OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS AND ENERGY USE
AT MAĆKOWICE NATURAL GAS
DEHYDRATION FACILITY
Artur Ryba

Diploma Thesis
Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas
AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow

Trondheim
June 2005

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii

Abstract
An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in
Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and
charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state
simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and
mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and
experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were
obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical
equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to
Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural
gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values
obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum
TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were
made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature
work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction.
A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

iii

Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Professor Jon Steinar
Gudmundsson. I am very grateful for the advice, support, guidance, assistance, patience and
enthusiasm.
I wish to thank Dr Hab. Inż. Stanisław Nagy, my supervisor from AGH University of Science
and Technology in Cracow, Poland for his support, propositions, help and understanding.
I am grateful to all my teachers who, giving me a small part of their wide knowledge, got me
to the stage when I am writing this thesis.
Special thanks to all contributors that make my Erasmus Link Scholarship possible. I would
like to especially mention here Dr Czesława Ropa, Professor Danuta Bielewicz, and Professor
Jan Falkus.
Special thanks to Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnow) for the
necessary materials, support and technical knowledge.
Last but not least thanks to my family, friends and colleagues who supported me in the time
spent on creating the thesis, and much longer than that. You are always there when I need you
and I appreciate that.

................................................... 23 4.................................................................................2 Technologies used for dehydration . ii Acknowledgements..................................... vi List of Figures ...... 33 5...........4 Dehydration by adsorption ..................................................................4 Water content calculations from empirical equations .............................................. 11 2.... 20 2...viii Abbreviations.............. 47 6................................... 45 6.........................................................3 Dehydration by absorption ................................................................. 18 2............................................................................................ Dewatering Technology ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Glycol solutions..................... 21 3............. 6 2................................................................................................................................................................................................ Hysys Simulation Package................................ 37 5..................................... 26 5................................................................................................. Water Content of Natural Gas....... 45 6............................................1 Water content measurement .................................. Maćkowice Facilities ....................................... Introduction ..................................................... 51 .......................................................................................2 Minimum strong TEG concentration ..............1 Use of glycol solutions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Water content results comparison ........OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION iv List of Contents Abstract ............................... 50 7.......................... 42 5............. 6 2..... 40 5......................5 Dehydration by permeation ............................. 9 2.................. 31 5......................................................5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program ....................... 44 6................................................................8 Dew point values comparison .................................... 35 5................................... iv List of Tables.....................................3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual .......... 31 5................................ 32 5.............iii List of Contents............................................ Hysys simulations ................................6 Dehydration by refrigeration ................................7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process ..............................................................................3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility...............................................2 Water content from GPSA diagram ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 2........ x 1................1 Theory of hydrates ...........................

............................... 94 Appendices ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] .......................... 62 Tables................... 117 Appendix B ... 57 9................................................................................................................................................................... 121 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas ........................................................................... 60 References ...................... 117 Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil................................. 118 Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] ...................................... Conclusions .......... 120 Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3................................................................................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION v 8................................................... Discussion................ 66 Figures ..................................................... 126 ............ 122 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation..................................... 124 Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content ..............................................

...... 85 Table 5................................ 72 Table 5............................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 Table 5..... 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package .... 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz............ 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys)............ 66 Table 5............... 68 Table 5....... Gandhidasan . 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].................................................. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner....... 67 Table 5................................................................... 83 Table 5......................... 80 Table 5. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ............................................. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]........................... 72 Table 5.......... 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ............................................................... 77 Table 5. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].......................................................... 89 Table 5......................................... 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3].............................................................. 78 Table 5................................................................... 76 Table 5.......... 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] .................... 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ........................ 1985)... 86 Table 5..... 84 Table 5. 75 Table 5............ 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ................................................ 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] ........... 87 Table 5..... 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys).................................................... 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] .............. 90 ... 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package................ 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P............ 73 Table 5........................................ 81 Table 5...............................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vi List of Tables Table 2...................................................... 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] . 88 Table 5. 2004) ............................. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3]................. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)................. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3].... 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]........... 73 Table 5. 79 Table 5................................ 82 Table 5... 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]...................................................

.......... 91 Table 5........................... 92 Table 6........................................................................ 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations ................................................ 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions……………… 93 .... 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual...................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vii Table 5........................

................... 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP................................................. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG..................... 109 Figure 5.......... 106 Figure 5................. 98 Figure 3......... 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual................................................................................... 107 Figure 5. 1959) .......... 1994) ... 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations ............. 96 Figure 2....... 94 Figure 2........................... 108 Figure 5..... 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson....... 1988)............. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from GPSA Engineering Data Book.. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys ..... 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys ... 94 Figure 2........................ 108 Figure 5........... 106 Figure 5.................. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual................... 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations .................. 11th edition)... 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al.............................. 110 Figure 5. 2005).......................................... 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys ..... 96 Figure 2......................... 99 Figure 3............. 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics)...................................................... 103 Figure 5..... 100 Figure 3........................................................ 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey........................ 97 Figure 3.. 107 Figure 5. 95 Figure 2......... 105 Figure 5... 97 Figure 2................... 1990) ......................................................... 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP............. reproduced)................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION viii List of Figures Figure 2....................... Small and large cavities (Behlar et al......... 101 Figure 3....................... 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al............................................................................ 2004) ........ 102 Figure 5............ 104 Figure 5.......................... 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual.. 1991) ....... 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG.......... 109 Figure 5.... 110 ................. 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys...... 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II......................... 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations ................................ 1997) ........ 2005) ........ Natural Gas Production Processing Transport............. 2003.................... 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics) ... 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.. 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA ................. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys ...... 2005)........ 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski.....................................

... 115 Figure 6.. 111 Figure 5.............................................................. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC .......................................... 113 Figure 6................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION ix Figure 5.................... 112 Figure 5........................................... 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -29oC ............ 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC ....... 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC .... 114 Figure 6.... 116 ........ 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG ............................................. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC ................................................................................... 111 Figure 5.................................... 17 Dew point comparison ...................................................................................................

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Abbreviations ATG - Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France BMP - Best Management Practice CH4 - Methane CO2 - Carbon Dioxide DEG - Diethylene Glycol EG - Ethylene Glycol EPA - Environmental Protection Agency GPSA - Gas Processors Suppliers Assn h - hour H2O - Water H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LTX - Low-Temperature Extraction MEG - Monoethylene Glycol Nm3 - Normal Cubic Meter NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance PHA - Process Hazards Analysis PRO-OP - Process Optimization Review PROs - Partner Reported Opportunities sI - Structure I (hydrate structure) sII - Structure II (hydrate structure) sH - Structure H (hydrate structure) Sm3 - Standard Cubic Meter TEG - Triethylene Glycol TREG - Tetraethylene Glycol VLE - Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Xe - Xenon yr - Year x .

If. through Ukraine. The presence of water raises a number of problems for the production operations depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. As it is usually off-spec when it arrives. but also in the exploitation stage. the processing installation must be designed to meet transport or final specifications. If the natural gas is transported by pipeline. Gas demand increases in Poland. before getting to the final receiver it has to be processed in order to meet the required conditions specified in Polish norms. likewise in other countries. 2005). One of the specifications of natural gas is the amount of water in gas for sale specified as dew point temperature of natural gas. not only in the stage of designing and building facilities. 1994). With the increase of amount of gas to be processed and from the other side in order to be able to endure in the competition between natural gas companies there is a growing necessity of optimization of processes. one condition frequently imposed is to set the dew point temperature at a value not exceeding the minimum temperature during transport. This is done on the example of Mackowice Treatment Facility. Poland. the minimum temperature of the gas is for example 0 oC under 7 MPa pressure (typical conditions appearing in high pressure gas pipelines during the winter season in temperate climate). Huge part of gas used in Poland is imported from Russia. dehydration process among them. Introduction In this paper the author is studying the possibilities of reducing energy use and triethylen glycol losses during natural gas dehydration process. the pressure generally varies considerably in the pipe. However. If the gas is to be transported.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 1 1.. the main requirement is to prevent the formation of a liquid phase. To avoid possible liquid-phase formation. the dew point must not exceed this temperature at the same pressure. during transport. . Therefore every year larger quantities of natural gas need to undergo different processes (ROP. Therefore one of the processes in natural gas production. processing and transportation is natural gas dewatering process (Rojey et al. as a result of pressure drop.

Optimization of processes brings savings in materials. As mentioned. The most powerful technology that enables managers and engineers link critical business objectives to process design is process modeling.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 2 The problem of optimization has been known for many years now and recently becomes more and more important. Summing up the crucial part of manager’s job is to make decisions around capital allocation that will improve the performance of the corporation. energy and labor. gas processing and petroleum refining industries are faced with the need to optimize the design of processes and achieve more reliable and stable operations. Optimization of processes is necessary. which is a primary purpose of senior management. . The oil and gas production. Process engineers are challenged with making timely business decisions while meeting the business objectives of designing and operating efficient. 2004): a) usage of “what-if” scenarios and sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design based on operating and business targets. Nowadays the competition in petroleum and natural gas market is extremely tough and therefore every corporation in order to compete with others has to minimize the costs maximizing profits. b) ensuring that process equipment is properly specified to deliver desired product throughput and specifications. It may encompass safety. As presented by Aspen Tech (2004) there are different approaches towards optimization and the model chosen depends on the base of optimization. nowadays on every stage of projecting. The major business benefits of process modeling include (Aspen Tech. 2004). It is also considered from economical viewpoint. safer and profitable process plants (Aspen Tech. The process industries must identify optimum designs quickly with minimum risk of rework while they remain competitive and maximize the business performance. The importance of optimization is significant. Optimization can be seen from the environmental point of view as a tool for environment conservation. building and exploiting of any facility optimization has a big part. And the last reason usually is the standpoint from which the decisions about granting money for optimization research are made.

There are many technologies and methods to reduce vent gas emissions that are readily available to operators. where the focus is typically on like devices across a whole operation. upsets. The Natural Gas STAR Program promotes the use of these emission reduction technologies and practices through the program’s Best Management Practices . natural resource conservation and waste minimization. PRO-OP is a systematic approach used in production operations to identify opportunities to increase profitability while reducing greenhouse gases. e) assessment of equipment deficiencies such as heat exchanger fouling and column flooding by evaluating the equipment employed in different services or evaluating the consequences of a design basis change. a potent greenhouse gas. It is a systematic approach to assess processes at new and existing facilities with an emphasis on energy efficiency. This PRO-OP technique gives the user a structure to the process of optimization (Pontiff. d) monitoring of equipment performance against expectations. Justifying and obtaining approval of optimization projects from management often requires that the projects are cost effective and have a net increase in profits. The Natural Gas STAR Program is a flexible and voluntary program focused on helping the oil and gas industry to voluntarily and cost-effectively reduce methane emissions. According to Pontiff (2005) a typical example of widely used optimization method is called Process Optimization Review (PRO-OP). production. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program supplies valuable optimization tools and resources to guide the oil and gas industry. This methodology can be used in conjunction with a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) for new facilities and prior to modification of en existing facility. reliability. completion/stimulation. the PRO-OP technique is a systematic approach whereby processes and components (separators.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 3 c) evaluation of the effect of feed changes. 2005). heater treaters. The PRO-OP technique divides the oil and gas business into phases: drilling. and profitability. and workover operations. venting/flaring practices) are evaluated for cost effective natural gas reduction opportunities from the start of the process to the end. Unlike other optimization techniques. and equipment downtime on process safety. compressors.

or other safe guards. 2005. US EPA. controls. which in this example is done through reducing emissions (Pontiff. US EPA. Once the optimization opportunities are identified. In a PHA review of an oil and gas production facility. In order to do so he compares the data provided in operating manuals of natural gas dewatering facility Maćkowice. . the reviewer determines the mitigation techniques that can be used and then determines whether the mitigation can be implemented cost effectively. 2005). the components and processes of the facility are evaluated for identifiable hazards. The bilding was begun in April 2004. Mackowice Dehydration Facility was opened on 21st January 2005.g. The author is also taking a general look at different economical aspects in the final part of this thesis.. each component and process in the facility flow scheme is evaluated for vent gas (i. methane) emission reduction opportunities (Pontiff. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specifications required by Polish norms. During the PRO-OP review. The PRO-OP process employs the same thought process. These hazards are then mitigated through elimination. The PRO-OP approach is analogous to a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) review. or capture for sales. or destroy (e. The author is trying to solve the problem of setting the arrangement of equipment used in gas dehydration facility based on glycol solution in such a way that brings most profits and minimizes the loss in energy and glycol solvent. The necessity of building this facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. burn in a flare) the vent gas emissions?" Then the reviewer can perform a cost analysis to determine the effectiveness and profitability of optimization.. 2005. “Can I cost-effectively eliminate the source.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 4 (BMPs) and Partner Reported Opportunities (PROs) and in-depth Lessons Learned documents (Pontiff. US EPA.e. 2005). 2005. The reviewer should ask such questions as. Poland with analytical equation-based solution and numerical calculation made with use of petroleum engineering program Hysys. Having the required results he is comparing them looking for the possibilities of energy and solvent savings. 2005).

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 5 The author shows his approach towards creating an optimization strategy for natural gas dehydration unit Maćkowice. Poland. Operating manuals of devices. . The optimization is to made on the basis of energy saving and glycol absorbent waste. Analytical and mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable results. and charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a simulation of dewatering process under petroleum engineering program Hysys.

which are themselves held in the cavities by van der Waals forces (Sloan. Carroll. first thought to be ice crystals. Carrll. 2002. 2003). This discovery was pivotal in causing a more pragmatic interest in the gas hydrates. The crystal lattice is due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. in which gas molecules are trapped.1 Theory of hydrates Good reviews on hydrate theory were provided by Sloan.. In the late 1940’a and early 1950’s von Stackelberg and co-workers summarized two decades of X-ray hydrate crystal diffraction experiments at the University of Bonn. Rojey et al. and shortly thereafter led to the regulation of the water content in natural gas pipelines. In the mid-1930’s Hammerschmidt studied the 1927 hydrate review of Schroeder. 1997.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 6 2. Claussen. 1994. Only molecules having a certain range of diameters can form inclusions. It is stabilized by gas molecules. Gandhidasan.. This led to limitation of appearance of hydrates which are inclusion compounds which result from the combination of water with some of the components of natural gas and primarily methane (Rojey et al. 1997. 2002. In the presence of light gas. 2003. water molecules can form a regular crystalline structure containing cavities. to determine that natural gas hydrates were blocking gas transmission lines frequently at temperatures above the ice point. 1997). Owing to this cage structure.. 1994). 1994. and . The interpretation of these early diffraction experiments by von Stackelberg and co-workers. Since the beginning of the century the production of natural gas has encountered difficulties connected with the plugging of piping by the deposition of crystals. Rosman 1973. These crystals are in fact hydrates of natural gas.Gandhidasan. Rojey et al. the hydrates belong to the category of inclusion compounds called clathrates. This is because the diameter of the molecule must be smaller than that of the cavity (or close to it) for the molecule to enter the cavity. and sufficiently large for the crystal lattice to be stable (Sloan. Dewatering Technology 2.

. 1997). and in the large cavities (51262) of structure I. Methane fits into the small cavities (512) of structures I and II. since propane and isobutene molecules can enter only the large cavities of structure II.1).2). H2S and CH4. propane and isobutene form structure-II hydrates (Sloan. Structure II is composed of sixteen small cavities (512) and eight large cavities. Normal butane does not form hydrates as a pure component. Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 7 Pauling and Marsh led to determination of two hydrate structures (sI and sII). The structure H was determined through diffraction and NMR studies. In this structure. a third hydrate with a unit cell was discovered by Ripmeester (Sloan. methane. 1997). the water molecules form polyhedra. the 512 dodecahedra coexist with 435663 dodecahedra as well as 51268 polyhedra. 1997). is a basic building block of hydrate structures. Nitrogen. with twelve pentagonal faces and eight hexagonal faces. Structure I is composed of two small cavities formed by a dodecahedron and six large cavities formed by a tetradecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and two hexagonal faces referenced as 51262 (Figure 2. formed by a hexadecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and four hexagonal faces. a natural gas containing propane and isobutane generally forms structure-II hydrates. Each of these polyhedra forms a cavity which can contain a molecule of natural gas components with which it forms a hydrate. 1994. The pentagonal dodecahedron.1997. Sloan. In these structures. The small cavities are stabilized by molecules like Xe. It is not possible to fill space entirely with dodecahedra. Because of to this restriction dodecahedra are necessarily associated with other types of polyhedron to form the structure of the hydrates (Sloan. 1994). In the pure state.. Hydrate formation can occur when normal butane is mixed with other components (Rojey et al. and the large cavities by hydrocarbons with . ethane. Within the last decade structure H (sH). referenced as 51264 (Figure 2. carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide form structure-I hydrates. designed by the notation 512. forming large cavities. However.

1997).3) (Sloan. under pressure and temperature conditions easily encountered in production and transport facilities (Sloan 1997). together with methane. The role that structure-H hydrates may play in natural gas production is still unclear. can form this new hydrate structure. However.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 8 much higher molecular weights such as adamantine and methylcyclohexane (Figure 2. it has been proven that hydrocarbon molecules commonly found in condensates or oils. .

Gandhidasan. Condensed liquids accumulated in pipelines.2 Technologies used for dehydration It is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid water and hydrocarbons to ensure troublefree operation of a natural gas transmission system. The water present in natural gas may. lower the hydrate formation temperature (Rosman. In both instances inhibitor must be introduced. or favor corrosion if the gas contains acid components. Water is removed from the gas to meet water dew point requirements of a sales pipeline condition. Onshore the natural gas conditioning process employs a dehydration process for control of the water dew point. production and transport installations must be protected from the risks of hydrate formation. temperature and pressure conditions must be created to prevent formation of hydrates. natural gas must be dehydrated. To avoid such situations. by altering the fugacity of the water. 1973. If this is not feasible. depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. solidify. and a refrigeration plant is used for control of the hydrocarbon dew point (Carroll. 1997): . which caused an increase in operating pressures and potential damage to equipment due to liquid carryover. in order to reduce operational problems (Rosman. Apart from the risk of hydrate formation. Many transmission companies impose restrictions on the quality of natural gas acceptable for transporting. 2002). They are generally selected from solvents miscible in the aqueous phase. Dehydration of natural gas is the removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor form. Four types of processes are used (Rojey at al. For these reasons one specifies upper limits for both the water and hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. To prevent pipe plugging. condense and cause the formation of hydrates. or by lowering the pressure at a given temperature. 2003). Operating outside the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation can be achieved either by raising temperature at a given pressure. such as water and hydrocarbon dew point limits. Gandhidasan. 1973. 2002). the liquids can reduce the volumetric capacity of the system and interfere with the operation of pressure regulators and filters. It is necessary to prevent the corrosion and erosion problems in pipelines and equipment particularly when CO2 and H2S are present in the gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 9 2. One way to achieve this is to dry the natural gas. which..

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION a) absorption b) adsorption c) gas permeation d) refrigeration 10 .

Several liquids possess the ability to absorb water from a gas stream. Sivalls. which drives off the absorbed water g) low viscosity h) low vapor pressure at the contact temperature to reduce the amount of solvent losses due to vaporization .E.. lithium chloride. The glycol leaving the bottom is regenerated by distillation and recycled (Carroll. 2002. 2002.1976. zinc chloride. 1990. etc. 1994).. C. Kumar.3 Dehydration by absorption The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid desiccant contactor-regeneration process. Ikoku. 1994. and the bottom of the contactor d) low affinity for hydrocarbons and acid gases e) thermal stability. meet the criteria for a suitable commercial application. 1987. Rojey et al. although other liquid desiccants are met which are calcium chloride. The water in the gas is absorbed in the lean solvent. however. ATG. R. usually by the application of heat.. 1989. 1982. the stripping column of the regenerator.R. 1992. ATG. Tannehill at al. 1992): a) strong affinity to water (the absorbing liquid should be highly hygroscopic) b) low cost c) noncorrosive to the selected metallurgy of the hydrocarbon equipment. 2001). In this process. Maddox and Erbar. The dehydrated gas leaves at the top of the column. the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent (containing only a small amount of water). especially the reboiler vapor space. The solvent is usually a glycol.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 11 2. 1988.. Trent. Few liquids. 1980. In case of absorption based natural gas dehydration processes the gas is dried by countercurrent scrubbing with a solvent that has a strong affinity for water. producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas (Campbell. A suitable solvent should have the following properties (Carroll. Rojey et al. Campbell. Arnold and Steward. 1994. particularly in the high temperature ranges found in the reboiler f) easy regeneration to higher concentration for reuse.

it has larger losses. Triethylene glycol (TEG) offers the best cost/benefit compromise. The most common glycols for dehydration applications are (Rojey et al. DEG is marginally lower in cost than TEG. The heaviest glycols are most hygroscopic. which reduces losses (Gandhidasan. TEG has less affinity to water and thus has less dew point depression. decompose at elevated temperatures.. and is the most widely used. particularly in the reboiler. Several glycols have been found suitable for commercial application (Rejoy. however.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 12 i) low solubility in hydrocarbons (low solubility in the solvent minimizes the loss of desired product and reduces hydrocarbon emissions) j) low tendency to foam and emulsify. however because DEG has a larger vapor pressure. Glycols will. 1994) . Carroll. They can be obtained in the pure state by fractionation by vacuum distillation. By comparison. 1994. 1997. Carroll. Rojey et al. 2002). 2002). It exhibits most of the desirable characteristics listed earlier and has other advantages compared to other glycols (Rojey et al. High viscosity translates into higher pumping costs. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. including carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria. On the other hand TREG has a lower vapor pressure. 2003..1 lists the main physical properties of commercial glycols. Tetraethylene glycol is higher in cost and is more viscous than TEG. Glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. 1994): a) Monoethylene glycol (MEG) which is commonly known as simply ethylene glycol (EG) b) diethylene glycol (DEG) c) triethylene glycol (TEG) d) tetraethylene glycol (TREG) Table 2.. nor to chemical reactions with any of the natural gas constituents.

packings are generally used. 2003).5 show the flow schemes of a typical glycol units. When the stream is devoid of free liquids and mist the actual dehydration process starts (Rojey et al. However.4 and 2. 1994). 2003. . The solvent is then returned to the first column to remove water from more feed gas. For small diameters.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 13 Before undergoing the actual dehydration process any free liquids in the natural gas stream are removed. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit (Carroll. the liquid desiccant process is a two-step process. Integral separators are usually outfitted with a heating coil to prevent water from freezing. Rojey et al.. The separator should be equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor in the top part to remove any liquid entrainment and particulates from the gas stream before entering the absorber section. valve trays. 1994). Basically. 1994. Gandhidasan. while the larger columns are equipped with the bubble-cap or valve trays. A separator should be included upstream of the contactor to separate any hydrocarbon liquids and free water. Hot solvent from the accumulator is circulated through this heating coil to provide the required heat. In the first step. The absorption step is carried out in a plate or packed column. The separator could be a two-phase or three-phase separator depending on the amount of free water expected. Rojey et al.. Carroll. The descriptions of these figures are provided by John Carroll. 2002. The number of plates is usually between 6 and 8.. The temperature at which the absorption step is carried is usually limited to 38 oC to avoid excessive glycol losses. the water is absorbed from the gas in the staged tower. Figures 2.. due to the higher viscosity of the glycol. 2003. usually at the base of the contactor with a chimney tray between the contactor bottom and the separator vessel. A lower temperature helps to reduce the losses as well as the water content in the processed gas. or sieve trays. For very large diameters. or a suitable packing material. 1994. the use of structured packing is currently spreading. finding more acceptance in glycol contactors (Carroll. The solvent is regenerated in a second column. 2003 and Alexandre Rojey et al. The actual stages could be either trays like bubble caps. The inlet separator can be free standing with interconnecting piping to the contactor or it can be an integral part of the contactor.

. Then the rich glycol enters the lean-rich heat exchanger. 1994).. although other factors contribute as well. Rojey et al. The contactor consists of several equilibrium stages. usually on level control. After the absorption step. 1994). 2003. Rojey et al. The rich glycol is withdrawn from the bottom of the contactor. The outlet gas water content specification is the key to determining the contactor height. 1994). often by passing it through tubes in the overhead condenser at the top of the still column. The glycol leaves the flash tank. Typically.. 2003. and finally an activated-charcoal filter to retain the chemical impurities (Carroll. and the actual water removal takes place there. 2003. 2003... The flow of streams is countercurrent. where most of the volatile components (entrained and soluble) are vaporized. 1994). 2003. the glycol solution is sent to a three-phase separator in which the stripped hydrocarbon liquids and the dissolved gas are separated.5). Then it is flashed at low pressure in a flash tank. Rojey et al. again usually on level control. the lean glycol is preheated. then passes through a filter. Rojey et al. The feed gas flow rate is the most significant factor in determining the diameter of the contactor. The gas and liquid are mixed in the contactor. Rojey et al. The contactor is essentially isothermal (the temperature profile is essentially uniform throughout the contactor) (Carroll. enough to ensure mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid so that the outlet gas is at the desired water specification (Carroll. The contactor is a typical absorber tower properly sized for the process objective(Carroll. Flash tank pressures are typically in the range of 300 kPa to 700 kPa (Carroll. Lean solvent enters the top of the contactor and flows downward. which is normally in the range of 4000 to 8500 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 14 The contactor (also called an absorber) is the workhorse of the dehydration unit. The solvent absorbs water as it travels downward through the column and the gas transfers the water to the solvent as it travels upward. whose basic purpose is to conserve . The contactor pressure is set by the feed gas pressure. In some cases this process is divided in parts (Figure 2. 1994). Feed gas enters the bottom of the contactor and flows upward. followed by a cartridge filter to trap solid particles.

Trays are sometimes used in very large units (Carroll. The lean glycol entering the contactor should be cool. 2003. Rojey et al. 1994). and rich glycol to regeneration should be warm (Carroll. Rojey et al. 288 oC for TEG). 2003). 2003. Rojey et al. This is accomplished in the still column mounted directly on the top of the reconcentration vessel (Rojey et al. is cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution. Furthermore the two substances can be easily separated by fractional distillation. The reflux thus generated helps to reduce glycol losses. and a surge tank located below the reboiler. a continuous exchange of material and heat takes place. Rojey et al. Gandhidasan. usually filled with packing. lean glycol from regeneration is cooled with rich glycol from the contactor.. In the regenerator. A small portion of the vapor mixture(mainly water) at the top condenses at the overhead condenser to provide sufficient reflux that will aid in the process of fractionation (Carroll. Also included in the regeneration unit is a condensing coil added to the top of a still column to provide reflux to improve solvent/water separation. The solvent is regenerated by reboiling. 1994. Water and glycol have widely varying boiling points (100 oC for water. a distillation column (still column) connected vertically to the vapor space of the reboiler vessel.. or about 20 oC below the decomposition temperature of TEG. At the top of the column the vapor is virtually pure water whereas there is very little water in the glycol in the bottom. 1994). . Within the column. Between the two phases. In the lean-rich exchanger. The still column. hot. separation of water from glycol takes place by fractionation.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 15 energy. The standard TEG dehydration unit operates effectively at the reboiler temperature around 175 oC. water-rich vapor rises in intimate contact with descending glycol-rich liquid. 1994). This coil often performs the dual purpose of preheating the rich glycol ahead of the flash tank (Carroll.. 1994)... the amount of water vapor in the gas stream and the reboiler temperature. The size of the regenerator is determined by a balance between the solvent circulation rate. A basic regeneration unit consists of a combination of a fired boiler. located at the lower section of a horizontal vessel with a vapor space above the tube bundle. 2003. 2003. The temperature difference causes the glycol vapor (heavy component) to condense and liquid water (light component) to vaporize.

. as noted before. lean glycol leaves the reboiler vessel and overflows by gravity to the surge tank. where it is cooled.6) (Carroll. The high-pressure side consists of the glycol contactor and the inlet separator. 1994. 1991). In a normal TEG dehydration unit. Ultimately it is returned to the contactor and the cycle is complete (Carroll. Intensive dehydration of natural gas demands high purity of the recycled solvent. the solvent selectively absorbs H2S and aromatic compounds such as benzene. a vessel normally located below the reboiler vessel. The typical example of a TEG regenerator is Stahl column. toluene. Rojey et al. The hot lean glycol passes to the lean rich exchanger. With the use of stripping gas the glycol solvents can have the concentrations up to 99. This purity is improved by lowering the pressure and raising the temperature during the regeneration step.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 16 Stripping gas is used to increase the lean glycol concentrations. 1994). Manning and Thompson. but. The main purpose of the still column is to effect final separation between the absorbed water and the absorbing TEG.. . ethylbenzene and xylenes present in the natural gas. to vent the separated water to the atmosphere. as they are toxic. These components are removed with the water on completion of the regeneration step. and to recover the glycol vaporized by the reboiler. called also a gasstriping column (Figure 2. this temperature level has been found to cause no noticeable thermal decomposition of the TEG (Carroll. They are frequently released directly to the atmosphere. this incurs risks for the operating personnel .. Thus the low-pressure side consists of the regenerator. Heat is applied in the reboiler to raise the temperature and cause partial vaporization. This is deeply dried natural gas taken usually from the main stream of dehydrated gas. The hot. leaves the bottom of the packed still column and enters the reboiler vessel. 2003. the flash tank and associated equipment. at relatively high pressure on the contactor side and low pressure on the regeneration side. 2003. Rojey et al. Rojey et al. now becoming lean glycol. 1994). The TEG natural gas dehydration unit operates. In addition to water. 2003. The glycol-rich liquid.6 %. The stripping gas is sparged directly into the reboiler.

. the hydrocarbon is separated by simple settling and recycled. Rojey et al.. Two techniques are available for this (Gandhidasan. This heteroazeotrope rises to the top of the column and. As an example the injection of 45 Sm3 of gas per m3 of triethylene glycol helps to purify the solvent to 99. 1994). the purity of the processed gas can be further improved to reach water contents in the range of 20 g / 1000 Sm3. after condensation of the vapor phase. This method is called Drizo process . These regeneration conditions lead to a water content of about 35 g/1000 Sm3 in the processed gas. 1994): a) the already dehydrated gas is sent to the reboiler.. the pressure must be kept slightly above atmospheric. without any consumption of carrier gas. Rojey et al. This temperature is 177 oC for diethylene glycol. The regeneration temperature must also remain below an acceptable limit for glycol decomposition. Complete elimination requires the incineration of the nonocondensable flare gas in the reboiler fire tube. To drop to even lower contents in the range of a few parts per million the purity of the recycled solvent must be even further increased. The triethylene glycol is thus obtained with a purity that may be higher than 99. To prevent any air from entering.4 %.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 17 The installation of a condenser improves the situation. octane) is injected into the reboiler. 1994). to lower the water partial pressure by stripping with natural gas. Difficulties in burning noncondensable vapors in low-pressure burners were reported (Carroll. 2003. but is generally not sufficient to eliminate the problem of aromatics releases completely.0 or 99. By increasing solvent circulation. 204oC for thiethylene glycol and 224 oC for tetraethylene glycol (Rojey et al.9 %. 2003. forming a heteroazeotrope with water. according to whether the gas is simply injected into the reboiler or introduced into an additional stripping section after the reboiler b) a hydrocarbon (toluene.

In these conditions.E. with each bed going through successive steps of adsorption and desorption (Rojey et al. After regeneration and before the adsorption step. Adsorption processes are generally applied when a high purity is required for the processed gas.7.. ATG. Arnold and Stewart.. 1994). four beds are needed in practice. 1994. 1976.. 2003. one bed in cooling and one bed in regeneration (Carroll. 1992. 1990. the bed must be cooled.4 Dehydration by adsorption Separation processes by adsorption uses a solid phase with large surface area. Adsorbents are naturally unsuitable for continuous circulation. This is achieved by passing through cold natural gas. 2001). Tannehill.. 1987. 2003. Rojey et al. sometimes even under vacuum b) sweeping by an inert natural gas to lower the partial pressure of the component to be desorbed . Rojey et al. The desorption step is carried by different methods (Carroll. which selectively retains the components to be separated.. The flow scheme of a dehydration operation by adsorption in a fixed bed is shown in Figure 2. hot natural gas is sent to regenerate the adsorbent (Rojey et al. The adsorbents are generally characterized by a microporous structure which affords a very large specific surface (Campbell. 1994): a) lowering the pressure. R.R. Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 18 2. Trent.C. The process is conducted alternately and periodically. 1982. After heating. 1994). 2003. This is why adsorbents are normally used in fixed beds with periodic sequencing (Carroll. Sivalls. Kumar... C. C. 1994). two beds operating simultaneously in adsorption. 1988. When the bed is saturated.. the same gas can be used for regeneration. During the adsorption step. ATG. owing to mechanical problems and also due to the risks of attrition (erosion of adsorbent particles due to friction and collisions during movement). Maddox and Erbar. the gas to be processed is sent on the adsorbent bed which selectively retains the water. 1994). 1989.

1994): a) activated alumina – a low residual-water content of about 1 ppm vol can be achieved by using activated alumina. It adsorbs water from the hydrocarbons. 2003. which are then desorbed during regeneration. provided a number of precautions are observed c) molecular sieves (zeolites) used for gas processing are silicoaluminates. An adsorbent must have the following properties (Carroll. by being adsorbed. 1994): a) high adsorption capacity at equilibrium b) reversible adsorption allowing regeneration of the adsorbent c) fast adsorption kinetics d) low pressure drop e) attrition resistance f) chemical inertness g) no significant volume change with temperature and saturation The most widely used adsorbents today are the following (Carroll. in which the crystal structure forms cavities making up a microporous network on a molecular scale. Depending on the type of zeolite. The heavy hydrocarbons are adsorbed but cannot then be desorbed during regeneration. allows more effective desorption than with a simple elution gas d) heating. they have to be removed before the adsorption step b) silica gel – the water content of the gas processed by adsorption on silica gel is about 10 ppm vol.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 19 c) sweeping by a displacement agent. It can be used therefore to separate simultaneously the water and the condensate fraction of the gas processed. because of the thermal inertia of the adsorbent bed. Rojey et al. which. a significant variation in temperature between the adsorption and desorption steps is practical only if the cycle time is relatively long. Therefore if such heavy hydrocarbons are present in the gas. Silica gel is easily regenerated at a temperature between 120 and 200 oC. the size of the access cavities varies . 2003. Rojey et al. This structure has cations that play the role of charge compensation... in which the temperature rises facilities desorption: in a fixed-bed operation.

the dried natural gas is going through a membrane leaving particles of water and impurities on its surface. 1984). However. which passes through the membrane driven by pressure difference. in comparison with a glycol dehydration unit. 1989). and it must be relatively impermeable to methane. 1981). The permeability of methane must be accepted to avoid an excessively large membrane area nevertheless means a significant loss of methane in the permeate (Deschamps et al. 1989).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 20 2. . 1981).5 Dehydration by permeation In the process of dehydration by permeation.. Industrial applications of dehydration by gas permeation are currently very limited. Compact permeation modules with a high membrane area are therefore needed. 2003. it is either necessary to find an application compatible with the production of gas low pressure. the loss of gas in the permeate is estimated at 4. or to reduce the gas loss substantially. 1994. The membrane surface is dependent on the amount of gas permeating through it. Rojey et al. 1994): a) modules with plane membranes wound spirally around a collector tube b) modules with a bundle of hollow fibers For a gas-permeation unit processing 1·107 Nm3/d of gas at 7 MPa and required to reduce the water content from 1040 to 170 ppm vol.. by improving membrane performance (Deschamps et al. to make this process economically viable. could prove to be more economical and more compact. Under these conditions. For the separation to be effective.2 % and the membrane area is estimated 1430 m2 (Deschamps et al. which are generally expressed in thousands of square meters.. many investigations have demonstrated the potential value of such a process which. The most widely used industrial modules belong to two types (Rojey et al. These advantages only appear clearly in the case of single-stage operation without recycle or recompression of the permeate (Carroll. the membrane must be very permeable with respect to the contaminant to be separated. Membrane separation processes require large membrane areas. Deschamps et al. which is extremely important for offshore production (Fournie and Agostini..

.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 21 2. In most cases refrigeration is used for cases of a previously dehydrated gas to avoid hydrate formation during refrigeration. as the process operates at low temperature thorough dehydration and carbon dioxide removal is needed to prevent formation of crystals though (Rojey et al. This separation is usually performed by lowering the temperature with the formation of a liquid phase.. the mixture of natural gasoline and LPG (which also contains ethane) obtained by lowering the temperature of the natural gas up to the LPG liquefaction point but without separation between natural gasoline and LPG. The following liquid fractions can be obtained in succession by lowering the temperature (Rojey et al. 1997). In this way. which is mainly formed of methane. refrigeration by isenthalpic expansion and expansion through a turbine which is similar to isenthalpic expansion but much more effective. 1994): a) natural gasoline or condensate which is a light gasoline representing the C5+ fraction b) the LPG fraction which includes propane and butanes (normal butane and isobutene). If the gas is not dehydrated before the refrigeration step the injection of an inhibitor is often the simplest and most economical solution. Examples are: process of liquids recovery by refrigeration. it becomes possible to liquefy the methane: the natural gas can thus be transported at atmospheric pressure in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).. refrigeration simultaneously yields a . it may be necessary to separate of at least part of these hydrocarbons to avoid the formation of a liquid phase during transport (Rojey et al. 1994). is called natural gas liquids c) by lowering the temperature to about -160 oC. and generally contains ethane.6 Dehydration by refrigeration If a natural gas contains a relatively large fraction of hydrocarbons other than methane (condensate gas or associated gas). it may include an LPG fraction if this fraction has not been separated in the liquefaction plant. It can also be achieved by adsorption or absorption.

The use of glycol as inhibitor allows relatively easy regeneration by distillation. LTX is used only when the prime objective is condensate recovery (Manning and Thompson. usually ethylene glycol. become very costly if the water content is high. Kollsnes is one of the largest systems in the world. This method is used at Lollsnes. and the solution of water and methanol is regenerated without a distillation step (Rojey et al. . 1997). Joule-Thompson expansion requires large pressure drops... Rojey et al. A typical refrigeration process can easily reduce the water content of a gas stream down to 1. but is generally not recycled. Therefore the process of refrigeration removes also water. 2003). This regeneration may. especially in the presence of free water. Norway to remove water from natural gas. Because of large pressure drops. Kollsnes receives the gas from Troll A. It employs Joule-Thompson expansion (isothermal expansion) to dry the gas and recover condensate. Methanol is also used. the largest gas field in Norway. The cold temperatures in a refrigeration process result in water removal. the cold gas is mixed with a polar solvent.60*10-5 kg/m3 level (Carroll. In order to prevent the formation of ice and hydrates. Refrigeration in the presence of methanol helps to control water and heavy-hydrocarbon contents simultaneously. 2003. This process is also known as low-temperature extraction (LTX). Cool gas holds less water than hot gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 22 condensate and an aqueous phase consisting of the mixture of water and inhibitor(Carroll. One of main ways of natural gas dehydration through refrigeration is carried through expansion refrigeration. however. 1994). 1991).

The main reasons were (Stosur.2 MPa acceptable due to proximity of compressor unit. Maćkowice Facilities The gas drying unit Maćkowice. but also polish gas. It is located in the neighborhood of compressor unit used for compressing gas imported from Ukraine. in comparison to the drying capability under lower pressure range b) possibility of drying not only imported. .3. The natural gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is metered and compressed in Hermanowice compressor station. Subsequently part of the main gas stream from the direction of Ukrainian border. The dehydrating facility was built in this location deliberately. The building was begun in April 2004. about 10 km from Przemyśl (Figure 3. Poland is located 25 km from the Ukrainian Border.1). Some of the gas is then sent to Strachocin. The internal diameters of gas pipelines are given on the figure. c) closeness to power plant solves the problem of energy delivery d) pressure loss up to 0. or whole the amount of gas imported is carried through dehydration process in Maćkowice dewatering unit. After dehydration the gas is sent to Jaroslaw compressor and metering station where the stream is split and sent to receivers. Tarnow. It is owned and operated by Regional Department of Gas Transport (ROP). The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specification required by Polish norms (Figure 3.2) The system of gas pipelines in the region of Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. It is used for drying natural gas flowing from Ukraine. The gas may be previously compressed in neighboring compressor unit.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 23 3. 2005): a) the possibility of drying two times larger amount of gas under higher pressure thanks to the neighboring gas compressor unit. The facility was opened on 21st January 2005. The necessity of building a dehydration facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it.

The facility contains two independent drying units. The gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is split equally between them and. as the sales gas. The column is filled with Mellapak structured packing provided by Sulzer company. depending on the strategy chosen. Finally about 20 [Nm3/h] of the dry gas is directed to glycol regenerator as stripping gas and the remaining part. The pressure and temperature range for the dehydration facility is suggested by the Nafta-Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice facility. The internal diameter is 1500 mm.5). . The gas enters the bottom part of the absorber and flowing upward meets countercurrent flow of lean TEG stream. and in the range from 4700 kPa to 5500 kPa for gas going through compressor unit. They are equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor to remove any free liquids and mist. The first step of dehydration process is removing any free liquids from the natural gas stream. Depending on the selected pressure 75 000 [Nm3/h] to 280 000 [Nm3/h] per one contactor can be dehydrated. The dehydration process scheme for Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3.3).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 24 The process of dehydration is led with use of TEG absorption in typical way described in previous chapter (see Chapter 2.4. The stripping gas is heated to the temperature of 104 oC and depressurized to the regenerator pressure. After leaving the absorber the natural gas stream goes through heat exchanger cooling down the TEG stream going into the dehydration column. The pressure of gas can be in the range from 2700 kPa to 4000 kPa for gas coming directly from Ukraine. flows to system pipelines.The oil used for heater propelling is Aviaterm 6 (see Appendix A). The heater should keep the gas temperature between 10 oC and 38oC depending on chosen strategy. Separators are placed upstream of the absorption columns. there may be a third gas stream led directly to the transport pipelines. Under different pressures. vertical two-phase separators. The separators are free standing. natural gas of different range of temperatures can be dryed (Figure 3. After separating the free water the gas stream is directed through an oil propelled heater to absorbtion column where the actual dehydration takes place.

After compression the lean TEG stream goes through a heat exchanger where it is cooled down by the dry gas going out of absorber. A fired boiler and surge tank are located at the lower section of the vessel. . Aforementioned stripping gas is put in the upper part of the column in order to regenerate the glycol solution to concentration of 99. Then the lean TEG is mixed with TEG makeup stream in order to compensate the glycol losses. This helps to reduce the glycol losses.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 25 The rich glycol leaves the contactor under the contactor pressure (depending of gas inlet pressure) and goes through valve decreasing the pressure to 400 kPa.5 % TEG mole fraction. The still column is filled with packing and cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution (condenser part). After leaving the regenerator. TEG stream is directed through heat exchanger where it warms up rich TEG flowing towards the regenerator. Subsequently it goes through a pump where the pressure is increased in order to surpass the pressure in absorber tower. The separation of water from TEG takes place by fractional distillation. In the regenerator it is further heated to the temperature of 180 oC to 200 oC. which allows TEG to lose most of the entrained and soluble volatile components while in the flash tank. Then the TEG stream flows through a heat exchanger in which it is heated before getting to the regeneration column.

2004). The modular structure of the operation means they can be calculated in either direction. performance monitoring. 2004). therefore choosing the right Fluid Package for given compounds is substantial. both forwards and backwards. In the used property package several . gas and refining industries. design. optimization and business planning for oil and gas production. Hysys offers a high degree of flexibility because there are multiple ways to accomplish specific tasks. operational improvement. Hysys Simulation Package Aspen Hysys 3. but the results of any calculation are automatically produced throughout the flowsheet. with more than 25 years experience supplying process simulation tools to the oil. business planning and asset management. troubleshooting. It proves an interactive process modeling solution that enables engineers to create steady state models of plant design. optimize production and enhance decision-making (Aspen Tech. This flexibility combined with consistent and logical approach to how these capabilities are delivered makes Hysys a versatile process simulation tool (Aspen Tech.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 26 4. as an ideal model for VLE calculations as well as calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems. performance monitoring. so not only is information processed as it is supplied. The program is built upon proven technologies. Another Hysys feature is that modular operations are combined with non-sequential solution algorithm. For the given composition of natural gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration unit different Fluid Packages were checked. all necessary information pertaining to pure component flash and physical property calculations is contained within the Fluid Package. using information in an outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions (Aspen Tech. Hysys helps process industries improve productivity and profitability throughout the plant lifecycle.2 is a process modeling tool for steady state simulation. real-time applications and the integrated approach to the engineering solutions enable the user to improve designs. The powerful simulation and analysis tools. In Hysys. but finally the PengRobinson equation of state was chosen. gas processing and petroleum refining industries. 2004).

Examples are conditions and composition pages. 2004). The author tried to avoid using simplified and non-physical units but failed by little as balance units for stripping gas getting into regenerators had to be used (Figure 3.4). Material streams are used to simulate the material traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. and the logical operations like adjust. likewise gas and glycol temperatures and pressures. 2003). This does not yet influence the simulation results as the amount of energy necessary to heat up the stripping gas stream is known. compressor. such as heat exchangers. set. The unit operations are used to assemble flow sheets. petrochemical and chemical processes (Aspen Tech. These tools interact with the process and provide additional information. The process was reconstructed in as much detail as it was possible (Operating Manual of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. 2004). separators. and recycle (Aspen Tech. The properties pages display the property correlations of the inlet and outlet streams of the unit operations (Aspen Tech. The results achieved with use of Peng-Robinson equation of state were found to be most similar to empirical calculations of all used Fluid Packages. gas. 2004).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 27 enhancements to the original Peng-Robinson model were made by the creators of Hysys program in order to extend the range of applicability and to improve its predictions in some non-ideal systems. By connecting the proper unit operations and streams the user can model a wide variety of oil. 2004). All unit operations and utilities are connected by material and energy streams. Included in the available operations are those which are governed by thermodynamics and mass/energy balances. For the material stream the user has to define . Hysys offers an assortment of utilities which can be attached to process streams and unit operations. The values were also compared to analytical results and only insignificantly differed (Aspen Tech. Once the Fluid Package for given compounds was chosen. Multiple properties pages are connected with every streams. All the known dimensions were inserted. the author prepared a detailed scheme of Maćkowice dehydration facility along with surrounding pipelines in order to be able to simulate dehydration and glycol regeneration processes.

The inlet stream is heated to the required outlet conditions. 2003). and composition (Aspen Tech. or build his own column along with side equipment such as pump arounds. The sequence in which the description are provided reflects the sequence of TEG solution and natural gas flow. The column is a special type of sub-flow sheet in Hysys. The separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. These operations provide information on how much energy is required to heat a process stream with a utility (Aspen Tech. The heater operations are one-sided heat exchangers. The parameters necessary are the temperature. The main parameter for energy streams is heat flow (Aspen Tech. 2003). 2003). view objects to which the stream is attached and specify dynamic information. pressure. Energy streams are used to simulate the energy traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. 2003). In the next part of this chapter units used for building Maćkowice dehydration facility will be briefly described. In general the column appears as multi-feed multi-product unit. one vapor and one liquid product stream. The user can choose between various heater types. Every separator may be provided with some common features like for example the geometry of the vessel and heat loss model which accounts for the convective and conductive heat transfer that occurs across the vessel wall. which determine the way in which heat is transferred to the vessel operation (Aspen Tech. . Separator is an unit with one or multiple feeds. The energy stream property view contains of fields allowing user to define stream parameters. Depending on demands the user can choose one of the predefined columns. A sub-flow sheet contains equipment and streams. 2003).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 28 their main properties and composition so Hysys can solve the stream. and energy stream provides the enthalpy difference between the two streams. flow based for example on molar flow. and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected internal and external streams. side strippers and side rectifiers (Aspen Tech.

The rest of variables necessary for solving the valve operation is taken from the stream flowing out of the contactor (Aspen Tech. Fully refluxed condenser is built at the top of the column. and the liquid part composed of glycol and water is carried to the heat exchanger (Aspen Tech. In the considered case the TEG stream is heated up to the temperature of approximately 100 oC by lean TEG stream exiting regenerator (Aspen Tech. Warm rich glycol flows into the regenerator where it is heated up and losses water. . 2003). The calculations are based on equal material and enthalpy between the two streams. The column is designed in such a way that it should allows to dry the gas to the content of water in gas below 0. The heat exchangers calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids on the basis of temperatures of inlet and outlet streams. The entering stream contains particles of vapor and liquid. and a reboiler in the lower part of the column is added for heating up bottom liquid to the temperature range of 180 oC to 200 oC (Aspen Tech. On the exit the vapor which is composed of volatile gases and a small quantity of water is taken out at the top part of the separator. 2003).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 29 The column used by the author for separating water from natural gas is a typical absorber column with two inlet and two exit streams.050 [g/Nm3] which determines the dew point of -18 oC under the pressure of 3900 kPa (Aspen Tech. 2003). It is assumed that the valve operation is isenthalpic. 2003). The regenerator is an example of distillation column with two inlet and two exit streams. the other is lean TEG glycol. One of the inlet streams is natural gas saturated with water in given conditions. In order to dry the absorbent to higher concentration stripping gas in the quantity of 20 Nm3/h is injected into the regenerator. The separator used for removing vapor part from the rich TEG stream under lower pressure is similar to the one separating free water from rich gas stream. 2003). Heat exchanger performs two-sided energy and material balance calculations. The variable specified by the user is outlet pressure. Hysys performs a material and energy balance on the inlet and exit streams of the valve. A valve is used to decrease the pressure of dry natural gas exiting from the TEG contactor to the value of 400 kPa.

2003). Before getting to the contactor lean TEG stream goes through recycle operation. The properties of both streams entering the mixer are known. The heat flow necessary for compression is calculated by Hysys. Hysys uses the assumed values and solves the flowsheet around the recycle. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through another heat exchanger where it gives some of its energy to dry gas stream flowing out of TEG contactor. All material recycles. The outlet pressure. the inlet pressure and the pump efficiency are known. Based on the difference between the assumed and calculated values Hysys generates new values to overwrite the previous assumed values.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 30 The lean glycol flowing out of the regenerator is mixed with stream of additional TEG in the makeup mixer. The pump operation is used to increase the pressure of an inlet liquid stream. On this ground Hysys calculates the amount of glycol necessary to compensate the TEG losses and the properties of absorbent entering the pump. The calculation process repeats until the calculated values match the assumed values within specified tolerances. require a recycle operation. where downstream material mixes with upstream material. which subsequently gets to the TEG pump. and internal absolute tolerances (Aspen Tech. The dynamics pump operation is similar to the compressor operation in that it increases the pressure of its inlet stream. . The given values are the amount of TEG going into the contactor given with relative tolerance. 2003). The mixer combines the two streams to produce a single outlet stream. This block gives Hysys the ability to backcalculate through many operations in a non-sequential manner. then it compares the assumed values in the attached streams to the calculated values in the opposite stream. The additional TEG is put into the circulation in order to make up glycol losses due to solution in natural gas and vaporization. The glycol is cooled down while the dry gas is warmed up. The pump operation assumes that the inlet fluid is incompressible though (Aspen Tech. The recycle operation is a theoretical block in process stream. just as the amount of lean TEG from the regenerator and amount of TEG going out of the pump.

The Figure 5. and the water content is measured from the amount of gas required to neutralize the reagent (solution of iodine. The amount of condensed water released from gas can be then calculated from the difference between the water content in gas at saturation point at the inlet and outlet respectively. Alexandre Rojey et al. The water content can also be measured by adsorption on magnesium perchlorate.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 31 5. pyridine and sulfur dioxide in methanol. called the Karl-Fischer reagent).2 helps to correct the water contents given by the Figure 5. Water Content of Natural Gas 5. The quantity of water adsorbed is determined by gravimetric method. a cooler mirror is used to observe the water condensation temperature. the water dew point curve of the natural gas can be used to determine the zone where water may condense.1 Water content measurement The water content of a natural gas at saturation conditions depends essentially on the temperature and pressure. In the widely used absorption based KarlFischer method. and the water content of the gas is accordingly decreased. . The water content of natural gas can be measured by three different methods (Rojey et al. 1962). the water is absorbed in a solution. In the dew point method. The water dew point is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the hydrocarbon dew point. The Figure 5. If the variation of temperature and pressure in an installation is known... 1994): a) by observation of the dew point b) by water retention on an adsorbent c) by absorption in liquid. 1994 provides a short description of these methods. Corrections can be made for the sake of the composition of gas and the salinity of the water. as a function of salinity of the aqueous phase (after Katz.1.1 shows the water content at saturation point of nitrogen-free natural gases as a function of pressure and temperature. Dissolved salts reduce the partial pressure of water in the vapor phase.

Estimates of the water content of these sour gases are required for the design of plant and pipelines facilities. 8000 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 32 5. the predicted water content of sour natural gas is high when based on these experimental curves (Robinson et al. . 40 000 kPa. Three methods are currently available for estimating the water content of sour natural gases. the estimated water content of a sour gas is a molar average of the solubility of water in the hydrocarbons. respectively. A chart was prepared containing aheadmentioned curves for temperatures from -50 oC to 140 oC under pressures of 100 kPa. 250 kPa. In general. and 60 000 kPa (Figure 5. In the procedure outlined by GPSA.. The water content curves for H2S and CO2 are based on experimental data for the binary mixtures H2O-H2S and H2O-CO2. 3000 kPa. and carbon dioxide. and the water content read for the acid gas components often corresponds to the solubility of water in nonaqueous liquid phase rather than in vapor phase. hydrogen. 20 000 kPa.2 Water content from GPSA diagram Natural gases containing significant quantities of acid gas are encountered frequently in the world.3). 500 kPa. 1977). 1000 kPa. The most commonly used procedure is prepared by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). 2000 kPa. 30 000 kPa. 50 000 kPa. sulfide. 1500 kPa. 5000 kPa. The figure shows the amounts of water saturating natural gas in given temperature and pressure along with charts for correction for gas relative density and for salinity. Both these binaries display liquidliquid equilibria at temperatures and pressures common in processing applications. 4000 kPa. 750 kPa.

This layout is useful though to calculations of the amount of water necessary to remove from natural gas under given conditions in order to dry gas to the point where it meets the required standards (see Chapter 5.8 oC for water content of 0. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The part of the table pertaining to the pressures encountered when the gas is put into the dehydration facility under the import pipeline pressure.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual The designer of Maćkowice natural gas dehydration facility provided an operating manual.018 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33.4). Original layout given by the designer (Nafta – Gaz) was used.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 33 5. An attachment to the manual shows water content of natural gas within the range of pressures for which the facility was designed (Figure 3. .5). for the temperatures between 10 oC and 40 oC with stress to points within the temperature and pressure range for which the facility should be used.6). and 20 oC (Figure 5. The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions. The table in Appendix B shows water content in natural gas in [g/Nm3] within the range of pressures between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa. Dew point temperatures exceeding -18 oC were omitted. Therefore it was kept this way deliberately. This assumption is made because of the investor’s demand to keep the amount of water in dried gas below the dew point temperature of -18 oC. This layout may not be transparent as it repeats the same results many times for different gas temperatures. The temperature range includes temperatures encountered in Polish gas pipelines.1.6). The dew points for the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC with the water content of 0.5. Only water dew point temperatures below -18 oC are considered as work points. without using the compressor station is shown in Table 5. Graphic analysis of the results was prepared for the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5. 15 oC (Figure 5. Appendix B). although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.

9 oC for the water amount of 0. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 34 Similarly the dew points for the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.8 oC for the water amount of 0. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.019 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30.4 oC for water amount of 0. For the gas temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.036 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.6.1 oC for water amount of 0.

The author’s approach was based on calculations with use of equilibrium dew point equation for gases according to P.001685 − ln Pg 0 .4 Water content calculations from empirical equations On the ground of empirical equations the author calculated the amount of water present in natural gas leaving the absorber column. This is: (2) Tdew.228 ⋅ ln(0.81462 (1) ). Since the gas and TEG are not in contact for a long enough time to reach equilibrium. as the height of absorption column is not known and therefore the additional 2 oC was used. The assumed water dew point temperature is known. an 10 oC approach to the equilibrium dew point at the top of the dehydrator was assumed. In present study. A well designed and properly operated unit will have an actual water dew point 5 oC to 8oC higher than the equilibrium dew point. The values format was converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F). The natural gas is getting in the absorber under a known pressure.eq + 10 o C 18.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 35 5. 2002.eq − 10 o C . the actual water dew point is always higher than the equilibrium dew point.eq = 18.act = Tdew. Therefore . When the pressure and dew point temperature of natural gas are known. which only insignificantly changes inside the absorber. from the equations (1) and (2) the water content in outlet gas may be obtained: wout = exp( Tdew.81462 ).001685 ⋅ wout ⋅ Pg 0 . The dew point acquired depends on amount of water leaving the dehydration facility and gas pressure. and is given by the formula: Tdew. Gandhidasan.228 − ln 0. (3) The values obtained are given in kilograms of water per million standard cubic meters.

4 oC for water amount of 0. 15oC (Figure 5.7).020 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 30. The pressure values and the dew points were kept unchanged. The calculations were made for the pressure range recommended by Nafta – Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility.6.9) The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions. .011 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. Similarly the dew points in the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5. The results were put together and shown in a table (Appendix C).013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.017 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. Diagrams were made to show graphically the water content in dehydrated natural gas in the work pressure range in the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.9 oC for the water amount of 0. The dew points were kept same as in the Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual (Appendix B). and the amounts of water for different dew points under the considered pressure range were calculated with the given formula (3). The dew points in the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0. The table was prepared for the same gas temperatures as the one reproduced from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.8 oC for water amount of 0. and 20 oC (Figure 5. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 36 without noticeable mistake one can recognize the inlet pressure as the actual pressure. Typical gas temperatures encountered in Poland were taken into account.8). For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.1 oC for water amount of 0.016 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 33.8 oC for the water amount of 0.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.

In the separator operation the water content above the saturation level is taken away as liquid from the bottom part of the separator. . The amount of water is high enough to saturate the gas. The flow sheet shows a stream of dry gas with no water content going in a mixer operation along with pure water stream. The temperature and pressure of saturated gas are inserted by the user and on this basis Hysys calculates the water content of saturated natural gas. water. The computation course for exemplary conditions are shown in Appendix E. The computation had following course: a) the number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol was calculated on the basis of multiplication the density of gas-water mixture by 1 m3 and dividing the result by molecular weight of the mixture b) mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture was calculated through multiplication of the number of moles of gas per 1 m3 by the mole fraction of water and by the molecular weight of pure water c) calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of the real gas law equation called Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) was done d) the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was achieved by dividing the mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 by the standard volume of water-gas mixture.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program A simple flow sheet was made with the use of Hysys program. Subsequently the values were exported to Microsoft Excel application. Z factor of the mixture in given conditions and mass density of gas in given conditions.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 37 5. Hysys application does not provide the possibility of checking the amount of water per standard cubic meter directly. and to be still present as liquid in the pipe (Figure 5. In order to achieve this result the author had to prepare a sheet containing values of molecular weight of natural gas. By this means the water saturation points under given conditions can be checked. The rich gas is taken from the top part of the separator as vapor. Therefore a stream of saturated gas with significant amount of free water above the saturation point is created in the mixer and flows to a two-phase separator. and gas-water mixture.10). where the calculation of amount of water in natural gas was made. mole fraction of gas and water.

20 000 kPa. 5000 kPa. The value of standard gas flow per hour can be calculated by Hysys as one of gas stream properties. 1500 kPa. The pressure range started with 100 kPa and reached 60 000 kPa. 50 000 kPa. 4000 kPa.2c.4 shows the number of grams of water per normal cubic meter of natural gas. 500 kPa. These values were chosen deliberately in order to compare the results achieved with the chart provided by GPSA (Figure 5.2b. Table 5. Hysys application can calculate mass and mole flows of every component of a given stream. Comparison of results achieved with the Clapeyron equation was made with the method based on flow values obtained with Hysys application. 5. 250 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 38 The computation was first made generally for wide range of temperatures and pressures.2b.6.2d). .02 % in every case. 5. The outcomes differ by less than 0. 5. 1000 kPa. 5. The conditions encountered in Maćkowice gas dehydration facility vary only within the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 5500 kPa and the temperature range between 10 oC and 30 oC. In Tables 5.2d the range of conditions is very wide. 750 kPa. 40 000 kPa.2a. 8000 kPa. 30 000 kPa. The results’ format was converted from mass of water per standard cubic meter to mass of water per normal cubic meter with use of the real gas law equation (see Appendix F). This method is based on reading the value of standard gas flow per hour [Sm3/h] and dividing it by mass flow of water as one of the stream component. for example water. The range of conditions taken under consideration was narrowed. 5.2a. The values for which the calculation took place were 100 kPa.3 shows the number of grams of water per standard cubic meter of natural gas. Second method of calculating the amount of water in standard cubic meter was discovered. 2000 kPa. The temperature range started with -40 oC and reached the temperature of 140 oC with 20 oC step.3) – see Chapter 5. The results obtained were put in tables.5 . 5.2. 3000 kPa. The values achieved with both methods are almost identical. The results’ comparison is shown in Table 5. The outcome for the temperature range from -40 oC to 140 oC under the pressure of 60 000 kPa is shown in Table 5. Therefore the author made a detailed study of the interest range.2c. and 60 000 kPa (Table 5. Table 5.

0 oC for normal conditions) the real gas law equation was used for transformation (see Appendix F). gas temperatures and dew points were left unchanged.1 oC for water amount of 0.11). For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.2a. The pressure range.015 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. Similar values to those achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (Chapter 5. The water content results obtained with Hysys are delivered.8 oC for the water amount of 0.4 oC for water amount of 0. Graphical analysis was prepared for temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.2b.3) and with the use of empirical equations (Chapter 5. A detailed study of water amount in gas under work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility was made. The Hysys application results unit was given in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas mixture.8 oC for water amount of 0.4) were achieved.032 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30. Similarly the dew points in the temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.13). 5. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual and empirical calculations.2d. As the difference between standard and normal condition is limited to temperature difference (15 oC for standard conditions. The obtained results were put in a table (Appendix D).010 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The input data included temperature range encountered in polish gas pipelines under the pressure range for which the Maćkowice gas dehydration facility was designed. 5.009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 39 The outcome unit was transformed. The dew points in the temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0. and 20oC (Figure 5. 15oC (Figure 5.9 oC for the water amount of 0.046 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26. The layout of the table has changed in comparison with Tables 5.2c. In order to make the comparison with other results possible the Hysys obtained values were transformed into grams of water per normal cubic meter. .023 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33.12). 5.

15).2).2a. and 20oC (Figure 5. as the GPSA chart is well recognized as accurate for predicting the amount of water in natural gas under given conditions (Robinson.14).2d) and the amount of water results achieved with use of GPSA chart (see Figure 5. The difference was considerably lower for comparison between Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual and Hysys package. Gandhidasan. The comparison results are shown in graphic mode.57 % for gas temperature of 25 oC.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 40 5. 5.87 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. Comparison of the results obtained with empirical equations.2c. Hysys computation and manual based data was made. empirical equation. 15.1977). The water saturation calculated with the use of empirical equations for given gas temperature is shown along with the water content for selected dew points according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (see Appendix B) and Hysys package.77 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC. 27. 14. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and Hysys application are shown in Table 5. Similarly in comparison between manual data and equation based calculations the average mistake was 7. .94 % for gas temperature of 15 oC.3. Only values pertaining to work-points were included in tables. 15oC (Figure 5. 2002 are shown in Table 5.8. In every case the error was smaller than 20 mg H2O per standard cubic meter.7. 5. The values obtained with different methods stay in reasonable conformity.79 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 34. and Hysys application were compared. The diagrams for temperatures 10oC (Figure 5. the author considers the values obtained with use of Hysys application as unquestionable.16) are provided.6 Water content results comparison Comparison was made between the amount of water calculated from Hysys results (Tables 5. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and solution based on empirical equations according to P.2b. In case of the comparison between manual data and Hysys calculated values the average mistake was 5. Hence. Average error was calculated from the values obtained. For ten randomly chosen pressure and temperature values the amount of water was read from the GPSA chart. 5. The values of water amount in natural gas according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.01 % for gas temperature of 15 oC.15 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 16. see Chapter 5. 13.58 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC.

Empirical equations used provide results close to the ones computed with use of Hysys application and delivered from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. The reason of this unconformity may be the generality of used equation in which the results are not dependent on natural gas composition. These general empirical equations were used instead of more complex ones as the main goal of this part of author’s work was to check the harmony between empirical solution and computer program based calculation. This is gained as the inaccuracy was small and the obtained values show the same tendency in each case. Moreover the author notices that the results obtained with empirical calculations used are burdened with noticeable error in comparison to manual and Hysys based outcome.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 41 The author concludes from the results that both Hysys and manual based data stay in good conformity. Therefore the author decides to use the Hysys results as correct and not burdened with error that would substantially influence subsequent deliberations over optimum energy and glycol strategy. .

The values for gas temperatures of 10 oC.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 42 5. The range of temperatures taken into account corresponds with the dew points possible to achieve during gas dehydration. The results for normal conditions are provided in Table 5. 20 oC. The results showing the amount of water in natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter were put in Table 5. Table 5. The values in mentioned table were given in grams of water per standard cubic meter. The results were put in tables. and 25 oC under pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and from 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa are provided in Table 5.5).9. 15 oC.11).11. The results were recalculated with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) to values expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter. The values in changed units are shown in Table 5.9) were compared with the amounts of water in typical gas temperatures encountered in polish gas pipelines (Table 5. 15 oC.13 shows the amount of water to be removed in grams of water per .The amount of water left in natural gas under dew point temperature was subtracted from the water content of natural gas in typical temperatures encountered in gas pipelines. Gas temperatures of 10 oC. 20 oC.10.5) were considered. For the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa the amount of water in natural gas was calculated with use of Hysys application. For every pressure chosen the dew points in the range of -31 oC to -18 oC with 1 oC step were counted the same way as for water content in given gas temperature and pressure (see Chapter 5. 25 oC and 30 oC in this part of pressure range which is in Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area (Figure 3.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process Calculation of water content under dew point temperatures in Maćkowice dehydration facility work pressure range was made. The amounts of water under the temperature range encountered in Polish gas pipelines and Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area pressure range were calculated. In the range of temperatures between -19 oC and -18 oC the step was decreased to 0.12 The results pertaining to water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in the pressure range between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa (Table 5. The results were then converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F).1 oC. This led to specifying the amount of water to be removed in order to achieve a required dew point temperature under given pressure for a known medium temperature. as this range of dew point temperatures is usually sufficient.

19 provides results of water amount to remove under gas temperature of 25 oC expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter.22 transforms the unit to grams of water to remove from gas per normal meter of medium.14 shows the amount of water to be removed when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. Table 5. .17 shows the amount of water to remove from gas under the temperature of 20 oC in grams of water per standard cubic meter.16 provides the same data transformed to normal conditions. Table 5. Table 5. Table 5.18 shows data pertaining to the same gas temperature. Table 5. Table 5.20 shows the same data expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Finally Table 5.21 shows the amount of water to remove from 30 oC warm gas in grams per standard cubic meter. but expressed in grams of water to remove per normal cubic meter. Table 5.15 shows the water amount to be removed for 15 oC warm natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas. and Table 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43 standard cubic meter when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. The value is given in grams of water per normal cubic meter.

018 g/Nm3. and Table 5. The calculation is aimed at checking the compatibility of Hysys computation and manual data. For preset values of water content in natural gas the dew point values were calculated and put in tables. Therefore there are no contraindications against using Hysys outcome as reliable. which is between 0. Achieved values show good correlation between results obtained with use of computation and manual data.23 shows the values of dew point for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package. Table 5. The results of empirical calculation differ insignificantly from the ones mentioned above . Hysys obtained results stay in good conformity with manual obtained data. Alike in the survey of water content saturating the natural gas in given conditions. Table 5. . Hysys computation and manual data was made. This is satisfying result. The difference between dew points computed with use of Hysys package and Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual data hardly ever exceeds the value of 1 oC.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 44 5. The data was prepared for the range of water content encountered after dewatering in Maćkowice dehydration facility in gas temperature of 10 oC.8 Dew point values comparison Comparison of dew points for given water content between empirical calculation.009 g/Nm3 and 0.17. The points were not selected for a given pressure. but within the whole range of pressure encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The graphical comparison is shown in the Figure 5.24 contains the values achieved from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual.25 brings up values calculated with use of empirical equations.

According to Manning and Thompson (1991) the advantages of glycol over solid desiccants are: a) lower installed costs by 50 % less at 3.277 Sm3/s. Glycol solutions 6. 1979) b) lower pressure drop (34. and 33 % at 16. particularly in the reboiler.95 kPa .95 kPa vs.7 kPa for dry desiccants) c) glycol dehydration is continuous rather than batch d) glycol makeup is easily accomplished e) glycol units require less regeneration heat per pound of water removed f) glycol units can typically dehydrate natural gas to 0. All of mentioned glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure.008 g/Sm3 The disadvantages of glycol over solid desiccants are a) water dew points below -4 oC require stripping gas and Stahl column for TEG regeneration b) glycol is susceptible to contamination c) glycol is corrosive when contaminated or decomposed The glycols that are most common for dehydration applications are monoethylene glycol (MEG).47 kPa – 68. The crucial properties of glycol solvents suitable for dewatering were given before (see Chapter 2. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. .387 Sm3/s (Kohl and Riesenfeld. and tetraethylene glycol (TREG).1 Use of glycol solutions Glycols are by far most commonly used solvents in natural gas dehydration. The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria. triethylene glycol (TEG). diethylene glycol (DEG).344.3). This is one of the most important features upon which a specific glycol absorbent is chosen.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 45 6. decompose at elevated temperatures. 68. however. Glycols will.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 46 Triethylene glycol offers the best cost/benefit compromise. It shows most of the properties mentioned and in comparison to the other absorbents it is most economically right. which are not entirely compensated by lower vapor pressure (Carroll. It also has less affinity for water and therefore less dew point depression. which translates into lower pumping costs. It is marginally more expensive than DEG. 2003). In comparison to TREG it is less viscious. 1993). and is the most widely used (Manning and Wood. 1991) . not mentioning higher costs of TREG purchase. has a higher decomposition temperature of 277 oC in comparison to DEG (245 oC) and is not too viscous above 4 oC (Manning and Thompson. Moreover TEG is more easily regenerated. but brings much less losses due to lower vapor pressure.

2 Minimum strong TEG concentration The drying ability of the TEG is limited by the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water between the gas phase and the liquid TEG phase. Calculation of the minimum strong TEG concentration required at the inlet to the dehydrator in order to dewater natural gas to given dew point temperature was made. A method of calculating the equilibrium between the gas phase and a TEG solution was presented by Rosman (1973).min = 84. The distribution of water between the two phases at equilibrium is determined by introducing a partition coefficient assumed to be constant throughout the absorption column (Rojey et al. Figure 6. which would be obtained if the gas was brought to equilibrium with the TEG solution at the contactor temperature.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 47 6. Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for TEG–water system commonly are represented as charts of water dew point lines as a function of contactor temperature and liquid TEG concentrations. (4) .. In the Figure 6. More complete data can be obtained by referring to the to the manual published by the GPA (1980). Td. The calculation was carried out on the basis of equation provided by P. 2004). 1988 (Rojey et al. Solution contact temperatures shown vary between 0 oC and 80 oC. Gandhidasan (2002): ξ in . 1994).629 ⋅ exp(−0.97 % are taken into account.1 glycol concentration is given in weight percent of TEG in solution.1 shows the dew point obtained for a gas in equilibrium with a solution of triethylene glycol at different concentrations after ATG. Therefore it is necessary to estimate the minimum concentration of TEG in the strong solution entering the top of the dehydrator to meet the exit gas water content specification.00173 ⋅ Tdew. The water dew point is the dew point of the gas. The strong affinity between glycols and water is attributed to hydrogen bonds.. T (Chorng et al. Concentrations of TEG between 95 and 99. According to ATG the dew point temperature possible to achieve differs with glycol concentration and solution contact temperature. 1994).act ) ⋅ Tg 0.036313 ..

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

48

The minimum strong TEG concentration is dependent on the dew point temperature required
and natural gas temperature. The calculation was made for dew point temperature range from
-18 oC to -31 oC, which are dew points encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The
solution contact temperature which equals gas temperature between 1 oC and 25 oC is
considered. The results achieved are shown in Table 6.1.
Figures showing minimum strong TEG concentration in mass percent required to achieve a
given dew point temperature were made on this ground. Figure 6.2 shows minimum TEG
concentration for dew point temperature range between -18 oC and -29 oC. Figure 6.3 shows a
more detailed study on a more narrow range of dew point temperatures (-18 oC to -19 oC) with
0,1 oC step. The range between -18 oC and -19 oC, is the most commonly obtained.
Comparison of results after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1) and after P. Gandhidasan, 2002
(Figure 6.2) was made. For chosen points in range of operation area of Mackiwice
dehydration facility results were compared. The points were chosen on basis of minimum
strong TEG concentration table (Table 6.1). Points of TEG concentration equal to 95 %,
96 %, 97 %, 98 %, and 99 % were used.
The dew point chart after ATG is commonly used for determination of minimum TEG
concentration necessary in many dehydration facilities and bring good conformity with reality
(Rojey et al., 1994). Therefore the results obtained with it are unquestionable. The results
based on empirical solution shown by P. Gandhidasan, 2002 turned out to be burdened with a
few percent error in case of water content in natural gas and dew point temperature
calculations. Hence the author expects a similar distortion in results pertaining to the
minimum concentration of strong TEG stream.
According to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 the minimum TEG absorbent concentration necessary to
dewater 10 oC warm natural gas to dew point temperature of -18,5 oC is 95 % (Table 6.1). The
outcome was checked with dew point chart after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1). According to it the
minimum strong TEG concentration cannot be lower than 96 %.
After P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG concentration enabling to dewater natural gas to
-21 oC in gas temperature 12 oC is 96 %. The value of approximately 97 % TEG concentration

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

49

is read from dew point temperature of gas with solutions of triethylene glycol chart after
ATG, 1988.
Similar comparison was made for the gas temperature of 16 oC reaching the dew point
temperature of -21 oC. In this case according to P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG
concentration is 97 %. Which is by about 1 % less than the result achieved with the use of
Figure 6.1 (minimally less than 98 %).
The value of 98 % strong TEG concentration was calculated as minimum for dehydration of
24 oC warm gas to dew point temperature of -18 oC according to P. Gondhidasan. The value
obtained with use of the chart after ATG, 1988 equals approximately 98,5 %.
For TEG concentration of 99 % and gas temperature 25 oC the dew point temperature of
-23 oC is encountered with use of P. Gandhidasan proposed method. After ATG the value
equals approximately 98,5 %.
Aforementioned examples, alike Table 6.1 and Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 show clearly that the lean
TEG concentrations encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility are high enough to dry
the stream of natural gas to dew point below -18 oC in typical temperatures met in Polish gas
pipelines. The dew point temperature of -18 oC or lower is the demand from gas transport
company.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

50

6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility
According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual the TEG concentration varies
between 99,5 mass % on the inlet to absorber column, and not less than 95 % on the outlet
from the absorber. Tables are provided in the operating manual showing the minimum amount
of TEG necessary to dehydrate natural gas containing a known amount of water (Appendix
G). These are the minimum TEG amounts sufficient to keep the TEG concentration within the
desired range.
Calculation was made of the amount of water possible to remove with use of 1 cubic meter of
triethylene glycol. According to the installation requirements the concentration of TEG
solution cannot drop below the point of 95 mass percent. Therefore not more than 5 mass
precent can be filled by water taken out from dehydrated natural gas. Omitting other chemical
compounds dissolving in TEG and assuming the TEG density as 1122 kg/m3 the value of
approximately 56 kg of water per 1 cubic meter of TEG solution was calculated.
It stands to reason that the circulation of TEG depends on the amount of water present in
natural gas. This, in sequence, is dependent on the temperature and pressure of natural gas
flowing into the absorber column (Table 5.3). The amount of water saturating natural gas is
increasing with temperature, and decreasing with pressure.
For the instances where the amount of water flowing in natural gas can be decreased before
the actual dehydration process it should be done. Therefore gas should be deprived of any free
water before getting to absorber. Also increasing the inlet pressure can bring noticeable
effects while separating free water from natural gas before the actual dehydration process.
The gas temperature should be kept low. The gas should not be warmed up before entering the
absorber more than necessary. The gas entering the absorber should be always warmer than
10 oC though (see Chapter 2.3).
Some part of TEG is wasted through evaporation ans is carried over from absorber with
particles of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost depends on TEG vapor pressure in given
temperature.

The author will check the possibility of meeting the demand. Two of them. . the dehydration of the part of natural gas undergoing the dehydration must be very deep. Natural gas temperature of 10 oC was chosen. Hysys application was used in search for the optimum solution for minimizing TEG waste and energy use. which is the point very seldom exceeded in recent two years for the natural gas imported from Ukraine (Figure 3. The installation was set to the lowest work pressure. and tries to minimize it. 75 000 Nm3/h each. after mixing with the not dehydrated gas the total water content was still way too high (145 mg/Nm3). The water content of incoming gas was set at the level of 0. This instance shows that the pressure chosen should be adjusted with consideration for the water content of gas at the inlet to the absorber.2). TEG is being wasted through: a) evaporating and escape with dried natural gas stream from TEG Contactor and TEG Contactor-2 (Figure 3.4).050 g/Nm3. Hysys simulations The author puts attention to the direct after-effect of evaporation of TEG which is TEG loss. calculation of TEG losses was made. The main gas stream was split in three parts. and under this pressure only 75 000 Nm3 of natural gas per one processing line can be dehydrated.2 g/Nm3. According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual this is the pressure of 2700 kPa. Even through decreasing the water content in natural gas undergoing the dehydration process to the level of 13 mg/Nm3. were directed to the dehydrators. the remaining part (400 000 Nm3/h) was put directly to the gas pipeline. alike energy consumption. and 8 oC for the pressure of 5500 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 51 7. Therefore to dehydrate the whole amount of gas coming from Ukraine (550 000 Nm3 per hour) to the water content below 0. and dew point temperature of the outgoing gas. TEG circulation. Optimization was made by adjusting factors like temperature and pressure of gas entering the installations. Even though the above this solution cannot be chosen. This water content suits the dew point temperature of -2 oC for the pressure of 2700 kPa. which is the investor’s demand.

6261 kg/h which gives the amount of 31764 kilograms of TEG per year. c) through getting into equilibrium with water during TEG regeneration in Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. The losses mentioned are made up by New TEG and New TEG-2 streams (Figure 3. The temperature of gas entering dehydrator was 10 oC and did not differ from the gas temperature in the pipelines (little energy use in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2. as the water content in outlet stream is greater than 50 mg/Nm3. No TEG losses were noticed in Gas From TEG and Gas From TEG-2 streams.4) the total water amount left is 57 kg. The maximum amount of approximately 180 000 Nm3 of natural gas can be dehydrated with every processing line (Mackowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual. The greatest loss was observed in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams (Figure 3. This pressure requires the main imported gas stream to undergo compression before entering the dehydration facility. In this case the absorber was able to dehydrate the streams of natural gas to water content of 25 mg/Nm3 which is 0.620 m3 per 100 000Nm3 of natural gas (Appendix G). This makes up the loss of 28 m3 of TEG annually. 2004).4).000035 mass percent of water in natural gas. The TEG circulation was set to the level of . The installation was set to the maximum gas pressure without compression in compressor unit. For this amount of gas dehydrated the water content of outlet gas equals 75 mg/Nm3. The amount of TEG equal to 1.4). This setting cannot be used for natural gas containing assumed water content though. The same examination was used for the gas pressure of 5500 kPa and the whole main gas stream undergoing the drying process.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 52 b) evaporating with natural gas taken from Gas From TEG Sep and Gas From TEG Sep-2 separators (Figure 3. In Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 streams the amount of TEG equals two times 0.7 m3. The TEG circulation was set according to the operating manual tips to 0. In the Outlet GAS stream (Figure 3. This is 3990 kPa.0184 kg/h. Total annual TEG losses in this case would be approximately 28. Under this pressure the maximum amount of 150 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated.4). The pressure of 4720 kPa was assumed. see Figure 3.4).4). which makes up 104 mg/Nm3.7946 kg is wasted every hour through each of these streams. The amount of TEG necessary to fill the leaks is 3.

The TEG loss in this case was encountered through Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 (0. In this temperature the imported gas cannot fulfill the investor’s demands. The annual TEG loss achieved is 28. which gives the amount of 29. and Remnants and Remnants-2 (1.13 kW each). as the En To Heater and En To Heater-2 heat flows equal 1801 kW each. which makes up the quantity of 30.6 m3/yr. The TEG loss equals then 29. 10 oC.8 kg/h each). The imported gas was split to three streams.6 m3. The TEG loss equaled 29.7 kW each). The water content of the outgoing gas stream of 48 mg/Nm3 was achieved this way.4) are the Condenser En and Condenser En-2 (6. The minimum share of gas undergoing the dehydration process has in order to meet the maximum 50 mg of water per Nm3 of gas demand increased to 237000 Nm3 per one processing line. The gas stream was dehydrated to the level of 6. For TEG inlet of 3 m3 per one absorption column the outgoing gas contained only 5 mg of water per Nm3 of natural gas. The amount of gas dehydrated under the pressure of 5500 kPa was decreased to the level where the amount of water in the outlet gas stays close to the level of 50 mg/Nm3. The energy use is high in comparison to previous instances.5 m3/yr.16 kg/h each). 0.5 · 10-3 m3/h.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 53 1.3 mg/Nm3. For TEG inlet of 1 m3 per one absorption column the gas can be dehydrated to the amount of water in natural gas equal 13 mg/Nm3. The two of them that are undergoing the dehydration operation put through 212800 Nm3/h each. The amount of TEG lost is 3.4 m3 of TEG per hour is flowing into the absorber column. Pump Q and Pump Q-2 (3. Reboiler En and Reboiler En-2 (135. The total energy use equals 292 kW. which is inconsiderably lower than in case of following operating manual hints.9 m3/h. The same approach was used for different TEG circulations.352 · 10-3 m3/h.4 m3/yr. The gas was preheated to 25 oC.2 g of water per Nm3 of natural gas) an approach of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 35 oC was used. En To Heater and En To Heater-2 (0. The amount of 1. Total TEG waste amounts to 3.3 kW each).2 m3/yr. For the same gas stream (5500 kPa. Hence the total energy us encountered is 3900 kW.5 kW each). The energy streams necessary to perform the drying operations (Figure 3. .

which is the lowest pressure value for compressed gas. the amount of water in outlet stream has decreased to the value of 45 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. Pump-2.1 g/Nm3. As the dehydration process cannot be completed with sufficient results under the lower variety of pressures from the range of non-compressed gas pressures (as the amounts of gas that can undergo the dewatering process for lower pressures are to low). The TEG loss is 28 m3TEG/yr. and En To Heater-2. The energy consumption amounts to 1500 kW . Reboiler En-2. the highest pressure in work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility. Although this is the most energy and absorbent saving setup the dehydration process should be carried out in higher temperatures to prevent precipitation of hydrates. Therefore in case of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 10 oC the outlet gas water content changes insignificantly. Water content of outlet gas equals 46 mg/Nm3. This temperature is met only sometimes during the winter . and gas temperature of 2 oC. The gas is not preheated before entering the contactor. The TEG loss equals 28 m3TEG/yr. For the pressure of 5500 kPa. Reboiler En. Calculation for 10 oC warm gas was made. As one can see in Figure 3. the outlet water content amounts to 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. Total energy use equals 260 kW. the dehydration unit was set for the pressure of 4000 kPa. Pump Q. En To Heater. By the energy use the author understands the heat flows of Condenser En.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 54 Similar technique by a process of trial and error was used for water content in gas of 0. For the instance of dehydrating 150 000 Nm3 of gas in each absorber the water content of outlet stream is 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS.2 this is the amount of water that is not much above the minimum dew point temperature in winter conditions. The TEG loss is amount to 28 m3/yr. alike TEG loss. and applies only to the gas that did not undergo compression process in the neighboring compressor unit. Heat flow equals 260 kW. Condenser En-2. For the pressure of 4700 kPa. and the power supply necessary equals 260 kW. the heat flow amounts to 260 kW. The water content is left at the level of 0.1 gH2O/Nm3GAS. The initial pressure was set to 4000 kPa. which is 2 oC. . In these conditions the amount of gas undergoing the dehydration process is set to 150 000 Nm3/h per processing line. The temperature of gas was set to the minimum temperature encountered in gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration facility. The same values were checked for higher pressures.

Similarly the results did not bring any change to the amount of TEG carried out with Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. The temperature of the stream leaving the condenser was changed in range from 60 oC to 140 oC.2 kW (as the gas is not preheated). Gas temperature is 10 oC. This was sufficient for achieving the water content of 49. In case of running dehydration with use of two processing lines gas pressure can be lowered.7 mg/Nm3. At first the possibility of dehydration to the water content required by the investor was checked. but no change in the amount of TEG in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams was noticed. The process is repeated every time the conditions change.2 MPa. Hysys application chooses the remaining dimentions and other values necessary depending on the conditions. which still makes up 10 % of whole TEG annual use. The main TEG loss is encountered in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams leaving Regenerator.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 55 Tests were made of adjusting the TEG Regenerator in different manners. In the considered case total energy loss encountered amounts to 132 kW. Therefore with the data the author possessed only changes in TEG loss of approximately 3 m3 per year are possible. The energy consumption is now encountered through Reboiler En. Total TEG consumption amounts to 1. The regenerator’s reboiler requires 127. The water content in . Pump Q is heat flow necessary for compressing lean TEG stream from the pressure of 0. and one processing line in order to achieve the same amount of water in outgoing gas. The water content of inlet gas was set to the value of 0. The Reboiler En was changed in order to achieve different reboiler temperature. Inlet pressure equals 5500 kPa. The author did not have access to sufficient data pertaining to the regenerator. An approach was made to calculate the energy consumption and TEG loss differences between using two processing lines.2 m3/yr.1 g/Nm3. The two streams entering TEG contactors are 140 000 Nm3/h each.4 MPa to the pressure of 6. Reboiler En is the amount of energy necessary necessary for warming up TEG undergoing regeneration.616·10-3 m3/h which gives the value of 14. The change in TEG loss was imperceptible.7 kW and the Pre Column Heater uses 0. One processing line was used with the throughput of 280 000 Nm3/h.2 kW. That was probably the reason why the author did not obtain any differences in the outcoming stream. The outlet TEG concentration increased insignificantly. The temperatures of Regen Feed and Regen Feed-2 streams were increased. Therefore it might be of purpose to try to change the setup of this unit in order to get smaller TEG waste. TEG Pump consumes 3. Pump Q and En To Heater streams. En To Heater stream is the total amount of energy necessary to get the required gas temperature.

Dehydration of natural gas to the water content of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. which is almost twice higher than in the previous example. This allows using single processing line for achieving the water content of natural gas below 50 mg/Nm3 for all cases of water content lower than 100 mg/Nm3. .2 m3/yr. this would enable to dehydrate natural gas of water content at the inlet to the separator of approximately 170 mg/Nm3. especially for summer conditions. For the pressure of 5500 kPa.5 ng/Nm3.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 56 natural gas achieved equals 49. For the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3. Polish norm characterizes the dew point temperature for summer and winter time. 280 000 Nm3/h of natural gas can be dehydrated. For fulfilling the demand for dew point temperature in summer season according to Polish norm which corresponds with the water content in dehydrated natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3.215·10-3 m3/h which equals 28. therefore the water amount is similar to the case of using single processing line. Total energy consumption encountered is 254 kW. which corresponds with dew point temperature of 5 oC in pressure of 4 MPa (dew point requirement in summer conditions) the dehydration process for most time can be omissed. the incoming natural gas can contain up to 440 mg/Nm3. If the amount of water in natural gas was supposed not to exceed the value of 75 mn/Nm3. TEG consumption amounts to 3. For the amount of water in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 for most cases use of single processing line is sufficient. This high values were not encountered in the imported natural gas for over four years now.

Mackowice dehydration facility is the only drying unit connected with Polish gas transportation system. The total amount of gas imported from Ukraine amounts to 550 000 Nm3/h. while there is small probability of hydrate precipitation in gas pipelines. for this amount of natural gas. This enables the whole amount of imported gas to undergo the dehydration process. The two drying equipment sets make renovation. Depending on gas inlet pressure each of them can dry up to 280 000 Nm3/h. The contemporary dew point temperature demand is determined by the Decree of the Minister of Administration issued on 24th of August 2000. The dehydration process chosen is absorption. According to experimental data. dehydration with use of TEG solution is the most economically justified way (see Chapter 6. The water content possible to achieve in this case is far below the water content of natural gas requirement and equals approximately 6 mg/Nm3 (see Chapter 7). Previously the values for summer time were slightly higher. and maintenance operations possible without necessity of turning off whole the dehydration facility. The maximum water content for transport of gas in pipelines is specified by Polish norm.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 57 8. This decree changed the values of dew point temperature at the pressure of 4 MPa to 5 oC in the period from 1st of April until 30th of September. The dehydration facility consists of two processing lines. Triethylene glycol was chosen for the absorbent by the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. Therefore this decision seems to be correct from the economical point of view.2). The natural gas coming from Ukraine hardly ever meets the dew point temperature demand (Figure 3. . As shown.1). while the water content of natural gas during winter period was lower. Therefore any maintenance operations should be carried out during summer season. Other gas treatment facilities are usually parts of gas storage facilities. The dehydration process in Mackowice is carried with use of TEG based absorption method. Discussion There is a constant necessity of dehydration the gas stream coming from Ukraine. conservation. which makes up 153 Nm3/s. and -10oC from 1st of October to 31st of March. one processing line may sometimes not be sufficient for dehydration of the imported gas stream to the water content demand of the investor which is 50 mg per normal meter of natural gas.

as recompression of the gas stream and putting it back to system would be costly. and storing it is impossible.4). Gas From TEG Sep-2. The results show insignificant changes in the amount of TEG lost in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. According to Hysys application computation the most energy demand occurs in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2. Preheating of the natural gas stream should be carried out only when the gas temperature is lower than 10 oC for the reasons explained in Chapter 2. that the amount of water to be removed decreases considerably with pressure increase (Table 5. or neighbouring comressors unit. The calculations of amount of water to remove from natural gas to reach required dew point temperature were made. Besides economical aspect. TEG loss simulation was made. this step would make the dehydration facility more independent from external energy source. This causes emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. From the values obtained with Hysys application it is noticeable that processing the gas dehydration under lower temperatures brings better effects (see Chapter 7). The figures show clearly. For gas containing the same amount of water saving of . and the streams outgoing from regenerator containing the stripping gas .13). but is justified from economical point of view. Even in the temperature and pressure range encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility the tendency is clear. It might be advisable to calculate the costs and profits that could result from using the gas streams outgoing from Gas From TEG Sep. An survey for ways of lowering the amount of TEG in these streams was done. The results obtained with use of Hysys application stay with good conformity with experimental data provided by ATG (Figure 5.4) as fuel for energy source for operating Maćkowice dehydration facility. Therefore the natural gas temperature should be kept low. The main difference in the amount of TEG lost comes out of the amount of water in natural gas.3).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 58 During seasons of natural gas surplus the vent gas is burnt in flare.Remnants and Remnants-2 (Figure 3. Good results in energy saving can be brought by exploiting only one processing line at a time when it is enough to reach the water content of natural gas below the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3GAS.1) and by GPSA (Figure 5.3. According to Hysys computations the biggest TEG waste is encountered in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams outgoing from Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. Energy consumption simulation was made.

Therefore there is no need to dehydrate the natural gas stream to the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3.1) or lower is necessary. Dehydrating natural gas under high pressures enables drying bigger quantities of natural gas. When the pressure equals 5500 kPa. the demand for dew point temperature can be fulfilled with using only one processing line. Until the water content is low enough. Keeping the dew point temperature minimally below the dew point demand will in multiple cases bring savings in energy and TEG loss. In the winter period the dew point temperature of -10 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which equals the water content in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 59 approximately 2 m3TEG per year can be achieved by carrying out the dehydration process under pressures close to the value of 5500 kPa. This brings rational savings in TEG loss and energy consumption.1) is sufficient during summer season. In order to increase the gas pressure neighboring compressor unit is used. Lowering the water content in natural gas to the level of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. According to the Polish Norm the dew point temperature of 5 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which amounts to the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. 280 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated. Until the process of dehydration can be lead with use of one processing line the energy demand equals half the demand calculated (see Chapter 7). The TEG absorbent waste can also be noticeably lowered this way.

Moreover.3).12). The results show clearly that the amount of water in natural gas increases rapidly with temperature rise.1. which leads to the conclusion that results obtained with use of Hysys are reliable. The most energy consumption is encountered during heating of gas stream flowing in the absorber column. The incoming gas stream should not be warmed up. Only one processing line should be used at a time until it is able to dehydrate the outlet stream below the required dew point temperature. In winter season increase in gas temperature caused by the compression may be advisable. The work temperature should be kept low.13. and decreases with pressure increase (Table 5.3. as gas compression is necessary anyway. unless its temperature is lower than 10 oC. The author suggests using the compressor unit neighbouring with Maćkowice dehydration facility for natural gas compression before undergoing the dewatering process. In this case less water would have to be removed from gas in the dehydration process to achieve a desired dew point under given gas temperature.15. Table 5. It also extends the period between maintenance operations and decreases the threat of malfunctions. by increasing work pressure. which makes up around 10 % of annual TEG loss. Table 5. This approach brings savings in amount of TEG lost and energy consumption.17.09) the amount of water to remove during dehydration process were determined (Table 5. By comparison of these results with water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in range between -31 oC and -18 oC (Table 5. some part of water can be removed from natural gas as liquid before the actual dehydration process. Table 5.19. The author concludes. Figure 5. as due to the higher viscosity of . Table 5. From the study made the author concludes that working in high pressure range brings savings in energy consumption and reduces TEG consumption by approximately 2-3 m3 per year. The results obtained by the author with Hysys application were coherent with published results (Figure 5. Conclusions Calculations of water content in natural gas under different temperatures and pressures were made. that in case of saturated gas flow. this approach prevents the necessity of compressing the gas after undergoing the dehydration process. Table 5.21).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 60 9.

temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit of the dehydration temperature range. water content in gas. Unfortunately the author did not have enough data to carry out this investigation. . Poland.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 61 the glycol. gas pressure and dew point temperature demand should be carried out and checked with the data achieved during the exploitation of Maćkowice dehydration facility. More in-depth study over an algorithm of choosing whether to run one or two processing lines depending on the gas temperature.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 62 References Annual Reporting and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Campbell and Company. K. J. 1990 ATG.. Aspen Technology. . 2004.. Paris. 1989 Behar. Vince Tassone. Gas Conditioning and Processing.. P. Natural Gas Hydrates. Stewart. 1988 ATG. Editions Technip. L’Aide-memoire de l’Industrie du Gas. M. Delion. Burlington. J.. Book Division. Inc. Houston. p.141-234. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France.. FRA. Parametric Analysis of Natural Gas Dahydration by a Triethylene Glycol Solution. Hydrate control in multiphase flow. Le Traitment du Gaz Naturel sur Gisement. 2003 www. Gulf Publishing Co.com Chorng H.. 1995 Campbell. Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Elsevier Science. 4th edition. Tex. Wayne D. Natural Gas in the World Gas. Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities. A Guide for Engineers. 2002 Arnold. MA. Thomas. A. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France. Outlook to 2000. 1989 ATG. E. Advanced equation of state method for modeling TEG–water for glycol gas dehydration. 1984 Carroll. 7-9. Sim and Suphat Watanasiri. John M. Paris. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Surface Production Operations.M. Partner Update. Campbell Petroleum Series. Gandhidasan..elsevier.. Spring 2005. M. Twu.S.. ch. Paris. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France – Commision de Production et de Traitement..

. Guidelines for glycol dehydrator design – Part 1. 4.. No. 1984 General Information About Hysys. R. Agostini. New gas-water-TEG equilibria..P.1985. Campbell. F....Y. 2003 Ikoku. J. R.E... p. Gulf Publishing Co.. 55-58.S. April. 1980 Kohl. 1991 Manning. 1985 Kumar. Design Institute for Physical Property Data – Americal Institute of Chemical Engineers (DIPPER-AIChE).com. Tex. Gas dehydration using glycol.2 Documentation. N.U.P.. Book Division. T.N. Gas Production Engineering. F. Gas Purification. Senules. C. Tulsa. 89-274. W. and Wood. Houston. Separation and Processing In Natural Gas Engineering – A Systems Approach.. Data Compilation Tables of Properties of Pure Compounds. ch. 1982 Manning. Gas Conditioning and Processing – Gas and Liquid Sweetening. Okla.. S. Houston. 4-6. Hicks.. L.L. p.. Permeation: a new competitive process in offshore gas dehydration. Oilfield Processing of Petroleum. Okla. – 16th Annual Offshore Technological Conference. R.C. Penn Well Publishing Co. April.E. 2004.. 1991 Hysys 3. 4th ed.. J...S. Gulf Publishing Co. Aspen Technology Inc. Hydrocarbon Processing. www. Riesenfeld. Tulsa. Danner. H. Penn Well Book. A. R.. Penn Well Book. P. Thompson. Book Division. F.M. 1993 . Aspen Tech Driving Process Profitability. Houston. A. Campbell Petroleum Series. 3-rd ed.aspentech. Penn Well Publishing CO..5 Fournie. Hydrocarbon Processing. New Your. 1987 Maddox. Proc.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 63 Daubert. Volume One: Natural Gas. E. Norman.

Newfield Exploration Co. R. 1994 . Paris. Traitement.. Conference. The Cost of Conditioning Your Natural Gas for Market.R.. Michel Valais. Nafta-Gas. 2004 Pontiff. W. 1973 Sivalls.. copyright 1998 by Marcel Dekker. Editions Technip. 1976 Sloan. Marcel Dekker. Translation (updated and expanded) of Le gaz naturel. Heideman. Processing Gas Cond.. Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe. New Orleans.. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. L. Claude Jaffret . 1997. Petrofina Canada Ltd. 73rd Annual GPA Convention. Inc. NY www. Glycol Dehydration Design Manual. Echterhoff.. M... Jr.. Process optimization review.. A. 2005. Inc. University of Calgary. . March. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gas. conference accompanying opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. New York.dekker. C. E..com Stosur. Institut Francais du Petrole Publications. Laurence Reid Gas Conditioning Conference. LA. August 1977 Rojey. Sophie Jullian. University of Oklahoma. and Leppin. materials from conference accompanying the opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility.G. Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnów). Cooperation of Mackowice Dehydration Facility with national gas transport system...A. D. Bernard Durand. Moore. R.E. S.. Estimation of the Water Content of Sour Natural Gases.. E. A. 21st January 2005 Robinson.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 64 Nafta-Gaz. 21st January 2005 Tannehill. J. 1994 Rosman. C. Wichert. SPE Journal. Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operating Manual.C.. Production...N. Water Equilibrium in the ehydration of Natural Gas With Triethylene Glycol. Okla. Transport.

Dehydration with Molecular Sieves. OK. February. Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.. 2001 65 .E.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Trent. R. Norman.

03673 0.00 Boiling point at 101325 Pa [oC] 197.05 0.67 196.04271 0.01063 2395 2307 2190 2165 111.007 Density at 25 oC [kg/m3] 1110 1115 1122 1122 0.00522 0.228 Melting point [oC] -13. 1985) Ethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene glycol glycol glycol glycol EG DEG TEG T4EG (TrEG) Overall chemical formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C8H18O5 Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 62.24 0.89 176.35 -5. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner.00989 0.122 150.27 0.00787 0.00 -10.11 123.66 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Tables Table 2.03021 0.00 277.11 Abbreviation Absolute viscosity at 25 oC [Pa·s] Absolute viscosity at 60 oC [Pa·s] Specific heat at 25 oC [J/kg·K] Flash point [oC] .30 245.85 Vapor pressure at 25 oC [Pa] 12.45 -7.175 194.85 307.01771 0.068 106.

67

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004)
P [bar]

10 C

15 C

20 C

25 C

[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0

0,018

-27

0,025

-22,9

0,036

-18,8

27,6

0,017

-27,2

0,025

-23,1

0,035

-19

28,1

0,018

-26,9

0,026

-23,2

0,035

-18,8

28,7

0,018

-27,1

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

29,2

0,017

-27,5

0,024

-23,3

0,034

-19,3

29,8

0,017

-27,3

0,024

-23,2

0,034

-19,5

30,4

0,016

-27,9

0,023

-23,7

0,033

-19,6

30,9

0,016

-28,2

0,023

-23,9

0,032

-20

31,5

0,016

-28,1

0,023

-24,2

0,032

-20,3

32,0

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,4

0,031

-20,4

32,6

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,5

0,031

-20,6

33,2

0,015

-28,7

0,022

-24,6

0,03

-20,7

33,7

0,015

-28,9

0,021

-24,9

0,03

-20,7

34,3

0,015

-29,1

0,021

-25,1

0,03

-21,1

34,8

0,014

-29,2

0,021

-25,3

0,029

-21,3

35,4

0,015

-29,1

0,02

-25,3

0,028

-21,5

36,0

0,014

-29,3

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,6

36,5

0,014

-29,9

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,9

37,1

0,014

-29,7

0,019

-26

0,027

-22

0,039

-18,2

37,6

0,013

-30,4

0,019

-26,1

0,027

-22,2

0,037

-18,3

38,2

0,013

-30,5

0,019

-26

0,026

-22,4

0,037

-18,5

38,8

0,013

-30,6

0,019

-26,2

0,026

-22,5

0,036

-18,5

39,3

0,013

-30,8

0,018

-26,6

0,026

-22,6

0,035

-18,7

39,9

0,012

-30,9

0,018

-26,7

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

68

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac NG
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3] =
Name
Temperature C
Pressure Kpa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG
-40
100
1
0
0,995188
0,853712
16,46942

Water In
-40,00
100
0
1
8,81E-04
1054,49
18,0151

NG
Water In
0
-40,59685
250
250
1
0
0
1
0,992517 2,21E-03
1,826639 1054,953
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,6056
500
500
1
0
0
1
0,985064 4,42E-03
3,680918 1055,034
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,61348
750
750
1
0
0
1
0,977643 6,62E-03
5,563285 1055,113
16,46942 18,0151

SatGas
-40
100
0,999822
1,78E-04
0,995188
0,853289
16,46115
0,135562
SatGas
-40
250
0,999928
7,20E-05
0,987959
2,147638
16,45213
0,054844
SatGas
-40
500
0,999963
3,67E-05
0,975872
4,345989
16,44272
0,02794
SatGas
-40
750
0,999975
2,49E-05
0,963736
6,598667
16,43672
0,018981

SatGas
-20
100
0,998802
1,20E-03
0,996218
0,785442
16,46774
0,913126
SatGas
-20
250
0,999515
4,85E-04
0,990553
1,973988
16,46217
0,369326
SatGas
-20
500
0,999754
2,46E-04
0,981116
3,984439
16,45592
0,187523
SatGas
-20
750
0,999833
1,67E-04
0,971687
6,032949
16,45126
0,12696

SatGas
0
100
0,994062
5,94E-03
0,996996
0,727702
16,47688
4,524305
SatGas
0
250
0,997606
2,39E-03
0,99251
1,826606
16,46902
1,823647
SatGas
0
500
0,998788
1,21E-03
0,985059
3,679663
16,46374
0,923569
SatGas
0
750
0,999181
8,19E-04
0,977642
5,560168
16,46018
0,623664

SatGas
20
100
0,977004
2,30E-02
0,997576
0,678777
16,504
17,52095
SatGas
20
250
0,990742
9,26E-03
0,994001
1,700705
16,48134
7,053893
SatGas
20
500
0,995321
4,68E-03
0,988072
3,419901
16,4721
3,565226
SatGas
20
750
0,996847
3,15E-03
0,982186
5,159245
16,46779
2,402648

SatGas
40
100
0,926761
7,32E-02
0,997954
0,638188
16,58206
55,8042
SatGas
40
250
0,970541
2,95E-02
0,995118
1,593395
16,51343
22,44607
SatGas
40
500
0,985134
1,49E-02
0,990382
3,197366
16,48937
11,327
SatGas
40
750
0,989998
1,00E-02
0,985684
4,816303
16,48047
7,621263

SatGas
60
100
0,800924
0,199076
0,997932
0,606935
16,77682
151,6903
SatGas
60
250
0,919972
8,00E-02
0,995834
1,503793
16,59211
60,97907
SatGas
60
500
0,959664
4,03E-02
0,992091
3,007565
16,52963
30,73496
SatGas
60
750
0,972894
2,71E-02
0,988345
4,522551
16,50811
20,65389

SatGas
80
100
0,525055
0,474945
0,996642
0,587882
17,20343
361,9035
SatGas
80
250
0,80903
0,19097
0,995826
1,433335
16,76397
145,5172
SatGas
80
500
0,903817
9,62E-02
0,993106
2,849244
16,61655
73,29028
SatGas
80
750
0,935425
6,46E-02
0,990195
4,273601
16,56683
49,20551

SatGas
100
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,991957
0,583746
17,965
737,3064
SatGas
100
250
0,590953
0,409047
0,993959
1,386413
17,10139
311,697
SatGas
100
500
0,793934
0,206066
0,99289
2,724768
16,78691
157,0241
SatGas
100
750
0,861717
0,138283
0,990927
4,069508
16,68139
105,3731

SatGas
120
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993004
0,553466
17,965
737,3215
SatGas
120
250
0,20153
0,79847
0,98718
1,371575
17,70357
608,453
SatGas
120
500
0,596676
0,403324
0,9899
2,641157
17,09231
307,3425
SatGas
120
750
0,729221
0,270779
0,989531
3,915565
16,88681
206,3396

SatGas
140
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993883
0,526208
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
250
0,032416
0,967584
0,984592
1,327933
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
500
0,270738
0,729262
0,980576
2,612049
17,59653
555,7249
SatGas
140
750
0,509163
0,490837
0,983602
3,82412
17,22757
374,036

69

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5.2b Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 2 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG

Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,62119
-40
-20
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1
0 0,999981 0,999873 0,999378
0
1 1,90E-05 1,27E-04 6,22E-04
0,970258 8,83E-03 0,951549 0,962267 0,97026
7,474177 1055,192 8,908599 8,120855 7,468663
16,46942
18,0151 16,43247 16,44758 16,45732
0,014508 0,096707 0,473805
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,63688
-40
-20
0
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1
0 0,999987 0,999913 0,999575
0
1 1,32E-05 8,73E-05 4,25E-04
0,955599 1,32E-02 0,927023 0,943466 0,955612
11,38324 1055,351 13,7116 12,41986 11,37161
16,46942
18,0151 16,42667 16,44207 16,45281
0,010051 0,066516 0,324139
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,65348
-40
-20
0
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
1
0 0,99999 0,999932 0,999673
0
1 1,03E-05 6,76E-05 3,27E-04
0,941109 1,77E-02 0,902296 0,924731 0,941132
15,41135 1055,511 18,77865 16,89122 15,39215
16,46942
18,0151 16,42274 16,43809 16,44932
0,007838 0,051486 0,249505
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,69075
-40
-20
0
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
1
0 0,999993 0,999952 0,99977
0
1 7,43E-06 4,80E-05 2,30E-04
0,912718 2,65E-02 0,852287 0,887568 0,912768
23,83609 1055,832 29,81105 26,38896 23,79828
16,46942
18,0151 16,41739 16,43263 16,44419
0,005662 0,036597 0,175293

SatGas

SatGas

SatGas

20
40
60
1000
1000
1000
0,997609 0,992429 0,979508
2,39E-03 7,57E-03 2,05E-02
0,976344 0,981032 0,984633
6,918913 6,450217 6,048684
16,46484 16,47543 16,49689
1,821597 5,768893 15,61413
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
1500
1500
1500
0,998371 0,994859 0,98612
1,63E-03 5,14E-03 1,39E-02
0,964803 0,971871 0,977337
10,4998 9,762924 9,134077
16,46059 16,46936 16,48483
1,241031 3,917547 10,57614
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
2000
2000
2000
0,998752 0,996072 0,989423
1,25E-03 3,93E-03 1,06E-02
0,953463 0,962913 0,970226
14,16351 13,13523
12,263
16,45741 16,46545 16,47806
0,951245 2,992914 8,059008
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
3000
3000
3000
0,999131 0,997283 0,992722
8,69E-04 2,72E-03 7,28E-03
0,931448 0,945642 0,956597
21,74116 20,05625 18,64756
16,45267 16,46018 16,4701
0,662485 2,070397 5,545669

SatGas

SatGas
80
100
1000
1000
0,95123 0,895629
4,88E-02 0,104371
0,987268 0,988768
5,706312 5,420531
16,54156 16,62825
37,16258 79,53179
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
1500
1500
0,967032 0,929551
3,30E-02 7,04E-02
0,981485 0,984334
8,596383 8,140997
16,51558 16,57444
25,12137 53,68303
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
2000
2000
0,97493 0,946511
2,51E-02 5,35E-02
0,975846 0,979939
11,51855 10,88526
16,50195 16,54694
19,10334 40,75873
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
3000
3000
0,98282 0,963464
1,72E-02 3,65E-02
0,96508 0,97151
17,45501 16,44117
16,48725 16,51844
13,09114 27,84049

SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1000
1000
0,795648 0,629204
0,204352 0,370796
0,988409 0,984385
5,194701 5,039737
16,78348 17,04149
155,7211 282,5601
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1500
1500
0,862171 0,749796
0,137829 0,250204
0,985479 0,983751
7,766747 7,481237
16,6794 16,85395
105,0286 190,6648
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
2000
2000
0,895465 0,810293
0,104535 0,189707
0,982294 0,982086
10,35645 9,93579
16,62675 16,75932
79,65841 144,5639
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
3000
3000
0,928768 0,870911
7,12E-02 0,129089
0,975949 0,977969
15,58522 14,88087
16,5731 16,66352
54,28041 98,37066

992626 0.44057 0.2668 16.61259 45.998209 1.79094 16.004616 0.992041 3.7218 16.37E-03 1.025071 0.99151 -40 -20 0 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 1 0 0.790572 73.19E-03 0.85E-05 1.43851 0.05E-02 0.922745 0.337547 SatGas SatGas 20 40 8000 8000 0.973769 20.364449 SatGas SatGas 80 100 4000 4000 0.38908 SatGas SatGas 80 100 5000 5000 0.99943 0.49E-02 2.48651 11.871305 136.431904 SatGas 60 20000 0.961818 106.998245 5.064803 SatGas SatGas 120 140 4000 4000 0.46367 16.00403 0.801717 0.43786 0.969976 0.97E-02 5.10E-05 0.40396 16.4565 0.09E-02 2.54E-02 0.955393 0.65E-03 0.96E-03 0.13E-04 0.61E-02 0.0245 151.4118 16.21273 24.999818 0 1 6.788426 0.24562 36.24829 SatGas SatGas 120 140 5000 5000 0.994366 5.57841 SatGas SatGas 120 140 20000 20000 0.519165 1.41068 16.36004 47.969835 26.52469 SatGas SatGas 80 100 8000 8000 0.999962 0.46161 3.81E-02 0.47901 16.612019 0.50101 16.999994 0.20853 1056.790396 7.999887 0 1 4.95648 29.45474 2.06E-02 0.999975 0.996808 3.859158 42.5283 16.735116 0.06E-06 3.53E-02 0.989113 0.44798 0.70E-04 1.79E-03 0.46942 18.44117 16.995349 4.43259 16.58489 33.70 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.73488 -40 -20 0 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 1 0 0.292802 SatGas 60 5000 0.611285 SatGas SatGas 20 40 5000 5000 0.619164 11.27E-06 2.6143 86.0151 16.117018 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.46942 18.964497 0.70598 16.945766 0.80019 16.138633 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.960475 42.943805 25.951349 0.57958 73.68723 32.76382 16.7209 0.06E-04 1.19285 16.0151 16.39992 1057.75109 SatGas SatGas 80 100 20000 20000 0.2057 16.5037 16.49374 8.07962 16.999846 0 1 5.82E-04 0.46942 18.99927 2.015889 0.47777 5.434047 1.003357 0.29E-05 1.54E-04 0.929306 29.42122 16.43267 0.910429 0.61243 40.4832 99.885287 3.4436 1.999979 0.295609 17.14E-01 37.46845 16.5712 16.973919 1.46942 18.984579 7.22E-03 0.938915 48.63E-03 0.0151 16.10392 -40 -20 0 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 1 0 0.996052 0.985125 0.2411 114.32E-02 0.998775 4.6919 16.41364 16.32E-02 2.019317 0.46E-02 9.46516 4.62E-04 7.09099 21.997885 6.75104 0.45682 3.815533 0.3026 57.8481 42.970326 0.999919 0 1 4.945414 0.890549 9.488 56.6512 27.299 1061.42444 0.54E-05 1.874918 64.88647 16.53849 22.199802 0.556253 SatGas 60 4000 0.008631 6.10192 16.029307 0.511 110.88522 34.833824 171.677581 0.47349 16.851043 0.29E-06 3.048 271.54545 16.81E-04 2.999738 0.3351 19.42634 16.003252 0.44918 16.12253 16.839223 0.4395 16.544099 SatGas 60 8000 0.45369 0.885364 32.309711 0.37301 SatGas SatGas 120 140 8000 8000 0.11E-03 0.76622 1056.977002 1.999594 0.735258 197.46E-02 8.999995 0.999319 0.926502 124.78728 -40 -20 0 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 0 0.89146 16.986757 0.1548 196.21987 16.946273 0.61474 41.41E-06 2.76E-03 0.999996 0.30E-04 0.0151 16.09E-05 8.59576 75.999967 0.94675 2.9319 31.50335 10.41E-02 0.933332 SatGas SatGas 20 40 20000 20000 0.30E-02 0.87E-02 0.2535 16.623604 0.176007 0.2c Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 3 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.44653 16.901925 52.99159 61.157 42.901254 5.38932 16.955041 0.1565 230.95E-03 7.50623 22.42899 16.971931 1.4498 40.8684 16.919462 4.87337 19.859054 4.061717 SatGas SatGas 20 40 4000 4000 0.44921 16.901826 0.999996 0.086119 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -41.66101 27.87495 .963674 23.

097277 1.2582 237.1354 259.95E-04 1.010212 SatGas 60 50000 0.42226 16.73E-05 6.03557 219.4322 0.40366 16.999996 0.46424 7.206158 295.4535 16.050478 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.49E-02 1.3745 16.00E-02 0.4849 16.0151 16.124344 224.007714 235.153622 SatGas SatGas 80 100 50000 50000 0.42906 16.999996 0.896785 233.992353 275.948025 0.35E-02 1.015052 0.47242 8.91E-04 4.43795 16.00303 0.808525 SatGas SatGas 80 100 40000 40000 0.2d Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 4 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.43938 1.99012 0.71 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9466 16.376912 SatGas 60 30000 0.786 394.994549 2.1048 16.991965 0.88E-05 6.5396 16.80E-05 6.999809 0.999983 0.2246 164.043 1063.97742 0.01E-04 5.145359 0.44E-05 0.999996 0.46942 18.98E-06 1.431505 SatGas SatGas 120 140 30000 30000 0.99369 3.43209 0.3943 16.198501 251.42991 0.998865 1.44403 16.968509 177.431976 SatGas SatGas 20 40 50000 50000 0.134202 SatGas 60 40000 0.999408 153.988416 0.89911 -40 -20 0 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 1 0 0.26321 0.956455 0.49E-03 0.098653 0.13E-06 1.201229 279.31423 .31E-03 0.80E-03 5.4153 0.5774 351.6765 16.999982 0.997197 0.995497 2.43479 0.199886 1.99993 0 1 3.0151 16.827251 15.400888 SatGas SatGas 20 40 60000 60000 0.104182 268.122926 10.3435 312.161 376.13E-03 1.056396 192.999981 0.80E-03 1.999934 0 1 3.836689 260.2691 328.233811 352.69E-02 1.04E-03 1.999996 0.014345 0.105999 1.927037 SatGas 60 60000 0.33E-03 1.43581 16.7149 1066.6695 1071.795334 3.983118 9.9393 16.999785 0.013729 0.90E-03 1.964618 0.2648 143.999375 2.99E-05 0.67E-04 0.782 321.522215 1.211407 331.70E-06 1.42416 16.999937 0 1 3.349965 0.1653 264.733471 SatGas SatGas 80 100 60000 60000 0.048174 SatGas SatGas 20 40 30000 30000 0.136093 4.099654 307.3253 372.42806 0.9951 2.115204 252.25E-04 0.999505 1.864803 SatGas SatGas 80 100 30000 30000 0.98E-05 7.0578 286.5492 352.867052 0.63E-05 1.285294 1.45861 6.38031 16.40719 16.88E-03 1.997644 0.4489 16.40077 16.46942 18.5814 239.491 353.44569 2.035 1069.8061 254.45438 6.002819 0.7577 16.985083 8.6698 325.24902 SatGas SatGas 120 140 40000 40000 0.15E-04 5.233769 0.056669 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.003146 0.121822 1.22E-03 1.529158 12.998674 1.002921 0.09869 330.9262 16.38437 16.476543 SatGas SatGas 20 40 40000 40000 0.36E-03 4.9708 289.955701 0.32E-04 6.7493 16.2235 211.43644 1.964662 300.0746 204.93605 -40 -20 0 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 1 0 0.83E-06 1.37712 16.86498 SatGas SatGas 120 140 50000 50000 0.46942 18.42069 0.43994 1.20E-03 6.87408 -40 -20 0 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 1 0 0.45305 16.6839 16.45003 2.046991 1.996801 0.99604 -40 -20 0 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 1 0 0.203081 1.437416 4.4457 16.999433 2.45887 16.7066 11.99998 0.999474 2.013185 0.43412 0.16E-02 2.50E-03 1.999926 0 1 4.177091 0.220082 1.9354 299.808816 0.664 16.109651 1.36711 SatGas SatGas 120 140 60000 60000 0.836617 0.46942 18.436294 1.806 16.2995 181.979989 1.053222 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.924049 192.985585 0.44059 16.3983 16.42638 16.26E-04 1.999799 0.787539 0.153415 0.254669 1.986465 8.163468 0.2511 16.2381 16.998511 1.0151 16.997455 0.54E-03 4.0735 16.41319 0.120244 1.0151 16.999768 0.998783 1.44248 1.32E-05 1.022349 1.1631 16.41775 0.45E-03 1.939258 3.991199 0.5132 16.6145 16.5998 213.

768893 3.054844 0.003319 0.6903 60.37301 40.84049 21.187523 0.09099 8.3425 206.974314 0.942848 7.90911 39.7211 105.026449 0.9035 145.507 103.005973 0.14301 0.57134 2.056146 0.065718 0.73883 2.018981 0.621263 5.733471 3.848 586.47204 11.241031 0.951245 0.008631 2.85926 23.015052 0.54769 0.019317 0.431505 120 140 608.476543 0.864803 80 361.053251 0.544099 2.52469 11.002974 -20 0.14625 0.65841 54.184155 1.15725 8.324139 0.528671 3.61413 10.8337 641.439419 1.050821 20 18.133935 0.7883 153.611285 1.8845 324.153415 0.99159 22.013729 0.50166 20.457895 0.7249 374.086119 0.74515 42.15298 13.003357 0.1409 152.21078 0.364449 1.177091 0.381843 3.938607 3.134202 1.053222 0.927037 0.5601 190.821597 1.048174 20 17.63265 42.199802 0.57185 11.03524 57.453 307.369326 0.010603 0.556253 0.2294 217.5172 73.400888 0.53179 53.619164 3.772893 1.2772 110.57841 19.99822 29.030917 0.002819 -20 0.5639 98.015889 0.153622 3.013185 0 4.6648 144.15736 2.534662 1.24829 61.136093 1.37066 75.085865 4.08687 13.010051 0.008269 0.52095 7.80799 20.02794 0.37018 22.31722 51.697 157.68303 40.662485 0.992914 2.97907 30.122926 737.0286 79.88095 Table 5.057858 0.10334 13.431976 0.197827 0.61243 11.050478 0.075094 6.75109 6.003431 0.020379 0.20551 37.657931 0.94936 8.529158 6.78872 16.545669 4.699817 1.92791 3.402648 1.38281 64.117018 0.921685 1.014345 0.848 777.65389 15.8042 22.761118 2.054315 0.17394 2.808525 4.3064 311.923847 0.1628 83.29028 49.00487 0.015879 0.102021 0.07273 4.029475 0.95791 9.070397 1.010212 0.337547 0.96698 16.163468 0.295609 5.39675 6.029307 0.066516 0.36711 10.398034 5.5874 298.501811 5.44147 3.0854 201.19652 1.003197 0.24902 12.85487 11.025071 0.473805 0.99168 10.020024 0.81044 10.455711 0.437416 2.917547 2.25346 2.6518 111.977973 0.175293 0.025 64.87037 23.565226 2.096707 0.014508 0.002921 0.01391 0 4.502727 0.963297 0.003542 0.2593 394.015305 0.45935 140 777.75873 27.28041 41.138633 0.8232 165.42369 21.38908 17.586816 0.519165 0.57614 8.045811 1.422915 0.939258 1.145359 40 55.16258 25.341949 0.038607 0.90167 56.431904 1.923569 0.411039 0.132796 3.3731 79.153346 40 58.003252 0.524305 1.751411 5.061717 0.397621 60 160.20448 26.6769 164.172449 0.913126 0.59576 33.053893 3.059008 5.00303 0.73496 20.064803 4.015133 0.44607 11.040013 6.984614 0.059783 0.312264 7.249505 0.26286 43.065108 0.0241 105.070171 0.8178 328.123447 0.309711 0.00403 0.036 282.565526 1.912319 .3351 555.003511 0.016762 0. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.88124 35.850376 4.620049 120 777.56431 18.161845 0.004616 0.48364 7.12137 19.7994 84.327 7.007838 0.67937 11.376912 60 151. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.5127 77.893979 100 777.933332 0.64545 8.184924 0.86498 11.48759 12.004251 0.003081 0.09114 10.30922 1.7756 79.005662 0.31423 80 381.87495 15.326728 0.623664 0.014483 0.72 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.051486 0.3351 8.795334 100 737.135562 0.186821 0.32957 32.003146 0.056669 0.389619 0.499838 0.698885 0.823647 0.3396 155.827251 7.7066 6.036597 0.263214 0.090851 0.292802 3.12696 0.434047 0.

431096 6.501 4375.76E-02 0.46727 4370.014 -0.016 73 .651129 3.145357 0.376912 0.07368 26.864803 1.001 -0.253 4400.004 -0.007 0.751 4387.003 -0.23E-02 4362.048176 0.048174 0.122926 10.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.210783 0.376896 0.012 -0.1E-05 -0.376896 0. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa c_flow= c_Clapeyron= Difference Percent Difference SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 0.013186 0.145357 0.431096 6.002819467 0.636424 1.565 0.31423 3.048176 0.339 4380.45153E-07 9.36E-06 -1.31261 Table 5.43E-07 1.145359 0.010 -0.864741 1.876656 15.00017 -0.00163 0. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa CompMassFlowH2O kg/h Std Gas Flow STD_m3/h c= SatGas -40 60000 1.6E-05 -6.122071 10.31261 0.00085 -0.94011 45.431505 6.122071 10.293 4378.00041 -0.903 0.861 4383.00282 SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 5.007 -0.012 0.013186 0.795334 3.4E-06 -1.790811 7.715 4393.864741 1.002819812 0.49 4408.013185 0.795161 3.795161 3.

9 -33 -33.3 15.9 -25.517 -16.9 -30 -30.8 30.8296 -25.7391 -18.22581 -29.3 -33.2222 -19 22.841 -32.4 -32.5 0 -22.3333 -30.333 -33.5 -21.667 -16.075 -33.3 53.2 19.2 -21.5587 0 -1.7 11.6 -21.8 -21.739 -27.7647 -20.6 8.37 -18.9 -20.3 20 -23.9 16.4493 -18.9 47.3 -29.7322 -27.3 39.667 -26.2 15.3 9.6 0 -21.1 16.6 15.25 -28.6 33.4 -29.8 20 -23.87 -24.7 2.667 -16.786 -19.2 -18.2857 -20.1 51.2 3.5 -28.6 28.2 -22.3 48.7 11.5 51.4 -33.4 11.821 -15.273 -30.2 52.789 -18.7 20 C % Tr[C] 21.1 18.207 -17.7 6.69565 -24.3846 -24.9 0 -29.9 11.2041 -24.7 34. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package P [bar] 27.8 -32.8 49.57143 -22 3.8 0 -25.3 15 -19.5 0 -30.2692 -27.8148 -23.8 53.1 -25 -25.44828 -21.1 9.5 0 -21.6 52.2 -33.1 -24.8 35.63 -20 -20.8 22.6 -32.3 0 -29.6 38.7 -18.98507 -30.9 3.1 37.5 -24.5 -29.6 -33.9 -22.25 -28.9302 -19.9284 -0.1 5.667 -17 -14.5385 -24.205 -29.1 -22.385 -20 -20.183 -25 -25.6 -29.7 -29.0 10 C % Tr[C] 20.88235 -28.4 1.951 -22.57143 -22.25 -21.2 18.69 -21.1 28.4 0 -22.1194 -20.2 38.3548 -22.5 15.8 -24.3 34.333 -25 -12.4 -22.7 -32.4 55.09091 -25.8 20.5 -18.7 -24.8 39.6316 1.2222 -18.5 32.74 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.7048 -27 23.571 -21.6 0 -26.875 -22.34783 -24.06952 -1.1 6.88235 -28.093 -25 -28.7895 -27.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -32.8 -21 -21.2 -26.22581 -26.2 1.8 -28.3 0 -25.4 36.2 -29.7 -28.7 29.7 48.4 Tr[C] .9 31.129 -23.4 30.9 13.429 -21.7 -33.2 12.8 -15.4286 -20.154 -20.0 36.1 0 -26 0 -26.67742 -29.3 16.9 -26 -26.5385 -23.1 5.33333 -21.5 5.8 15 C % Tr[C] 21.828 -15.667 -16.2 -21.1 -33.3 3.967 -16.96078 -29.0 50.5 6.759 -28.1 -29.9 -21.9 -29 -29.51515 -30.8 0 -26 0 -26.1 3.644 -20 -20.846 -21.1 -26.857 -18.0 27.66667 -29.8 25 C % -2.5 37.4 50.9 21.1297 -26.0476 -27.875 -23.951 -23.5 19.2 14.0 32.2 47.7 6.5 -18.4 -21.8 0 -30.3 -18.2 29.8 -25.8 -29.968 -21.6 0 -22.5 -33.7895 -20 15.9 6.7 -25.4545 -18.3 -26.2 5.6 14.8 20.442 -20.1 -33.45455 -22.4 10.5 4.1 -25.667 -21.6 -8.1671 -19.828 -26.66667 -25.9 54.9785 -28.2 33.7907 -27.9 3.387 -22.

368 -21.774 -27.602 -22.8 -28.617 -19 -40.116 -26.7735 -1.2 -26.436 -23.9 -30 -30.07 -45.515 -18.8 -21 -21.5 32.8 6.1 37.6 -11.342 -26.7333 13.8194 11.8853 -2.515 -25.397 -19.6 38.6518 -27.75 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 -29 -29.6 -21.86292 9.3354 -28.3343 10.576 3.1 -29.3 -29.831 -28.117 -26.4 55.0 36.9 -1.213 -26.2 47.1 -9.026 -44.031 -24.3561 9.0 50.9 -26 -26.1 -9.0216 -28.8 25 C % 27.9 54.392 -33.9 -51.306 -40.6 -17.3 34.2 -5.8 -12.871 -13.628 -29.0216 -28.4754 -5.2 -12.696 -16.5 -24.2 -26.2 33.8 -28.94 -20.088 -29.2 -10.2 -29.121 -21.5 -29.7 -21.1 -20.252 -20.1 51.8 -24.2 29.7 -32.8619 -27.1 -25.16637 6.72712 -30.0501 -5.9 31.9 -22.9 -7. Gandhidasan P [bar] 15 C % Tr[C] -25.515 -25.9 -28.4457 -3.5 0.3 -35.7 -24.5 -21.3 48.3278 -1.8853 -29.744 -15.68842 -30.1 -12.2 -19.948 -30.8 -25.7 -33.1 0.9 -20.4754 -28.213 -22.6 33.8 35.1 0.7 -33.3018 12.786 -24.7 20 C % Tr[C] -44.161 -12.446 -18.945 -23.8 -17.4 1.993 -19.7816 12.5 -8.5 51.9 -25.5 -21.9038 -4.072 -18.32618 -29.792 -22 -30.0093 -29.7 29.3 -33.985 -35.105 -32.9 -13.1 28.252 -20.6 28.0093 -3.659 -41.2 -21.2 52.7 -29.3 -17.6038 -30.8 -40.6 -0.5 37.722 -39.781 -20 -39.4914 -27.6 -33.242 -28.208 -21.4553 -27.7 -28.446 -20.2 -33.4 -20.492 -14.492 -26.5 -30.3 -41.7 1.0 32.3 -26.602 -22.072 -18.663 -21.4 30.14217 5.375 -34.67 -23.854 -19.8 39.32618 -0.872 -17.8 49.3 -29.335 -25.96 -27 -7.5 -28.1 -24.3354 -3.4 -27.853 -29.742 -18.71 -24.8 -39.6 -24.446 -24.4 Tr[C] .582 -27.7 34.1 -26.9 -5.9 -18.0 7.509 -26.4 -21.6552 -28.8 47.5 -32.072 -18.8 -22.501 -30.722 -33.4 -33.4 -36.9 -23.9 -21.368 -24.2 -18.8 30.471 -22.742 -18.29321 -20.628 -6.9 10 C % Tr[C] -12.5 -3.1 -33.9 -33 -33.7 48.663 -32.804 -17.628 -29.1 -22.5 -37.62585 13.774 -22.2 -20.5 -18.6 -32.8465 10.1476 -30.2 -21.7 -25.2091 0.5 -9.1 -33.6 -33.948 -21.4 -29.871 -26 -13.1 -25 -25.2 -22. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P.463 -32.2 -6.074 -18.1 -33.4 50.2588 12.6 -36.5 -33.8 -41.05 -20.8 -32.0 27.3 53.4 -32.052 -25.8 53.116 -14.3 -14.392 -32.765 -23.9816 -3.871 -26 -14.3 39.9 -26.3018 11.6 -29.7 -36.092 -16.172 -22.831 -21.5 -18.288 -22.462 -23.7 -18.8715 -29.7 -4.4 36.471 -20.6 52.4 -22.742 -25.36706 17.3 -18.6 -32.2 38.272 -23.8 -21.4928 -30.8 -29.3 -5.3 -3.1 -32.2221 -0.2 -24.3 -22.

16 13.05 18.14 20.50 34.32 24.94 36.28 14.23 15.8 49.97 23.39 35.94 36.31 34.48 17.58 14.28 16.05 -18.32 40.91 27.56 27.07 21.96 33.46 38.87 14.69 27.24 44.59 29.12 41.99 35.40 14.7 48.39 45.59 27.26 16.52 27.57 42.58 13.75 30.21 38.17 16.02 12.2 38.98 11.21 12.31 11.42 40.96 35.22 18.76 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.36 41.11 28.19 30.58 20.95 39.01 26.35 12.35 13.47 16.75 19.46 10.13 38.79 32.92 28.35 29.65 19.80 15.40 30.98 32.90 39.17 27.02 42.43 29.31 11.78 29.44 26.42 21.09 27.61 16.16 41.5 32 32.59 17.71 18.83 9.70 16.18 21.60 26.26 23.07 10.13 14.24 39.23 21.83 -18.83 -28 19.64 17.09 9.47 27.79 12.69 34.19 21.67 12.25 36.88 37.15 35.31 15.46 22.09 29.82 34.35 23.54 10.82 34.20 10.13 41.51 24.88 11.93 26.73 34.56 38.89 13.87 28.22 15.43 25.84 38.81 13.72 42.49 35.70 27.21 19.45 28.38 28.69 14.69 35.4 30.16 27.23 26.70 28.18 13.12 21.92 27.13 12.30 43.05 26.27 12.03 -30 16. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] P [bar] 27 27.67 36.31 30.00 23.05 29.72 27.02 16.39 33.76 37.1 46.38 26.6 52.45 26.13 22.48 16.93 16.75 27.64 43.2 29.99 37.55 35.96 21.92 11.4 50 50.93 27.9 54.17 34.06 29.66 26.3 46.89 10.80 26.23 29.67 18.58 29.88 37.95 44.16 27.86 30.03 29.3 48.24 27.82 26.81 29.87 39.11 26.10 42.11 15.73 23.83 28.94 34.70 -18.25 21.62 18.68 19.88 22.46 35.93 43.63 28.90 24.87 17.51 19.40 34.27 25.85 10.43 30.42 -24 28.67 41.3 39.24 9.23 28.46 13.60 17.13 36.80 29.2 47.11 34.30 29.94 41.69 10.64 28.40 28.3 53.24 11.57 29.37 9.45 34.06 11.9 31.75 9.85 32.69 23.42 39.94 12.42 24.46 14.09 39.13 28.60 28.68 44.38 31.62 25.24 13.99 28.04 14.60 22.52 38.36 31.95 33.34 15.52 15.96 39.06 40.30 44.24 25.68 33.80 40.23 23.19 9.20 37.49 26.90 36.43 22.94 32.16 28.55 15.98 14.87 42.77 25.01 13.31 38.4 36 36.46 40.83 20.41 40.84 17.91 34.73 29.31 35.5 37.77 14.2 46.12 32.42 35.92 12.81 -23 30.55 28.69 26.8 53.84 20.76 26.31 27.83 43.78 36.27 26.33 22.82 .47 31.71 15.95 27.18 43.72 33.44 15.00 19.81 43.01 9.44 33.55 13.97 22.83 16.02 10.61 27.78 30.79 11.73 24.23 37.37 42.74 21.78 22.73 26.67 27.48 41.01 17.74 36.51 28.29 29.96 38.54 27.89 23.85 31.42 9.18 23.1 28.95 10.14 -18.17 38.00 41.46 45.45 18.05 18.13 10.20 42.62 23.61 40.61 14.30 14.96 14.87 21.36 17.65 31.78 10.09 13.21 12.52 21.82 31.28 37.60 42.46 27.02 18.82 36.74 42.17 26.20 20.60 19.62 9.70 35.80 23.7 34.59 29.45 15.60 29.97 35.65 38.55 11.02 35.20 38.60 36.38 36.36 29.01 12.27 27.07 16.11 40.75 22.36 27.53 34.6 33.36 21.01 37.82 37.61 35.55 15.98 40.96 39.52 23.59 25.94 27.84 -27 21.33 37.09 14.81 26.39 34.12 17.15 24.60 28.15 34.86 34.62 10.84 29.44 42.40 27.17 19.82 18.6 38.97 13.33 28.70 37.69 37.71 15.85 23.92 -18.53 34.07 17.26 13.80 26.32 36.06 11.01 32.98 17.40 27.72 26.03 29.54 18.73 34.78 27.29 11.36 36.76 30.07 36.56 23.28 29.88 28.05 36.97 29.15 27.13 31.13 16.54 39.43 40.86 14.27 34.57 26.00 33.47 35.99 33.92 13.89 32.74 30.57 21.45 28.62 13.17 20.58 13.46 11.04 18.57 38.19 11.86 27.21 22.87 14.15 22.69 28.33 21.59 27.26 -18.39 18.75 29.11 28.30 19.88 34.53 13.8 30.21 42.72 16.30 30.73 13.12 30.36 -18.95 24.13 27.86 14.56 29.91 20.8 44.10 20.37 15.58 39.56 42.30 16.48 28.88 25.55 35.78 18.43 39.72 27.72 17.13 -25 25.52 13.65 33.82 27.23 17.85 35.25 36.89 -29 17.51 34.86 30.48 -18.11 43.44 19.74 38.40 34.92 18.21 15.91 15.35 20.54 12.46 12.71 27.50 32.58 25.28 19.46 23.04 15.49 41.05 28.66 16.20 26.11 34.07 29.88 14.66 11.00 33.52 41.2 52.33 32.50 38.29 20.48 43.06 14.56 30.71 20.90 9.45 35.49 27.34 24.3 34.32 19.83 42.17 42.25 24.92 44.40 33.63 11.7 44.14 10.91 15.10 32.58 43.24 18.11 19.89 43.87 28.52 18.55 43.42 17.48 21.15 28.30 9.31 37.40 18.78 25.63 12.84 26.15 40.30 33.30 41.39 12.07 27.9 47.52 37.13 28.29 38.1 51.46 42.69 32.33 10.8 35.72 41.02 16.67 37.81 22.03 15.29 35.48 14.49 20.45 23.32 28.4 45.22 29.38 26.08 13.54 43.67 15.00 27.70 14.40 28.18 27.59 34.61 32.38 27.21 36.4 55 -31 14.7 29.96 38.01 45.58 24.77 41.05 19.23 14.83 24.20 43.93 28.78 41.35 29.06 35.43 36.61 39.79 26.08 28.5 45.51 20.53 24.71 20.91 19.82 16.55 15.89 24.45 31.28 30.30 26.36 28.63 29.45 22.54 29.87 28.46 28.63 39.76 35.63 38.30 28.96 41.63 36.29 33.46 39.30 32.81 35.35 20.67 25.72 34.29 16.17 28.67 14.93 21.52 12.49 14.45 26.28 31.84 23.91 37.75 28.54 38.08 12.65 17.07 27.88 28.89 26.13 39.78 29.17 13.51 12.48 27.02 34.77 36.62 39.92 17.25 26.15 30.69 9.90 39.36 13.09 20.00 33.04 22.57 36.53 29.28 18.80 38.05 25.49 9.13 15.06 16.40 28.76 36.10 15.15 20.53 30.25 16.95 27.95 9.30 20.89 19.27 10.41 13.63 27.13 17.01 27.88 25.95 26.83 38.18 28.33 35.84 20.6 44.86 44.81 15.33 16.05 20.55 33.20 17.36 36.08 25.80 11.5 51.96 26.01 19.22 28.93 44.01 25.05 28.62 44.60 25.58 19.89 13.73 13.11 28.74 14.77 27.39 11.30 35.69 33.18 22.25 33.31 41.88 38.75 22.62 21.75 25.94 21.52 37.87 28.30 12.37 12.07 27.97 38.01 12.38 17.41 11.35 16.84 28.85 42.22 14.81 18.79 39.59 24.92 16.33 44.30 19.92 40.6 28.60 15.14 26.78 19.12 24.57 34.43 25.81 17.82 12.25 37.32 29.21 39.25 27.81 18.53 28.92 35.35 17.06 28.57 27.1 37.17 43.98 27.83 33.01 25.07 30.86 15.56 37.09 14.49 21.98 16.54 11.07 9.13 9.8 39.64 17.64 32.16 32.04 22.60 28.57 37.29 39.12 21.21 39.16 17.9 33.74 43.52 5.16 11.05 27.65 12.87 35.43 43.80 40.83 12.07 28.77 21.30 38.86 27.40 14.07 45.44 18.17 27.51 36.16 26.26 40.16 34.19 23.63 28.63 40.81 28.20 37.77 40.82 36.85 46.06 28.25 46.91 35.48 37.04 26.2 33.34 37.04 27.37 36.63 27.59 -18 47.24 36.56 20.14 26.89 28.43 23.98 33.45 15.33 19.31 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.75 13.21 35.66 27.94 -26 23.27 28.08 42.81 41.19 14.75 37.44 26.44 13.83 17.31 29.49 33.72 30.09 34.37 36.71 44.84 27.71 11.55 9.84 29.54 18.67 23.43 38.91 11.79 25.73 12.46 19.56 16.33 27.01 37.09 11.08 40.96 23.40 10.00 35.03 13.86 16.50 22.70 21.96 26.56 26.98 34.74 40.23 32.12 33.27 27.57 24.13 34.89 19.57 35.77 28.40 29.24 33.27 27.71 13.

56 18.37 34.3 34.21 29.68 29.46 14.90 27.49 -27 22.91 30.74 17.17 42.85 45.64 43.63 39.45 40.94 14.20 34.06 44.41 40.10 29.75 40.09 19.81 13.75 9.74 31.41 19.01 9.15 28.48 31.62 34.57 14.29 16.87 -18.52 30.41 28.61 37.67 30.56 25.43 -29 18.36 26.69 42.20 24.07 12.97 38.96 30.12 11.83 25.45 29.00 28.56 10.88 30.43 38.70 9.24 31.81 11.09 27.65 14.61 38.31 24.2 52.43 38.65 46.97 29.09 12.78 18.30 39.68 38.16 41.46 16.76 38.93 31.97 37.90 18.89 10.63 36.29 29.00 39.65 28.67 28.77 39.76 20.22 39.61 29.37 17.58 35.51 15.96 29.22 30.34 25.91 13.57 18.93 30.27 14.14 17.10 26.08 38.14 39.65 34.04 25.48 -18.17 -18.23 36.30 38.70 35.20 24.29 29.61 18.6 28.27 28.71 22.00 17.06 41.40 16.71 21.88 37.94 33.49 11.63 45.67 36.29 10.90 -25 27.73 19.12 35.52 37.47 36.94 34.70 11.01 16.32 32.69 35.27 34.6 52.69 33.30 16.59 29.10 29.5 47.20 41.73 36.02 40.96 21.19 28.37 10.10 28.69 28.66 30.99 46.72 47.57 35.9 31.18 17.49 15.71 30.82 35.88 27.80 41.34 18.15 10.39 21.27 27.95 17.23 34.06 43.21 25.11 24.31 5.44 11.73 37.40 46.01 48.88 29.05 25.38 15.52 25.52 24.93 46.39 20.19 26.44 38.77 28.08 13.98 26.90 36.67 27.59 40.25 15.23 13.83 28.69 35.68 15.42 38.92 29.16 26.98 29.90 14.21 36.39 31.77 39.40 16.07 14.71 -18.43 39.86 24.10 40.13 40.89 23.98 33.7 29.43 13.68 10.79 13.1 28.63 28.85 17.81 35.60 21.9 35.91 17.08 15.61 32.61 45.57 16.80 21.41 19.98 41.50 14.53 35.72 24.94 22.30 28. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] P [bar] 27 27.32 40.66 32.57 16.45 23.2 38.63 13.42 -28 20.96 19.94 31.5 51.29 41.94 48.72 29.22 16.26 42.07 15.08 39.26 30.89 33.93 40.91 11.51 27.13 27.59 25.96 29.48 25.16 16.48 43.65 38.34 28.67 41.47 29.28 29.83 35.45 43.91 27.19 44.70 33.86 14.04 11.14 23.27 30.51 30.11 28.28 27.63 -18.70 31.74 43.71 41.18 12.47 29.76 10.15 41.30 12.55 15.03 27.05 27.79 38.98 20.54 19.73 36.81 18.18 15.68 30.35 30.94 31.14 37.74 27.7 48.21 21.13 31.2 47.60 28.71 30.37 37.35 12.88 24.78 17.38 13.21 16.81 44.34 37.37 16.46 24.60 17.18 17.96 31.46 42.08 44.41 22.19 47.31 21.97 31.81 42.96 39.64 30.62 21.59 45.57 12.32 37.87 15.71 29.18 30.62 10.20 44.64 40.12 28.37 42.67 28.50 28.43 31.71 41.39 31.73 33.82 37.10 13.89 15.04 36.02 30.42 30.73 23.93 38.07 28.21 38.42 24.45 44.32 38.53 16.89 30.94 29.10 19.30 39.3 48.47 21.25 36.33 27.96 43.4 48.36 40.58 20.46 30.68 10.35 36.41 30.42 31.74 32.74 41.69 42.46 30.33 44.17 29.69 15.00 37.01 26.73 29.55 30.23 44.68 16.26 31.80 11.76 39.62 38.49 36.74 39.01 14.84 20.29 37.1 37.31 18.86 24.21 29.30 38.16 28.64 19.56 19.98 21.45 41.78 16.03 23.10 36.96 45.57 21.38 35.84 48.87 42.34 22.79 36.07 10.53 47.86 17.10 19.48 15.07 19.18 14.10 39.78 37.89 34.41 38.25 30.48 31.72 31.38 27.18 35.11 36.81 22.89 27.46 40.98 13.89 36.3 53.9 47.08 28.74 24.26 30.57 30.76 30.97 21.71 35.22 22.19 15.31 27.19 14.20 30.4 30.90 30.02 26.18 23.63 41.73 45.96 22.66 23.45 29.88 12.49 13.69 36.38 17.88 27.4 36 36.41 15.03 24.44 27.77 40.97 28.61 18.38 27.18 21.22 45.23 20.23 23.79 14.17 35.82 44.67 40.14 13.97 12.97 10.64 29.98 20.94 9.70 18.12 29.94 25.84 19.10 20.26 21.07 23.47 17.26 25.93 41.82 42.7 46.38 20.57 44.56 28.32 44.67 39.13 47.37 29.79 16.66 28.07 18.20 27.12 18.1 49.07 22.28 25.70 15.72 44.09 41.53 26.12 40.28 37.69 23.02 16.96 17.53 27.25 17.13 28.78 36.50 37.2 33.48 29.96 29.32 34.40 16.08 29.87 35.5 32 32.22 30.98 23.22 19.70 29.67 16.33 13.05 15.98 40.95 45.92 30.65 42.37 14.72 29.01 29.44 28.8 49.44 10.71 43.01 32.35 13.22 31.04 32.18 12.58 9.3 39.59 43.84 38.33 41.90 43.40 -18.8 39.99 45.97 38.02 46.03 23.83 15.42 48.22 10.95 28.40 24.92 24.98 16.94 36.28 40.89 13.2 29.71 26.04 36.83 27.44 18.63 32.49 14.33 39.40 21.34 42.81 41.41 33.58 44.82 47.71 27.64 40.22 27.45 31.91 28.35 29.75 28.26 -24 29.46 30.84 37.79 14.27 12.6 47.78 30.04 37.25 -18.4 50 50.42 46.81 19.97 30.42 39.4 55 -31 15.69 26.02 31.92 15.44 33.97 21.82 9.88 37.92 16.09 39.44 31.68 31.72 27.3 48.87 28.83 10.71 30.58 39.58 41.17 29.77 29.78 29.32 26.08 45.00 46.05 31.37 40.65 20.20 28.11 38.53 28.13 33.02 36.22 29.6 33.11 43.1 51.37 18.68 15.19 14.98 42.32 25.81 28.8 30.07 29.28 11.29 19.39 29.63 11.27 15.62 42.77 28.46 22.04 10.52 17.69 21.41 42.08 43.77 42.64 9.30 23.88 25.82 18.16 30.19 30.71 31.79 12.83 26.45 19.71 29.80 15.32 46.21 13.30 18.56 31.03 29.36 20.85 19.31 29.09 36.34 45.57 37.53 29.16 20.33 35.29 35.51 41.9 54.80 22.17 25.95 12.73 16.31 43.31 21.22 47.40 37.57 43.43 36.40 34.39 46.00 18.34 36.55 11.86 20.65 14.96 39.42 30.12 17.69 44.70 24.36 20.00 23.28 14.99 21.57 27.46 37.54 12.96 43.00 14.7 34.58 30.69 14.65 13.60 22.12 17.97 13.49 14.42 29.56 19.57 17.83 45.97 37.54 34.73 20.6 38.91 40.51 26.77 31.03 27.59 15.24 29.34 20.94 -18.49 29.89 12.52 29.05 28.46 36.11 28.59 29.20 26.04 28.32 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.35 .91 28.30 14.46 19.92 22.41 28.57 12.18 18.32 20.28 28.8 35.72 12.50 22.32 32.75 34.63 38.26 38.07 38.36 28.21 21.07 34.80 14.52 26.10 40.13 35.67 22.06 27.53 42.39 34.50 10.20 13.62 18.21 29.23 29.53 45.78 38.55 29.46 30.41 16.11 -18 49.30 29.20 16.93 11.72 12.04 12.15 13.71 26.73 40.07 17.04 41.88 31.73 28.15 18.84 30.17 38.99 22.2 49.65 25.05 12.39 30.42 35.60 36.85 29.14 45.33 39.00 20.67 22.20 31.61 18.36 37.09 37.41 36.43 43.45 31.49 29.63 29.23 42.45 28.99 35.34 24.31 21.97 18.96 30.65 37.8 46.14 17.53 -30 17.43 24.53 13.47 44.73 13.02 12.64 17.86 18.88 27.88 9.66 37.25 19.64 12.42 41.22 35.63 39.8 53.03 22.17 35.51 20.68 15.39 24.40 23.45 12.21 11.45 23.97 14.37 11.33 14.01 11.28 37.70 19.60 47.41 37.67 20.76 30.53 20.58 23.19 25.85 44.5 37.73 14.75 17.17 22.96 29.01 42.44 21.00 16.20 37.75 45.02 36.05 42.74 23.78 11.27 43.89 28.44 12.72 13.74 13.28 34.91 16.96 19.36 13.79 46.98 34.05 15.19 28.52 13.99 34.73 -23 32.02 43.77 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.86 25.88 29.33 30.66 29.24 45.81 46.73 37.18 36.92 15.52 38.86 11.47 32.21 30.

17 472.61 301.37 626.64 464.3 48.8 39.9 Gas Temperature C 10 15 20 25 383.57 419.90 317.03 451.72 358.84 395.8 53.23 701.30 330. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] 27 27.04 430.95 478.27 666.16 512.95 726.90 487.61 217.77 423.72 872.89 321.39 611.27 546.50 227.43 218.7 48.9 31.48 982.74 316.86 555.97 220.57 327.38 445.9 54.2 38.96 442.48 304.54 233.37 370.78 710.55 600.68 606.6 52.76 404.15 450.1 37.88 584.18 292.5 32 32.97 520.63 589.32 385.77 321.46 797.06 444.69 237.11 414.2 52.54 846.40 718.8 30.1 28.96 526.99 564.25 787.65 745.97 654.04 532.13 215.24 607.31 420.56 963.70 351.40 235.41 432.58 635.08 300.81 223.87 221.78 550.99 547.28 579.1 51.83 289.17 590.56 400.67 426.30 375.39 809.39 Pressure [bar] 333.7 34.47 503.30 645.3 39.6 38.4 36 36.47 335.81 416.51 345.2 47.84 712.55 454.4 55 241.10 495.37 324.64 239.62 78 .71 282.74 701.56 930.37 438.22 530.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.06 438.07 539.25 560.5 51.07 296.15 434.96 341.47 311.92 381.63 406.92 678.43 312.76 403.40 688.19 458.4 30.47 225.99 296.09 858.21 520.34 900.31 313.63 832.06 739.23 229.21 363.71 751.55 733.99 566.25 756.26 279.36 569.14 413.7 29.15 409.62 275.53 595.65 599.72 574.48 30 758.6 33.2 29.4 50 50.8 35.37 326.34 727.69 426.6 28.36 231.46 285.07 542.15 308.77 303.2 33.94 583.01 331.82 721.79 765.80 745.91 884.3 53.8 49.24 390.17 616.09 727.43 305.08 819.73 552.70 47.88 776.28 308.71 318.71 410.41 948.06 298.50 737.25 916.3 34.87 559.86 574.5 37.

41 490.45 751.17 234.50 383.6 38.74 443.96 650.65 757.55 660.94 242.92 252.62 229.90 841.56 645.73 426.10 475.15 483.91 590.10 669.53 628.92 601.36 450.24 364.95 949.55 297.29 317.38 611.82 740.85 479.57 605.39 981.51 878.7 29.4 55 10 404.67 291.18 243.48 246.72 437.38 322.26 576.1 51.87 439.96 359.89 454.00 435.30 540.04 797.57 320.4 30.31 595.16 548.32 581.9 47.65 468.11 432.99 606.06 227.03 316.2 33.01 308.27 79 .8 39.08 349.69 328.79 597.97 583.22 236.36 342.30 616.91 455.58 498.9 54.63 321.17 555.73 345.19 773.99 505.40 615.47 818.3 39.2 52.5 51.79 591.30 830.3 48.8 49.39 336.81 761.61 348.4 36 36.9 31.14 429.38 343.36 622.97 892.1 37.6 52.5 37.91 354.08 Gas Temperature C 15 20 25 560.13 572.5 32 32.8 53.85 432.53 777.1 28.65 640.8 30.47 301.29 639.71 1016.11 425.2 29.99 780.45 248.47 561.67 462.69 330.06 726.70 334.25 325.61 315.07 514.16 715.63 586.8 35.84 442.88 475.12 470.26 577.23 457.78 568.93 807.17 232. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3] Pressure [bar] 27 27.92 622.25 333.2 47.66 402.73 749.11 785.26 254.09 450.11 239.76 632.37 767.86 523.4 50 50.62 390.28 30 800.51 967.2 38.6 33.32 853.69 411.3 53.31 531.95 462.94 338.84 305.13 766.28 396.3 34.73 407.6 28.23 351.28 549.40 1036.25 681.86 250.98 416.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.7 48.81 422.01 786.44 864.22 446.99 905.78 371.91 739.97 238.61 339.7 34.54 230.28 690.04 702.44 377.48 329.60 313.97 767.20 920.95 1000.58 325.74 294.88 633.46 466.39 793.89 933.42 312.

7 276.5 276.2 33.9 205.0 203.6 205.2 247.0 336.4 271.5 243.8 315.8 220.0 310.2 303.0 216.0 297.7 194.4 209.4 253.1 197.2 301.6 225.8 330.2 203.4 288.1 279.1 267.3 190.7 260.6 273.2 217.4 192.5 268.5 32.0 366.4 265.0 312.6 273.0 283.8 211.8 208.0 190.0 256.7 338.1 270.1 189.9 297.4 303.4 198.6 200.2 274.1 322.9 213.8 211.6 199. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.5 188.6 212.9 204.8 201.3 293.7 198.6 242.8 262.7 251.2 284.0 361.8 49.9 210.8 208.8 282.2 336.4 291.6 269.2 47.4 321.8 224.2 260.1 217.3 257.7 206.4 330.6 193.4 36.6 28.5 276.5 194.7 189.9 216.0 32.7 265.5 326.6 -28.4 30.5 251.6 217.7 287.2 338.2 212.4 318.3 228.8 349.8 349.5 190.3 278.0 292.2 256.7 331.9 279.8 287.9 264.8 340.1 -18.0 218.6 254.5 309.0 339.0 294.3 309.2 29.3 335.5 194.5 279.0 313.7 245.6 274.5 300.7 29.3 250.6 250.6 212.0 337.5 252.0 348.3 287.5 318.0 190.9 225.1 199.9 267.3 358.6 207.3 255.3 261.1 336.3 195.0 206.1 208.4 304.7 352.2 201.5 320.3 337.5 321.6 208.8 299.5 241.4 197.3 252.1 278.7 306.3 268.8 218.4 194.9 242.8 310.4 270.2 323.5 211.3 201.4 206.0 310.1 193.80 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 198.6 229.8 274.6 338.8 194.7 267.0 329.7 202.0 262.9 245.6 -23.1 261.3 193.7 272.5 292.1 272.8 275.0 258.4 205.9 192.0 309.7 280.4 267.5 197.5 255.4 205.8 201.1 242.3 270.4 272.4 307.7 258.1 264.9 331.9 200.1 187.6 202.4 341.4 207.1 323.8 300.0 293.5 -18.1 304.6 325.3 -18.5 245.7 220.5 204.7 284.8 212.9 314.7 258.1 210.4 261.9 209.0 246.3 211.0 203.4 333.1 -22.1 198.8 219.9 262.5 203.1 223.0 244.3 251.9 269.4 259.2 308.7 199.2 204.8 283.0 346.3 266.4 285.6 305.0 202.0 283.5 208.2 262.6 296.6 308.1 265.5 316.4 191.1 51.6 205.6 188.9 221.3 209.1 209.0 349.4 271.3 -18.3 187.8 305.7 279.8 299.8 249.8 230.7 203.0 206.6 209.4 253.8 35.2 327.0 248.3 303.4 246.8 196.3 315.8 257.6 198.7 191.1 195.9 204.1 338.3 297.1 332.9 209.9 212.6 295.2 191.2 260.5 198.0 36.8 220.5 313.1 244.3 314.2 252.7 261.7 354.1 330.1 268.3 281.4 286.8 30.9 295.9 295.2 52.8 278.7 252.4 361.4 285.8 196.9 208.8 306.6 215.2 300.5 320.7 193.9 308.5 206.4 225.9 214.4 208.7 243.2 196.5 207.3 207.6 193.4 350.7 203.4 244.3 314.7 221.7 253.7 279.0 191.9 336.3 247.6 288.1 292.9 197.2 269.8 302.3 206.0 276.3 202.0 263.2 281.1 210.1 296.6 33.8 227.5 204.2 285.6 .6 320.6 356.9 268.3 189.0 201.4 213.8 322.9 201.3 347.4 284.3 190.8 308.2 245.9 207.9 263.2 273.0 204.1 207.1 321.3 325.8 205.8 188.0 215.9 226.8 193.7 328.5 260.9 217.3 272.0 365.4 210.8 208.5 283.8 258.8 201.5 202.6 277.7 218.8 297.4 277.2 198.2 295.2 278.4 191.9 -18.5 310.0 254.9 311.9 284.7 203.1 192.0 193.4 214.1 221.7 271.2 241.8 339.0 290.0 334.6 212.7 286.4 276.7 288.1 224.3 320.0 274.7 275.2 204.8 206.7 197.0 194.0 326.1 203.6 343.8 53.0 200.4 289.5 37.2 295.1 303.6 213.9 250.7 325.7 291.7 305.9 296.7 290.8 211.3 283.8 318.1 201.1 213.8 231.8 299.1 298.8 202.6 204.0 320.1 198.1 205.1 37.5 281.9 333.0 254.7 314.1 209.9 189.4 191.6 268.7 331.2 292.4 304.1 304.4 50.9 252.2 319.5 206.8 215.3 194.1 253.8 210.0 50.6 209.0 256.8 213.6 294.6 295.7 203.3 294.9 264.9 247.9 320.4 284.4 281.6 38.9 307.0 343.1 192.6 319.8 331.2 205.9 255.8 265.7 -18.6 294.0 258.6 212.2 190.4 300.9 213.3 328.7 325.4 311.5 213.7 211.2 316.0 263.2 317.1 319.5 306.1 206.7 215.4 327.4 355.0 301.4 208.8 346.8 209.1 276.3 249.8 220.0 337.0 336.6 312.6 217.3 310.9 309.5 217.5 200.8 267.3 193.1 274.3 269.0 330.2 294.1 189.6 201.1 309.8 267.3 298.5 304.4 261.1 312.0 355.3 292.8 195.5 275.4 -30.2 188.8 321.8 264.7 272.2 243.7 248.3 292.4 261.0 272.8 207.2 203.9 47.6 333.4 321.9 224.8 244.5 326.6 305.8 223.5 226.8 219.1 286.6 207.6 340.2 305.2 277.3 329.9 222.8 266.9 192.3 290.4 55.3 48.1 282.6 281.0 251.3 249.9 272.1 211.3 211.7 192.1 297.9 328.4 221.6 263.1 316.3 258.6 252.6 52.6 323.0 291.1 287.3 218.3 39.3 262.5 318.6 262.4 265.2 277.8 264.5 51.9 359.0 254.2 250.9 269.5 208.3 53.3 211.9 332.7 211.1 277.4 352.9 354.4 200.8 294.6 -27.2 195.6 192.6 190.1 322.5 -21.8 -18.1 208.5 345.9 273.6 200.7 209.2 219.7 48.9 54.0 268.7 292.3 280.7 211.7 229.2 38.8 336.1 206.8 280.0 196.5 -26.7 -20.8 197.1 28.2 329.1 208.3 192.0 197.5 266.1 283.6 206.6 259.5 275.8 318.5 318.2 221.8 347.6 249.1 195.6 291.6 345.3 261.0 207.9 274.3 341.8 339.1 287.8 200.2 210.6 262.3 201.2 200.1 326.5 278.5 199.4 279.3 214.4 204.6 195.2 202.0 314.3 288.0 291.2 204.1 344.6 301.4 215.0 324.1 286.4 334.4 219.5 279.3 296.9 259.7 222.0 288.7 34.3 193.8 190.8 211.4 207.8 271.2 204.2 222.2 208.3 206.9 297.1 306.5 211.2 205.3 299.8 205.8 333.4 315.7 223.7 332.9 301.9 213.3 216.0 327.1 209.3 219.5 270.4 195.8 228.6 205.0 280.6 325.0 248.0 -31.4 272.3 267.9 198.3 206.4 212.0 286.5 282.7 214.4 264.9 294.0 227.9 273.0 188.0 267.0 -24.6 283.5 302.8 316.3 196.3 291.9 256.0 315.8 331.7 303.5 305.4 270.2 332.1 220.3 262.7 203.3 343.8 -18.4 296.6 223.6 210.9 227.5 -29.7 213.1 211.4 203.0 368.6 247.8 195.0 352.8 270.7 281.4 274.3 207.5 197.5 337.1 202.3 196.5 199.3 -25.1 256.4 278.8 260.9 195.1 246.1 266.1 198.4 266.7 301.9 289.4 258.6 259.9 296.5 196.3 291.4 337.0 -18.2 206.8 241.2 197.3 254.2 201.1 216.3 299.9 189.7 217.1 205.7 266.8 260.6 290.7 207.7 303.2 263.6 256.1 299.5 331.2 293.6 272.1 326.2 193.3 209.5 257.6 205.6 219.1 200.1 287.3 336.9 339.8 246.5 311.4 287.2 198.9 281.0 359.7 224.6 310.2 264.1 324.4 282.6 222.7 189.2 214.2 308.7 198.6 200.3 201.7 191.5 215.0 357.1 278.3 199.7 315.5 318.6 261.6 324.1 208.7 275.0 212.1 215.7 308.9 212.4 291.8 -19.2 268.0 363.6 282.5 215.2 313.3 342.1 271.5 264.4 189.7 351.8 199.1 257.5 301.6 327.0 213.7 320.2 209.0 202.7 195.4 299.7 218.3 331.8 304.0 311.5 302.0 210.6 -18.8 265.4 200.9 326.9 342.5 202.9 282.8 281.7 204.7 255.6 263.5 300.0 285.0 27.9 255.8 317.0 289.7 316.9 315.6 246.3 199.7 210.5 274.4 211.3 344.5 270.5 201.7 210.7 311.4 257.2 255.7 196.3 34.6 288.2 275.9 31.7 328.4 300.6 226.8 210.3 210.8 39.4 248.4 242.6 247.

2 239.4 -18.8 267.3 204.5 231.2 375.4 224.3 237.3 221.1 346.9 295.0 221.6 284.4 204.8 288.5 290.3 300.9 313.4 356.6 204.7 48.0 202.7 266.1 283.8 364.3 257.8 226.7 282.5 220.6 209.7 221.3 53.9 289.4 308.0 228.0 -28 383.2 291.7 336.8 275.3 265.2 313.4 212.9 276.0 256.6 318.4 318.5 259.6 346.5 328.6 277.6 28.5 287.7 214.6 215.5 287.5 212.6 223.5 216.9 350.8 205.6 216.0 204.3 278.2 365.0 296.9 -31 388.5 277.1 223.1 232.8 221.7 260.7 309.2 270.9 361.4 347.6 289.4 220.5 197.2 209.3 349.3 329.4 215.5 332.8 223.5 291.6 223 221.8 334.6 211.4 268.3 201.5 286.9 235.3 215.2 205.5 308.5 279.8 338.7 273.8 286.6 210.4 313.4 326.9 348.6 217.8 356.8 333.3 214.7 308.6 261.7 211.0 214.1 209.7 318.4 224.8 323.4 233.3 276.8 49.8 322.5 280.8 202.8 204 202.5 236.1 211.7 348.5 330.5 255.6 238.5 313.4 286.2 322.2 208.4 212.7 294.2 316.0 302.8 291.3 209.7 229.5 210.4 256.3 341.3 211.2 199.7 218.3 281.2 29.0 325.8 -18.7 -18.7 327.2 201.1 303.1 369.1 272.7 268.7 355.1 209.6 52.8 242.0 -24 374.5 361.7 265.1 200.8 300.6 206.6 231.6 335.1 303.7 298.0 315.3 219.7 225.9 54.1 328.1 279.9 279.9 291.5 334.5 309.1 302.1 -22 368.7 224.9 225.7 220.5 224.5 227.8 203.9 206.4 219.9 231.2 -26 379.5 51.2 355.0 305.1 232.1 230.9 212.9 213.3 294.4 208.6 309.7 322.4 338.5 206.0 219.5 37.3 272.4 280.7 203.3 226.6 367.7 282.9 293.0 201.9 325.9 231.0 292.5 338.8 231.4 225.7 265.2 214.2 38.3 297.6 332.4 319.6 327.3 210.9 294.8 312.6 225.9 297.7 272.9 310.5 303.6 304.6 310.4 272.7 281.3 300.7 287.2 366.5 221.8 209.8 354.9 364.0 353.5 203.4 30.3 200.3 282.8 273.8 211.8 221.5 214.7 220.9 200.2 296.2 52.5 285.9 290.2 307.1 301.3 339.2 33.2 221.8 347.4 225.7 320.3 257.5 296.2 355.9 217.6 262.6 295.8 285.3 332.6 219.0 276.8 272.2 220.2 289.6 278.4 212.2 326.5 218.9 285.6 254.0 315.4 221.5 337.1 288.3 202.2 268.6 276.4 285.3 271.3 274.2 198.1 236.6 207.2 279.2 206.4 361.5 321.0 203.7 29.2 255.2 339.1 342.1 352.3 223.2 349.3 48.6 307.8 30.7 229.6 322.3 292.2 332.6 283.8 342.2 285.7 278.4 -30 387. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27 27.1 341.0 270.3 346.5 307.1 263.0 224.1 336.8 213.8 328.3 332.3 343.5 285 280.8 -18 354.2 211.2 215.4 217.0 273.6 355.4 269.8 216.6 210.7 212.5 217.2 223.2 267.6 229.1 212.1 219 217.6 205.5 295.8 215.7 310.5 227.0 333.0 290.1 199.2 274.1 334.4 267.2 297.0 311.9 345.5 313.9 343.5 233.0 226.6 297.9 312.4 265.4 315.3 311.4 321.1 -18.4 221.3 -29 385.1 275.4 310.4 240.6 219.8 303.3 320.3 319.5 351.1 210.0 323.3 228.5 278.2 218.6 223.5 217.3 310.7 219.1 340.2 207.1 315.2 297.6 201.7 220.1 279.2 280.4 222.5 267.3 207.0 233.1 -18.0 214.3 309.6 280.3 278.3 261.3 236.8 329.3 284.2 335.1 304.3 368.9 291.8 357.9 261.0 282.4 360.1 299.8 303.5 269.9 277 273.4 325.6 323.2 274.1 351.9 208.4 339.7 344.3 232.9 296.3 260.3 302.1 305.0 318.5 47.3 283.8 302.2 47.0 235.8 298.9 282.5 293.1 306 301.3 299.4 219.5 343.4 285.5 287.0 216.3 301.6 201.4 271.5 208.7 350.9 284.0 338.1 268.0 361.1 222.4 209.3 316.8 255.1 354.5 264 260.2 237.1 218.0 332.5 202.3 322.6 277.2 221.8 299.1 316.2 349.4 348.1 217.8 318.9 209.7 204.3 277.0 281.9 -18.0 206.5 204.7 330.9 296.4 222.3 217.8 223.5 216.1 226.0 212.7 357.4 378.8 287.5 306.5 32 32.9 306.9 317.4 224.4 372.2 335.6 356.9 219.4 321.7 344.8 279.1 291.2 307.4 302.3 344.9 298.3 335.0 356.1 324.0 300.1 208.7 342.8 218.0 327.0 223.5 304.3 344.1 37.9 337.1 -23 371.3 222.6 285.7 301.6 317.5 -18.7 219.3 298.6 -20 362.3 295.8 198.5 216.0 231.4 55 244.7 -25 377.7 311.1 207.3 327.0 217.2 262.3 350.1 206.7 341.8 288.4 199.7 219.1 220.3 235.8 230.5 242.4 338.8 208.1 302.3 270.3 308.0 308.7 208.3 205.1 229.6 305.1 344.5 316 310.3 202.6 320.3 39.0 265.9 206.6 207.8 277.7 310.8 339.4 205.9 278.1 379.6 292.4 318.8 282.1 289.6 326.5 292.2 312.3 338.9 322.2 290.3 348.6 347.5 215.5 214.7 307.3 284.5 288.7 359.81 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.5 205.8 39.2 277.4 325.7 212.7 257.0 214.3 349.1 273.1 51.3 326.2 209.9 230.4 295.4 207.5 349.6 225.9 238.1 316.2 213.3 335.4 221.2 204.7 211.9 219.0 329.2 357.4 333.1 232.2 224.7 358.2 293.9 337.6 200.8 270.0 -21 365.8 321.1 271.9 218.3 213.9 316.0 204.9 .7 263.4 263.8 231.9 199.7 211.7 217 215 213 211.3 294.5 213.9 283.5 345.4 230.9 217.3 227.1 255.9 220.0 228.1 372.3 275.9 216.1 227.6 274.6 257.2 234.7 225.6 296.8 331.7 373.9 343.8 340.8 287.6 216.0 266.3 345.3 370.5 217.7 350.4 207.1 223.8 227.5 239.1 320.4 289.3 203.4 276.4 331.1 294.8 307.3 261 258.6 313.6 294.1 281.1 201.9 31.3 289.7 209.5 223.0 222.8 218.3 216.6 298.7 213.1 311.9 299.2 229.7 307.2 213.5 356.3 317.7 209.1 28.9 327.6 234.8 289.1 216.4 238.8 222.0 219.8 271.2 229.6 278.7 358.4 222.6 299.5 222.4 264.9 358.9 232.7 199.1 264.1 269.0 294.5 317.1 346.8 299.0 274.6 33.4 283.9 278.5 240.3 225.3 34.8 326 320.0 203.8 206.9 262.9 220.4 363.0 269.2 288.7 282.1 272.3 218.7 304.6 218.3 355.5 241.8 200.5 376.3 287.3 304.6 266.4 359.5 270.4 -18.2 -18.3 352.5 212.2 207.7 229.4 200 198.8 53.9 207.7 213.7 224.9 275.8 241.6 338.8 225.3 296.7 243.5 221.5 198.1 294.9 254.6 258.5 315.6 207.8 367.2 263.7 315.9 334.1 228.1 321.7 214.3 210.7 292.2 214.4 36 36.4 223.0 202.1 209.8 306.9 276.6 332.3 336 331 325.3 260.7 331.0 222.7 274.3 266.1 204.6 275.8 35.6 200.1 287.6 271.0 302.6 311.8 217.8 290.2 225.7 239.4 222.9 216.3 368.5 324.3 342.6 38.7 293.5 334.8 356.6 381.5 279.4 311.9 216.1 327.5 211.1 283.8 201.8 264.8 343.6 200.4 50 50.6 293.6 374.0 226.2 286.2 212.6 206.8 260.4 320.7 345.1 260.4 220.8 218.4 299.7 256.3 282.6 313.1 268.7 281.6 308.6 227.1 -19 358.6 211.2 321.2 316.7 233.6 312.3 217.0 205.7 34.9 259.2 259.8 201.2 236.2 280.4 219.8 215.8 219.5 330.3 270.0 214.7 269.9 307.4 227.5 289.8 325.8 221.7 353.5 312.2 212.8 210.3 258.0 235.0 218.5 215.6 352.6 329.1 349.7 -27 381.9 275.9 262.0 235.1 287.0 216.5 350.0 223.5 363.5 214.2 238.9 199.0 214.4 337.

3 304.5 305.3 347.0 500.8 370.9 418.3 278.0 384.7 302.6 365.3 384.4 499.9 287.0 301.0 298.4 388.5 298.2 300.6 38.1 378.3 415.2 47.6 419.9 418.1 273.0 272.0 461.6 417.8 437.9 473.9 477.3 403.0 514.0 391.7 436.6 472.0 423.3 453.3 -26.0 422.9 384.7 310.6 284.0 301.3 369.2 470.5 275.4 453.3 391.3 295.1 312.3 391.9 480.2 387.8 410.0 283.0 380.0 439.5 419.3 383.1 506.9 282.3 399.1 285.5 478.5 402.7 489.7 437.8 393.9 269.5 302.2 298.9 285.5 407.7 362.8 282.6 289.4 368.0 358.4 423.4 487.2 299.8 369.6 414.5 286.4 292.9 301.7 354.5 432.4 436.3 468.5 279.9 429.5 385.8 370.9 277.0 268.0 454.1 430.8 396.9 279.0 483.2 377.4 425.2 305.6 288.5 393.2 448.9 397.8 438.8 278.1 465.9 -31.1 37.4 458.5 370.9 303.4 445.6 317.0 309.1 292.4 458.1 284.9 289.6 293.5 470.0 284.4 374.1 279.9 298.1 289.8 288.6 411.3 406.3 277.1 314.7 429.1 -30.3 359.9 363.1 373.8 430.6 401.8 378.9 297.8 -19.9 365.7 272.6 405.2 284.9 420.5 493.5 304.3 460.4 459.6 407.2 471.2 375.5 272.7 321.4 364.6 461.4 284.1 380.7 277.9 293.2 293.6 277.1 454.4 303.8 465.7 313.1 425.7 291.5 451.9 287.7 48.4 467.6 348.3 409.0 288.2 311.0 473.6 374.1 280.3 400.7 407.9 385.2 402.9 293.0 422.4 431.9 420.9 273.7 486.6 386.7 349.1 367.5 47.0 404.1 470.3 374.8 378.1 455.2 301.2 279.6 350.8 270.6 401.3 -18.5 37.3 -18.5 279.7 383.3 484.8 496.5 -22.7 364.5 442.7 288.1 295.8 274.3 431.0 390.8 357.9 284.6 426.7 491.3 283.8 290.7 462.3 476.5 445.0 419.3 405.5 283.2 495.7 373.7 477.9 289.9 387.3 290.9 487.5 301.2 286.9 417.9 397.5 485.1 467.2 366.8 299.3 448.7 439.0 286.8 430.8 286.7 395.4 310.2 38.9 451.5 433.0 347.1 395.4 55.8 435.3 423.9 383.4 381.8 414.3 412.6 385.4 288.6 295.3 363.1 276.8 426.0 374.8 282.5 394.7 418.3 365.9 283.9 406.7 319.6 406.6 468.1 364.3 297.0 458.4 390.7 305.6 412.5 351.9 431.4 320.4 497.2 410.5 294.4 227.5 307.4 383.1 366.1 355.8 388.9 412.0 474.9 398.1 484.4 300.3 297.2 269. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.7 361.7 29.1 316.4 477.7 303.9 304.1 309.2 412.4 456.0 394.1 372.0 494.5 277.0 296.3 379.4 379.6 290.6 426.9 452.5 439.0 516.3 48.8 39.3 409.0 297.3 34.4 485.2 281.4 288.3 484.8 303.0 401.9 353.4 291.1 310.6 483.0 375.6 418.6 52.8 295.8 300.3 313.8 307.4 277.2 434.1 296.1 300.2 393.0 444.3 501.8 477.0 302.6 404.3 53.5 296.9 360.8 478.9 487.6 303.9 413.4 279.0 503.2 370.9 407.8 281.6 399.3 378.6 295.3 417.2 308.8 486.5 372.6 413.7 462.2 309.4 426.9 432.7 425.5 487.5 284.7 433.6 303.6 276.3 404.1 469.5 371.4 355.9 475.4 424.8 291.0 364.3 288.5 367.6 380.4 36.8 376.2 52.7 390.8 365.6 486.0 283.5 405.4 438.2 362.6 308.0 382.0 458.3 396.6 443.4 293.8 271.2 292.6 361.2 391.2 385.1 281.7 .0 491.1 390.6 284.3 453.2 299.7 293.1 288.3 270.8 470.7 320.0 507.7 295.7 368.0 445.9 296.5 376.5 438.5 293.0 27.8 297.5 378.1 277.5 413.6 33.6 281.2 495.1 377.8 348.9 292.8 390.9 471.5 32.1 422.6 452.9 278.0 391.2 286.7 291.2 477.5 460.8 35.8 467.9 305.6 314.4 347.7 389.3 282.0 399.7 467.1 371.2 464.4 486.2 431.2 275.0 513.1 419.5 322.9 406.6 450.9 460.0 323.1 394.1 312.4 319.2 411.1 425.2 306.6 352.3 420.7 378.4 289.7 291.9 285.3 295.9 412.3 394.2 481.3 285.9 369.1 298.1 346.4 430.9 399.6 366.2 389.7 474.9 31.1 289.0 50.8 405.7 444.4 -23.8 276.3 296.9 401.2 371.1 -24.4 274.5 431.2 307.0 270.5 389.6 416.6 382.1 368.2 295.2 485.8 301.9 373.0 302.2 433.2 432.9 360.9 303.3 479.1 293.9 380.4 276.5 457.5 51.1 481.2 498.7 301.0 274.2 408.8 360.3 289.7 317.4 299.1 392.8 315.7 476.5 377.5 290.9 381.5 424.9 297.4 297.1 309.6 306.4 -21.8 294.6 -18.2 434.5 396.0 277.1 271.4 353.7 386.8 352.7 384.5 -18.2 438.2 29.4 349.5 393.7 279.4 468.8 301.6 271.9 411.5 270.8 436.6 312.3 489.1 390.5 287.8 284.2 283.1 348.0 -18.6 369.0 352.2 467.6 274.2 275.2 490.0 305.2 302.9 362.4 461.1 446.4 318.0 281.0 408.7 369.9 54.8 403.4 444.9 377.8 393.2 356.1 51.6 469.7 484.9 482.1 297.5 464.9 475.3 305.6 278.3 394.0 286.7 437.1 461.7 413.3 289.2 484.9 276.1 436.6 453.0 32.8 315.1 388.6 290.5 469.5 297.0 453.6 400.8 493.6 415.2 427.9 -28.9 356.8 394.2 284.5 450.0 366.7 347.3 294.8 316.6 315.7 408.4 293.6 287.1 383.2 304.5 360.1 -29.3 403.3 415.2 272.0 420.4 370.5 280.1 274.4 389.3 317.8 396.2 303.1 306.0 302.5 421.6 364.7 299.3 274.9 271.7 273.1 287.2 354.5 373.0 278.5 297.0 291.7 474.2 291.6 359.8 355.7 314.5 291.9 307.5 442.4 445.3 419.9 400.5 282.3 372.0 369.2 351.9 410.5 281.5 358.6 504.5 458.8 459.8 291.4 269.82 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 352.5 437.4 313.9 351.7 442.5 364.5 354.1 437.8 446.0 300.6 28.3 39.8 373.1 443.9 389.9 451.1 299.1 277.2 413.7 300.3 292.8 312.4 395.4 382.0 36.7 379.4 287.3 382.7 299.5 451.9 302.6 380.1 430.8 53.2 452.4 385.9 424.1 280.6 432.9 275.5 461.9 480.2 447.7 356.4 375.7 456.6 285.6 378.7 366.9 481.1 306.2 439.3 306.0 423.3 294.6 373.8 30.2 360.2 270.3 271.0 396.6 278.2 368.0 487.2 406.1 474.2 273.1 287.9 439.7 292.8 301.0 299.5 356.7 360.2 272.7 269.7 34.0 509.5 393.7 313.1 445.4 290.1 -18.8 49.7 292.9 273.1 292.0 286.8 285.0 476.6 303.2 459.7 435.1 290.5 283.5 446.7 374.5 289.5 373.4 298.0 505.4 287.7 469.0 302.8 296.4 454.5 275.0 410.1 437.7 374.7 369.1 357.2 388.2 418.4 385.7 304.9 429.2 -18.6 375.5 404.5 281.6 280.1 289.4 284.7 283.3 300.3 292.0 497.5 290.2 353.5 388.5 476.7 453.3 426.3 351.4 366.5 295.1 286.2 412.2 441.3 399.1 288.8 378.0 282.7 447.6 401.7 463.2 296.2 441.1 294.6 291.4 397.8 445.0 468.0 444.8 364.8 -18.4 369.6 279.5 273.1 28.4 30.0 379.6 429.3 280.5 289.7 424.1 294.1 457.4 316.1 303.0 511.7 296.4 417.4 399.0 294.8 405.7 401.2 401.0 502.7 275.1 269.5 300.1 285.5 281.5 290.1 356.8 454.2 -20.6 368.6 286.6 -27.5 465.7 298.7 383.3 376.1 444.6 293.7 -18.3 280.1 310.9 298.0 405.0 361.5 386.7 423.1 273.3 418.0 356.0 359.4 376.6 285.6 366.1 398.9 346.6 461.9 -18.2 33.8 304.6 412.1 311.3 361.3 308.6 417.9 375.6 295.8 400.5 388.4 424.3 298.3 304.6 309.8 286.5 449.0 283.2 302.5 455.4 50.7 383.9 410.0 287.5 475.5 432.8 -25.

2 426.2 491.7 397.3 429.5 32.3 299.9 295.0 535.9 297.7 311.7 437.2 407.5 440.1 447.4 499.4 291.4 390.9 311.3 435.8 386.2 422.4 415.4 318.1 508.4 499.7 421.1 503.7 298.0 527.1 365.4 -18.8 380.1 320.4 520.0 514.9 403.6 398.3 384.7 301.5 496.9 468.3 308.8 425.4 303.2 295.8 317.6 482.7 29.6 439.9 300.0 302.8 416.1 520.9 317.7 297.2 389.4 418.0 312.9 307.9 327.9 296.4 321.6 302.5 300.3 303.1 489.9 -18.7 285.6 327.1 396.8 391.8 300.0 27.6 423.0 446.1 435.9 480.8 300.8 469.8 372.4 294.9 424.9 468.5 386.4 317.1 323.4 316.7 309.4 501.9 302.3 428.5 37.9 311.1 461.7 306.2 301.7 500.3 284.9 308.8 463.1 373.6 289.1 404.2 291.5 51.1 297.4 336.5 494.5 292.6 28.9 374.9 428.4 396.2 375.1 411.8 507.2 390.8 404.2 309.2 412.5 511.2 454.2 401.5 477.9 313.1 463.5 304.8 390.8 495.3 323.8 49.7 433.2 471.6 429.2 47.6 308.1 426.9 386.6 446.1 376.8 315.7 442.1 299.1 395.0 417.6 324.2 -22.7 432.8 401.5 453.1 304.6 512.9 470.3 34.9 486.0 -21.0 443.7 318.1 476.2 29.6 33.2 326.9 285.4 290.5 455.2 421.4 310.8 307.5 500.4 381.6 395.4 534.8 417.0 296.0 320.9 422.2 321.9 392.7 319.6 385.0 508.1 402.9 417.3 473.6 379.0 444.8 375.0 498.7 306.2 385.0 518.7 376.2 393.2 389.8 399.1 302.9 307.3 288.1 505.4 299.0 292.6 313.4 409.2 467.0 388.4 311.1 416.0 -18.1 441.9 305.9 299.2 291.4 314.2 404.3 512.8 438.4 370.1 297.7 495.7 399.3 374.6 312.2 441.8 329.6 505.6 473.4 428.6 404.2 372.7 476.2 300.6 311.2 461.9 290.7 399.4 448.7 320.4 486.1 481.4 394.5 471.9 440.7 295.3 314.3 405.0 429.6 441.6 374.8 460.83 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 329.2 332.6 488.0 382.7 513.1 413.4 55.7 475.7 306.1 370.9 312.8 454.5 484.8 368.5 412.6 463.8 301.4 310.0 313.8 314.1 415.7 318.7 452.6 388.5 411.8 454.1 393.4 470.4 394.5 494.3 -26.9 442.6 333.7 299.1 496.9 493.0 390.2 384.4 318.1 331.4 30.2 338.3 443.6 288.0 366.4 314.0 298.3 327.1 476.2 -23.2 299.3 449.8 433.0 305.7 517.2 411.7 320.5 309.6 434.4 319.3 403.4 288.8 400.4 455.5 387.8 382.7 445.1 309.2 463.1 453.1 500.3 486.2 335.8 409.3 495.1 322.4 308.2 394.0 414.9 513.3 390.0 423.2 468.6 428.9 301.4 467.7 443.7 307.4 479.8 513.8 289.8 296.1 311.7 406.9 309.6 367.6 436.5 390.2 434.0 303.3 470.6 52.8 403.9 308.9 379.4 405.5 395.4 496.5 524.0 294.4 489.8 452.3 292.8 396.7 516.5 431.5 461.4 286.5 391.0 319.0 316.4 312.7 295.1 283.4 395.8 30.6 469.1 451.3 397.5 394.2 324.2 400.4 529.1 486.8 376.8 326.3 -29.3 48.4 376.6 426.9 292.3 379.9 375.2 530.5 426.1 316.0 377.9 412.4 313.4 458.4 287.4 304.9 435.2 478.4 387.3 340.8 466.0 541.4 406.8 371.1 405.1 310.9 437.9 522.4 36.1 386.1 401.8 462.5 -18.1 409.4 325.6 308.8 452.4 339.2 423.4 427.0 289.9 303.5 416.4 378.3 310.4 365.1 484.2 399.0 318.6 456.3 511.2 492.2 421.3 462.0 483.6 386.3 414.1 459.4 337.0 382.1 431.1 330.5 317.9 302.4 298.1 336.9 309.2 416.0 510.0 50.2 398.5 501.5 290.9 481.8 448.5 306.3 316.8 465.9 395.4 443.0 288.1 501.8 479.6 424.1 299.9 371.4 473.5 393.5 375.2 497.5 449.4 297.3 327.1 284.7 34.0 463.4 309.8 415.3 53.8 380.3 312.7 -18.6 435.3 304.3 504.7 311.4 454.7 506.8 284.3 294.5 313.3 399.2 420.4 290.8 53.7 322.1 308.2 305.6 286.9 504.6 403.2 385.1 331.4 302.9 311.5 318.8 401.5 319.4 424.7 309.1 413.0 530.9 433.1 460.1 460.5 503.6 513.7 312.5 285.4 410.9 394.0 293.4 305.7 319.9 455.2 392.8 310.1 288.1 51.2 318.2 326.1 389.8 471.2 448.8 409.8 468.7 -25.3 284.7 462.6 301.7 447.7 299.1 332.8 321.4 301.9 298.8 411.9 398.5 399.2 306.2 326.0 459.6 442.9 291.2 317.7 296.6 414.9 399.1 312.6 383.3 441.0 478.5 367.7 484.8 307.8 405.3 326.6 284.0 321.8 491.8 457.2 469.2 427.6 305.0 461.8 288.1 385.7 315.4 449.6 38.7 304.5 328.3 436.8 412.2 511.2 400.0 294.6 310.2 311.4 455.9 31.0 296.6 298.3 456.4 50.0 302.2 337.4 468.0 407.5 47.8 307.3 389.9 449.7 301.0 516.4 301.7 370.6 497.4 396.5 -30.8 477.9 417.0 341.0 448.3 425.0 304.0 387.3 455.3 308.0 416.0 449.4 315.1 414.4 300.9 316.3 293.5 293.5 503.5 458.0 424.5 305.2 323.1 479.8 318.3 394.5 320.9 407.6 447.1 381.1 323.3 371.1 305.1 454.5 308.8 511.0 427.5 433.9 367.8 493.1 303.9 297.6 487.9 440.6 305.7 300.7 507.9 434.9 -31.2 312.7 514.4 463.8 435.7 305.3 396.4 328.2 294.8 -18.1 37.0 441.1 321.8 395.3 502.8 35.6 427.8 313.9 427.6 320.4 315.5 417.9 314.6 478.9 522.9 433.7 325.1 461.0 371.7 366.8 330.3 366.3 430.6 321.2 410.4 335.9 335.9 384.7 502.1 28.0 525.6 456.4 329.0 446.3 333.1 470.4 292.1 304.3 289.0 469.6 419.8 379.2 288.1 466.7 485.5 421.1 368.3 442.1 518.9 532.6 -18.0 307.5 438.5 303.7 291.3 325.7 494.5 460.9 283.8 293.3 287.0 419.4 470.6 477.1 494.6 332.3 430.0 285.6 433.7 -20.6 299.5 287.2 448.1 422.0 330.0 456.8 39.5 441.2 319.4 296.7 470.6 509.0 532.8 316.9 309.8 318.8 474.0 542.7 457.8 304.5 400.6 471.1 433.8 321.7 294.1 410.0 -24.9 484.0 418.2 33.6 478.5 317.9 439.3 315.9 301.1 287.5 415.1 475.1 502.8 421.9 388.3 486.1 -28.7 456.6 371.5 421.5 314.2 322.8 292.2 307.2 297.9 54.4 479.8 392.6 292.4 443.9 320.1 292.0 436.6 445.9 502.6 306.0 378.1 406.0 521.6 297.4 527.5 480.2 -18.3 315.1 296.7 330.2 514.7 48.9 428.2 52.6 436.7 290.0 319.3 305.8 319.7 299.7 493.9 324.6 315.4 303.2 367. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.6 488.7 475.4 404.3 -18.7 381.7 313.4 334.6 295.6 398.1 -18.9 478.2 449.7 319.9 385.0 539.1 417.9 384.8 -27.9 509.6 323.8 412.4 321.1 482.4 300.6 402.0 293.3 302.4 373.6 429.0 397.8 287.6 450.8 303.5 .0 294.9 306.3 493.2 -19.5 308.7 514.2 298.4 437.3 388.9 333.8 391.8 431.1 440.7 313.1 423.0 32.8 411.1 314.3 485.5 317.8 375.8 406.6 446.6 315.4 382.1 286.1 404.5 491.0 544.5 372.7 483.2 285.9 407.5 512.7 394.5 408.0 36.0 524.8 286.7 312.0 324.7 297.8 410.9 423.5 320.7 410.0 389.1 510.3 39.4 307.5 492.0 537.2 416.9 430.2 487.5 410.8 310.3 446.9 495.1 302.7 388.8 384.3 503.1 420.5 422.3 525.9 399.4 292.4 511.4 306.7 317.3 500.9 413.9 313.8 486.2 38.9 389.1 407.0 315.8 303.9 378.6 389.5 290.6 384.4 302.1 315.7 290.2 380.6 461.1 329.1 484.0 380.5 380.0 484.1 404.2 434.

8 648.8 596.2 575.1 571.8 578.5 395.3 649.6 423.6 402.8 561.1 595.8 415.1 421.6 509.9 651.1 644.0 391.5 661.1 671.0 27.6 510.4 394.4 678.3 511.8 588.1 661.1 376.5 403.8 393.2 655.7 410.8 612.1 -29.3 430.3 637.0 398.1 391.8 -18.4 561.0 528.0 502.4 393.0 710.6 666.1 415.3 536.8 539.7 395.5 603.8 605.5 436.0 381.0 662.6 656.8 650.3 517.0 610.5 406.3 417.0 653.5 51.9 424.6 612.6 666.7 576.7 547.0 527.5 -22.1 397.8 506.1 414.6 406.3 439.6 421.2 418.5 377.7 379.0 409.9 402.4 -18.7 384.1 635.7 399.7 424.5 685.7 576.0 628.4 603.1 605.3 538.3 517.8 380.8 402.5 518.8 584.9 668.9 392.1 382.2 425.1 497.9 533.8 53.1 586.1 542.7 568. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.0 388.3 620.2 398.6 605.0 646.1 559.0 698.8 546.8 494.0 686.3 531.1 385.3 423.2 585.9 -19.5 588.1 562.3 397.5 605.7 646.8 547.5 -21.8 492.8 693.0 401.9 599.1 560.8 553.2 539.2 426.4 419.9 412.5 405.6 543.9 430.5 494.9 54.8 512.5 418.1 644.1 554.1 512.3 680.8 513.2 518.7 512.1 546.5 622.0 708.0 674.2 410.3 623.6 659.7 609.6 422.8 567.3 409.8 504.7 560.3 538.4 664.0 423.8 49.2 551.5 37.6 427.9 656.5 544.4 680.3 408.8 554.3 652.6 532.5 488.5 511.6 525.5 493.8 520.8 386.2 606.9 409.3 438.7 414.1 550.8 554.9 389.6 432.5 391.1 569.3 615.0 684.5 596.5 409.2 388.3 437.2 401.2 412.9 601.8 635.8 414.1 402.1 502.1 607.5 593.1 624.5 398.1 516.2 552.7 525.8 682.6 645.8 524.6 389.5 552.3 -26.8 581.6 434.7 409.6 532.4 493.5 424.7 542.2 493.2 376.3 575.9 521.4 392.7 598.9 676.9 391.6 .4 568.9 552.3 572.6 585.9 498.4 615.0 505.4 413.6 405.9 381.8 518.0 406.2 666.0 541.3 684.6 413.1 490.9 -18.5 626.1 437.8 383.4 55.3 385.1 568.0 599.3 408.4 386.1 576.2 676.3 425.5 618.4 376.9 613.6 418.6 411.1 544.2 -18.5 385.7 531.0 538.6 414.6 383.8 585.9 679.4 567.7 579.0 395.2 535.6 404.8 586.8 403.1 429.0 706.8 658.5 429.3 404.5 397.7 687.5 529.8 404.6 641.6 571.8 421.1 578.4 624.4 573.7 537.0 409.1 -18.7 499.1 486.8 625.8 39.6 404.7 555.2 402.7 578.1 568.2 396.4 401.0 592.1 402.2 602.9 389.0 405.8 398.7 395.6 433.0 525.1 612.1 432.9 428.9 521.5 553.7 623.4 30.2 410.8 594.1 515.2 505.0 405.7 383.3 426.8 593.0 410.8 624.3 409.9 614.6 570.5 499.0 683.7 669.0 407.6 668.8 535.9 491.5 417.3 570.0 691.9 -28.3 671.4 524.0 631.8 515.4 394.7 590.1 422.3 415.7 427.9 393.5 391.3 403.6 420.9 602.9 404.2 440.2 52.1 413.7 394.6 416.6 614.8 526.1 607.1 679.2 610.4 680.9 627.8 416.0 573.2 -30.1 501.7 417.4 649.3 407.2 591.4 402.0 634.3 389.0 510.0 399.7 681.6 517.8 594.5 625.1 530.0 -18.4 597.1 389.4 657.3 587.2 528.4 530.6 619.6 538.9 523.3 486.6 441.7 493.1 416.6 422.9 532.5 549.4 414.8 638.3 34.9 615.8 594.1 617.4 637.2 645.1 669.3 656.4 632.3 -18.6 547.1 567.5 378.6 621.0 401.4 516.9 551.1 560.4 669.3 514.7 612.8 395.9 511.1 579.7 393.3 39.4 36.6 553.8 405.1 577.4 578.9 400.1 506.3 420.6 422.2 696.6 640.5 594.4 546.9 548.8 35.9 409.9 682.2 524.8 391.7 651.6 407.8 509.3 421.6 28.7 516.3 392.9 -31.1 546.2 613.4 389.8 659.8 30.6 414.8 644.6 512.6 379.6 673.3 53.3 682.5 424.7 546.0 386.4 420.8 629.6 435.7 537.0 387.4 562.7 428.2 518.4 577.2 410.7 401.6 513.6 634.5 442.2 423.2 640.6 403.4 561.1 658.5 550.4 624.2 680.84 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.0 505.4 579.7 398.2 417.7 389.4 497.1 499.0 435.5 400.8 526.5 587.2 552.6 425.2 539.2 625.6 612.0 711.5 635.4 399.1 419.1 537.3 414.3 48.9 578.6 420.8 517.7 396.7 604.5 486.1 518.3 524.0 535.8 404.4 599.0 700.0 493.0 666.5 664.1 406.0 485.7 392.0 531.1 642.4 586.6 396.6 633.7 376.6 52.3 506.4 585.6 636.8 667.4 582.9 379.4 537.1 561.6 565.1 588.0 692.6 38.2 -24.7 682.9 401.6 613.0 387.9 517.5 382.9 399.5 396.4 537.3 385.7 34.4 379.7 -27.7 487.9 569.7 29.2 388.4 391.2 492.9 421.0 403.7 643.4 616.9 659.1 656.5 393.8 375.9 396.9 412.2 596.2 392.0 530.1 51.1 424.4 604.6 659.9 507.9 413.4 569.6 614.5 388.2 399.7 562.0 622.9 564.5 508.9 376.7 504.5 389.8 486.0 383.4 545.1 588.8 497.6 574.1 524.8 577.5 612.8 548.9 436.2 414.7 610.3 510.3 604.0 562.8 560.1 538.2 386.5 492.3 563.4 593.7 406.9 532.1 553.0 397.1 413.7 522.0 392.2 636.0 689.0 379.8 507.3 526.2 416.2 553.4 667.4 411.8 425.7 426.0 557.0 417.5 412.7 635.2 406.3 566.8 394.3 405.8 417.3 606.1 504.5 397.6 519.8 391.5 421.7 428.7 524.3 387.9 516.4 383.6 695.9 637.5 398.3 420.4 583.5 402.8 529.4 621.1 388.8 530.6 698.4 386.3 -20.4 576.0 679.2 395.1 402.5 545.3 395.2 47.5 624.0 596.0 444.9 414.0 646.3 499.8 423.0 558.2 658.6 404.3 416.6 434.1 594.8 587.4 662.1 620.5 505.4 410.6 394.4 407.5 392.2 29.0 570.0 427.7 495.2 413.5 539.1 424.8 545.8 606.1 28.9 591.0 562.4 50.9 645.9 613.7 531.1 415.0 400.0 555.6 419.6 33.9 513.7 569.5 524.4 487.2 380.5 421.5 433.6 386.8 -18.9 499.6 629.0 385.8 497.4 504.7 485.9 405.8 499.1 492.3 417.6 399.9 539.2 668.2 488.5 408.1 399.5 644.9 529.4 585.5 520.0 695.6 534.0 594.0 551.4 410.6 515.1 420.0 514.7 412.5 631.7 392.2 511.0 618.3 505.5 380.6 668.0 50.8 640.5 424.9 509.6 668.8 561.8 595.6 509.8 412.2 503.8 425.9 411.7 390.6 565.9 396.8 569.3 547.5 420.2 420.4 443.1 398.8 636.1 428.9 674.9 656.3 614.0 654.8 511.2 433.7 388.3 521.1 657.5 438.3 539.0 375.6 391.9 402.2 581.2 381.6 518.7 657.4 424.7 424.8 422.7 536.1 37.4 418.2 432.1 510.5 586.6 646.5 504.4 647.8 387.2 498.6 523.9 420.5 681.6 557.7 385.7 504.5 526.1 533.1 587.3 546.1 395.1 545.3 587.3 562.3 523.5 32.5 496.0 32.6 439.5 430.8 399.3 669.8 522.0 705.7 381.5 503.9 689.5 406.6 498.5 606.8 385.9 430.3 602.3 629.8 416.1 559.3 397.0 377.7 48.6 666.3 626.5 47.7 -18.3 377.5 560.7 405.5 554.0 702.5 -18.0 396.7 383.6 673.3 431.2 576.0 380.2 431.4 413.8 412.5 501.2 554.8 -25.1 528.3 531.5 560.1 379.3 416.2 637.0 36.5 541.7 377.8 408.0 687.2 529.6 568.3 416.0 408.6 681.7 382.7 643.7 590.9 382.3 646.9 397.7 394.8 381.9 632.2 406.1 604.0 396.4 525.2 577.0 516.8 567.8 582.5 635.4 497.2 503.6 384.9 400.9 487.8 389.4 634.2 567.5 595.6 425.0 547.1 544.1 623.5 512.4 -23.0 603.0 392.2 38.9 31.3 512.8 540.2 33.

3 544.8 514.0 -18.1 577.1 466.8 401.0 426.5 453.9 680.0 699.0 36.2 426.0 538.9 586.8 520.7 598.1 422.6 601.8 666.8 536.8 532.6 407.2 437.6 437.8 719.0 468.4 559.7 559.7 588.3 658.2 643.8 443.4 574.7 609.6 52.8 618.3 609.2 537.8 -18.6 431.3 614.6 418.7 532.4 36.8 421.3 695.6 566.6 527.6 406.1 565.3 415.1 620.8 575.0 750.7 625.7 458.7 417.85 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 558.4 428.6 446.5 -18.0 445.3 39.6 682.5 416.2 47.0 639.9 421.8 660.8 413.0 410.9 705.9 527.9 400.7 552.9 602.6 675.3 437.5 37.0 426.2 541.6 692.4 450.3 518.7 547.9 513.6 431.4 609.0 572.8 450.5 409.8 457.3 407.0 741.7 585.0 426.1 647.0 535.5 591.1 446.3 539.2 455.9 626.7 696.0 551.1 717.1 420.3 452.7 645.6 419.2 682.1 546.4 563.4 447.2 581.3 560.8 723.1 400.9 569.4 569.3 526.4 593.1 447.3 440.2 456.8 539.4 520.2 413.5 514.1 571.6 415.8 693.2 402.9 544.2 637.5 437.3 539.9 608.8 628.5 416.3 592.5 577.4 697.6 403.4 598.8 632.0 32.3 567.8 396.2 439.3 649.5 673.1 575.7 521.3 404.2 444.4 439.6 648.2 .3 401.4 699.5 659.8 419.8 49.3 724.0 397.5 410.1 464.1 656.1 598.9 -23.8 600.0 704.6 -18.5 545.5 555.5 727.7 593.1 687.7 592.5 576.4 424.1 447.0 747.2 417.3 589.6 519.3 607.1 679.5 695.2 533.8 442.4 634.2 428.1 414.1 609.6 28.8 646.6 570.2 416.3 717.6 660.7 635.4 416.8 619.9 453.2 545.7 627.5 601.0 436.5 718.7 426.6 33.8 694. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.9 426.6 462.3 34.6 591.8 454.6 554.3 710.8 702.1 628.8 646.3 409.8 685.7 48.4 398.7 -21.9 404.0 662.3 658.8 409.5 432.5 532.6 626.7 412.7 581.4 703.5 526.9 419.0 720.5 540.0 435.7 512.5 681.3 582.0 639.7 643.4 578.0 430.4 440.5 408.7 399.7 420.2 431.6 404.7 417.4 424.4 417.5 647.7 695.9 519.7 432.5 413.3 551.8 53.8 449.1 460.2 561.4 533.9 -22.7 409.0 675.3 435.2 725.5 547.1 641.5 412.8 691.2 638.8 615.0 733.0 408.2 413.5 545.8 713.6 420.2 420.2 540.5 700.2 653.0 584.6 639.7 433.9 430.2 421.3 572.6 418.7 649.2 665.2 537.8 441.1 546.8 597.5 534.5 574.3 512.7 439.8 39.0 431.7 451.2 698.9 398.5 401.0 583.0 437.5 412.7 622.6 526.7 34.8 629.2 657.3 604.3 680.9 549.2 656.7 558.3 53.6 414.3 568.2 601.4 439.3 403.1 646.7 567.9 641.0 621.6 708.3 419.0 636.2 527.2 533.0 739.2 457.9 554.0 540.0 409.1 659.3 408.5 51.0 533.7 722.5 676.2 592.4 610.0 419.2 455.7 422.7 406.4 414.8 397.2 413.0 396.7 671.3 424.2 38.0 428.6 420.7 398.6 561.1 610.3 407.7 464.1 577.4 669.6 542.1 673.3 611.1 421.2 613.0 727.9 702.5 432.9 444.3 419.4 439.4 440.5 638.0 610.9 569.8 435.3 396.4 578.2 423.0 661.0 703.8 524.6 564.5 619.8 404.5 456.0 705.9 -31.3 439.3 710.8 30.8 608.0 520.0 449.6 455.3 421.0 560.0 421.6 553.2 706.1 454.5 620.9 444.6 409.9 406.0 716.8 657.9 531.4 425.6 704.0 648.1 617.3 442.1 412.2 513.7 446.4 418.4 402.4 637.8 672.0 439.4 672.9 416.9 554.0 749.7 679.2 686.4 593.2 555.7 414.0 440.2 569.6 539.1 525.4 524.1 403.8 546.7 729.7 563.7 679.6 700.1 435.8 704.2 627.4 705.7 719.0 692.4 411.5 600.5 32.0 567.7 551.6 546.9 417.9 462.3 569.3 438.2 694.1 599.7 600.2 682.0 521.2 418.1 438.6 447.8 545.3 594.7 525.8 548.1 618.3 522.1 530.1 535.3 559.0 524.2 647.2 624.2 415.8 -18.6 586.4 -18.9 447.1 579.7 461.7 594.3 435.0 584.0 677.2 433.2 660.9 438.5 575.7 428.0 547.6 694.3 538.3 436.6 417.4 607.0 668.3 552.8 401.9 31.9 605.8 454.0 552.6 421.4 55.4 693.1 428.1 401.9 620.1 406.1 -30.5 406.9 54.0 713.3 593.0 591.3 459.7 622.3 556.9 403.4 584.0 27.8 576.1 400.4 676.9 719.7 410.3 715.2 423.8 672.2 592.5 431.5 524.6 706.5 600.5 446.9 638.4 -20.0 670.6 608.5 410.2 429.3 436.5 563.6 531.4 525.1 465.8 -19.2 440.3 561.7 658.1 429.0 432.7 736.2 660.7 458.6 719.2 567.5 548.0 431.0 432.4 -27.9 539.6 635.5 628.0 694.4 441.2 607.1 652.1 588.1 565.6 437.9 720.1 28.4 443.2 521.2 519.7 425.8 646.8 -28.2 554.4 627.7 593.3 671.8 601.8 427.2 414.2 532.1 681.2 52.7 29.0 529.4 50.1 577.0 -26.5 434.2 734.3 655.0 404.2 629.9 432.7 449.3 427.2 33.0 582.1 671.9 537.9 418.3 670.4 718.1 422.8 414.8 560.9 430.4 517.1 568.1 721.5 423.9 417.0 731.2 447.5 428.3 644.5 449.7 692.3 450.6 444.3 541.6 544.3 590.9 654.6 561.2 447.2 445.2 599.2 576.3 667.1 427.0 553.7 664.0 546.7 443.7 682.8 435.0 605.0 447.0 583.8 428.4 461.7 416.0 593.2 397.3 412.2 438.8 540.9 624.6 607.7 584.6 513.3 591.9 635.6 651.8 553.2 639.4 546.8 575.2 424.4 604.0 467.4 617.5 632.4 514.0 585.6 442.3 719.3 658.2 692.3 -18.0 617.6 689.7 431.7 431.3 427.9 615.1 596.6 559.5 519.5 409.9 404.6 560.1 425.0 724.8 580.6 569.7 428.6 557.1 -18.0 627.7 581.2 47.0 743.0 745.1 402.6 396.4 599.8 440.0 645.7 568.2 542.5 663.3 428.8 573.5 733.1 596.4 652.2 410.4 557.2 433.0 637.7 630.8 617.6 612.1 541.6 553.0 526.1 514.2 423.6 38.7 598.7 -24.9 627.9 423.5 445.8 711.9 439.1 420.1 619.8 436.8 437.3 420.7 445.3 640.6 400.8 460.2 448.1 419.7 411.3 415.9 647.2 669.5 638.1 588.9 670.1 611.3 617.2 531.5 451.3 632.3 425.2 424.8 555.7 452.0 542.5 444.6 443.0 736.0 716.1 -18.7 414.6 430.8 708.1 524.7 424.7 463.7 636.7 692.0 445.3 629.2 531.1 683.5 413.2 433.7 434.7 423.5 427.4 646.8 444.8 649.2 600.1 51.9 418.7 515.4 -25.7 564.5 553.8 417.7 451.7 731.4 549.9 443.7 441.0 -29.7 583.0 582.2 704.2 560.0 437.3 534.9 411.5 538.6 667.2 429.8 591.5 584.9 424.9 405.3 626.8 706.2 29.8 35.5 679.4 399.3 567.9 452.4 434.4 583.6 621.9 706.1 424.8 669.1 448.9 448.8 599.1 520.7 440.6 670.4 602.3 48.5 690.0 566.8 407.4 452.7 680.3 448.0 530.7 443.5 419.7 538.0 435.2 443.0 592.2 432.1 576.6 702.8 407.1 37.6 642.2 544.0 414.9 425.0 609.0 627.6 532.7 582.9 443.8 637.3 687.7 610.3 553.2 619.4 616.9 537.5 576.3 608.1 407.4 410.7 649.7 533.2 717.0 624.2 455.1 410.4 528.5 397.0 591.1 619.1 417.8 577.1 631.8 420.0 668.4 414.0 50.8 425.6 657.5 557.1 664.1 555.7 435.6 442.5 711.5 433.9 648.9 402.0 559.2 444.8 459.6 447.7 654.2 411.5 436.3 426.7 566.9 682.8 688.9 550.5 685.4 718.0 433.0 445.0 568.4 541.0 512.4 577.3 550.7 543.0 406.4 30.8 574.1 533.9 658.2 680.0 427.5 544.4 400.2 620.4 406.7 -18.5 602.0 560.

8 532.2 533.6 814.8 767.8 691.0 954.4 808.4 537.0 522.1 558.5 555.9 832.5 667.5 556.9 572.8 677.1 903.9 -31.6 523.3 546.2 872.0 918.9 795.6 545.7 703.6 702.0 964.9 858.8 885.7 582.0 791.2 725.4 915.7 771.8 585.7 590.3 34.3 728.4 567.0 552.8 872.3 729.7 578.1 844.0 902.3 771.4 769.0 532.5 795.1 687.0 874.0 785.7 780.4 540.7 532.7 704.4 50.9 684.5 880.8 551.6 -24.0 704.1 677.7 -26.2 925.4 806.8 35.9 533.3 738.2 550.3 -25.8 694.2 571.3 680.6 545.7 593.3 805.0 560.4 586.8 772.9 572.0 50.7 806.2 733.3 707.5 816.5 842.8 761.2 47.8 830.5 547.6 738.3 744.5 720.0 694.6 529.4 866.8 30.7 570.2 547.4 536.9 668.0 515.0 738.9 529.1 564.7 805.7 825.1 577.7 34.8 706.1 857.0 519.6 937.6 733.9 886.2 912.6 52.2 515.8 595.1 523.7 930.2 550.2 554.4 912.6 537.9 784.6 38.3 770.4 522.0 571.6 561.9 687.3 514.2 739.1 535.1 730.8 560.9 537.1 532.5 694.0 27.6 580.4 577.5 701.6 799.7 668.2 520.8 527.5 764.0 712.8 916.5 -18.1 761.6 770.1 923.0 544.8 879.3 863.2 757.5 817.1 -27.8 933.4 760.0 942.8 596.2 935.8 559.0 782.5 581.7 552.2 744.7 709.4 734.0 803.1 529.1 28.5 527.3 538.3 -19.6 818.5 563.6 829.0 537.0 738.8 555.0 966.2 816.5 730.2 760.4 576.5 587.1 693.6 905.5 549.7 700.2 52.2 901.7 782.2 691.9 54.86 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 573.4 688.2 749.0 524.0 570.2 818.8 812.5 708.0 746.6 684.5 685.6 886.8 542.9 570.3 529.7 .5 543.0 743.6 676.9 583.7 886.5 596.1 692.6 918.6 710.2 685.0 555.7 807.6 552.3 689.2 792.7 863.9 716.5 876.9 727.9 819.4 693.4 919.1 37.4 867.0 806.8 556.7 515.6 542.9 794.0 566.8 544.9 -18.6 902.1 537.6 680.4 876.4 520.7 927.6 599.9 750.7 711.6 547.4 541.8 808.8 895.9 528.9 938.0 530.0 676.9 715.2 832.9 541.2 697.3 519.3 532.8 762.3 769.3 751.1 591.7 861.2 869.9 760.3 523.5 739.6 819.6 531.5 831.0 938.2 556.2 750.9 758.8 568.9 771.7 940.8 715.2 816.5 849.4 924.7 906.7 556.9 719.3 835.8 730.1 551.4 820.1 514.3 932.4 695.7 532.1 830.4 887.5 858.6 520.6 874.8 739.7 697.6 551.7 583.5 562.6 759.2 588.2 831.8 889.4 853.2 544.9 818.9 -21.7 571.5 546.0 844.7 856.3 527.8 540.2 927.3 842.7 576.2 729.8 843.8 703.7 528.8 720.0 947.3 904.3 695.4 807.2 582.2 541.8 917.8 773.2 589.5 920.4 719.9 810.3 676.8 919.6 537.5 535.7 574.0 582.9 -23.7 843.7 798.4 528.3 516.1 727.2 520.5 904.9 577.9 904.2 567.5 537.9 534.8 775.4 516.3 594.2 -18.5 854.1 776.5 751.4 578.5 592.2 751.7 527.1 845.4 754.3 859.3 581.7 888.7 875.6 567.1 917.9 739.6 566.9 672.4 753.9 721.7 747.5 711.0 559.4 572.0 749.1 709.3 555.1 541.2 794.3 545.6 542.5 532.2 711.1 804.4 740.0 699.7 706.5 845.0 887.4 683.3 749.0 771.5 760.1 683.2 896.5 558.6 524.6 865.4 30.3 721.9 577.0 36.1 568.0 -22.7 541.9 729.0 536.4 780.5 722.1 570.1 935.3 710.2 909.4 542.5 528.3 936.0 698.3 543.5 565.7 567.9 766.7 898.0 967.8 872.4 844.6 742.7 851.0 720.2 570.0 733.8 768.0 556.5 937.8 725.0 787.6 -18.5 885.7 842.7 676.7 781.1 888.8 682.7 48.7 839.5 580.8 811.4 908.0 807.8 553.8 39.0 561.8 569.4 685.4 874.4 541.6 722.2 524.2 531.9 576.1 807.8 758.4 551.9 903.4 793.6 746.5 933.8 697.4 817.1 540.3 574.1 920.0 542.8 819.9 789.5 570.3 560.6 551.8 938.6 892.9 759.7 937.1 854.4 936.9 873.7 589.6 759.7 576.8 585.9 775.7 567.0 32.7 796.7 541.3 577.4 562.8 942.0 721.4 55.4 782.3 563.1 720.7 588.0 554.5 887.6 555.9 859.2 703.8 576.0 546.0 753.1 558.4 600.4 830.6 793.0 556.8 752.2 525.2 773.0 579.8 871.6 -29.4 727.6 783.9 702.7 553.0 521.5 938.8 581.7 717.3 837.1 844.1 593.6 28.5 851.6 534.0 525.3 545.8 579.1 762.8 723.0 685.7 571.0 860.5 735.7 777.6 794.6 730.6 860.4 948.3 742.9 580.0 935.8 831.2 833.6 878.0 601.7 899.0 749.9 583.6 729.5 752.1 702. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.8 49.2 792.9 830.3 882.5 571.1 560.6 792.2 29.9 769.8 -18.0 757.9 770.3 39.6 759.8 -18.3 552.3 554.7 546.6 516.5 586.7 783.2 702.1 532.4 547.1 929.2 576.8 524.9 546.8 675.2 554.7 550.4 557.2 719.2 38.2 709.6 727.2 759.3 699.5 566.0 724.0 805.9 560.0 960.2 793.6 546.8 751.7 702.7 794.9 562.7 721.2 566.5 677.5 859.8 561.2 566.6 577.7 814.8 930.4 717.1 818.5 832.2 705.1 857.0 731.4 901.0 951.0 827.3 781.4 847.2 668.3 572.5 32.0 535.3 737.3 874.2 537.6 582.7 531.2 561.4 36.3 779.7 520.6 33.4 905.2 729.0 780.0 47.4 567.4 945.6 538.3 749.8 714.3 886.4 690.0 578.8 833.6 731.6 527.7 944.5 703.7 29.2 918.7 545.5 523.7 817.6 541.6 -30.9 744.2 892.9 913.5 536.5 917.5 542.7 719.3 764.4 859.5 37.5 888.1 581.0 728.9 690.0 541.1 875.4 676.0 795.1 51.4 843.9 566.4 910.8 857.6 786.0 557.0 948.8 53.9 538.4 667.5 781.6 750.8 560.3 550.9 693.0 956.6 735.4 702.8 669.2 528.1 667.7 678.1 694.4 724.0 781.9 778.0 898.0 905.1 675.9 868.0 536.8 594.7 582.4 533.6 587.9 570.3 873.2 572.2 795.6 693.9 713.5 760.7 711.7 679.2 858.1 531.0 710.5 693.7 529.1 821.7 548.3 758.8 549.9 890.4 582.4 720.0 545.7 598.9 698.5 873.5 530.7 584.7 728.8 527.4 885.4 709.9 550.7 549.2 580.3 782.6 771.7 848.1 704.3 564.9 31.5 519.7 547.9 793.8 701.8 806.8 516.6 581.1 529.7 539.2 819.2 918.7 554.2 564.5 801.5 571.1 935.1 -18.6 597.8 761.4 531.8 783.0 573.8 545.3 894.4 915.5 740.3 562.3 564.7 543.7 685.4 678.6 791.2 556.1 516.4 574.9 739.7 -20.3 684.0 533.0 669.6 714.4 524.9 520.6 525.2 701.4 -18.1 857.4 870.0 549.9 817.9 577.7 566.3 906.5 560.7 562.4 -28.4 542.5 546.6 749.9 551.0 962.9 537.7 -18.9 580.4 709.8 521.9 523.2 712.9 710.1 839.9 574.6 555.0 843.4 755.8 552.6 533.1 741.7 591.1 740.9 883.8 569.3 531.5 832.4 856.5 833.7 920.1 585.6 547.3 801.3 564.8 584.4 902.2 688.3 518.6 859.9 563.9 723.7 836.8 667.7 822.2 693.3 682.8 840.1 538.0 958.2 536.6 559.6 575.8 711.0 528.4 779.5 51.2 565.3 48.9 567.7 774.6 781.2 772.5 515.8 552.5 561.2 889.4 772.5 719.2 825.8 692.9 536.8 585.8 740.1 523.3 669.9 842.3 833.3 53.8 844.6 550.5 668.8 519.7 903.4 555.0 945.3 539.9 920.4 535.2 530.4 788.2 796.7 683.5 806.1 830.7 683.9 882.3 674.5 692.6 798.5 772.7 808.2 823.3 571.4 828.3 740.8 589.4 804.0 684.2 582.1 578.2 817.0 684.2 33.3 -18.4 842.0 689.1 764.

6 573.7 553.6 731.3 905.3 800.4 790.9 988.6 814.0 893.2 620.8 632.9 916.3 552.5 622.2 787.1 599.1 989.1 704.8 633.0 922.8 904.9 760.4 621.9 861.7 840.6 603.6 721.5 561.5 895.6 740.1 616.1 985.3 850.9 584.2 958.2 856.4 609.6 572.2 869.3 733.0 859.6 779.6 933.8 750.5 793.0 577.7 800.2 52.2 745.9 38.0 569.6 982.3 889.0 -18.0 544.9 776.8 556.0 27.1 751.2 616.5 781.5 584.2 712.4 613.9 986.8 709.0 749.8 767.6 780.1 983.0 570.7 562.0 577.7 48.1 748.5 839.7 801.4 792.7 605.5 818.1 863.9 871.7 732.3 855.8 791.3 921.1 769.6 1000.9 851.8 900.4 731.6 47.0 971.1 543.8 745.7 941.0 801.6 595.4 705.9 591.6 561.9 609.8 967.5 760.5 607.0 603.3 772.5 51.4 749.2 612.3 970.3 723.7 815.2 881.5 889.6 606.0 800.4 610.4 923.2 835.2 617.4 997.2 720.8 608.3 575.1 776.4 574.6 750.1 580.6 628.8 553.9 937.2 824.3 706.4 581.2 729.8 794.8 576.0 566.4 860.6 922.7 581.3 720.9 54.4 879.0 898.3 826.9 999.9 613.8 936.3 934.2 703.5 759.6 763.7 705.6 815.4 580.5 891.4 551.6 741.9 712.8 833.1 866.8 799.3 561.3 937.9 903.6 770.7 878.7 601.1 549.9 745.2 610.5 759.0 34.1 552.3 890.2 620.0 927.2 936.6 1011.8 49.2 34.2 611.0 -22.4 608.6 951.2 849.8 742.9 592.7 549.5 954.6 572.2 853.0 962.7 612.8 859.4 591.6 571.0 740.9 629.1 587.5 768.8 580.7 556.0 802.1 782.0 557.9 571.8 576.5 823.3 790.8 748.2 603.8 885.8 862.7 613.1 613.0 -25.3 988.4 804.9 970.0 591.4 571.9 574.2 549.0 -29.5 790.6 851.9 545.4 969.0 562.9 609.0 980.9 989.0 -20.8 596.1 718.3 53.8 575.4 806.8 630.8 604.9 723.3 714.2 974.6 567.9 590.9 558.9 597.1 878.0 576.5 988.8 620.0 -28.9 814.7 864.6 576.9 585.4 975.8 1000.4 808.2 580.8 809.7 953.1 591.6 906.1 953.1 728.9 601.7 587.7 565.5 -18.9 952.5 577.1 35.2 954.2 967.3 601.6 836.5 734.3 811.3 914.9 728.2 568.0 864.9 631.7 995.5 934.0 562.5 704.6 761.9 850.0 863.3 750.9 602.2 834.4 714.3 732.7 714.4 892.5 544.9 839.3 562.9 994.9 911.7 907.5 806.1 1017.8 730.2 876.3 554.3 814.0 625.9 577.6 852.1 732.5 548.2 796.8 790.5 32.6 935.4 898.1 598.8 587.5 562.1 597.6 763.9 560.2 558.1 -18.0 -30.0 908.4 615.3 888.0 971.6 590.5 713.0 871.9 959.1 553.7 599.0 556.3 599.4 886.3 543.9 824.0 551.9 876.2 767.8 764.2 990.3 39.6 597.7 566.6 865.9 750.8 33.1 829.7 923.3 813.6 564.3 559.1 560.2 750.3 814.9 599.8 927.7 912.9 864.8 754.2 735.0 548.2 -18.2 969.5 789.9 750.1 566.5 850.8 757.4 781.8 543.4 588.9 610.9 906.8 778.4 791.0 770.6 939.1 612.6 601.4 571.7 553.8 713.8 781.6 608.3 986.0 778.7 545.3 572.1 826.8 577.3 615.4 770.2 877.1 594.5 785.9 598.4 581.6 1019.9 721.4 783.3 48.1 581.6 742.3 801.9 997.7 569.5 547.6 585.1 547.5 601.3 778.8 825.8 53.5 753.4 563.8 560.3 583.8 769.2 907.1 608.4 30.3 947.6 818.8 610.1 711.3 597.3 874.0 50.0 755.1 896.3 553.1 810.6 877.4 567.2 567.5 824.9 740.6 592.4 748.7 754.6 37.1 586.2 813.6 609.0 948.7 565.7 558.4 558.7 792.8 781.4 602.2 823.4 583.1 768.5 623.6 626.2 821.8 547.1 604.9 581.9 800.1 51.8 817.4 612.8 969.9 579.5 1013.7 613.3 597.0 603.0 752.9 767.6 561.4 570.3 838.1 578.7 726.2 602.9 582.9 587.9 703.5 562.3 785.2 47.4 981.3 853.7 848.6 904.7 748.4 592.7 966.0 549.0 862.6 572.2 563.6 813.2 755.7 843.5 876.7 987.2 557.1 875.3 740.2 605.5 725.4 592.8 823.1 587.3 731.4 838.2 566.3 828.8 935.9 962.2 598.1 984.3 606.8 573.6 815.6 583.9 934.0 968.5 730.2 721.5 952.4 901.1 570.5 963.0 787.0 991.5 575.3 904.7 761.0 878.1 888.7 570.9 552.2 829.3 820.7 602.1 767.4 598.1 792.2 581.1 610.6 816.0 618.0 622.4 834.6 594.5 742.7 581.9 576.7 557.4 600.9 825.7 792.0 618.9 812.3 802.7 738.0 558.4 582.3 -18.6 36.0 743.6 924.3 976.0 906.4 911.6 732. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.1 960.4 919.9 549.4 617.7 -18.1 760.0 -21.0 804.0 879.9 577.8 566.9 779.1 850.0 935.9 575.6 837.6 591.4 622.2 618.1 857.1 932.4 28.6 560.9 736.6 945.7 746.4 742.6 861.2 756.3 706.8 627.6 784.8 841.5 990.5 543.5 595.3 779.7 994.8 930.7 838.6 812.3 625.7 603.3 950.0 634.7 770.3 715.4 793.2 582.0 722.6 706.0 1020.6 617.0 836.5 825.7 735.7 888.9 556.8 803.9 608.5 36.7 802.2 569.3 861.3 600.9 591.7 566.3 779.6 596.2 956.8 882.0 731.2 585.1 37.0 614.0 838.8 586.1 28.6 862.5 572.0 877.1 774.8 876.5 930.4 558.0 589.5 557.1 607.6 575.3 952.2 904.9 921.6 52.7 812.4 904.8 781.1 615.0 -23.9 597.3 735.9 966.87 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 623.3 716.2 945.2 32.8 592.2 741.4 50.2 604.1 563.3 878.3 836.7 863.2 825.7 38.1 561.3 851.8 31.8 594.0 924.0 -19.8 744.8 628.0 955.4 1009.5 29.5 905.1 574.0 714.3 29.4 823.3 917.6 761.4 936.4 801.0 -26.1 822.5 769.4 55.2 751.6 624.8 720.3 812.6 586.2 801.8 768.8 954.9 -18.8 614.5 773.0 -27.5 603.6 769.3 748.2 592.3 803.6 559.4 761.6 956.0 739.5 873.4 586.9 832.7 557.6 955.2 576.2 889.2 740.2 565.6 890.3 576.6 571.8 560.0 705.3 727.1 923.9 890.8 943.6 592.3 845.9 822.2 603.3 848.9 720.0 852.6 596.2 780.5 921.1 723.5 553.7 722.2 759.9 33.6 551.5 585.4 1015.1 729.9 741.0 -24.9 816.1 713.9 836.1 769.4 549.7 731.5 920.3 567.8 938.8 889.9 732.4 579.0 614.6 720.9 965.1 554.5 970.4 572.1 571.6 937.7 885.4 27.6 614.1 920.9 876.6 597.0 831.7 548.4 568.7 607.3 614.4 765.5 842.8 760.7 582.4 773.3 779.6 727.9 .6 595.0 740.3 548.5 556.9 949.8 612.1 987.0 565.0 953.0 917.8 759.9 780.6 552.7 839.0 837.0 590.6 560.0 891.2 952.3 586.3 587.7 567.9 888.7 564.7 989.6 1003.9 905.7 743.0 30.9 572.2 591.7 879.3 764.6 765.5 968.8 607.4 798.4 582.0 826.4 864.6 542.3 585.7 749.9 567.4 793.5 722.9 593.6 568.7 566.9 922.6 738.4 721.1 552.1 564.2 758.6 39.4 758.3 774.3 839.1 572.1 791.8 561.6 598.4 914.8 -18.9 737.2 845.8 585.7 824.9 718.6 -18.9 758.1 901.2 579.9 813.6 891.3 772.5 601.6 968.4 567.8 849.2 562.2 936.4 803.6 796.1 883.2 851.0 794.6 595.1 730.6 850.4 627.0 556.2 978.4 723.4 -18.6 715.2 806.8 704.1 606.7 920.6 862.3 737.5 978.3 715.1 1006.7 837.6 589.3 761.1 575.1 790.0 589.1 868.1 557.1 585.6 987.4 726.3 579.8 929.8 544.3 863.2 891.3 609.2 724.3 801.0 614.9 906.3 585.5 614.4 907.9 588.8 575.3 784.9 847.2 544.1 593.1 941.8 873.

1 727.7 747.7 701.2 706.0 -30.0 -29.6 -18.7 723.9 711.5 694.0 714.3 -18.0 696.9 730.7 29.9 729.0 27.3 713.9 718.8 713.6 28.6 725.7 723.4 707.9 704.1 -18.1 718.9 724.7 -18.0 -25.8 27.5 735.0 .9 734.4 36.4 741.2 47.4 695.9 -18.3 701.3 718.0 -28.1 710.1 705.8 706.7 694.7 735.6 705.6 700.6 33.1 51.0 -27.2 723.5 731.4 727.2 718.2 724.3 720.8 695.0 728.8 35.3 706.8 717.8 53.7 724.3 694.4 55.9 710.5 723.1 28.9 699.7 744.0 749.1 729.8 731.0 716.6 718.0 -26.6 707.3 34.0 731.1 698.9 707.7 701.3 742.8 30.2 -18.5 721.9 709.3 738.5 740.0 731.2 734.1 715.7 712.2 52.88 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 702. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] -31.0 718.2 704.4 716.9 54.2 712.4 722.0 -22.0 723.0 711.6 724.0 694.0 36.4 720.0 729.8 739.2 695.1 724.4 720.5 730.8 -18.5 701.3 723.5 706.4 703.2 711.4 712.2 29.4 -18.6 719.1 730.0 -23.2 38.5 709.4 50.5 742.9 726.7 712.2 704.8 39.3 39.5 37.5 32.1 706.4 739.9 705.2 730.7 717.2 741.4 731.4 705.3 53.5 -18.7 34.6 734.8 708.8 726.5 713.1 717.9 729.0 -18.9 714.4 711.1 37.9 694.3 48.6 732.3 724.9 701.3 716.8 745.9 715.8 717.7 732.5 709.6 52.5 51.6 38.0 -21.6 734.8 725.7 736.6 695.5 722.3 738.0 717.8 722.0 -20.0 -19.1 716.0 706.0 732.7 711.7 48.8 700.8 49.5 717.0 699.1 712.0 50.9 31.8 730.9 47.6 731.4 30.3 706.0 737.9 712.4 717.9 727.8 713.3 730.8 693.8 746.0 -24.5 712.6 748.2 717.0 725.4 700.0 700.4 724.7 730.2 33.5 711.1 700.0 32.

8 736.0 -27.0 764.0 764.0 -28.1 755.5 756.8 788.6 754.6 738.8 757.2 52.5 754.5 762.3 39.3 769.7 -18.7 765.4 770.0 757.4 758.8 763.5 771.4 741.2 773.2 47.7 744.8 740.8 752.8 764.6 771.5 740.8 39.5 781.0 36.2 757.6 734.0 27.0 771.2 743.6 782.4 30.3 771.4 734.9 778.6 769.7 789.8 748.0 .8 738.4 36.0 740.4 745.0 752.3 750.8 787.8 762.89 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 750.2 748.3 769.2 -18.7 34.5 732.1 37.5 757.5 780.5 763.8 762.4 745.0 -20.8 756.3 763.5 783.0 -30. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.1 746.8 748.0 -21.4 774.7 755.9 733.3 768.2 744.5 -18.3 -18.6 746.8 755.7 48.0 766.6 740.2 745.1 763.2 732.8 767.0 -18.2 760.0 758.2 33.9 750.7 770.6 762.2 772.3 752.9 777.5 753.2 765.3 752.8 763.3 756.4 783.2 751.4 733.2 742.3 776.4 775.7 752.0 -23.2 29.0 781.5 744.9 27.6 751.5 743.2 767.8 49.8 53.3 774.6 756.4 750.4 760.9 770.2 769.3 759.2 776.6 -18.3 48.5 756.2 770.8 786.3 731.4 739.0 790.9 47.0 744.5 776.4 780.0 -22.2 779.0 -19.1 28.2 38.2 766.7 757.6 52.5 32.1 770.0 772.0 732.6 38.5 51.0 -29.4 50.1 -18.6 739.1 750.7 732.9 751.3 739.9 750.0 -24.4 55.6 770.1 751.6 751.2 758.0 -25.9 54.5 767.9 -18.8 771.7 733.0 756.3 773.8 739.1 51.9 758.1 747.8 30.0 32.9 774.6 784.5 37.6 28.0 743.1 733.5 760.3 53.7 745.8 751.8 35.4 -18.8 746.6 33.0 -26.3 749.0 50.1 738.3 34.9 738.7 758.9 745.3 763.9 31.1 739.3 764.7 756.4 764.2 744.7 29.4 772.6 761.3 751.8 -18.5 764.

1 28.01 0.01 0.016 0.0 32.8 49.018 0.01 0.011 0.013 0.0 36.009 -30 -30 -30 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 90 .011 0.2 52.8 53.2 47.7 34.01 0.5 32.013 0.016 0.017 0.014 0.018 0.01 0.018 0. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package P [bar] 27.5 51.8 39.2 33.6 52.012 Tr[C] -29 -30 -29 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -31 47.7 29.017 0.011 0.3 39.4 50.01 0.016 0.014 0.016 0.0 27.01 0.8 35.1 37.6 28.3 34.01 0.6 38.014 0.01 0.013 0.3 48.013 0.9 31.015 0.017 0.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.015 0.2 29.5 37.1 51.0 0.015 0.6 33.8 30.9 54.7 48.4 36.014 0.3 53.4 30.015 0.0 50.2 38.01 0.01 0.016 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 55.

24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual P [bar] 27.016 0.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.0 32.013 0.011 0.4 50.6 38.2 -29.1 37.016 0.015 0.013 0.7 29.5 -27.5 -28.1 -29.9 -29.6 -32.4 30.6 -33.7 -32.017 0.1 -28.0 36.1 -33.8 39.9 -33 -33.01 0.017 0.01 0.4 55.6 -30.3 39.01 0.5 -28.016 0.01 0.018 0.8 49.1 28.016 0.4 -33.4 -30.01 0.01 0.0 0.3 -27.8 30.014 0.2 38.1 -33.4 36.013 0.7 -33.3 34.2 33.01 0.7 34.3 53.018 0.5 51.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 51.6 52.8 91 .015 0.9 31.011 0.7 48.2 47.2 29.9 -29.8 -32.2 -33.01 0.011 0.013 0.8 -30.015 0.014 0.009 -32.018 0.2 -26.6 33.7 -28.8 53.9 -27.5 37.1 -29.6 28.012 Tr[C] -27 -27.5 -30.9 54.016 0.7 -30.4 -32.015 0.0 50.9 -28.0 27.8 35.3 -33.01 0.014 0.2 -28.9 47.014 0.017 0.01 0.1 -27.01 0.2 52.3 48.5 -33.5 32.3 -29.

088 -24.462 -25.01 0.228 -25.015 0.0 36.793 -25.4 50.5 32.127 -25.548 -25.119 -26.4 30.326 -25.403 -24.01 0.01 0.3 53.2 38.016 0.883 -24.013 0.641 -25.1 28.4 36.164 -24.032 -24.848 92 .3 34.8 49.01 0.558 -25.2 47.011 0.017 0.011 0.091 -26.872 -24.014 0.37 47.9 31.8 39.355 -25.704 -25.017 0.08 -25.1 51.2 52.9 54.343 -26.012 Tr[C] -24.01 0.013 0.0 0.01 0.017 0.0 27.704 -26.015 0.1 37.7 29.015 0.7 34.01 0.875 -25.534 -25.4 55. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations P [bar] 27.8 30.5 37.014 0.018 0.522 -26.016 0.0 32.136 -26.016 0.305 -25.02 -25.195 -26.811 -24.6 28.011 0.5 51.016 0.013 0.394 -25.8 35.637 -24.018 0.922 -24.186 -23.01 0.8 53.3 48.779 -25.7 48.6 33.01 0.013 0.01 0.494 -24.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.014 0.657 -24.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 29.009 -25.014 0.6 52.591 -24.3 39.0 50.018 0.016 0.6 38.01 0.2 33.015 0.

58 95.53 94.33 96.05 97.66 93.45 98.78 96.24 98.9 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 Gas Temperature: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 87.59 96.78 92.21 95.21 99.41 98.13 87.90 100.64 87.83 96.68 97.34 93.97 99.15 91.13 93.64 90.73 97.15 94.31 91.55 99.75 98.15 96.08 97.73 99.45 93.90 98.80 94.28 95.37 97.42 94.51 98.47 95.06 90.17 98.37 90.44 97.44 97.21 96.60 93.24 96.36 98.49 96.37 89.12 97.70 94.72 96.21 99.34 96.38 96.15 87.85 98.32 89.84 95.62 93.56 99.98 98.27 87.21 97.53 97.37 99.34 98.76 90.46 97.20 93.58 97.93 93.41 96.10 98.24 96.12 98.88 96.86 99.2 100.69 97.41 95.27 95.81 88.07 95.74 97.18 98.17 94.17 99.64 95.18 93.56 94.50 97.81 92.61 93.68 97.82 94.41 95.64 95.97 95.95 95.34 94.93 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 6.87 99.89 100.85 98.43 96.58 95.85 97.99 95.63 95.20 99.33 98.64 93.83 92.02 95.70 95.32 93.65 97.38 95.99 96.05 96.71 97.31 95.69 93.67 91.22 97.00 91.41 89.61 93.00 95.16 96.97 92.25 94.25 92.35 89.79 97.16 97.01 99.84 98.49 96.80 96.74 97.21 96.98 96.03 99.33 95.49 92.68 98.4 -18.61 97.29 91.59 93.84 94.56 90.25 95.33 88.84 96.15 98.60 96.31 89.43 97.91 97.68 95.66 98.92 97.66 96.31 97.37 99.62 90.67 97.72 95.96 96.11 98.59 94.98 97.27 97.83 97.08 95.73 94.74 96.24 96.61 89.35 98.22 93.09 93.57 92.85 99.51 98.13 95.05 98.18 87.28 93.18 94.97 97.84 91.93 96.25 97.27 98.97 98.88 92.91 96.70 93.01 98.29 93.56 97.86 92.50 88.01 98.54 96.19 96.97 91.49 98.66 96.52 98.52 99.15 88.39 97.16 97.72 98.95 98.37 96.87 97.00 98.94 91.95 91.30 97.76 94.22 96.07 97.67 93.36 95.85 92.83 97.00 98.68 95.88 96.15 94.23 97.42 96.84 98.16 97.0 89.3 -18.87 98.90 97.00 91.91 97.99 98.24 94.91 92.48 96.70 98.21 99.62 96.17 95.87 91.92 92.25 94.08 97.80 95.47 97.66 94.54 99.64 95.35 98.41 96.12 96.81 95.52 90.85 98.99 91.39 97.82 97.44 93.59 97.60 95.29 97.76 98.07 98.38 96.81 98.41 96.70 96.87 99.09 97.33 97.1 100.83 97.19 98.93 93.67 95.68 97.39 96.94 92.53 98.55 97.57 96.67 98.89 92.39 99.10 96.17 98.03 97.17 87.90 98.65 95.04 99.02 91.06 97.22 97.76 97.25 87.02 99.59 96.71 97.83 97.91 90.93 97.99 98.97 92.51 97.04 99.29 93.18 99.66 95.07 98.74 94.59 90.28 98.70 99.38 95.43 89.66 90.57 94.98 91.58 96.61 94.8 -18.73 99.36 97.81 97.20 94.74 97.00 99.94 96.78 97.05 95.04 98.34 97.92 98.96 92.04 93.2 89.01 94. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions Dew Point -18 -18.50 98.28 87.67 97.19 94.50 95.27 93.6 -18.33 95.55 97.77 93.61 90.55 96.93 98.83 91.28 97.19 94.83 96.5 -18.05 95.26 97.33 92.30 93.70 98.62 95.86 91.30 94.57 95.25 96.30 95.80 97.03 95.67 95.0 100.83 94.00 98.62 91.09 96.18 98.56 93.30 95.33 97.54 95.36 93.85 94.14 96.58 95.65 92.50 97.58 98.33 96.24 97.88 97.60 97.13 96.98 94.50 94.87 96.04 96.32 94.94 95.91 96.31 94.20 96.88 97.22 87.69 95.20 99.58 90.47 97.65 96.87 100.49 97.89 97.75 97.24 93.68 98.02 97.34 89.35 99.35 95.30 96.38 89.10 98.58 93.89 98.97 95.86 94.89 96.84 88.42 97.56 97.22 94.53 90.92 91.77 96.44 89.00 95.28 94.36 96.46 89.58 94.32 98.66 97.40 95.08 97.08 96.21 93.87 99.02 94.02 98.10 97.53 98.1 -18.29 95.48 94.41 92.55 95.69 91.17 92.20 87.14 98.67 96.66 96.09 98.26 93.72 93.71 94.18 98.13 92.02 98.81 94.10 97.91 96.30 87.83 98.64 97.71 96.81 92.23 87.05 97.27 94.83 97.39 97.19 93.85 98.66 97.7 -18.91 91.68 90.00 97.25 95.42 97.88 93.16 98.47 91.09 92.97 95.67 88.51 94.96 96.92 95.49 97.00 97.90 94.63 98.50 95.61 97.75 94.70 98.53 98.63 97.47 95.46 96.63 96.55 90.02 98.19 97.17 97.78 94.64 96.26 97.77 93.55 99.86 96.02 98.80 99.92 97.71 97.38 99.73 97.72 95.74 96.40 89.14 95.67 95.84 98.17 96.04 99.71 99.41 97.89 91.94 98.08 96.51 97.69 96.47 87.38 99.70 95.55 96.00 97.3 .35 98.35 94.78 97.34 98.94 92.58 96.44 96.33 97.95 98.88 95.2 -18.98 88.83 99.69 94.14 91.62 94.22 90.14 97.

. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey. Small and large cavities (Behar et al. 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics) Figure 2. 1994) .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 94 Figures Figure 2.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2. 1997) 95 . 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Sloan.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 96 Figure 2. Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers. 1988) Figure 2. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from John Carrol. 2003) . 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG.

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. 1991) Figure 2. 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al. 1997) 97 . 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2.

2003. 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski. reproduced) 98 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

1999-02.2 0.2004-1128 23 19 15 09 14 09 06 01 28 24 20 Water content of imported gas Water content limit Figure 3.2000-10.2002-05.2003-03.1 Change in the Polish Norm 0 1995-10.1999-12.2004-01.1997-06.1996-08.1998-04. 2005) 99 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water Content In Ukrainian Gas 0.4 0.6 between 21-11-1995 do 10-01-2005 Water content [g/Nm3] 0. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP.3 0.5 c 0.2001-07.

3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP. 2005) 100 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION towards ROZWADÓW ID 700 ID 300 Gas compressor ID 400 towards TARNÓW JAROSŁAW ID 500 ID 300 ID 700 ID 600 towards LUBACZÓW ID 300 ID 500 MAĆKOWICE ID 700 Gas Drying Gas compressor ŻURAWICA ID 500 ID 700 Gas compressor ID 600 ID 300 towards STRACHOCIN HERMANOWICE ID 600 Gas compressor ID700 ID 500 POLAND / UKRAINE BORDER Figure 3.

2005) 101 . 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas. 2004) 102 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

1 Water content of natural gas (ATG. 1990) 103 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al. 1959) 104 .

3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA 105 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

4 32. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual Water content according to manual 15 C 0.0 29.0 38.8 37.015 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 10 C 0.01 0.01 Manual 0.3 50.6 53.006 0.6 53.1 30.9 .8 37. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual 106 .2 49.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.014 0.6 34.2 49.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.1 39.6 34.4 32.5 33.8 55.4 51.7 36.8 55.016 0.7 36.5 52.008 0.1 30.0 38.025 0.4 51.002 27 28.012 0.3 50.9 .018 0.2 31.02 Manual 0.2 .5 52.2 31.5 33.02 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.3 47 48.0 29.004 0.005 27 28.3 47 48.1 39.2 .

8 37.0 38.3 47 48.1 39. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual Water content in dehydrated gas 10 C 0.012 0.8 55.2 .2 .3 47 48.6 34.6 53.4 51.4 32.002 27 28.7 36.4 51.9 .3 50.2 31.5 52.3 50.1 39.4 32.025 Manual 0.0 38.2 31.8 37.01 Article 0.0 29.8 55.02 0.5 33.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.1 30. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations 107 .5 33.6 34.008 0.5 52.2 49.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.7 36.03 0.6 53.018 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.006 0.2 49.1 30.015 0.01 0.0 29.016 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.004 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 20 C 0.005 27 28.9 .014 0.035 0.

2 49.3 47 48.1 39.4 51.5 33.02 0.025 0.2 31.005 27 28.6 53.1 30.5 52.3 50.2 49.1 30.2 .015 Article 0.7 36. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations Water content in dehydrated gas 20 C 0.0 38.005 27 28.2 31.0 38.0 29.6 34. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations 108 .5 33.8 55.4 51.6 53.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.2 .7 36.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content in dehydrated gas 15 C 0.6 34.01 0.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.0 29.9 .9 .025 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.4 32.8 55.4 32.01 0.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.8 37.8 37.02 0.5 52.015 Article 0.3 47 48.3 50.1 39.

8 37.4 51.0 38.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.4 32.3 50.02 0.9 .2 .3 47 48. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys 109 .015 Hysys 0.6 53.01 0.1 30.0 29.025 0.005 27 28.2 49.5 52.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.5 33.7 36.1 39.2 31.6 34. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys Water content according to Hysys 10 C amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.8 55.

9 .6 53.1 39.01 0.01 0.015 0.025 Hysys 0.02 Hysys 0. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys Water content according to Hysys 20 C 0.5 52.015 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.4 32.3 50.0 38.8 37.03 0.03 0.2 .2 .5 33.045 0.8 37.2 31.4 51.7 36.0 29.2 31.3 47 48.6 53.0 29.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to Hysys 15 C 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.005 27 28.035 0.9 .3 50.6 34.04 0. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys 110 .1 30.3 47 48.6 34.4 51.05 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.8 55.2 49.005 27 28.035 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.1 30.0 38.1 39.5 33.2 49.7 36.025 0.02 0.4 32.8 55.5 52.

2 .5 52.01 27 28.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.5 33.4 32.6 34.1 3 0.4 5 1.6 53.7 36.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 10 C 0.04 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.7 36.0 0 pressure Figure 5.4 51.2 .0 29.5 33.06 amount of water 0.045 0.05 0.03 0.8 37.0 38.9 .03 0.035 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.8 55.02 0.1 39.2 49.6 34.5 5 2 .2 31.015 0.02 0.1 39.3 50.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.8 55.2 49.0 29.6 53.3 50.0 38.05 0.9 . 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC 111 .01 0.2 3 1 .8 37.3 47 48. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC Water content comparison 15 C 0.1 30.3 47 48.005 27 28.025 0.4 32.

08 0.4 51 .02 0.4 32 .01 47 .7 35 .0 28 .4 27 .06 0.8 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.05 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 20 C 0.07 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.04 0. 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC 112 .8 54 .03 0.0 33 .1 52 .7 30 .4 37 .7 49 .1 38 .

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

113

0,011
0,011
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,009

-21

0,018
0,018
0,017
0,016
0,016
0,016
0,015
0,014
0,014
0,014
0,013
0,013

Dew Point For Water Content

-23

-25
Dew Point

Manual
Article
Hysys
Wielom. (Article)
Wielom. (Manual)

-27

-29

Wielom. (Hysys)
-31

-33

-35
Water Content

Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

114

Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG, 1988

115

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Minimum Strong TEG Concentration

100,00

98,00

TEG Min Concentration [% mas]

96,00
-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28
-29

94,00

92,00

90,00

88,00

86,00
1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

Gas Temperature [C]

Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18oC and -29oC

00 98.4 -18.9 -19 94.00 -18 -18.00 88.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Gas Temperature C Figure 6.00 90.6 -18.2 -18.00 TEG Min Concentration [% mass] 96.5 -18. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC .8 -18.7 -18.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 116 Minimum strong TEG concentration 100.1 -18.00 86.00 92.

Colour Amber – light brown Form Transparent fluid Boiling point [C] Over 300 oC Freezing poing [C] Below -16 oC Density [kg/m3] 860 kg/m3 Ignition temperature [C] Over 200 oC Range of explosivness [g/m3] From 45 g/m3 Self-ignition temperature [C] Omissible in Maćkowice temperature work range . 2004) Table of Aviaterm 6 oil specifications was provided with Mackowice dehydration Facility operation manual. It is used as heat carrier in the temperature range between -18 oC and 280 oC (Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 117 Appendices Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil Aviaterm 6 is heating oil used for warming up natural gas flowing into absorbtion column.

1 0.1 0.02 -25.3 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.036 -18.015 -28.7 0.018 -27.2 0.048 -15.3 0.041 -17.6 0.5 0.013 -30.013 -30.052 -14.014 -29.019 -26 0.036 -18.018 -27.2 0.049 -14.031 -20.8 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.028 -21.5 39.034 -19.048 -15.7 0.8 .7 0.048 -15.5 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.033 -19.012 -31.031 -20.012 -30.051 -14.067 -11 30.3 0.017 -27.045 -15.8 0.7 27.9 40.019 -26.02 -25.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.043 -16.4 29.8 43.023 -24.5 0.035 -18.2 0.028 -21.064 -11.035 -19 0.8 0.5 36 0.035 -18.024 -23.018 -27 0.3 0.055 -13.1 0.1 0.047 -15.5 0.1 41.7 0.7 0.4 0.016 -28.041 -17.7 0.039 -17.024 -23.013 -30.7 0.2 0.017 -27.9 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.021 -24.5 0.9 0.018 -27 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.024 -23.7 0.039 -18.8 0.013 -30.068 -10.9 0.8 0.028 -21.012 -31.039 -17.5 0.025 -23.9 0.018 -26.018 -26.014 -29.5 0.6 42.042 -16.7 0.021 -25.035 -18.024 -23.3 0.034 -19.2 0.025 -23.014 -29.018 -26.03 -20.03 -21.4 0.069 -10.3 0.035 -18.3 0.016 -28.02 -25.2 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.032 -20.3 0.034 -19.4 0.034 -19.5 0.018 -26.6 0.049 -14.7 0.3 0.9 0.5 36.3 0.6 0.045 -16 0.021 -25.017 -27.2 0.4 42.1 0.1 0.8 0.055 -13.6 0.1 41 0.025 -23.044 -16.023 -23.037 -18.5 0.5 33.8 29.012 -31.018 -26.6 0.025 -22.9 0.Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27 0.059 -12.026 -22.4 0.9 0.058 -12.3 0.8 0.8 37.2 0.1 0.3 30.6 0.037 -18.026 -22.047 -15.8 39.8 0.072 -10.047 -15.065 -11.7 0.019 -26.023 -23.7 34.6 0.1 35.034 -19.027 -22 0.025 -22.053 -13.015 -28.04 -17.071 -10.046 -15.8 0.2 28.035 -19 0.017 -27.2 33.016 -28.6 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.012 -31.046 -15.9 34.6 0.118 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix B .05 -14.019 -26 0.4 38.8 0.017 -27.012 -31 0.043 -16.5 0.033 -19.3 0.026 -23.014 -29.016 -27.5 0.033 -19.03 -20.8 0.063 -11.052 -14.5 0.048 -15.6 0.051 -14.4 0.022 -24.5 31.015 -29.7 0.1 0.7 32 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.029 -21.1 0.1 28.3 0.5 0.024 -23.022 -24.057 -12.057 -13.062 -12 32.025 -22.032 -20 0.053 -14 37.2 0.7 0.2 38.026 -22.015 -29.2 0.061 -12.5 0.025 -22.2 0.027 -22.7 0.9 0.3 0.073 -9.1 0.8 0.012 -31.2 0.05 -14.016 -28.9 0.022 -24.052 -14.

5 0.017 -27.9 0.1 0.1 0.038 -18 52.2 44.7 51.014 -30 0.9 0.038 -18.038 -18.2 0.041 -17.6 0.1 0.8 0.2 53.02 -25.1 52.015 -28.015 -29.028 -21.021 -25.2 0.4 0.2 0.023 -23.6 0.7 0.01 -33.011 -32.9 0.033 -19.011 -32 0.8 0.029 -21.011 -32.4 0.039 -17.7 0.9 0.01 -33.022 -24.2 0.4 54.2 0.014 -29.1 0.9 47.8 0.014 -29.5 46 0.014 -29.8 0.9 0.019 -26.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.02 -25.032 -20.029 -21.041 -17.037 -18.9 0.3 0.023 -24 0.8 0.019 -26.01 -33.5 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.119 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43.04 -17.1 0.023 -23.027 -21.8 0.7 0.021 -25.2 0.015 -28.029 -21.4 0.1 53.04 -17.04 -17.8 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.043 -16.037 -18.009 -33.042 -16.02 -25.7 51.026 -22.1 0.015 -28.2 0.9 0.016 -28.3 0.1 0.4 0.8 0.044 -16.3 0.011 -32.019 -26.022 -24.2 0.4 0.1 48.042 -16.6 0.1 0.044 -16.015 -29 0.9 0.028 -21.3 0.03 -20.01 -32.027 -22.1 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.032 -20.031 -20.7 47.01 -32.1 0.5 0.01 -33.7 0.01 -33 0.4 0.8 0.014 -29.2 0.3 0.4 0.03 -20.036 -18.028 -21.013 -30.6 0.4 0.3 50 0.014 -29.2 48.9 0.014 -29.037 -18.019 -26 0.023 -24.011 -31.016 -28.3 0.9 0.1 0.3 45.3 0.3 0.5 50.4 0.021 -24.03 -21 0.031 -20.039 -17.011 -32.031 -20.014 -29.01 -33.022 -24.016 -28.5 0.6 46.8 0.6 0.015 -28.028 -21.026 -22.8 0.5 55 0.01 -33.021 -24.7 0.019 -26.011 -31.015 -29.9 0.022 -24.011 -32.8 0.045 -16 44.027 -22.2 0.7 0.011 -32.7 0.043 -16.01 -33.016 -28.4 49.8 0.021 -25 0.01 -33.6 0.6 .

3 48.1 -29.01367 0.2 -21.4 -33.02301 -20.2 35.1 -18.01749 -25.01287 -30.015 -28.02611 0.02029 -22.01412 -29.8 25 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.0 0.01412 0.01828 -24.3 30.02006 -22.02582 0.5 38.5 0.8 -21 -21.8 -25.01344 0.02471 -19 0.01808 0.8 0.5 0.5 -29.7 -18.0234 -20 0.02155 -21.01308 -30.7 -25.2 0.8 0.7 -28.8 0.01109 0.01656 0.3 0.01116 0.02597 0.6 -21.02143 -21.01683 -26 0.1 34.9 -30 -30.6 0.1 -24.2 47.01769 0.1 -33.02239 0.01382 0.02155 0.9 0.02227 0.01159 0.02289 -20.2 31.1 0.0 0.6 39.9 34.1 32.1 -26.3 0.02178 -21.5 0.01702 -25.01828 0.01702 -25.2 -29.01995 -22.8 0.2 -33.6 0.3 0.01788 -24.2 52.8 15 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.8 -32.02108 -21.02597 0.8 -28.9 0.01665 -26.01428 0.02526 -18 -18.01185 0.01963 -23.5 29.1 0.5 33.01647 0.7 37.6 0.0142 -29.0 0.5 0.2 -22.8 0.01294 -30.6 -32.0212 0.3 0.0204 -22.7 0.01567 -27.0 50.02582 0.01974 -23.01097 -32.5 0.01858 -24.01838 -24.01693 0.9 28.01134 0.4 0.6 0.1 -33.8 39.01889 -23.01711 0.01468 -28.01103 0.6 -33.02215 0.02143 0.7 0.6 0.3 -18.0254 0.3 0.3 36.02251 -20.02051 -22.6 52.1 0.01444 0.02096 -22 0.3 -29.02405 -19.7 48.9 0.8 -29.4 -21.01315 -30.9 0.2 28.4 55.2 0.4 38.1 -22.01452 0.02074 0.0191 -23.5 51.01576 -27.01405 0.2 -18.5 -28.6 -29.9 -21.1 29.9 0.02499 -18.02431 -19.4 0.7 0.3 0.0114 0.4 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.8 0.9 0.01452 -28.4 0.5 -24.01593 -27 27.0142 -29.1 -25 -25.7 -24.01702 0.5 32.02108 0.02264 -20.2 0.01122 0.6 0.01602 -26.2 -21.02499 -18.8 53.02251 -20.3 53.0219 0.9 -20.01172 0.7 -33.01778 0.5 -18.7 -29.9 -33 -33.1 51.01674 -26.01769 -25.01359 -29.7 -32.7 20 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01769 0.9 54.3 0.0142 0.01517 -27.0155 -27.02108 0.4 -29.9 37.01153 0.6 0.9 -22.1 0.2 -18.0 0.01397 0.1 36.6 0.02167 0.01436 0.01322 -30.0204 -20.02074 -22.7 0.1 0.6 0.6 .4 -32.02391 -19.02203 -21.1 -25.2 0.01374 -29.8 0.5 -18.2 0.01629 -26.01683 -26 0.02512 0.3 0.01436 -28.8 0.2 0.01952 -23.9 -25.0254 0.01963 -23.01683 0.02554 0.5 -33.0254 0.02499 -18.9 47.01788 0.0162 -26.4 -22.01674 0.4 0.0219 0.4 -18.8 0.9 30.01818 -24.2 0.5 -21.02499 -18.02006 -22.2 -26.01405 -29.01359 0.1 0.5 0.3 -26.8 -24.3 -33.2 0.4 50.01166 0.9 -26 -26.01585 -27.01389 0.02568 0.8 49.01798 0.0114 0.9 -29 -29.7 33.8 -21.01374 0.02051 0.8 0.5 -18.120 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27.01352 0.01749 -25.01128 0.01665 0.01468 -28.02085 0.4 0.1 -18.01147 0.7 0.01492 -28.

2 0.8 0.2 -21.3 0.043 -19.6 0.034 -20.1 -29.0195 0.1 -26.3 34.009 -32.032 -23.5 37.8 0.0107 0.0125 0.01 0.9 -22.1 0.6 0.4 0.01 0.1 37.02162 -27.9 0.017 -28.5 0.9 0.5 -18.0155 -29.2 38.8 0.8 30.4 50.2 0.6 0.5 0.0153 0.01 0.6 0.3 53.1 0.7 -24.028 -18 -18.0208 -27.011 0.2 -33.0243 0.2 -29.9 47.0305 0.6 33.023 -24.3 0.01 0.028 -21.8 0.8 0.012 -30.5 -33.013 0.1 0.5 0.1 -18.6 .0 32.7 0.6 38.0172 0.8 35.9 -26 -26.2 0.9 0.5 -21.04 -19.0288 0.1 0.0134 -30.4 36.038 -20 0.7 -29.7 34.1 0.011 0.8 -28.8 -32.8 49.9 0.02199 -26.0227 -27 0.02 -25.0205 -20.2 0.3 0.019 -27.7 0.031 -22.0154 0.035 -20.045 -19 0.3 -29.0152 0.7 0.015 -29.6 0.046 -18.7 -25.014 -29.6 -32.8 39.025 0.019 -26.2 -22.0124 0.016 -28.4 -32.8 -29.027 -23.0275 -22.016 -28.0105 0.8 -24.7 29.4 0.2 47.0132 -30.4 55.021 -27.019 -26 0.0211 0.8 -25.8 53.032 -22.9 -20.9 -25.0345 -18.0186 -28.023 -24.4 0.6 -33.2 52.035 -20.0121 0.0173 0.4 -29.0 50.1 -33.019 -26 0.026 -22.3 -26.9 -33 -33.0225 -25.0377 -20.0156 0.0122 0.2 -21.01 0.1 -25 -25.2 0.3 0.01 0.017 -28.03 -23.0175 0.1 0.012 0.0177 0.044 -18.3 0.7 -33.5 0.0245 0.5 0.9 0.121 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3 P 27.023 0.045 -18.012 0.0247 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.4 30.0123 0.018 -26.6 -21.4 -33.9 0.1 0.015 0.026 -24.01 0.9 0.03 -21.0301 0.1 28.0295 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.0151 0.7 0.5 -29.035 -18.02 -25.029 -21.0 27.8 0.5 0.3 39.0245 -24.7 -28.0 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C w Tr[C] w Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.028 -22 0.01 0.026 -23.0186 -26.3 0.0155 -29.026 -24.01 0.01 0.6 28.0217 0.2 0.0284 0.0 36.0228 0.03 -23.0115 0.013 -30.5 32.0249 0.2 29.3 0.01834 -28.7 0.0219 0.0358 -18.0389 -19.8 0.8 -21.2 -26.0216 0.028 -22.1 -25.025 0.019 -26.8 0.011 0.3 48.01 0.1 0.6 0.9 -30 -30.4 -21.5 0.0106 0.9 0.0371 -20.0153 -29.032 -21.1 -33.012 -30.5 0.9 31.0105 0.028 -21.7 -32.3 0.0104 -28.6 52.025 -22.0215 0.2 0.0299 0.1 -22.9 -21.0223 -25.014 -29.5 0.011 0.02231 -27.0374 -18.022 -25.016 0.5 0.5 -24.4 0.2 -18.1 -18.031 -23.9 -29 -29.026 -22.5 51.7 0.0363 -18.3 -33.3 0.4 -18.0174 0.7 48.8 0.2 33.1 0.022 0.2 0.019 0.9 54.4 0.4 -22.038 -18.015 -24.8 -21 -21.6 -29.1 51.

05184 ⋅ 1.1m ⋅ C w ⋅ M w kg ⎡ ⎤ m w.46115 ⎢ kg ⎥ kmol ⎣⎢ kmol ⎦⎥ ng −w = 0.0151 kg/kmol Molecular weight of gas with water Mg-w = 16.78*10-4 Z-factor Z = 0.78 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 18.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 122 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas Calculation of water amount saturating natural gas in given conditions was made.46115 kg/kmol Mole fraction of pure water Cw = 1.1m = n g − w.0151⎢kmol ⋅ = kg ⎥ kmol ⎣ ⎦ .853289 ⎢ m ⋅ m3 = = = kmol ⎥ ⎢ kg 16.1m = n g −w 1m 3 ⋅ ρ g − w M g −w ⎡ 3 kg ⎤ ⎥ kg 1 ⋅ 0.1m = 0.995188 Mass density of water-gas mixture ρg-w = 0. Solution for one chosen gas pressure and temperature is shown below Input data: Gas pressure Pg = 100 kPa Gas temperature Tg = -40 oC The data obtained from Hysys application: Molecular weight of water Mw = 18.05184 kmol Mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture mw.853289 kg/m3 The number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol is n g − w. The composition of natural gas is known.

c .995188 Pa K Vs. V s . c = 0.2256Sm 3 Finally the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was calculated c= c= m w. = 1.1m V s .3563 ⋅ 10 − 4 [ kg ] Sm 3 In attached table (5.15 0.2) water content in grams per standard cubic meter is given. = 1 ⋅ ( )⋅ [1m 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 1Sm 3 ] 101325 − 40 + 273.c.c .c.6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg Calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of Clapeyron equation was done. 1.2256 Sm c = 1.1m = 1. = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s .6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg [ 3] 1. T Z 100000 15 + 273. For details on Clapeyron equation see attachment 5.15 1 Pa K )⋅( V s .c . ) ⋅ Ps.136 g Sm 3 123 .c .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION m w.

V – gas volume. 2 – stands for different volume. (3) . Z – Z factor. Individual gas constant equals (2): Rn = R ·n (2) where: R – universal gas constant n – number of moles of gas As individual gas constant is non-changeable for a given gas mixture one of the four variables (pressure. Z factor and pressure.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 124 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation Real gas law equation is known also as Clapeyron Equation. T – temperature. Z factor and pressure. volume. Rn – individual gas constant . Z factor. temperature.stands for given volume. This leads to the equation (3): P1 ⋅ V1 P2 ⋅ V2 = T1 ⋅ Z 1 T2 ⋅ Z 2 where: 1 . General form of Clapeyron equation (1): P ⋅ V = Z ⋅ Rn ⋅ T (1) where: P – gas pressure. temperature. temperature) may be calculated in given conditions if all four variables are known for the mixture at any other conditions.

(4) where: Ps.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 125 For any vapor the Z factor in standard conditions equals 1 Zs. = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s . T Z From the equation (5) gas volume in standard conditions is calculated when pressure. = 288. (5) . ) ⋅ Ps. – standard pressure (Ps.c.c.c. Vs.c. = 101325 Pa). After transformation the equation (4) assumes the following form (5): V s . = 1 Therefore for comparison between standard conditions and any given conditions the equation (3) becomes the following (4): P ⋅ V Ps. – standard volume.c.c .c. – standard temperature (Ts. temperature and Z factor for given pressure are known. = T ⋅Z Ts.c.15 K = 15 oC).c.c.c. ⋅ Vs. Ts.c .

4 0 0.110 3.155 4.215 6.5 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.2 126 .5 MPa and 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content The values given are obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operation instruction.1 With compression (pressure between 4.4 -5 0.5 0 0.295 9.7 10 0.0 10 0. Without compression (pressure between 2.1 -5 0.29 9.39 12.1 3.0 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.2 5 0.8 5 0.075 2.7 MPa and 3.20 6.14 4.

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