient cannot ends dealt Figure The rows of be will with VII.5

for longer not by

a small than reach

number

of

bricks. 6 m of the of

For

large

numbers fuel

of

bricks,

tunnels from both are

approximately the centre the the

Otherwise, tunnel. Large to cope

inserted of

numbers with the

bricks

extending

number

tunnels of of

requirement.

illustrates and

construction courses meet, of

a four-tunnel are are of fired laid

stove. in such a way that The figure out

fourth

successive finally early stages

bricks tunnels

brickwork of In the the

and

thus is are

completed. shown set, in

progression VII.6. the

construction of the

a stove bricks the back

foreground, In is

a few the

courses of

marking corbelled-out courses

tunnel of

positions. green bricks

middle set)

picture, further

first several

course laid.

partly

while

are

Green and of

bricks

are up to

set

above of

tunnel at

level, least in

in

alternate the or to

courses ground. so, to the bricks give hot is

of At

headers the edge

stretchers the stove, Small fires . to This

a hei.ght is left

3 m above

each spaces rise. is As

course are The easy the

stepped between

a centimetre bricks

a sloping gases a from

side. the width’

the

allow

required to

maximum spacing although up, an a outer will

between

’ finger may be

achieve is built

narrower layer also of

spacing previously the proper

satisfactory. bricks of the is laid,

stove

burnt firing

to

provide of the green green bed with heat

insulation. bricks. bricks, face wet two

This

allow

outer

layers top of be be to clay the

On the bricks should laid on

or

three

courses packed. gaps.

of

previously

fired structure sometimes a high

should then top of

laid, scoved reduce if top

down and closely mud to seal wet air

The whole Turves not are contain

losses. to

The be avoided between air

mud should firing.

fraction

cracks bricks out

are

during the flow can

Some of that they

half-way to

tunnels through be most

must the

not kiln

be as

scoved required.

so

may be of

lifted this

increase

The provision the rate of

adjustable

ventilation

useful

in controlling

burning. is be at in set least the into the tunnels in (figure pieces of it bricks 25 per is the VII.71 about tunnel. for firing. length. the heat winds Such It should Kindling of do the not

Firewood preferably should fire blow may taken tunnel is be to

10 cm across, mouth the and bottom

1 m in Since that wasting of of of

set rise

up into tunnels,

bricks,

essential down, cent. the and

strong heat.

through increase to avoid

the fuel

cooling by heat, or the

winds may be of the with

consumption waste of

A number blocking

measures the centre

this

including temporary

during

construction,

blocking

tunnel

mouths

I
I I

I
I I I I

I
I

I

I
I

I
I I I
I

I
I

I
I

I I

I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

I I
I

I

I
I
I

I
I

I
I I

I
I I

I
I I

I
I I I I I
I

I
I

I
I I I

I I I I

I
I I I
I
I

I I
I
I

I
I

i

1

I
I

I
I

1 I
I

I

I
I

I
I

I
I

I I

I .

I

.

ch;bl, vent

\

Figure VII.5 Stove : schematic drawing

Figure VII.6 Corbelling stove tunnel (Sudan)

Figure VII.7 Wood in stove tunnel (Sudan)

-

111 -

bricks. other end.

In

the

latter fire

case, is and

one well lighted. with

end may be alight, that

bricked

up and

fire

set

at

the the

Once the one is up

end may be bricked the and fires

up while

previous by top.

opened tunnel

Thereafter, loose bricks

may be the

controlled vents on

bricking As fuel As with

mouths it

adjusting

burns all kilns, off.

away,

must be replenished. must be gentle air flow should the is be top at first therefore open, of the and until all the water to in the the so

heat

bricks steam long period

is

driven

Adequate the to vents

essential the fires This

remove kept low

produced. as steam may last the to is

Thus, seen several water increase

rise

from

stove.

water

smoking

days. stage is completed, the fires a may be built of a up few or up to indicated or
the

Once gradually days. paper The

smoking

temperatures is stove, with to

a maximum over by the charring of well burning The

period of dry glow the and,

A maximum temperature thrown vents on top of be the

grass

appearance bricks the bricks. stage) the

a red before rate

by night. maximum help this of with

should is
out

closed in order

fired regulate the soaking

temperature to even

attained the

thus, of charge vents

temperature several of hours the

amongst (i.e.

maintaining a last closed

temperature fuel, mud. The days. the until be into stove the

for closure

requires of

tunnel

mouths

and

sealing

should

be

left

to

cool

naturally may be

for

at from

least the

three outside left

to to

four speed

Then if later sold. stages

necessary of

some bricks

removed bricks

cooling. collection remainder, ‘seconds’ next is stove.

Subsequently or if despatch, of and

, the

may be

in position bricks be sorted may must out be

Before and the

under-

and over-fired should

discarded good

variable soft-fired

quality, bricks.

quality, in the wood

Rejects

incorporated Although in
some

generally Coal, grate at

the which each

fuel is end

used also of an the kilns.

in

stoves, alternative

oil-burners fuel and for is

are

used

countries. a special for

stoves, therefore

requires

tunnel

mouth,

more appropriate The fuel 1,000 smaller However, allowed square bricks cooling it length while will

firing of typical than

in permanent stoves is low,

efficiency for a area

16000 ( 10,

MJ of 52). for

heat A

being square

required stove of has

per a

African a rectangular a relatively of to

stove

stove, longer the stove.

a given which

number may kilns

bricks. the be

require proper ones

tunnel Thus,

exceed could

for larger to

lighting may need the heat as

small

be rectangular. the bricks height are of a stove from should the be

In order as great

increase so

efficiency, saleable

as possible,

long

obtained

toPa

-

112 -

Safety result

must be borne of shrinkage the placing Figure

in mind, of of VII.8 of for larger

however, during bricks

as high firing. on top

stoves

tend Moreover,

to

be a

unstable high

as setting

a

bricks green shows the

complicates of accidents. firing A stove less fuel

courses, of

and

increases 60,000

the

risk

a high outer a

stove bricks. few

approximately

bricks,

after

and stripping may be efficient built than

firing stoves.

thousand

bricks

only,

but

will

be

III.3 The tunnels (figure inside

The Scotch Scotch and VII.9). the kiln, work shown are in the

kiln kiln outer The as is is similar walls kiln shown thus are to the stove, except built that with top, of section either the the bricks green base, set bricks the in fire

permanently has no

mortar set

itself on saved. VII.10. the

permanent left and on

being

extreme A plane Walls Access

figure of side kiln with kilns the

VII.9.

Much basic Scotch and

construction kiln corners in the is

a seven-tunnel are is buttressed, through closely whole

figure

massively This during

constructed. doorway kiln is

into

a doorway laid end bricks wall is

end walls. mortar) erected is often be

filled

temporarily In some

(without temporarily Wood grates more of

operations.

(40). used for firing The the the sink or as kiln, of the although bricks kiln, oil after the burners or coal is

may also easily

installed. than walls firing the easy in

shrinkage fixed The

measured side the of

clamp used

stove

since point.

position sink gives

the

permanent of

may be process Scotch

a reference the kiln.

an indication

within kiln over

The advantages its simple design

other

permanent and drawing

kiln of

structures bricks are

are also

and

erection.

Setting

simple. The have Scotch widely heating This cannot Fuel the be is kilns, used and like in the clamp and stove, are Their of updraught chief underkilns. failing and is They the

been

developing

countries. large proportion with

irregular bricks. they

consequent true

over-burnt range as

especially without of kilns the (8,

for

clays

a short control.

vitrification

fired

a good order 42).

temperature of 16,000

consumption Scotch

MJ per

1,000

bricks

is

generally

norm for

III.4 In top of

The down-draught the the down-draught kiln which

kiln kiln, must hot gases from burning roof. fuel They are then deflected flow to the

have

a permanent

down between

Figure VII.8 A high six-tunnel stove (Madagascar)

‘-

---_

-

-._

LA-.,.,. --

*!+ -

..*-

3,

&,a,

:& ‘-.i.__i*r-

~rYy-

Figure VII.9
Small

Scotch kiln (Madagascar)

- 114 -

A-

-------ma a

/ / ,/’ 63 ,’ ’ ,,’ I ,/ a @!zzl -----I llizi@ @izi
‘/ ‘/ / D , / lz@ ‘./” lz!J
--A , .’ ,,’ ,i//, / @ / m

Section

at A-A

1m.

Figure VII.lC: Scotch kiln - Schematic drawing

-

115 -

the

green

bricks support floor through of

to warm and fire of previously which

them. fired the

The green bricks

bricks (figure

rest

either or

upon an upon are a

open-work
per-orated

VII. 12) These after to pull gases

through

warm gases the area of

flow. the kiln

then

exhausted a flue the height

a chimney kiln chimney

outside to provide of

passage rising the hot

through through gases

linking

the the

floor

the

chimney. green

The warm gases draught

sufficient

down continually

through

the stack

bricks.

The described pipes kiln

down-draught earlier. of It

kiln

is

more

heat for in

efficient to and

than the may

the

up-draught (e.g. of be Dricks. used for

kiln The the

can be used types) high

various addition

ceramic

products firing then

drainage

and tiles can be of

various at

operated refractory

temperatures

production

ware.

Circular They are to keer the

down-draught than the brickwork

kilns latter, from

may be but

built require

in

place

of

rectangular with steel cooling build, however circular down-draught A number The grates A “flash” green “bag“ right-hand of

kilns. bands and the

stronger

reinforcement through

deteriorating kilns as set level 14 grates shown as are

periodic to They than

heating. they

Rectangular also being shows lighted from the figure the iron steel

down-draught t.ie-bars to

more

simple

although have

require of

a reinforcement. with plan for in green of bricks fuel.

advantage Figure of stocked

easier the with wood

kilns. kiln grates may be wall bricks. walls can

VII.11 with

ground are

a rectangular VII.13. figure off VII.ll. the

massive

construction,

burning figure in

prefabricated is built

bars, to

indicated the

behind in the around

grates is back tends

keep

flames

nearby

The wall be built

continuous. of each fire out

Alternatively, (see figure

separate VII.12

side).

The continuous

wall

to even

the heating

ef fett .

Hot gases open set

rise

to

the arched VII.121 in the base of

crown by

of

the the

kiln chimney its wall, the the

and are

drawn down between through There should flue
A

bricks floor holes

(figure (shown at the

“suction”, line. the of in of

the be in

perforated a few small order sheet flow control thick to

figure) of the

along flash near of

centre in bottom chimney operation metal

the

underground the wall. to

ensure

burning

bricks the

metal the The be

damper is of gases of air

available and flow

near

bottom over the

order the

vary should

exercise is

control by

the of

kiln.

achieved

use

doors.

These

enough

to avoid

distortions

(figure

VII. 14).

Entrance referred

to

the

kiln

is

through

small

arched

doorways

(figure firing.

VII.15)

to as “wickets”.

These

are bricked

up temporarily

during

- 116 -

-----

-

--

-

1 1 ---

-

- -

Section

at A-A

’ im.

Figure VII.ll: Rectangular down-draught kiln

- 117 -

Figure VII.12 Setting and bag walls in downdraught kiln (Ghana)

Figure VII.13 Fires in kiln grates (West Africa)

- 118 -

Figure VII.14 Metal damper door for kiln grate (West Africa)

Figure VII.15 Rectangular down-draught kiln with covering (Ghana)

-

119 -

The difficult reached

height

of

downdraught consuming to

kilns set

should bricks at

not

be

too that

great, may not

as be

it

is

and time by workers.

heights

easily

Down-draught in figure VII.15

kilns takes

may hold 40,000

from

10,000

to

100,000

bricks.

The one

shown

bricks.

Fuel manner example, fuel. consume under-filled kiin cycle. the from of

consumption setting the

depends bricks

greatly and the

upon

the

condition of the fitting to

of firing

the

kiln,

the For

control and

process.

damp foundations The loss less of fuel kiln the heat than loses passage as

absorb varies small

heat, from

a badly of a kiln given

damper

may waste Large kilns An illed

one type for as one and to

another. of

kilns,

number filled. requires up the a

bricks. An over-f longer

much heat of hot

properly this

prevents

gases,

burning Given varies of kiln heat (5,

Too much draught above varying to

allows

more heat the heat

be wasted

chimney. kilns

circumstances, 19,000 MJ per

required

by downdraught An exact

12,000

1,000 study

bricks. of the

estimate of the

consumption 24, 33).

requires

an in-depth

characteristics

III.

5

Original

circular

Hpf fmann kiln

The Hoffmann bricks gases kiln is

kiln

is

a multi-chamber pre-heats the the

kiln combustion

where air

the for

air the

warmed by cooling fire, and exhaust of this

in some chambers from its combustion particularly

pre-heat low fuel

green

bricks. rate.

The main

advantage

consumption

The around distance the by

original a central of

Hoffmann chimney.

kiln

was

circular

(see

figure surrounds by

VII.161 the

and chimney

built at a

An arched-top and tunnel Entrance most of is connected and the

tunnel to it

a few metres, between a damper. operation the

12 flues flue through is full

passing can

through off of 12

brickwork dropping

chimney. the tunnel

Each is

be closed any one

into the

wickets. warming,

During being

kiln’s

tunnel

of

bricks

either

fired

or cooling.

A typical neighbouring the the This tunnel other air

condition wickets are to

of

the

kiln Cold

is

shown fired wickets the

in

figure are

VII.16. drawn green from bricks

All

but

two of by

closed. the flows the

bricks

one part are set

adjacent wicket. cannot

one of air

open to

and dry

Cold pass

warm chimney set bricks

through as they

both are

wickets. off

through

recently

sealed

Section

at A-A
Figure VII.16 Original Hoffmann kiln

-

121 -

with flows kiln bricks. firing tunnel

a paper through

damper the

across

the which

whole are

width

of into to for

the

annular

tunnel. further As the

The air down the air flows hot in in the the air. thus of flue, in fuel

bricks its is

drawn, close rises

warm bricks the fire. with

(counter-clockwise The air zone roof. also of thus kiln

in

the

figure)

counter-clockwise, the Thus,

temperature pre-heated where fuel the fuel is

through

contact efficient

increasingly combustion holes combustion drawing, products nearest less

and ready is fed in

through for

closeable the for The hot the

little

consumed task of

heating bricks time.

The latter making kiln

performs available

useful on

cooling short chimney by a dot unburnt to get

space cannot is

a relatively to the

combustion as the is the

be vented closed (this

straight is gases in gases

through in the bricks. bricks

latter

indicated pre-heat order flow

circle Thus, to set are

centre

figure). required

Instead, at the Next, latter the the

the hot firing the to

stage cooled

the

the green

maximum bricks, gases this bricks drawing stage'. bricks wicket are

temperature. bringing warm to leaving damper marked and is the

through

recently These bricks VII.16

the water of

smoking

stage.

sufficiently the

exclude from

forming

condensation. <no dot in the

Figure circle). is fuel

shows

open the the

damper next water are one

Subsequently, opened feed, and and at with the the this green the bricks the

closed, start

(counter-clockwisej stage. The

"set"

smoking also

setting

operations, of the flue, tunnel

moved "setting" is

counter-clockwise has been filled the cooled

Once the part up to the next

marked

a paper is then

damper broken can

pasted down open

over and

bricks fired

and

(counter-clockwise) withdrawn. points with The paper a metal

dampers

be torn

by reaching

through

fueling

rod.

Figure in the of the

VII.16 zone on

also

shows a sectional left-hand and side. shown kiln

drawing side re-setting A roof as two of

of the -

the Hoffmann figure, including protects

kiln.

Bricks

firing kiln is

are on the

and the the

empty part closed kiln by flue from an air building

between the

drawing

damper, adverse gap.

right-hand Wickets is kept are in

covering thin the walls, need

the

weather. Thus, heat

separated for expensive

the

without

work at the wickets.

In the original pillars formed of by the

Hoffmann bricks bricks.

kiln, for

fuel

fed

through Ash

the from

roof the

falls fuel

into causes

hollow some

set

firing.

discoloration 1

The

Hoffmann

kiln Other

described kilns may,

in

this be

memorandum operated in

is a

operated clockwise

counter-clockwise. fashion.

however,

-

122 -

The tunnel the The flue height

is

subdivided

into

12 notional is

chambers 3.5

which

are

identified

by

positions. of each

Each chamber chamber is

approximately to about

m long m for

and: 5 m wide. easy working

restricted

2.5

conditions. Daily bricks. rate of production from such a continuous kiln is at least 10,000

The chambers, bricks(

advantages the fairly

of

the

original flues and

Hoffmann low fuel

design consumption

include (2,000

the

identical 1,000

short

MJ per

8) 1.

III.6

Modern Hoffmann

kilns

Increased erect ion Hof fmann. following of

demand substantially

for

bricks larger

in kilns

industrialised than those kiln

countries originally has been

require designed for

the by the

Consequently reasons: in the

, the

original

circular

modified

- increases building larger greatly

floor

area

of

the

chambers

require

considerably

more

work between diameter kilns

the chambers and longer the kiln is of

and the flues of the

chimney; costs considerably and

increased kiln; for

complicated

the operation

- the circular - curved walls

shape of

inconvenient bricks

some sites; operation; of a long a long tunnel tunnel unless is more

make the setting kiln is for does not allow

a difficult

- a circular the diameter appropriate

the

construction

to be increased the transfer of

considerably. waste heat.

Yet

Under so-called curved exactly to the

these elliptical

circumstances, Hoffmann the end of

the kiln,

original which has

design long

was straight

modified walls

into

the

and a few principle iS

chambers the larger

at

(see the

figure original available includes

VII. 17). design. in the the

The operating

same as that

The main difference elliptical design.

relates

number of chambers of It

The operation reference to figure

the modern elliptical VXI.17.

Hofmann kiln following

may be summarised sequence of events:’

with

1

The

dotted

lines

in

figure of paper lines.

VII. 17 cross

indicate dampers is

the

boundaries at

between

chambers, boundaries

and the

position

shown

inter-chamber

by continuous

thick

- 123 -

Pre-heat

1 Pre-heat \
--_-

E .II 0
z5

-

I--=Dry
14 ! i-Of-Y

3-e. heat 11 ---3-e. heat 10 -

_ I Set

-

Fire 9 -_ -- Fire

a

-----

-

-

_ -_ .-

----

8

Fire 7 x

-

Cool
-------

-

-

6 -

--

Figure VII.17 Scheme for operating a modern elliptical Hoffmann kiln

-

124 -

- open wickets

allow

fresh 2;

air

into

chambers

16,

1 and 2 while

bricks

are

drawn from chamber - other bricks air are is

cooled for

and air graduated

heated

in chambers

3 to

6; three chambers

the hot 7 to 9;

used

combustion

in the next

- exhaust chambers - gases

combustion 10 to the 13, kiln

gases thus

are

pulled

by the

action

of

the

chimney

through

preheating end of

the bricks; chamber 13.

leave

at the

In this much water (e.g. from with in all

type vapour,

of

kiln, there bricks,

gases is

are

too of

cool

for

water green

smoking. bricks by by

As they

carry

a risk surface

spoiling and

condensation deposited may arise

softening the products

of of

cracking, Overcoming 120°C kiln

scumming problems are

salts

combustion). at less than

these

- which to

exhaust original

gases

and which - requires

present flue

some extent connects to this

the the

circular Any of flue

Hoffmann the

a second or in

which

chambers. hot flue the by 3 and air

latter or

may be connected closing VII.17, kiln. applied still dampers the hot

disconnected same manner flue warmed It the is is

so-called the being taken main in off

by opening In island

the

as for as is by flue, place. or flues fresh

connection. central the

figure of the

air the flue.

regarded fresh air

Some of to hot, the passed or

chimney

suction are

provided hot air

chambers then Hence products (where green into the

4 where 14 is

bricks and 15 with

down

chambers drying

where clean then

drying,

water

smoking no 14 to

takes

done

warm air, flows from by the

containing chambers chimney.

moisture 15 into

of

combustion. are are set open)

This and

air is

damper bricks

exhausted 16.

Meanwhile,

in chamber

The production per per day, day(8). kiln a too

rate large

of

most

Hoffmann the can hollow about wood of kiln (10).

kilns of built clay 10,000 is

is

approximately

25,000

or more in this

output small VII.18

for kilns shows of since

type be

brickworks to blocks produce set

considered only 2,000

memorandum.

However, Figure with

bricks

within size

an elliptical bricks per of day. coal in

Hoffmann This (figure place sawdust of is

a capacity kiln

ordinary for

an interesting VII.19). wood has been in

used

firing

in

place be For

A wide the

variety

agricultural shown in

wastes tigure

may also VII.19.

used

top-fed in Honduras

example,

used

Fuel s condition is

consumption and method

of of

elliptical operation, 5,000

Hoffmann as

kilns in

vary the

according previous

to

the

kiln It

mentioned 1,000

section.

estimated

at approximately

MJ per

bricks.

-- 125 -

Figure VII.18 Blocks in small Hoffmann kiln (Madagascar)

Figure VII.19 Feeding of Hoffmann kiln with wood (Madagascar)

-

126 -

VII.7

Bull’s

Trench

kiln

A large the building with

fraction of the

of

the of

cost the

of

construction long tunnel, Thus,

of and the in

the in

Hoffmann the

kiln

is of

in a

arch

provision behind the

chimney, of

connecting kiln the two

flues

and dampers. engineer Hoffmann forms of

idea 1876.

design

an archless As with

by a British types of Both Construction

(W. Bull) kiln, have this the been type

Bull’s widely

trench used is

kiln

may be the

circular Indian below.

or

elliptical. .

throughout

subcontinent

of

kiln

briefly

described

A trench is if this out

is

dug

in

a dry

soil

area 2.5

which

is

approximately the soil is while

6 m wide not

and

2 to dry,

m deep. trench

not 1

subject

to

flooding. especially only side, of half

It

Alternatively, dug trench bottom to

sufficiently

the is

may be

of

depth, off the

excavated by a

material brick length wall of

piled starting the

up on the at is the

and held the trench It

trench

(figure is

VII.20).

The total

trench

approximately

120 m.

so constructed When in

as to constitute the Bull’s

a continuous Trench are is

trench. full of bricks bricks wsrming, are gases which the kiln. set, are fit being while drawn over These of

operation, Cooled

fired the off the

or cooling. fire is moved

bricks

drawn and new green the kiln. with and ash

progressively moveable set ropes

around metal in to the

The exhaust wide top strong move bases, of

through openable are

16 m high vent guyed in

chimneys brick

holes with figure of

chimneys chimneys also size in

protect require whereby

them from six small bins

winds. them. of less

The type This than

shown the are the

VII.21 fueling

men to

figure 1.5 cm

shows coals amongst

method

shovelfuls of the

transferred hot are bricks used

Erom storage through the the set

on top

kiln, feed

and sprinkled holes. Metal

removable

cast-iron

sheet

dampers
Figure

within the

bricks of be

to control

draught. The setting air burning must kiln. between flow of be The the

VII.22

shows the and

sequence must enough of ashes. to

events such as for

diagramatically. to the the allow sufficient and setting of bricks, the

of

the

bricks the

within bricks

kiln

between fume1 and sufficiently setting separate firing of

wide

spaces

insertion whole

the

accumulation strong and VII.20 pillars is this of

However, safe

stable shows

ensure occasional tying (54)

operation link

in

figure or

cross bungs

bungs these

bricks,

together. designs are the

Information

on the

kilns to so

available type of

and kiln have

standardised(55). provision on of flues

Modifications from 1 the trench

kiln

involved

that

chimneys

can be moved on rails

located

Excavated

soil

may be suitable

for

brickmaking.

- 127 -

Figure VII.20 Cross-link bricks between the separate bung5 or pillars of bricks in Bull's Trench kiln

- 128 -

Figure VII.21

3uilf s Trer,ch kilr.: chimnelr and fepiing
(India)

- 129 -

Figure VII.22 Bull's Trench kiln Firing sequence

-

130 -

the
problem

centre is through

island the

rather

than of a the

over mild

the

setting

bricks

in

the

kiln. used. kilns

A major They may have been brick

corrosion within only

steel

chimneys Accordingly, connected

normally some to a

rust

few

months. to flues

redesigned chimney.

with

dampers

opening

permanent

The whole bricks per heat per day. It

Bull’s With is not

Trench

kiln

is

very

large, could

a normal

output to will be

being 14,000 affect

28,000 bricks the either to roof of

a narrow possible

trench to

output the the

be reduced as this

day.

shorten of

trench trench

transfer

efficiency. the firing to

The depth behaviour. dry

cannot would be

reduced big

without over, this

impairing and is most kiln

The kiln conditions.

very chief

suited is its is

weather

The

advantage

type Fuel

of

low initial much better bricks (10,

construction than 22, bricks

costs. kilns, 70 per poorer 4,500 cent quality. MJ being

consumption for firing

in intermittent 56). being About of

required bricks

1,000

first-class

can be obtained,

the

remaining

III.8

Habla kiln

The effective the building have of ki Ins, require path c irculat better stage, blades 12oOc. compounds kiln gases. The zigzag simplifying structures various central walls. omits clean of designs: island Figure the hot drying kiln

tunnel zigzagged

length

of

the

Hoifmann

type

kiln kilns,

may be

increased the

by

chambers. schedule

The resulting than the

known as kiln. must

zigzag they

a faster and

firing therefore chimney provide

Hoffmann as air

However, travel Araught

a fan and a

electrical does a more not

power provide

a longer for can air be

simple Fans

sufficient than of to by fuel heat avoid having or into clay

ion.

steady

draught

chimneys to the

and

controlled. thus and saving subsequent is as

They allow fuel.

a larger it the

transfer is best

water-smoking on fan at

However, of

condensation gases

corrosion

latter if

extracted

This such

especially pyrites

import ant which are

contain acid

sulphur in the

transformed

sulphuric

developed of this

by A. kiln is

Habla that

is

an archless zigzagging firing.

kiln. walls

One addit ional are temporary are to of the

feature green

the

bricks

which

may be sold flues are the

after

Habla

kilns

in some kilns while VII.23 air flue in others,

the

returned flues type above of the

from all are returned For flue

chambers to the

some of the

outer it

illustrates which can

former

kiln. main

simplicity, for providing

be carried

air. is has rectangular, chambers but numbered close 1 to to a square. every The one second illustrated being

The Habla kiln in figure VII.23

20,

chambers

Seclion

at

A-A

Figure VII.23 Habla type kiln Firing sequence

-

132 -

accessible thickness central from bricks draught well the are

through of island island first only and to

a wicket. one the the brick outer outer

Partition length, wall. wall, of as

walls are These through

of

dried

green built

bricks, out

with from the

a the

alternatively partition the in the walls

deflect bricks rises, shrink

gases the

wide-set chamber partition bricks

between the

part itions.

As the the

temperature Then, partitions ones become

any particular bricks and the

wide-set a little, as

heated.

through

increases, fired. 1 the and 2

in

that

partition

as the wide-set In figure 3. Air 4 VII.23,

chambers through following out of

are

empty. is the the

Bricks warmed as firing

are it

drawn cools the

from

chamber in gases

passing and the

open wickets ones. After and enter by the fan.

bricks exhaust and open 16 to 19 are to

chambers preheat

zone,

bricks, in the through

flow section

chamber

15 through

the chamber main flue

flue

damper (shown are are used expelled water

drawing), chimney

from where they

a short

Bricks 4 to in

in chambers 6. Paper figure

smoked

by clean of

warm air to in

from chambers kiln. the line layout with

dampers VII.23 is

as in the case An interesting

the Hoffmann

modification short wall, partitions but of can the leaving the

shown each

build island

a pair

of

other,

approaching Secondly, from the

from the a wall island may and

and outer

a gap in separated along

the

middle,

be built outer both speed

in the middle The fire the sides of second of firing. kilns, countries. been

kiln,

by two gaps two paths central This per

walls. ends of

then fourth

travel and

simultaneously, gap of the third, should been

around then help built kiln day.

partition,

through so

the on.

around

both

modif ication day (571, have

the rate Habla

Large in of It

producing

25,000 in for

bricks India,

a number of this is type fired on of

Recently, developed and (58) wood.

a 24-chamber of 30,000 is

high-draught bricks on in per

has

an output VII.24

with this 15,000

coal Indian

Figure The latter Roofed

based

published size for a

information production for

kiln. per

may be zigzag

reduced kilns

bricks bricks is

day.

may also

be built

as few as 3,000 The Habla kiln

per day (8). to than construct other and operate. continuous Furthermore, to be fired gases are cooled, -ens of between kilns. the more and green thus It has This kiln has a larger feature a long The thus less to fuel

economical its land area

capacity reduces firing long-f

relative the costs zone, iring

to of

and construction. difficult heat clays exchange

allowing path assists

easily. bricks, bricks,

improving permanent efficiency. of is hot

fuel

efficiency. has to of

Because be

partitions and the

brickwork

heated in

adding

The shrinkage shortens needed the

bricks

partiL by the

and consequent Thus, less

leakage power the

gases

distance

travelled to

latter. drive

- 133 -

-* .

.

. .

. .

. .
-

-

--

---

-----

33
-r0 fan

---

----

A ---

Section

at

A-A

Figure VII.24: Central Building Research Institute high-draught kiln (India)

-

134 -

fan. spaces”

As

a

result heat green since whole

of is

partition insufficient at

leakage, to the are start removed fire

the

kiln

has

relatively The does be

few building not

“dead of

where of

bricks each sale of

properly. operation

partitions labour part access of costs the

bricks the bricks setting.

of for

increase as easy

and may thus the Habla kiln

regarded is the

Another

advantage

‘;o the

structure. of a in zigzag the kiln is estimated Indian at 3,000 MJ per kiln is 1,000 also

Fuel bricks(57).

consumption

Consumption 3,000 MJ per

high-draught bricks.

archless

approximately

1,000

IV.

AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

IV.1

Kiln

control

Temperature the
Such

control, increase

including and decrease, out of

control is

of

the

temperature activity including kiln: that

attained in the During the

and of

z-ates control Analysis

of

an essential ways, the

brickmaking. following: the initial are not on is

may be carried of the colour

in a number of gases roming gases off

stage

of

heating dry. bcr

(water-smoking) Thus, the from fires the

white

indicate low. only

bricks of

thoroughly an iron

must be kept kiln after

The presence a few seconds’

wetness

withdrawn of of the the of

insertion 500°C

indicative the colour

water-smoking hot kiln kiln

stage. clues should For

From to be

approximately the temperature on colour previous of

upwards, The

provides

attained.

interpretation readings kiln bricks Use operator. sheath presence indicative obtained While 1ooOc. bricks may of of

coiours

based the

temperature a stove of the

and colour as also of the

examination. whole kiln of

example, top of also

smoke of The sink

varies is

reaches the process are

temperatures. vitrification. available within amongst of of bricks the for the to

an indication

instruments: At the be

Instruments stage, lowered metal

assist

the

kiln metal The is

water-smoking in on or the

a thermometer on a chain

a protective the bricks.

pushed

moisture the

(after

withdrawal A reading

thermometer)

water-smoking the still rises been to

stage.

temperature a ionger

may be period. at about in place the of is by

by keeping is it have

thermometer being 120°C, removed. if a driven

amongst off,

the the

moisture Once will

temperature increased may of be as

remains moisture in

fires

may be

Thermocouples cant inuous reading the

used the

thermometers required. several A

especially chart

temperature measured

recorder, may be could

which used

displays for be this

temperatures In

thermocouples,

purpose. placed

a continuous in

kiln, the

thermocouples

-

135 -

preheating the of cooling the

zone,

tha

maximum temperature from which the hot air air of is flue the

firing taken it and

zone, to

in the (48). need fuel of

the

coolest in

part the of

of base the in also

chamber

being if kiln or to the

chimney,

chimney will to

Gild in

exists the

A reading to adjust

chart order gives

indicate obtain better

the

state quality

firing It

bricks of

improve quality

efficiency. the kiln or in

the

manager probes

an
must

indication be of

operation. protective

Thermocouple sheaths. Pyrometric temperature from deform, cone or which with the

a corrosion-resistant

metal

cones, upon clay, at at

which

better in of

measure place clays in a of

the

effect

of

both They will For will

time are

and made

may be used mixes

thermocouples. fluxes, and

carefully squat

controlled different

and

therefore example, squat a at

stages with of

a heating of per 60°C hour.

schedule. per hour,

squats

1,140°C rise

rire

1,230°C indicate

a temperature way in which cones

300°C clay

Thus, perform

pyrometric in rate, a is in in kiln.

cones The

fired

products at

temperature the

at which cone

squat,

when heated (PCE) .

a standard may be

known as laboratory

pyrometric

equivalent

Cones kilns, In

used

experiments results control adopted are wall set but of the

and in laboratory firing

full-size

production

and

are

useful

applying are cone These from The the cones used of

the to the

investigations. 0 within less, placed spy first then

practice, at one

three 0

cones

temperatures one of base

a kiln and

a given of bricks with

PCE: one

PCE value, in in a fireclay line

20 C and

20 C more. well clay. in

cones kiln are

between hole, cone, be

with

a plugged the should not

sealed with stocked to squat. of the

checked to bend

periodically over. The

until fire should cones been

lowest less as

PCE rating, the cone words, cone Sets order

begins with only the the

highest first that can

PCE rating and second

be allowed squat. beyond

In other the third

should heated the in

Squatting the remote of the intended from kiln.

indicates of to cones check using

the be

kiln placed

has

temperature. the holes in

amongst attained are also

bricks any part

temperatures rings or bars, Draught of the glass, kiln

Alternative

systems,

used. essentially the of of water-filled, or suction to the a at open-ended any given or U-tubes point of and

gauges,

consisting

may be used by the the connecting difference kiln’s

to measure one in end

draught the levels and

tube in

chamber This

chimney

measuring check adjusted. It including number is on

water

tube. whether

gives

a quick should be

functioning,

indicates

dampers

good

practice

to

keep

a

record and

book sizes
grades.

of of

all

kiln

operations, set, and of the

temperatures, and size of

draught, bricks

numbers of

bricks The

saleable

various

quantity

fuel,

-

136 -

operators noted in

on duty the record

and any book.

incidental

remarks

about

wind,

rain,

etc.

should

be

IV.2

Brick

handling

Labour green, transport assistance people crowding spaces its of can

costs

may be and are fired

substantially bricks)

lowered can be

if

the

handling and can be litter case

of

bricks if

(e.g.

dried, devices in be

rationalised, devices A simple as useful, kiln. may be bricks hands The in the

efficient

used. the the

Furthermore, burden transport is of

these workers.

of

considerable borne of clay. in by two The

relieving used for

of

bricks

barrow such as

(figure in the

VII.251 circular under the by is

extremely

especially barrow high. to load is

confined with balance workers’ not tip

downdraught load placing taken which the on his

short, The the does

wheel the

well

placed is little

stacked according and the

barrow Thus,

adjusted weight-

height. forward.

V.

FUEL

Given efficiency typical be

the

high

prices an of

and

scarcity factor

of in kilns could

many

fuels,

achievement Table

of

fuel

becomes requirements

important the actual

brickmaking. described vary bricks, and been in the in widely

VII. 1 compares III. those clay, the It must

different amounts kiln, of coal the and

Section from of of as

appreciated upon the values MJ per suitable

that the

given, firing

depending temperature, Galorific 44,000 is not

size

of

size kiln, oil

of

nature skill

condition of wood,

operators. 27,000 and fuel

have

taken

16,000, that

tonne for

respectively. a particular

Figures kiln.

brackets

indicate

the

- 137 -

Figure VII.25 Crowding barr.ow

-

138 -

Table Typical fuel

VII.1 of kilns

requirements

Heat requirement
Type of kiln

Quantity

of

fuel

required

(~~/1,000

bricks)

(Tonnes/l,000 Wood

bricks) Coal Oil

Intermittent Clamp Stove Scotch Downdraugh t 7,000 16,000 16,000 15,500 (0.44) 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.26 0.59 0.59 0.57 (0.16) 0.36 0.36 (0.35.)

Continuous Original Hoffmann 2,000 5,000 4,500 3,000 4,000 0.13 0.31 0.28 0.19 (0.25) 0.07 0.19 0.17 O,.ll (0.15) 0.05 0.11 (0.10) (0.07) 0.09

Modern Hof fmann Bull’s Habla Tunnel Trench

Source:5,

8,

10,

22,

24,

33,

44,

52,

56,

57,

58.

Where supplies. (e.g. within wood is in

wood

is

used

as

a

fuel,

trees

should provide fulfil coppicing the year assist

be

replanted

to supply

replenish of wood life

Sometimes s commercial the rubber or a so). low estates,

ventures where trees of

an incidental their is trees

latex-yielding worthwhile: to continue

30 years cut

The practice level, of thus

small-size to grow. (22). in
Sui

from

allowing

Coppicing

may yield

125 tonnes

wood every to either

from a square in the firing occurring gasification burners,

kilometre of bricks, such OL

Many other addition
gas

materials coal or

can be utilised and oil. made (biogas), from Gas, plant

to

wood,

naturally by simple

as

in

Pakistan, processes kiln.

wastes in

by

bio set

degradation

may be burnt

preferably

low down in the

-

139 -

Agricultural sawdust in per block few have of (e.g. in

and

plant

wastes (10)) and

may rice

also husk

be (e.g.

used in

for

firing,

including kilns 18 to ash and 22 may

Honduras kiln in of

experimental of ash, some As this husk

a Bull’s cent the blades. also an of

Trench the

Pakistan). the husk, Trench coffee is

A large produced coal

quantity

weight of the

on burning. is L

bottom

Bull’s husks,

kiln, husks, basis. through required

’ cqithout straw and

on every husks grate or very

Groundnut been used

chaff, They the for be

coconut in the Bull’s is

on an experimental kiln, or the These may fuel fed volume wastes in

may be burnt of Hoffmann,

intermittent kilns. in most

top

Habla large with

However, cases. They

sufficient burnt part of

heating in the kilns fuel

may not constitute

easily only

equipped source.

grates.

therefore in Sudan. be

Dung is

a traditional materials of

Waste weight! technically Other rubber coal’-fired The determined is

may also being it directly

mixed used

with

clay

(e.g. source.

5 to While

10

per

cent method

by is

instead

as a fuel

this

feasible, wastes have waste

may produce been tried oil, and coal for

more porous in a number clinker,

and weaker of kilns.

bricks. These fuel include ash old from

tyres,

engine

ashes, washery

pulverised

power optimum

stations, air flow

wastes. efficiency records are in kept. too a kiln can be air will

highest if

fuel good of

by experiment, to obtain cooling of fuel using kilns, full

especially combustion effect. is a generally fraction but the fuel fuel

Adequate much air

necessary

fuel.

However,

have

a detrimental The best use and the

obtained of for savings waste

in

continuous

kilns, Economy of bricks of the

properly of scale from kilns. a

maintained favours large-scale

run,

materials.

larger plant

transportation from the

may negate

operation

VI.

PRODUCTIVITY The range of outputs of the various units their kilns might inclusion described be built in the in Section those III is

shown in table lack of data

VII.2 on these

Although units

smaller

than table.

quoted,

precluded

-

140 -

Table

VII.2

Type

of

kiln

Capacity

(bricks,

‘000s)

Capacity

(bricks

per

day,

‘000s)

Intermittent Clamp Stove Scotch Downdraught 10 5 15 10 1,000 100 25 50

Continuous Original Modern Bull’s Habla Hoffmann Hof fmann Trench 10 2 14 15 15 24 28 30

Many and

factors of will

affect roofs add

the over to

obtained kilns

outputs. will Quantities

In improve

general, the

good quantity

maintenance of depend The bricks upon market the

provision but

produced, the

costs. and and

produced of of raw the

will

also

required

qua1it.y

standard

the

skill

operators. will

demand, rate at

weather, which

infrastructure

sUpply

materials

govern

production

may proceed. equipment is kilns All available described but the the in for transportation III and may be and the

Capital-intensive setting on a of bricks, but

all

the

Section

operated kilns onec

labour-intensive the extra task

basis. of covering

downdraught bricks witn

Hoffmann burnt

involve

green

previously

and ashes. Most of the kilns basis. between countries. these described Table kilns in this VII.3 and memorandum shows more the are operated difference kilns on in a fairly labour used in

labour-intensive requirements industrialised

automated

-

141 -

Table Labour

VII.3

requirements

Labour Type Location

requirements drying

for

firing,

including (man-hours/l,000

bricks)

Traditional with clamp

plant Lesotho 15

Traditional with coal-f

plant ired clamp Turkey 16

Moderately sed plant

mechaniUnited Kingdom 1.5

Highly plant

automated United States 0.6

Source:

10

VII.

BRICK TESTING

VII.1 The faults

Purpose purpose to

of

testing of a testing saleable bricks. resist is to check the and the production t0 guarantee use of process; the bricks such both as to quality in not remedy and

ensure of

product ; Given local the

performance construction, materials plaster of the

marketed they must

intended conditions

housing contain

weather

and should

which or paint. building or large have all

will

damage them or They must be strong

applied to

finishes withstand

renderings, dead wind. to build load The up that

enough load not

the or

itself,

and the movements Testing

live should

imposed also therefore for be

by occupancy so large of use as

thermal unduly bricks

moisture stresses. the

should

consist efficient

ensuring in building.

required

characteristics

-

142 -

VII.2

Initial 11 quick

checks check of

on quality quality that indicates cannot be consists they have either scratched in striking two hand-held fired. soft-fired away with without for the the bricks. On the other A

high-noted hand, Similarly, coin or are which a

ring dull bricks hard can

indicates sound which of

been

thoroughly or

cracked and

material. edge of ring a

rubbed

and be

good

quality. be serve bricks

Nevertheless, perfectly to identify

bricks suitable some of a quick

a good

marked two

may still only of sharp bricks. from

many construction best materials. of quality. from

purposes.

These

tests

The general Regular cracks within likely shapes are a to signs batch relate

appearance and a’f of to sizes, good bricks the

may give

indication and

arrises, Colour any one

unblemished is difficult

surfaces to the

freedom

interpret. darker

However, colours are

brickworks,

harder

fired,

stronger

and more durable

bricks.

VII. 3

Standard

specifications have published be British experience, appropriate locally made their to own these standard where have of wide specifications for

Many bricks, of testing

countries and refrerence described

sho::ld in the of be

available. been devised

The methods after However, Actual and much Lhey

Standard(37) and are for other to what

research may limits made. not

and many years necessarily must be decided

interest.

countries. is required

numerical what can be

according

VII.4

Sampling

The latter produce preferably from been the

testing since bricks contain kiln. in

of

bricks in variable 40 bricks

should

be

made of

on

a

representative materials, The testing they are

sample drying and

of

the

variations of

preparation

raw

firing should

characteristics. picked difficult up at to random obtain

sample being once

while random

unloaded they have

It

is

more stack.

samples

placed

a large

VII.

5

Dimensions

Since need chosen off. end not at

bricks be

are

used out the should If

in on

fairly individual 40 be

long

runs, bricks.

the

testing

of 24

brick bricks or

dimensions should be

carried from

Instead, small

random

sample then the

bricks placed

and

blisters stop brick

bumps knocked end be, to for

The 24 bricks on a long

against length of

an end each

touching must

bench.

nominal

-

143 -

example, the the level height standards Table the

21.5

cm,

the

far

end of

the

row

of (for

24

bricks

sholtld 508.5 to

be

516

cm from cm as in

end stop. British of of the the for

The permissible Standard bricks 24 one for on bricks 21.5

variations cm bricks) behind be not

example be

523.5

should the bench. as

clec;rly Similarly, which in of in all

marked the comply other African three

above width with

the and the

a board should do

checked

bricks comply batches

dimension the

necessarily from

dimensions. bricks and

VII.4

gives

dimensions

calcul.ated Standard:

requirements

of

a relevant

none complies

dimensions.

Table Overall

VII.4 of 24 bricks

dimensions

Brick

source

Length

(cm>

Width

(cm)

Height

(cm>

1 2 3 4 Standard Minimum Maximum

533.6 539.09 542.3* 543.8*

250.2 253.2 265.2 255.5*

181.1 184.2 177.8* 168.4

533.4 548.6

254.0 264.0

170.2 180.3

*Dimension Source: 51

complies

VII.6

Compressive

strength

The compressive other simple only 7 bricks although

strength the Even

of

harder of

fired most

bricks is a

is

greater to

than

that

of for of

strength a fairly a

bricks with of

likely

be adequate strength

buildings. MN/m2 may loadings wall the

weak 300 m

brick column

compressive without

supper-t actual

bricks in

crushing. pillars and

However, around As former simple or

in

buildings

are

increased

supporting

openings. strength be of dry in as to bricks water a lever, be is for can highet than that of wet bricks, Although green burnt in public bricks bricks. works the a

should wooden it a

immersed used

24 hours be

before

testing. to crush

beam, is

sufficient for higher commonly

adobe,

unlikely

successful machine is

strength used

Instead,

compression

testing

departments,
high

universities, loadings the due to steel bed

and small

technical

and

research on the

institutes. bed faces of

To

avoid in

local

irregularities of the machine, frogs set

bricks

contact be be placed

with

plattens faces. which is

thin or prior

plywood large to

plattens

should should bricks

on both in

Bricks allowed

with to

perforations testing. Ten

bedded

mortar

should

be tested, VII.5 works Although for

and the mean strength gives in a test results

calculated. obtained on batches by one of the bricks British are from two

Table differ-ent method. required with would the

East few

Africa. individual grading

The:7 were bricks (not Similarly, the a

tested from lowest), few

Standard than

works the

weaker

a particular

mean value from but the the

complies works is

standard

requirement. of

bricks

other

not meet

a requirement

the

Indian

Standard(361,

mean value

satisfactory.

Table Compressive

VII. 5 of 10 bricks

strenpth

Brick

source

Compressive

strength

MN/m2

Individual

bricks

Mean

Minimum requirement British Ordinary Indian Class II

A

4.1, 11.1, 4.0,

430, 10.9, 6.1,

8.1, 7.7, 7.1

8.1,

7.1

5.2

7.5

6.2, 11.4, 6.3,

6.5, 7.7, 10.3,

6.5, 11.5, 9.9

8.8

8.5

Source:

61

For strength

calculatr? of the

load-bearing bricks should

structures be

and

civil and

engineering used in

works, the

the

determined

design

calculations. For used(37). non-load-bearing partitions, bricks of only 1.4 MN/m2 may be

-

145 -

A low-cost brick broken The instead strength, brick

impact consists

testing

method,

claimed a weight

to several

give

useful times on

information the pieces of

on a

in dropping

in a containing of dry bricks

cylinder(62). is easily determined, and is sometimes quoted

density of

strength.

VII.7

Resistance

to

e

Although flowing bricks yields resistance for water or

compressive can cause are

strengths severe or

may

be

more

than in

adequate,

dampness Unfired

and earth

deterioration slaked resistance requires by water. to the

buildings. On the erosion. of brick or other

adobes

eroded excellent by water

hand,

firing of water

bricks to

wi:h erosion

water soaking of

The samples

testing in

24 hours. A more This

Good bricks severe test test allows get

should consists the

show no sign in spra;ling of

softening water into ones on

slaking. for quality unaffected. several groups

bricks

weeks. as

separation while

bricks

various remain

lowquality

bricks

eroded

high-quality

VII.8. Hard quantity for in easy in

Water fired of

absorption bricks will absorb by less water of than other types when of bricks. in The water

water or

absorbed days(7),

a dry or

sample for

bricks,

immersed is often test cent

24 hours testing to the

eight

boiled the

five

hours(37) of this than

estimated are not

laboratories. interpret.

However,

results of of

simple 15 per brick

-Generally) would be

absorptions indicative

less

by weight and of

cold

tests

satisfactory may be found

strength some ty[JeS

durability. clay although

Bxceptionally, the bricks

higher may still

absorptions be satisfactory.

with

VII. 9 In wall, other

Rain

penetration moderately water some may dries high out water once absorption good rain surface tests spray quality is of may weather running through be side, only set is acceptable in return. made cracks building the but a brick On the of low

practice, since hand, rain

conditions on walls small up by

under bricks

circumstances, enter the wall

absorption bricks exposed sheltered the and to

between walls other of the

mortar. either side of

Rain rain the in or wall. laying

penetration a water The them,

on one of not

and observing the bricks in

also

workmanship ?f the

significance

determining

performance

brickwork.

-

146 -

VII.10

Efflorescence, of

soluble efflorescence spalling

salts on of

and sulphate brickwork faces of the in if is of is

attack considered It One immersing will unsightly may occur test bricks dry up. are out If for on and initial in

Appearance extreme drying the water corners efflorescence in practice(7). to cases or after of two of

may cause

bricks. bricks.

subsequent ef florescence weeks. bricks it

wetting

determi.ning in on only to distilled the top

presence for

consists salts, water

half present,

Soluble as

the

being that bricks no

soaked problems

slight arise

occurs,

may be

assumed sample from

likely with in

Alternatively, evaporation exposing on water the this dries the

can

be covered face A bottle
water

a polythene the finished
water

sheet

prevent while inverted the

the face face

non-visible upwards. and the present

brickwork, is then

other latter out, of area

of allowed

distilled to are soak

in.

Subsequently,

and salts such is salts covered

in

the

bricks

carried if

to the surface
more flakes, The standard drilling salts acid is than half the

where of

amount

may be estimated. with salts, or if

Generally, the

the would

exposed

surface

bricks of

be regarded salts

as efflorescent(37). can be determined out than in on the powder cent laboratory obtained by weight brickwork, 0.3 per per cent, by by of

nattire methods or fine

soluble of chemical of high should

analysis brick samples.

carried More For 0.5 per per

grinding a

3 per

considered sulphates per

concentration. not exceed 0.03

special cent,

quality calcium 0.03

soluble 0.03

magnesium

cent,

potassium

cent

and sodium

cent(37).

VII.11

Lime blowing of quicklime pitting on persists, immersing form for particles brick it them derived faces. may be in from in to limestone spite of in brickmaking in

Hydration clays can

cause

When, possible

precautions it

manufacture, the the Bricks at are costs. least bricks lime to

a problem (i.e. a by softer be soaked

alleviate

by docking slakes pores.

water(50)). into

Docking

apparently brick water

which

may extrude

neighbouring so that

should

approximately the problem weight as

10 minutes may worsen. of the water done by bricks dries

penetrates of water

15 mm. and

Otherwise, the

Large

quantities to

required,

increased may appear blowing

may add out.

transportation

Efflorescence Testing for for lime

the be

can or

immersing into a steamy

brick

samples

into

boiling

water

3 minutes(50),

preferably

oven(63).

-

147 -

VII. 12 Frost brickwork occurs, used to

Frost is is outdoor assess more one frozen test frost resistant of the most in or destructive wet natural condition. freezing Harder agents In and fired, climates thawing less but only where tests when frost can be are

while walls

a very

laboratory 64).

resistance(l0, to frost.

porous

bricks

generally

VII.13

Moisture

and thermal and irreversible for if

movement moisture small bricks movements Tests be is used of for similar 4 x 10-6 of are likely can long be to be small out brickwork, and ‘C to (i.e. change may a and to

Reversible of little

consequence these movements

buildings. are to

carried of

determine or be in tall

runs

structures. it is

Thermal likely of to 20°C

expansion be will

significance m per brickwork

measured: in

approximately, cause a

change 1 mm in

temperature

12 m run

length).

VII. 14 To sand, of

Durability investigate small test made of time

and abrasion performance, walls at will any should works.

resistance including be resistance outdoors in of the brick of to abrasion from the by wind-blown various over to types various

constructed Changes

bricks

surface bricks

periods

indicate

the

degree

resistance

abrasion.

VII.15

Use of that

substandard do not

bri.cks meet the wasted. returned for refiring, be used in or may be useful in or kiln can required standards may be used for other

Bricks purposes,

and not

be entirely may be bricks

Underburnt construction. be broken Reject If finely Reject, to powder.

bricks

Overburnt up and used bricks ground,

may also aggregate. up and

kiin

construction

as concrete broken

may be they

used in

for

road

building

or

sos.kaways.

may be used bricks

as grogs

brickmaking. properties lime for the when ground down of Portland ,ired clay a

underfired The latter

exhibit be

pozzolanic mixed the with

may thus Alternatively,

production ordinary soft-f

cement cement could

substitute. sets will

lime powder.

released Thus,

when crushed

react a useful

with

the

brick

constitute

mortar

ingredient.

CHAPTER VIII

MORTARS AND RENDERINGS

I.

PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES

Mortar surface so doing,

is

used of

to bricks,

accommodate thus bricks strength.

slight

irregularities accuracy and thus

in stability excluding

size, to wind

shape a wall. and

and In rain

finish gaps

providing are also

between the wall

closed,

and increasing

Rendering ingress quality unnecessary. reasons while of and

applied rainwater

to

the a

external building.

surface

of

brick if

walls materials

can

help are is

prevent of good

into

However, are in is some correct,

bricklaying Rendering bare is

techniques preferred, brickwork

rendering for mainly

usually aesthetic

countries,

fair-faced

preferred

in others.

In should

general, be mixed

mortars and used

need

not

be they

stronger do not

than crack

the (see

bricks, section

and III).

renderings

so that

Mixes cement good less when the or solid than set. risk

for lime,

mortar

and

render with a

are large

frequently proportion sand be greater

made of and

from sand.

ordinary In

Portland a If strong and be

together should is used, than will

principle, binder.

mortar a third If of more

contain the wet is

two-thirds mix will

one-third and will of

less

workable shrinkages

less occur,

a third increase.

used,

cracking high.

Furthermore,

the

cost

mortar

will

unnecessarily

-

150 -

II.

MORTARTYPES

II.1

Mud is made from is not soil mixed for with water. bricks. by is It

The most may be

elementary for to and

mortar, laying

mud,

suitable exposed sand if

adobe, in

but

recommended work will A

fired

Mud mortar wind-blown essential be better

the weather rain is (figure used.

fair-faced VIII.1).

quickly

be eroded rendering

good-quality used in the

mud mortar

However,

cement mortar.

render

mix will

utilized

in making a more durable

IT.2

Bitumen/mud The addition of bitumen as a cut-back or emulsion makes a mud more

water-resistant.

Asphalt

may be used

as an alternative

material.

II.3 Mud renderings cow with dung. five A thin parts of may be made more paste soil weather-resistant water to by the a mix of incorporation part cow of dung

made by adding may also be used

one

to wash over

a mud rendering(20).

II.4

Lime/sand Lime and sand mixes are traditional of mortar. hydroxide, by the impure If materials. the the slow limes in the sets lime is Lime varies very of with contain In water and pure, the in purity and of be in of lime The

thus gives a large due solely the air.

different of

types

consisting mortar will

proportion

calcium

hardening reaction often

to carbonation, On the material yields is in a other from

caused hand, clay

carbon a

dioxide

proportion case,

siliceous burning hardening which type than

contained lime, a

limestone. under silica also

this if

hydraulic this case silicate. be very

which

needed.

reaction Hydraulic

between limes

calcium in less gives

hydroxide air. This

gives of

calcium can

carbonate makes it

mortar

good,

but of

slow

hardening 1Fme by

attractive a useful

cement

mortars.

Replacement

some

cement

se in early

strength. that lime as b completely slaked before use. be Commonly,

sential slaked lime Alternatively, a pit. A slight

may be. purchased

such,

and quality but it must

may well first

satisfactory. with water in to

n be used, excess of water

be mixed

should

be added,

and the

mixture

covered

Figure VIII.1 Erosion of mud mortar after (West Sudan)
two years

- 152 -

prevent hydration.

drying If

out.

Several of and spoil

days

in

the

slacking

pit

are

needed

for

its later

any particles

unslaked

material

remain,

they may slake

in the set mortars, II.5 Pozzolime In the react lime. form with may contain

the mortar.

same way as silica lime as described material three The parts latter siliceous

from earlier,

the

clay so can mixed

heated have of with a

during

lime-burning volcanic reaction

could ashes with to of

naturally

occurring pozzolanic lime sand are for the

which of is then

In Tanzania, a "cement".

ash and one

mixed

together

production

mortar(65). II.6 Rice husk ash cement Rice cent mixing Of this volume) of husks their rice burnt weight at temperatures ash. this of below ash with of mortar from rice 750°C one yield material part with of three #

approximately can lime (66). of

20 per by (by One part sand

in pure

A cement-like be mixed

be produced

two parts and water

by weight for

husk ash cement

may then

parts

the production can be made

or rendering. husks and lime sludge waste

A similar derived II.7

material

from sugar Brick-dust/lime

or paper industries(67).

Brickmaking when crushed India) material. (68). II.8 Ordinary to are mixed

clays a fine with

fired one

to part

only of

700°C of for

produce the the latter

a

pozzolanic (known of

material in

powder.

Two parts lime

as surkhi a cement-like

production

The latter

may then be mixed with

sand for

the production

of mortar

Portland

Cement( OPC)

OPC is problems might

widely

used

for

mortars

and renderings.

Excessively of

strong

mixes cause cement

may be harmful

and unnecessarily with

expensive. the

Where sulphates use

from bricks

by reacting

OPC mortars,

sulphate-resisting

be considered.

-

153 -

II.9 exhibits with

Pulverised Pulverised

fuel fuel of

ash ash from modern Portland ash other may coal-fired cent of for cement also be electricity this the generating may be of The that plants mixed Indian mortar show an one, grades, 0.7MN/m2 properties. ordinary fuel 30 per material production with sand final For 4, lime. requires

pozzolanic Pulverised for one set part in or

70 per cent

pozzolanic

cement. standard(69) cubes initial of

used materials parts and at a

this

and

pozzolanic

pozzolanic not less two days,

mixture than two should depending

and three hours, be

by weight set these 2

within three and

one-and-a-half, 2 8-days respectively. II. 10 Plasticisers of

upon grading. least

compressive

strengths

Mixes substituting easy to

ordinary lime for by the

Portland some of masons.

cement the

and

sand

are

made more mix very is then

workable buttery additions

by and of

cement. Instead added. to cannot of

The wet lime, The obtain be

spread

small

purpose-made during mixing. as the in the properties affecting water sand; properly out after vertical strength setting. workability. resulting penetrationc in

vinsol the

resins it mixing of

may be is difficult operation the

latter

form ‘minute with the

bubbles required Factors

However,

a mortar easily the

controlled. amount and

properties mix; cement

mortar

include and

hardness of

of the are of

content; and duration

fineness of

composition; Unless the all

grading these

and the efficiency controlled, several alignment if courses too

mixing. and

factors out

problems

may arise. been is laid,

For example, incorporated too air in

the mortar

may squeeze Furthermore,

have

brickwork the mix.

may get

much air mortar hand, of

may decrease On the Thus, low 70).

and

may become too little

permeable will be poor

to

water the out

after mortar rain

other

reduce carried resistance

spreading strength

mortar

may not and

properly, to

brickwork

Masonry should 10

cements

(made set are to

with in not comply not

ordinary less with

Portland

cement

and

plasticisers) set within

show an initial if they

than 45 minutes, the British

and a final Standard(71).

hours,

A 28-days

compressive II.11 -sum Any

strength plaster

should

be less

than 6 MN/mL.

substance

which

sets

from

a

fluid made by

into

a

solid

may be

regarded

as (or

cementitious(72). industrially in arch

Gypsum plasters, produced) gypsum will without

heating

naturally been

occurring used

set

quickly. Being

They have slightly

as mortar in water

building

centring.

soluble

- 154 -

they for III.

are not interior

suitable wall

for

exterior

use

in wet climates.

They are

widely

used

finishes.

MIXING AND USE Dry ingredients may be by of mixes However, accurate should should if the be measured are water often content out used of carefully. to obtain varies, sand Although constant gauge preferred, gauge mixes. be first mixed thoroughly spades, prior or in to final mixing boxes

weighing proportions boxes

volume.

may not

provide

The dry ingredients with water. Mixing machine. If high less if mortars proportion able to

may be done

by hand with

a mortar-mixing

are made very of ordinary any accommodate place. easier mortar to

strong, Portland slight will then in to need

which

is

usually the For

accomplished example, a edges little the VIII.1 lime

by using of more strength provides bricks

a

cement, movement. probably mortar fair-faced be preferably

resulting

brickwork

may be

may be damaged and any cracking movement takes is and stress, both and any cracking bricks would will

go through might go yield

the bricks

themselves under work the joints.

A weaker repair

through Table

mortar

Such cracking properties

work. cement

For high (OPC),

strong.

of various

mixes of

ordinary

Portland

and sand.

Table

VIII.1

Mortar mixes

Mix proportions

by volume Compressive With plasticiser 28 days strength Ability date to accomo(MN/m2) movement

OPC Lime

Sand

(small OPC

amounts) Sand 3-4 5-6 7-8 11.0 4.5 2.5 1.0 Most able Least able

1 1 11 12

O-.25 .5

3 4-4.5 5-6 8-9 73

1 1 1

Source:

- 155 Strong Cracks parts also since in renderings rendering are (figure is more likely A mix of for content Water to allow shrink water and to crack get than into weaker lime as of ones.

VIII.21

the A 1:2:9

brickwork, and six mix may possible, cracking. on OPC. on the as A the or

which may not dry out easily. sand by volume prove wetter satisfactory. mixes shrink

one part rendering should
thus

cement, be kept

one part as low

excellent

purposes.

more on drying, still mason's kill of not place full the preventing

increasing especially then of large to

the risk if spread based

The mix should good bricks. splashing water If mortar be best hours wet, it being mortar It will

be used while hang on the to thus out will

fresh, trowel,

easily of mix

may be necessary water, pulled it instantly is lost,

suction a

the bricks proportion as it spread water the touches

by dipping

them with

mixing either

the mix as soon be possible be insufficient properly. sun, and to shrinkage,

the bricks.

much water

or render, to avoid

and there working higher finished joints shaped, are

may also in the

in the mix to allow it would 24 too and is work the damp for strength,

the hydration to allow

reactions curing of

to take to take

For the keep hand,

same reason, the if mortar

place.

On the other greater

may have

porosity,

and lower

the appearance Wide mortar bricks not be are

work may be poor. sometimes is one is used to in brickworks on (figure materials required laid is VIII.3). joints and If should labour. of

badly

this

unavoidable. depending frogged On the If the of

Where possible, upon the may be hand, bed will

wider finish.

than

1 cm if

economise

Renderings surface In the the achieved bricks Vertical mortar

may be of building is into (or brick bricks

one or two coats, of brick laid it, walls, frog the up. strength between is still

quality frog

bricks other mortar

down if is before with shows

use of mortar with are set

to be minimised.

maximum strength furrowed be filled VIII.4 reduced(74).

brickwork should

joints to obtain

perpends) wall which

bricks to rain

be completely Figure condition.

the best

resistance

penetration.

a 40-years-old

in a satisfactory

- 156 -

Figure VIII.2 Jacks in rendering (India)

.

.’

4’ w. ..- -is -.w_ -7 L 3

- LST -

CHAPTER IX

ORGANISATION OF PRODUCTION

I

PREEIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS

A number brick

of

factors unit. the

must

first

be

investigated are briefly

prior reviewed

to

investing

in

a

manufacturing A market for

These

factors

below.

product

must than

first

be

ascertained. are needed at

The the

mere

knowledge time

that

more

building an be of

materials

available for certainty do not

present new

constitutes
There must

insufficient a reasonable operation over of of

justification degree the years. of works

embarking that quickly demand

upon

a

venture. in the

bricks satisfy is a

produced

early has

stages

a demand which prerequisite for

accumulated

many

Sustained

profitable

operation

the plant.

Future examining by local

demand housing

for

wall-building proposals, the

materials government

should five-year and

be

investigated plans, etc.,

by and or

development from

obtaining

information

Housing

Ministry

other

government

authorities.

The building investment for one

availability, materials will reason or be or lower

extant should greater another cost for be if

of

use,

cost

and The

performance probability a favoured better of

of a

alternative profitable material or

examined. bricks

constitute quick

building

(e.g., the

availability, walls).

performance

durability,

finished

The

site

must

be

chosen

in

relation

to

the

available

infrastructure

and

raw materials

supply.

The need location restrictions quarried. must

for be

permission investigated. may exist

or

licences Similarly, on the

to

operate

the

brickworks should be

in

a chosen on be

information or

obtained which can

which

quantity

maximum depth

-

160 -

The location by noise, smoke,

of

the

works

should of the

be such air or

that

undue as

nuisance regulations

is

not

caused in

smell, the

pollution of

water

may be

force

regarding

protection

environment.

II.

INFRASTRUCTURE

There the

are

several of

major

factors

which These

should are briefly

be

considered described

when planning below.

establishment

a brickworks.

II.1

Site

and access

The size of

site the of road

should plant,

preferably suitable and be or too

be

flat

and must

free be

from

flooding. to cart

Whatever allow or the lorry. deposit cost of

the easy The is a

access output steep the by or

provided bullock

transport access far feeder

materials should not track

barrow, twisting.

Whenever and

a clay

from

a good should

road,

construction evaluation.

maintenance

road

be considered

in project

II. 2

Transportation

routes

In Whether to the

small this main other

works, is the

customers case or not,

frequently it is

collect

the to

bricks have good

they roads must

purchase. leading compete rai 1 less

advantageous if the in the means construction thus

market building might

areas,

especially produced attractive

produced

bricks

against

materials appear to bricks of an

same region. of transport, sites. not

Al though it is

transportation adaptable additional costs for

delivery of

individual is bricks required,

Furthermore, only labour

handling the

increasing

but also

chances

breakage.

II.3

Clay

Sufficient bearing is in mind

clay

must

be in

available quality

for and

the

expected of the in

life clay case

of

the

works, It is a a

variation to have a

thickness in

deposits. production to for have such

preferable at

larger

quantity a large are

reserve might

increased life long plants for of

a later

date. small-scale no clear it At the

Whereas works guidance would lowest be

works

be planned

50 years, While be

not

usually life to of have

established small-scale enough clay

period. can

on the sensible levels of

brickmaking in reserve may

provided,

20 to

30 years.

investment,

shorter

periods

be acceptable.

-

101 -

For bricks 21.5 x 10.3 x 6.5 cm(37), approximately 2 m3 of clay is used per 1,000 bricks (allowing a 5 per cent drying loss, a 5 per cent firing loss and an overall shrinkage of
10 per cent).

Thus, if the clay is dug to a depth Consequently,

of 1 m, 1,000 bricks will require clay from an area of 2 m2.

a plant producing 1,000 bricks per day, for 200 days per year and for 25 years will require approximately one hectare of clay deposits.

II.4

Sand

Sand, which may be necessary to reduce shrinkage of a constitute a major item of cost if not available at the brickworks 20 per cent addition of day will require 3 m3 of sand (a lorry
load) per week.

fat clay, can site. If a

sand is necessary, a plant producing 1,000 bricks per

Alternatively, if it is anticipated that 20 per cent of the bricks will be
rejected,

the latter could just supply sufficient grog.

II.5 Water

A considerable quantity of water may be required for the preparation of dry-dug clays, the actual amount depending upon the nature of the clay and the
forming process. A works

producing 1,000 bricks per day and using clay with a water (two oil drums) per
be

25 per cent moisture content, will require 500 1 of day. If this water is to

brought from a distant water source, a small

lorry would be required. the cleaning of

Extra supplies of water for the wetting of moulds, and washing purposes should be taken into

equipment

consideration at the project planning stage.

II.6

Fue.1

Fuel requirements will depend chiefly on the type, size and operating conditions of the kiln. in table VII.l, Estimates of such requirements were already provided

For example, the intermittent stove kiln may require 1 tonne
ThUS,

of firewood per 1,000 bricks.

a brickmaking plant operating 200 days

per year, and having an expected life of 25 years, would consume the timber produced on nearly 1 km2 of an African forest(22). Alternatively, the

-

162 -

coppicing provide continuous coppicing planning, reliable an

of

a

plantation

of amount

a of

slightly fuel. of

larger It the may above such may not

area also

(e.g. be

I.5 noted

km*) that

may some

equivalent kilns or use and of only of capital. timber.

use

one-fifth

amount as count

of

fuel.

Either require and

fast-growing Otherwise,

species, one

eucalyptus, on

land supply

a continuous

Another consumes of 1,000

example

relates

to

coal of

consumption coal (a lorry of of coal the

by

a stove per be

kiln. week, for

The

latter

approximately bricks operation per of day.

4 tonnes

load) should

an output for one

The same Trench

amount kiln

sufficient

month’s

a Bull’s

same capacity.

Electricity general purposes.

may be

essential

for

some machines

and

is

convenient

for

many

II. 7

Labour

Sufficient distance frequent temporarily must return of the

skilled

and unskilled plant, day during farms. and the

labour especially night.

should

be available the areas, brick

within kiln

a short requires must be

brickmaking through

since In some

attention

brickmaking as the

discontinued to their

agricultural

peak

seasons

workers

Labour mechanisation, produced clay

requirements the In

depend

upon of

the

type

of and

material the

used,

the and

degree quality

of of of

productivity small-scale, of

labour

quantity the of

bricks.

labour-intensive and tonne

plants,

hand-winning clay to

(including

removal

overburden per

transportation (75) and
per

a nearby

brickworks) per 1,000

requires bricks. (S), giving

7 man-hours Preparation, a total of

or

approximately firing 1,000 require bricks. of

20 man-hours another Other 20

moulding 40 man-hours per 1,000 is

man-hours may data require

plants

14 to in

62 man-hours a number

bricks. provided

A summary in table

productivity

collected

of countries

1X.1.

-

163 -

Table Labour requirements

IX.1 per 1,000 bricks

Production

method per

and quantity day)

Location

Man-hours 1,000

per

Reference

(bricks

bricks

Hand-winning burning

and moulding, (2,000)

United Kingdom 40 75,5

in clamp

Hand-winning, Scotch type

sanda,oulding kiln (2,000) Ghana 14 30

Hand-winning, wood fired

slop-moulding stove slop-moulding clamp slop-moulding Tanzania sand-moulding Sudan soft mud (Berry (8,000) hot kiln brick (20,000) United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom 5 10 15 19 62 10 54 10 Turkey 32 10 Lesotho 31 10

Hand-winning, coal-fired Hand-winning, wood stove

Hand-winning, wood stove

Hand-winning, machine),

clamp-firing extrusion, Hoffman mechanised

Hand-winning, floor-drying, Moderately plant

III.

LAYOUT

III.1

Guidelines

The stages

layout between

of

the the

works location within

should of the

follow the works, should in

a clay and be

logical deposite the

sequence and of

of the

production roadway. should where may

Transportation be kept to can or

distances a minimum. be afforded, the

amount of where

handling, areas,

Maximum use especially product.

made

covered frequent

these interrupt

climates

rain

spoil

-

164 -

The alternative of a flow chart in

sequences figure For and

of 1X.1.

prod,,g*-tion

stages to

are the be

represented chart suitable added, process. can

in be for such

the

form if

Modifications pugged processing of clay stages

made

deemed without option

necessary. tempering, of using

example, further

may

shaping as the

may be

a washmill

as part

the clay

preparation

III.2 The

Example

of

a genexcelant of operations 2,000

layout in bricks a a small, day with labour-intensive equipment is shown developed in figure The a layer brickworks at the 1X.2. fines at set a in or sack green with the free are bricks the sack for then may

sequence

producing Intermediate Dry, time. vertical longer, barrow, bricks help barrow re-use, stacked then of

approximately Technology clay is

Workshop brought the then bin in each sieve watered. fronts.

(United by barrow are

Kingdom) to

hand-won from Each

pendulum into is

crushers. bins, by bins on

collected

beneath is at is down set the

transferred The clay

layer

retained in picked moulds the up

boards

rebates the and which small and once on left the the clay set are

After

tempering

overnight a forked stiff

moved by

portable moulder. edge they a few the on

containers, The small full, The table portable they

produce

down on Once dry for reach for sack

shelving are moved units The stacks they are

units with are bricks of

pallets. to

are days.

shelving stage. dried where

bricks

leather-hard drying. Fully area

ground

further barrow to

be moved on the for

the

kiln

fired,

cooled

and prepared

shipping.

The drawing all covers. smoke the work and operations, In

in

figure except

IX.2

is

adapted which should by the been

from is be

one

produced under in the further

by

ITW. three a

It

shows

winning the kiln

conducted positioned over

separate that

practice, are not IX.2

such

manner For

smell in

carried could

wind

workers. away

example, the other

kiln

figure

have

placed

from

stations.

III.3

Required The total

areas area of of areas

for

various

scales will be

of

production on this for a large section. interested 1,500 number of factors. a few A day, clay

a given will are

plant thus

depend in

No

estimates

given below set m x in

Rather, readers. bricks per from

illustrative labour-intensive covers a total to

examples works roofed hand are

provided (321, 40

in Ghana area of

up to 18

produce m. and All firing The

processes, in

preparation kiln

moulding, thus

drying

racks

a semi-permanent of the kiln

structure,

protected

against

rain.

chimney

- 165 -

---*teat

suitability

rejects - - - *teat

Figure 1X.1: Brickmaking flowchart

- 166 -

Figure 1X.2: Intermediate technology brickmaking plant

-

167 -

penetrates approximately Open stacks of 1,000 An using Trench least of

the

shed half drying of

roof. the or requires

The capital drying an

latter cost. in area

is

of

great

benefit

but

accounts

for

air

covered of

hacks,

with

good

access an

between output

bricks, bricks per

approximately

1,000

m2 for

day. plant ponds, covers used in (35) hand producing moulding, of at 20,000 open least per air bricks drying m2. output. with an open plant air per per and day, and

Indian

brickmaking settling m x 23 m), the area kiln

a washmill, kiln three (60 times

a Bull's is at

an area the

21,000 unit of but

This

Ghana plant without of the

The Bull's drying unit of area, output.

Trench would

brickworks, twice the area

a washmill small-scale

need

Ghanaian

The above areas

examples

illustrate for various

extremes types sufficient of

in

area

requirements.

Intermediate

may be required Depending

plants. space should eating also be allocated for

on circumstances, installations

offices,

sanitary

and appropriate

accommodations.

IV.

SKILL REQUIREMENTS The owner or manager as well of as are or not by a brickworks equipment briefly by should and described have the necessary The types skills of for skills

managing necessary

people for

materials. below. thought careful cuts, strike stones,

brickmaking clay is, manually however, and An mixing

Digging skill. the pit This

machine case

may be as the

of choice are of is

as of

requiring material to and

no at good the

the

face,

taking of the

vertical dip and and

essential the clay,

brickmaking. reasons skills for may

appreciation

rejecting be of are taught tools also

overburden, or obtained also for

roots from of

desirable. Care

These and

on-the-job the skills of clay of the

training. pit clay workers. for

maintenance Skills and not in

should required the

be part the

preparation of a good maintenance. the forming for

brickmaking, should

appreciating

requirements receive essential must as to risk to proper to

body.

Equipment

be abused Moulding

and should skills machine to the are

of

good that

bricks. the

The addition easier,

hand of will

moulder extra increase a "feel" mould,

and water

operator clay, and thus so

know,

example, or

make moulding of throw at cracking. it

extrusion

shrinkage for and the produce of sizes

the

The hand moulder into over the long to for

must have of the An his on

clay,

be able

accurately rate

centre periods.

well-formed required within brick the

bricks quality necessary

a fast help

understanding mould or die

will

an operator allowing

maintain shrinkage

tolerances,

-

168 -

drying must

and firing. be made

As mechanical occasionally, whenever for the drying

devices and

are

likely

to

wear

quickly, repair

checks and

appropriate

maintenance,

replacements Those careful operators the

undertaken responsible

necessary. bricks especially must before early dry in in understand they the for to are drying firing. get of the a good brick and in parts cooling uniform building of
must

the

necessity

for The allow

handling must

of

latter, to turn

leather-hard. stage (to

know when to dry) calls

bricks are skill and

underneath Firing

and when they for great

enough order pattern bricks of skills

bricks

product. up a kiln, kiln, carefully various temperature Skilled are

The overall and the very

dimension between factors. calls are of for

setting

spacing

individual The rate

in different and the the

the be of

important and Skills

heating in for

controlled phenomena. through labour

for

special also

interpretation control of

necessary

the

adjustment is needed

fuel-feeding the sorting of

and draught. bricks into various grades.

CHAPTERX

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ESTIMATION OF UNIT PRODUCTION COSTS

This improve providing alternative businessmen

chapter their them and but

is with

intended a

to

assist

practising to framework Staff may of have

brickmakers engage for their in the

wishing

to by of

plant

and entrepreneurs methodological techniques. officers find still

envisaging

brickmaking evaluation institutions, own

brickmaking could if

financial methodological

government

evaluation framework

methodologies, useful, I. especially

the

following

they are unfamiliar

with brickmaking.

THE METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK The methodological (i) the determination the brickmaking (ii)the estimation cost are of framework consists of the quantities (Step for process of two main parts: of various inputs of used in

1 to 5); each input, and that the unit

the cost

production These the most steps

(Step

6 to 12). described should output. below. repeat

briefly

Producers these steps

who wish for each

to

identify

appropriate

technique

technology

which may yield Step 1:

the required

Determination a function the scale of of of production

of

the number of market demand, etc.

bricks

to

be produced of provides

each

year. funds,

This the for

number is adopted determining ?tep 2:

availability IX

investment some

technique,

Chapter

guidelines

production. quantities of the various are: materials inputs for the

Estimation scale of

the

adopted

production.

The main materials

- 170 -

- brickmaking - sand, - water - fuel Guidelines Chapter IX. for

clay material (e.g. grog)

or an equivalent

determining

the

quantities

of

each

material

are

given

in

Step

3: Compilation equipment. necessary equipment

of

a list The

of list as

required should testing list.

equipment, also

including

spare

parts

and

servicing whenever imported for

include

transport Both locally provide

equipment made and

as should of

well

equipment. Chapters II to

be included.

VII

guidelines

the compilation

the above

Step

4:

Labour

requirements. different from

The IX.

productivity to

of

the

labour

force of

may be labour

significantly productivity for part-time

one .country These shifts of also plant

another. per day,

Estimates may need working to days

are

given

in Chapter

estimates

be adjusted per week,

workers. weeks per

The number year should the

and working the possible

be specified, during the

taking peak

into

consideration seasons. of the above

closing

down of of

agricultural basis

The number and skills information.

workers

may be established

on the

Step

5: The local - land for - land for - land for

infrastructure of

required the quarry;

must be determined.

It

may include:

exploitation access drying storage required, and other

and buildings; grounds of and kilns if not within product; for making, of drying the area or firing; of each of the buildings;

- land for - buildings offices; Chapter the above

raw materials such as covered amenities.

and of areas the

IX provide

guidelines

for

estimation

items.

Step

6:

Working to of for up of is

capital.

Apart

from initial

purchase financial fuel. during an

of

land

and

equipment, to enable will and

it

is the be the

necessary purchase required building It months' anticipated necessary

have raw the

sufficient

resources capital period,

materials, payment of

including wages for

Working initial

also for

a stock

of bricks that fuel,

sale. working month's any capital salaries. particular be If available difficulties it for two are may be

recommended and obtaining

sufficient and supplies one of for

materials in to hold

commodity,

a stock

sufficient

more than

two months'

production.

-

171 -

Step

7:

Equipment is used,

and buildings it will have

annual a limited costs must price,

depreciation life. for also the X.1

costs.

Whatever must thus items.

type

of

equipment of the

An estimate

be made The will

annual cost the

depreciation of initial buildings purchase

separate be life

equipment These

depreciation depend and the upon

estimated. of

costs

equipment used for to

and

buildings these up the

prevailing costs. cent price cost the

interest It gives

rate. the life

Table discount periods or the

may be (F)

estimate

depreciation to 40 per

factors up to cost

interest Thus, if

rates Z is the

and expected of is the

25 years. of the

purchase depreciation Hence,

equipment to Z/F. useful

building,

annual

equal the

longer the

life,

the rate,

lower the of

the higher

annual this may

depreciation cost. be obtained of

cost,

and the higher The local C.1.F

prevailing of

interest

prices or

imported

pieces (see

equipment Appendix local IV).

from local

importers

equipment

suppliers obtained

The prices and

equipment

and buildings

may be

from

contractors

equipment

manufacturers.

Step use equal by

8 in to

Land has an infinite some instances. the annual rent a

life, the

and the annual

pit cost

may be restored of land may be if should

to

its

original to be

ThUS, of

assumed land be is used

equivalent

land. annual

Alternatively, rental rate

owned when

the

brickmaker, the annual

hypothetical land cost.

estimating

Step

9:

The

annual Clay,

cost sand

of

consumable are

items often

identified cheap

in

Step

2 must

be The

calculated. only significant

and water their cost,

extremely with

commodities. of of fuel, sand and is

part

of

in

comparison them. Thus, land

that

that

incurred is often

in extracting included costs. in

and transporting the cost costs of are

the cost rental rate

and clay equipment

labour, of major

depreciation locally

Fuel

importance

and must

be determined

by examining

current

market

prices.

Step must

10: thus

The cost be are

of

labour on

varies the

greatly basis in Step of 4.

from

one country wage

to rates.

another. The

They labour

calculated those

local

requirements

identified

Step the

11: annual

Working costs

capital for

raised

for

the

project

will

require capital.

an allowance

in

interest

payments

to be made on that

-

172 -

Step costs

12:

The

total

annual 7 to

cost 11.

consists

of

the

sum of

the

separate

annual

itemised

in Steps

Total

annual

cost

= of cost + + sand and clay (if the (or is latter are purchased by the rather unit) producer) than + + equipment + and buildings +

Depreciation Annual Annual Annual Annual rather Annual land labour fuel costs than cost

costs rental costs costs of

won on land water a river (if

belonging the latter within used)

rented) purchased

of

pumped from Annual Annual cost of

or well (if

the +

production

electricity payments

interest

on working

capital.

The unit

production

cost

of

bricks

is

Lhen equal

to:

Total

annual

costtAnnua1

output.

The following

use

of

the

above

methodological

framework

is

illustrated

in

the

example.

II.

APPLICATION OF-THE METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

The small-scale Production technique

framework

is

used

to

estimate typical days per

the of

unit those all

cost

of

bricks by long. this

produced

by

a

brickmaking takes is similar place to

unit six that

covered year IV.1 of

memorandum. production

week

The I.

described

in Section

Chapter

Step

1 : Annual

production

of

bricks:

624,000

(approximately 2,000 bricks/day)

Step

2 : Annual

requirements

of

clay,

sand,

water

and wood fuel;

Clay Sand: Water

: 624 x 2 m3 20 per cent of clay input bricks 1,000 bricks;

= 1,248

m3

= 250 m3 = 312,000 1

; 500 1 per 1 tonne

1,000 per

Wood fuel:

= 624 tonnes

-

173 -

Step

3 : List

of

equipment: : 3 wheelbarrows, flat concrete moulds picks, area (actual tables mould boxes imported; locally) shovels

Winning

Preparation:

2 table

manufactured

Drving: Spares: Step 4 : Labour

Mobile 10 per

rack cent

to hold of cost

4,000 of

bricks

equipment.

requirements: : 1 manager 1 foreman

Supervision

Winning: Preparing: Shaping: Kiln firing: building and

2 unskilled 3 unskilled 2 skilled 3 skilled

workers workers workers workers (three worked) shifts occasionally

1 unskilled Carrying, Step etc.: 1 unskilled requirements dug 2 m deep and buildings for

worker worker

5 : Land and building Land for Land for Kiln area storage quarry, access

25 years drying)

1.6 0.3 0.2

ha ha ha ha ha

(including

Land for Total

of

product

0.1 2.2

land requirement

Buildings: covered office staff amenities area 20 x 20 m 3x 4 x 3m 3 m 400 m* 9 m2 12 In2

Step

6 :

Working Working (See step

capital capital 2) Clay Sand Water to cover and salaries : : ; : cost for of materials 1 month 208 m3 42 m3 52,000 104 t 1 month : workers : 1 month 5 months :7 months 1 for 2 months

Wood fuel

One manager: One foreman Five Seven skilled unskilled

workers

-

174 -

Step

7-: For

Depreciation the small plant

costs: under consideration, and pieces the of useful equipment life of the for buildings production moulds and

is will

25 years. have

The various

tools

used

much shorter etc.

lives.

Wheelbarrows, after above

buckets, two years. are

hand

tools,

drying

racks,

may need costs

replacement of the

Annual

depreciation

items

calculated

as follows:

Initial

costs area of

- Covered - Office - Barrows, - Spares

n 480 m' at

50/=

n per mL per m2

Tanzania

shillings

20,000 6,300 4,000 cost) 400 30,700

and amenities sundry (10 per tools, cent Total

: 21 m2 at 300/= moulds tools

and racks and equipment

of

Annual

depreciation factor for

costs F is equal with rate with rate cost of buildings is then e.qual to: a 2 years, life and a to (see table life X.1): and a

The discount - 7.843 12 per - 1.690 12 per The annual

buildings interest equipment interest

a 25 years,

cent for cent

depreciation

26,300/= 7.843

= 3.350/=

and that

of

equipment

is

equal

to

4,400/= 1.690

= 2,600/=

Total

annual

depreciation

costs

are

therefore

equal

to:

3,350/=

+ 2,600/=

= 5.950/=

Step

8 : Annual Land utilised

rental for or

rate

of

land: is likely
are may

brickmaking If the

tc

be

situated to a

in

areas

commanding in similar

low land,

land

value

rental. for

brickworks latter

known as

be operating guide to
may

rentals

paid

serve price

prospective be used for

brickmakers. comparative

Otherwise, purposes.

agricultural

land

or

rentals

-

175 -

The annual

rental

rate

in this

example

is

assumed

to be 500 T.

Shillings.

Step

9 : Annual

cost

of

materials: Tanzania Shillings 90 30 120 37,440 = = = =

- clay - sand - water - wood fuel

1,248

m3 at 0.72/m3

250 m3 at 0.12/m3 320 m3 at 0.385/m3 624 tonnes at 60/tonne

Total

annual

cost

of materials

=

37,680

Step

10: Annual

labour

costs: Tanzania Shillings 5,400 4,800 15,000 16,800 = I = =

1 manager 1 foreman 5 skilled 7 unskilled

at 450/= at 400/= workers workers

per month per month at 250/z per month each per month each

at 200/=

Total

annual

labour

cost

=

42,000

Step

11 : Interest The cost of

payments materials

on working and labour in steps are

capital: listed in step 6 is equal to 9,780/x,

given

the unit The annual

prices interest

indicated payments

9 and 10. equal to:

therefore

9,780/=

X .12

=

1,170

Tanzania

Shillings

Step

12 : Total The total

unit annual

production production

cost: cost is equal to:

5,950/= Shillings

+

500/=

+

37,680/=

+

42,000/=

+

1,170/=

=

87,300

Tanzania

The unit

production

cost

of

bricks

is

then

equal

to;

87,300/=

t

624,000/=

= 0.14/=

(14

cents)

c, Year

Interest 5% 6% 8% 10%
12%

Rate

(I

)

14%

15%

16%

18%

20%

22%

24%

25%

26%

28%

30%

35%

40%
0.714 1.224 1.589 1.849

0.952 0.943 0.926 0.909 0.893 0.877 0.870 0.862 I.659 1.833 1.783 1.736 1.690 1.647 1.626 1.605 2.723 2.673 2.577 2.487 2.402 2.322 2.283 2.246 3.546 3.465 3.312 3.170 3.037 2.914 2.855 2.798 4.330 4.212 3.993 3.791 3.605 3.433 3.352 3.274 G
7 8 3 10

0.847 0.833 1.566 1.528 2.174 2.106 2.690 2.589 3.127 2.991 3.812 4.078 4.303 4.494 3.605 3.837 4.031 4.192

0.820 0.806 0.800 1.492 1.457 1.440 2.042 1.981 1.952 2.45!,2.404 2.362 2.864 2.745 2.689 3.416 3.619 3.786 3.923 4.035 4.127 4.203 4.265 4.315 4.357 4.391 4.419 4.442 4.460 3.242 3.421 3.566 3.682 3.776 3.851 3.912 3.962 4.001 4.033 4.059 4.080 4.097 4.110

0.794 0.781 1.424 1.392 1.923 1.868 2.320 2.241

0.769 0.741 1.361 1.289 1.816 1,696 2.166 1.997

2.635 2.532 2.436 2.220 2.035
2.508 2.598 2.665 2.715 2.263 2.331 2.379 2.414 2.438 2.456 2.468 2.477 2.484 2.4eg 2.492 2.494 2.496 2.497 2.498 2.498 2.499 2.499 2.499

5.076 4.917 4.623 4.355 4.111 3.889 3.784 3.685 3.498 3.326 3.167 3.020 2.951 2.885 2.759 2.643 2.385 2.168
5.786 6.463 7.108 7.722 8.306 R.e63 9.394 9.899 10.380 5.582 6.210 6.002 7.360 5.206 5.747 6.247 6.710 4.868 5.335 5.759 6.145 4.564 4.968 5.328 5.650 4.288 4.639 4.946 5.216 5.453 5.660 5.842 6.002 6.142 6.265 6.373 6.467 6.550 6.623 4.160 4.407 4.772 5.019 5.234 5.421 5.583 5.724 5.847 5.954 6.047 6.128 6.198 6.259 4.039 4.344 4.607 4.833 5.029 5.197 5.342 5.468 5.575 5.669 5.749 5.810 5.877 5.929 3.161 3.003 2.93'72.802 3.329 3.241 3.076 2.925 3.463 3.366 3.184 3.019 3.571 3.465 3.269 3.092 3.656 3,725 3.780 3.824 3.859 3.887 3.910 3.928 3.942 3.954 3.544 3.606 3.656 3.695 3.726 3.335 3.387 3.427 3.459 3.483

7.887 7.139 8.384 7.536 8.853 7.904 9.295 8.244 9.712 8.559

6.495 5.938 6.814 6.194 7.103 6.424 7.367 6.628 7.606 6.811 7.824 6.974 8.022 7.120 8.201 7.250 8.365 7.366 8.514 7.469

4.656 4.327 4.793 4.439 4.910 4.533 5.008 4.611 5.092 4.675 5.162 4.730 5.222 4.775 5.273 4.812 5.316 4.844 5.353 4.870

3.147 2.752 3.190 2.779 3.223 2.799 3.249 2.814 3.268 2.825 3.283 2.834 3.295 2.840 3.304 2.844 3.311 2.848 3.316 2.850 3.320 2.852 3.323 2.853 3.325 2.854 3.327 2.855 3.329 2.856

l'J.83810.106 8.851 11.27410.477 9.122 11.69Olo.828 9.372 12.08511.158 9.604 12.46211.470 9.818

3.751 3.503 3.771 3.510 3.786 3.529 3.799 3.539 3.808 3.546 3.816 3.551 3.822 3.556 3.827 3.559 3.831 3.562 30834 3.564

12.82111.764m.017 8.649 7.562 6.687 6.312 5.973 5.384 4.891 4.476 4.121 3.963 13.16312.04211).201 8.772 7.645 6.743 6.359 6.011 5.410 4.909 4.488 4.130 3.970 i13.48912.30310.371 8.883 7.718 6.792 6.399 6.0I1'+ 5.432 4.925 4.499 4.137 3.976 13.79312.55olD.5298.985 7.784 6.835 6.434 6.073 5.451 4.937 4.507 4.143 3.981 i14.094U.783 D-675 9.077 7.843 6.873 6.464 6.0% 5.467 4.948 4.514 4.147 3.985

TABLE X.1: PRESENT WORTH OF AN ANNUITY FACTOR (F)

CHAPTER XI

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTOF ALTERNATIVE BRICK MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES

The social of particular housing effects with for men,

and economic interest authorities of with to

effects public project

of

various evaluators is public

brickmaking from planners and

options

should

be

planners, chapter helping

financial therefore

institutions, industrial to shed identify formulate light

business development on these technologies appropriate

and this

agencies. various consonant policies I.

The purpose national

a view of

to

socio-economic these

objectives,

the promotion

technologies.

EMPLOYMENT GENERATION Employment generation of unit is of used in constitutes countries. than an be than in produce words, require of other efficient favoured turnkey the latter 83 per of Bogota output in should one major Thus, manner. from factories (Colombia) cent the objective technologies should Consequently, an employment as shows of total units, ten times Another in per It the they For that be of which national require as a

development more labour long over study brick brick as brickmaking those of substantially

plans per

developing

technologies

favoured small-scale viewpoint do

labour used

techniques more

large-scale techniques plants

generate

employment

technologies.

example, large-scale brick in

brickmaking although

manufactufing industry. plants (43) XI.1 scales plants plants shows In per

national force using more

production

they

use only other

one-third

labour

the than in

small-scale approximately (76). ratio for inputs

relatively labour out

labour-intensive large-scale Colombia units various small-scale automated Table

techniques, unit that the

production labour-capital than that of and

study

carried

small-scale 10 million be seen

brickmaking plants. for the that bricks

is over

100 times provides of

greater estimates

large-scale

manufacturing may

labour

production require

techniques.

between

20 and 25 times

more labour

than the highly

for

the same output.

- 178 Table Scales of production XI.1 and labour generation

Description

of brickmaking

Production (bricks

rate

of

Labour per 10 million bricks year per

methods

one plant per day)

Small-scale, Small-scale, technology Soft-mud manua1 Moderately Highly

traditional 2 000 2 000 otherwise 14 000 mechanised 64 000 180 000 76 20 8 160 200 intermediate

manual processes

machine,

automated

II.

TOTAL INVESTMENT COSTS AND FOREIGNEXCHANGE SAVINGS The import of expensive equipment and the with subsequent locally need for spare parts and which for

services of can be

can be a burden techniques by local foreign repaired and scarce

on a country’s use of craftsmen, exchange. countries the

foreign may thus

exchange partly

reserves. the

The choice need

small-scale

manufactured alleviate

equipment,

imports

A large capital countries. investments Table viewpoint, appropriate large-scale plants, times larger

number of as

developing by

also which

suffer minimise

from shortages prevailing the use of

of in

local these

funds

exemplified be favoured. that,

high

interest

rates

Consequently, should XI.2 than plants Similarly, for shows

technologies

capital

from

a

foreign plants,

exchange are, Thus, than these

and by

capital far, for is

investment much more in 15

small-scale are the

brickmaking six to 100 plants

technologies times larger of

large-scale,

automated

capital those units.

investments small-scale five to

import

component

investments

the automated

than for

small-scale

- 179 -

Table Capital costs

XI.2 exchange inputs

and foreign

Description brickmaking processes

of

Total bricks ('000

cost

for

Proportion of costs cent) (per

10 million per year us$)

Import Small-scale, traditional manual process Small-scale intermediate technology Mechanical kiln Source: 77 plant 3,880 75 578 15 34 5

Local

95

85

with Hoffman 25

III.

UNIT PRODUCTION COST A major component materials. of by low-cost lowincome In reliable to the of the cost This schemes. groups case of unit of that bricks is It and bricks, production these at costs a of is to a house in the developing case for important in order to public should not plants, lower cost countries low-cost to is housing promote that or the home of building particularly

of

various production ownership authorities. production Although (78)

self-help

therefore reduce costs are

building

materials

facilitate and be recent scales

investments therefore using than

by housing favoured. studies

production

techniques available,

which minimise estimates indicate produce

tend

small-scale

intermediate large-scale,

technologies,

- 180 -

capital-intensive X1.3. plants plants. It may be

plants. seen three that times

Results the

of

these price that

studies of of bricks bricks

are

summarised in in

in

table

unit

produced produced

small-scale large-scale

is two to

lower

than

Table Unit

XI& costs

production

Classif

ication

of

Unit production

cost

(US cents

per brick)

brickmaking

process Medium wage regime Low wage regime 6.2

Capital-intensive, “Least-cost”, all

all year

year round

round

6.5

3.1 2.9

2.3 2.0

“Leas t-co8 t”, Source: 78

seasonal

working

only

IV.

RURAL INDUSTRIALISATION It is desirable growth a size It rate to of set urban to up industries areas the (2). local be , the in rural areas, to counterbalance however, needs the of the must the of be also TInese rural markets noted the chosen or and to that level can the the of industries, the social

faster be of people.

appropriate should of (7). ensure plants, suitable

particularly mechanisat ion) Consequently that

higher required

degree professional should

automation qualifications such as to

(or

higher

technology out

any maintenance which for rural that the can the local have constitute especially been areas.

repair

be carried electricity,

on site. are

Small-scale particularly It is

operate adopted labour a major if

without

also for

essential level of do not

technology force. in constraint is

be Some Section to

consonant aspects IV of the

with of Chapter

the skill IX.

qualification requirements These of rural

brickmaking units,

discussed

requirements brickmaking

establishment produced be and

equipment

locally should market on a

repaired. enough (30). so

Furthermore, that production

small-scale may be

production increased have

techniques to

flexible

according to operate

requirements basis

The brickmaking

plants

may also

seasonal

-

iai

-

(according agricultural large-scale, V.

to

weather seasons),

conditions a

and plants

the

availability which overrules areas.

of

workers the

during adoption

peak of

condition

capital-intensive

in rural

MULTIPLIER EFFECTS Alternative production economy (i.e. the techniques backward origin will have different linkages) and the multiplier depending effects on the From multiplier those with are if be of a and forward of equipment with be

on the national scale of

production

and

materials. largest
over

socio-economic effects limited generally not such while fuel Finally, should plants. further all, should, effects.

viewpoint, all other

technologies things being

associated equal,

favoured

Small-scale, capital-intensive the manufactured locally

relatively with technologies equipment instead thus

labour-intensive larger for (e.g. of the table being generate use local will of multiplier following moulds, imported

brickmaking effects reasons. mixing section (see

technologies than Firstly, equipment) II). and large-scale, most, may

associated

Production

equipment large-scale wood or

shou Id plants local

additional fuel thus bricks those (e.g.

employment wood, and

incomes. wastes) of

Second ly , small-scale other

plants often

agricultural additional

rely

on oil.

The gathering generate produced of the of

processing

materials and transport

employment. units

the marketing also generate

by small-scale output bricks. of

more employment employment through

than

large-scale effects will

Altogether,

generated

through

multiplier

expand that.generated

the production

VI.

ENERGYREQUIREMENTS

Fuel in

requirements VII.

of

various

types

of fuel

kilns

have

already of large plant supply costs are

been kilns

considered must be 10

Chapter

The apparent the fact that equipment. year

higher large

efficiency operate a

weighed of

against

plants

with large

a considerable

amount

energy-consuming bricks per

For

example,

producing for the

million of the

may require Furthermore, plants than is

300 kWh electricity transportation in small-scale offset However, of fuel

running to be

equipment ( 7). in large-scale of a used in of small-scale

likely the energy

higher efficiency for partly difficult

plants. by the

Thus, higher

low fuel inputs are it and is

kilns the the

partly plants.

equipment

large-scale

as energy

requirements

function to

efficiency relative

kiln-operating efficiency of

procedures,
small

compare

large

production

units.

-

182 -

VII.

CONCLUSION

Small-scale production where base exists; under

production the

of

bricks

is

generally where where

preferable low wage are

to

large-scale exist; and most industrial

following is in

circumstances: short supply; and technical techniques

regimes

foreign

exchange where is

no well-developed skills

infrastructure small brickmaking under (78) are available of

insufficient; the

where the market Labour-intensive appropriate However, factors properly or

or widespread, are often in considered developing be the one evaluators should more take

techniques recent consider The the studies above all

conditions show that not present.

prevailing this may not Thus, prior

countries. case if the should technology into

always project to

mentioned

alternatives alternative

promoting

another.

evaluation fact that

technologies generates

consideration than large-scale costs. exchange

small-scale while

production capital

employment and foreign

production

minimising

investments

APPENDIX I GLOSSARYOF TECHNICALTERMS

Adobe

Mud brick;

hand made,

dried

in the sun,

not

fired.

Alluvial

material

Clay,sand
river.

or mud laid

down by the

flooding

of a

Arris

The edge where two clay

faces

meet.

Auger

Tool

for

boring

a hole

in the ground it

or taking

a sample of action.

the soil;

has a screrlike which forces thread clay through

Also

a machine

an aperture inside Bag wall

by means of containing built

a screw

rotating

a barrel wall of

the clay. the back of kiln. each of

The brick the fires

around

a downdraught

Batter

To slope opposite

the of

face

of

an embankment or quarry;

overhand.

Bed face

The underneath usually the in the mortar.

surface

of

a brick the face

as laid of

in a wall, bedded

largest

face;

a brick

Benching

Method of at several benches

winning different

clay

from the pit levels,

simultaneously at several

by working

or steps.

Binder

The material for example, are binders.

which binds

together

separate

particles;

cement and lime,

used to make mortars,

Blade

A thin of

section

of brick

across

the whole

width

a kiln.

Bloating

Creation clay brick

of

gas bubbles causing

within

the near-vitrified and craking on

in the kiln, surfaces.

blisters

Block

A building two hands

unit to lift

larger it.

than a brick,

usually

requiring

Body Bond

The material The pattern usually not such

after

processing. of bricks joints in a wall, bricks are courses. is of one hand, with

of arrangement that vertical above

between

immediately

each other

in adjoining and which with

Brick

A unit

from which walls and weight the other

may be built it

such size allowing a trowel.

that

can be laid

hand to be used for

operating

Bulking

of

sand

A given depending

weight

of

sand will

have various

volumes,

upon the water

content.

Bull’s

trench

kiln

An archless

continuous

kiln

based

on the principle

of

the Hoffmann kiln.

Burning

Firing.

In the case of

of

bricks,

burning they

them changes have been

the nature shaped,

the clay their

from which strength

increasing durable as for temperature

and durability. reacts

Calcium

silicate

A generally with silica silica, and high

compound formed when lime example methods during of silicate up tc the high bricks. support treating

pressure

lime and

sand to make calcium fonnwork

Centring

Wooden or other arch while

built

a brick

the mortar

sets.

-

187 -

Clamp

Large in the

piie'of

green courses,

bricks

with fuel
is term with set is the

between on fire also fuel of

those to burn to

the bottom bricks.

which

Sometimes,this a similar through pile the but lower

used

describe in tunnels

placed the pile.

courses

Continuous

kiln

A kiln being

in which warmed, parts

the fired, of

fire

is

always

burning,

bricks in

and cooled the kiln.

simulatenously

different

Coppicing

The annual do not useful grow

cutting to full

of

wood

from

trees,which to

therefore provide

size,yet such as

continue fuel.

materials

Course

A horizontal

layer

of

bricks.

Cuckhold

A concave-bladed prepared clay.

spade

for

cutting

off

lumps

of

Cuckle

A curved off a pice

metal of

strip clay

with from

two handles lump.

for

cutting

a large

Dip

The slope horinzontal.

of

a clay

deposit

comparxd

with

the

Docking

Immersing fired so that a thin
of

bricks

in water

for

a short

while

outer

skin

is thoroughly
to reduce

wetted.
the incidence

Claimed by several lime blowing.

authorities

Downdraught kiln

A kiln

in which hot gases fired.

pass down between

the bricks

which are being Ettringite

A compound formed from sulphates aluminate; the bricks expansion if of it is formed after set, is well

and calcium the mortar between and

it may cause softening

the mortar joints.

-

188 -

Eye

The point is first

near lit.

the base

of

a clamp

where

the

fire

Fair-faced

brickwork

Brick

walling

of

an acceptable rendering

stanlard

of

appearance

and quality,

without

or plastering.

Fat

soil

Highly

plastic dryir,g

soil;-

usually

a clay

rich

soil

Tgith high

shrinkage.

Firing

Heating

in

a kiln

to

partially

vitrify

(see

burning).

Flash

A silver the crack

of or

clay air

on the inlet

arris in

of

a brick,

formed

in

the mould.

Flash

wall

A long draught

wall kiln,

behind

the

fires to

on one the

side hot

of

a downupward.

serving

deflect

gases

Flux

A mineral required

in to

the clay obtain

which

reduces

the

temperature

vitrification.

Frog

Indentation of a brick. brick,

in one A frog but

or

sometimes

both into

of

the

bed

faces

cannot is easily

be put formed

an extruded, or

wirecut pressed

in moulded

bricks.

Ghol

Clay

washing

tank

(Indian).

Green

brick

Brick

formed

into

shape

but

not

yet

fired.

Grog

Fired size, reduces

clay, for

often addition

reject to the

bricks, clay the

crushed body. body.

to

a fine

Such material

shrinkage

and opens

Habla

kiln

An archless Hoffmann

zigzag kiln.

continuous

kiln,

based

on the

Hard fired

bricks

Bricks

fired

to

a relatively amount strength

high of

temperature,

producing

a moderate good

vitrification

and consequent

and durability.

--

-

189 -

Header

The small brickwork.

end of

a brick

showing

in the

face

of

Heat work

The combination effect on ceramic

of

temperature reactions.

and time

and its

Hoffmann

kiln

A brick-arched elliptical, preheat increasing both

continuous in which the waste

kiln, heat air

circular is used

or to bricks, so

combustion efficiency.

and the

fuel

Hydraulic

lime

A lime which to cetain the lime

will

set

under

water. which

This react

is

due with only the air.

siliceous itself.

impurities Non-hydraulic

limes dioxide

harden in

by carbonation

caused

by carbon

Igneous

rocks

Rocks

of

volcanic

origin;

rocks

which

were

molten

at one time.

Intermittent

kiln

A kiln

in which

the

fire

is after

allowed

to die been

out

and the bricks fired. The kiln

to cool

they have

must be emptied, for each load

refilled of bricks.

and

a new fire

started

Lean soil

Low plasticity finer soil. sizes of

soil, clay

usually fractions.

due to

lack

of

the to fat

In contrast

Leather-hard

bricks

Bricks picked

which

have partly

dried

so that them.

they

can be

up without

distorting

Loam

Sandy clay and having

often

suitable

for

shaping

into

bricks,

a low drying

shrinkage.

Marl

Natural

mixture

of clay

and chalk.

__

.

- 190 To increase body. The material brick Oxidising clay. of sueEioundings in which oxygen is freely lying on top of a nattizal deposit of the permeability to gases of a ceramic

Open the clay

body

0ve:burden

Conditions avai? ;-:‘uLe.

PCE Perpend s

Abbreviation The visible in a wall.

for

pyrometric joints

cone equivalent. between bricks

vertical

Plastic

material

Material

able

to be deformed the deformed

by moderate

pressure

and retaining is removed. Plasticity Possessing

shape when the pressure

the property

of

being

plastic.

Profile Puddle

A section

taken

through

the various

strata

of a soil.

To mix up dry soil manua1 ly .

or lime with water,

usually

Pyrometric

cone

A small

clay-based a certain of

cone

which will

squat work.

after

undergoing Reducing Conditions oxygen is

amount of heat

surroundings

in which little

or no

available.

Refractory Render

Heat-resisting, To cover an exterior wall surface with a cement-lime

based mix. Ring

The high-pitched well-fired bricks

metallic are

sound obtained against each

when two other.

struck

- 191 -

Kunne r

Person who carries slopmoulded bricks in mould to the drying ground.

Stove

To cover over with mud.

The name of the stove kiln

originates from the practice of scoving the outside bricks in order to stop the heat from escaping from the pile of bricks being fired.

Sesquioxides

The oxides of aluminium and iron.

Shale

Soft laminated slate-like rock, harder than most clays.

Short material

Lacking plasticity,’ lean.

Siliceous

Having a high proportion of silica.

Slake

To fall apart when immersed in water.

Slip

A thin slurry of clay in water; very wet and runny mix of clay.

Soak stage

Period during which bricks are kept at a fixed elevated temperature in a kiln. of bricks in water. Also immersion

Soft-f ired bricks

Bricks heated in a kiln to a relatively low temperature; bricks so treated do not exhibit optimal physical properties.

Solar gain

Heat obtained from the sun.

Sour

Leave.clay in contact with water for a long period.

Spall.

Flake away from the surface.

Specific surface area

The total area of either the many fine particles or the many fine pores in a solid within a standard weight of the material.

- 192 -

Squat

The deformation of a clay near its vitrification point, especially the deformation of a pyrometric cone.

Strain

A measure of the change in size compared to the original size.

Strata

The various layers in a sedimentary deposit.
..

Stress

A measure of the force applied to produce strain in an object

Stretcher

The long face of a brick (not the bed face) showing in a wall.

Strike

The direction in a clay deposit in which the clay is at the same depth. Also a piece of wood for

pushing off excess clay in slop moulding.

Striker

Piece of wood for pushing off excess clay in slop mould ing .

Sump

A depression into which water may be drained off, or wastes deposited.

Surkhi

Soft-f ired clay, ground up, for mixing with lime to make mortar (Indian).

Temper

Leave in wet condition, often overnight or longer to make clay more workable and easier to mould.

Terracing

Benching.

Thermal capacity

A measure of the quantity of heat which an object can hold; high values in building components reduce temperature extremes within the building.

Tunne 1 ki In

Closed kiln or dryer through which the bricks are carried on wheeled cars.

- 193 -

Updraught kiln

A kiln in which the hot combustion gases pass upward through the bricks which are being fired.

Water,smoklng

The first stages of heating in a kiln during wRich only a gentle heat is applied to remove remaining water from the green bricks.

Wicket

The doorway for access into a kiln.

It is

' ''

bricked up tetiporarily ,wc"ilstth.ebricks are being fired.

Winning

Obtaining raw material from a deposit.

Worked out

Description applied to a deposit which has been completely dug.

APPENDIX II

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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(7) Bender, W.: The planning of brickworks (Plymouth, Macdonald and Evans, 1978). (8) Searle, A.B.: Modern brickmaking (London, Ernest Be'nn, 1956).

(9) UNIDO: Clay building materials industries in Africa, report of a workshop held in Tunis in 1970 (Vienna, 1971). (10) Parry, J.P.M.: Brickmaking in developing countries (Garston, Watford, British Research Institute, 1979). (11) Lunt, M.G.: Stabilised soil blocks for buildings. Overseas Building Note No. 184 (Garston, British Research Institute, 1980). (12) Smith, R.G. : "Small-scale production of gypsum plaster for building in the Cape Verde Islands" in Appropriate Technolo_gll (London, Intermediate Technology Development Group) 1982, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.4-6. Long-term unrestrained expansion of test bricks in Transactions (13) of the British Ceramic Society (London), 1973, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. l-5.,.
l

(14) British Research Institute: "Materials for concrete" in Digest No. 237 (Garston, Watford), 1980, p. 237. (15) : "Repairing brickworks" in Digest No. 200 (Garston), 1981, pa 2.

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- 196 -

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(21) Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of International Affairs: Handbook for building houses of earth, (Washington, DC, n.d.). (22) Knizek, I.: Brickmaking plant. Industry profile. Development and transfer of technology series No. 10 (New York, UNIDO, 1978). (23) Butterworth, B.; Methods of assessing the suitability of clays for brickmaking (London, Claycraft, 1947). (24) Clews, F.H.: Heavy clay technology, (Stoke-on-Trent, British Ceramic Research Association,'l969). (25) West, H.W.H.: Production technology - Winning, preparation and shaping of , Dot, No. ID/WG/81/4 (New York, UNIDO, 1970). (26) Smith, R.G.: BrickmakiZg_by Malagasy artisans and the establishment of a pilot centre (Geneva, ILO, 1980). (27) Sedalia, B.M.: Structural clay industry (Bandung, United Nations Regional Housing Centre, 1976). (28) Svare, T.I.: Better burnt bricks, technical pamphlet No. 1 (Dar-es-Salaam, National Housing and Building Research Unit, 1971). (29) Harley, G.T.: "A study of shovelling" in Transactions of the British Ceramics Society (Stoke-on-Trent), 1932, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. l-35. (30) Chatterjee, A.K.: "Clay preparation and product manufacture", in Small-Scale Building and Road Research News (Khumasi), 1977, Vol. 2, No. 2. (31) Srinivasan S. and Jain L.C.: “Lime bursting in bricks" in Digest No. 113 (Roorke, India, Central Building Research Institute, 1975). (32) Amonoo-Neizer, K.: Asokwa brick project , Special Report No. SR l/73 (Kumasi, Ghana, Building and Road Research Institute, 1973). (33) Woodforde, J.: Bricks to build a house (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976). (34) Hammond, M. : Bricks and brickmaking,(Princes Risborough, United Kingdom, Shirs Publications, 1981). (35) Prakash, S.; Majundar, N.C.: "Manufacture of bricks of improved quality in Bhopal", in Journal of Engineers and Planners (New Delhi), 1974, Vol. 2, Nos. 8 & 9, pp. 27-30. (36) Indian Standards Institution: Specification for burnt clay facinp bricks, Dot. No. IS 2691-1972 (New Delhi, 1972). (37) British Standards Institution: Specification for clay bricks and blocks, Dot. No. IS No. 3921-1974 (London, 1974).

- 197 -

(38j Mcjumdar, N.C.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Hiralal, E.S.: "Manufacture of building bri:ks by a semi-mechanised process", in Transactions of the Indian Ceramics Society !New Delhi), 1969, Vol. XXVIII, No. 4, pp. 121-128. (39) Majumdar, N.C.; Hiralal, E.S.; Handa, S.K.: An appropriate technology for mechanised production of building bricks. Procee.dings of a'national seminar on building materials - their science and techno-logy (New Delhi, 1982). (40) Thomas, D.W.: Small-scale manufacture of burned building brick (Arlington, Virginia, Volunteers in Technical Assistance, 1977). (41) Smith, R.G.: "Improved moulding devices for hand-made bricks", in Appropriate. Technology (London, Intermediate Technology Publications), 1981 Vol. 7, No. 4. (42) Weller, H.O.;Campbell, A.J.: Brickmaking in East Africa (Nairobi, East African Industrial Research Board, 1945). (43) Baily, M.A.: "Brick manufacturing in Colombia: A case study of alternative technologies", in World Development (London, Pergamon Press), 1981, pp. 201-213. (44) Ford, R.W.: Drying, Institute of Ceramics Textbook series No. 3 (London, Maclaren, 1974). (45) Macey, H.H. : Drying in the heavy clay industry, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 3 (London, Her Majesty Stationary Office, 1950). (46) Small Industries Development Organisation: Burnt clay brickmaking, Rural Industries Guide No. 4 (Dar-es-Salaam, n.d.1. (47) Schmidt, H.: "Measures to counteract defects in bricks during firing in Ziegelindustrie International, Issue No. 3, Mar. 1980, pp. 153-162. (48) Noble, W.: The firing of common bricks, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 4 (London, Her Majesty Stationary Office, 1950). (49) Jain, L.C.: "Effect of sodium chloride on the prevention of lime blowing" in Indian Ceramics (New Delhi), Mar. 1980, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 262-266. (50) Laird, R.T.; Worcester, M.: "The inhibiting of lime blowing in bricks" in Transactions of the British Ceramic Society, 1956, Vol. 55, No. 8. (51) Spence, R.J.S.: An investigation of the properties of rural and urban bricks, Paper No. TR9 (Lusaka, National Council for Scientific Research, 1971). (52) Gundry, D.G.: "Brickmaking on the farm" in Rhodesia Agricultural Journal (Harare), 1951, Vol. XLVIII, NO. 4,, pp. 330-343. (53) Hill, N.R.: "A clamp can be appropriate for the burning of bricks", in Appropriate Technology, 1980, Vol. 7, No. 1,. (54) Majumdar, N.C.: "Firing of Bull's Trench kilns", in Indian Builder, Sep. 1957. (55) Indian Standard Institution: Guide for the design and manufacture of brick kilns, Dot. No.IS 4805-1968 (New Delhi, 1968).

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(56) Spence, R.J.S.: "Brick manufacture using the bull's trench kiln", in Appropriate Technology, 1975, Vol. 2, No.- 1. (57) "New archless continuous kiln", in British Clayworker (London), May 1929. (58) Majumdar, N.C.; Hiralal, E.S.: "High draught kiln ; its operation, control and economics", in Brick and Tiles News (Roorke, India, Central Building Research Institute), 1980, pp. 47-51. (59) Salmang, H.: Ceramics: physical and chemical fundamentals (London, Butterworths, 1961). . . .. ., km ..' . - * (60) FAO: Yearbook 1981 (Rome, 1982). ' .

_:

(61) Madibbo, A.M.; Richter, M.: "Fired clay bricks in the Sudan", in Building Research Digest (Khartoum, National Building Research Station), 1970, No. 6, Phase 1. (62) Rad, P.F.: "A simple technique for determining strength of brick", in Proceedings of the North American Masonry Conference (1978) Part. 40, pp. l-10. (63) Jain, L.C.: "Accelerated test for lime blowing", in British Clayworker, 1971, Vol. 80, No. 947, pp. 40-41. (64) Butterworth, B.: "The frost resistance of bricks and tiles - A review", in Journal of the British Ceramic Society (Stoke-on-Trent), 1964, Vol. 1, No. 2, ppe 203-223. (65) Spence, R.J.S.: Small-scale production of cementitious materials (London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1980). (66) Smith, R.G.: Rice husk ash cement (Rugby, United Kingdom, Intermediate Technology Industrial S,ervice,1983). (67) Central Building Research Institute; Cementitious binder from waste lime sludge and rice husk, Technical Note No. 72, (Roorke, India, 2nd edition, 1980). (68) Spence, R.J.S.: $lternative cements in India (London, Intermediate Technology Development Group, 1976). (69) Indian Standards Institution: Specification for lime pozzolana mixture, No. IS 4098-1967 (New Delhi, 1967). (70) Beningfield, N.: Aspects of cement-based mortars for brickwork and blockwork concrete (London, 1980). (71) Smith, R.G. : *sum, Proceedings of a meeting on small-scale manufacture of cementitious materials (London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1974). (72) British Standards Institution: Specification for masonry cement, Dot. No. BS 5224-1976 (London, 1976).

(74)Buttterworth, B. : The properties of clay building materials, Paper presented to a Ceramics Symposium (Stoke-on-Trent, British Ceramic Society, 1953).

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(75) Macey, H.H.; Green, A.T.: The labour involved in making and firing common bricks, National Brick Advisory Council Paper No. 2 (London, HMSO, 1947). (76) Centro National de la Construction: Diagnosis of the economic and technological State of the Colombian brickmaking industry, Dot. No. CEN lo-76 (Bogota, 1976). (77)Parry, J.P.M.: Technical options in brick and tile production, Paper presented to an Intermediate Technology Workshop (Birmingham, 1983). (78) Keddie, J.; Cleghorn, W.: "Least cost brickmaking", in Appropriate Technolou, 1978,.Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 24-27. '(79) British Research Establishment: Building research centred and similar organisations thshout the world, Overseas Building Note No.' 163 (Garston, Watford, 1978). (80) UNIDO: Information sources on-the ceramics industry, Guide to Information Sources No. 17 (New York, 1975).

APPENDIX III

INSTITUTES FROM WHERE INFORMATICN CAN BE OBTAINED

ARGENTINA Association Tecnica Argenrina dcaCeramica, Talcahuano 847, P.B. Buenos Aires.

AUSTRALIA Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Graham Road, Highett, Victoria 3190,

AUSTRIA United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 400, A-1400 Vienna.

BOTSWANA Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Private Bag 006, Gaborone.

COLOMBIA National Centre for Construction Studies, Ciudad Universitaria C1145-Cra 30, Edificio CINVA, AA34219 Bogota. .

EGYPT General Organisation for Housing, Building and Planning Research, P.O. Box 1170, El-Tahreer Street, Dokky, Cairo.

- 202 -

FRANCE Centre Technique des Tuiles et Briques, 2, avenue Hoche, 75008 Paris.

Internationai Union of Testing and Researck.XJaboratories (RILEM), 12, rue Brancion, 75737 Paris .

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Institut fiirZiegelforschung, Essen e V, Am Zehnthof, 4300 Essen-Kray.

.GHANA
Building and Road Research Institute, University, P.O. Box 40, Kumasi.

INDIA Central Building Research Institute, Roorke (Uttar Pradesh), 277672.

INDONESIA Directorate of Building Research, United Nations Regional Housing Centre, P.O. Box 15, 84 Jalan Tamansari, Bandung.

LEA9
Building Research Centre, P.O. Box 127, Jadiriyah, Bagdad.

,ISRAE$ Building Research Station, Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa.

- 203 -

IVORY CCAST Soci&& B.P. Abidjan. JORDAN Building Royal P.O. Materials Research Society, Centre, des Briqueteries de CSte d'Ivoire,

10303,

Scientific Box 6945,

Amman. MADAGASCAR Centre National de l'hrtisanat Malagasy,

B.P. 540, Antananarivo. MALAWI, Malawi Housing P.O. Box 414, Corporation,

Blantyre. NETHERLANDS International Council for Building Research Studies

and DocumentationWeena 704, Post

(CIB),

Box 20704,

3001 JA Rotterdam. PAKISTAN Pakistan Off Council for Road, Scientific and Industrial Research,

University 39.

Karachi

PAPUA NEWGUINEA Department P.O. Boroko. of Public Works,

Box 1108,

-

204 -

PHILIPPINES Ceramic P.O. Association of the Philippines,

Box 499, Rizal.

Makati,

$TDAN Building University P.O. and Road Research of Khartoum, Institute,

Box 35,

Khartoum

SWITZERLAND Technology International CH-1211 Geneva and Employment Labour 22. Office, Branch,

International

Standard

Organisation,

1, rue de VarembG, CH-1211 Geneva

TANZANIA Small P.o. Industries Box 2476, Development Organisation,

Dar-es-Salaam.

THAILAND Applied Scientific Research Road, Corporation of Thailand

196 Phahonyothin Bankkhen, Bangkok.

TRINIDAD Caribbean Post office Industrial box, Research Institute,

Tunapuna.

- 205 -

UNITED KINGDOM British Ceramic Research Association, Queens Road, Penkhull, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7LG.

Building Research Establishment, Bucknalls Lane, Garston, Watford, Herts WD2 7JR.

Intermediate Technology Development Group, 9, King Street, Covent Garden, London WC2E 8HN.

Intermediate Technology Workshop, Corngreaves Trading Estate, Overend Road, Warley, West Midlands B64 7DD.

UNITED STATES American Ceramic Society, Inc., 4055 North High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43214.

Volunteers in Technical Assistance, 1815 N. Lynn Street, Suite 200, P.O. Box 12438, Arlington, Virginia 22209

UPPER VOLTA Soci&e Voltai'quede Briqueterie et de Ceramique

B.P. 148, Ouagadougou.

ZAMBIA National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box CH 158, Chelston, Lusaka.

APPENDIX IV

LIST OF EOUIPMENT SUPPLIERS Type of equipment

AUSTRALIA Automet P.O. Industries Pty Ltd., General equipment

Box 68, Street,

88 Beattie Balmain

NSW2014,

BELGIUM Sa Samic, Hanswijvaart 2800 Mechelen 21, General equipment

DENMARK Niro Atomizer Gladsaxevej A/S, 305,

1

DK-2860 Soeborg

General

equipment

FRANCE CERIC International, 18, rue Royale, General equipment

75008 Paris

GHANA Agricultural Accra Engineers, Trough mixer

INDIA Raj Clay 5 Mill Products, Colony,

Officers'

Ashram Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 Semi-mechanised equipment

- 208 -

ITALY Unimorando Consortium, Corson Don Minzoni 182, 14100 Asti General equipment

KENYA Christian Industrial Training Centre (CITC), Meru Road, Pumwani P.O. Box 729935 Nairobi Crusher, table mould

NETHERLANDS Joh's Aberson bv., 8120 AA, Olst Soft mud

UNITED KINGDOM Craven Fawcett Ltd., P.O. Box 21, Dewsbury Road, Wakefield, Yorkshire, WF2 9BD General equipment

William Boulton Ltd, Providence Engineering Works, Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs, ST6 3BQ General equipment

Croker Ltd., Runnings Road, Cheltenham, Glos. Pan mixer

British Ceramic Plant Manufacturers's Association, P.O. Box 107, Broadstone, Dorset BH18 8LQ General information service

W.G. Cannon, Broadway House, The Broadway, London SW19 Fans

__~~ - 209 -

Auto Combustions Hoistrack Ltd, Hartcourt, Halesfield 13, Telford, Salop. TF7 4QR Oil burners

Intermediate Technology Workshops, J.P.M. Marry and Assts. Ltd., Overend Road, Cradley Heath, West Midlands B64 7DD Crusher, table moulds, Handling equipment.

Allied Insulators, Albion works, Uttoxeter Road, Longton, Stoke-on-Trent ST3 1HP Pyrometric cones and rings

Bair and Tatlock Ltd., Freshwater Road, Chadwell Heath, Essex General laboratory equipment

William Boulton Ltd., Providence Engineering Works, Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, Staff ST6 3BQ Clay machinery

Podmore and Sons Ltd., Shelton, Stoke-on-Trent ST1 4PQ Clay machinery

British Ceramics Service Co. Ltd., Bricesco House, Park Avenue, Wolstanton, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs, ST4 8AT Kilns

Kilns and Furnaces Ltd., Keele Street, Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs, ST6 5AS Kilns

Leonard Farnell and Co. Ltd., Station Road, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7SR Testing apparatus and augers

- 210 -

UNITED STATES Interkiln P.O. Houston, Corporation Texas 77252 of America, General equipment Box 2048,

ZIMBABWE World Radio Bush House, P.O. Harare Systems, 72-72 Cameron Street, Crusher, table moulds

Box 2772,

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. 2.

Full

name................................................................

Address .................................................................. .................................................................. ..................................................................

3.

Profession Established If yes,

(check

the appropriate

case) /I

brickmaker ................................................ scale of production ................................

indicate

Government official If yes, specify

.................................................. ............................................. institution ..................................

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position

Employee of If yes,

a financial position

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specify staff

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member .............................................. institution ............................

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Other,

qecify

.....................................................................

4.

From where did Specify if

you get

a copy

of

this

memorandum?

obtained

free

or bought ...................................

.....................................................................

i

5.

Did the memorandum help (Check the appropriate Learn about brickmaking

you achieve case) techniques suppliers costs for

the following:

you were not aware of

Obtain names of equipment Estimate unit production

various

scales

of production/technologies Order equipment for local manufacture technique

Improve your current Cut down operating Improve the quality Decide adopt If which scale for

production costs of produced

bricks to

of production/technology plant to formulate

a new brickmaking

a Government employee, for

new measures

and policies If

the brickmaking

industry to assess of a brick-

an employee of

of a financial for

institution,

a request

a loan

the establishment

making plant If a trainer in a training institution, training to better to use the material advise counter-

memorandum as a supplementary If an international parts 6. on brickmaking expert,

technologies enough in terms of: aspects......................... ..*.......................... Yes No 1 I I

Is the memorandum detailed - Description of technical

. . . . .-I
. . ..a

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- Costing information ...........................................

- Information on socio-economic impact ..........................

I I I I I
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- Bibliographical information ................e.............

.....

If some of the answers are 'No' , please indicate why below or on a separate sheet: .."........................................................................... ............................*..~.......~......*...............~=....~......... . ......................................*..................................*...

7.

How may this memorandum be improved if a second edition is to be

published3 .. ......................................... .......................... ............~....................................................~~........... . ...............~..L..........................................................

8.

Please send this questionnaire, duly completed to:

i
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9.

Technology and Employment Branch International Labour Office CH-1211 GENEVA 22 (Switzerland)

In case you need additional information on some of the issues covered by

I I

this memorandum, the IL0 would do its best to provide the requested information.

I

I I

I
I I ! I I I I I I I I
111

. . .

Other IL0 publications
Technology Series

The object of the technical memoranda in this series is to help to disseminate, among small-scale producers, extension officers and project evaluators. information on small-scale processing technologies that are appropriate to the socioeconomic conditions of developing countries. ISSN 0252-2004

Tanning of hides and skins (Technology

Series - Technical

memorandum

No. 1)

This was the first of the technical memoranda to be published. It provides technical and economic information concerning the tanning of hides and skins at scales ranging from two hides per day (a typical rural tannery) to 200 hides per day. Six alternative tanning technologies are described, from a fully mechanised 200 hides per day project to a highly labour-intensive two hides per day project. Subprocesses are described in great detail, with diagrams of pieces of equipment which may be manufactured locally. A list of equipment suppliers is also provided for those pieces of equipment which may need to be imported. The memorandum on the tanning of hides and skins is, to some extent, complementary to that on the small-scale manufacture of footwear. ISBN 92-2-l 02904-2

Small-scale manufacture

of footwear (Technology

Series - Technical

memorandum

No. 2)

This technical memorandum covers the small-scale production of footwear (shoes and sandals) of differing types and quality. It provides detailed technical and economic information covering four scalesof production ranging from eight pairs per day to 1,000 pairs per day. A number of alternative technologies are described, including both equipmentintensive and labour-intensive production methods. Subprocesses are described in great detail, with diagrams of pieces of equipment which may be manufactured locally. A list of equipment suppliers is also provided for those pieces of equipment which may need to be imported. ISBN 92-2-l 03079-2

Small-scale processing of fish (Technology

Series - Technical

memorandum

No. 3)

This technical memorandum covers, in detail, technologies that are suitable for the small-scale processing of fish: that is, drying, salting, smoking, boiling and fermenting. Thermal processing is described only briefly, as it is used mainly in large-scale production. Enough information is given about the technologies to meet most of the needs of small-scale processors. Two chapters of interest to public planners compare, from a socioeconomic viewpoint, the various technologies described in the memorandum and analyse their impact on the environment. ISBN 92-2-l 032051

Small-scale weaving (Technology

series - Technical

memorandum

No. 4)

This technical memorandum describes alternative weaving technologies for eight types of cloth (four plains and four twills) of particular interest for low-income groups in terms of both price and durability. It provides information on available equipment (e.g. looms, pirning equipment, warping equipment), including equipment productivity, quality of output, required quality of materials inputs, and so on. A methodological framework for the evaluation of alternative waaving technologies at three scales of production is provided for the benefit of the textile producer who wishes to identify the technology/scale of production best suited to his own circumstances, A chapter of interest to public planners compares, from a socioeconomic viewpoint, the various weaving technologies described in the memorandum. ISBN 92-2-l 03419-4

Small-scale oil extraction from groundnuts and copra (Technology

Series - Technical

memorandum

No. 5)

The present memorandum covers, in detail, various technologies for the extraction of oil from groundnuts and copra: baby expeller mills, small package expellers and power ghanis. Three main stages of processing are considered, namely the ore-processing stages (drying, crushing, scorching), the oil extraction stage and the post-treatment stages (filtering. cake breaking, packaging, bagging). The economic and technical details provided on the stages of processing should help would-be or practising small-scale producers to identify and apply the oil extraction technology best suited to local conditions. A chapter of interest to public planners compares small-scale plants and large-scale plants from a socioeconomic viewpoint and suggests various policy measuras for the promotion of the right mix of oil extraction techniques. ISBN 92-2-l 035034

Further technical memoranda are in preparation.

!t II; hoped
raildU!Tl Wil!

that the Infnrmatlon w~ilild wh:le lx or brlckm;rk.!ng lmprovrng

contained practlslng ?echnlques the quality

In this that of the

memo to + mlnlrnlse finished

fIelp

brlckmakers

cholxe productlorl . brlcki;

and

apply costs

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