OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS AND ENERGY USE
AT MAĆKOWICE NATURAL GAS
DEHYDRATION FACILITY
Artur Ryba

Diploma Thesis
Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas
AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow

Trondheim
June 2005

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii

Abstract
An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in
Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and
charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state
simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and
mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and
experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were
obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical
equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to
Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural
gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values
obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum
TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were
made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature
work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction.
A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

iii

Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Professor Jon Steinar
Gudmundsson. I am very grateful for the advice, support, guidance, assistance, patience and
enthusiasm.
I wish to thank Dr Hab. Inż. Stanisław Nagy, my supervisor from AGH University of Science
and Technology in Cracow, Poland for his support, propositions, help and understanding.
I am grateful to all my teachers who, giving me a small part of their wide knowledge, got me
to the stage when I am writing this thesis.
Special thanks to all contributors that make my Erasmus Link Scholarship possible. I would
like to especially mention here Dr Czesława Ropa, Professor Danuta Bielewicz, and Professor
Jan Falkus.
Special thanks to Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnow) for the
necessary materials, support and technical knowledge.
Last but not least thanks to my family, friends and colleagues who supported me in the time
spent on creating the thesis, and much longer than that. You are always there when I need you
and I appreciate that.

............... Glycol solutions..................................................................2 Technologies used for dehydration .......................................................................................................... 31 5................5 Dehydration by permeation ..................................................................................................................................................................4 Dehydration by adsorption ......................................................................................... ii Acknowledgements................ 26 5.............................. Water Content of Natural Gas............................................... 35 5...........................iii List of Contents..........................................1 Use of glycol solutions ................ Introduction ...........................................4 Water content calculations from empirical equations ................ 18 2.................................................................. 47 6..............................................2 Water content from GPSA diagram .............................2 Minimum strong TEG concentration ............. Hysys simulations ...................... 33 5.. 21 3........................ 31 5.................................................... 20 2.......................................................3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility.. 1 2.............................................................................................. 44 6........................................................................................................................................................... Hysys Simulation Package.............................................................................................................. 23 4.........................................5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program ...................... Dewatering Technology ..... 6 2. 11 2......................................................3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual ............................. 51 ....... iv List of Tables..........................................................................6 Water content results comparison ....................................... 6 2........................................................... 42 5.............8 Dew point values comparison ............................................................................................ 45 6............................................................................................................................................. vi List of Figures ............... x 1....................... 9 2............................................................................... 40 5...................................................................... 50 7................................................................................................ 32 5.....................................................................1 Theory of hydrates ....................................................................................................................................................6 Dehydration by refrigeration .....3 Dehydration by absorption ................................................viii Abbreviations................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION iv List of Contents Abstract ......................1 Water content measurement ................................................................................................................7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process ...................................................... 45 6...................................... 37 5.............................. Maćkowice Facilities .............

......................................................................Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] ......................................................... 118 Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] ..................................................... 62 Tables. 120 Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3....................................... 124 Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content ....... 94 Appendices .................................................................................... 121 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusions ...........................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION v 8.............. 66 Figures ......... 126 .............................. 60 References ................................................................ 117 Appendix B ..................................... 57 9......................................................... 117 Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil.................................................................................................................................................. Discussion..................... 122 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation............

.................. 67 Table 5................................................................................. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner.................... 72 Table 5... 73 Table 5............................................... 84 Table 5.................. 83 Table 5..................... 89 Table 5.................. 87 Table 5......... 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]. 90 .. 81 Table 5.................. 68 Table 5.................................................. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]........................ 85 Table 5............................................. 77 Table 5....... 78 Table 5........... 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ..... 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]............. 75 Table 5..................... 79 Table 5...... 66 Table 5........................ 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz....................................................................................................................................... 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].................... 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3]............................. 76 Table 5................... 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)........................................ 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] .............................. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ....... 2004) ................................................... 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3]...................... 88 Table 5...... Gandhidasan .......................... 73 Table 5..................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vi List of Tables Table 2.............. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3]........ 80 Table 5............................................. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P................................. 86 Table 5........................................ 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ....... 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ......... 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package.............................................................. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package ............................... 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ...... 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]......... 74 Table 5....... 1985).... 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ......................................................... 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys)..................................... 72 Table 5......................................................... 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys)............. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] ........ 82 Table 5......................

......... 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions……………… 93 ...................................... 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual.................................... 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations .............................................................. 91 Table 5.............................................. 92 Table 6.......OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vii Table 5......

........ 109 Figure 5....... 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys ...... 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP... 1997) ............................... 96 Figure 2.................. 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA ............................................. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations ........................................................ 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey............. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. 1991) ............. 110 .... 2005) .............................................. 2003......................................... 1988).............................. 2004) .................. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP.... 109 Figure 5............................................................. 96 Figure 2..... 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski...................... 107 Figure 5....................................................... reproduced)............. 106 Figure 5....................................................... 98 Figure 3......................... 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys .. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual............ 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics) ...... 105 Figure 5......... 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys..................... 103 Figure 5.... Small and large cavities (Behlar et al........ 102 Figure 5................. 110 Figure 5........................ 107 Figure 5.................... 2005)..................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION viii List of Figures Figure 2........... 108 Figure 5.......... 95 Figure 2................................................ 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al........... 1959) .......... 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys ............... 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG............................... 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG... 106 Figure 5........ 1994) ... 108 Figure 5..... 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys ....... 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual............ 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual....................... 11th edition)......... 104 Figure 5. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations ........... 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al.. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from GPSA Engineering Data Book.. 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson........ 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations ............................................... 94 Figure 2......... 99 Figure 3. 97 Figure 3......... 101 Figure 3....... 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.................................................... 2005).................................. 94 Figure 2............. 1990) ........................................ 100 Figure 3... Natural Gas Production Processing Transport.... 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics)........ 97 Figure 2............

......................... 17 Dew point comparison .................................................... 114 Figure 6...... 111 Figure 5....... 116 ................................ 112 Figure 5.. 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC ........................ 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC ................................... 111 Figure 5. 115 Figure 6..........................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION ix Figure 5............... 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC ................. 113 Figure 6................................................................................................................................ 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -29oC ...................... 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC ................................... 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG ...........................................................................

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Abbreviations ATG - Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France BMP - Best Management Practice CH4 - Methane CO2 - Carbon Dioxide DEG - Diethylene Glycol EG - Ethylene Glycol EPA - Environmental Protection Agency GPSA - Gas Processors Suppliers Assn h - hour H2O - Water H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LTX - Low-Temperature Extraction MEG - Monoethylene Glycol Nm3 - Normal Cubic Meter NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance PHA - Process Hazards Analysis PRO-OP - Process Optimization Review PROs - Partner Reported Opportunities sI - Structure I (hydrate structure) sII - Structure II (hydrate structure) sH - Structure H (hydrate structure) Sm3 - Standard Cubic Meter TEG - Triethylene Glycol TREG - Tetraethylene Glycol VLE - Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Xe - Xenon yr - Year x .

If the natural gas is transported by pipeline. The presence of water raises a number of problems for the production operations depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. However. Gas demand increases in Poland. Introduction In this paper the author is studying the possibilities of reducing energy use and triethylen glycol losses during natural gas dehydration process. during transport. Therefore one of the processes in natural gas production. but also in the exploitation stage. With the increase of amount of gas to be processed and from the other side in order to be able to endure in the competition between natural gas companies there is a growing necessity of optimization of processes. one condition frequently imposed is to set the dew point temperature at a value not exceeding the minimum temperature during transport. Huge part of gas used in Poland is imported from Russia. To avoid possible liquid-phase formation. As it is usually off-spec when it arrives.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 1 1. processing and transportation is natural gas dewatering process (Rojey et al. Poland. dehydration process among them. likewise in other countries. the dew point must not exceed this temperature at the same pressure. not only in the stage of designing and building facilities. the pressure generally varies considerably in the pipe. If. If the gas is to be transported.. as a result of pressure drop. 2005). through Ukraine. before getting to the final receiver it has to be processed in order to meet the required conditions specified in Polish norms. This is done on the example of Mackowice Treatment Facility. 1994). One of the specifications of natural gas is the amount of water in gas for sale specified as dew point temperature of natural gas. the processing installation must be designed to meet transport or final specifications. Therefore every year larger quantities of natural gas need to undergo different processes (ROP. the main requirement is to prevent the formation of a liquid phase. the minimum temperature of the gas is for example 0 oC under 7 MPa pressure (typical conditions appearing in high pressure gas pipelines during the winter season in temperate climate). .

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 2 The problem of optimization has been known for many years now and recently becomes more and more important. Optimization of processes brings savings in materials. Optimization of processes is necessary. It is also considered from economical viewpoint. which is a primary purpose of senior management. gas processing and petroleum refining industries are faced with the need to optimize the design of processes and achieve more reliable and stable operations. Optimization can be seen from the environmental point of view as a tool for environment conservation. Nowadays the competition in petroleum and natural gas market is extremely tough and therefore every corporation in order to compete with others has to minimize the costs maximizing profits. It may encompass safety. As presented by Aspen Tech (2004) there are different approaches towards optimization and the model chosen depends on the base of optimization. The process industries must identify optimum designs quickly with minimum risk of rework while they remain competitive and maximize the business performance. b) ensuring that process equipment is properly specified to deliver desired product throughput and specifications. 2004): a) usage of “what-if” scenarios and sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design based on operating and business targets. Summing up the crucial part of manager’s job is to make decisions around capital allocation that will improve the performance of the corporation. energy and labor. 2004). And the last reason usually is the standpoint from which the decisions about granting money for optimization research are made. building and exploiting of any facility optimization has a big part. safer and profitable process plants (Aspen Tech. The major business benefits of process modeling include (Aspen Tech. Process engineers are challenged with making timely business decisions while meeting the business objectives of designing and operating efficient. The most powerful technology that enables managers and engineers link critical business objectives to process design is process modeling. The oil and gas production. The importance of optimization is significant. . nowadays on every stage of projecting. As mentioned.

There are many technologies and methods to reduce vent gas emissions that are readily available to operators. 2005). where the focus is typically on like devices across a whole operation. heater treaters. and workover operations. production. and profitability. The Natural Gas STAR Program promotes the use of these emission reduction technologies and practices through the program’s Best Management Practices . This methodology can be used in conjunction with a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) for new facilities and prior to modification of en existing facility. According to Pontiff (2005) a typical example of widely used optimization method is called Process Optimization Review (PRO-OP). the PRO-OP technique is a systematic approach whereby processes and components (separators. upsets. venting/flaring practices) are evaluated for cost effective natural gas reduction opportunities from the start of the process to the end. a potent greenhouse gas. The PRO-OP technique divides the oil and gas business into phases: drilling. Justifying and obtaining approval of optimization projects from management often requires that the projects are cost effective and have a net increase in profits. completion/stimulation. d) monitoring of equipment performance against expectations. natural resource conservation and waste minimization. compressors. The Natural Gas STAR Program is a flexible and voluntary program focused on helping the oil and gas industry to voluntarily and cost-effectively reduce methane emissions. This PRO-OP technique gives the user a structure to the process of optimization (Pontiff. PRO-OP is a systematic approach used in production operations to identify opportunities to increase profitability while reducing greenhouse gases. Unlike other optimization techniques. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program supplies valuable optimization tools and resources to guide the oil and gas industry. e) assessment of equipment deficiencies such as heat exchanger fouling and column flooding by evaluating the equipment employed in different services or evaluating the consequences of a design basis change. and equipment downtime on process safety.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 3 c) evaluation of the effect of feed changes. reliability. It is a systematic approach to assess processes at new and existing facilities with an emphasis on energy efficiency.

In order to do so he compares the data provided in operating manuals of natural gas dewatering facility Maćkowice. The bilding was begun in April 2004. The author is also taking a general look at different economical aspects in the final part of this thesis. 2005). During the PRO-OP review. the reviewer determines the mitigation techniques that can be used and then determines whether the mitigation can be implemented cost effectively. or other safe guards. or destroy (e. Mackowice Dehydration Facility was opened on 21st January 2005.. US EPA. The reviewer should ask such questions as. burn in a flare) the vent gas emissions?" Then the reviewer can perform a cost analysis to determine the effectiveness and profitability of optimization. In a PHA review of an oil and gas production facility. These hazards are then mitigated through elimination. The author is trying to solve the problem of setting the arrangement of equipment used in gas dehydration facility based on glycol solution in such a way that brings most profits and minimizes the loss in energy and glycol solvent. “Can I cost-effectively eliminate the source. The PRO-OP process employs the same thought process. Once the optimization opportunities are identified. The necessity of building this facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. US EPA. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specifications required by Polish norms. each component and process in the facility flow scheme is evaluated for vent gas (i. 2005). US EPA. which in this example is done through reducing emissions (Pontiff. 2005. 2005). The PRO-OP approach is analogous to a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) review. or capture for sales. Having the required results he is comparing them looking for the possibilities of energy and solvent savings. methane) emission reduction opportunities (Pontiff. 2005. Poland with analytical equation-based solution and numerical calculation made with use of petroleum engineering program Hysys.e. .g.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 4 (BMPs) and Partner Reported Opportunities (PROs) and in-depth Lessons Learned documents (Pontiff. 2005. controls. the components and processes of the facility are evaluated for identifiable hazards..

. Operating manuals of devices.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 5 The author shows his approach towards creating an optimization strategy for natural gas dehydration unit Maćkowice. Analytical and mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable results. Poland. The optimization is to made on the basis of energy saving and glycol absorbent waste. and charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a simulation of dewatering process under petroleum engineering program Hysys.

In the late 1940’a and early 1950’s von Stackelberg and co-workers summarized two decades of X-ray hydrate crystal diffraction experiments at the University of Bonn. 1994). Gandhidasan. the hydrates belong to the category of inclusion compounds called clathrates. in which gas molecules are trapped. Owing to this cage structure. 1994. Dewatering Technology 2. and shortly thereafter led to the regulation of the water content in natural gas pipelines.. and sufficiently large for the crystal lattice to be stable (Sloan. and . Only molecules having a certain range of diameters can form inclusions. Rojey et al. This led to limitation of appearance of hydrates which are inclusion compounds which result from the combination of water with some of the components of natural gas and primarily methane (Rojey et al. 2003). 1997)... 2003. Carroll. Rosman 1973. 2002. to determine that natural gas hydrates were blocking gas transmission lines frequently at temperatures above the ice point. first thought to be ice crystals.Gandhidasan. 1997.1 Theory of hydrates Good reviews on hydrate theory were provided by Sloan. Claussen. These crystals are in fact hydrates of natural gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 6 2. This discovery was pivotal in causing a more pragmatic interest in the gas hydrates. Carrll. 1994. The crystal lattice is due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. The interpretation of these early diffraction experiments by von Stackelberg and co-workers. In the mid-1930’s Hammerschmidt studied the 1927 hydrate review of Schroeder. Since the beginning of the century the production of natural gas has encountered difficulties connected with the plugging of piping by the deposition of crystals. 1997. 2002. In the presence of light gas. water molecules can form a regular crystalline structure containing cavities. Rojey et al. It is stabilized by gas molecules. This is because the diameter of the molecule must be smaller than that of the cavity (or close to it) for the molecule to enter the cavity. which are themselves held in the cavities by van der Waals forces (Sloan.

In this structure. Within the last decade structure H (sH). Because of to this restriction dodecahedra are necessarily associated with other types of polyhedron to form the structure of the hydrates (Sloan. Each of these polyhedra forms a cavity which can contain a molecule of natural gas components with which it forms a hydrate. Nitrogen. Structure II is composed of sixteen small cavities (512) and eight large cavities. The small cavities are stabilized by molecules like Xe. methane. Structure I is composed of two small cavities formed by a dodecahedron and six large cavities formed by a tetradecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and two hexagonal faces referenced as 51262 (Figure 2. is a basic building block of hydrate structures. Methane fits into the small cavities (512) of structures I and II. H2S and CH4.2). In the pure state.. 1994). and in the large cavities (51262) of structure I. the water molecules form polyhedra.1997. The structure H was determined through diffraction and NMR studies. with twelve pentagonal faces and eight hexagonal faces. formed by a hexadecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and four hexagonal faces. In these structures. and the large cavities by hydrocarbons with . Hydrate formation can occur when normal butane is mixed with other components (Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 7 Pauling and Marsh led to determination of two hydrate structures (sI and sII). designed by the notation 512. 1994. However.1). since propane and isobutene molecules can enter only the large cavities of structure II. Sloan. a third hydrate with a unit cell was discovered by Ripmeester (Sloan. referenced as 51264 (Figure 2. 1997). forming large cavities. carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide form structure-I hydrates. a natural gas containing propane and isobutane generally forms structure-II hydrates. Normal butane does not form hydrates as a pure component. It is not possible to fill space entirely with dodecahedra. The pentagonal dodecahedron. Rojey et al. 1997). the 512 dodecahedra coexist with 435663 dodecahedra as well as 51268 polyhedra. propane and isobutene form structure-II hydrates (Sloan.. ethane. 1997).

However. 1997). together with methane. The role that structure-H hydrates may play in natural gas production is still unclear.3) (Sloan.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 8 much higher molecular weights such as adamantine and methylcyclohexane (Figure 2. . it has been proven that hydrocarbon molecules commonly found in condensates or oils. under pressure and temperature conditions easily encountered in production and transport facilities (Sloan 1997). can form this new hydrate structure.

natural gas must be dehydrated. 2003). which caused an increase in operating pressures and potential damage to equipment due to liquid carryover. production and transport installations must be protected from the risks of hydrate formation. 2002).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 9 2. If this is not feasible. Condensed liquids accumulated in pipelines. The water present in natural gas may. 1973. Gandhidasan. and a refrigeration plant is used for control of the hydrocarbon dew point (Carroll. such as water and hydrocarbon dew point limits. 2002). For these reasons one specifies upper limits for both the water and hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. solidify. To prevent pipe plugging. One way to achieve this is to dry the natural gas. or by lowering the pressure at a given temperature. condense and cause the formation of hydrates. Four types of processes are used (Rojey at al. To avoid such situations. lower the hydrate formation temperature (Rosman. by altering the fugacity of the water. or favor corrosion if the gas contains acid components. Many transmission companies impose restrictions on the quality of natural gas acceptable for transporting. which. Operating outside the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation can be achieved either by raising temperature at a given pressure. Water is removed from the gas to meet water dew point requirements of a sales pipeline condition. 1997): . Apart from the risk of hydrate formation. temperature and pressure conditions must be created to prevent formation of hydrates. They are generally selected from solvents miscible in the aqueous phase. Gandhidasan. In both instances inhibitor must be introduced. It is necessary to prevent the corrosion and erosion problems in pipelines and equipment particularly when CO2 and H2S are present in the gas. 1973.2 Technologies used for dehydration It is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid water and hydrocarbons to ensure troublefree operation of a natural gas transmission system. Onshore the natural gas conditioning process employs a dehydration process for control of the water dew point. the liquids can reduce the volumetric capacity of the system and interfere with the operation of pressure regulators and filters. Dehydration of natural gas is the removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor form.. in order to reduce operational problems (Rosman.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION a) absorption b) adsorption c) gas permeation d) refrigeration 10 .

etc. which drives off the absorbed water g) low viscosity h) low vapor pressure at the contact temperature to reduce the amount of solvent losses due to vaporization . In this process.. however. Several liquids possess the ability to absorb water from a gas stream. 1994. ATG. Few liquids. 2002.. Tannehill at al. Arnold and Steward. especially the reboiler vapor space. 1992. ATG. Campbell. 1988. A suitable solvent should have the following properties (Carroll. Maddox and Erbar. Ikoku. 1987. Kumar. zinc chloride. particularly in the high temperature ranges found in the reboiler f) easy regeneration to higher concentration for reuse..E.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 11 2. Trent. Sivalls. 1994. 2002. 1990. Rojey et al. meet the criteria for a suitable commercial application. The solvent is usually a glycol. producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas (Campbell. usually by the application of heat. Rojey et al. 1994). and the bottom of the contactor d) low affinity for hydrocarbons and acid gases e) thermal stability. The glycol leaving the bottom is regenerated by distillation and recycled (Carroll. the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent (containing only a small amount of water). lithium chloride. 1992): a) strong affinity to water (the absorbing liquid should be highly hygroscopic) b) low cost c) noncorrosive to the selected metallurgy of the hydrocarbon equipment. In case of absorption based natural gas dehydration processes the gas is dried by countercurrent scrubbing with a solvent that has a strong affinity for water. the stripping column of the regenerator. 1989. R. 1980. although other liquid desiccants are met which are calcium chloride. The dehydrated gas leaves at the top of the column. 2001). The water in the gas is absorbed in the lean solvent.R.1976..3 Dehydration by absorption The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid desiccant contactor-regeneration process. 1982. C.

and is the most widely used. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. it has larger losses.1 lists the main physical properties of commercial glycols. Rojey et al. Triethylene glycol (TEG) offers the best cost/benefit compromise. High viscosity translates into higher pumping costs. 1997. which reduces losses (Gandhidasan. They can be obtained in the pure state by fractionation by vacuum distillation. Tetraethylene glycol is higher in cost and is more viscous than TEG.. Glycols will. The heaviest glycols are most hygroscopic. Carroll. particularly in the reboiler. 1994): a) Monoethylene glycol (MEG) which is commonly known as simply ethylene glycol (EG) b) diethylene glycol (DEG) c) triethylene glycol (TEG) d) tetraethylene glycol (TREG) Table 2. nor to chemical reactions with any of the natural gas constituents. decompose at elevated temperatures. including carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria.. By comparison. It exhibits most of the desirable characteristics listed earlier and has other advantages compared to other glycols (Rojey et al.. 2002). TEG has less affinity to water and thus has less dew point depression. 1994) . however. Glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. DEG is marginally lower in cost than TEG. On the other hand TREG has a lower vapor pressure. 2002). Several glycols have been found suitable for commercial application (Rejoy.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 12 i) low solubility in hydrocarbons (low solubility in the solvent minimizes the loss of desired product and reduces hydrocarbon emissions) j) low tendency to foam and emulsify. The most common glycols for dehydration applications are (Rojey et al. 1994. Carroll. 2003. however because DEG has a larger vapor pressure.

. 1994. 2003). A lower temperature helps to reduce the losses as well as the water content in the processed gas. due to the higher viscosity of the glycol.. The number of plates is usually between 6 and 8. Carroll. The separator could be a two-phase or three-phase separator depending on the amount of free water expected. finding more acceptance in glycol contactors (Carroll. The inlet separator can be free standing with interconnecting piping to the contactor or it can be an integral part of the contactor. or a suitable packing material. When the stream is devoid of free liquids and mist the actual dehydration process starts (Rojey et al. The absorption step is carried out in a plate or packed column. usually at the base of the contactor with a chimney tray between the contactor bottom and the separator vessel.4 and 2. valve trays. . For small diameters. The solvent is then returned to the first column to remove water from more feed gas. the liquid desiccant process is a two-step process. or sieve trays. Basically. Rojey et al. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit (Carroll. Figures 2. 2003. the water is absorbed from the gas in the staged tower. 1994. Rojey et al. while the larger columns are equipped with the bubble-cap or valve trays. Integral separators are usually outfitted with a heating coil to prevent water from freezing. The temperature at which the absorption step is carried is usually limited to 38 oC to avoid excessive glycol losses. The descriptions of these figures are provided by John Carroll. For very large diameters. The separator should be equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor in the top part to remove any liquid entrainment and particulates from the gas stream before entering the absorber section. The solvent is regenerated in a second column. 2003 and Alexandre Rojey et al. Gandhidasan.5 show the flow schemes of a typical glycol units.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 13 Before undergoing the actual dehydration process any free liquids in the natural gas stream are removed. 1994).. 2002. In the first step. A separator should be included upstream of the contactor to separate any hydrocarbon liquids and free water. packings are generally used. The actual stages could be either trays like bubble caps. 2003. 1994).. However. the use of structured packing is currently spreading. Hot solvent from the accumulator is circulated through this heating coil to provide the required heat.

and finally an activated-charcoal filter to retain the chemical impurities (Carroll.. Then the rich glycol enters the lean-rich heat exchanger. followed by a cartridge filter to trap solid particles. 1994). The glycol leaves the flash tank. Typically. After the absorption step. Then it is flashed at low pressure in a flash tank.. 2003. whose basic purpose is to conserve . Rojey et al. Feed gas enters the bottom of the contactor and flows upward. Lean solvent enters the top of the contactor and flows downward. The rich glycol is withdrawn from the bottom of the contactor. 1994). 1994). 1994). Flash tank pressures are typically in the range of 300 kPa to 700 kPa (Carroll. the glycol solution is sent to a three-phase separator in which the stripped hydrocarbon liquids and the dissolved gas are separated.. and the actual water removal takes place there.. again usually on level control. The contactor is a typical absorber tower properly sized for the process objective(Carroll. enough to ensure mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid so that the outlet gas is at the desired water specification (Carroll.5). The contactor pressure is set by the feed gas pressure. although other factors contribute as well. The contactor consists of several equilibrium stages. Rojey et al. often by passing it through tubes in the overhead condenser at the top of the still column. The gas and liquid are mixed in the contactor.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 14 The contactor (also called an absorber) is the workhorse of the dehydration unit. which is normally in the range of 4000 to 8500 kPa. Rojey et al. In some cases this process is divided in parts (Figure 2. usually on level control. The feed gas flow rate is the most significant factor in determining the diameter of the contactor. The flow of streams is countercurrent. 2003. Rojey et al. where most of the volatile components (entrained and soluble) are vaporized. Rojey et al. 2003. then passes through a filter. 2003. The contactor is essentially isothermal (the temperature profile is essentially uniform throughout the contactor) (Carroll. The solvent absorbs water as it travels downward through the column and the gas transfers the water to the solvent as it travels upward. the lean glycol is preheated. 2003.. 1994). The outlet gas water content specification is the key to determining the contactor height.

The lean glycol entering the contactor should be cool. a continuous exchange of material and heat takes place. The size of the regenerator is determined by a balance between the solvent circulation rate. or about 20 oC below the decomposition temperature of TEG. and rich glycol to regeneration should be warm (Carroll. The still column. Rojey et al. 2003). 1994). 2003.. The temperature difference causes the glycol vapor (heavy component) to condense and liquid water (light component) to vaporize. The reflux thus generated helps to reduce glycol losses. Water and glycol have widely varying boiling points (100 oC for water. and a surge tank located below the reboiler. usually filled with packing. hot.. water-rich vapor rises in intimate contact with descending glycol-rich liquid. is cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution. The standard TEG dehydration unit operates effectively at the reboiler temperature around 175 oC. separation of water from glycol takes place by fractionation. This is accomplished in the still column mounted directly on the top of the reconcentration vessel (Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 15 energy. Within the column. Rojey et al. Between the two phases. Trays are sometimes used in very large units (Carroll. Gandhidasan. 288 oC for TEG). lean glycol from regeneration is cooled with rich glycol from the contactor. In the regenerator. In the lean-rich exchanger. 2003. A basic regeneration unit consists of a combination of a fired boiler. located at the lower section of a horizontal vessel with a vapor space above the tube bundle.. 1994). At the top of the column the vapor is virtually pure water whereas there is very little water in the glycol in the bottom. This coil often performs the dual purpose of preheating the rich glycol ahead of the flash tank (Carroll. Rojey et al. 1994. A small portion of the vapor mixture(mainly water) at the top condenses at the overhead condenser to provide sufficient reflux that will aid in the process of fractionation (Carroll. the amount of water vapor in the gas stream and the reboiler temperature. The solvent is regenerated by reboiling.. 1994). . 1994). a distillation column (still column) connected vertically to the vapor space of the reboiler vessel. Also included in the regeneration unit is a condensing coil added to the top of a still column to provide reflux to improve solvent/water separation. 2003.. 2003. Rojey et al. Furthermore the two substances can be easily separated by fractional distillation.

1994. this incurs risks for the operating personnel . They are frequently released directly to the atmosphere. 2003. as noted before. the solvent selectively absorbs H2S and aromatic compounds such as benzene. and to recover the glycol vaporized by the reboiler.6 %. lean glycol leaves the reboiler vessel and overflows by gravity to the surge tank. The TEG natural gas dehydration unit operates. The hot.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 16 Stripping gas is used to increase the lean glycol concentrations. now becoming lean glycol. These components are removed with the water on completion of the regeneration step. Manning and Thompson. ethylbenzene and xylenes present in the natural gas. 2003. The hot lean glycol passes to the lean rich exchanger. This is deeply dried natural gas taken usually from the main stream of dehydrated gas. at relatively high pressure on the contactor side and low pressure on the regeneration side.. This purity is improved by lowering the pressure and raising the temperature during the regeneration step. 1991). The main purpose of the still column is to effect final separation between the absorbed water and the absorbing TEG. the flash tank and associated equipment. The high-pressure side consists of the glycol contactor and the inlet separator. leaves the bottom of the packed still column and enters the reboiler vessel. With the use of stripping gas the glycol solvents can have the concentrations up to 99. The stripping gas is sparged directly into the reboiler. Ultimately it is returned to the contactor and the cycle is complete (Carroll. 1994). a vessel normally located below the reboiler vessel. as they are toxic. .. toluene. called also a gasstriping column (Figure 2. Thus the low-pressure side consists of the regenerator. Rojey et al. Intensive dehydration of natural gas demands high purity of the recycled solvent. Rojey et al.. 1994). where it is cooled. 2003. The glycol-rich liquid. this temperature level has been found to cause no noticeable thermal decomposition of the TEG (Carroll. to vent the separated water to the atmosphere.6) (Carroll. In addition to water. Rojey et al. The typical example of a TEG regenerator is Stahl column. but. Heat is applied in the reboiler to raise the temperature and cause partial vaporization. In a normal TEG dehydration unit.

Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 17 The installation of a condenser improves the situation. The regeneration temperature must also remain below an acceptable limit for glycol decomposition. Rojey et al. octane) is injected into the reboiler. to lower the water partial pressure by stripping with natural gas. forming a heteroazeotrope with water.0 or 99.9 %. As an example the injection of 45 Sm3 of gas per m3 of triethylene glycol helps to purify the solvent to 99. 1994). Two techniques are available for this (Gandhidasan. the pressure must be kept slightly above atmospheric. The triethylene glycol is thus obtained with a purity that may be higher than 99.. 1994): a) the already dehydrated gas is sent to the reboiler. without any consumption of carrier gas. according to whether the gas is simply injected into the reboiler or introduced into an additional stripping section after the reboiler b) a hydrocarbon (toluene.. To prevent any air from entering. Complete elimination requires the incineration of the nonocondensable flare gas in the reboiler fire tube. This temperature is 177 oC for diethylene glycol. 2003. Difficulties in burning noncondensable vapors in low-pressure burners were reported (Carroll. the hydrocarbon is separated by simple settling and recycled. This heteroazeotrope rises to the top of the column and. These regeneration conditions lead to a water content of about 35 g/1000 Sm3 in the processed gas.. This method is called Drizo process . after condensation of the vapor phase. To drop to even lower contents in the range of a few parts per million the purity of the recycled solvent must be even further increased. but is generally not sufficient to eliminate the problem of aromatics releases completely. the purity of the processed gas can be further improved to reach water contents in the range of 20 g / 1000 Sm3. 2003. 1994). 204oC for thiethylene glycol and 224 oC for tetraethylene glycol (Rojey et al. By increasing solvent circulation.4 %.

This is achieved by passing through cold natural gas. This is why adsorbents are normally used in fixed beds with periodic sequencing (Carroll. The process is conducted alternately and periodically.. Kumar.. Adsorbents are naturally unsuitable for continuous circulation. Rojey et al. 1994): a) lowering the pressure. ATG. After regeneration and before the adsorption step. Arnold and Stewart. The adsorbents are generally characterized by a microporous structure which affords a very large specific surface (Campbell. 1994). ATG. 1988. After heating. 2003.4 Dehydration by adsorption Separation processes by adsorption uses a solid phase with large surface area.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 18 2. 1982. 1976. Rojey et al.7. 1987. Trent. 1994). Rojey et al. two beds operating simultaneously in adsorption. 2001). C. which selectively retains the components to be separated. 1994. Maddox and Erbar. The desorption step is carried by different methods (Carroll. 1994). 1989... 2003. the same gas can be used for regeneration. 2003.. When the bed is saturated. During the adsorption step. In these conditions. Sivalls. 1990. The flow scheme of a dehydration operation by adsorption in a fixed bed is shown in Figure 2.. four beds are needed in practice. the bed must be cooled. C. Adsorption processes are generally applied when a high purity is required for the processed gas. the gas to be processed is sent on the adsorbent bed which selectively retains the water.C. sometimes even under vacuum b) sweeping by an inert natural gas to lower the partial pressure of the component to be desorbed . hot natural gas is sent to regenerate the adsorbent (Rojey et al.E. R. one bed in cooling and one bed in regeneration (Carroll. 1994). 1992. owing to mechanical problems and also due to the risks of attrition (erosion of adsorbent particles due to friction and collisions during movement).R... with each bed going through successive steps of adsorption and desorption (Rojey et al. Tannehill.

2003. in which the crystal structure forms cavities making up a microporous network on a molecular scale. which. This structure has cations that play the role of charge compensation. the size of the access cavities varies . It can be used therefore to separate simultaneously the water and the condensate fraction of the gas processed. by being adsorbed. 1994): a) activated alumina – a low residual-water content of about 1 ppm vol can be achieved by using activated alumina. It adsorbs water from the hydrocarbons. Silica gel is easily regenerated at a temperature between 120 and 200 oC. 1994): a) high adsorption capacity at equilibrium b) reversible adsorption allowing regeneration of the adsorbent c) fast adsorption kinetics d) low pressure drop e) attrition resistance f) chemical inertness g) no significant volume change with temperature and saturation The most widely used adsorbents today are the following (Carroll.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 19 c) sweeping by a displacement agent. in which the temperature rises facilities desorption: in a fixed-bed operation. Rojey et al. The heavy hydrocarbons are adsorbed but cannot then be desorbed during regeneration. which are then desorbed during regeneration. they have to be removed before the adsorption step b) silica gel – the water content of the gas processed by adsorption on silica gel is about 10 ppm vol. Rojey et al.. because of the thermal inertia of the adsorbent bed. Therefore if such heavy hydrocarbons are present in the gas. provided a number of precautions are observed c) molecular sieves (zeolites) used for gas processing are silicoaluminates. Depending on the type of zeolite. allows more effective desorption than with a simple elution gas d) heating. a significant variation in temperature between the adsorption and desorption steps is practical only if the cycle time is relatively long. An adsorbent must have the following properties (Carroll.. 2003.

1994): a) modules with plane membranes wound spirally around a collector tube b) modules with a bundle of hollow fibers For a gas-permeation unit processing 1·107 Nm3/d of gas at 7 MPa and required to reduce the water content from 1040 to 170 ppm vol. The membrane surface is dependent on the amount of gas permeating through it. . Under these conditions. in comparison with a glycol dehydration unit... However. Industrial applications of dehydration by gas permeation are currently very limited. 1984). it is either necessary to find an application compatible with the production of gas low pressure. 1989).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 20 2. For the separation to be effective. 1989). or to reduce the gas loss substantially. many investigations have demonstrated the potential value of such a process which.5 Dehydration by permeation In the process of dehydration by permeation.. and it must be relatively impermeable to methane. which is extremely important for offshore production (Fournie and Agostini. These advantages only appear clearly in the case of single-stage operation without recycle or recompression of the permeate (Carroll. The most widely used industrial modules belong to two types (Rojey et al.2 % and the membrane area is estimated 1430 m2 (Deschamps et al. Rojey et al. by improving membrane performance (Deschamps et al. which are generally expressed in thousands of square meters. Membrane separation processes require large membrane areas. 1981). Deschamps et al. which passes through the membrane driven by pressure difference. 2003. could prove to be more economical and more compact. the membrane must be very permeable with respect to the contaminant to be separated. Compact permeation modules with a high membrane area are therefore needed. the dried natural gas is going through a membrane leaving particles of water and impurities on its surface. 1994.. the loss of gas in the permeate is estimated at 4. The permeability of methane must be accepted to avoid an excessively large membrane area nevertheless means a significant loss of methane in the permeate (Deschamps et al. to make this process economically viable. 1981).

. In most cases refrigeration is used for cases of a previously dehydrated gas to avoid hydrate formation during refrigeration. In this way. as the process operates at low temperature thorough dehydration and carbon dioxide removal is needed to prevent formation of crystals though (Rojey et al. it becomes possible to liquefy the methane: the natural gas can thus be transported at atmospheric pressure in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 21 2. 1997). 1994): a) natural gasoline or condensate which is a light gasoline representing the C5+ fraction b) the LPG fraction which includes propane and butanes (normal butane and isobutene). the mixture of natural gasoline and LPG (which also contains ethane) obtained by lowering the temperature of the natural gas up to the LPG liquefaction point but without separation between natural gasoline and LPG. If the gas is not dehydrated before the refrigeration step the injection of an inhibitor is often the simplest and most economical solution.6 Dehydration by refrigeration If a natural gas contains a relatively large fraction of hydrocarbons other than methane (condensate gas or associated gas). is called natural gas liquids c) by lowering the temperature to about -160 oC. it may be necessary to separate of at least part of these hydrocarbons to avoid the formation of a liquid phase during transport (Rojey et al. which is mainly formed of methane. 1994).. refrigeration simultaneously yields a . The following liquid fractions can be obtained in succession by lowering the temperature (Rojey et al. refrigeration by isenthalpic expansion and expansion through a turbine which is similar to isenthalpic expansion but much more effective. This separation is usually performed by lowering the temperature with the formation of a liquid phase.. Examples are: process of liquids recovery by refrigeration. and generally contains ethane. it may include an LPG fraction if this fraction has not been separated in the liquefaction plant. It can also be achieved by adsorption or absorption.

Therefore the process of refrigeration removes also water. Kollsnes is one of the largest systems in the world. This method is used at Lollsnes. 2003). 1997). Norway to remove water from natural gas. The use of glycol as inhibitor allows relatively easy regeneration by distillation. Joule-Thompson expansion requires large pressure drops.60*10-5 kg/m3 level (Carroll. the cold gas is mixed with a polar solvent. This process is also known as low-temperature extraction (LTX).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 22 condensate and an aqueous phase consisting of the mixture of water and inhibitor(Carroll. Methanol is also used.. Kollsnes receives the gas from Troll A. especially in the presence of free water. The cold temperatures in a refrigeration process result in water removal. In order to prevent the formation of ice and hydrates. the largest gas field in Norway. and the solution of water and methanol is regenerated without a distillation step (Rojey et al. 1991). A typical refrigeration process can easily reduce the water content of a gas stream down to 1. . 1994). usually ethylene glycol. One of main ways of natural gas dehydration through refrigeration is carried through expansion refrigeration. however. It employs Joule-Thompson expansion (isothermal expansion) to dry the gas and recover condensate. This regeneration may. Refrigeration in the presence of methanol helps to control water and heavy-hydrocarbon contents simultaneously. LTX is used only when the prime objective is condensate recovery (Manning and Thompson. become very costly if the water content is high. but is generally not recycled.. Rojey et al. 2003. Because of large pressure drops. Cool gas holds less water than hot gas.

It is owned and operated by Regional Department of Gas Transport (ROP). in comparison to the drying capability under lower pressure range b) possibility of drying not only imported. The natural gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is metered and compressed in Hermanowice compressor station. . Poland is located 25 km from the Ukrainian Border. After dehydration the gas is sent to Jaroslaw compressor and metering station where the stream is split and sent to receivers.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 23 3. Tarnow.3. Some of the gas is then sent to Strachocin. It is located in the neighborhood of compressor unit used for compressing gas imported from Ukraine. or whole the amount of gas imported is carried through dehydration process in Maćkowice dewatering unit. The dehydrating facility was built in this location deliberately. but also polish gas. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specification required by Polish norms (Figure 3. Maćkowice Facilities The gas drying unit Maćkowice. The necessity of building a dehydration facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. It is used for drying natural gas flowing from Ukraine. Subsequently part of the main gas stream from the direction of Ukrainian border. c) closeness to power plant solves the problem of energy delivery d) pressure loss up to 0. The main reasons were (Stosur.2 MPa acceptable due to proximity of compressor unit. The facility was opened on 21st January 2005.2) The system of gas pipelines in the region of Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. The building was begun in April 2004. 2005): a) the possibility of drying two times larger amount of gas under higher pressure thanks to the neighboring gas compressor unit.1). The gas may be previously compressed in neighboring compressor unit. about 10 km from Przemyśl (Figure 3. The internal diameters of gas pipelines are given on the figure.

The heater should keep the gas temperature between 10 oC and 38oC depending on chosen strategy. vertical two-phase separators.5). After separating the free water the gas stream is directed through an oil propelled heater to absorbtion column where the actual dehydration takes place. The pressure and temperature range for the dehydration facility is suggested by the Nafta-Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice facility. After leaving the absorber the natural gas stream goes through heat exchanger cooling down the TEG stream going into the dehydration column. Depending on the selected pressure 75 000 [Nm3/h] to 280 000 [Nm3/h] per one contactor can be dehydrated. Under different pressures.3). and in the range from 4700 kPa to 5500 kPa for gas going through compressor unit. flows to system pipelines. The separators are free standing. The stripping gas is heated to the temperature of 104 oC and depressurized to the regenerator pressure. Separators are placed upstream of the absorption columns.4. there may be a third gas stream led directly to the transport pipelines. The facility contains two independent drying units. natural gas of different range of temperatures can be dryed (Figure 3. depending on the strategy chosen. as the sales gas. Finally about 20 [Nm3/h] of the dry gas is directed to glycol regenerator as stripping gas and the remaining part. The pressure of gas can be in the range from 2700 kPa to 4000 kPa for gas coming directly from Ukraine. The gas enters the bottom part of the absorber and flowing upward meets countercurrent flow of lean TEG stream. The gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is split equally between them and.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 24 The process of dehydration is led with use of TEG absorption in typical way described in previous chapter (see Chapter 2. . They are equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor to remove any free liquids and mist. The dehydration process scheme for Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3.The oil used for heater propelling is Aviaterm 6 (see Appendix A). The column is filled with Mellapak structured packing provided by Sulzer company. The internal diameter is 1500 mm. The first step of dehydration process is removing any free liquids from the natural gas stream.

Aforementioned stripping gas is put in the upper part of the column in order to regenerate the glycol solution to concentration of 99. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through a heat exchanger where it is cooled down by the dry gas going out of absorber. In the regenerator it is further heated to the temperature of 180 oC to 200 oC. TEG stream is directed through heat exchanger where it warms up rich TEG flowing towards the regenerator. Then the lean TEG is mixed with TEG makeup stream in order to compensate the glycol losses. A fired boiler and surge tank are located at the lower section of the vessel. After leaving the regenerator. This helps to reduce the glycol losses. . which allows TEG to lose most of the entrained and soluble volatile components while in the flash tank. The still column is filled with packing and cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution (condenser part).5 % TEG mole fraction. Then the TEG stream flows through a heat exchanger in which it is heated before getting to the regeneration column. The separation of water from TEG takes place by fractional distillation.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 25 The rich glycol leaves the contactor under the contactor pressure (depending of gas inlet pressure) and goes through valve decreasing the pressure to 400 kPa. Subsequently it goes through a pump where the pressure is increased in order to surpass the pressure in absorber tower.

optimization and business planning for oil and gas production.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 26 4. performance monitoring. This flexibility combined with consistent and logical approach to how these capabilities are delivered makes Hysys a versatile process simulation tool (Aspen Tech. operational improvement. In Hysys. with more than 25 years experience supplying process simulation tools to the oil. gas processing and petroleum refining industries. The modular structure of the operation means they can be calculated in either direction. so not only is information processed as it is supplied. therefore choosing the right Fluid Package for given compounds is substantial.2 is a process modeling tool for steady state simulation. but finally the PengRobinson equation of state was chosen. For the given composition of natural gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration unit different Fluid Packages were checked. 2004). 2004). troubleshooting. Hysys Simulation Package Aspen Hysys 3. as an ideal model for VLE calculations as well as calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems. It proves an interactive process modeling solution that enables engineers to create steady state models of plant design. 2004). gas and refining industries. Another Hysys feature is that modular operations are combined with non-sequential solution algorithm. In the used property package several . but the results of any calculation are automatically produced throughout the flowsheet. all necessary information pertaining to pure component flash and physical property calculations is contained within the Fluid Package. business planning and asset management. using information in an outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions (Aspen Tech. Hysys offers a high degree of flexibility because there are multiple ways to accomplish specific tasks. real-time applications and the integrated approach to the engineering solutions enable the user to improve designs. Hysys helps process industries improve productivity and profitability throughout the plant lifecycle. The program is built upon proven technologies. both forwards and backwards. optimize production and enhance decision-making (Aspen Tech. design. The powerful simulation and analysis tools. performance monitoring.

compressor. separators. 2004). petrochemical and chemical processes (Aspen Tech. The process was reconstructed in as much detail as it was possible (Operating Manual of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. Multiple properties pages are connected with every streams. All the known dimensions were inserted. Included in the available operations are those which are governed by thermodynamics and mass/energy balances. Once the Fluid Package for given compounds was chosen. gas. Material streams are used to simulate the material traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. The results achieved with use of Peng-Robinson equation of state were found to be most similar to empirical calculations of all used Fluid Packages. 2003). These tools interact with the process and provide additional information. For the material stream the user has to define . the author prepared a detailed scheme of Maćkowice dehydration facility along with surrounding pipelines in order to be able to simulate dehydration and glycol regeneration processes. The author tried to avoid using simplified and non-physical units but failed by little as balance units for stripping gas getting into regenerators had to be used (Figure 3. 2004). 2004).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 27 enhancements to the original Peng-Robinson model were made by the creators of Hysys program in order to extend the range of applicability and to improve its predictions in some non-ideal systems. and the logical operations like adjust. This does not yet influence the simulation results as the amount of energy necessary to heat up the stripping gas stream is known. By connecting the proper unit operations and streams the user can model a wide variety of oil. Examples are conditions and composition pages. set. The unit operations are used to assemble flow sheets. Hysys offers an assortment of utilities which can be attached to process streams and unit operations.4). The properties pages display the property correlations of the inlet and outlet streams of the unit operations (Aspen Tech. and recycle (Aspen Tech. The values were also compared to analytical results and only insignificantly differed (Aspen Tech. 2004). such as heat exchangers. likewise gas and glycol temperatures and pressures. All unit operations and utilities are connected by material and energy streams.

and composition (Aspen Tech. 2003). 2003). In general the column appears as multi-feed multi-product unit. 2003). . A sub-flow sheet contains equipment and streams. 2003). The energy stream property view contains of fields allowing user to define stream parameters. The separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. The inlet stream is heated to the required outlet conditions. In the next part of this chapter units used for building Maćkowice dehydration facility will be briefly described. The heater operations are one-sided heat exchangers. The sequence in which the description are provided reflects the sequence of TEG solution and natural gas flow. side strippers and side rectifiers (Aspen Tech. 2003). or build his own column along with side equipment such as pump arounds. These operations provide information on how much energy is required to heat a process stream with a utility (Aspen Tech. view objects to which the stream is attached and specify dynamic information. pressure. Depending on demands the user can choose one of the predefined columns. Separator is an unit with one or multiple feeds. which determine the way in which heat is transferred to the vessel operation (Aspen Tech. and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected internal and external streams. The parameters necessary are the temperature. The column is a special type of sub-flow sheet in Hysys. one vapor and one liquid product stream. flow based for example on molar flow.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 28 their main properties and composition so Hysys can solve the stream. The main parameter for energy streams is heat flow (Aspen Tech. The user can choose between various heater types. Energy streams are used to simulate the energy traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. and energy stream provides the enthalpy difference between the two streams. Every separator may be provided with some common features like for example the geometry of the vessel and heat loss model which accounts for the convective and conductive heat transfer that occurs across the vessel wall.

.050 [g/Nm3] which determines the dew point of -18 oC under the pressure of 3900 kPa (Aspen Tech. One of the inlet streams is natural gas saturated with water in given conditions. The column is designed in such a way that it should allows to dry the gas to the content of water in gas below 0. Fully refluxed condenser is built at the top of the column. On the exit the vapor which is composed of volatile gases and a small quantity of water is taken out at the top part of the separator. The entering stream contains particles of vapor and liquid. 2003). The calculations are based on equal material and enthalpy between the two streams. 2003). 2003). The variable specified by the user is outlet pressure. The regenerator is an example of distillation column with two inlet and two exit streams. The separator used for removing vapor part from the rich TEG stream under lower pressure is similar to the one separating free water from rich gas stream. A valve is used to decrease the pressure of dry natural gas exiting from the TEG contactor to the value of 400 kPa. The rest of variables necessary for solving the valve operation is taken from the stream flowing out of the contactor (Aspen Tech. Warm rich glycol flows into the regenerator where it is heated up and losses water. Hysys performs a material and energy balance on the inlet and exit streams of the valve. The heat exchangers calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids on the basis of temperatures of inlet and outlet streams. 2003). In the considered case the TEG stream is heated up to the temperature of approximately 100 oC by lean TEG stream exiting regenerator (Aspen Tech. 2003). and a reboiler in the lower part of the column is added for heating up bottom liquid to the temperature range of 180 oC to 200 oC (Aspen Tech. and the liquid part composed of glycol and water is carried to the heat exchanger (Aspen Tech. Heat exchanger performs two-sided energy and material balance calculations. It is assumed that the valve operation is isenthalpic. the other is lean TEG glycol. In order to dry the absorbent to higher concentration stripping gas in the quantity of 20 Nm3/h is injected into the regenerator.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 29 The column used by the author for separating water from natural gas is a typical absorber column with two inlet and two exit streams.

On this ground Hysys calculates the amount of glycol necessary to compensate the TEG losses and the properties of absorbent entering the pump. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through another heat exchanger where it gives some of its energy to dry gas stream flowing out of TEG contactor. just as the amount of lean TEG from the regenerator and amount of TEG going out of the pump. The glycol is cooled down while the dry gas is warmed up. The pump operation assumes that the inlet fluid is incompressible though (Aspen Tech. The dynamics pump operation is similar to the compressor operation in that it increases the pressure of its inlet stream.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 30 The lean glycol flowing out of the regenerator is mixed with stream of additional TEG in the makeup mixer. This block gives Hysys the ability to backcalculate through many operations in a non-sequential manner. The recycle operation is a theoretical block in process stream. require a recycle operation. the inlet pressure and the pump efficiency are known. 2003). The additional TEG is put into the circulation in order to make up glycol losses due to solution in natural gas and vaporization. . The heat flow necessary for compression is calculated by Hysys. Before getting to the contactor lean TEG stream goes through recycle operation. The pump operation is used to increase the pressure of an inlet liquid stream. The mixer combines the two streams to produce a single outlet stream. then it compares the assumed values in the attached streams to the calculated values in the opposite stream. The properties of both streams entering the mixer are known. Hysys uses the assumed values and solves the flowsheet around the recycle. and internal absolute tolerances (Aspen Tech. which subsequently gets to the TEG pump. The outlet pressure. The given values are the amount of TEG going into the contactor given with relative tolerance. All material recycles. Based on the difference between the assumed and calculated values Hysys generates new values to overwrite the previous assumed values. where downstream material mixes with upstream material. The calculation process repeats until the calculated values match the assumed values within specified tolerances. 2003).

Corrections can be made for the sake of the composition of gas and the salinity of the water. pyridine and sulfur dioxide in methanol. called the Karl-Fischer reagent). The amount of condensed water released from gas can be then calculated from the difference between the water content in gas at saturation point at the inlet and outlet respectively. 1994 provides a short description of these methods. . a cooler mirror is used to observe the water condensation temperature.1 Water content measurement The water content of a natural gas at saturation conditions depends essentially on the temperature and pressure... and the water content of the gas is accordingly decreased. Water Content of Natural Gas 5.2 helps to correct the water contents given by the Figure 5. In the dew point method. 1962). In the widely used absorption based KarlFischer method. The water content of natural gas can be measured by three different methods (Rojey et al. Alexandre Rojey et al.1 shows the water content at saturation point of nitrogen-free natural gases as a function of pressure and temperature. The water content can also be measured by adsorption on magnesium perchlorate. If the variation of temperature and pressure in an installation is known. Dissolved salts reduce the partial pressure of water in the vapor phase. The Figure 5.1. as a function of salinity of the aqueous phase (after Katz. The water dew point is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the hydrocarbon dew point. and the water content is measured from the amount of gas required to neutralize the reagent (solution of iodine.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 31 5. The quantity of water adsorbed is determined by gravimetric method. the water dew point curve of the natural gas can be used to determine the zone where water may condense. the water is absorbed in a solution. 1994): a) by observation of the dew point b) by water retention on an adsorbent c) by absorption in liquid. The Figure 5.

. 50 000 kPa. The figure shows the amounts of water saturating natural gas in given temperature and pressure along with charts for correction for gas relative density and for salinity. 5000 kPa. 4000 kPa. 250 kPa. 2000 kPa. and carbon dioxide. and the water content read for the acid gas components often corresponds to the solubility of water in nonaqueous liquid phase rather than in vapor phase. 1977). 500 kPa. In the procedure outlined by GPSA. Estimates of the water content of these sour gases are required for the design of plant and pipelines facilities. In general. 1000 kPa. The most commonly used procedure is prepared by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). A chart was prepared containing aheadmentioned curves for temperatures from -50 oC to 140 oC under pressures of 100 kPa. sulfide.2 Water content from GPSA diagram Natural gases containing significant quantities of acid gas are encountered frequently in the world. Three methods are currently available for estimating the water content of sour natural gases. the predicted water content of sour natural gas is high when based on these experimental curves (Robinson et al. 1500 kPa. The water content curves for H2S and CO2 are based on experimental data for the binary mixtures H2O-H2S and H2O-CO2. Both these binaries display liquidliquid equilibria at temperatures and pressures common in processing applications. 750 kPa. and 60 000 kPa (Figure 5. 30 000 kPa. 20 000 kPa. . 40 000 kPa.3). the estimated water content of a sour gas is a molar average of the solubility of water in the hydrocarbons. hydrogen.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 32 5. 3000 kPa. respectively. 8000 kPa.

The part of the table pertaining to the pressures encountered when the gas is put into the dehydration facility under the import pipeline pressure. Only water dew point temperatures below -18 oC are considered as work points. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.6). Original layout given by the designer (Nafta – Gaz) was used. The dew points for the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC with the water content of 0. .6). This layout is useful though to calculations of the amount of water necessary to remove from natural gas under given conditions in order to dry gas to the point where it meets the required standards (see Chapter 5.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual The designer of Maćkowice natural gas dehydration facility provided an operating manual. for the temperatures between 10 oC and 40 oC with stress to points within the temperature and pressure range for which the facility should be used. The temperature range includes temperatures encountered in Polish gas pipelines.5. without using the compressor station is shown in Table 5. and 20 oC (Figure 5.8 oC for water content of 0.009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. Therefore it was kept this way deliberately.4). The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.1. Graphic analysis of the results was prepared for the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 33 5. Appendix B). 15 oC (Figure 5.5). Dew point temperatures exceeding -18 oC were omitted. This layout may not be transparent as it repeats the same results many times for different gas temperatures. An attachment to the manual shows water content of natural gas within the range of pressures for which the facility was designed (Figure 3.018 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33. The table in Appendix B shows water content in natural gas in [g/Nm3] within the range of pressures between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa. This assumption is made because of the investor’s demand to keep the amount of water in dried gas below the dew point temperature of -18 oC.

019 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.4 oC for water amount of 0.036 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5. For the gas temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18. .013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.6.9 oC for the water amount of 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 34 Similarly the dew points for the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.8 oC for the water amount of 0.1 oC for water amount of 0.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30.

Gandhidasan. an 10 oC approach to the equilibrium dew point at the top of the dehydrator was assumed.81462 ).act = Tdew. When the pressure and dew point temperature of natural gas are known. The values format was converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F). The author’s approach was based on calculations with use of equilibrium dew point equation for gases according to P. which only insignificantly changes inside the absorber. The natural gas is getting in the absorber under a known pressure.228 − ln 0. and is given by the formula: Tdew. The dew point acquired depends on amount of water leaving the dehydration facility and gas pressure. The assumed water dew point temperature is known.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations On the ground of empirical equations the author calculated the amount of water present in natural gas leaving the absorber column. the actual water dew point is always higher than the equilibrium dew point. In present study.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 35 5.001685 − ln Pg 0 .228 ⋅ ln(0. A well designed and properly operated unit will have an actual water dew point 5 oC to 8oC higher than the equilibrium dew point. 2002. (3) The values obtained are given in kilograms of water per million standard cubic meters. Therefore .eq − 10 o C . as the height of absorption column is not known and therefore the additional 2 oC was used.eq = 18.81462 (1) ). This is: (2) Tdew.eq + 10 o C 18. Since the gas and TEG are not in contact for a long enough time to reach equilibrium.001685 ⋅ wout ⋅ Pg 0 . from the equations (1) and (2) the water content in outlet gas may be obtained: wout = exp( Tdew.

The dew points were kept same as in the Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual (Appendix B).9) The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.011 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The pressure values and the dew points were kept unchanged.6.8 oC for water amount of 0. and 20 oC (Figure 5. The results were put together and shown in a table (Appendix C).017 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. 15oC (Figure 5. Typical gas temperatures encountered in Poland were taken into account. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.9 oC for the water amount of 0.016 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 33.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 36 without noticeable mistake one can recognize the inlet pressure as the actual pressure. The table was prepared for the same gas temperatures as the one reproduced from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. The dew points in the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.8 oC for the water amount of 0. and the amounts of water for different dew points under the considered pressure range were calculated with the given formula (3). The calculations were made for the pressure range recommended by Nafta – Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility.1 oC for water amount of 0. Similarly the dew points in the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual. Diagrams were made to show graphically the water content in dehydrated natural gas in the work pressure range in the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.020 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 30. . For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.8). The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.4 oC for water amount of 0.7).

The computation had following course: a) the number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol was calculated on the basis of multiplication the density of gas-water mixture by 1 m3 and dividing the result by molecular weight of the mixture b) mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture was calculated through multiplication of the number of moles of gas per 1 m3 by the mole fraction of water and by the molecular weight of pure water c) calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of the real gas law equation called Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) was done d) the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was achieved by dividing the mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 by the standard volume of water-gas mixture. Therefore a stream of saturated gas with significant amount of free water above the saturation point is created in the mixer and flows to a two-phase separator. water. The temperature and pressure of saturated gas are inserted by the user and on this basis Hysys calculates the water content of saturated natural gas. The rich gas is taken from the top part of the separator as vapor. where the calculation of amount of water in natural gas was made. Hysys application does not provide the possibility of checking the amount of water per standard cubic meter directly.10).5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program A simple flow sheet was made with the use of Hysys program. The amount of water is high enough to saturate the gas. mole fraction of gas and water. In the separator operation the water content above the saturation level is taken away as liquid from the bottom part of the separator. Z factor of the mixture in given conditions and mass density of gas in given conditions. By this means the water saturation points under given conditions can be checked. In order to achieve this result the author had to prepare a sheet containing values of molecular weight of natural gas. and gas-water mixture. The flow sheet shows a stream of dry gas with no water content going in a mixer operation along with pure water stream. The computation course for exemplary conditions are shown in Appendix E.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 37 5. . and to be still present as liquid in the pipe (Figure 5. Subsequently the values were exported to Microsoft Excel application.

and 60 000 kPa (Table 5. 5. 750 kPa.02 % in every case. 3000 kPa.2a.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 38 The computation was first made generally for wide range of temperatures and pressures. Table 5. 8000 kPa.2d the range of conditions is very wide. 4000 kPa.2d).3 shows the number of grams of water per standard cubic meter of natural gas. The values achieved with both methods are almost identical. for example water. 500 kPa. .2b.2a. 40 000 kPa. 5.2c. The results obtained were put in tables. The outcomes differ by less than 0. These values were chosen deliberately in order to compare the results achieved with the chart provided by GPSA (Figure 5.2b. This method is based on reading the value of standard gas flow per hour [Sm3/h] and dividing it by mass flow of water as one of the stream component.5 . 30 000 kPa. Hysys application can calculate mass and mole flows of every component of a given stream. 5. 1000 kPa. The results’ format was converted from mass of water per standard cubic meter to mass of water per normal cubic meter with use of the real gas law equation (see Appendix F). 5000 kPa. 1500 kPa. Therefore the author made a detailed study of the interest range. The conditions encountered in Maćkowice gas dehydration facility vary only within the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 5500 kPa and the temperature range between 10 oC and 30 oC. Comparison of results achieved with the Clapeyron equation was made with the method based on flow values obtained with Hysys application.2c. The value of standard gas flow per hour can be calculated by Hysys as one of gas stream properties.6. 2000 kPa.4 shows the number of grams of water per normal cubic meter of natural gas. The temperature range started with -40 oC and reached the temperature of 140 oC with 20 oC step. The range of conditions taken under consideration was narrowed. Table 5. 5. 50 000 kPa. 5. 250 kPa. 5. The results’ comparison is shown in Table 5. Second method of calculating the amount of water in standard cubic meter was discovered. The pressure range started with 100 kPa and reached 60 000 kPa. The outcome for the temperature range from -40 oC to 140 oC under the pressure of 60 000 kPa is shown in Table 5.2. In Tables 5.3) – see Chapter 5. 20 000 kPa. The values for which the calculation took place were 100 kPa.

Similar values to those achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (Chapter 5.1 oC for water amount of 0. Similarly the dew points in the temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.2c.032 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30. The obtained results were put in a table (Appendix D).8 oC for the water amount of 0.046 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26. and 20oC (Figure 5. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual and empirical calculations. In order to make the comparison with other results possible the Hysys obtained values were transformed into grams of water per normal cubic meter. The pressure range.010 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.12). . A detailed study of water amount in gas under work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility was made.2b.8 oC for water amount of 0.023 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33. The water content results obtained with Hysys are delivered.4) were achieved.2d.015 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The Hysys application results unit was given in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas mixture.13). The input data included temperature range encountered in polish gas pipelines under the pressure range for which the Maćkowice gas dehydration facility was designed. The layout of the table has changed in comparison with Tables 5. Graphical analysis was prepared for temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.4 oC for water amount of 0. The dew points in the temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0.009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.3) and with the use of empirical equations (Chapter 5.2a. 15oC (Figure 5. 0 oC for normal conditions) the real gas law equation was used for transformation (see Appendix F). As the difference between standard and normal condition is limited to temperature difference (15 oC for standard conditions. 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 39 The outcome unit was transformed.11). gas temperatures and dew points were left unchanged. 5.9 oC for the water amount of 0. 5.

Gandhidasan.3. Average error was calculated from the values obtained. The water saturation calculated with the use of empirical equations for given gas temperature is shown along with the water content for selected dew points according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (see Appendix B) and Hysys package.77 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC. The comparison results are shown in graphic mode. In every case the error was smaller than 20 mg H2O per standard cubic meter.16) are provided.94 % for gas temperature of 15 oC.1977). The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and solution based on empirical equations according to P. .57 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. 27.87 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. 15. The difference was considerably lower for comparison between Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual and Hysys package. as the GPSA chart is well recognized as accurate for predicting the amount of water in natural gas under given conditions (Robinson. empirical equation. 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 40 5. In case of the comparison between manual data and Hysys calculated values the average mistake was 5.7. 13. 5. 14. Hysys computation and manual based data was made.15 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 16. see Chapter 5.2c.6 Water content results comparison Comparison was made between the amount of water calculated from Hysys results (Tables 5.79 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 34.2).8.2d) and the amount of water results achieved with use of GPSA chart (see Figure 5.2b. The diagrams for temperatures 10oC (Figure 5.01 % for gas temperature of 15 oC.15). For ten randomly chosen pressure and temperature values the amount of water was read from the GPSA chart. Similarly in comparison between manual data and equation based calculations the average mistake was 7. The values obtained with different methods stay in reasonable conformity. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and Hysys application are shown in Table 5. and Hysys application were compared.2a. 15oC (Figure 5. Comparison of the results obtained with empirical equations. Hence. and 20oC (Figure 5. 2002 are shown in Table 5. Only values pertaining to work-points were included in tables.58 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC.14). 5. the author considers the values obtained with use of Hysys application as unquestionable. The values of water amount in natural gas according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.

The reason of this unconformity may be the generality of used equation in which the results are not dependent on natural gas composition. Moreover the author notices that the results obtained with empirical calculations used are burdened with noticeable error in comparison to manual and Hysys based outcome. Empirical equations used provide results close to the ones computed with use of Hysys application and delivered from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. Therefore the author decides to use the Hysys results as correct and not burdened with error that would substantially influence subsequent deliberations over optimum energy and glycol strategy. This is gained as the inaccuracy was small and the obtained values show the same tendency in each case. These general empirical equations were used instead of more complex ones as the main goal of this part of author’s work was to check the harmony between empirical solution and computer program based calculation. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 41 The author concludes from the results that both Hysys and manual based data stay in good conformity.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 42 5.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process Calculation of water content under dew point temperatures in Maćkowice dehydration facility work pressure range was made.11. In the range of temperatures between -19 oC and -18 oC the step was decreased to 0.5). For every pressure chosen the dew points in the range of -31 oC to -18 oC with 1 oC step were counted the same way as for water content in given gas temperature and pressure (see Chapter 5. and 25 oC under pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and from 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa are provided in Table 5.11).1 oC. The results were then converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F). 20 oC. For the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa the amount of water in natural gas was calculated with use of Hysys application. Table 5. as this range of dew point temperatures is usually sufficient. The values for gas temperatures of 10 oC. The results for normal conditions are provided in Table 5.5) were considered. 25 oC and 30 oC in this part of pressure range which is in Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area (Figure 3. The values in changed units are shown in Table 5. Gas temperatures of 10 oC. The values in mentioned table were given in grams of water per standard cubic meter.9) were compared with the amounts of water in typical gas temperatures encountered in polish gas pipelines (Table 5. The results showing the amount of water in natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter were put in Table 5.13 shows the amount of water to be removed in grams of water per .9.10. The results were recalculated with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) to values expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter. 15 oC. The results were put in tables. 15 oC. The range of temperatures taken into account corresponds with the dew points possible to achieve during gas dehydration. The amounts of water under the temperature range encountered in Polish gas pipelines and Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area pressure range were calculated. 20 oC.12 The results pertaining to water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in the pressure range between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa (Table 5.The amount of water left in natural gas under dew point temperature was subtracted from the water content of natural gas in typical temperatures encountered in gas pipelines. This led to specifying the amount of water to be removed in order to achieve a required dew point temperature under given pressure for a known medium temperature.

and Table 5. Table 5. Table 5.19 provides results of water amount to remove under gas temperature of 25 oC expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter. Table 5.22 transforms the unit to grams of water to remove from gas per normal meter of medium.17 shows the amount of water to remove from gas under the temperature of 20 oC in grams of water per standard cubic meter.18 shows data pertaining to the same gas temperature. Table 5.15 shows the water amount to be removed for 15 oC warm natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas.16 provides the same data transformed to normal conditions.20 shows the same data expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Table 5. Finally Table 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43 standard cubic meter when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. but expressed in grams of water to remove per normal cubic meter. The value is given in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Table 5. . Table 5.21 shows the amount of water to remove from 30 oC warm gas in grams per standard cubic meter.14 shows the amount of water to be removed when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC.

Achieved values show good correlation between results obtained with use of computation and manual data. The results of empirical calculation differ insignificantly from the ones mentioned above . The calculation is aimed at checking the compatibility of Hysys computation and manual data. Table 5. . This is satisfying result. The data was prepared for the range of water content encountered after dewatering in Maćkowice dehydration facility in gas temperature of 10 oC. The points were not selected for a given pressure. Therefore there are no contraindications against using Hysys outcome as reliable.25 brings up values calculated with use of empirical equations. and Table 5. which is between 0.23 shows the values of dew point for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 44 5. but within the whole range of pressure encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. Hysys obtained results stay in good conformity with manual obtained data.009 g/Nm3 and 0. The difference between dew points computed with use of Hysys package and Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual data hardly ever exceeds the value of 1 oC. Alike in the survey of water content saturating the natural gas in given conditions.8 Dew point values comparison Comparison of dew points for given water content between empirical calculation. Hysys computation and manual data was made.24 contains the values achieved from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual.17. Table 5. The graphical comparison is shown in the Figure 5.018 g/Nm3. For preset values of water content in natural gas the dew point values were calculated and put in tables.

This is one of the most important features upon which a specific glycol absorbent is chosen.344. According to Manning and Thompson (1991) the advantages of glycol over solid desiccants are: a) lower installed costs by 50 % less at 3. however. Glycol solutions 6. 1979) b) lower pressure drop (34. 68. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates.008 g/Sm3 The disadvantages of glycol over solid desiccants are a) water dew points below -4 oC require stripping gas and Stahl column for TEG regeneration b) glycol is susceptible to contamination c) glycol is corrosive when contaminated or decomposed The glycols that are most common for dehydration applications are monoethylene glycol (MEG). and 33 % at 16. particularly in the reboiler.277 Sm3/s.1 Use of glycol solutions Glycols are by far most commonly used solvents in natural gas dehydration.95 kPa .3). decompose at elevated temperatures. Glycols will.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 45 6. All of mentioned glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. triethylene glycol (TEG). The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria. .95 kPa vs. The crucial properties of glycol solvents suitable for dewatering were given before (see Chapter 2.7 kPa for dry desiccants) c) glycol dehydration is continuous rather than batch d) glycol makeup is easily accomplished e) glycol units require less regeneration heat per pound of water removed f) glycol units can typically dehydrate natural gas to 0.47 kPa – 68.387 Sm3/s (Kohl and Riesenfeld. and tetraethylene glycol (TREG). diethylene glycol (DEG).

has a higher decomposition temperature of 277 oC in comparison to DEG (245 oC) and is not too viscous above 4 oC (Manning and Thompson. 1993).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 46 Triethylene glycol offers the best cost/benefit compromise. but brings much less losses due to lower vapor pressure. which translates into lower pumping costs. In comparison to TREG it is less viscious. It shows most of the properties mentioned and in comparison to the other absorbents it is most economically right. It is marginally more expensive than DEG. and is the most widely used (Manning and Wood. which are not entirely compensated by lower vapor pressure (Carroll. 1991) . It also has less affinity for water and therefore less dew point depression. 2003). not mentioning higher costs of TREG purchase. Moreover TEG is more easily regenerated.

2004). T (Chorng et al. More complete data can be obtained by referring to the to the manual published by the GPA (1980).97 % are taken into account..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 47 6.act ) ⋅ Tg 0. 1994). Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for TEG–water system commonly are represented as charts of water dew point lines as a function of contactor temperature and liquid TEG concentrations. According to ATG the dew point temperature possible to achieve differs with glycol concentration and solution contact temperature. which would be obtained if the gas was brought to equilibrium with the TEG solution at the contactor temperature.min = 84. Therefore it is necessary to estimate the minimum concentration of TEG in the strong solution entering the top of the dehydrator to meet the exit gas water content specification.1 shows the dew point obtained for a gas in equilibrium with a solution of triethylene glycol at different concentrations after ATG.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration The drying ability of the TEG is limited by the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water between the gas phase and the liquid TEG phase. Solution contact temperatures shown vary between 0 oC and 80 oC. 1994). A method of calculating the equilibrium between the gas phase and a TEG solution was presented by Rosman (1973).1 glycol concentration is given in weight percent of TEG in solution.. Calculation of the minimum strong TEG concentration required at the inlet to the dehydrator in order to dewater natural gas to given dew point temperature was made. Concentrations of TEG between 95 and 99. (4) . The distribution of water between the two phases at equilibrium is determined by introducing a partition coefficient assumed to be constant throughout the absorption column (Rojey et al. Td.036313 . Figure 6.00173 ⋅ Tdew. The calculation was carried out on the basis of equation provided by P. In the Figure 6.. 1988 (Rojey et al. Gandhidasan (2002): ξ in .629 ⋅ exp(−0. The water dew point is the dew point of the gas. The strong affinity between glycols and water is attributed to hydrogen bonds.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

48

The minimum strong TEG concentration is dependent on the dew point temperature required
and natural gas temperature. The calculation was made for dew point temperature range from
-18 oC to -31 oC, which are dew points encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The
solution contact temperature which equals gas temperature between 1 oC and 25 oC is
considered. The results achieved are shown in Table 6.1.
Figures showing minimum strong TEG concentration in mass percent required to achieve a
given dew point temperature were made on this ground. Figure 6.2 shows minimum TEG
concentration for dew point temperature range between -18 oC and -29 oC. Figure 6.3 shows a
more detailed study on a more narrow range of dew point temperatures (-18 oC to -19 oC) with
0,1 oC step. The range between -18 oC and -19 oC, is the most commonly obtained.
Comparison of results after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1) and after P. Gandhidasan, 2002
(Figure 6.2) was made. For chosen points in range of operation area of Mackiwice
dehydration facility results were compared. The points were chosen on basis of minimum
strong TEG concentration table (Table 6.1). Points of TEG concentration equal to 95 %,
96 %, 97 %, 98 %, and 99 % were used.
The dew point chart after ATG is commonly used for determination of minimum TEG
concentration necessary in many dehydration facilities and bring good conformity with reality
(Rojey et al., 1994). Therefore the results obtained with it are unquestionable. The results
based on empirical solution shown by P. Gandhidasan, 2002 turned out to be burdened with a
few percent error in case of water content in natural gas and dew point temperature
calculations. Hence the author expects a similar distortion in results pertaining to the
minimum concentration of strong TEG stream.
According to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 the minimum TEG absorbent concentration necessary to
dewater 10 oC warm natural gas to dew point temperature of -18,5 oC is 95 % (Table 6.1). The
outcome was checked with dew point chart after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1). According to it the
minimum strong TEG concentration cannot be lower than 96 %.
After P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG concentration enabling to dewater natural gas to
-21 oC in gas temperature 12 oC is 96 %. The value of approximately 97 % TEG concentration

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

49

is read from dew point temperature of gas with solutions of triethylene glycol chart after
ATG, 1988.
Similar comparison was made for the gas temperature of 16 oC reaching the dew point
temperature of -21 oC. In this case according to P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG
concentration is 97 %. Which is by about 1 % less than the result achieved with the use of
Figure 6.1 (minimally less than 98 %).
The value of 98 % strong TEG concentration was calculated as minimum for dehydration of
24 oC warm gas to dew point temperature of -18 oC according to P. Gondhidasan. The value
obtained with use of the chart after ATG, 1988 equals approximately 98,5 %.
For TEG concentration of 99 % and gas temperature 25 oC the dew point temperature of
-23 oC is encountered with use of P. Gandhidasan proposed method. After ATG the value
equals approximately 98,5 %.
Aforementioned examples, alike Table 6.1 and Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 show clearly that the lean
TEG concentrations encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility are high enough to dry
the stream of natural gas to dew point below -18 oC in typical temperatures met in Polish gas
pipelines. The dew point temperature of -18 oC or lower is the demand from gas transport
company.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

50

6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility
According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual the TEG concentration varies
between 99,5 mass % on the inlet to absorber column, and not less than 95 % on the outlet
from the absorber. Tables are provided in the operating manual showing the minimum amount
of TEG necessary to dehydrate natural gas containing a known amount of water (Appendix
G). These are the minimum TEG amounts sufficient to keep the TEG concentration within the
desired range.
Calculation was made of the amount of water possible to remove with use of 1 cubic meter of
triethylene glycol. According to the installation requirements the concentration of TEG
solution cannot drop below the point of 95 mass percent. Therefore not more than 5 mass
precent can be filled by water taken out from dehydrated natural gas. Omitting other chemical
compounds dissolving in TEG and assuming the TEG density as 1122 kg/m3 the value of
approximately 56 kg of water per 1 cubic meter of TEG solution was calculated.
It stands to reason that the circulation of TEG depends on the amount of water present in
natural gas. This, in sequence, is dependent on the temperature and pressure of natural gas
flowing into the absorber column (Table 5.3). The amount of water saturating natural gas is
increasing with temperature, and decreasing with pressure.
For the instances where the amount of water flowing in natural gas can be decreased before
the actual dehydration process it should be done. Therefore gas should be deprived of any free
water before getting to absorber. Also increasing the inlet pressure can bring noticeable
effects while separating free water from natural gas before the actual dehydration process.
The gas temperature should be kept low. The gas should not be warmed up before entering the
absorber more than necessary. The gas entering the absorber should be always warmer than
10 oC though (see Chapter 2.3).
Some part of TEG is wasted through evaporation ans is carried over from absorber with
particles of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost depends on TEG vapor pressure in given
temperature.

Optimization was made by adjusting factors like temperature and pressure of gas entering the installations. Therefore to dehydrate the whole amount of gas coming from Ukraine (550 000 Nm3 per hour) to the water content below 0. and under this pressure only 75 000 Nm3 of natural gas per one processing line can be dehydrated.4).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 51 7.2 g/Nm3. calculation of TEG losses was made. According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual this is the pressure of 2700 kPa. and dew point temperature of the outgoing gas. Even though the above this solution cannot be chosen. which is the investor’s demand. alike energy consumption. and 8 oC for the pressure of 5500 kPa. the remaining part (400 000 Nm3/h) was put directly to the gas pipeline. and tries to minimize it. . The author will check the possibility of meeting the demand. Natural gas temperature of 10 oC was chosen. Two of them. 75 000 Nm3/h each. were directed to the dehydrators. the dehydration of the part of natural gas undergoing the dehydration must be very deep. after mixing with the not dehydrated gas the total water content was still way too high (145 mg/Nm3). TEG is being wasted through: a) evaporating and escape with dried natural gas stream from TEG Contactor and TEG Contactor-2 (Figure 3.050 g/Nm3.2). The installation was set to the lowest work pressure. TEG circulation. Hysys application was used in search for the optimum solution for minimizing TEG waste and energy use. The water content of incoming gas was set at the level of 0. This instance shows that the pressure chosen should be adjusted with consideration for the water content of gas at the inlet to the absorber. The main gas stream was split in three parts. This water content suits the dew point temperature of -2 oC for the pressure of 2700 kPa. Even through decreasing the water content in natural gas undergoing the dehydration process to the level of 13 mg/Nm3. Hysys simulations The author puts attention to the direct after-effect of evaporation of TEG which is TEG loss. which is the point very seldom exceeded in recent two years for the natural gas imported from Ukraine (Figure 3.

Total annual TEG losses in this case would be approximately 28.4). In the Outlet GAS stream (Figure 3.6261 kg/h which gives the amount of 31764 kilograms of TEG per year. The amount of TEG equal to 1.0184 kg/h.620 m3 per 100 000Nm3 of natural gas (Appendix G). The pressure of 4720 kPa was assumed.4). The same examination was used for the gas pressure of 5500 kPa and the whole main gas stream undergoing the drying process. The temperature of gas entering dehydrator was 10 oC and did not differ from the gas temperature in the pipelines (little energy use in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2.000035 mass percent of water in natural gas.4).4). The losses mentioned are made up by New TEG and New TEG-2 streams (Figure 3.4) the total water amount left is 57 kg. The amount of TEG necessary to fill the leaks is 3.4). The installation was set to the maximum gas pressure without compression in compressor unit. Under this pressure the maximum amount of 150 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 52 b) evaporating with natural gas taken from Gas From TEG Sep and Gas From TEG Sep-2 separators (Figure 3. In this case the absorber was able to dehydrate the streams of natural gas to water content of 25 mg/Nm3 which is 0.7 m3. In Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 streams the amount of TEG equals two times 0. The TEG circulation was set to the level of . 2004). as the water content in outlet stream is greater than 50 mg/Nm3. No TEG losses were noticed in Gas From TEG and Gas From TEG-2 streams. The maximum amount of approximately 180 000 Nm3 of natural gas can be dehydrated with every processing line (Mackowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual. This is 3990 kPa. c) through getting into equilibrium with water during TEG regeneration in Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. The TEG circulation was set according to the operating manual tips to 0. This setting cannot be used for natural gas containing assumed water content though. For this amount of gas dehydrated the water content of outlet gas equals 75 mg/Nm3. The greatest loss was observed in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams (Figure 3. see Figure 3. This makes up the loss of 28 m3 of TEG annually. This pressure requires the main imported gas stream to undergo compression before entering the dehydration facility. which makes up 104 mg/Nm3.7946 kg is wasted every hour through each of these streams.

10 oC. The amount of 1. The gas was preheated to 25 oC.352 · 10-3 m3/h. The energy use is high in comparison to previous instances. In this temperature the imported gas cannot fulfill the investor’s demands. The same approach was used for different TEG circulations. For the same gas stream (5500 kPa. which is inconsiderably lower than in case of following operating manual hints. The annual TEG loss achieved is 28.9 m3/h. For TEG inlet of 1 m3 per one absorption column the gas can be dehydrated to the amount of water in natural gas equal 13 mg/Nm3. The TEG loss equals then 29.6 m3. which makes up the quantity of 30.4 m3/yr.16 kg/h each). Hence the total energy us encountered is 3900 kW. as the En To Heater and En To Heater-2 heat flows equal 1801 kW each. and Remnants and Remnants-2 (1.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 53 1. Reboiler En and Reboiler En-2 (135.5 kW each). The total energy use equals 292 kW. The minimum share of gas undergoing the dehydration process has in order to meet the maximum 50 mg of water per Nm3 of gas demand increased to 237000 Nm3 per one processing line. The gas stream was dehydrated to the level of 6. The two of them that are undergoing the dehydration operation put through 212800 Nm3/h each.4) are the Condenser En and Condenser En-2 (6. The amount of gas dehydrated under the pressure of 5500 kPa was decreased to the level where the amount of water in the outlet gas stays close to the level of 50 mg/Nm3. which gives the amount of 29. Pump Q and Pump Q-2 (3. The imported gas was split to three streams. For TEG inlet of 3 m3 per one absorption column the outgoing gas contained only 5 mg of water per Nm3 of natural gas.7 kW each). 0.13 kW each).3 mg/Nm3. The water content of the outgoing gas stream of 48 mg/Nm3 was achieved this way. Total TEG waste amounts to 3.2 m3/yr.3 kW each).4 m3 of TEG per hour is flowing into the absorber column. En To Heater and En To Heater-2 (0.5 m3/yr.8 kg/h each).6 m3/yr.2 g of water per Nm3 of natural gas) an approach of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 35 oC was used.5 · 10-3 m3/h. The amount of TEG lost is 3. The energy streams necessary to perform the drying operations (Figure 3. . The TEG loss in this case was encountered through Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 (0. The TEG loss equaled 29.

For the instance of dehydrating 150 000 Nm3 of gas in each absorber the water content of outlet stream is 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. Reboiler En. the dehydration unit was set for the pressure of 4000 kPa. which is 2 oC. The energy consumption amounts to 1500 kW . the outlet water content amounts to 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. This temperature is met only sometimes during the winter .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 54 Similar technique by a process of trial and error was used for water content in gas of 0. alike TEG loss. The same values were checked for higher pressures. For the pressure of 5500 kPa. which is the lowest pressure value for compressed gas. The temperature of gas was set to the minimum temperature encountered in gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration facility. The TEG loss is 28 m3TEG/yr. The gas is not preheated before entering the contactor. The TEG loss is amount to 28 m3/yr. and the power supply necessary equals 260 kW. Heat flow equals 260 kW. By the energy use the author understands the heat flows of Condenser En. . the heat flow amounts to 260 kW. Condenser En-2.2 this is the amount of water that is not much above the minimum dew point temperature in winter conditions. In these conditions the amount of gas undergoing the dehydration process is set to 150 000 Nm3/h per processing line. and gas temperature of 2 oC. Reboiler En-2. the amount of water in outlet stream has decreased to the value of 45 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. The water content is left at the level of 0. As the dehydration process cannot be completed with sufficient results under the lower variety of pressures from the range of non-compressed gas pressures (as the amounts of gas that can undergo the dewatering process for lower pressures are to low). Pump-2. and applies only to the gas that did not undergo compression process in the neighboring compressor unit. Pump Q.1 gH2O/Nm3GAS. Although this is the most energy and absorbent saving setup the dehydration process should be carried out in higher temperatures to prevent precipitation of hydrates. Total energy use equals 260 kW. and En To Heater-2. Therefore in case of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 10 oC the outlet gas water content changes insignificantly. the highest pressure in work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility. As one can see in Figure 3. Calculation for 10 oC warm gas was made. The TEG loss equals 28 m3TEG/yr. For the pressure of 4700 kPa. Water content of outlet gas equals 46 mg/Nm3. The initial pressure was set to 4000 kPa.1 g/Nm3. En To Heater.

Reboiler En is the amount of energy necessary necessary for warming up TEG undergoing regeneration. Total TEG consumption amounts to 1. Gas temperature is 10 oC. and one processing line in order to achieve the same amount of water in outgoing gas.2 kW (as the gas is not preheated). Therefore it might be of purpose to try to change the setup of this unit in order to get smaller TEG waste. One processing line was used with the throughput of 280 000 Nm3/h. which still makes up 10 % of whole TEG annual use.2 MPa. Similarly the results did not bring any change to the amount of TEG carried out with Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. but no change in the amount of TEG in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams was noticed. The process is repeated every time the conditions change. At first the possibility of dehydration to the water content required by the investor was checked. The water content of inlet gas was set to the value of 0.616·10-3 m3/h which gives the value of 14. Pump Q is heat flow necessary for compressing lean TEG stream from the pressure of 0. That was probably the reason why the author did not obtain any differences in the outcoming stream. TEG Pump consumes 3. The change in TEG loss was imperceptible.7 mg/Nm3.2 m3/yr.4 MPa to the pressure of 6.2 kW.7 kW and the Pre Column Heater uses 0. The author did not have access to sufficient data pertaining to the regenerator.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 55 Tests were made of adjusting the TEG Regenerator in different manners. This was sufficient for achieving the water content of 49. The temperatures of Regen Feed and Regen Feed-2 streams were increased. The temperature of the stream leaving the condenser was changed in range from 60 oC to 140 oC. Inlet pressure equals 5500 kPa. Hysys application chooses the remaining dimentions and other values necessary depending on the conditions. Pump Q and En To Heater streams. The regenerator’s reboiler requires 127. In case of running dehydration with use of two processing lines gas pressure can be lowered. Therefore with the data the author possessed only changes in TEG loss of approximately 3 m3 per year are possible. In the considered case total energy loss encountered amounts to 132 kW. The outlet TEG concentration increased insignificantly. The main TEG loss is encountered in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams leaving Regenerator.1 g/Nm3. An approach was made to calculate the energy consumption and TEG loss differences between using two processing lines. En To Heater stream is the total amount of energy necessary to get the required gas temperature. The energy consumption is now encountered through Reboiler En. The two streams entering TEG contactors are 140 000 Nm3/h each. The Reboiler En was changed in order to achieve different reboiler temperature. The water content in .

For the amount of water in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 for most cases use of single processing line is sufficient. this would enable to dehydrate natural gas of water content at the inlet to the separator of approximately 170 mg/Nm3. TEG consumption amounts to 3. If the amount of water in natural gas was supposed not to exceed the value of 75 mn/Nm3. 280 000 Nm3/h of natural gas can be dehydrated. especially for summer conditions. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 56 natural gas achieved equals 49. Dehydration of natural gas to the water content of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. This allows using single processing line for achieving the water content of natural gas below 50 mg/Nm3 for all cases of water content lower than 100 mg/Nm3.215·10-3 m3/h which equals 28. For the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3. therefore the water amount is similar to the case of using single processing line. which corresponds with dew point temperature of 5 oC in pressure of 4 MPa (dew point requirement in summer conditions) the dehydration process for most time can be omissed. This high values were not encountered in the imported natural gas for over four years now. Total energy consumption encountered is 254 kW.5 ng/Nm3. the incoming natural gas can contain up to 440 mg/Nm3. For the pressure of 5500 kPa. Polish norm characterizes the dew point temperature for summer and winter time.2 m3/yr. which is almost twice higher than in the previous example. For fulfilling the demand for dew point temperature in summer season according to Polish norm which corresponds with the water content in dehydrated natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3.

Triethylene glycol was chosen for the absorbent by the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. conservation. The maximum water content for transport of gas in pipelines is specified by Polish norm. As shown. The water content possible to achieve in this case is far below the water content of natural gas requirement and equals approximately 6 mg/Nm3 (see Chapter 7). and maintenance operations possible without necessity of turning off whole the dehydration facility. The dehydration facility consists of two processing lines. The two drying equipment sets make renovation. while the water content of natural gas during winter period was lower. The contemporary dew point temperature demand is determined by the Decree of the Minister of Administration issued on 24th of August 2000. The total amount of gas imported from Ukraine amounts to 550 000 Nm3/h. Therefore any maintenance operations should be carried out during summer season. The dehydration process in Mackowice is carried with use of TEG based absorption method. while there is small probability of hydrate precipitation in gas pipelines. According to experimental data. This decree changed the values of dew point temperature at the pressure of 4 MPa to 5 oC in the period from 1st of April until 30th of September. The dehydration process chosen is absorption.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 57 8. Other gas treatment facilities are usually parts of gas storage facilities. Previously the values for summer time were slightly higher. This enables the whole amount of imported gas to undergo the dehydration process. for this amount of natural gas. one processing line may sometimes not be sufficient for dehydration of the imported gas stream to the water content demand of the investor which is 50 mg per normal meter of natural gas. Therefore this decision seems to be correct from the economical point of view. Mackowice dehydration facility is the only drying unit connected with Polish gas transportation system. dehydration with use of TEG solution is the most economically justified way (see Chapter 6. Discussion There is a constant necessity of dehydration the gas stream coming from Ukraine. . Depending on gas inlet pressure each of them can dry up to 280 000 Nm3/h. The natural gas coming from Ukraine hardly ever meets the dew point temperature demand (Figure 3. and -10oC from 1st of October to 31st of March.2). which makes up 153 Nm3/s.1).

Even in the temperature and pressure range encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility the tendency is clear.Remnants and Remnants-2 (Figure 3. Therefore the natural gas temperature should be kept low. Gas From TEG Sep-2. but is justified from economical point of view. An survey for ways of lowering the amount of TEG in these streams was done.13). TEG loss simulation was made. or neighbouring comressors unit. as recompression of the gas stream and putting it back to system would be costly. The results obtained with use of Hysys application stay with good conformity with experimental data provided by ATG (Figure 5. This causes emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Preheating of the natural gas stream should be carried out only when the gas temperature is lower than 10 oC for the reasons explained in Chapter 2. and storing it is impossible. Besides economical aspect. Energy consumption simulation was made. For gas containing the same amount of water saving of . and the streams outgoing from regenerator containing the stripping gas . The figures show clearly.3).4). According to Hysys computations the biggest TEG waste is encountered in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams outgoing from Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. The calculations of amount of water to remove from natural gas to reach required dew point temperature were made.3. It might be advisable to calculate the costs and profits that could result from using the gas streams outgoing from Gas From TEG Sep. Good results in energy saving can be brought by exploiting only one processing line at a time when it is enough to reach the water content of natural gas below the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. that the amount of water to be removed decreases considerably with pressure increase (Table 5. From the values obtained with Hysys application it is noticeable that processing the gas dehydration under lower temperatures brings better effects (see Chapter 7). this step would make the dehydration facility more independent from external energy source. According to Hysys application computation the most energy demand occurs in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 58 During seasons of natural gas surplus the vent gas is burnt in flare.1) and by GPSA (Figure 5. The main difference in the amount of TEG lost comes out of the amount of water in natural gas. The results show insignificant changes in the amount of TEG lost in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams.4) as fuel for energy source for operating Maćkowice dehydration facility.

This brings rational savings in TEG loss and energy consumption. In order to increase the gas pressure neighboring compressor unit is used. . 280 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated. the demand for dew point temperature can be fulfilled with using only one processing line.1) is sufficient during summer season.1) or lower is necessary. Until the water content is low enough. When the pressure equals 5500 kPa. Lowering the water content in natural gas to the level of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. Dehydrating natural gas under high pressures enables drying bigger quantities of natural gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 59 approximately 2 m3TEG per year can be achieved by carrying out the dehydration process under pressures close to the value of 5500 kPa. Keeping the dew point temperature minimally below the dew point demand will in multiple cases bring savings in energy and TEG loss. In the winter period the dew point temperature of -10 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which equals the water content in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. The TEG absorbent waste can also be noticeably lowered this way. Until the process of dehydration can be lead with use of one processing line the energy demand equals half the demand calculated (see Chapter 7). According to the Polish Norm the dew point temperature of 5 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which amounts to the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. Therefore there is no need to dehydrate the natural gas stream to the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3.

The author concludes. Only one processing line should be used at a time until it is able to dehydrate the outlet stream below the required dew point temperature. The author suggests using the compressor unit neighbouring with Maćkowice dehydration facility for natural gas compression before undergoing the dewatering process.3). The most energy consumption is encountered during heating of gas stream flowing in the absorber column. Table 5.3. which makes up around 10 % of annual TEG loss. In winter season increase in gas temperature caused by the compression may be advisable. Table 5. The work temperature should be kept low.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 60 9. some part of water can be removed from natural gas as liquid before the actual dehydration process.15. Table 5.17. From the study made the author concludes that working in high pressure range brings savings in energy consumption and reduces TEG consumption by approximately 2-3 m3 per year. The results obtained by the author with Hysys application were coherent with published results (Figure 5. this approach prevents the necessity of compressing the gas after undergoing the dehydration process.13.12). The results show clearly that the amount of water in natural gas increases rapidly with temperature rise. It also extends the period between maintenance operations and decreases the threat of malfunctions.19. Conclusions Calculations of water content in natural gas under different temperatures and pressures were made. unless its temperature is lower than 10 oC. as gas compression is necessary anyway. The incoming gas stream should not be warmed up. as due to the higher viscosity of .21). In this case less water would have to be removed from gas in the dehydration process to achieve a desired dew point under given gas temperature. Table 5. which leads to the conclusion that results obtained with use of Hysys are reliable. By comparison of these results with water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in range between -31 oC and -18 oC (Table 5. Figure 5. that in case of saturated gas flow. by increasing work pressure. Table 5. This approach brings savings in amount of TEG lost and energy consumption. and decreases with pressure increase (Table 5.09) the amount of water to remove during dehydration process were determined (Table 5.1. Moreover.

temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit of the dehydration temperature range.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 61 the glycol. Poland. water content in gas. . Unfortunately the author did not have enough data to carry out this investigation. gas pressure and dew point temperature demand should be carried out and checked with the data achieved during the exploitation of Maćkowice dehydration facility. More in-depth study over an algorithm of choosing whether to run one or two processing lines depending on the gas temperature.

L’Aide-memoire de l’Industrie du Gas. . MA. Sim and Suphat Watanasiri. Surface Production Operations. 7-9. Parametric Analysis of Natural Gas Dahydration by a Triethylene Glycol Solution. 2004. FRA. Twu. 1984 Carroll. Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Elsevier Science. A Guide for Engineers. John M. 1988 ATG. 1989 ATG.. Vince Tassone. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). J. Delion. Stewart.. p. Hydrate control in multiphase flow. Spring 2005. 2003 www. Campbell Petroleum Series. Gandhidasan.. Aspen Technology. Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities.com Chorng H. Paris. ch. Editions Technip.. Advanced equation of state method for modeling TEG–water for glycol gas dehydration. Outlook to 2000. E. Gulf Publishing Co. Burlington.. Campbell and Company. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France. 1995 Campbell. 4th edition.elsevier.. Le Traitment du Gaz Naturel sur Gisement. Book Division. M. M.. 1989 Behar. Thomas. Paris. P. Natural Gas in the World Gas. Houston. 1990 ATG. 2002 Arnold. Partner Update. Inc.. Natural Gas Hydrates. Gas Conditioning and Processing. Paris. J. A. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France. K.. Wayne D.141-234.S.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 62 References Annual Reporting and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions.. Tex. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France – Commision de Production et de Traitement.M.

U. p. T. H. 55-58. Houston. R. Riesenfeld. 1980 Kohl. R. Thompson. 1993 ..S. Aspen Tech Driving Process Profitability. R.. Gulf Publishing Co. April. R. P. Permeation: a new competitive process in offshore gas dehydration. Norman. A.M. F. New gas-water-TEG equilibria. p..N. Aspen Technology Inc.. Hydrocarbon Processing. Hicks. 1985 Kumar. Tulsa. Houston. F. Penn Well Publishing CO. Gulf Publishing Co.E.com. S. Gas Production Engineering. Tex. Danner. 2004. E. Okla. 4-6.. Volume One: Natural Gas. 2003 Ikoku. J.. Data Compilation Tables of Properties of Pure Compounds.. 1991 Hysys 3. No. C.. J. Okla.C. Gas Conditioning and Processing – Gas and Liquid Sweetening. Campbell Petroleum Series.E. 1984 General Information About Hysys. Houston. 1991 Manning.2 Documentation. – 16th Annual Offshore Technological Conference. Penn Well Publishing Co. Book Division.. A...P. New Your.. Separation and Processing In Natural Gas Engineering – A Systems Approach. Senules..5 Fournie.1985. Agostini. www.. N. and Wood. L.S. Gas Purification.. Book Division.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 63 Daubert. Hydrocarbon Processing. Design Institute for Physical Property Data – Americal Institute of Chemical Engineers (DIPPER-AIChE). 4. 4th ed..P.. 89-274. Oilfield Processing of Petroleum.. 3-rd ed. Campbell. F. W.L. Penn Well Book. Tulsa. ch.Y. 1982 Manning. Penn Well Book. Guidelines for glycol dehydrator design – Part 1... April. Gas dehydration using glycol. 1987 Maddox. Proc.aspentech.

. J.. Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnów). and Leppin. Transport. 21st January 2005 Robinson. University of Calgary. Michel Valais. Heideman. W..com Stosur.. New Orleans. . Petrofina Canada Ltd.. Okla. C. 1994 . New York. M. materials from conference accompanying the opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility.G.. Paris. copyright 1998 by Marcel Dekker. Estimation of the Water Content of Sour Natural Gases. March. D.C. Sophie Jullian.. Production. Glycol Dehydration Design Manual. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gas. Jr.. C. Processing Gas Cond. Traitement. R. Conference. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. E. Editions Technip.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 64 Nafta-Gaz. Marcel Dekker. Nafta-Gas. Wichert.R.. S.. Inc. Newfield Exploration Co.. A. conference accompanying opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. August 1977 Rojey. Claude Jaffret . Institut Francais du Petrole Publications. Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operating Manual. Laurence Reid Gas Conditioning Conference. 1973 Sivalls. 1994 Rosman..A.E. Echterhoff. R.dekker. University of Oklahoma. 73rd Annual GPA Convention. Water Equilibrium in the ehydration of Natural Gas With Triethylene Glycol. Cooperation of Mackowice Dehydration Facility with national gas transport system.. 1997. Bernard Durand.. L. LA. 1976 Sloan. Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe..N. SPE Journal. Translation (updated and expanded) of Le gaz naturel. Moore. 2005. Inc. NY www. A. Process optimization review. 2004 Pontiff... 21st January 2005 Tannehill. The Cost of Conditioning Your Natural Gas for Market. E..

Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.E. February.. 2001 65 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Trent. OK. Dehydration with Molecular Sieves. Norman. R.

175 194.122 150.007 Density at 25 oC [kg/m3] 1110 1115 1122 1122 0.67 196.00522 0.068 106.00 277.45 -7. 1985) Ethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene glycol glycol glycol glycol EG DEG TEG T4EG (TrEG) Overall chemical formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C8H18O5 Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 62.03673 0.89 176.00 Boiling point at 101325 Pa [oC] 197.30 245.24 0.00 -10.85 Vapor pressure at 25 oC [Pa] 12.85 307.66 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Tables Table 2.00989 0.05 0.27 0.35 -5.00787 0.04271 0.228 Melting point [oC] -13. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner.11 123.01771 0.01063 2395 2307 2190 2165 111.11 Abbreviation Absolute viscosity at 25 oC [Pa·s] Absolute viscosity at 60 oC [Pa·s] Specific heat at 25 oC [J/kg·K] Flash point [oC] .03021 0.

67

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004)
P [bar]

10 C

15 C

20 C

25 C

[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0

0,018

-27

0,025

-22,9

0,036

-18,8

27,6

0,017

-27,2

0,025

-23,1

0,035

-19

28,1

0,018

-26,9

0,026

-23,2

0,035

-18,8

28,7

0,018

-27,1

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

29,2

0,017

-27,5

0,024

-23,3

0,034

-19,3

29,8

0,017

-27,3

0,024

-23,2

0,034

-19,5

30,4

0,016

-27,9

0,023

-23,7

0,033

-19,6

30,9

0,016

-28,2

0,023

-23,9

0,032

-20

31,5

0,016

-28,1

0,023

-24,2

0,032

-20,3

32,0

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,4

0,031

-20,4

32,6

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,5

0,031

-20,6

33,2

0,015

-28,7

0,022

-24,6

0,03

-20,7

33,7

0,015

-28,9

0,021

-24,9

0,03

-20,7

34,3

0,015

-29,1

0,021

-25,1

0,03

-21,1

34,8

0,014

-29,2

0,021

-25,3

0,029

-21,3

35,4

0,015

-29,1

0,02

-25,3

0,028

-21,5

36,0

0,014

-29,3

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,6

36,5

0,014

-29,9

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,9

37,1

0,014

-29,7

0,019

-26

0,027

-22

0,039

-18,2

37,6

0,013

-30,4

0,019

-26,1

0,027

-22,2

0,037

-18,3

38,2

0,013

-30,5

0,019

-26

0,026

-22,4

0,037

-18,5

38,8

0,013

-30,6

0,019

-26,2

0,026

-22,5

0,036

-18,5

39,3

0,013

-30,8

0,018

-26,6

0,026

-22,6

0,035

-18,7

39,9

0,012

-30,9

0,018

-26,7

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

68

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac NG
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3] =
Name
Temperature C
Pressure Kpa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG
-40
100
1
0
0,995188
0,853712
16,46942

Water In
-40,00
100
0
1
8,81E-04
1054,49
18,0151

NG
Water In
0
-40,59685
250
250
1
0
0
1
0,992517 2,21E-03
1,826639 1054,953
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,6056
500
500
1
0
0
1
0,985064 4,42E-03
3,680918 1055,034
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,61348
750
750
1
0
0
1
0,977643 6,62E-03
5,563285 1055,113
16,46942 18,0151

SatGas
-40
100
0,999822
1,78E-04
0,995188
0,853289
16,46115
0,135562
SatGas
-40
250
0,999928
7,20E-05
0,987959
2,147638
16,45213
0,054844
SatGas
-40
500
0,999963
3,67E-05
0,975872
4,345989
16,44272
0,02794
SatGas
-40
750
0,999975
2,49E-05
0,963736
6,598667
16,43672
0,018981

SatGas
-20
100
0,998802
1,20E-03
0,996218
0,785442
16,46774
0,913126
SatGas
-20
250
0,999515
4,85E-04
0,990553
1,973988
16,46217
0,369326
SatGas
-20
500
0,999754
2,46E-04
0,981116
3,984439
16,45592
0,187523
SatGas
-20
750
0,999833
1,67E-04
0,971687
6,032949
16,45126
0,12696

SatGas
0
100
0,994062
5,94E-03
0,996996
0,727702
16,47688
4,524305
SatGas
0
250
0,997606
2,39E-03
0,99251
1,826606
16,46902
1,823647
SatGas
0
500
0,998788
1,21E-03
0,985059
3,679663
16,46374
0,923569
SatGas
0
750
0,999181
8,19E-04
0,977642
5,560168
16,46018
0,623664

SatGas
20
100
0,977004
2,30E-02
0,997576
0,678777
16,504
17,52095
SatGas
20
250
0,990742
9,26E-03
0,994001
1,700705
16,48134
7,053893
SatGas
20
500
0,995321
4,68E-03
0,988072
3,419901
16,4721
3,565226
SatGas
20
750
0,996847
3,15E-03
0,982186
5,159245
16,46779
2,402648

SatGas
40
100
0,926761
7,32E-02
0,997954
0,638188
16,58206
55,8042
SatGas
40
250
0,970541
2,95E-02
0,995118
1,593395
16,51343
22,44607
SatGas
40
500
0,985134
1,49E-02
0,990382
3,197366
16,48937
11,327
SatGas
40
750
0,989998
1,00E-02
0,985684
4,816303
16,48047
7,621263

SatGas
60
100
0,800924
0,199076
0,997932
0,606935
16,77682
151,6903
SatGas
60
250
0,919972
8,00E-02
0,995834
1,503793
16,59211
60,97907
SatGas
60
500
0,959664
4,03E-02
0,992091
3,007565
16,52963
30,73496
SatGas
60
750
0,972894
2,71E-02
0,988345
4,522551
16,50811
20,65389

SatGas
80
100
0,525055
0,474945
0,996642
0,587882
17,20343
361,9035
SatGas
80
250
0,80903
0,19097
0,995826
1,433335
16,76397
145,5172
SatGas
80
500
0,903817
9,62E-02
0,993106
2,849244
16,61655
73,29028
SatGas
80
750
0,935425
6,46E-02
0,990195
4,273601
16,56683
49,20551

SatGas
100
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,991957
0,583746
17,965
737,3064
SatGas
100
250
0,590953
0,409047
0,993959
1,386413
17,10139
311,697
SatGas
100
500
0,793934
0,206066
0,99289
2,724768
16,78691
157,0241
SatGas
100
750
0,861717
0,138283
0,990927
4,069508
16,68139
105,3731

SatGas
120
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993004
0,553466
17,965
737,3215
SatGas
120
250
0,20153
0,79847
0,98718
1,371575
17,70357
608,453
SatGas
120
500
0,596676
0,403324
0,9899
2,641157
17,09231
307,3425
SatGas
120
750
0,729221
0,270779
0,989531
3,915565
16,88681
206,3396

SatGas
140
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993883
0,526208
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
250
0,032416
0,967584
0,984592
1,327933
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
500
0,270738
0,729262
0,980576
2,612049
17,59653
555,7249
SatGas
140
750
0,509163
0,490837
0,983602
3,82412
17,22757
374,036

69

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5.2b Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 2 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG

Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,62119
-40
-20
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1
0 0,999981 0,999873 0,999378
0
1 1,90E-05 1,27E-04 6,22E-04
0,970258 8,83E-03 0,951549 0,962267 0,97026
7,474177 1055,192 8,908599 8,120855 7,468663
16,46942
18,0151 16,43247 16,44758 16,45732
0,014508 0,096707 0,473805
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,63688
-40
-20
0
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1
0 0,999987 0,999913 0,999575
0
1 1,32E-05 8,73E-05 4,25E-04
0,955599 1,32E-02 0,927023 0,943466 0,955612
11,38324 1055,351 13,7116 12,41986 11,37161
16,46942
18,0151 16,42667 16,44207 16,45281
0,010051 0,066516 0,324139
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,65348
-40
-20
0
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
1
0 0,99999 0,999932 0,999673
0
1 1,03E-05 6,76E-05 3,27E-04
0,941109 1,77E-02 0,902296 0,924731 0,941132
15,41135 1055,511 18,77865 16,89122 15,39215
16,46942
18,0151 16,42274 16,43809 16,44932
0,007838 0,051486 0,249505
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,69075
-40
-20
0
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
1
0 0,999993 0,999952 0,99977
0
1 7,43E-06 4,80E-05 2,30E-04
0,912718 2,65E-02 0,852287 0,887568 0,912768
23,83609 1055,832 29,81105 26,38896 23,79828
16,46942
18,0151 16,41739 16,43263 16,44419
0,005662 0,036597 0,175293

SatGas

SatGas

SatGas

20
40
60
1000
1000
1000
0,997609 0,992429 0,979508
2,39E-03 7,57E-03 2,05E-02
0,976344 0,981032 0,984633
6,918913 6,450217 6,048684
16,46484 16,47543 16,49689
1,821597 5,768893 15,61413
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
1500
1500
1500
0,998371 0,994859 0,98612
1,63E-03 5,14E-03 1,39E-02
0,964803 0,971871 0,977337
10,4998 9,762924 9,134077
16,46059 16,46936 16,48483
1,241031 3,917547 10,57614
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
2000
2000
2000
0,998752 0,996072 0,989423
1,25E-03 3,93E-03 1,06E-02
0,953463 0,962913 0,970226
14,16351 13,13523
12,263
16,45741 16,46545 16,47806
0,951245 2,992914 8,059008
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
3000
3000
3000
0,999131 0,997283 0,992722
8,69E-04 2,72E-03 7,28E-03
0,931448 0,945642 0,956597
21,74116 20,05625 18,64756
16,45267 16,46018 16,4701
0,662485 2,070397 5,545669

SatGas

SatGas
80
100
1000
1000
0,95123 0,895629
4,88E-02 0,104371
0,987268 0,988768
5,706312 5,420531
16,54156 16,62825
37,16258 79,53179
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
1500
1500
0,967032 0,929551
3,30E-02 7,04E-02
0,981485 0,984334
8,596383 8,140997
16,51558 16,57444
25,12137 53,68303
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
2000
2000
0,97493 0,946511
2,51E-02 5,35E-02
0,975846 0,979939
11,51855 10,88526
16,50195 16,54694
19,10334 40,75873
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
3000
3000
0,98282 0,963464
1,72E-02 3,65E-02
0,96508 0,97151
17,45501 16,44117
16,48725 16,51844
13,09114 27,84049

SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1000
1000
0,795648 0,629204
0,204352 0,370796
0,988409 0,984385
5,194701 5,039737
16,78348 17,04149
155,7211 282,5601
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1500
1500
0,862171 0,749796
0,137829 0,250204
0,985479 0,983751
7,766747 7,481237
16,6794 16,85395
105,0286 190,6648
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
2000
2000
0,895465 0,810293
0,104535 0,189707
0,982294 0,982086
10,35645 9,93579
16,62675 16,75932
79,65841 144,5639
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
3000
3000
0,928768 0,870911
7,12E-02 0,129089
0,975949 0,977969
15,58522 14,88087
16,5731 16,66352
54,28041 98,37066

5712 16.969976 0.42899 16.24829 SatGas SatGas 120 140 5000 5000 0.999995 0.82E-04 0.80019 16.4832 99.985125 0.997885 6.946273 0.998245 5.048 271.37301 SatGas SatGas 120 140 8000 8000 0.24562 36.790572 73.973919 1.488 56.30E-02 0.81E-04 2.919462 4.735258 197.801717 0.019317 0.09E-05 8.4436 1.994366 5.612019 0.44653 16.117018 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.999887 0 1 4.922745 0.41E-06 2.951349 0.556253 SatGas 60 4000 0.50623 22.99943 0.94675 2.519165 1.1565 230.59576 75.6143 86.52469 SatGas SatGas 80 100 8000 8000 0.41364 16.44057 0.295609 17.833824 171.3351 19.6512 27.2535 16.8481 42.29E-05 1.38908 SatGas SatGas 80 100 5000 5000 0.999818 0 1 6.09E-02 2.62E-04 7.086119 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -41.964497 0.85E-05 1.44117 16.0151 16.138633 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.99927 2.70598 16.973769 20.025071 0.75104 0.611285 SatGas SatGas 20 40 5000 5000 0.46845 16.43851 0.885287 3.029307 0.30E-04 0.735116 0.45474 2.63E-03 0.43259 16.999975 0.511 110.999979 0.0151 16.933332 SatGas SatGas 20 40 20000 20000 0.46E-02 9.76622 1056.44918 16.47901 16.47777 5.0245 151.46161 3.29E-06 3.999319 0.88522 34.38932 16.32E-02 2.07962 16.960475 42.43267 0.53849 22.27E-06 2.99151 -40 -20 0 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 1 0 0.992041 3.22E-03 0.54E-02 0.53E-02 0.46E-02 8.09099 21.337547 SatGas SatGas 20 40 8000 8000 0.87337 19.61E-02 0.963674 23.39992 1057.54E-04 0.4565 0.36004 47.996052 0.87E-02 0.49E-02 2.199802 0.70 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.06E-02 0.984579 7.49374 8.48651 11.677581 0.910429 0.19E-03 0.81E-02 0.955393 0.46942 18.929306 29.00403 0.839223 0.874918 64.943805 25.945414 0.064803 SatGas SatGas 120 140 4000 4000 0.299 1061.989113 0.999962 0.76E-03 0.54545 16.5283 16.7209 0.42634 16.87495 .176007 0.44798 0.46516 4.06E-06 3.61243 40.2c Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 3 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.2057 16.20853 1056.995349 4.42444 0.977002 1.2668 16.998209 1.004616 0.999919 0 1 4.42122 16.8684 16.21987 16.76382 16.21273 24.1548 196.58489 33.47349 16.57958 73.19285 16.11E-03 0.996808 3.4395 16.79E-03 0.4118 16.66101 27.0151 16.0151 16.5037 16.061717 SatGas SatGas 20 40 4000 4000 0.13E-04 0.95E-03 7.61259 45.54E-05 1.40396 16.790396 7.992626 0.32E-02 0.9319 31.292802 SatGas 60 5000 0.99159 61.89146 16.78728 -40 -20 0 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 0 0.815533 0.57841 SatGas SatGas 120 140 20000 20000 0.859054 4.10192 16.46942 18.65E-03 0.619164 11.37E-03 1.10E-05 0.50101 16.4498 40.901925 52.969835 26.003357 0.890549 9.364449 SatGas SatGas 80 100 4000 4000 0.46942 18.96E-03 0.157 42.2411 114.309711 0.73488 -40 -20 0 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 1 0 0.871305 136.46367 16.015889 0.41E-02 0.901254 5.61474 41.788426 0.999846 0 1 5.7218 16.3026 57.95648 29.003252 0.6919 16.999996 0.938915 48.008631 6.901826 0.945766 0.859158 42.43786 0.851043 0.431904 SatGas 60 20000 0.44921 16.97E-02 5.434047 1.45369 0.88647 16.41068 16.68723 32.971931 1.50335 10.75109 SatGas SatGas 80 100 20000 20000 0.70E-04 1.45682 3.986757 0.05E-02 0.79094 16.06E-04 1.970326 0.999996 0.999967 0.14E-01 37.10392 -40 -20 0 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 1 0 0.955041 0.999738 0.885364 32.998775 4.961818 106.544099 SatGas 60 8000 0.46942 18.623604 0.12253 16.999994 0.926502 124.999594 0.

42806 0.013185 0.88E-05 6.050478 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.115204 252.7493 16.997455 0.7577 16.31E-03 0.89911 -40 -20 0 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 1 0 0.3435 312.13E-03 1.5396 16.199886 1.42069 0.00E-02 0.6765 16.476543 SatGas SatGas 20 40 40000 40000 0.795334 3.349965 0.42906 16.145359 0.01E-04 5.44248 1.80E-03 1.1653 264.45305 16.999768 0.46424 7.4153 0.0746 204.010212 SatGas 60 50000 0.896785 233.999996 0.2691 328.9466 16.400888 SatGas SatGas 20 40 60000 60000 0.43581 16.03557 219.3943 16.54E-03 4.098653 0.998674 1.44403 16.136093 4.67E-04 0.63E-05 1.056396 192.979989 1.3253 372.999996 0.16E-02 2.153622 SatGas SatGas 80 100 50000 50000 0.999937 0 1 3.1048 16.122926 10.50E-03 1.105999 1.26E-04 1.0151 16.999983 0.782 321.867052 0.13E-06 1.6698 325.36711 SatGas SatGas 120 140 60000 60000 0.120244 1.161 376.013729 0.09869 330.40077 16.99E-05 0.992353 275.999433 2.999934 0 1 3.45438 6.4457 16.927037 SatGas 60 60000 0.22E-03 1.999799 0.211407 331.41319 0.956455 0.998865 1.88E-03 1.007714 235.04E-03 1.808525 SatGas SatGas 80 100 40000 40000 0.99998 0.5998 213.431505 SatGas SatGas 120 140 30000 30000 0.25E-04 0.806 16.42226 16.254669 1.1354 259.491 353.46942 18.999474 2.985083 8.2d Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 4 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.9262 16.995497 2.787539 0.121822 1.87408 -40 -20 0 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 1 0 0.2235 211.999809 0.998511 1.522215 1.3983 16.997197 0.73E-05 6.206158 295.4489 16.1631 16.964662 300.31423 .6839 16.177091 0.056669 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.376912 SatGas 60 30000 0.38031 16.999996 0.2246 164.939258 3.436294 1.0151 16.44059 16.9354 299.5132 16.163468 0.201229 279.988416 0.099654 307.046991 1.43412 0.999408 153.49E-02 1.0578 286.43994 1.4849 16.2381 16.664 16.999996 0.33E-03 1.924049 192.44569 2.90E-03 1.42416 16.99604 -40 -20 0 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 1 0 0.035 1069.124344 224.38437 16.220082 1.42638 16.15E-04 5.053222 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.2648 143.95E-04 1.3745 16.964618 0.808816 0.4322 0.015052 0.80E-05 6.69E-02 1.2995 181.002921 0.5774 351.104182 268.997644 0.99369 3.233769 0.0151 16.836689 260.43209 0.9951 2.91E-04 4.2511 16.71 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.985585 0.46942 18.20E-03 6.83E-06 1.048174 SatGas SatGas 20 40 30000 30000 0.002819 0.233811 352.47242 8.786 394.46942 18.983118 9.37712 16.32E-05 1.827251 15.41775 0.24902 SatGas SatGas 120 140 40000 40000 0.955701 0.70E-06 1.153415 0.9708 289.00303 0.968509 177.43795 16.836617 0.40366 16.45861 6.109651 1.43479 0.45003 2.0735 16.99012 0.285294 1.26321 0.93605 -40 -20 0 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 1 0 0.043 1063.999926 0 1 4.134202 SatGas 60 40000 0.42991 0.35E-02 1.4535 16.40719 16.097277 1.32E-04 6.43938 1.431976 SatGas SatGas 20 40 50000 50000 0.44E-05 0.46942 18.994549 2.0151 16.98E-05 7.80E-03 5.86498 SatGas SatGas 120 140 50000 50000 0.529158 12.864803 SatGas SatGas 80 100 30000 30000 0.999785 0.014345 0.97742 0.7066 11.5814 239.6145 16.45887 16.49E-03 0.98E-06 1.43644 1.2582 237.7149 1066.996801 0.986465 8.003146 0.36E-03 4.198501 251.999981 0.45E-03 1.8061 254.948025 0.999982 0.99993 0 1 3.733471 SatGas SatGas 80 100 60000 60000 0.9393 16.998783 1.999375 2.203081 1.6695 1071.022349 1.991199 0.437416 4.999505 1.5492 352.991965 0.

88124 35.10334 13.823647 0.21078 0.7994 84.051486 0.57841 19.565526 1.003197 0.015305 0.341949 0.007838 0.37301 40.864803 80 361.96698 16.3064 311.400888 0.31722 51.32957 32.153346 40 58.507 103.015889 0.184924 0.025 64.951245 0.74515 42.050821 20 18.699817 1.163468 0.381843 3.848 586.018981 0.422915 0.020024 0.54769 0.3351 8.772893 1.6518 111.97907 30.08687 13.95791 9.086119 0.974314 0.337547 0.369326 0.197827 0.923569 0.161845 0.057858 0.175293 0.821597 1.697 157.14301 0.172449 0.698885 0.963297 0.529158 6.00487 0.84049 21.36711 10.556253 0.620049 120 777.389619 0.99822 29.52095 7.7756 79.37066 75.67937 11.2772 110.135562 0.153415 0.015133 0.808525 4.075094 6.2294 217.431904 1.6769 164.312264 7.0854 201.565226 2.013729 0.24902 12.00303 0.145359 40 55.917547 2.153622 3.72 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.8178 328.015052 0.003146 0.768893 3.50166 20.398034 5.15725 8.004251 0.499838 0.309711 0.61243 11.1628 83.008631 2.20448 26.014345 0.528671 3.923847 0.534662 1.3731 79.053251 0.78872 16.15736 2.73496 20.004616 0.7066 6.16258 25.376912 60 151.048174 20 17.939258 1.52469 11.014483 0.053222 0.03524 57.010603 0.73883 2.545669 4.623664 0.292802 3.80799 20.122926 737.8337 641.927037 0.177091 0.7211 105.63265 42.040013 6.5172 73.938607 3.8232 165.014508 0.324139 0.036 282.75873 27.431976 0.09114 10.544099 2.457895 0.662485 0.003511 0.6903 60.621263 5.002974 -20 0.26286 43.01391 0 4.029475 0.045811 1.88095 Table 5.47204 11.619164 3.053893 3.096707 0.026449 0.850376 4.002921 0.5601 190.519165 0.002819 -20 0.53179 53.066516 0.07273 4.013185 0 4.030917 0.050478 0.064803 4.476543 0.30922 1.003431 0.453 307.3351 555.263214 0.09099 8.005973 0.1409 152.136093 1.241031 0.056669 0.19652 1.42369 21.5874 298.186821 0.85487 11.2593 394.5127 77.942848 7.977973 0.054844 0.85926 23.059008 5.249505 0.437416 2.054315 0.39675 6.102021 0.25346 2.8042 22.6648 144.473805 0.029307 0.008269 0.893979 100 777.3396 155.016762 0.933332 0.133935 0.657931 0.94936 8.065108 0.025071 0.184155 1.085865 4.434047 0.87495 15.138633 0.586816 0.44147 3.070397 1.827251 7.501811 5.005662 0.68303 40.20551 37.57185 11.48364 7.295609 5.3425 206.003252 0.003357 0.848 777.199802 0.327 7.00403 0.12137 19.070171 0.64545 8.364449 1.28041 41.439419 1.44607 11.59576 33. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.061717 0.761118 2.02794 0.132796 3.38908 17.86498 11.984614 0.010051 0.038607 0.003542 0.134202 1.12696 0.0241 105.15298 13.99159 22.14625 0.402648 1.502727 0.056146 0.90911 39.010212 0.29028 49.187523 0.795334 100 737.92791 3.17394 2.326728 0.992914 2.059783 0.24829 61.75109 6.020379 0.524305 1.9035 145.31423 80 381.431505 120 140 608.57614 8.003081 0.65841 54. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.37018 22.611285 1.913126 0.7249 374.45935 140 777.8845 324.57134 2.56431 18.015879 0.81044 10.733471 3.397621 60 160.411039 0.123447 0.65389 15.90167 56.99168 10.003319 0.38281 64.036597 0.48759 12.019317 0.751411 5.912319 .455711 0.117018 0.61413 10.7883 153.0286 79.921685 1.090851 0.87037 23.5639 98.065718 0.

751 4387.012 -0.903 0.001 -0.715 4393.048174 0.31423 3.31261 Table 5.376912 0.636424 1.00163 0.122926 10.004 -0.012 0.864803 1.145359 0.795161 3.6E-05 -6.00041 -0.014 -0.431096 6.013185 0.376896 0.013186 0.013186 0.002819812 0.048176 0.23E-02 4362.00085 -0.43E-07 1.431505 6.048176 0.94011 45.00282 SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 5.122071 10. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa CompMassFlowH2O kg/h Std Gas Flow STD_m3/h c= SatGas -40 60000 1.007 0.003 -0. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa c_flow= c_Clapeyron= Difference Percent Difference SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 0.145357 0.864741 1.122071 10.010 -0.795161 3.002819467 0.795334 3.210783 0.46727 4370.31261 0.07368 26.007 -0.565 0.49 4408.36E-06 -1.864741 1.253 4400.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.861 4383.651129 3.876656 15.1E-05 -0.790811 7.293 4378.76E-02 0.45153E-07 9.339 4380.4E-06 -1.00017 -0.016 73 .501 4375.431096 6.145357 0.376896 0.

333 -25 -12.45455 -22.5 19.2 38.828 -26.7647 -20.9 0 -29.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -32.3 53.4545 -18.3 20 -23.7895 -20 15.4 -29.1 -25.2222 -19 22.6 38.4 -22.6 -8.3 39.3 -26.7 -25.667 -16.3 15 -19.3846 -24.6 15.2 52.0 32.5 51.8 39.4 -21.51515 -30.66667 -29.5 5.9 6.06952 -1.667 -26.25 -28.5 -28.8 20.98507 -30.1 -24.25 -28.2 -21.9 13.7895 -27.875 -23.8 30.7048 -27 23.2 29.786 -19.1297 -26.2 -33.9 3.1 0 -26 0 -26.37 -18.841 -32.333 -33.6 -32.5 0 -22.9 47.667 -17 -14.1 51.7 -18.9 31.8 20.2 5.3 34.846 -21.69 -21.3333 -30.66667 -25.6 -33.4 30.7 -28.1 16.0 10 C % Tr[C] 20.7 6.2 18.205 -29.33333 -21.6 0 -26.7 48.442 -20.075 -33.0 27.8 25 C % -2.4 -33.5385 -24.8 0 -26 0 -26.9 -21.789 -18.207 -17.7907 -27.8 -15.273 -30.9 21.571 -21.2 14.22581 -26.7 -32.4 55.2 1.5 -33.6 14.739 -27.8 -32.759 -28.6 52.0 50. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package P [bar] 27.3 3.9 -25.7 11.5 -29.1 28.8 22.88235 -28.2857 -20.5 32.8148 -23.7 20 C % Tr[C] 21.1 3.7 29.7 -29.875 -22.1 -29.9 -26 -26.8 49.183 -25 -25.74 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.63 -20 -20.9284 -0.2 -22.8 -29.385 -20 -20.9 -33 -33.3 9.2 19.129 -23.1671 -19.1 9.5 -18.87 -24.2 3.9 11.2222 -18.8 35.1 -33.4 -32.3 15.8 -24.6 33.9 16.1 -25 -25.4 1.4 Tr[C] .67742 -29.1 18.2 12.7391 -18.951 -23.4 11.57143 -22 3.7 2.2 -21.821 -15.34783 -24.9785 -28.44828 -21.667 -16.3 16.9 3.1194 -20.154 -20.22581 -29.25 -21.2 -29.6 8.5587 0 -1.6 0 -22.968 -21.7 6.6 0 -21.5 0 -30.8 -21 -21.5 6.8 15 C % Tr[C] 21.1 -33.1 5.667 -21.3 0 -29.2 47.2 -26.0 36.8296 -25.3 -33.09091 -25.9302 -19.7 11.9 -20.951 -22.7 -24.6 -21.9 -30 -30.88235 -28.96078 -29.8 -21.8 0 -30.857 -18.093 -25 -28.5 37.1 -26.2 15.667 -16.644 -20 -20.2 -18.8 -25.967 -16.5 -18.1 6.9 54.4493 -18.0476 -27.7322 -27.2 33.69565 -24.8 20 -23.3548 -22.828 -15.517 -16.9 -22.5 15.8 0 -25.7 -33.6316 1.1 5.5 -24.387 -22.5 0 -21.4 10.9 -29 -29.1 -22.6 28.4 36.3 -18.5 -21.57143 -22.8 -28.8 53.5385 -23.2692 -27.1 37.4286 -20.7 34.3 48.6 -29.429 -21.4 0 -22.3 -29.5 4.2041 -24.4 50.3 0 -25.

993 -19.7 -18.8 -29.8 -39.088 -29.05 -20.1 -26.2 -26.872 -17.8 47.8 -21.4754 -5.9 10 C % Tr[C] -12.7 20 C % Tr[C] -44.509 -26.026 -44.5 -29.1 51.8 -24.871 -26 -13.582 -27.3278 -1.492 -26.4 55.6 -11.8 -25.1 37.252 -20.252 -20.6 -24.742 -18.5 -18.272 -23.2 -29.9 -20.492 -14.5 -21.031 -24.985 -35.3 -3.7 -33.3 -29.072 -18.7 -25.9 -29 -29.0216 -28.446 -24.8 -22.342 -26.4 -20.4 -33.659 -41.172 -22.052 -25.5 51.213 -26.742 -18.4 50.6 28.742 -25.1476 -30.1 -24.2 -21.515 -25.2 -26.515 -25.5 -33.765 -23.1 -9.617 -19 -40.2 -10.436 -23.948 -30.663 -21.161 -12.9038 -4.07 -45.3 -18.2 38.0 32.8853 -29. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P.306 -40.576 3.7 -29.854 -19.68842 -30.628 -29.1 -12.9 -23.1 -32.6 52.7 34.3018 12.6 -29.9816 -3.072 -18.5 32.9 -1.208 -21.744 -15.831 -28.8853 -2.2 52.36706 17.5 0.6518 -27.774 -27.1 -33.4 1.5 -32.9 -7.4 -27.3 -29.3 -22.1 -9.7 -36.335 -25.471 -20.5 -28.9 -51.1 -25.3354 -3.32618 -29.786 -24.4 36.96 -27 -7.117 -26.0093 -29.6 -33.5 -9.2 -12.6 -32.2 -24.3 -17.831 -21.3561 9. Gandhidasan P [bar] 15 C % Tr[C] -25.116 -14.29321 -20.8 -28.1 0.7 -24.5 -8.6 -32.72712 -30.6 -33.3 -14.2 -18.3354 -28.0 50.8 30.4 -36.1 -29.4928 -30.9 -18.792 -22 -30.288 -22.9 -5.1 -33.804 -17.092 -16.116 -26.67 -23.3018 11.2221 -0.5 -3.3 -41.16637 6.7 -28.75 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 -22.8 35.871 -13.602 -22.948 -21.8 -32.9 -26 -26.6 33.94 -20.853 -29.392 -33.7 48.628 -29.774 -22.072 -18.7 1.2 29.3 -33.7735 -1.8 -28.515 -18.6 -21.4 -22.446 -20.5 -21.71 -24.722 -39.2 -19.8 53.8 -12.663 -32.1 -33.8619 -27.9 -33 -33.3 -5.4 30.9 -26.9 -30 -30.4914 -27.2091 0.121 -21.2588 12.7816 12.7 -4.4553 -27.7 -21.9 -22.471 -22.7 -33.8194 11.9 -28.375 -34.6 -0.9 54.2 -6.4 -21.8 -40.463 -32.446 -18.397 -19.0093 -3.7 -32.1 28.781 -20 -39.9 -25.5 -37.2 33.9 -21.7 29.871 -26 -14.8 49.722 -33.3343 10.6552 -28.696 -16.0216 -28.2 -20.4 -29.8 39.86292 9.5 -24.2 -21.4 Tr[C] .8 25 C % 27.628 -6.3 53.1 -20.8465 10.2 -5.8 -41.3 39.074 -18.5 37.9 31.945 -23.14217 5.9 -13.6038 -30.4457 -3.62585 13.5 -30.368 -21.0 36.213 -22.602 -22.3 34.8 6.8 -17.368 -24.0 7.105 -32.8 -21 -21.32618 -0.6 -36.4754 -28.1 0.501 -30.242 -28.1 -25 -25.392 -32.3 48.6 -17.462 -23.2 -33.0 27.1 -22.0501 -5.5 -18.3 -26.4 -32.8715 -29.3 -35.7333 13.6 38.2 47.

43 36.40 33.46 42.89 26.31 41.05 29.69 37.45 35.31 29.93 43.45 28.80 23.89 28.70 16.34 24.30 44.36 28.94 36.55 35.33 21.4 50 50.44 18.04 27.89 32.45 28.35 29.47 31.25 27.59 27.51 36.19 14.63 28.13 16.96 35.71 27.13 14.35 13.31 11.74 40.84 20.99 28.56 30.19 30.50 22.2 33.82 36.30 43.46 28.38 36.45 23.89 -29 17.09 13.56 23.19 21.85 42.98 16.85 23.52 18.30 28.13 38.4 36 36.25 21.23 17.35 20.99 35.83 16.75 19.49 26.43 29.00 23.58 20.04 18.86 15.24 39.78 36.23 37.95 44.82 37.74 21.18 23.97 22.97 38.82 16.49 14.16 41.27 12.45 15.63 28.24 33.84 23.29 33.16 11.10 20.24 9.4 45.60 36.07 28.58 39.95 26.72 26.04 14.16 26.52 15.09 11.49 9.57 35.10 15.53 34.07 21.67 37.30 35.06 40.17 27.18 13.88 28.72 42.00 33.44 33.37 9.19 9.5 51.56 26.46 35.73 12.66 11.73 29.32 28.74 36.43 23.59 29.53 24.98 32.72 27.47 35.42 40.87 39.07 36.01 27.3 39.48 28.31 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.45 18.23 29.77 40.54 12.91 20.25 46.81 43.26 -18.78 29.20 38.82 31.57 27.8 49.80 38.04 15.70 21.78 29.34 37.30 33.81 41.64 17.78 19.83 12.30 19.98 17.14 26.76 35.6 44.16 27.60 29.19 23.38 26.16 27.78 10.52 13.31 38.76 26.17 28.95 27.73 13.58 43.40 10.69 23.2 38.71 13.56 20.18 21.07 27.07 27.87 17.05 28.38 31.67 25.64 43.70 35.09 14.95 10.14 -18.51 34.30 26.74 38.46 23.82 27.27 27.81 29.43 30.60 28.20 37.84 29.15 34.21 39.86 14.67 36.52 12.22 18.32 19.9 33.76 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.88 11.11 28.12 30.44 13.82 18.71 18.06 16.80 40.07 29.81 18.44 26.67 15.67 14.93 27.86 27.27 28.8 44.83 24.09 14.23 26.33 44.03 -30 16.16 32.6 33.06 11.71 15.62 9.17 43.5 45.49 33.88 25.91 37.58 25.80 15.11 34.85 32.52 23.46 27.02 42.60 15.67 18.71 20.51 28.37 12.70 27.09 34.84 17.17 16.03 29.01 17.20 10.80 40.15 35.96 21.73 13.33 27.49 41.81 -23 30.54 38.20 43.03 29.46 38.28 14.6 38.67 12.24 25.89 13.69 14.84 29.25 37.45 22.37 42.27 10.31 37.89 19.23 21.31 34.71 44.75 37.93 28.53 30.64 28.57 21.84 -27 21.30 12.59 25.7 44.04 22.57 26.28 30.21 12.49 35.32 24.6 52.2 47.51 24.01 25.83 43.37 15.46 11.08 28.87 28.23 32.56 16.55 28.33 28.3 53.84 20.29 20.36 36.26 40. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] P [bar] 27 27.96 38.35 23.74 14.41 11.18 28.83 -28 19.92 27.32 40.88 22.13 31.54 11.86 27.22 28.21 19.83 17.62 44.00 33.30 14.13 39.90 24.78 41.30 16.17 26.91 34.79 12.96 26.41 13.86 30.75 13.13 41.13 28.34 15.24 36.19 11.46 45.52 21.13 27.02 16.78 18.85 10.38 28.46 40.11 43.06 14.40 28.39 45.71 15.48 17.42 17.21 15.33 37.46 39.5 32 32.85 46.75 22.36 41.62 10.29 35.59 -18 47.81 35.7 48.00 35.69 32.54 39.67 27.92 40.01 19.73 23.8 30.01 12.88 34.42 9.86 30.94 34.71 20.50 34.82 34.91 15.7 34.07 27.36 13.12 17.62 21.9 47.39 12.36 17.00 19.60 22.90 36.58 13.88 37.91 11.40 34.75 28.52 41.87 35.8 35.40 14.46 12.2 52.81 22.55 35.73 34.88 37.73 34.92 11.86 14.31 30.02 10.71 11.42 -24 28.05 19.06 28.08 13.52 37.11 28.41 40.78 25.39 18.17 38.15 28.72 41.87 28.64 17.96 26.15 22.30 38.15 27.98 34.83 42.17 13.00 33.75 25.98 33.14 20.52 38.18 22.59 29.92 12.69 33.72 34.36 21.13 10.08 25.43 39.16 28.77 28.76 36.37 36.11 15.12 33.80 26.63 27.89 24.43 22.59 34.36 36.88 14.96 38.55 13.70 37.10 32.74 42.00 41.6 28.79 39.99 33.05 36.1 46.40 28.18 27.94 21.02 34.82 34.88 28.12 41.20 42.23 28.07 9.39 35.01 9.30 20.61 14.09 27.35 16.87 28.1 37.46 13.01 45.15 20.06 28.36 31.05 26.98 11.49 21.54 10.07 17.92 13.96 23.04 22.27 26.63 39.12 21.26 13.8 53.23 15.69 34.61 16.18 43.77 41.07 16.48 14.83 38.2 29.53 34.37 36.42 21.66 16.30 9.39 11.96 14.89 10.57 34.81 13.97 23.51 20.40 14.32 29.01 37.80 11.48 -18.60 25.21 22.13 9.56 29.31 11.90 9.47 27.07 10.73 24.95 33.93 26.13 28.72 16.31 35.79 32.24 13.75 30.01 37.45 26.21 42.92 -18.55 15.28 18.70 -18.61 32.29 11.75 9.66 26.01 26.97 13.56 42.01 13.7 29.87 14.30 29.86 44.67 41.88 38.60 28.57 37.08 12.33 19.62 18.09 39.11 34.24 27.70 14.91 19.16 17.21 39.94 41.16 13.17 19.92 18.02 16.64 32.48 27.92 28.25 36.87 42.93 21.56 37.25 36.78 22.46 10.40 18.08 40.77 27.92 17.22 15.63 11.59 27.98 14.96 39.60 42.45 15.42 24.76 30.60 28.89 23.48 43.85 35.27 27.40 30.78 27.28 31.52 37.31 27.28 19.89 43.95 27.33 22.68 33.61 35.65 12.96 39.74 43.39 33.83 -18.20 17.25 24.63 38.36 27.55 9.44 42.86 34.32 36.63 29.26 16.02 35.21 35.40 27.04 26.27 25.29 39.83 20.5 37.45 31.72 30.36 29.02 12.58 13.01 12.57 42.11 28.90 39.70 28.54 27.9 31.13 12.93 16.25 16.58 19.8 39.26 23.65 33.69 10.09 29.66 27.59 24.24 44.82 36.30 19.92 16.17 42.36 -18.13 15.05 27.94 36.84 26.1 51.77 14.94 12.55 15.84 27.87 14.59 17.17 34.12 32.43 40.58 24.77 21.40 29.33 32.55 43.69 28.40 34.94 -26 23.38 26.01 25.48 21.17 20.44 15.79 25.07 30.42 35.50 32.3 34.10 42.4 55 -31 14.09 20.29 29.65 38.43 38.89 13.13 22.44 26.72 17.81 28.06 35.43 43.83 28.79 11.06 11.40 27.11 40.25 26.75 29.40 28.46 22.61 39.05 28.79 26.74 30.65 19.2 46.85 31.05 -18.62 39.48 16.94 27.14 10.57 24.13 36.56 38.55 15.3 46.95 39.86 16.54 18.52 27.63 12.91 35.69 27.77 36.03 13.54 18.30 30.42 39.78 30.21 12.24 18.87 21.35 20.80 26.50 38.27 34.90 39.30 32.65 31.49 20.80 29.63 36.21 38.81 18.30 41.49 27.33 35.28 37.44 19.54 29.28 29.46 14.09 9.65 17.63 40.53 28.3 48.31 15.82 12.35 29.45 26.92 35.33 10.81 15.33 16.28 16.83 33.63 27.27 27.61 40.98 40.51 12.96 33.23 14.13 34.43 25.83 9.99 37.89 19.81 26.95 24.88 25.05 18.13 -25 25.96 41.38 17.82 26.55 33.46 19.48 41.38 27.93 44.67 23.62 23.20 26.95 9.68 19.20 37.05 20.00 27.72 27.69 9.15 40.9 54.48 37.45 34.72 33.29 16.11 19.35 17.56 27.84 28.92 44.75 22.97 35.4 30.02 18.97 29.03 15.69 35.98 27.51 19.53 13.20 20.12 24.15 30.07 45.60 26.05 25.55 11.77 25.24 11.05 18.08 42.57 29.21 36.54 43.73 26.58 14.11 26.29 38.75 27.43 25.17 27.58 29.13 17.61 27.39 34.76 37.60 17.60 19.23 23.01 32.35 12.22 29.22 14.87 28.15 24.81 17.06 29.84 38.52 5.53 29.91 15.94 32.16 34.82 .69 26.14 26.62 25.57 36.1 28.57 38.12 21.91 27.47 16.25 33.62 13.68 44.

58 39.90 43.73 37.98 42.76 30.60 36.25 -18.07 14.88 29.82 35.40 34.41 38.41 36.2 47.22 39.45 44.51 20.76 20.09 37.10 40.69 35.15 28.41 30.27 14.36 20.45 40.33 41.52 17.8 30.82 47.45 43.16 41.33 44.56 10.98 21.63 28.39 24.22 29.34 37.38 35.52 24.21 21.18 35.67 28.41 33.79 14.10 36.53 13.90 30.99 21.8 53.15 41.83 26.88 30.88 27.72 29.41 16.44 11.03 23.89 13.11 28.03 22.31 29.93 38.72 13.69 33.42 41.12 29.71 27.92 22.83 35.20 31.16 20.97 37.30 12.71 21.82 9.03 24.08 43.78 30.5 37.11 36.21 21.69 42.81 42.18 23.11 28.36 13.53 28.82 18.79 16.57 43.75 28.34 36.60 17.07 38.28 28.68 29.97 21.45 23.99 35.35 30.67 22.75 9.17 22.69 28.52 25.4 55 -31 15.86 25.10 26.92 15.87 35.3 34.44 31.56 25.79 14.97 18.07 23.54 19.09 27.44 18.30 23.02 16.72 24.74 17.64 40.11 -18 49.74 23.00 39.59 29.42 30.94 34.05 28.68 30.08 13.75 45.91 28.04 10.84 19.71 35.89 23.49 11.74 24.45 29.81 13.65 34.02 12.66 32.49 13.41 19.70 31.21 36.94 33.21 16.13 31.55 15.25 17.12 40.51 27.73 -23 32.43 38.61 38.43 36.55 29.53 42.61 45.94 31.89 34.08 29.78 38.29 19.42 46.16 30.04 25.86 17.78 11.79 13.96 19.82 42.12 17.28 37.38 13.96 29.00 46.10 19.93 41.72 44.69 14.14 13.61 18.06 43.97 29.18 14.81 11.39 29.57 17.28 27.28 40.34 28.13 28.25 30.65 38.88 24.82 37.73 20.97 37.17 29.04 12.02 31.42 31.19 44.68 38.57 27.70 11.42 39.40 23.70 29.73 36.49 29.44 38.12 28.01 9.96 29.46 36.64 17.54 34.2 38.91 27.31 27.46 30.59 43.80 21.84 30.15 10.66 28.55 11.01 42.23 20.71 26.78 37.98 29.42 35.01 48.72 27.91 40.13 47.30 29.97 30.57 21.09 19.69 35.56 19.37 10.05 25.50 37.11 38.3 48.96 31.46 16.11 43.25 19.4 50 50.04 32.01 26.73 13.21 25.7 46.63 45.60 21.36 26.17 35.40 -18.43 43.18 12.36 40.00 14.89 15.19 30.07 29.04 41.99 22.67 40.16 16.34 18.80 14.24 45.37 29.32 40.71 41.80 22.73 14.22 30.08 15.81 46.57 44.96 29.68 10.19 15.29 37.92 16.04 28.26 30.33 35.22 35.22 47.14 17.97 10.21 11.20 13.70 19.64 19.57 16.45 28.20 34.83 45.40 16.91 11.63 13.22 31.41 42.33 39.68 16.32 46.81 28.37 42.81 35.44 33.52 37.34 24.48 31.9 47.44 10.09 36.07 34.46 19.39 21.72 12.80 11.10 20.30 28.88 12.73 23.56 28.84 48.29 29.2 29.88 37.04 37.02 46.6 33.32 34.41 15.49 -27 22.12 17.47 32.63 38.57 16.96 43.58 35.47 21.67 28.73 19.69 26.33 14.97 14.17 -18.18 21.36 28.73 28.61 18.21 30.44 21.32 38.64 29.61 37.03 27.44 12.50 14.37 37.59 40.41 40.84 38.12 35.63 39.94 -18.90 -25 27.32 32.28 14.51 30.5 47.52 26.76 30.61 18.98 26.96 39.89 33.93 40.74 39.22 30.85 19.28 37.23 42.06 44.03 29.76 10.64 30.1 51.96 30.53 47.45 19.01 11.52 30.4 48.33 13.79 38.32 32.71 26.58 20.42 38.19 28.88 9.64 9.20 26.38 27.77 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.51 26.88 27.94 25.42 30.07 17.86 18.1 28.51 41.91 30.28 25.27 28.5 32 32.70 18.80 41.20 44.04 36.03 27.50 22.65 28.47 44.22 16.74 32.63 11.81 41.26 31.20 24.63 36.40 37.71 43.3 53.19 14.46 14.07 10.75 34.08 44.65 14.6 28.22 27.43 31.24 31.56 31.80 15.74 13.21 29.88 25.71 30.30 39.61 32.86 20.67 36.98 41.71 30.29 41.43 13.14 17.29 35.1 49.53 26.29 10.77 42.25 15.95 45.17 35.37 14.53 16.07 18.67 39.58 44.27 15.69 23.96 21.39 31.62 10.19 14.34 22.18 17.35 12.78 36.90 27.39 31.28 34.62 38.89 12.57 14.30 14.98 20.95 17.97 13.08 28.14 39.32 37.47 17.46 42.43 24.74 27.11 24.01 16.3 39.65 46.34 25.10 40.72 31.98 33.71 29.31 5.02 36.64 12.18 17.39 30.54 12.97 31.94 36.45 29.62 18.73 45.01 14.23 29.32 26.91 13.58 41.46 37.27 27.39 46.49 29.9 54.70 35.92 30.2 33.35 13.37 16.40 21.48 31.68 15.41 22.96 30.68 31.28 11.79 12.01 32.26 -24 29.88 29.88 27.37 34.12 18.48 29.19 47.52 13.20 24.86 11.26 38.63 29.94 48.87 15.20 28.71 22.6 47.48 43.96 29.73 36.94 22.74 41.52 29.78 29.37 18.67 20.00 17.31 18.40 16.69 36.77 31.34 20.83 28.06 41.33 27.20 37.56 19.78 16.7 29.42 24.93 46.2 49.66 29.58 9.7 34.49 14.97 38.43 38.64 43.07 15.74 43.70 24.05 31.86 14.19 28.48 25.95 12.23 44.72 12.45 41.57 18.3 48.34 45.77 40.85 45.51 15.91 28.98 20.47 29.65 13.10 13.73 33.03 23.85 44.97 21.89 27.85 17.63 41.53 -30 17.77 39.96 22.57 30.98 34.97 28.97 38.75 17.53 20.46 30.98 23.69 42.90 36.83 15.18 12.32 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.92 15.43 -29 18.65 20.53 27.76 39.9 31.77 29.59 29.91 17.63 39.70 33.94 31.23 23.30 18.70 15.78 17.89 10.8 46.48 -18.67 41.18 30.98 40.82 44.57 12.57 35.04 36.27 34.26 30.20 41.65 37.66 37.99 46.89 36.05 15.08 39.81 22.04 11.47 29.65 25.28 29.37 17.71 41.8 35.12 11.92 29.41 19.33 30.31 43.6 38.96 43.23 36.93 11.84 20.61 29.05 12.66 23.21 38.42 48.97 12.14 37.32 25.40 46.21 29.20 27.46 24.00 16.37 40.90 18.36 37.57 37.37 11.63 32.13 27.38 15.31 21.31 24.93 31.00 20.71 29.31 21.07 28.05 27.67 27.10 28.46 40.45 23.41 28.24 29.19 25.73 40.7 48.17 25.36 20.4 36 36.00 18.43 39.25 36.50 10.29 16.83 25.22 45.56 18.76 38.39 20.02 40.10 39.35 29.71 31.10 29.8 39.20 30.69 15.48 15.70 9.66 30.10 29.18 36.87 -18.02 36.22 19.17 42.62 42.07 19.44 27.69 44.05 15.09 39.67 22.57 12.19 26.5 51.53 35.72 29.17 38.81 18.88 31.68 15.90 14.1 37.92 24.26 42.42 29.18 15.40 24.46 30.98 16.22 22.45 12.68 15.6 52.41 28.49 15.67 30.44 28.15 13.08 45.20 16.96 19.14 45.81 44.77 39.52 38.60 28.58 23.23 34.02 30.77 28.30 16.27 43.99 45.38 17.41 37.21 29.38 27.45 31.30 39.49 14.10 19.91 16.39 34.60 47. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] P [bar] 27 27.59 15.50 28.96 39.86 24.13 33.87 42.78 18.08 38.40 16.73 37.71 30.06 27.81 19.58 30.30 38.17 29.88 37.96 17.99 34.98 13.96 45.18 18.32 44.45 31.62 21.29 29.47 36.72 47.89 28.59 45.89 30.30 38.84 37.69 21.68 10.00 28.9 35.79 36.35 36.22 10.83 27.65 14.79 46.53 45.38 20.15 18.02 43.01 29.53 29.93 30.67 16.07 22.2 52.4 30.16 28.64 40.85 29.07 12.87 28.49 36.27 12.95 28.77 28.8 49.74 31.65 42.21 13.35 .00 23.05 42.33 39.46 30.62 34.23 13.42 -28 20.27 30.09 41.09 12.13 35.55 30.75 40.86 24.31 21.73 29.00 37.73 16.46 22.02 26.34 42.94 9.94 14.83 10.60 22.26 25.32 20.26 21.13 40.71 -18.14 23.63 -18.59 25.16 26.94 29.

6 52.88 776.48 304.25 787.95 726.99 564.72 574.48 30 758.03 451.8 53.71 751.99 296.3 53.2 38.84 712.62 275.36 569.43 312.34 727.23 701.61 217.65 745.36 231.55 600.54 846.63 406.04 532.9 54.57 419.40 688.96 341.3 34.97 654.48 982.21 363.69 426.88 584.91 884.56 400.06 444.37 626.7 48.18 292.82 721.8 35.97 520.17 616.97 220.26 279.31 420.47 335.37 370.06 739.13 215.64 239.78 550.25 756.19 458.71 410.69 237.1 51.46 797.73 552.27 666.51 345.10 495.70 351.72 872.24 607.5 37.40 235.53 595.41 948.92 381.8 49.38 445.1 28.16 512.83 289.04 430.2 47.3 39.9 Gas Temperature C 10 15 20 25 383.99 566.57 327.80 745.40 718.77 321.37 324.54 233.7 34.07 296.86 574.77 423.34 900.08 300.76 404.74 701.24 390.39 Pressure [bar] 333.64 464.07 542.81 223.56 963.94 583.72 358.9 31.3 48.8 30.43 218.47 225.07 539.01 331.87 221.90 487.56 930.50 227.37 438.70 47.23 229.22 530.4 36 36.39 611.28 308.6 38.27 546.11 414.47 311.30 375.74 316.5 51.7 29.5 32 32.65 599.46 285.30 330.6 28.62 78 .89 321.31 313.8 39.63 589.08 819.6 33.17 472.96 442. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] 27 27.92 678.55 454.28 579.71 318.15 308.39 809.84 395.2 52.4 50 50.87 559.67 426.06 298.2 33.15 434.55 733.41 432.79 765.25 560.09 727.14 413.30 645.90 317.63 832.1 37.32 385.86 555.78 710.95 478.17 590.15 409.2 29.25 916.4 30.06 438.4 55 241.81 416.77 303.58 635.61 301.71 282.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.76 403.47 503.43 305.09 858.96 526.68 606.99 547.50 737.15 450.37 326.21 520.

38 611.01 786.14 429.69 330.2 38.61 315.73 426.74 294.23 351.58 498.00 435.8 53.58 325.94 338.8 30.17 234.31 595.99 780.22 236.78 371.87 439.44 377.53 777.73 407.8 39.39 793.67 462.4 55 10 404.09 450.99 505.6 33.67 291.2 47.2 52.08 Gas Temperature C 15 20 25 560.53 628.92 622.73 345.20 920.45 751.79 597.37 767.70 334.99 606.7 29.26 576.65 757.4 50 50.13 766.01 308.69 411.56 645.19 773.5 51.36 342.6 38.95 949.45 248.47 301.18 243.12 470.63 321.85 432.3 53.17 555.24 364.76 632.50 383.17 232.32 581.3 34.54 230.25 325.6 52.9 54.30 540.41 490.81 422.73 749.84 442.99 905.55 660.8 49.11 239.65 468.91 590.3 39.39 981.62 229.6 28.57 320.11 425.86 523.2 33.11 432.74 443.48 329.22 446.97 238.71 1016.93 807.28 690.16 548.91 354.39 336.25 681.96 650.98 416.88 475.66 402.7 34.91 739.95 462.47 818.46 466.04 797.97 583.63 586.88 633.44 864.55 297.97 892.06 227.3 48.1 51.42 312.5 37.10 475.10 669.2 29.86 250.82 740.4 30.78 568.9 31.23 457.92 252.95 1000.31 531.8 35.36 622.11 785.29 639.06 726.89 454.07 514. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3] Pressure [bar] 27 27.28 30 800.15 483.47 561.13 572.60 313.40 1036.94 242.57 605.62 390.51 967.4 36 36.03 316.30 616.90 841.36 450.69 328.28 396.84 305.28 549.51 878.27 79 .97 767.38 322.32 853.30 830.9 47.79 591.65 640.91 455.40 615.81 761.16 715.72 437.26 254.96 359.48 246.08 349.1 37.5 32 32.89 933.92 601.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 28.26 577.85 479.7 48.04 702.61 339.38 343.29 317.61 348.25 333.

0 320.6 198.9 297.6 205.1 278.2 295.2 277.9 307.9 204.1 -18.3 290.4 274.7 214.6 301.3 261.8 346.6 273.1 326.7 217.7 276.3 247.6 .2 212.3 325.4 248.1 221.4 204.2 294.3 281.2 198.0 291.0 337.5 301.7 315.2 205.4 198.7 290.7 29.2 262.6 294.5 200.1 309.5 197.3 249.8 322.2 329.5 190.2 305.0 326.3 254.6 274.3 198.5 203.9 255.7 291.8 49.1 274.1 208.2 201.2 269.1 256.9 272.2 263.8 -19.1 205.4 212.6 205.0 315.0 301.4 264.6 200.3 202.8 210.1 299.6 246.0 248.2 332.8 215.7 331.4 350.1 323.7 308.0 254.1 213.7 211.0 196.8 264.4 281.6 205.0 348.8 267.2 204.8 35.1 332.0 244.6 288.1 303.9 208.7 354.3 194.8 212.2 274.3 195.6 333.3 343.1 208.2 308.7 202.7 314.9 205.2 285.8 220.7 245.3 315.7 203.3 278.1 306.9 311.8 206.4 304.8 201.5 257.4 191.8 336.1 297.5 197.5 51.4 321.0 337.2 323.7 193.9 259.5 215.8 188.4 304.7 287.6 247.6 283.7 275.1 336.0 361.3 314.5 188.4 257.2 193.5 266.8 305.9 332.8 347.4 355.7 351.5 282.7 210.1 208.7 196.0 346.7 311.5 208.5 276.4 207.9 269.9 242.8 194.8 244.0 36.5 278.5 345.2 219.0 311.9 359.1 210.4 271.6 269.6 192.9 -18.6 296.0 254.4 253.9 216.2 338.3 48.1 272.0 194.4 270.3 292.0 204.9 192.8 195.3 341.7 279.3 211.2 241.8 264.3 201.8 249.1 197.0 330.4 194.6 205.8 211.9 264.5 264.6 217.4 282.6 222.5 279.7 338.9 201.8 -18.8 265.8 297.7 275.4 321.6 204.1 187.3 -18.5 331.7 258.0 359.0 202.7 218.3 196.1 287.4 270.8 201.7 34.0 203.9 262.0 267.8 267.7 198.3 266.0 288.9 209.4 242.7 325.9 294.8 310.4 286.3 189.5 217.1 266.2 38.8 211.7 203.2 190.0 310.3 299.7 280.3 199.4 300.8 271.2 295.0 -24.4 215.6 291.1 316.1 286.7 191.5 206.3 293.0 218.3 267.3 335.9 213.0 309.9 252.3 310.7 265.6 305.1 321.2 52.3 358.5 326.3 214.7 220.6 261.6 223.8 318.8 315.7 211.2 195.7 272.6 312.7 197.2 292.3 262.4 206.2 273.3 -18.0 280.7 261.5 270.6 259.1 37.0 190.2 317.5 208.0 343.3 192.6 229.4 284.7 272.4 285.1 223.8 219.0 258.5 213.5 326.8 202.1 202.3 309.6 202.7 281.3 206.4 214.1 217.3 299.1 210.0 251.7 229.8 53.0 293.3 218.5 268.1 279.0 215.4 337.8 208.6 327.8 265.0 289.7 195.5 311.1 304.5 198.3 250.7 306.5 306.3 270.6 206.6 201.2 313.6 343.3 53.5 206.0 327.5 -26.4 192.5 226.4 208.5 255.8 304.3 337.4 352.4 191.7 222.4 208.4 279.2 281.2 47.8 300.5 318.6 338.3 328.2 275.1 203.5 275.1 215.2 217.6 193.0 206.6 212.2 293.3 249.9 314.1 198.2 245.3 219.3 211.9 225.4 213.9 255.2 243.8 330.0 355.9 328.4 291. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.4 299.9 295.2 221.7 204.5 37.6 323.0 365.6 263.4 311.6 259.6 308.1 326.6 340.6 212.6 295.8 302.2 255.8 262.3 280.6 -28.1 224.4 327.2 250.8 197.8 287.80 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 198.0 263.6 212.0 206.0 -18.0 324.2 201.7 266.1 209.5 -29.9 213.2 278.7 213.9 210.1 267.8 257.7 194.7 328.6 310.3 199.7 252.1 244.0 216.0 210.0 329.1 192.0 352.7 267.1 253.1 268.2 264.8 210.0 339.8 218.1 189.3 210.9 315.2 308.5 318.8 209.3 206.8 223.1 277.8 274.1 271.2 208.8 30.0 336.6 325.7 203.0 32.8 306.4 272.5 204.7 206.4 197.4 333.2 197.0 202.4 259.0 213.4 36.6 -18.2 191.1 220.3 190.1 207.1 206.4 303.7 203.0 274.5 211.8 230.3 294.4 307.7 48.6 207.6 262.5 199.2 203.1 304.0 290.0 197.0 227.6 193.1 283.0 334.9 54.2 204.1 278.6 210.9 221.8 220.7 271.6 272.6 249.8 260.5 313.8 231.4 271.5 201.0 272.2 284.3 269.1 205.8 220.6 200.0 314.1 322.3 190.5 194.3 296.5 300.6 305.0 276.4 261.0 50.0 336.9 227.2 222.0 246.6 199.3 329.9 47.4 277.4 30.5 202.6 215.2 203.6 288.3 320.4 50.7 258.4 288.3 216.0 283.6 226.3 314.7 189.6 217.1 324.7 -18.5 279.9 200.9 301.8 195.8 208.4 334.3 228.3 292.3 207.7 191.1 189.9 250.3 287.6 188.3 336.3 209.9 189.4 253.9 320.8 331.8 308.6 250.5 -18.2 247.6 195.8 331.1 28.2 277.1 338.2 202.1 264.9 213.9 273.9 273.6 252.8 280.7 331.6 209.8 281.9 189.1 193.2 252.0 212.3 209.1 322.1 344.9 256.7 303.4 244.6 52.8 199.5 321.4 207.9 245.5 211.5 304.7 251.7 192.7 284.3 347.8 299.9 214.0 357.6 281.1 265.4 225.7 286.9 207.4 318.8 241.4 205.1 296.3 283.2 205.7 253.6 38.4 209.6 295.8 275.0 297.2 214.0 313.4 276.9 209.5 320.9 289.1 211.5 318.3 252.0 294.8 317.0 349.1 211.2 204.0 262.3 206.9 263.9 222.3 257.4 191.9 326.3 196.0 292.7 248.9 331.6 -27.5 252.4 246.3 262.7 224.8 39.5 316.6 294.8 321.7 279.7 292.1 199.1 200.9 296.5 275.5 337.7 255.3 291.6 200.7 325.2 210.6 319.7 316.7 -20.8 227.8 205.7 207.5 281.3 193.8 283.5 292.7 199.9 247.3 255.1 287.0 207.8 196.4 287.4 289.4 291.6 290.2 336.2 196.4 296.4 265.3 193.4 341.3 211.8 318.4 361.8 246.6 212.0 283.1 51.9 267.1 261.4 300.4 189.4 267.9 268.7 352.1 319.3 39.6 325.8 213.1 286.1 312.7 221.9 354.2 206.8 228.9 279.0 368.7 211.0 285.2 209.9 284.5 207.9 339.9 217.6 320.0 191.1 209.7 198.4 285.5 251.4 261.5 202.3 297.2 303.6 207.7 203.5 274.2 316.8 193.7 243.5 196.5 260.1 198.0 366.2 188.2 319.2 200.3 258.6 282.4 284.3 298.8 205.9 333.9 336.2 29.6 190.7 260.3 342.6 -23.1 282.8 339.3 201.0 193.4 -30.4 219.9 212.7 320.9 297.7 303.3 261.8 316.0 268.9 197.6 324.8 224.0 203.3 201.9 309.5 300.3 187.8 299.0 27.5 199.2 301.7 223.3 291.7 328.4 330.1 -22.7 218.0 286.7 301.0 201.6 268.7 215.7 210.8 211.8 258.8 207.6 277.5 320.1 209.7 332.8 299.4 200.4 205.0 363.8 -18.6 273.5 243.5 270.7 305.5 305.8 190.8 211.8 201.0 248.4 265.3 34.6 208.7 209.9 198.9 296.0 291.0 200.6 256.9 204.9 308.9 31.0 263.4 200.9 342.7 288.6 254.9 212.1 192.9 264.4 258.1 195.4 211.0 258.0 190.6 262.8 266.1 330.4 55.0 256.8 340.8 333.1 246.3 344.1 198.8 282.1 257.5 309.5 283.5 241.1 292.5 204.6 356.5 194.8 196.9 269.2 260.6 242.9 281.5 215.5 245.9 282.2 204.2 268.2 256.2 260.6 345.6 33.2 300.4 210.4 266.3 272.8 349.9 226.8 339.3 268.6 219.9 274.5 32.4 261.1 208.1 242.0 254.7 189.4 278.5 276.8 349.0 312.1 276.1 206.8 208.1 287.1 216.0 256.9 195.5 -21.3 251.3 331.1 195.8 294.8 200.6 213.2 33.3 288.5 302.8 260.6 263.8 270.9 192.5 318.1 201.0 310.9 295.3 -25.5 302.6 225.2 327.6 28.8 219.4 315.4 272.4 203.6 247.5 310.3 303.9 224.0 -31.3 207.0 188.1 270.1 298.8 278.6 209.3 193.4 195.4 221.

5 217.7 350.6 304.8 -18 354.2 270.7 282.2 -18.5 330.8 241.3 294.8 218.3 257.3 272.8 213.4 221.5 264 260.8 290.6 254.6 355.8 264.7 -18.7 293.6 294.8 288.9 218.7 209.5 211.4 -18.8 343.0 222.4 204.5 212.7 233.9 296.5 242.1 232.4 263.1 334.5 290.2 349.9 217.5 224.8 222.2 293.7 269.9 212.6 207.9 317.3 266.8 255.5 308.4 333.0 202.9 289.4 325.2 213.9 261.0 206.0 205.2 285.7 318.2 268.2 206.6 356.5 220.7 257.4 199.4 320.9 -18.7 357.7 301.7 281.9 364.8 242.6 299.5 279.7 220.4 338.1 328.6 207.4 219.8 203.8 230.3 304.1 342.3 348.0 219.2 335.5 304.4 280.8 223.6 206.6 313.7 256.6 200.5 363.3 352.8 302.4 338.9 220.6 326.3 300.1 281.9 312.3 227.5 -18.4 264.4 219.1 220.0 356.8 334.6 207.5 337.3 299.1 223.5 338.0 214.9 232.5 240.1 199.4 283.1 354.3 289.5 330.0 338.8 204 202.9 278.2 335.2 307.7 307.7 266.4 230.0 273.1 -22 368.5 205.2 238.4 217.4 222.3 336 331 325.2 211.4 227.4 361.5 278.5 47.0 333.7 304.1 229.6 223.4 221.2 291.5 208.3 370.6 -20 362.4 209.7 209.9 337.6 271.7 281.1 260.3 295.4 356.1 306 301.3 282.8 221.2 212.5 316 310.3 302.3 261 258.7 294.5 293.8 285.8 339.3 308.3 221.1 321.9 279.3 335.7 243.6 313.9 220.5 350.2 277.6 318.5 296.4 222.1 263.0 315.3 210.5 288.1 344.9 291.0 223.8 198.6 289.3 271.5 286.3 210.0 233.6 211.9 209.5 312.5 202.8 219.8 347.1 283.8 270.7 358.6 216.2 218.7 322.7 211.6 266.2 365.3 282.4 200 198.6 338.5 236.5 287.4 310.0 332.6 280.8 356.4 219.8 211.1 211.6 217.6 38.6 329.7 219.6 225.0 325.6 308.1 352.7 344.7 203.1 212.9 231.7 218.0 -21 365.8 205.0 204.1 340.7 310.6 219.5 317.4 50 50.1 204.3 294.2 262.3 332.5 334.4 348.4 321.2 316.8 201.3 287.3 310.4 269.8 208.8 225.4 222.3 278.6 261.4 268.8 200.7 287.4 -30 387.5 210.2 316.7 213.7 308.3 344.3 48.5 277.0 203.0 270.2 212.5 270.3 232.3 270.5 214.3 350.2 296.8 354.1 208.6 347.1 227.8 357.0 214.3 215.6 216.4 220.9 345.3 342.2 237.4 360.1 -23 371.6 335.3 297.5 216.8 340.6 295.2 229.9 295.0 235.1 302.1 236.3 274.5 223.1 37.6 352.3 326.1 228.0 224.2 221.0 216.3 283.0 226.9 284.5 221.2 332.3 218.1 301.1 316.0 214.4 208.0 212.2 366.7 292.6 320.0 266.7 268.8 202.1 264.6 238.6 309.2 286.2 355.9 -31 388.3 309.4 205.6 285.9 276.2 313.8 221.6 219.3 311.0 308.7 208.5 334.3 332.2 229.4 347.3 235.4 222.7 331.7 229.4 55 244.7 272.7 307.5 233.1 304.3 53.9 310.1 207.5 203.8 223.5 32 32.3 204.4 337.7 315.5 214.4 276.0 219.7 359.3 292.6 210.7 274.6 200.2 221.2 215.3 265.3 216.3 349.4 212.5 221.8 215.7 199.9 293.0 221.9 230.6 227.1 268.2 280.3 341.0 228.3 368.8 39.3 236.1 372.4 319.6 52.0 274.2 47.1 275.9 206.2 263.2 198.2 208.4 238.5 218.1 279.5 279.6 311.7 348.1 219 217.5 215.1 201.3 277.9 297.9 254.6 211.1 349.6 381.5 356.4 326.6 275.1 255.8 227.5 227.5 292.1 51.0 282.3 237.3 202.6 229.1 272.0 292.6 367.2 223.2 236.8 209.9 225.8 226.7 29.0 302.8 306.9 216.4 378.3 214.4 311.3 39.5 198.8 277.2 209.7 214.6 274.9 327.5 197.0 203.3 217.5 206.4 212.3 34.7 320.9 343.8 201.7 336.5 349.5 321.8 326 320.2 322.7 212.3 225.9 306.9 235.2 52.0 235.2 349.3 284.4 223.7 220.1 288.3 270.7 211.5 231.4 285.7 311.9 313.3 329.3 223.6 223 221.3 201.3 261.2 321.8 299.4 325.3 301.7 265.2 274.4 339.0 -24 374.1 232.6 204.0 294.9 325.7 219.9 316.1 287.0 315.6 332.9 307.6 374.6 312.8 35.9 282.3 209.3 296.4 285.1 294.3 345.1 346.8 291.5 239.8 218.4 30.8 279.1 316.6 218.2 204.9 .6 201.1 279.5 216.3 349.5 289.6 278.9 216.3 316.3 298.1 294.6 276.9 231.9 216.9 334.6 284.0 217.6 201.1 -18.2 355.6 322.8 217.4 299.5 313.0 201.0 300.9 199.2 225.5 328.0 226.4 220.5 280.3 226.3 211.7 217 215 213 211.6 200.4 215.9 361.9 262.1 232.8 303.2 -26 379.0 256.8 287.6 297.0 269.6 277.8 275.9 217.1 287.7 353.0 231.8 288.0 235.6 225.3 317.8 322.6 283.6 277.5 227.3 202.4 233.5 213.0 214.2 297.4 372.9 54.5 287.8 272.1 324.2 307.3 322.9 299.9 337.7 260.3 203.3 213.3 339.7 298.1 230.3 219.2 207.8 312.0 214.4 225.5 315.9 219.2 288.0 218.3 355.6 307.0 311.2 326.2 209.5 51.7 221.2 375.1 346.8 -18.9 296.7 224.5 212.5 241.9 200.7 220.0 222.1 341.7 229.5 216.5 287. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27 27.4 308.4 295.9 259.2 199.3 281.8 328.3 -29 385.9 206.7 214.0 323.7 219.1 268.3 346.9 294.4 224.2 29.8 298.3 217.1 210.6 346.8 300.5 222.5 285.2 297.9 275.1 271.5 303.1 273.9 199.8 267.8 325.3 257.1 320.8 318.3 222.1 305.4 207.2 279.8 333.1 327.1 209.2 280.7 229.8 303.3 319.0 290.7 211.1 303.9 219.0 305.1 209.1 -19 358.5 259.5 295.1 379.7 282.9 262.6 33.3 344.6 258.8 338.7 373.3 284.6 323.1 200.8 323.4 224.5 376.4 272.1 209.0 353.7 355.1 28.4 267.1 -18.2 312.1 222.6 210.7 282.7 -25 377.8 289.5 255.0 327.5 309.1 218.6 317.4 313.2 290.4 265.8 299.1 311.3 343.3 300.6 28.6 327.9 277 273.4 318.3 258.5 361.4 331.2 339.2 259.7 344.8 53.8 356.1 351.9 348.5 313.2 267.0 204.9 290.0 -28 383.4 224.9 275.8 49.9 213.9 350.3 228.3 276.4 225.7 224.3 275.5 345.8 307.1 206.7 309.9 283.6 223.8 215.6 296.8 231.3 205.2 289.3 200.7 278.5 307.3 335.8 206.9 208.4 321.3 320.7 342.2 38.3 207.6 310.6 209.4 207.7 225.7 330.0 216.3 338.6 292.5 291.1 315.1 291.9 207.8 367.4 271.4 359.6 205.2 255.8 321.0 228.4 212.1 283.6 305.1 299.7 204.5 332.8 216.6 206.5 267.9 31.3 278.6 332.0 281.8 271.2 33.2 224.6 278.0 202.8 287.4 240.7 34.4 289.5 285 280.2 357.1 289.7 273.0 329.9 343.1 303.1 272.5 215.9 278.8 218.2 239.4 -18.2 205.5 269.2 274.8 364.5 214.0 265.4 315.9 298.0 302.9 285.8 342.7 48.0 296.6 298.9 276.8 329.3 368.5 37.6 215.4 286.6 257.4 256.5 217.0 361.5 306.5 343.2 220.9 238.8 231.7 225.8 210.8 331.8 260.9 358.7 310.1 269.2 214.6 234.2 234.5 204.7 -27 381.3 260.7 350.9 291.5 351.7 345.0 276.9 322.1 216.1 369.1 302.8 286.7 213.5 324.8 30.0 318.7 265.6 231.6 293.1 336.3 327.5 217.6 262.4 36 36.4 318.7 358.4 363.7 212.7 263.2 201.1 223.8 282.4 302.2 214.2 213.1 226.8 221.3 260.7 341.7 327.81 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.8 273.2 207.7 239.1 217.0 223.4 221.

7 364.7 373.3 396.9 276.3 274.8 364.5 451.4 364.0 382.3 418.4 438.0 458.2 385.6 352.9 412.9 360.8 437.3 39.6 285.4 385.1 294.0 474.9 424.3 295.8 285.3 306.5 378.2 356.5 307.5 450.1 292.5 354.1 373.0 380.0 297.9 365.2 439.2 283.6 290.1 287.3 270.4 375.6 281.8 446.7 447.0 394.2 406.6 290.9 481.3 394.0 -18.0 50.7 317.8 281.5 470.6 483.5 393.4 424.8 376.4 376.9 304.6 286.6 419.4 320.2 33.1 289.1 467.9 -28.8 304.7 298.3 295.4 279.2 412.9 305.0 423.1 306.7 48.1 288.4 456.8 282.5 424.7 277.8 403.7 273.6 415.7 362.7 418.2 308.7 368.7 383.9 451.1 294.3 294.2 438.7 476.4 299.9 487.7 356.2 371.9 -18.6 461.0 419.6 450.6 369.0 302.1 303.8 430.6 432.9 287.7 467.8 360.3 289.5 405.1 430.0 299.9 296.5 393.3 -18.4 487.4 355.6 429.1 378.0 514.5 432.5 281.1 285.4 388.2 368.6 361.5 283.3 409.5 461.7 390.4 310.8 296.1 289.8 -19.2 270.3 313.1 364.4 424.7 477.7 379.0 503.0 291.9 360.7 302.6 287.3 404.1 348.7 384.2 362.5 373.0 32.1 444.2 387.9 307.1 461.4 477.7 436.5 464.9 273.8 370.2 484.4 55.8 355.4 30.9 381.5 449.4 287.6 412.2 441.1 300.2 490.1 28.7 347.5 493.9 420.1 457.7 444.0 444.0 445.7 304.9 380.0 286.5 301.6 303.8 365.3 289.7 .7 435.6 406.6 33.7 408.5 302.5 293.2 291.7 424.6 404.2 389.2 351.8 300.0 287.8 270.5 270.7 453.4 397.6 288.2 452.9 407.7 469.3 308.3 297.8 394.8 373.7 292.7 425.8 301.3 423.8 286.6 417.5 37.7 462.0 384.0 401.2 272.2 354.8 459.5 290.8 303.4 300.7 369.4 374.0 505.8 352.0 410.7 433.2 309.5 351.6 365.3 415.7 484.2 431.8 493.0 399.0 404.0 458.6 407.9 384.6 277.1 346.9 298.5 393.1 367.6 400.5 475.1 274.5 485.1 279.5 421.4 453.9 282.7 310.8 470.9 418.0 286.7 34.4 499.8 315.3 352.3 304.1 437.4 430.0 500.0 358.6 414.2 470.5 277.6 308.0 288.6 278.8 30.9 298.3 372.6 417.4 297.0 277.2 366.4 399.3 297.5 431.2 408.1 465.4 486.0 423.1 273.4 292.8 301.7 491.6 461.4 417.1 286.8 378.2 434.0 283.7 305.6 293.2 467.6 472.2 441.5 437.2 402.6 314.4 467.8 438.4 459.6 366.7 374.3 376.0 356.6 504.0 422.0 347.3 361.9 303.0 364.3 280.5 284.9 451.1 312.3 403.9 475.2 459.2 275.6 468.2 388.3 384.6 52.3 351.1 437.5 377.4 269.2 292.9 289.1 436.9 480.5 296.6 364.7 366.5 458.9 406.2 477.1 295.9 413.3 420.9 383.2 47.8 430.4 497.1 470.3 501.5 291.1 284.4 423.4 293.8 396.9 353.3 359.3 294.9 389.2 38.6 303.0 420.5 404.8 288.4 395.1 377.9 385.9 399.2 299.5 280.3 285.3 363.5 282.7 354.6 350.1 355.1 481.3 412.5 47.1 422.4 444.9 431.2 353.5 360.2 411.0 391.0 374.8 299.6 274.8 312.6 312.0 284.3 484.0 502.6 378.4 383.4 284.5 439.6 373.1 288.7 313.9 269.7 349.1 271.0 513.0 497.1 394.6 401.1 296.8 486.3 383.8 370.9 410.5 364.4 50.4 347.9 -31.7 300.1 277.9 460.9 297.9 418.8 -18.6 374.5 386.7 360.6 426.9 271.4 274.4 461.7 314.2 293.0 379.3 479.5 275.3 296.0 461.5 279.8 378.0 27.0 298.8 39.9 297.5 300.3 271.6 375.9 412.9 356.2 448.0 302.7 437.4 290.3 409.1 310.5 396.2 377.3 431.5 460.9 397.8 436.9 477.5 283.6 278.9 363.3 415.7 295.8 290.1 -30.0 375.2 427.5 297.3 484.4 -23.0 305.7 456.1 398.2 413.8 393.2 410.5 289.0 272.2 307.1 293.3 448.0 494.5 294.6 380.6 469.2 471.4 454.1 289.9 406.8 477.3 317.0 487.2 299.0 309.2 485.2 286.5 287.1 506.6 28.2 286.1 368.1 51.0 391.0 361.8 278.8 390.1 425.8 301.5 407.0 476.9 452.1 309.6 271.6 303.5 281.1 280.4 291.6 405.6 295.2 401.0 491.7 374.1 474.5 442.9 410.5 433.9 398.1 357.2 279. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.0 278.5 432.5 445.1 292.4 313.9 482.3 282.9 432.4 303.3 460.5 -22.7 320.2 29.1 312.4 382.0 302.8 295.0 507.1 277.7 401.3 468.3 399.5 388.7 293.5 289.1 280.1 356.0 294.5 367.0 300.4 381.2 -18.5 419.9 429.5 376.5 438.4 298.2 273.7 269.7 463.3 277.1 390.7 439.8 435.3 379.9 439.4 276.3 406.6 366.9 480.2 281.4 366.8 286.7 383.8 396.4 431.4 284.3 305.1 -24.2 302.6 289.9 369.1 297.7 437.6 453.3 453.4 289.7 462.4 277.4 385.4 318.2 464.0 301.2 370.7 291.0 396.9 285.6 412.4 445.7 272.2 418.5 273.1 371.6 385.1 306.9 473.9 293.1 445.6 418.7 299.7 429.7 299.5 372.8 35.5 297.0 286.6 359.6 295.4 458.9 292.8 276.8 274.2 432.1 290.3 391.5 413.7 474.6 -18.1 484.8 378.5 373.6 399.3 403.1 276.4 -21.0 453.82 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.5 290.1 454.3 382.6 280.7 386.5 358.7 321.3 290.0 296.0 390.8 405.4 288.0 483.4 445.6 309.9 401.3 374.6 401.0 439.8 307.2 295.2 447.6 416.5 371.9 346.5 478.3 369.6 279.9 362.1 298.7 474.3 -26.5 279.2 303.8 410.1 392.2 300.4 425.9 31.2 272.8 316.1 366.8 284.7 389.3 489.5 51.3 391.7 275.8 291.0 352.5 281.4 36.0 473.5 388.0 468.2 498.1 388.9 293.8 49.5 394.6 276.2 304.5 356.1 419.3 365.3 378.6 486.3 399.1 446.8 282.8 405.3 292.3 278.2 495.2 495.7 413.1 311.3 419.6 452.1 285.8 414.9 475.2 434.6 426.2 311.0 454.8 388.8 357.5 469.7 313.9 400.5 304.8 297.1 455.6 293.7 301.5 322.1 310.1 314.8 478.7 283.4 370.5 457.9 285.0 283.1 383.1 37.1 309.6 315.0 444.1 -18.8 400.9 387.2 305.4 369.7 378.2 306.8 445.9 411.7 296.8 -25.8 369.3 53.7 319.5 290.8 291.2 412.7 291.7 407.3 -18.0 405.5 476.6 291.9 303.3 426.9 277.5 442.2 275.0 283.7 -18.1 430.1 299.7 486.4 485.4 390.5 370.1 372.2 360.9 373.0 422.9 351.9 284.4 353.6 285.4 293.1 395.9 417.6 380.0 301.9 420.7 383.4 316.5 487.3 34.9 397.6 -27.0 359.8 496.3 394.0 323.3 288.1 316.6 443.4 288.1 -29.8 315.1 425.8 465.9 54.8 271.5 465.9 273.2 302.5 446.7 442.4 368.1 281.7 361.8 467.9 279.8 454.7 292.9 301.8 393.2 284.0 268.3 48.2 52.1 390.1 380.5 451.6 284.4 468.2 284.0 516.6 386.6 284.2 391.0 282.7 395.7 303.0 281.7 29.7 279.4 458.3 300.9 287.3 453.7 369.9 278.6 295.3 417.1 273.2 296.5 305.3 405.2 301.0 366.4 227.6 38.2 -20.7 288.0 369.0 408.9 375.7 291.3 304.9 275.3 292.6 348.9 471.5 272.9 429.0 509.1 269.3 298.4 426.5 402.9 283.9 377.2 481.9 302.5 286.9 487.7 489.3 347.0 302.5 275.0 511.3 476.8 294.5 385.3 280.6 411.5 295.5 -18.4 349.2 433.4 389.8 53.0 270.5 32.6 413.1 469.1 287.6 382.3 400.2 393.5 298.3 283.6 306.0 274.4 436.5 455.5 389.4 379.0 36.8 426.7 423.6 401.4 319.9 289.2 375.2 298.6 317.2 269.1 443.8 348.6 368.4 287.

2 385.1 288.8 491.1 463.4 395.0 304.2 324.5 317.9 504.1 28.9 468.6 33.6 284.5 317.7 370.2 389.7 322.1 413.5 37.0 387.7 476.8 452.9 478.1 304.3 456.1 518.2 421.1 385.1 411.9 316.6 295.9 295.4 314.5 491.5 494.7 315.1 496.9 495.8 474.2 288.1 435.2 385.9 434.7 432.6 428.8 466.4 394.9 300.4 314.0 389.9 484.3 294.4 511.5 304.7 394.8 396.0 397.6 424.9 424.0 330.3 284.6 419.8 460.7 445.6 398.9 375.0 508.9 307.0 313.4 410.6 301.1 284.7 437.2 400.1 368.3 48.9 301.8 53.2 312.4 473.3 288.6 461.1 404.7 319.9 305.8 284.4 394.5 314.2 322.4 290.4 405.6 324.3 287.4 325.8 486.9 403.9 296.1 309.2 375.3 333.9 292.8 469.5 410.9 481.9 440.0 32.6 38.1 404.7 388.8 -18.3 485.5 453.5 -30.5 309.0 524.9 427.1 323.4 301.1 322.1 404.6 441.7 317.1 331.9 -18.4 479.6 315.5 421.9 379.7 507.0 441.5 417.6 436.7 493.8 287.8 372.8 411.1 315.1 453.8 314.7 -20.5 422.0 541.3 292.1 484.0 388.6 442.6 321.5 501.6 446.8 409.2 394.0 530.2 530.0 423.2 449.3 323.0 319.4 308.4 300.9 433.4 297.8 421.4 376.8 412.5 484.3 414.7 318.3 511.4 310.83 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.7 304.4 468.2 -18.3 428.5 511.6 52.2 285.0 341.1 302.9 395.2 300.2 337.6 299.3 397.7 307.1 405.2 407.6 429.8 368.7 516.4 30.4 455.1 336.2 398.5 408.8 452.5 293.8 386.2 326.0 321.4 287.6 302.9 31.9 522.9 389.7 296.8 300.6 509.6 512.6 477.4 501.9 407.8 395.1 389.2 -23.6 450.1 482.1 494.3 379.6 28.9 367.2 33.4 455.4 315.9 313.1 475.8 448.9 309.1 287.2 404.7 -25.5 471.3 436.7 366.6 402.9 439.6 313.7 320.3 405.3 314.5 503.4 310.9 291.0 292.0 294.8 390.6 447.3 429.8 39.5 313.0 312.4 317.8 319.9 437.0 -21.8 301.4 499.0 319.5 391.9 407.8 -27.7 433.3 -26.4 -18.0 -24.8 371.9 320.7 399.3 366.2 298.0 484.2 467.7 313.9 522.4 299.6 379.2 332.2 392.8 326.9 428.1 330.1 510.3 502.8 296.4 443.2 412.6 389.9 371.2 306.9 468.1 441.1 460.1 381.0 461.2 319.0 366.5 387.9 283.5 319.8 405.3 396.5 412.9 417.1 320.0 514.6 386.7 325.1 297.7 299.1 304.8 30.5 400.8 288.7 470.1 476.3 455.2 401.5 300.1 503.6 371.6 434.2 335.3 -18.4 329.9 394.4 294.6 513.8 310.8 412.1 410.2 426.0 539.4 306.5 494.6 497.1 393.5 426.2 399.4 427.9 388.1 501.4 406.2 393.7 29.0 289.9 -31.5 380.4 443.6 478.0 542.6 482.7 399.8 399.3 299.5 416.8 471.1 520.0 525.9 333.0 296.0 544.4 316.5 438.3 500.4 463.2 318.1 415.3 442.4 292.1 296.7 34.5 390.7 513.1 332.8 457.1 426.2 372.4 298.7 301.3 302.4 449.4 415.8 292.9 299.2 297.9 412.9 298.9 435.8 379.7 514.7 502.8 329.2 338.8 300.1 305.7 299.1 401.9 297.7 320.0 390.5 500.4 382.5 367.7 301.8 286.7 500.2 326.8 307.9 313.6 286.0 382.9 399.5 421.7 309.0 521.5 318.5 524.5 433.7 313.3 470.9 470.8 416.5 496.8 307.2 321.3 430.3 388.0 516.3 308.2 389.6 414.2 291.3 399.1 323.0 382.6 469.1 308.3 -29.3 443.3 293.0 443.0 419.2 -22.9 480.7 306.5 460.3 403.6 308.4 479.1 481.4 404.4 527.1 51.4 296.1 409.6 315.2 38.1 283.1 302.8 321.9 398.2 441.7 311.4 290.0 459.8 391.8 293.4 396.0 320.5 455.3 503.3 486.1 373.2 323.6 478.8 391.8 417.8 303.6 471.6 289.4 328.3 441.6 385.4 50.5 431.6 445.2 317.8 313.0 446.9 314.1 414.0 307.7 291.7 298.2 514.0 483.4 321.6 308.1 316.9 303.6 312.8 318.8 403.8 49.9 327.1 416.5 285.2 420.4 365.3 394.8 415.9 324.6 488.7 294.5 308.7 494.8 304.5 303.3 312.3 315.9 455.7 452.1 321.4 309.9 378.9 317.2 492.8 316.1 37.6 288.0 498.5 290.5 308.6 423.2 380.1 303.1 -18.8 465.4 409.7 300.0 527.3 305.2 295.5 415.9 449.8 310.3 303.8 384.6 297.8 382.5 394.4 303.8 495.4 529.4 302.6 332.5 305.3 495.9 422.9 297.8 401.8 493.3 449.6 436.7 306.2 448.0 407.4 305.3 493.2 421.6 298.4 336.3 53.0 371.1 -28.6 305.3 304.6 327.8 35.9 311.7 475.7 421.8 409.6 426.8 392.9 309.7 495.5 306.9 433.0 429.0 316.7 312.2 478.1 476.7 309.3 473.0 298.1 502.6 374.1 365.9 428.1 486.1 413.0 293.2 367.0 463.5 441.1 470.6 367.2 410.4 428.1 310.4 55.7 506.5 51.3 374.1 420.0 -18.3 462.3 512.6 404.7 290.7 306.3 504.4 337.8 289.8 375.8 380.0 469.1 451.5 386.4 335.8 330.7 376.4 387.4 303.4 470.1 431.9 384.8 376.8 411.9 440.5 449.5 458.5 440.5 290.5 461.2 497.2 294.5 372.0 444.6 456.5 317.2 291.2 427.4 486.4 286.5 480.6 398.4 496.1 508.3 325.1 460.1 500.7 406.2 52.1 505.3 430.4 448.2 29.2 434. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.9 307.0 427.5 292.9 308.6 433.4 418.7 397.5 395.4 424.9 509.0 449.8 468.1 297.7 517.1 292.0 296.6 473.0 380.6 456.5 320.0 302.9 430.7 475.2 299.9 285.7 299.1 311.1 461.9 423.1 402.9 486.8 380.0 377.0 288.5 320.6 403.7 483.4 304.5 393.7 -18.4 291.9 374.8 321.9 302.8 438.2 491.6 388.7 312.0 50.6 -18.2 411.2 309.4 313.0 436.6 311.7 447.2 416.4 321.7 330.3 326.4 381.5 47.3 310.9 392.9 312.0 315.7 295.9 513.0 318.8 406.0 414.6 505.2 326.8 307.3 316.1 440.4 315.0 418.7 311.8 477.2 461.4 454.2 454.2 468.4 288.9 290.3 525.1 314.6 333.6 487.6 323.5 492.0 378.2 -19.9 417.9 413.3 39.7 297.0 448.0 478.5 328.8 433.1 459.7 456.8 317.0 416.2 384.4 334.0 305.6 435.1 433.1 466.6 292.4 339.1 479.0 518.2 400.0 303.7 442.9 309.1 461.1 417.6 384.3 289.4 36.7 48.6 439.0 446.8 315.3 425.2 471.2 448.0 424.8 435.8 507.3 340.5 399.7 319.4 311.9 311.4 378.4 319.8 513.4 307.0 294.5 .8 425.1 386.9 306.7 285.4 301.4 370.0 324.7 305.4 520.6 310.6 488.9 335.5 -18.6 446.7 410.4 318.7 297.1 454.2 423.3 34.9 302.2 311.7 485.6 320.1 489.5 375.9 301.1 447.1 396.6 463.9 385.2 47.7 319.1 406.7 514.7 462.2 307.3 308.4 373.9 308.8 454.0 27.9 54.2 390.0 293.7 318.1 299.9 386.8 400.5 477.2 487.3 327.9 532.2 422.2 469.8 511.3 284.6 395.4 470.8 404.0 456.1 423.1 484.3 390.7 295.1 370.5 503.7 290.0 535.8 410.8 375.2 511.3 486.4 318.9 399.5 512.0 417.8 303.8 431.3 371.3 384.0 285.0 510.7 381.0 36.4 302.3 435.8 479.4 390.0 537.8 401.3 446.7 443.1 312.2 305.8 463.8 454.1 422.6 427.1 299.9 493.4 329.5 411.3 389.2 301.2 434.4 458.3 315.1 376.8 462.2 416.9 442.4 499.6 306.5 287.9 502.5 32.0 302.8 318.1 407.4 312.6 305.6 383.2 463.6 429.1 286.1 331.4 534.7 484.1 395.0 294.1 329.4 467.9 384.4 396.7 457.9 311.4 437.4 300.4 292.3 327.4 489.0 532.

7 48.4 418.2 433.4 597.1 568.7 537.6 391.8 53.2 417.7 379.7 394.2 380.1 656.0 592.5 605.3 506.0 562.6 612.8 586.7 623.4 680.9 381.8 594.1 620.0 505.5 685.6 52.4 632.3 395.8 581.5 612.4 664.7 393.3 431.7 392.3 405.9 379.1 510.7 485.5 624.6 633.0 377.6 666.0 381.6 399.5 421.2 676.0 27.4 419.8 507.7 598.0 646.0 538.5 526.1 530.5 395.2 412.7 428.8 425.2 402.5 486.3 -20.8 -18.8 567.2 625.7 398.8 386.1 518.3 510.1 416.1 391.1 546.9 -31.2 492.7 546.7 377.7 406.4 624.1 571.5 593.3 409.8 595.5 417.7 531.1 546.1 51.9 511.6 557.0 530.3 397.5 -18.8 693.3 423.0 674.2 493.2 511.5 433.1 538.5 406.1 588.7 504.0 405.4 524.7 579.8 524.1 413.8 391.0 603.6 668.8 35.4 585.6 33.7 536.5 594.6 605.7 -18.9 533.8 408.6 534.9 491.4 525.9 54.1 561.0 646.5 430.9 412.9 400.1 604.1 398.8 518.8 375.8 515.3 517.9 679.9 521.1 388.8 561.0 50.8 398.1 486.8 567.3 539.9 615.1 562.5 51.6 411.5 541.9 516.9 659.6 568.6 422.5 661.7 682.0 406.1 617.5 380.8 547.1 501.0 599.6 629.5 631.4 391.8 414.0 417.8 594.8 389.4 413.3 389.0 403.9 513.6 405.6 585.9 397.5 520.8 513.6 416.8 405.3 403.0 397.8 404.0 700.1 424.2 528.9 401.8 529.0 514.9 405.6 547.7 687.4 569.0 691.2 395.2 410.6 565.7 610.1 605.6 668.0 387.0 525.2 529.2 551.6 532.4 537.8 545.2 696.8 636.0 610.0 527.5 508.0 634.3 646.5 635.3 499.1 559.0 573.0 396.3 606.6 673.6 634.0 423.1 537.5 595.2 666.3 377.8 506.2 376.7 604.0 594.2 410.9 602.0 687.6 698.2 503.6 404.8 546.2 399.0 596.9 521.9 412.2 554.0 535.0 557.3 626.1 578.2 637.0 516.9 614.5 554.6 435.2 668.9 -28.7 390.3 387.9 391.4 383.0 695.2 581.6 402.8 403.4 561.4 583.4 -18.3 652.2 640.6 432.3 587.5 606.7 657.3 417.6 553.3 629.9 382.5 397.5 488.8 387.0 401.5 406.5 400.3 637.4 394.2 552.4 562.0 391.6 571.2 567.6 389.4 593.5 545.3 682.8 584.0 395.6 666.6 498.2 398.9 613.8 553.5 501.3 392.1 528.5 618.0 -18.7 29.7 612.0 710.5 560.6 .5 596.5 388.6 425.1 553.8 381.9 430.4 393.8 526.0 622.5 560.5 442.3 426.8 539.9 420.7 493.0 444.9 578.3 385.0 396.8 648.3 385.5 586.3 408.3 602.4 579.0 541.2 406.9 651.7 412.6 414.3 572.8 415.7 555.1 661.5 603.4 497.1 421.6 525.8 49.8 650.5 47.2 -24.2 577.1 623.4 624.1 671.7 426.7 643.4 604.5 37.8 578.8 667.3 671.7 537.9 682.9 396.4 414.2 414.3 414.6 518.5 392.6 404.9 424.6 386.7 376.9 498.3 416.2 -30.4 50.0 692.9 656.1 415.0 618.6 614.5 635.6 404.1 402.8 499.0 401.3 649.5 505.7 409.5 544.8 402.0 392.5 503.1 644.4 657.0 36.0 502.5 553.6 515.4 577.1 414.8 585.1 428.2 658.4 410.8 640.5 32.5 377.9 400.4 411.6 420.1 502.4 376.9 -19.4 443.0 388.8 560.5 504.8 554.1 37.4 407.4 585.8 582.8 682.9 564.9 637.0 683.1 499.2 401.0 708.7 381.8 497.7 547.6 619.7 590.8 569.5 549.8 526.4 616.3 407.9 409.3 439.6 614.7 401.5 622.8 530.7 424.0 398.2 416.8 416.2 655.4 680.2 440.3 514.2 535.0 435.3 614.9 591.0 558.0 570.4 546.9 396.1 594.2 413.6 413.9 627.9 428.1 376.0 547.7 542.3 415.8 606.5 403.4 667.3 669.6 513.5 393.1 624.5 436.7 389.1 544.2 386.6 439.2 -18.5 424.1 406.5 -21.0 653.2 606.3 604.3 420.7 424.9 487.6 407.0 631.5 587.9 430.6 423.9 411.6 656.5 408.1 504.9 689.0 555.9 413.2 539.4 401.7 405.0 385.7 569.6 403.1 586.5 664.8 629.8 596.2 431.6 543.6 421.5 385.4 649.5 511.5 378.8 425.7 568.6 434.1 395.7 414.4 573.5 389.1 382.8 644.2 410.5 512.9 674.2 518.7 560.4 516.6 509.2 38.8 625.1 524.7 417.4 537.4 678.3 34.0 379.1 516.1 419.7 399.6 640.6 523.3 -26.7 669.4 402.8 520.2 552.3 531.7 427.0 666.8 658.4 379.9 632.6 414.9 539.8 30.1 506.5 518.0 510.7 562.3 620.2 406.4 389.2 425.8 577.3 517.0 387.4 386.1 28.5 420.5 405.5 382.8 412.6 636.8 423.0 711.8 421.1 567.5 550.1 437.1 577.8 522.6 441.9 393.2 518.0 698.8 486.9 499.0 706.6 383.7 385.6 641.0 399.3 575.5 644.8 635.4 497.9 421.8 417.4 578.3 684.3 408.5 529.7 525.6 621.6 379.5 421.5 396.2 576.8 594.4 582.84 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.7 384.0 679.3 53.8 535.9 31.0 505.9 645.3 526.5 496.9 613.5 625.0 662.7 524.3 570.3 538.8 659.2 613.0 684.7 -27.4 493.0 528.1 576.1 644.9 389.2 610.1 512.0 485.3 420.1 422.8 -18.9 532.0 375.5 397.2 33.6 433.9 532.4 530.6 613.9 569.1 658.7 531.4 621.5 424.5 494.3 521.1 -29.9 676.4 386.2 575.8 593.1 379.1 657.2 47.7 651.4 576.8 399.0 380.4 392.7 395.7 576.0 405.2 591.9 376.9 404.0 407.7 635.2 423.9 656.9 523.1 669.7 609.0 32.6 509.1 402.1 399.3 524.4 410.3 438.5 626.3 587.3 547.9 551.6 659.5 -22.3 39.1 607.2 680.2 396.3 -18.6 574.5 681.0 383.7 499.3 404.6 659.6 419.4 637.3 409.7 504.0 551.2 636.1 497.6 406.8 385.2 388.4 424.4 567.3 397.8 383.6 510.0 628.3 531.7 383.3 523.8 624.9 552.0 493.7 383.4 603.2 524.7 487.1 533.6 538.2 488.7 382.8 497.9 529.0 562.1 424.1 595.9 389.1 679.2 645.8 612.0 686.1 579.0 392.2 388.8 517.4 669.5 424.3 512.1 492.4 615.3 416.4 30.0 705.9 402.1 560.8 394.1 389.0 531.4 55.7 681.6 38.7 392.0 689.1 515.6 668.7 590.8 509.1 588.4 586.8 -25.1 415.4 568.4 634.9 436.1 559.8 554.6 681.9 517.2 505.3 562.2 602.2 432.3 656.1 612.1 569.2 29.7 578.6 565.1 429.1 385.9 409.5 438.6 673.3 48.8 588.9 668.0 427.8 393.2 381.6 28.4 487.3 430.6 427.3 546.7 34.9 507.4 399.5 524.1 642.8 39.1 554.6 570.3 425.2 498.9 -18.5 398.4 36.4 561.8 412.0 702.0 410.8 380.0 386.1 545.8 416.3 566.5 398.9 548.4 420.6 517.4 545.1 397.1 635.6 695.2 426.3 680.0 409.1 607.8 492.9 402.4 647.4 662.8 540.9 392.5 391.0 408.5 412.2 418.3 421.1 544.5 391.3 623.1 432.9 601.8 638.7 516.7 394.1 490.3 437.0 654.7 643.2 539.6 666.5 402.8 587.0 400.2 553.7 388.7 646.7 428.4 504.1 402.6 646.1 560.6 394.5 418.5 499.2 392.1 -18.8 605.6 512.5 552.6 420.6 396.8 391.5 539.6 645.8 494.5 588.6 384.3 615.7 576.7 395.1 568.7 410.5 429.8 561.3 538.7 512.5 493.7 522.3 417.6 422.5 492.9 599.0 409.6 532.3 486.1 587.2 503.4 -23.2 52.3 505.5 409.6 422.8 511.4 413.9 399.1 542.9 509.1 550.9 414.4 599.6 418.6 519.4 394.2 420.8 395.8 548.1 420.6 434.7 396.6 612. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.8 504.2 585.3 536.8 422.7 495.2 596.3 511.8 404.3 563.6 425.8 512.1 413.3 416.

8 601.4 533.0 582.9 539.0 699.7 692.1 435.2 447.1 683.4 524.5 727.6 689.0 636.4 425.0 467.4 541.1 407.8 435.9 615.1 422.5 432.7 406.8 39.3 611.9 706.7 543.6 660.9 705.0 414.3 442.2 432.7 414.8 560.6 519.2 433.3 667.0 639.2 455.2 421.2 415.5 406.2 413.7 593.6 566.8 428.0 743.4 557.9 438.1 664.8 409.9 648.0 572.6 419.0 524.7 582.5 446.6 404.9 54.2 567.5 619.8 600.8 442.6 560.5 37.3 644.5 449.2 533.6 559.8 450.2 424.6 455.8 694.6 462.6 546.1 417.3 403.6 444.8 444.1 37.0 426.8 632.2 581.5 733.0 733.8 555.6 406.9 31.8 459.2 33.6 612.0 559.0 -29.3 559.7 439.5 410.8 437.2 717.3 593.2 431.6 417.9 627.1 617.9 439.8 440.8 443.7 -18.6 400.8 574.5 432.3 724.2 657.9 444.0 582.9 443.1 541.1 400.8 685.1 681.4 558.4 434.9 527.3 710.4 549.6 418.4 528.5 681.6 553.0 567.4 669.9 550.3 569.5 526.9 -23.0 535.7 -21.6 531.1 619.2 660.2 423.7 731.7 643.7 512.9 544.3 427.4 584.5 -18.5 544.9 620.0 583.3 544.4 697.5 397.7 692.6 586.0 716.3 438.4 718.0 675.7 463.0 430.4 452.0 731.0 713.5 690.7 515.9 443.2 439.3 425.6 675.7 719.6 682.3 436.2 52.3 419.8 401.9 -22.4 -25.5 413.5 673.7 664.8 460.4 559.5 576.5 679.5 427.6 542.7 533.8 420.3 -18.1 414.2 544.3 607.2 445.85 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 524.5 676.3 526.6 418.2 531.7 564.0 560.9 417.4 607.6 570.3 404.0 431.3 710.4 36.9 719.3 715.1 611.2 426.6 430.3 435.1 565.5 601.1 576.2 607.5 51.0 661.8 723.6 437.4 598.1 628.0 521.5 620.0 677.2 541.9 -31.7 431.7 636.9 635.3 53.7 696.6 557.0 703.0 750.9 404.8 646.1 577.0 546.8 419.0 584.4 563.4 699.9 680.4 705.3 640.9 602.4 520.1 571.7 600.7 593.8 49.9 654.4 609.3 512.4 583.0 593.8 417.7 598.1 577.9 647.8 -28.9 641.0 50.8 401.7 551.8 646.4 414.2 576.1 420.4 646.5 553.9 417.8 414.6 642.1 546.0 445.8 545.5 685.3 567.0 409.7 443.6 702.2 533.6 561.3 658.4 617.4 -20.6 414.5 602.8 -18.2 521.7 622.5 444.7 729.3 421.9 419.4 634.5 700.4 514.4 703.7 449.3 608.0 566.7 547.3 401.8 404.4 440.2 680.1 618.0 36.2 402.1 520.8 660.6 527.0 560.8 599.0 542.6 443.8 540.3 452.6 431.4 517.3 572.1 673.4 676.5 663.7 679.0 428.8 -19.0 433.8 575.3 719.0 610.7 420.3 561.2 420.8 691.8 30.0 440.8 688.3 435.6 651.0 435.4 399.1 454.1 679.2 686.6 526.1 400.0 645.5 547.1 464.7 445.1 406.7 584.9 513.1 641.8 457.5 412.1 631.2 669.7 722.2 704.6 544.3 415.0 749.2 443.7 424.2 397.2 428.3 582.0 530.0 410.6 420.3 658.3 567.9 448.0 529.8 619.0 694.4 593.3 590.1 401.1 428.3 396.2 447.4 411.2 38.7 622.8 629.8 548. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.0 747.8 35.2 665.0 408.5 519.8 441.2 637.9 658.6 692.4 414.7 567.6 704.5 659.9 425.2 413.1 646.1 -18.6 621.2 531.8 425.9 519.5 600.0 426.9 462.2 694.0 404.9 444.9 403.4 602.9 537.3 412.7 736.2 457.7 581.7 588.9 638.8 666.0 583.0 431.7 410.6 409.0 627.3 522.0 637.1 620.0 585.5 456.1 647.1 403.9 702.9 452.4 402.8 539.6 706.6 635.2 706.0 591.0 447.7 423.1 596.9 430.7 538.5 711.3 649.9 586.3 591.5 412.0 445.1 596.0 592.7 441.7 552.2 47.9 554.0 538.5 555.5 423.4 461.1 412.7 417.5 532.0 662.6 407.7 649.2 532.2 601.8 553.3 539.1 717.6 539.7 434.8 546.3 450.6 694.9 430.0 -26.8 713.0 435.7 461.3 48.4 599.7 635.2 620.1 429.2 429.3 552.5 524.8 454.3 592.8 719.1 609.0 727.7 412.2 542.6 554.1 420.2 444.3 408.6 28.6 513.2 600.6 442.3 589.0 624.1 447.0 668.8 628.9 400.0 553.2 513.4 610.7 409.0 739.8 532.4 693.6 532.1 546.8 -18.2 569.2 29.8 591.9 569.1 530.7 521.7 451.1 568.9 624.6 431.9 406.3 440.1 -18.8 708.7 29.7 431.4 652.2 438.9 605.4 406.8 536.5 575.8 573.8 657.7 532.0 421.3 409.0 552.2 519.7 658.5 445.6 415.6 561.8 608.2 444.5 545.9 682.0 736.0 724.9 626.7 566.0 432.0 584.5 436.0 720.0 512.6 607.3 34.2 555.1 424.6 648.0 437.7 446.7 433.4 577.1 659.7 48.4 417.3 448.1 422.4 574.4 637.1 577.5 574.8 520.6 -18.7 432.9 670.6 719.0 692.7 609.5 419.0 716.4 569.1 599.4 400.4 439.3 568.2 613.7 563.3 415.8 637.8 397.2 725.3 459.5 557.0 617.4 447.7 679.3 426.0 436.0 27.6 601.3 436.2 433.0 605.3 717.2 440.8 649.7 568.5 600.8 454.2 653.4 616.6 396.2 638.4 440.7 645.0 533.7 411.9 411.8 618.0 426.5 437.1 438.7 630.6 437.4 718.5 431.6 670.0 741.5 416.1 402.1 514.1 533.4 424.1 427.8 413.2 537.3 560.3 670.4 428.3 617.1 687.2 410.0 397.7 426.4 -27.9 423.8 597.3 407.6 447.2 545.9 453.3 632.3 626.2 527.2 540.3 407.2 643.7 398.2 624.2 682.3 629.7 464.7 34.0 520.8 435.2 413.3 680.6 667.0 432.2 537.7 458.9 432.5 584.1 425.6 52.8 693.3 609.0 419.7 422.5 433.1 410.0 406.2 455.5 591.7 414.0 568.0 704.7 525.2 424.1 565.6 421.8 449.3 437.2 411.7 583.9 402.1 652.4 55.1 575.7 443.2 .2 423.6 639.0 551.2 619.8 421.5 576.5 718.2 656.5 409.2 560.4 50.8 617.6 591.3 424.2 414.7 451.2 455.9 569.1 588.8 436.8 706.6 420.4 398.5 638.6 564.4 439.4 -18.0 705.5 538.8 396.1 525.7 559.1 721.7 -24.9 549.1 460.3 534.3 658.9 418.0 540.7 428.1 28.2 599.3 550.1 421.7 625.4 424.6 442.0 439.9 418.5 545.8 407.8 53.2 456.3 556.2 647.2 423.1 446.7 671.8 580.3 420.5 451.5 548.8 407.8 615.3 538.0 -18.1 619.6 553.5 428.8 524.7 428.7 416.4 443.7 435.7 695.7 610.7 417.5 416.9 720.3 594.8 427.0 445.2 592.0 668.5 32.7 458.7 399.5 647.0 670.1 588.7 592.2 416.6 700.2 417.7 654.8 514.0 32.1 535.7 598.5 632.3 604.0 396.5 413.2 47.3 551.7 680.0 526.0 745.6 38.5 695.4 418.4 525.2 692.4 627.3 439.1 51.4 450.8 704.9 447.3 671.5 408.2 429.6 447.5 563.5 628.7 581.3 655.5 514.4 593.4 546.1 671.5 638.8 577.4 416.3 687.1 447.7 440.7 594.5 540.4 441.8 646.8 711.0 648.6 608.8 702.1 555.7 585.9 421.9 554.2 437.9 608.4 439.3 541.1 -30.2 561.4 30.9 426.8 575.9 405.5 401.4 604.1 448.3 553.6 569.7 425.3 39.7 627.8 576.5 434.2 592.8 672.0 591.3 427.1 419.8 672.3 428.5 410.0 468.2 448.3 614.2 682.2 418.7 682.1 465.1 579.2 639.9 398.9 416.9 531.4 672.0 621.1 656.2 660.5 453.2 433.3 419.1 466.6 657.4 410.4 578.0 639.5 409.0 627.9 404.5 534.9 424.1 610.0 427.6 446.9 537.2 554.0 609.3 518.3 695.0 437.4 578.6 708.2 734.2 698.1 598.2 629.5 577.7 558.2 627.6 403.8 669.3 539.7 452.6 33.7 649.6 626.0 449.0 547.

9 766.1 585.5 556.4 885.7 584.0 791.2 935.0 521.2 554.1 683.9 770.6 551.4 724.6 529.6 541.4 693.2 909.2 564.1 807.4 720.6 537.4 919.4 754.1 535.1 591.0 544.9 810.3 53.1 709.0 827.6 -29.6 814.8 568.1 37.5 833.7 29.0 582.1 -18.8 697.2 582.1 537.5 -18.1 857.4 820.4 806.3 676.3 684.4 817.2 912.1 677.3 564.7 528.2 688.9 723.6 829.0 967.1 558.2 816.9 817.5 854.9 566.4 541.0 559.7 532.1 818.0 782.3 581.2 773.1 531.8 584.2 524.4 542.6 791.4 533.7 532.1 560.7 567.0 753.3 577.0 958.2 701.7 679.8 819.4 870.6 516.6 577.7 700.5 563.3 682.2 33.8 519.6 733.2 572.7 721.7 529.1 740.7 807.1 694.8 703.4 537.3 874.5 740.3 527.8 542.9 580.1 540.2 668.7 704.3 728.8 761.4 547.8 559.2 816.4 531.4 924.9 729.3 562.8 521.9 713.2 725.5 781.7 863.2 702.9 903.3 738.6 597.8 758.6 727.2 751.7 711.3 572.7 34.2 528.5 692.5 720.1 578.9 886.8 35.9 890.2 749.6 865.9 775.0 887.0 560.7 906.0 902.2 520.1 929.5 845.0 954.7 546.4 572.8 751.4 780.4 782.2 531.5 851.1 667.2 561.4 688.0 938.5 566.5 536.3 532.0 552.1 687.1 935.1 857.7 676.3 842.8 549.8 589.0 874.3 519.5 858.8 682.0 519.1 538.9 868.7 531.2 825.4 557.8 942.1 821.7 794.6 33.8 767.5 694.4 582.0 515.7 944.9 739.0 557.8 879.9 784.7 817.0 728.4 567.6 -18.1 516.5 546.7 589.6 818.4 576.7 822.8 -18.4 755.8 725.6 786.6 794.6 676.8 694.4 902.5 667.6 -30.8 585.5 817.9 583.7 545.3 523.8 844.4 876.4 535.6 693.4 555.1 593.4 844.2 567.0 805.4 536.3 514.7 .2 712.4 915.0 50.8 806.6 730.3 932.3 699.0 807.5 849.2 711.5 816.4 50.0 694.4 905.6 38.4 678.0 720.4 727.3 552.6 738.7 843.3 906. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.7 527.0 533.7 566.9 -21.1 -27.1 702.7 598.4 866.7 576.3 48.4 753.2 927.6 799.1 541.6 714.3 -19.6 567.7 683.6 742.9 550.1 704.7 548.7 570.0 537.7 886.3 769.7 48.9 769.0 803.6 542.8 831.9 883.8 889.7 590.9 537.5 596.2 537.6 781.1 532.4 600.1 761.0 731.7 552.6 918.2 869.1 568.1 675.6 783.0 935.2 792.2 757.7 697.4 901.6 580.5 515.9 577.7 678.0 960.2 541.0 573.6 680.1 854.0 556.9 750.0 743.3 545.1 857.3 781.6 684.7 836.8 885.8 843.1 845.2 554.8 527.5 764.5 537.8 857.5 842.2 550.6 792.7 798.5 542.8 871.0 905.0 524.3 779.2 693.7 937.4 842.7 541.7 808.4 808.9 -23.3 873.8 762.5 904.1 917.3 835.7 796.2 533.9 668.1 888.3 573.7 805.4 847.3 516.1 730.9 574.7 711.5 933.7 547.8 706.4 524.7 574.8 581.7 898.4 867.4 912.3 39.8 585.9 551.2 819.7 515.4 717.8 919.2 719.5 527.5 752.0 781.1 762.6 581.9 873.4 760.0 956.2 794.2 818.6 874.5 751.9 913.2 901.7 842.7 -18.0 843.5 739.4 908.5 558.5 832.8 545.7 920.6 819.1 693.2 525.2 520.7 578.2 733.3 564.3 550.1 692.0 536.6 722.8 49.9 727.0 749.3 563.2 793.0 36.4 702.2 872.5 806.2 -18.6 531.8 715.5 546.1 564.9 938.9 570.5 876.5 760.8 917.7 550.2 796.7 539.9 672.1 523.5 51.0 522.9 533.7 903.3 538.7 554.8 53.3 564.7 927.9 563.2 566.2 566.3 555.7 888.0 689.8 569.2 795.6 561.8 740.3 770.5 555.6 599.1 51.5 693.5 561.6 750.6 559.8 783.4 769.9 528.9 698.8 938.2 896.0 601.3 518.1 903.9 744.4 859.1 727.2 570.4 915.5 885.4 690.5 528.0 561.5 570.9 882.6 -24.8 739.8 569.7 861.6 550.8 669.5 772.0 757.5 580.5 519.7 780.1 935.2 589.8 775.2 588.4 562.1 776.2 918.0 780.9 758.6 749.9 560.2 729.6 525.9 904.2 47.3 545.5 735.9 716.6 759.0 962.2 544.4 856.9 577.0 554.1 523.1 804.0 795.5 587.2 817.7 556.4 586.0 541.3 531.8 560.9 858.6 542.8 692.2 729.7 783.3 837.7 814.8 872.2 760.4 528.5 920.5 760.0 27.4 578.7 851.2 832.7 875.7 583.9 546.6 798.3 737.3 546.3 -18.8 808.4 685.8 933.3 529.6 729.9 830.6 555.2 709.8 30.1 844.0 579.4 567.9 529.6 937.5 719.9 795.8 594.6 582.1 764.5 532.4 874.4 734.9 832.1 577.8 552.3 721.4 804.9 778.3 805.9 54.5 917.5 938.6 28.8 691.9 684.2 739.9 534.9 -31.9 920.0 684.5 32.4 719.6 546.3 782.7 576.2 38.0 699.8 701.9 570.0 787.9 -18.4 843.7 571.2 556.7 782.5 571.2 858.7 567.2 892.4 807.9 562.2 925.9 580.4 910.5 859.9 759.8 677.4 772.4 779.7 553.9 771.2 685.8 720.3 695.1 844.7 702.2 536.8 560.5 543.6 547.0 542.6 551.4 577.6 859.8 730.2 571.3 543.3 742.6 545.0 530.9 520.0 860.2 582.9 818.8 930.0 738.3 560.7 582.4 -28.0 724.0 806.0 684.6 770.6 905.4 830.5 668.4 948.7 -20.3 740.5 547.0 546.9 719.3 859.0 528.3 863.7 719.6 860.9 739.3 771.7 520.5 37.5 571.2 918.9 715.5 708.0 556.8 553.0 710.3 833.0 535.0 -22.7 668.7 728.6 892.7 571.7 543.7 930.3 680.9 842.3 882.7 541.5 523.2 550.7 -26.9 541.2 750.3 574.1 529.1 923.9 577.9 583.2 576.6 538.8 596.8 916.2 29.3 729.6 731.1 28.8 576.8 -18.4 740.5 795.7 825.6 793.86 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.5 592.4 540.1 529.8 532.4 695.9 523.3 34.8 579.0 549.9 536.4 793.6 52.6 702.4 551.0 571.9 31.6 523.0 844.8 714.2 515.4 936.1 839.9 537.0 525.6 886.4 709.8 711.3 710.3 749.0 942.9 693.1 558.6 552.8 772.5 801.4 516.0 712.0 32.6 575.1 920.5 832.7 806.2 691.1 581.0 947.8 812.1 532.9 690.6 878.8 551.2 772.6 771.5 581.3 744.4 828.0 964.7 588.0 676.8 527.9 572.0 721.1 720.7 899.4 788.5 562.5 535.4 522.8 595.5 831.7 591.7 856.3 554.5 586.8 761.7 562.6 527.9 819.8 544.4 709.2 565.7 549.0 948.6 537.0 545.4 574.9 567.6 759.4 55.6 902.5 888.1 830.5 565.8 675.0 945.2 823.8 830.0 918.6 759.2 556.8 556.8 524.7 839.7 706.0 966.2 759.1 741.5 530.7 771.0 785.5 722.6 520.0 566.0 746.2 705.3 669.0 532.9 793.2 744.5 549.6 524.3 894.4 -18.3 749.6 735.2 831.8 723.5 560.4 945.8 833.3 -25.8 773.0 669.5 880.8 840.7 582.7 685.4 30.0 570.1 514.5 703.3 904.3 594.9 710.8 516.7 593.3 571.0 749.1 830.8 895.8 667.7 717.9 687.6 533.7 683.4 36.2 52.5 887.5 701.0 47.8 585.9 859.7 848.4 542.8 768.5 711.3 689.7 703.4 520.5 685.3 674.5 677.0 704.6 545.7 940.8 540.4 541.2 889.9 789.8 39.9 576.4 667.5 873.3 539.0 555.6 547.8 555.9 794.0 771.4 683.2 792.6 555.4 887.7 781.9 702.1 875.4 853.0 951.0 578.7 777.3 707.0 738.9 760.9 721.8 552.3 936.1 551.0 536.8 872.2 833.7 709.5 730.3 751.1 570.3 758.9 572.6 746.8 561.4 676.2 547.0 698.3 886.0 898.6 587.7 774.0 733.6 710.3 764.6 534.7 747.2 697.9 538.3 801.2 580.2 703.2 530.6 566.0 685.8 811.5 937.8 752.

2 703.0 -22.1 883.0 625.0 962.2 936.6 572.8 754.9 760.5 790.6 590.2 34.1 829.1 616.4 765.2 605.7 864.8 938.9 839.2 891.6 601.3 785.6 598.3 874.0 618.2 945.6 877.6 617.3 548.0 -23.8 632.5 557.8 560.1 901.0 551.1 866.0 614.6 603.4 770.4 592.2 580.2 956.8 781.7 553.1 586.8 927.5 -18.3 779.6 567.4 583.9 629.2 52.8 823.6 816.8 628.0 891.6 951.2 877.6 573.8 967.4 879.6 779.7 735.3 706.3 735.9 767.1 723.0 922.9 609.8 709.5 954.3 600.2 604.2 869. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.1 547.2 834.3 772.6 937.9 712.3 861.2 735.3 585.4 613.8 759.2 823.3 764.8 900.9 903.0 852.9 836.7 557.6 761.4 834.9 585.2 978.6 552.8 608.6 571.9 741.1 597.9 602.0 577.7 38.4 558.4 567.1 768.9 558.3 731.3 863.3 836.1 599.0 898.4 617.0 802.4 1009.1 953.8 767.4 571.4 55.4 791.3 838.2 568.9 552.1 606.3 779.4 582.0 935.5 963.4 558.6 818.6 982.6 851.5 725.5 29.1 767.6 891.9 814.3 740.6 47.1 51.3 583.9 593.6 935.1 850.2 806.2 581.7 601.4 907.7 801.6 945.7 941.7 612.8 882.7 987.6 608.3 855.5 759.9 736.1 587.1 987.5 622.2 796.1 593.1 35.2 851.3 947.9 888.3 802.9 591.0 863.3 706.5 934.7 714.3 950.0 -28.6 561.4 600.1 923.8 585.3 748.0 740.4 823.0 576.7 754.8 614.0 953.7 912.3 575.0 569.1 896.7 888.7 545.1 774.3 952.9 577.3 606.6 36.8 566.9 847.7 607.1 560.2 904.2 544.5 789.2 558.0 1020.4 1015.3 811.2 32.8 577.6 592.3 826.2 579.7 722.3 720.9 567.6 924.2 592.4 783.1 822.5 921.7 989.1 826.3 29.9 812.8 547.5 824.9 601.6 812.7 966.8 862.8 757.6 987.1 612.9 721.7 549.1 -18.1 728.1 574.5 51.6 850.0 722.5 603.5 978.4 731.0 971.8 620.9 38.2 569.2 958.6 542.3 737.8 750.0 -25.5 544.7 705.5 768.1 570.5 990.9 999.8 799.2 610.5 36.6 575.6 784.0 566.2 969.3 733.2 741.2 990.7 792.4 801.6 589.6 862.7 731.3 839.4 758.0 838.0 -26.8 604.5 623.2 620.0 864.4 621.0 859.4 622.8 720.4 602.1 960.4 803.9 850.9 556.7 907.0 924.9 732.7 553.1 718.5 823.9 .3 774.4 742.1 591.7 565.9 959.9 740.5 742.9 590.2 824.3 813.7 802.1 790.3 -18.6 763.5 773.3 917.3 888.9 577.7 953.1 37.4 27.6 956.7 848.7 566.6 815.5 704.5 553.7 994.3 851.1 868.2 881.9 822.4 568.1 769.4 50.4 997.1 549.6 720.0 544.8 935.6 572.6 564.7 567.9 591.3 750.9 906.7 885.0 614.9 575.8 929.1 782.5 607.4 793.4 790.5 876.2 849.3 814.9 876.0 770.6 606.0 -29.4 923.7 837.2 876.7 738.6 955.4 580.0 836.3 890.1 941.2 974.3 853.7 603.6 741.4 726.2 724.6 721.8 930.9 549.2 780.6 39.0 749.2 821.8 560.3 543.1 985.9 780.6 727.9 876.1 704.1 769.2 602.5 842.0 562.9 574.9 592.9 737.3 53.6 769.0 714.8 544.4 898.8 33.9 966.1 604.87 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 612.0 906.6 765.4 581.4 781.4 886.8 31.0 893.1 607.6 568.5 818.5 905.9 851.0 948.8 53.3 572.6 780.0 50.5 32.8 744.9 720.9 779.1 1006.6 1000.1 751.7 863.6 731.2 954.9 970.9 758.8 768.3 576.1 615.7 749.9 597.7 569.3 845.1 594.7 840.2 612.6 814.6 939.4 615.7 558.7 800.8 943.6 596.4 721.9 934.3 934.6 861.9 965.2 729.6 1003.1 572.6 597.0 -19.1 613.0 548.2 907.8 587.2 721.3 723.3 552.6 763.3 625.8 633.4 864.5 889.8 575.1 857.1 791.9 813.6 571.1 571.1 776.6 813.2 889.8 876.1 585.0 -27.7 565.2 967.8 -18.0 589.6 715.7 746.6 560.4 723.9 824.6 738.7 824.6 742.3 48.2 603.6 583.6 592.2 853.3 732.1 564.2 825.0 556.0 731.0 589.0 871.1 554.4 773.3 779.2 835.2 576.0 557.2 759.8 889.2 813.8 575.5 561.8 49.3 39.4 549.3 801.8 592.8 573.2 617.1 983.8 849.6 750.0 570.0 614.7 792.5 806.6 591.3 599.0 804.6 862.1 760.6 559.6 706.0 743.6 922.6 836.4 563.7 923.4 804.1 730.7 582.9 986.9 571.7 602.2 751.0 801.3 801.8 859.4 28.1 543.4 749.5 930.8 809.3 597.9 587.5 968.7 613.4 581.5 850.4 588.3 715.5 713.9 723.9 613.4 748.1 575.4 806.2 616.6 561.3 889.8 607.8 742.5 556.5 970.8 769.9 911.1 1017.8 627.4 582.5 873.6 560.6 852.8 596.4 609.3 921.8 833.2 952.3 784.0 27.8 936.3 790.4 567.8 794.8 713.0 826.3 615.7 770.4 571.8 760.2 720.4 792.2 611.6 740.1 28.3 716.6 796.1 553.0 558.4 570.8 586.3 803.7 48.2 47.3 586.1 580.6 761.7 613.7 748.6 906.9 560.6 52.4 860.6 933.3 772.2 565.4 761.3 828.6 624.5 891.0 590.9 750.5 781.9 745.3 976.0 565.2 712.9 588.8 556.0 877.6 890.0 908.3 715.1 732.5 952.2 563.5 547.7 995.0 556.3 597.5 601.6 626.0 971.9 579.0 752.6 -18.9 916.4 904.4 919.9 989.0 30.4 30.6 837.8 1000.4 808.5 753.3 986.3 778.8 580.7 562.1 610.5 614.0 -24.9 871.5 722.9 703.1 578.4 914.4 574.1 587.5 769.4 608.3 567.3 761.3 614.1 875.2 767.5 601.8 576.9 864.9 584.1 561.9 597.7 581.3 601.1 878.6 732.7 839.7 879.3 905.9 545.7 564.9 33.3 848.1 920.8 817.0 968.8 969.7 581.9 582.7 605.0 794.1 552.9 994.0 740.3 988.5 793.0 878.5 572.9 825.2 582.2 801.9 952.8 630.0 879.3 850.5 562.2 756.7 566.0 577.4 798.9 997.7 566.7 587.9 832.6 1019.6 815.6 586.1 729.3 970.9 949.0 778.4 579.5 585.2 755.6 614.8 553.1 563.2 740.3 585.8 745.0 991.5 920.5 1013.2 591.2 549.9 905.7 732.3 812.8 561.2 829.3 820.7 599.5 575.5 759.8 748.3 609.0 831.7 920.5 577.3 800.1 984.4 572.3 904.9 610.1 557.9 572.9 54.1 810.5 562.4 793.7 743.6 37.9 750.8 885.6 595.2 845.7 556.1 932.7 878.9 921.0 800.4 551.8 781.8 704.2 566.9 816.2 758.8 791.0 634.6 551.4 901.4 911.3 814.1 711.2 557.0 917.0 980.6 576.2 598.7 838.3 554.2 750.1 792.0 618.0 -30.6 609.1 566.4 838.9 890.3 937.5 548.3 878.0 755.5 595.0 837.4 969.9 728.0 787.8 594.9 608.8 803.9 -18.3 561.0 549.8 730.8 873.5 895.9 718.8 954.4 592.8 790.8 825.4 892.2 562.6 594.8 610.7 726.9 631.0 927.5 785.0 955.6 904.0 34.1 888.7 548.4 -18.4 705.4 936.3 553.2 620.8 781.3 562.9 922.1 552.9 576.1 581.6 597.5 543.8 841.7 843.5 825.8 612.2 745.1 989.8 778.6 572.3 559.4 627.0 739.3 727.5 988.6 585.5 730.9 861.4 598.3 914.2 603.9 598.4 975.9 623.5 760.5 734.7 557.6 595.1 608.2 787.2 618.7 812.9 609.9 800.6 1011.2 936.0 603.1 713.9 599.4 714.6 865.3 714.1 863.9 962.6 968.0 -20.3 579.2 856.9 776.0 603.8 576.3 587.9 937.0 705.4 591.7 815.0 -21.0 591.6 595.4 610.0 862.8 764.7 761.2 585.9 906.8 543.6 596.6 770.5 839.4 981.4 586.9 581.0 -18.2 567.7 -18.0 562.2 -18.0 622.5 584.8 904.1 598.1 748.7 570.6 628.9 988.

6 734.7 -18.5 694.6 724.9 710.7 717.0 749.3 694.9 714.3 718.0 -27.1 706.6 28.4 724.1 715.7 712.0 694.1 51.0 27.2 -18.1 717.7 724.0 -26.0 732.9 718.8 725.4 716.0 -30.9 729.5 -18.9 712.0 725.4 700.6 731.5 731.3 39.7 732.0 -21.4 720.1 705.0 699.5 51.3 -18.3 34.5 721.5 706.8 717.7 723.2 33.7 735.0 731.9 726.7 730.2 724.2 723.6 707.5 709.8 730.6 748.1 37.4 30.7 29.1 712.5 701.0 -29.0 717.4 695.1 729.0 714.8 695.8 53.4 731.8 745.2 734.8 -18.0 -25.9 47.5 32.9 707.8 693.0 -19.9 727.0 -22.6 52.3 720.0 737.0 731.2 730.1 698.2 741.0 -23.5 713.1 700.9 694.0 -24.9 734.8 706.1 716.8 717.7 723.0 700.3 53.0 -20.5 735.6 33.4 741.6 718.0 718.3 706.1 -18.5 722.8 746.5 730.5 709.1 727.9 724.9 31.7 34.0 -18.0 728.8 49.0 706.3 730.8 30.8 713.0 36.8 35.7 711.3 738.7 736.4 707.4 722.4 720.2 717.4 50.7 701.4 717.9 -18.6 719.8 39.2 38.1 702.7 747.0 716.0 696.9 704.6 -18.3 723.0 711.5 723.9 729.2 718.4 36.5 712.9 715.5 711.7 48.8 739.5 740.6 725.2 704.1 710.1 718.2 711.6 38.2 29.1 724.3 48.3 738.5 37.6 700.2 704.5 742.0 .2 712.8 700.4 727.3 713.4 705.4 712.4 55.2 706.9 54.9 730.8 27.9 711.8 731.4 711.7 744.1 730.2 47.5 717.1 28.7 701.0 723.0 50.9 705.7 694.3 716.3 706.8 722.3 701.8 726.2 52.2 695.4 703.0 729.6 734.88 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 709.3 742.6 705.0 -28.3 724.0 32.7 712.6 732.6 695. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] -31.8 708.4 -18.4 739.9 699.8 713.9 701.

2 772.7 757.4 745.2 47.8 738.8 757.6 -18.2 760.6 771.6 751.7 -18.89 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 -18.3 776.6 52.4 733.9 750.4 770.2 779.8 786.3 731.9 738.4 772.2 776.1 37.3 34.4 775.6 740.4 739.5 781.8 751.1 739.4 55.8 788.8 771.6 739.4 758.0 -27.6 784.8 764.0 -18.2 29.8 762.0 732.4 783.4 750.3 773.5 -18.7 756.3 752.9 758.5 763.2 52.8 739.3 771.4 30.0 -20.9 733.8 740.3 769.3 -18.7 34.3 751.9 47.5 754.1 28.5 760.3 756.3 752.6 738.0 766.8 752.4 774.3 763.8 30.2 743.3 759.0 772.0 -22.7 770.0 757.3 48.9 54.9 745.7 48.2 745.8 49.0 -29.4 780.5 780.7 744.0 -24.0 771.8 762.8 755.8 767.9 777.0 743.8 736.3 774.5 753.6 770.2 769.7 752.5 37.6 769.9 -18.5 776.3 739.7 29.4 -18.3 750.5 757.0 -30.0 740.0 744.1 51.5 771.0 764.8 53.2 770.7 755.8 35.0 752.6 746. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.5 743.6 751.2 766.0 .8 763.5 740.4 50.7 765.2 748.0 758.2 773.0 756.0 764.2 38.6 734.0 781.8 748.4 36.0 -28.8 748.1 770.8 763.9 770.6 38.1 738.5 762.0 -19.8 787.0 -21.0 -23.5 756.6 762.4 750.1 763.1 747.3 769.4 745.0 36.9 774.9 750.8 39.9 751.4 741.3 768.9 27.0 50.6 33.3 53.6 756.1 755.4 764.5 767.5 756.4 734.3 763.0 -26.6 782.5 32.8 756.7 732.9 778.0 27.6 28.2 742.7 745.2 757.7 789.2 732.9 31.5 744.2 744.2 758.5 783.0 790.1 751.1 750.5 732.0 -25.2 744.6 761.4 760.6 754.7 758.1 -18.3 749.1 746.7 733.5 764.2 767.8 746.8 -18.5 51.2 751.2 33.2 765.3 39.0 32.1 733.3 764.

012 Tr[C] -29 -30 -29 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -31 47.01 0.01 0.1 37.4 30.014 0.8 35.6 33.9 31.018 0.015 0.2 33.7 29.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.3 34.01 0.3 39.8 39.1 51.011 0.016 0.8 53.7 34.8 30.5 37.01 0.2 38.016 0.015 0.0 0.3 53.0 50.4 36.018 0.013 0.011 0.01 0.014 0.014 0.018 0.7 48. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package P [bar] 27.6 52.01 0.016 0.01 0.01 0.017 0.2 52.013 0.016 0.017 0.5 32.6 38.5 51.0 32.4 55.4 50.01 0.2 29.01 0.013 0.8 49.0 36.011 0.017 0.013 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 47.3 48.6 28.015 0.0 27.009 -30 -30 -30 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 90 .014 0.015 0.01 0.1 28.9 54.016 0.

8 35.8 30.013 0.01 0.1 -27.014 0.5 -30.6 52.4 36.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 -33 -33.01 0.8 53.014 0.7 -33.4 30.018 0.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.0 36.3 34.8 91 .011 0.011 0.6 28.014 0.7 -28.009 -32.3 48.01 0.017 0.4 -33.2 33. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual P [bar] 27.5 -33.016 0.7 29.016 0.2 -29.3 -29.6 -32.0 32.8 39.4 55.013 0.1 51.018 0.1 -29.5 37.6 38.2 -26.016 0.3 -27.5 32.9 -28.9 -29.2 -28.1 -33.0 0.1 -28.2 -33.9 47.1 37.5 51.016 0.01 0.8 49.6 -30.01 0.015 0.3 -33.4 -30.5 -28.015 0.2 47.9 31.012 Tr[C] -27 -27.1 -33.013 0.01 0.01 0.2 38.01 0.015 0.9 54.9 -27.8 -32.017 0.01 0.3 39.3 53.01 0.4 50.013 0.014 0.6 33.017 0.9 -29.7 34.1 28.2 29.5 -27.018 0.01 0.0 27.7 48.8 -30.5 -28.016 0.011 0.6 -33.7 -32.0 50.4 -32.7 -30.015 0.1 -29.2 52.

011 0.01 0.7 34.7 29.136 -26.018 0.013 0.6 52.641 -25.3 34.119 -26.883 -24.195 -26.811 -24.3 53.305 -25.704 -25.1 51.015 0.127 -25.013 0.793 -25.2 33.343 -26.922 -24.0 32.016 0.012 Tr[C] -24.013 0.01 0.5 37.8 39.014 0.088 -24.5 32.3 39.591 -24.015 0.637 -24.01 0.558 -25.015 0.5 51.186 -23.013 0.017 0.355 -25.08 -25.018 0.01 0.4 50.02 -25.2 38.872 -24.016 0.01 0.009 -25.9 31.7 48.01 0.014 0.6 33.8 35.0 36.37 47.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.0 50.0 0.2 29.015 0.534 -25.01 0.0 27.2 47.014 0.1 37.6 28.704 -26.016 0.657 -24.017 0.018 0.9 54.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 30.848 92 .548 -25.2 52.011 0.01 0.016 0.779 -25.4 36.01 0.8 30.394 -25.1 28.091 -26.016 0.164 -24.8 53.462 -25.403 -24. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations P [bar] 27.8 49.6 38.326 -25.228 -25.01 0.014 0.01 0.875 -25.017 0.032 -24.522 -26.3 48.4 55.494 -24.011 0.

34 94.87 98.13 92.50 98.17 87.97 92.00 97.41 96.29 91.38 95.22 96.02 98.15 98.1 100.13 93.04 96.27 97.13 96.26 93.50 95.84 98.86 96.00 97.70 94.18 98.10 96.52 90.05 96.28 94.88 97.70 98.34 98.33 96.37 99.62 95.56 99.20 99.97 99.64 95.47 95.07 98.76 98.21 95.71 97.66 97.53 98.06 90.55 96.58 96.83 97.49 96.69 96.83 92.10 97.00 99.39 97.35 94.66 97.87 91.24 96.72 96.99 98.01 98.68 90.84 91.33 96.03 97.64 87.90 97.68 97.88 96.44 89.58 95.85 99.08 97.45 93.73 99.66 94.17 95.62 90.54 95.93 98.18 94.69 94.53 97.91 97.91 92.19 97.25 95.49 96.73 97.92 95.20 93.83 97.31 97.87 99.55 99.89 92.04 99.98 88.51 97.98 94.62 93.58 90.66 90.38 89.33 95.85 94.04 98.18 87.2 100.80 95.31 89.24 96.59 97.91 96.90 94.33 97.73 99.25 97.07 97.63 97.00 95.75 98.37 90.74 97.34 98.73 97.88 95.08 97.06 97.66 96. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions Dew Point -18 -18.34 89.17 98.35 89.44 97.66 96.86 94.54 99.42 97.71 94.67 98.04 99.71 97.32 94.41 95.78 96.58 94.57 95.30 87.5 -18.14 97.40 89.59 96.24 98.01 99.56 90.51 98.85 92.16 96.00 91.90 100.39 99.61 89.12 98.29 93.12 97.97 91.17 96.33 97.97 98.84 96.80 96.41 97.83 97.33 88.28 93.92 97.39 97.33 95.48 94.30 95.7 -18.10 97.21 96.87 97.22 87.04 99.14 98.51 97.27 94.58 97.02 97.70 95.78 92.35 95.71 96.89 97.95 91.83 99.17 94.21 96.44 96.47 97.3 -18.19 96.25 95.31 91.21 99.90 98.90 98.41 92.75 97.70 95.67 93.80 94.68 98.92 97.23 97.83 97.24 94.95 95.17 98.38 96.97 95.93 93.84 98.56 93.30 97.83 94.20 94.30 94.92 98.00 98.29 97.00 97.64 95.02 95.91 96.25 87.62 94.38 95.93 93.99 96.09 92.41 96.02 99.87 99.36 96.98 97.78 97.85 98.11 98.83 98.91 97.46 97.92 92.96 96.64 93.40 95.75 94.74 96.56 94.48 96.67 88.62 96.01 98.42 96.33 92.88 97.02 98.50 95.53 94.56 97.62 91.61 93.27 98.77 96.26 97.15 94.9 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 Gas Temperature: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 87.35 98.27 93.86 99.93 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 6.57 92.83 96.91 91.81 98.32 98.27 95.19 98.93 96.51 94.97 95.59 93.70 98.53 90.05 95.66 98.20 99.05 97.55 97.16 97.94 98.64 97.28 98.24 93.82 94.77 93.52 98.76 94.64 95.51 98.07 95.32 93.68 95.30 95.39 97.10 98.93 97.42 97.54 96.41 96.72 98.15 96.36 93.65 92.35 99.44 93.41 89.67 96.71 99.47 87.72 95.47 91.10 98.55 99.15 88.30 93.70 96.86 92.16 98.25 92.18 93.64 96.67 97.14 95.89 96.43 89.74 97.8 -18.70 98.89 91.49 92.81 94.72 95.67 95.25 96.58 96.59 90.50 94.49 98.00 95.65 95.82 97.70 93.25 94.02 98.94 96.94 91.41 95.21 99.53 98.46 96.08 95.88 92.47 95.68 97.23 87.02 91.38 99.52 99.63 98.58 98.09 93.81 97.84 98.59 94.01 94.47 97.66 95.0 89.12 96.71 97.37 89.76 90.21 97.98 91.74 96.28 97.08 96.28 87.13 95.63 96.86 91.60 97.4 -18.57 96.84 88.22 93.36 97.04 93.14 91.19 93.22 97.00 98.15 87.73 94.22 97.81 92.37 99.61 90.69 95.78 97.83 97.89 100.77 93.59 96.13 87.68 95.02 94.85 97.88 93.25 94.67 91.03 95.68 97.67 97.42 94.69 93.94 95.29 93.76 97.05 98.05 97.2 -18.00 98.87 96.44 97.43 96.2 89.72 93.81 88.21 99.67 95.05 95.53 98.97 97.99 91.91 96.29 95.98 98.65 97.83 91.30 96.80 97.81 92.36 95.32 89.34 96.97 95.09 96.08 97.49 97.38 96.14 96.96 96.67 95.50 88.38 99.39 96.95 98.17 99.87 100.96 92.56 97.37 96.74 94.20 87.03 99.24 96.37 97.3 .19 94.35 98.0 100.95 98.50 97.08 96.41 98.94 92.88 96.99 95.17 97.69 97.55 96.09 97.83 96.57 94.33 98.69 91.18 98.26 97.89 98.92 91.24 97.61 93.97 92.74 97.91 90.70 99.81 95.16 97.21 93.68 98.61 97.85 98.94 92.78 94.34 93.66 93.6 -18.58 95.58 95.22 90.84 94.61 94.15 91.33 97.09 98.17 92.49 97.19 94.60 96.15 94.20 96.02 98.65 96.79 97.60 93.00 91.18 98.35 98.85 98.22 94.28 95.55 95.85 98.34 97.31 95.58 93.43 97.18 99.61 97.98 96.1 -18.50 97.31 94.55 97.99 98.84 95.16 97.66 96.55 90.45 98.63 95.07 98.36 98.46 89.27 87.64 90.87 99.80 99.60 95.

. Small and large cavities (Behar et al. 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 94 Figures Figure 2. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. 1994) . 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics) Figure 2.

1997) 95 . 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Sloan.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 96 Figure 2. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG. 1988) Figure 2. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from John Carrol. 2003) . Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers.

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. 1991) Figure 2. 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2. 1997) 97 . 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. reproduced) 98 . 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski. 2003.

1 Change in the Polish Norm 0 1995-10.2004-1128 23 19 15 09 14 09 06 01 28 24 20 Water content of imported gas Water content limit Figure 3.1999-12. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP. 2005) 99 .1999-02.3 0.1996-08.4 0.6 between 21-11-1995 do 10-01-2005 Water content [g/Nm3] 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water Content In Ukrainian Gas 0.1998-04.2004-01.2000-10.1997-06.2001-07.5 c 0.2002-05.2 0.2003-03.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION towards ROZWADÓW ID 700 ID 300 Gas compressor ID 400 towards TARNÓW JAROSŁAW ID 500 ID 300 ID 700 ID 600 towards LUBACZÓW ID 300 ID 500 MAĆKOWICE ID 700 Gas Drying Gas compressor ŻURAWICA ID 500 ID 700 Gas compressor ID 600 ID 300 towards STRACHOCIN HERMANOWICE ID 600 Gas compressor ID700 ID 500 POLAND / UKRAINE BORDER Figure 3. 2005) 100 . 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. 2005) 101 . 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys.

2004) 102 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.

1990) 103 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG.

1959) 104 . 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA 105 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

4 32.1 30.5 33.015 0.02 Manual 0.8 37.025 0.014 0. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual Water content according to manual 15 C 0.005 27 28.8 37.1 30.0 38.1 39.5 52.002 27 28.6 53.01 Manual 0.2 31.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.02 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 10 C 0.9 .2 31.4 32. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual 106 .7 36.01 0.8 55.008 0.004 0.1 39.6 34.0 38.4 51.4 51.2 49.2 49.016 0.0 29.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.7 36.012 0.018 0.5 52.2 .6 53.006 0.0 29.3 50.9 .3 47 48.3 50.6 34.3 47 48.8 55.2 .5 33.

3 47 48.3 47 48.5 33.2 31.3 50.1 39.8 37.02 0.9 .008 0.7 36.4 51.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.3 50.006 0.2 .0 29.01 Article 0. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual Water content in dehydrated gas 10 C 0.4 32.1 39.4 51.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 20 C 0.1 30.2 31.0 38.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.005 27 28.8 37.9 .0 38. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations 107 .1 30.014 0.025 Manual 0.01 0.8 55.018 0.03 0.2 49.5 52.015 0.012 0.2 49.4 32.016 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.5 52.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.6 53.6 53.6 34.0 29.002 27 28.5 33.6 34.8 55.2 .004 0.035 0.7 36.

0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.2 .6 34.8 55.015 Article 0.0 29.6 34.5 33.4 32.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations Water content in dehydrated gas 20 C 0.9 .2 31.005 27 28.2 49.3 47 48.01 0.5 52.1 39.1 39.7 36.2 .0 38.8 37.015 Article 0. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations 108 .7 36.0 38.1 30.4 32.8 55.6 53.4 51.02 0.2 31.3 47 48.6 53.01 0.1 30.0 29.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content in dehydrated gas 15 C 0.2 49.5 52.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.025 0.025 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.9 .4 51.3 50.3 50.005 27 28.02 0.8 37.5 33.

11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys 109 .8 55.02 0.7 36.6 53.3 47 48.015 Hysys 0. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys Water content according to Hysys 10 C amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.5 33.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.2 31.4 32.01 0.025 0.6 34.2 .8 37.0 38.0 29.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.4 51.005 27 28.1 39.9 .3 50.5 52.1 30.2 49.

0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.03 0.05 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.5 33.01 0.6 53.0 29.6 34.3 47 48.2 .7 36.0 29.8 37.8 55.045 0.0 38.1 39.8 37.1 30.005 27 28.015 0.7 36.1 39.3 50.03 0.4 51.9 .4 51.005 27 28.4 32.6 34.5 33.2 31.9 .0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.01 0. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys 110 .025 Hysys 0.02 0.035 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.3 50.0 38.5 52.02 Hysys 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to Hysys 15 C 0.6 53.5 52.04 0.3 47 48.015 0.2 31.4 32.025 0.8 55. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys Water content according to Hysys 20 C 0.2 .2 49.1 30.2 49.035 0.

3 50.8 55. 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC 111 .04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.9 .01 27 28.2 .03 0.2 31.8 37.9 .0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.0 29.7 36.03 0.6 53.1 30.5 52.035 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.4 32.1 39.5 33.0 38.04 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.05 0.005 27 28. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC Water content comparison 15 C 0.3 47 48.8 37.4 5 1.0 29.0 0 pressure Figure 5.06 amount of water 0.02 0.025 0.7 36.4 51.05 0.2 3 1 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 10 C 0.3 47 48.6 34.8 55.6 34.4 32.01 0.045 0.3 50.2 .6 53.5 5 2 .2 49.5 33.0 38.2 49.02 0.1 39.1 3 0.015 0.

8 54 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 20 C 0.01 47 .08 0.02 0.4 32 .8 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.04 0.7 30 .4 37 .0 28 .4 27 .7 49 .03 0.1 52 .07 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.7 35 .05 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.0 33 .1 38 . 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC 112 .06 0.4 51 .

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

113

0,011
0,011
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,009

-21

0,018
0,018
0,017
0,016
0,016
0,016
0,015
0,014
0,014
0,014
0,013
0,013

Dew Point For Water Content

-23

-25
Dew Point

Manual
Article
Hysys
Wielom. (Article)
Wielom. (Manual)

-27

-29

Wielom. (Hysys)
-31

-33

-35
Water Content

Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

114

Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG, 1988

115

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Minimum Strong TEG Concentration

100,00

98,00

TEG Min Concentration [% mas]

96,00
-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28
-29

94,00

92,00

90,00

88,00

86,00
1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

Gas Temperature [C]

Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18oC and -29oC

8 -18.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 116 Minimum strong TEG concentration 100.9 -19 94.00 98.7 -18.6 -18.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Gas Temperature C Figure 6.00 88.5 -18.00 92.00 TEG Min Concentration [% mass] 96.4 -18. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC .00 -18 -18.00 86.2 -18.00 90.1 -18.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 117 Appendices Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil Aviaterm 6 is heating oil used for warming up natural gas flowing into absorbtion column. 2004) Table of Aviaterm 6 oil specifications was provided with Mackowice dehydration Facility operation manual. Colour Amber – light brown Form Transparent fluid Boiling point [C] Over 300 oC Freezing poing [C] Below -16 oC Density [kg/m3] 860 kg/m3 Ignition temperature [C] Over 200 oC Range of explosivness [g/m3] From 45 g/m3 Self-ignition temperature [C] Omissible in Maćkowice temperature work range . It is used as heat carrier in the temperature range between -18 oC and 280 oC (Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual.

035 -18.5 0.023 -24.046 -15.036 -18.015 -29.052 -14.014 -29.Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27 0.046 -15.024 -23.2 0.2 0.012 -31.9 0.8 0.1 0.2 38.9 0.3 0.2 33.033 -19.024 -23.9 0.118 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix B .025 -23.6 0.027 -22 0.6 0.012 -31.7 0.045 -15.013 -30.05 -14.055 -13.3 0.018 -27.1 0.018 -27.1 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.031 -20.051 -14.041 -17.012 -31 0.025 -22.013 -30.6 0.029 -21.2 0.4 0.2 0.058 -12.5 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.028 -21.3 0.1 0.047 -15.017 -27.024 -23.065 -11.6 0.044 -16.5 0.5 39.034 -19.034 -19.3 0.1 0.034 -19.7 0.1 0.039 -18.6 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.048 -15.033 -19.026 -22.6 0.4 0.7 27.8 0.1 0.035 -18.7 0.043 -16.6 0.9 34.021 -25.6 0.067 -11 30.03 -20.2 0.047 -15.6 0.048 -15.1 35.8 37.8 0.039 -17.6 42.018 -27 0.8 0.3 0.018 -26.017 -27.018 -26.1 28.057 -13.9 0.8 0.034 -19.7 0.028 -21.2 0.045 -16 0.5 0.063 -11.013 -30.5 0.9 0.017 -27.035 -18.014 -29.4 0.5 0.013 -30.2 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.7 0.019 -26.039 -17.2 0.014 -29.6 0.5 0.021 -25.3 0.2 0.5 0.052 -14.2 0.9 0.7 0.062 -12 32.4 29.5 0.3 0.3 0.7 34.1 0.9 40.016 -28.4 42.8 0.3 0.015 -28.03 -21.049 -14.2 0.5 0.1 41 0.061 -12.8 0.7 0.035 -18.049 -14.032 -20 0.015 -29.053 -13.5 33.02 -25.5 0.2 0.016 -28.031 -20.018 -26.2 28.4 0.024 -23.04 -17.069 -10.043 -16.064 -11.7 32 0.9 0.05 -14.5 0.1 0.012 -31.041 -17.8 .5 36.021 -24.5 0.1 0.5 31.2 0.027 -22.5 0.7 0.018 -26.6 0.8 39.03 -20.016 -28.9 0.048 -15.1 0.5 0.4 0.025 -23.022 -24.9 0.052 -14.4 0.036 -18.4 38.5 0.2 0.012 -31.6 0.026 -22.7 0.2 0.037 -18.7 0.3 0.012 -31.023 -23.7 0.3 30.037 -18.8 0.019 -26 0.073 -9.4 0.025 -23.026 -22.019 -26 0.8 0.025 -22.7 0.033 -19.5 0.023 -23.3 0.1 0.019 -26.022 -24.8 43.025 -22.035 -19 0.3 0.5 0.051 -14.053 -14 37.022 -24.5 36 0.057 -12.8 0.071 -10.072 -10.8 0.3 0.6 0.048 -15.016 -27.032 -20.024 -23.1 41.017 -27.7 0.02 -25.014 -29.7 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.018 -26.4 0.059 -12.016 -28.035 -19 0.3 0.025 -22.055 -13.015 -28.018 -27 0.017 -27.026 -23.028 -21.068 -10.034 -19.012 -30.9 0.042 -16.9 0.8 29.02 -25.047 -15.1 0.

2 0.9 0.02 -25.009 -33.2 0.2 0.9 0.021 -25.027 -22.5 55 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.015 -29 0.7 0.01 -33.4 0.6 .6 46.8 0.7 51.011 -32.023 -24 0.9 0.4 54.2 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.039 -17.8 0.041 -17.016 -28.01 -33.8 0.036 -18.5 0.2 0.1 53.5 0.1 0.8 0.1 48.037 -18.016 -28.8 0.2 0.8 0.015 -29.9 47.6 0.019 -26 0.015 -28.031 -20.7 47.8 0.023 -23.119 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43.011 -32.037 -18.2 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.044 -16.5 0.8 0.4 0.011 -32 0.9 0.2 44.014 -29.021 -25 0.9 0.015 -28.5 0.8 0.7 51.038 -18 52.011 -32.5 0.027 -22.029 -21.4 0.6 0.3 45.044 -16.04 -17.8 0.4 0.5 0.01 -33.038 -18.022 -24.017 -27.015 -28.1 0.01 -32.04 -17.1 52.029 -21.014 -29.014 -29.04 -17.3 0.01 -33.028 -21.7 0.3 0.4 0.015 -29.011 -32.4 49.3 0.01 -33.031 -20.014 -29.9 0.02 -25.2 0.9 0.3 50 0.022 -24.016 -28.9 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.029 -21.9 0.7 0.026 -22.2 48.032 -20.1 0.016 -28.1 0.028 -21.5 50.022 -24.037 -18.042 -16.011 -31.019 -26.02 -25.4 0.7 0.1 0.014 -30 0.021 -24.03 -21 0.2 0.3 0.043 -16.6 0.01 -33 0.7 0.045 -16 44.011 -32.028 -21.8 0.9 0.042 -16.039 -17.2 0.014 -29.021 -24.1 0.4 0.8 0.032 -20.019 -26.011 -31.028 -21.023 -24.019 -26.043 -16.6 0.3 0.7 0.01 -32.01 -33.1 0.1 0.2 53.7 0.023 -23.014 -29.01 -33.03 -20.3 0.2 0.5 46 0.014 -29.7 0.041 -17.7 0.038 -18.4 0.033 -19.022 -24.4 0.1 0.01 -33.031 -20.6 0.013 -30.027 -21.03 -20.021 -25.019 -26.015 -28.2 0.6 0.011 -32.026 -22.9 0.

01788 0.0204 -20.01468 -28.6 0.02143 0.02155 0.7 -28.1 0.02006 -22.9 -21.01374 -29.2 52.4 -29.2 -21.02051 0.0 0.3 0.0191 -23.7 -32.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 -22.0219 0.0162 -26.01428 0.0 0.0114 0.01828 -24.0234 -20 0.02178 -21.5 29.8 39.9 0.1 0.9 -30 -30.01322 -30.0142 -29.015 -28.02239 0.3 -18.6 52.1 -24.01674 0.8 0.0155 -27.2 31.02499 -18.01963 -23.02006 -22.2 0.01452 -28.9 -29 -29.0 50.8 0.9 54.01889 -23.6 39.1 36.6 .1 -18.01308 -30.01397 0.0212 0.01683 0.01172 0.1 29.4 0.9 0.01683 -26 0.0254 0.01656 0.4 -18.2 0.9 37.02471 -19 0.01995 -22.02074 -22.1 34.01452 0.02215 0.2 -18.5 0.01436 -28.01693 0.4 55.02582 0.01749 -25.3 30.2 0.7 37.3 0.01147 0.5 -18.7 -18.01153 0.3 48.01405 0.02251 -20.7 -25.01828 0.6 -32.0142 -29.01769 0.01294 -30.3 53.01109 0.9 -25.02108 0.01838 -24.2 28.9 -22.1 -33.4 0.9 0.9 0.5 -28.02227 0.6 -33.02554 0.3 0.01818 -24.02431 -19.1 -22.4 0.2 0.0254 0.9 0.02203 -21.01287 -30.01665 0.02108 -21.2 0.01769 -25.4 0.7 0.8 25 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.3 -26.02289 -20.8 -21.02526 -18 -18.6 0.4 -21.01382 0.02582 0.3 -29.8 -25.1 32.5 -21.02611 0.01374 0.01749 -25.7 -29.5 51.8 -28.02167 0.9 28.9 -20.9 -33 -33.01702 0.02143 -21.0142 0.1 0.01702 -25.5 33.01389 0.01367 0.1 -33.01344 0.7 -24.7 0.2 -29.01128 0.2 35.7 0.02512 0.01788 -24.0 0.01122 0.9 30.3 36.0204 -22.01629 -26.01103 0.6 0.8 0.02568 0.02029 -22.0254 0.6 -21.2 -26.01412 -29.9 47.6 0.02499 -18.4 0.2 -21.2 0.02597 0.5 0.01585 -27.7 33.01405 -29.01436 0.8 -32.02301 -20.01492 -28.01683 -26 0.01778 0.01166 0.2 0.4 -22.9 -26 -26.01359 -29.01798 0.7 0.01517 -27.5 38.5 32.0114 0.02051 -22.8 0.120 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27.8 0.01769 0.01674 -26.02499 -18.01647 0.3 -33.01974 -23.5 0.6 0.01159 0.01412 0.8 0.1 -25 -25.01952 -23.5 -29.02096 -22 0.3 0.8 -21 -21.4 50.01602 -26.2 0.6 0.1 51.01567 -27.8 -24.8 0.01576 -27.02251 -20.8 0.01444 0.4 -33.1 -26.01134 0.2 -33.01359 0.6 -29.8 15 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.02085 0.8 -29.0219 0.0 0.02108 0.5 0.01593 -27 27.01315 -30.3 0.8 53.1 0.1 0.6 0.02264 -20.2 47.7 -33.7 48.01665 -26.01116 0.02499 -18.1 -29.4 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.3 0.9 34.02155 -21.6 0.02391 -19.01185 0.4 38.01352 0.8 0.01097 -32.8 49.2 -18.1 0.5 -18.5 -18.01711 0.01858 -24.8 0.5 -24.01963 -23.02405 -19.7 20 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01468 -28.1 -18.6 0.02597 0.01808 0.4 -32.7 0.1 -25.02074 0.5 -33.9 0.5 0.01702 -25.

0115 0.015 -24.7 -33.5 0.0132 -30.9 0.1 -22.7 0.028 -18 -18.015 0.8 49.0228 0.6 0.012 -30.026 -22.1 0.7 -32.026 -24.0173 0.0175 0.2 -21.0154 0.5 51.8 0.031 -23.0377 -20.0121 0.1 0.028 -22.3 53.019 -26.0153 0.034 -20.1 0.7 -29.0104 -28.03 -23.015 -29.0208 -27.016 -28.0299 0.1 0.0151 0.0284 0.3 0.0124 0.5 0.3 0.023 0.8 0.2 -18.0217 0.0358 -18.0249 0.025 0.2 52.7 -25.6 28.9 0.0123 0.8 53.0243 0.021 -27.8 30.9 0.4 50.9 31.01 0.2 0.01 0.7 0.0152 0.01 0.027 -23.0371 -20.025 0.6 -29.0219 0.8 0.0247 0.6 0.018 -26.9 -20.1 -26.5 0.0105 0.0301 0.045 -18.4 36.1 0.7 34.0374 -18.9 0.3 -33.7 29.2 -22.8 0.01 0.013 -30.011 0.6 -21.5 0.8 -32.9 0.2 0.0 27.2 -26.012 0.0 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C w Tr[C] w Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.0295 0.5 -21.4 0.0288 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.2 29.8 0.9 -21.1 -33.044 -18.1 0.012 0.014 -29.038 -20 0.0223 -25.01 0.01 0.025 -22.022 -25.0172 0.026 -22.9 54.8 -21.043 -19.02 -25.0275 -22.6 0.5 0.2 38.5 37.04 -19.035 -20.019 -26.02162 -27.012 -30.0305 0.3 0.9 -30 -30.1 -25 -25.6 -33.03 -23.016 0.1 -18.02231 -27.1 -18.019 -26 0.5 -24.0216 0.045 -19 0.7 -28.019 -27.4 -33.1 -33.7 0.5 0.009 -32.4 -21.0195 0.4 0.0107 0.3 48.8 -28.0122 0.017 -28.5 0.3 0.0245 -24.01834 -28.2 -29.6 0.0227 -27 0.028 -21.4 -22.5 32.3 0.3 34.2 -21.0245 0.7 0.01 0.016 -28.3 0.046 -18.0205 -20.02199 -26.8 0.1 0.2 47.0 36.01 0.2 0.023 -24.0156 0.7 48.9 47.3 39.1 51.5 0.6 52.6 0.9 -22.8 35.4 -18.9 -29 -29.3 -29.8 0.1 0.035 -20.013 0.0105 0.032 -23.0211 0.038 -18.026 -24.6 -32.9 -26 -26.0186 -28.0125 0.0174 0.1 37.1 -25.5 -18.8 0.0 32.2 0.8 -25.3 0.019 0.8 -21 -21.0177 0.0389 -19.9 0.029 -21.022 0.2 -33.7 -24.0363 -18.4 0.4 30.5 -33.7 0.7 0.6 33.3 0.4 0.035 -18.0 50.014 -29.0155 -29.017 -28.6 .2 0.8 -29.2 0.019 -26 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.01 0.1 -29.0186 -26.9 0.011 0.0225 -25.5 0.0153 -29.011 0.9 0.03 -21.9 -33 -33.4 55.4 0.5 -29.028 -22 0.9 -25.3 -26.0155 -29.01 0.0106 0.121 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3 P 27.032 -22.3 0.2 0.0345 -18.2 0.0215 0.031 -22.032 -21.8 0.028 -21.8 39.4 -32.01 0.026 -23.2 33.023 -24.0134 -30.011 0.1 28.6 0.1 0.02 -25.6 38.4 -29.8 -24.6 0.

1m ⋅ C w ⋅ M w kg ⎡ ⎤ m w.46115 kg/kmol Mole fraction of pure water Cw = 1.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 122 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas Calculation of water amount saturating natural gas in given conditions was made.853289 ⎢ m ⋅ m3 = = = kmol ⎥ ⎢ kg 16.1m = n g −w 1m 3 ⋅ ρ g − w M g −w ⎡ 3 kg ⎤ ⎥ kg 1 ⋅ 0.995188 Mass density of water-gas mixture ρg-w = 0.78*10-4 Z-factor Z = 0.78 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 18.1m = 0.05184 kmol Mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture mw.1m = n g − w.0151 kg/kmol Molecular weight of gas with water Mg-w = 16.46115 ⎢ kg ⎥ kmol ⎣⎢ kmol ⎦⎥ ng −w = 0. The composition of natural gas is known.853289 kg/m3 The number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol is n g − w. Solution for one chosen gas pressure and temperature is shown below Input data: Gas pressure Pg = 100 kPa Gas temperature Tg = -40 oC The data obtained from Hysys application: Molecular weight of water Mw = 18.05184 ⋅ 1.0151⎢kmol ⋅ = kg ⎥ kmol ⎣ ⎦ .

c .136 g Sm 3 123 . 1.15 0.c . T Z 100000 15 + 273.2) water content in grams per standard cubic meter is given. V s .c.995188 Pa K Vs.1m V s . ) ⋅ Ps.1m = 1.c.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION m w.2256 Sm c = 1. = 1 ⋅ ( )⋅ [1m 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 1Sm 3 ] 101325 − 40 + 273.c . = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s . = 1. For details on Clapeyron equation see attachment 5. c = 0.3563 ⋅ 10 − 4 [ kg ] Sm 3 In attached table (5.c .15 1 Pa K )⋅( V s .6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg [ 3] 1.2256Sm 3 Finally the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was calculated c= c= m w.6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg Calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of Clapeyron equation was done.

Z factor. 2 – stands for different volume. Z factor and pressure. Individual gas constant equals (2): Rn = R ·n (2) where: R – universal gas constant n – number of moles of gas As individual gas constant is non-changeable for a given gas mixture one of the four variables (pressure. (3) . General form of Clapeyron equation (1): P ⋅ V = Z ⋅ Rn ⋅ T (1) where: P – gas pressure. temperature. Z – Z factor. volume. Rn – individual gas constant . T – temperature.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 124 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation Real gas law equation is known also as Clapeyron Equation. temperature. temperature) may be calculated in given conditions if all four variables are known for the mixture at any other conditions.stands for given volume. This leads to the equation (3): P1 ⋅ V1 P2 ⋅ V2 = T1 ⋅ Z 1 T2 ⋅ Z 2 where: 1 . V – gas volume. Z factor and pressure.

After transformation the equation (4) assumes the following form (5): V s . ⋅ Vs. = 101325 Pa).c .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 125 For any vapor the Z factor in standard conditions equals 1 Zs.c. (4) where: Ps. Ts.15 K = 15 oC). – standard volume. temperature and Z factor for given pressure are known.c.c. = 1 Therefore for comparison between standard conditions and any given conditions the equation (3) becomes the following (4): P ⋅ V Ps.c. = T ⋅Z Ts.c.c. ) ⋅ Ps. Vs. – standard pressure (Ps.c . – standard temperature (Ts. = 288. (5) .c. T Z From the equation (5) gas volume in standard conditions is calculated when pressure.c.c. = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s .c.

7 10 0.110 3.20 6.5 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.4 -5 0.0 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0. Without compression (pressure between 2.29 9.1 With compression (pressure between 4.1 -5 0.155 4.8 5 0.075 2.2 126 .1 3.5 0 0.215 6.0 10 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content The values given are obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operation instruction.2 5 0.14 4.4 0 0.295 9.5 MPa and 5.7 MPa and 3.39 12.

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