OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS AND ENERGY USE
AT MAĆKOWICE NATURAL GAS
DEHYDRATION FACILITY
Artur Ryba

Diploma Thesis
Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas
AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow

Trondheim
June 2005

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii

Abstract
An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in
Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and
charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state
simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and
mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and
experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were
obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical
equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to
Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural
gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values
obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum
TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were
made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature
work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction.
A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

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Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Professor Jon Steinar
Gudmundsson. I am very grateful for the advice, support, guidance, assistance, patience and
enthusiasm.
I wish to thank Dr Hab. Inż. Stanisław Nagy, my supervisor from AGH University of Science
and Technology in Cracow, Poland for his support, propositions, help and understanding.
I am grateful to all my teachers who, giving me a small part of their wide knowledge, got me
to the stage when I am writing this thesis.
Special thanks to all contributors that make my Erasmus Link Scholarship possible. I would
like to especially mention here Dr Czesława Ropa, Professor Danuta Bielewicz, and Professor
Jan Falkus.
Special thanks to Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnow) for the
necessary materials, support and technical knowledge.
Last but not least thanks to my family, friends and colleagues who supported me in the time
spent on creating the thesis, and much longer than that. You are always there when I need you
and I appreciate that.

............................ 26 5......................................................3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual ...................................... Maćkowice Facilities ..................................................2 Minimum strong TEG concentration ................5 Dehydration by permeation .....................................................................7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process ..............................5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program ............................................................................................. 1 2...................................................... vi List of Figures ...................................................................................................... 51 ...................... 21 3............................................................................... 50 7....................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgements....... 37 5......................iii List of Contents.....................................................................................................................................2 Technologies used for dehydration .......................................................................................................................................................................... 42 5.......................................................viii Abbreviations.................3 Dehydration by absorption .............................................................................. Introduction ................................................... 6 2...................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION iv List of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 35 5.................................................. 40 5...............................................6 Dehydration by refrigeration ........... 18 2.........................8 Dew point values comparison ....................................................... 11 2................................... Glycol solutions................................................................................. 45 6.......4 Dehydration by adsorption .....................................1 Theory of hydrates ................................................................................................................................... 32 5...............4 Water content calculations from empirical equations ................................................. Hysys Simulation Package....................................... Hysys simulations .... 44 6......... 9 2........... 6 2....... 33 5.... iv List of Tables.......................................................1 Water content measurement ...................... x 1......................... 23 4................................................................................................................................ 20 2........................................................................................................................... Water Content of Natural Gas..3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility................................2 Water content from GPSA diagram ........................................... 45 6...................... 31 5...........................1 Use of glycol solutions ............................................................... 47 6........6 Water content results comparison .......... 31 5................................................................................... Dewatering Technology .......

..................................................................... 62 Tables................................... 126 ........................................................ 124 Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content ............................................ 118 Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] .................................... 66 Figures .....................................................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION v 8...... 121 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas ........... 57 9........................................................................................... Conclusions .. Discussion.............................................................................................................................................................. 122 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation................................... 94 Appendices .............................. 117 Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil.....................................Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] .......... 60 References .................................................................................................................. 120 Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3.......................................................................................................................................................... 117 Appendix B ..............

......................... 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package.................... 67 Table 5................. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3].................. 80 Table 5. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3]........................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vi List of Tables Table 2....... 78 Table 5.......................... 81 Table 5................. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].................................................................................................... 2004) .................................................... 73 Table 5........................................................ 85 Table 5........ 72 Table 5.......... 89 Table 5.............................................................. 88 Table 5............................................................... 84 Table 5..... 83 Table 5..... 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3]......... 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys). 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz......................... 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)................................................................................ 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].................................................................................................................. 77 Table 5... 87 Table 5................ 75 Table 5............ 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] .............................................................. 68 Table 5..... 76 Table 5.......... 66 Table 5. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]..... 74 Table 5..... 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ............. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner........... 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P................................ 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].... 1985)...................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Table 5. 79 Table 5................. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys)...... 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] .................................................. Gandhidasan ... 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] .... 73 Table 5... 82 Table 5........ 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ................................................... 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ...... 90 ...... 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ........ 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package .................................. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ................. 86 Table 5............

.................... 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual...................................................... 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations .........................................................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vii Table 5...... 91 Table 5. 92 Table 6. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions……………… 93 .................

..... 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations ... 2003........ 1959) ........................................ 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP... 94 Figure 2.............. 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics)............................ 98 Figure 3.... 104 Figure 5....................................................... 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics) .............. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys . Natural Gas Production Processing Transport... 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al.......... 2005)......................... 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual......................... 2005).......................... 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG.................................................. 106 Figure 5...................................................................... 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys .. 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA .............. 97 Figure 2. 110 ........................ 108 Figure 5.. 1997) . 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual................... 1990) .... 95 Figure 2..................... 1988)............. 1994) .............. 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.... 106 Figure 5.................... 97 Figure 3...................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION viii List of Figures Figure 2..... 2004) ............ Small and large cavities (Behlar et al. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys .......................................................... 96 Figure 2....................... 2005) ............................. 100 Figure 3........................ 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from GPSA Engineering Data Book.... 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson....................... 94 Figure 2.................................................................. 102 Figure 5.................. 105 Figure 5........................ 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys. 108 Figure 5........................ 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys ......................... 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG.................................................................... 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual............. 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski........... 109 Figure 5.......... 99 Figure 3.......... 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey... 96 Figure 2...... 110 Figure 5.... 107 Figure 5.. reproduced)........... 103 Figure 5......................................... 1991) .... 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al....... 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations ...................... 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations .......... 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP................... 11th edition). 107 Figure 5................. 109 Figure 5.......... 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II.. 101 Figure 3........................................................

..................................... 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC ................... 114 Figure 6............................... 17 Dew point comparison ........................ 111 Figure 5............................................... 113 Figure 6. 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC ................. 111 Figure 5.................................................. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC ......................... 115 Figure 6.............. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC .................................................... 112 Figure 5.........................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION ix Figure 5....... 116 ................................................................................................ 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -29oC ...... 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG ...................................

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Abbreviations ATG - Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France BMP - Best Management Practice CH4 - Methane CO2 - Carbon Dioxide DEG - Diethylene Glycol EG - Ethylene Glycol EPA - Environmental Protection Agency GPSA - Gas Processors Suppliers Assn h - hour H2O - Water H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LTX - Low-Temperature Extraction MEG - Monoethylene Glycol Nm3 - Normal Cubic Meter NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance PHA - Process Hazards Analysis PRO-OP - Process Optimization Review PROs - Partner Reported Opportunities sI - Structure I (hydrate structure) sII - Structure II (hydrate structure) sH - Structure H (hydrate structure) Sm3 - Standard Cubic Meter TEG - Triethylene Glycol TREG - Tetraethylene Glycol VLE - Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Xe - Xenon yr - Year x .

through Ukraine.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 1 1. Introduction In this paper the author is studying the possibilities of reducing energy use and triethylen glycol losses during natural gas dehydration process. However.. but also in the exploitation stage. One of the specifications of natural gas is the amount of water in gas for sale specified as dew point temperature of natural gas. the pressure generally varies considerably in the pipe. likewise in other countries. If. This is done on the example of Mackowice Treatment Facility. If the gas is to be transported. dehydration process among them. The presence of water raises a number of problems for the production operations depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. the main requirement is to prevent the formation of a liquid phase. the minimum temperature of the gas is for example 0 oC under 7 MPa pressure (typical conditions appearing in high pressure gas pipelines during the winter season in temperate climate). processing and transportation is natural gas dewatering process (Rojey et al. With the increase of amount of gas to be processed and from the other side in order to be able to endure in the competition between natural gas companies there is a growing necessity of optimization of processes. as a result of pressure drop. 2005). . To avoid possible liquid-phase formation. Therefore one of the processes in natural gas production. Therefore every year larger quantities of natural gas need to undergo different processes (ROP. not only in the stage of designing and building facilities. 1994). Gas demand increases in Poland. the dew point must not exceed this temperature at the same pressure. one condition frequently imposed is to set the dew point temperature at a value not exceeding the minimum temperature during transport. Poland. the processing installation must be designed to meet transport or final specifications. If the natural gas is transported by pipeline. before getting to the final receiver it has to be processed in order to meet the required conditions specified in Polish norms. As it is usually off-spec when it arrives. Huge part of gas used in Poland is imported from Russia. during transport.

The most powerful technology that enables managers and engineers link critical business objectives to process design is process modeling. which is a primary purpose of senior management. Optimization can be seen from the environmental point of view as a tool for environment conservation. Optimization of processes is necessary. Summing up the crucial part of manager’s job is to make decisions around capital allocation that will improve the performance of the corporation. nowadays on every stage of projecting. b) ensuring that process equipment is properly specified to deliver desired product throughput and specifications. gas processing and petroleum refining industries are faced with the need to optimize the design of processes and achieve more reliable and stable operations. Optimization of processes brings savings in materials. Process engineers are challenged with making timely business decisions while meeting the business objectives of designing and operating efficient. energy and labor. The process industries must identify optimum designs quickly with minimum risk of rework while they remain competitive and maximize the business performance. It may encompass safety. 2004): a) usage of “what-if” scenarios and sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design based on operating and business targets. It is also considered from economical viewpoint. The importance of optimization is significant. The major business benefits of process modeling include (Aspen Tech. safer and profitable process plants (Aspen Tech.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 2 The problem of optimization has been known for many years now and recently becomes more and more important. . Nowadays the competition in petroleum and natural gas market is extremely tough and therefore every corporation in order to compete with others has to minimize the costs maximizing profits. 2004). The oil and gas production. As presented by Aspen Tech (2004) there are different approaches towards optimization and the model chosen depends on the base of optimization. And the last reason usually is the standpoint from which the decisions about granting money for optimization research are made. building and exploiting of any facility optimization has a big part. As mentioned.

the PRO-OP technique is a systematic approach whereby processes and components (separators. venting/flaring practices) are evaluated for cost effective natural gas reduction opportunities from the start of the process to the end. Unlike other optimization techniques. and profitability. This methodology can be used in conjunction with a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) for new facilities and prior to modification of en existing facility. upsets. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program supplies valuable optimization tools and resources to guide the oil and gas industry. reliability. The Natural Gas STAR Program promotes the use of these emission reduction technologies and practices through the program’s Best Management Practices . compressors. There are many technologies and methods to reduce vent gas emissions that are readily available to operators. natural resource conservation and waste minimization. heater treaters.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 3 c) evaluation of the effect of feed changes. It is a systematic approach to assess processes at new and existing facilities with an emphasis on energy efficiency. PRO-OP is a systematic approach used in production operations to identify opportunities to increase profitability while reducing greenhouse gases. e) assessment of equipment deficiencies such as heat exchanger fouling and column flooding by evaluating the equipment employed in different services or evaluating the consequences of a design basis change. According to Pontiff (2005) a typical example of widely used optimization method is called Process Optimization Review (PRO-OP). production. where the focus is typically on like devices across a whole operation. This PRO-OP technique gives the user a structure to the process of optimization (Pontiff. a potent greenhouse gas. Justifying and obtaining approval of optimization projects from management often requires that the projects are cost effective and have a net increase in profits. completion/stimulation. d) monitoring of equipment performance against expectations. The Natural Gas STAR Program is a flexible and voluntary program focused on helping the oil and gas industry to voluntarily and cost-effectively reduce methane emissions. and workover operations. 2005). The PRO-OP technique divides the oil and gas business into phases: drilling. and equipment downtime on process safety.

2005. The PRO-OP approach is analogous to a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) review. Mackowice Dehydration Facility was opened on 21st January 2005.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 4 (BMPs) and Partner Reported Opportunities (PROs) and in-depth Lessons Learned documents (Pontiff.g. In order to do so he compares the data provided in operating manuals of natural gas dewatering facility Maćkowice. These hazards are then mitigated through elimination. or capture for sales. Having the required results he is comparing them looking for the possibilities of energy and solvent savings. the components and processes of the facility are evaluated for identifiable hazards. The author is also taking a general look at different economical aspects in the final part of this thesis. The author is trying to solve the problem of setting the arrangement of equipment used in gas dehydration facility based on glycol solution in such a way that brings most profits and minimizes the loss in energy and glycol solvent. The PRO-OP process employs the same thought process. 2005). “Can I cost-effectively eliminate the source. 2005. The bilding was begun in April 2004. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specifications required by Polish norms. . which in this example is done through reducing emissions (Pontiff. methane) emission reduction opportunities (Pontiff. Once the optimization opportunities are identified. or other safe guards. 2005. US EPA. During the PRO-OP review. 2005).. 2005). the reviewer determines the mitigation techniques that can be used and then determines whether the mitigation can be implemented cost effectively. The necessity of building this facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. controls. In a PHA review of an oil and gas production facility. US EPA.. US EPA. or destroy (e. The reviewer should ask such questions as. Poland with analytical equation-based solution and numerical calculation made with use of petroleum engineering program Hysys.e. each component and process in the facility flow scheme is evaluated for vent gas (i. burn in a flare) the vent gas emissions?" Then the reviewer can perform a cost analysis to determine the effectiveness and profitability of optimization.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 5 The author shows his approach towards creating an optimization strategy for natural gas dehydration unit Maćkowice. The optimization is to made on the basis of energy saving and glycol absorbent waste. . and charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a simulation of dewatering process under petroleum engineering program Hysys. Analytical and mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable results. Operating manuals of devices. Poland.

The interpretation of these early diffraction experiments by von Stackelberg and co-workers. Carrll. Rojey et al. 2003. 1994). water molecules can form a regular crystalline structure containing cavities. Only molecules having a certain range of diameters can form inclusions. Since the beginning of the century the production of natural gas has encountered difficulties connected with the plugging of piping by the deposition of crystals. 2002. In the late 1940’a and early 1950’s von Stackelberg and co-workers summarized two decades of X-ray hydrate crystal diffraction experiments at the University of Bonn. 1994. and shortly thereafter led to the regulation of the water content in natural gas pipelines.1 Theory of hydrates Good reviews on hydrate theory were provided by Sloan.. Owing to this cage structure. The crystal lattice is due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. in which gas molecules are trapped. In the mid-1930’s Hammerschmidt studied the 1927 hydrate review of Schroeder. Rosman 1973. 1997). This led to limitation of appearance of hydrates which are inclusion compounds which result from the combination of water with some of the components of natural gas and primarily methane (Rojey et al. first thought to be ice crystals. Gandhidasan. This discovery was pivotal in causing a more pragmatic interest in the gas hydrates. Rojey et al. and sufficiently large for the crystal lattice to be stable (Sloan. These crystals are in fact hydrates of natural gas. 2003). It is stabilized by gas molecules. 1997. In the presence of light gas..Gandhidasan. and . which are themselves held in the cavities by van der Waals forces (Sloan. 2002. Carroll. the hydrates belong to the category of inclusion compounds called clathrates. Dewatering Technology 2. 1997. Claussen. 1994. to determine that natural gas hydrates were blocking gas transmission lines frequently at temperatures above the ice point. This is because the diameter of the molecule must be smaller than that of the cavity (or close to it) for the molecule to enter the cavity.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 6 2..

Hydrate formation can occur when normal butane is mixed with other components (Rojey et al. H2S and CH4. Methane fits into the small cavities (512) of structures I and II. The structure H was determined through diffraction and NMR studies. 1994). Structure II is composed of sixteen small cavities (512) and eight large cavities. However. ethane. and in the large cavities (51262) of structure I. In these structures. forming large cavities. a natural gas containing propane and isobutane generally forms structure-II hydrates. It is not possible to fill space entirely with dodecahedra. Rojey et al. methane. The small cavities are stabilized by molecules like Xe. and the large cavities by hydrocarbons with .1).. 1997). In this structure.2). Each of these polyhedra forms a cavity which can contain a molecule of natural gas components with which it forms a hydrate.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 7 Pauling and Marsh led to determination of two hydrate structures (sI and sII). 1997). Structure I is composed of two small cavities formed by a dodecahedron and six large cavities formed by a tetradecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and two hexagonal faces referenced as 51262 (Figure 2. Sloan. Normal butane does not form hydrates as a pure component. is a basic building block of hydrate structures. formed by a hexadecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and four hexagonal faces. In the pure state.. since propane and isobutene molecules can enter only the large cavities of structure II. The pentagonal dodecahedron. 1994. Because of to this restriction dodecahedra are necessarily associated with other types of polyhedron to form the structure of the hydrates (Sloan. referenced as 51264 (Figure 2. Within the last decade structure H (sH). carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide form structure-I hydrates. designed by the notation 512. the 512 dodecahedra coexist with 435663 dodecahedra as well as 51268 polyhedra.1997. Nitrogen. 1997). a third hydrate with a unit cell was discovered by Ripmeester (Sloan. with twelve pentagonal faces and eight hexagonal faces. propane and isobutene form structure-II hydrates (Sloan. the water molecules form polyhedra.

it has been proven that hydrocarbon molecules commonly found in condensates or oils. .3) (Sloan. 1997). The role that structure-H hydrates may play in natural gas production is still unclear.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 8 much higher molecular weights such as adamantine and methylcyclohexane (Figure 2. under pressure and temperature conditions easily encountered in production and transport facilities (Sloan 1997). together with methane. can form this new hydrate structure. However.

Four types of processes are used (Rojey at al. 1973. Onshore the natural gas conditioning process employs a dehydration process for control of the water dew point. To avoid such situations. Operating outside the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation can be achieved either by raising temperature at a given pressure. natural gas must be dehydrated. Apart from the risk of hydrate formation. Gandhidasan. 2002). temperature and pressure conditions must be created to prevent formation of hydrates. in order to reduce operational problems (Rosman. or favor corrosion if the gas contains acid components. Condensed liquids accumulated in pipelines. and a refrigeration plant is used for control of the hydrocarbon dew point (Carroll. which.. by altering the fugacity of the water. which caused an increase in operating pressures and potential damage to equipment due to liquid carryover. Dehydration of natural gas is the removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor form. condense and cause the formation of hydrates. Many transmission companies impose restrictions on the quality of natural gas acceptable for transporting. 1997): . depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. It is necessary to prevent the corrosion and erosion problems in pipelines and equipment particularly when CO2 and H2S are present in the gas. or by lowering the pressure at a given temperature.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 9 2. 1973. solidify. If this is not feasible. In both instances inhibitor must be introduced. production and transport installations must be protected from the risks of hydrate formation. the liquids can reduce the volumetric capacity of the system and interfere with the operation of pressure regulators and filters. For these reasons one specifies upper limits for both the water and hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. Gandhidasan. 2003).2 Technologies used for dehydration It is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid water and hydrocarbons to ensure troublefree operation of a natural gas transmission system. They are generally selected from solvents miscible in the aqueous phase. Water is removed from the gas to meet water dew point requirements of a sales pipeline condition. One way to achieve this is to dry the natural gas. The water present in natural gas may. 2002). such as water and hydrocarbon dew point limits. To prevent pipe plugging. lower the hydrate formation temperature (Rosman.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION a) absorption b) adsorption c) gas permeation d) refrigeration 10 .

E. In this process. and the bottom of the contactor d) low affinity for hydrocarbons and acid gases e) thermal stability. 1980. The glycol leaving the bottom is regenerated by distillation and recycled (Carroll. 1994). zinc chloride. C.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 11 2. Few liquids. usually by the application of heat. A suitable solvent should have the following properties (Carroll.. ATG. 1990. 1987. Sivalls. 1992. 1989. Several liquids possess the ability to absorb water from a gas stream.. 1994. Trent. The water in the gas is absorbed in the lean solvent. ATG. particularly in the high temperature ranges found in the reboiler f) easy regeneration to higher concentration for reuse. 2002.3 Dehydration by absorption The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid desiccant contactor-regeneration process.1976. In case of absorption based natural gas dehydration processes the gas is dried by countercurrent scrubbing with a solvent that has a strong affinity for water. The dehydrated gas leaves at the top of the column. although other liquid desiccants are met which are calcium chloride. producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas (Campbell. Tannehill at al. 2002. Maddox and Erbar. R. 2001). Rojey et al. lithium chloride.. the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent (containing only a small amount of water).. Kumar. 1988. etc. however. Campbell. 1982. which drives off the absorbed water g) low viscosity h) low vapor pressure at the contact temperature to reduce the amount of solvent losses due to vaporization . 1994. especially the reboiler vapor space. The solvent is usually a glycol. Rojey et al. Ikoku. the stripping column of the regenerator. 1992): a) strong affinity to water (the absorbing liquid should be highly hygroscopic) b) low cost c) noncorrosive to the selected metallurgy of the hydrocarbon equipment.R. Arnold and Steward. meet the criteria for a suitable commercial application.

The most common glycols for dehydration applications are (Rojey et al.. 2002). 1997. which reduces losses (Gandhidasan. 1994): a) Monoethylene glycol (MEG) which is commonly known as simply ethylene glycol (EG) b) diethylene glycol (DEG) c) triethylene glycol (TEG) d) tetraethylene glycol (TREG) Table 2. High viscosity translates into higher pumping costs. particularly in the reboiler. TEG has less affinity to water and thus has less dew point depression.1 lists the main physical properties of commercial glycols. Glycols will.. 2003. They can be obtained in the pure state by fractionation by vacuum distillation. DEG is marginally lower in cost than TEG. however because DEG has a larger vapor pressure. nor to chemical reactions with any of the natural gas constituents. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. The heaviest glycols are most hygroscopic. 2002). On the other hand TREG has a lower vapor pressure. By comparison. Tetraethylene glycol is higher in cost and is more viscous than TEG. and is the most widely used. decompose at elevated temperatures. Rojey et al. Triethylene glycol (TEG) offers the best cost/benefit compromise.. 1994. Several glycols have been found suitable for commercial application (Rejoy. Carroll.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 12 i) low solubility in hydrocarbons (low solubility in the solvent minimizes the loss of desired product and reduces hydrocarbon emissions) j) low tendency to foam and emulsify. Carroll. including carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria. Glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. it has larger losses. however. 1994) . It exhibits most of the desirable characteristics listed earlier and has other advantages compared to other glycols (Rojey et al.

Integral separators are usually outfitted with a heating coil to prevent water from freezing. Rojey et al. 2003. The inlet separator can be free standing with interconnecting piping to the contactor or it can be an integral part of the contactor. The separator could be a two-phase or three-phase separator depending on the amount of free water expected.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 13 Before undergoing the actual dehydration process any free liquids in the natural gas stream are removed. 2003 and Alexandre Rojey et al. Figures 2. Gandhidasan. A separator should be included upstream of the contactor to separate any hydrocarbon liquids and free water. packings are generally used. usually at the base of the contactor with a chimney tray between the contactor bottom and the separator vessel. 1994. The separator should be equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor in the top part to remove any liquid entrainment and particulates from the gas stream before entering the absorber section. 2003. Hot solvent from the accumulator is circulated through this heating coil to provide the required heat.. or sieve trays. the water is absorbed from the gas in the staged tower. For small diameters. A lower temperature helps to reduce the losses as well as the water content in the processed gas.5 show the flow schemes of a typical glycol units.. 2002. finding more acceptance in glycol contactors (Carroll.. The temperature at which the absorption step is carried is usually limited to 38 oC to avoid excessive glycol losses. For very large diameters. The actual stages could be either trays like bubble caps. Basically. The number of plates is usually between 6 and 8. 1994. 2003). the liquid desiccant process is a two-step process. while the larger columns are equipped with the bubble-cap or valve trays. due to the higher viscosity of the glycol. Rojey et al. However. . In the first step. 1994).4 and 2. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit (Carroll.. valve trays. The solvent is then returned to the first column to remove water from more feed gas. 1994). The descriptions of these figures are provided by John Carroll. The solvent is regenerated in a second column. Carroll. or a suitable packing material. The absorption step is carried out in a plate or packed column. the use of structured packing is currently spreading. When the stream is devoid of free liquids and mist the actual dehydration process starts (Rojey et al.

. then passes through a filter. 1994). 2003. 2003. which is normally in the range of 4000 to 8500 kPa. Then it is flashed at low pressure in a flash tank. The glycol leaves the flash tank. The contactor consists of several equilibrium stages. Rojey et al.5).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 14 The contactor (also called an absorber) is the workhorse of the dehydration unit. Typically. The contactor is a typical absorber tower properly sized for the process objective(Carroll. Rojey et al. In some cases this process is divided in parts (Figure 2. usually on level control. The solvent absorbs water as it travels downward through the column and the gas transfers the water to the solvent as it travels upward. The contactor pressure is set by the feed gas pressure. often by passing it through tubes in the overhead condenser at the top of the still column. 2003. and the actual water removal takes place there.. The contactor is essentially isothermal (the temperature profile is essentially uniform throughout the contactor) (Carroll. 1994). After the absorption step. again usually on level control. The outlet gas water content specification is the key to determining the contactor height. Feed gas enters the bottom of the contactor and flows upward. 2003. The feed gas flow rate is the most significant factor in determining the diameter of the contactor. The flow of streams is countercurrent. where most of the volatile components (entrained and soluble) are vaporized. whose basic purpose is to conserve . Then the rich glycol enters the lean-rich heat exchanger. 1994).. Flash tank pressures are typically in the range of 300 kPa to 700 kPa (Carroll. followed by a cartridge filter to trap solid particles. Rojey et al.. Rojey et al. The rich glycol is withdrawn from the bottom of the contactor. enough to ensure mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid so that the outlet gas is at the desired water specification (Carroll.. 1994). the glycol solution is sent to a three-phase separator in which the stripped hydrocarbon liquids and the dissolved gas are separated. Rojey et al. although other factors contribute as well. The gas and liquid are mixed in the contactor. Lean solvent enters the top of the contactor and flows downward. 1994). and finally an activated-charcoal filter to retain the chemical impurities (Carroll. 2003. the lean glycol is preheated.

Within the column. The still column. a distillation column (still column) connected vertically to the vapor space of the reboiler vessel. 2003. and a surge tank located below the reboiler. Rojey et al. Also included in the regeneration unit is a condensing coil added to the top of a still column to provide reflux to improve solvent/water separation.. In the regenerator. The solvent is regenerated by reboiling.. 1994). Water and glycol have widely varying boiling points (100 oC for water. A small portion of the vapor mixture(mainly water) at the top condenses at the overhead condenser to provide sufficient reflux that will aid in the process of fractionation (Carroll. is cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution. A basic regeneration unit consists of a combination of a fired boiler. 1994. At the top of the column the vapor is virtually pure water whereas there is very little water in the glycol in the bottom. 2003). 1994). The size of the regenerator is determined by a balance between the solvent circulation rate. In the lean-rich exchanger. The standard TEG dehydration unit operates effectively at the reboiler temperature around 175 oC. The temperature difference causes the glycol vapor (heavy component) to condense and liquid water (light component) to vaporize. hot. or about 20 oC below the decomposition temperature of TEG. and rich glycol to regeneration should be warm (Carroll. Rojey et al.. Furthermore the two substances can be easily separated by fractional distillation. Gandhidasan. 1994). usually filled with packing. The lean glycol entering the contactor should be cool. Trays are sometimes used in very large units (Carroll. 2003. 1994). This coil often performs the dual purpose of preheating the rich glycol ahead of the flash tank (Carroll..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 15 energy. a continuous exchange of material and heat takes place. located at the lower section of a horizontal vessel with a vapor space above the tube bundle. Between the two phases. 2003. Rojey et al. . The reflux thus generated helps to reduce glycol losses. the amount of water vapor in the gas stream and the reboiler temperature. lean glycol from regeneration is cooled with rich glycol from the contactor. water-rich vapor rises in intimate contact with descending glycol-rich liquid.. Rojey et al. 288 oC for TEG). This is accomplished in the still column mounted directly on the top of the reconcentration vessel (Rojey et al. 2003. separation of water from glycol takes place by fractionation.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 16 Stripping gas is used to increase the lean glycol concentrations. leaves the bottom of the packed still column and enters the reboiler vessel. toluene. a vessel normally located below the reboiler vessel. This purity is improved by lowering the pressure and raising the temperature during the regeneration step. Manning and Thompson. to vent the separated water to the atmosphere. this incurs risks for the operating personnel . the flash tank and associated equipment. With the use of stripping gas the glycol solvents can have the concentrations up to 99. They are frequently released directly to the atmosphere.6) (Carroll. but. as noted before. and to recover the glycol vaporized by the reboiler. The main purpose of the still column is to effect final separation between the absorbed water and the absorbing TEG. The hot. at relatively high pressure on the contactor side and low pressure on the regeneration side. 1994). where it is cooled. the solvent selectively absorbs H2S and aromatic compounds such as benzene. In addition to water. Rojey et al. In a normal TEG dehydration unit. ethylbenzene and xylenes present in the natural gas. 2003. Rojey et al. now becoming lean glycol. 1994. 2003. The typical example of a TEG regenerator is Stahl column. 1994). These components are removed with the water on completion of the regeneration step. The glycol-rich liquid. Thus the low-pressure side consists of the regenerator. Heat is applied in the reboiler to raise the temperature and cause partial vaporization.. Ultimately it is returned to the contactor and the cycle is complete (Carroll. 1991). 2003. called also a gasstriping column (Figure 2...6 %. Intensive dehydration of natural gas demands high purity of the recycled solvent. The high-pressure side consists of the glycol contactor and the inlet separator. This is deeply dried natural gas taken usually from the main stream of dehydrated gas. as they are toxic. The TEG natural gas dehydration unit operates. Rojey et al. The stripping gas is sparged directly into the reboiler. this temperature level has been found to cause no noticeable thermal decomposition of the TEG (Carroll. The hot lean glycol passes to the lean rich exchanger. lean glycol leaves the reboiler vessel and overflows by gravity to the surge tank. .

octane) is injected into the reboiler. without any consumption of carrier gas. To prevent any air from entering. Difficulties in burning noncondensable vapors in low-pressure burners were reported (Carroll. This temperature is 177 oC for diethylene glycol. after condensation of the vapor phase.. 1994): a) the already dehydrated gas is sent to the reboiler. 2003... The regeneration temperature must also remain below an acceptable limit for glycol decomposition. forming a heteroazeotrope with water. Rojey et al. Complete elimination requires the incineration of the nonocondensable flare gas in the reboiler fire tube. Rojey et al. To drop to even lower contents in the range of a few parts per million the purity of the recycled solvent must be even further increased. 204oC for thiethylene glycol and 224 oC for tetraethylene glycol (Rojey et al. As an example the injection of 45 Sm3 of gas per m3 of triethylene glycol helps to purify the solvent to 99. the pressure must be kept slightly above atmospheric.4 %. This heteroazeotrope rises to the top of the column and. the purity of the processed gas can be further improved to reach water contents in the range of 20 g / 1000 Sm3. This method is called Drizo process . 1994). By increasing solvent circulation. Two techniques are available for this (Gandhidasan. according to whether the gas is simply injected into the reboiler or introduced into an additional stripping section after the reboiler b) a hydrocarbon (toluene.9 %. but is generally not sufficient to eliminate the problem of aromatics releases completely. the hydrocarbon is separated by simple settling and recycled.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 17 The installation of a condenser improves the situation. 1994). 2003. The triethylene glycol is thus obtained with a purity that may be higher than 99. These regeneration conditions lead to a water content of about 35 g/1000 Sm3 in the processed gas.0 or 99. to lower the water partial pressure by stripping with natural gas.

. ATG.. When the bed is saturated. owing to mechanical problems and also due to the risks of attrition (erosion of adsorbent particles due to friction and collisions during movement). The process is conducted alternately and periodically. 1990. 1994): a) lowering the pressure.4 Dehydration by adsorption Separation processes by adsorption uses a solid phase with large surface area. 1982.R. 2003. Rojey et al. 1989. which selectively retains the components to be separated. 1994). with each bed going through successive steps of adsorption and desorption (Rojey et al. This is achieved by passing through cold natural gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 18 2. four beds are needed in practice. Tannehill. 1994. 1976. ATG. In these conditions. 1994). 1994). the same gas can be used for regeneration. After regeneration and before the adsorption step.. 2003.C.7.. 1987... The adsorbents are generally characterized by a microporous structure which affords a very large specific surface (Campbell. The flow scheme of a dehydration operation by adsorption in a fixed bed is shown in Figure 2.E. 1988.. C. 1992. Adsorption processes are generally applied when a high purity is required for the processed gas. This is why adsorbents are normally used in fixed beds with periodic sequencing (Carroll. Sivalls. During the adsorption step. The desorption step is carried by different methods (Carroll. one bed in cooling and one bed in regeneration (Carroll. Maddox and Erbar. hot natural gas is sent to regenerate the adsorbent (Rojey et al. R. Trent. Kumar. sometimes even under vacuum b) sweeping by an inert natural gas to lower the partial pressure of the component to be desorbed . the gas to be processed is sent on the adsorbent bed which selectively retains the water.. C. After heating. Rojey et al. 2003. 1994). two beds operating simultaneously in adsorption. 2001). Rojey et al. the bed must be cooled. Adsorbents are naturally unsuitable for continuous circulation. Arnold and Stewart.

a significant variation in temperature between the adsorption and desorption steps is practical only if the cycle time is relatively long. Rojey et al. 2003. It adsorbs water from the hydrocarbons. It can be used therefore to separate simultaneously the water and the condensate fraction of the gas processed. This structure has cations that play the role of charge compensation. The heavy hydrocarbons are adsorbed but cannot then be desorbed during regeneration. in which the temperature rises facilities desorption: in a fixed-bed operation. 1994): a) high adsorption capacity at equilibrium b) reversible adsorption allowing regeneration of the adsorbent c) fast adsorption kinetics d) low pressure drop e) attrition resistance f) chemical inertness g) no significant volume change with temperature and saturation The most widely used adsorbents today are the following (Carroll. because of the thermal inertia of the adsorbent bed. the size of the access cavities varies . provided a number of precautions are observed c) molecular sieves (zeolites) used for gas processing are silicoaluminates. Rojey et al. allows more effective desorption than with a simple elution gas d) heating. which. in which the crystal structure forms cavities making up a microporous network on a molecular scale.. they have to be removed before the adsorption step b) silica gel – the water content of the gas processed by adsorption on silica gel is about 10 ppm vol. Silica gel is easily regenerated at a temperature between 120 and 200 oC. Depending on the type of zeolite. 1994): a) activated alumina – a low residual-water content of about 1 ppm vol can be achieved by using activated alumina. which are then desorbed during regeneration. An adsorbent must have the following properties (Carroll. by being adsorbed.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 19 c) sweeping by a displacement agent. 2003.. Therefore if such heavy hydrocarbons are present in the gas.

it is either necessary to find an application compatible with the production of gas low pressure. 1984). Under these conditions. could prove to be more economical and more compact. Deschamps et al.. 1989). or to reduce the gas loss substantially. .. The membrane surface is dependent on the amount of gas permeating through it. the dried natural gas is going through a membrane leaving particles of water and impurities on its surface. which is extremely important for offshore production (Fournie and Agostini. Membrane separation processes require large membrane areas. to make this process economically viable. 1994. Rojey et al. For the separation to be effective.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 20 2. which passes through the membrane driven by pressure difference.2 % and the membrane area is estimated 1430 m2 (Deschamps et al. Industrial applications of dehydration by gas permeation are currently very limited. the membrane must be very permeable with respect to the contaminant to be separated. and it must be relatively impermeable to methane. Compact permeation modules with a high membrane area are therefore needed. The permeability of methane must be accepted to avoid an excessively large membrane area nevertheless means a significant loss of methane in the permeate (Deschamps et al. These advantages only appear clearly in the case of single-stage operation without recycle or recompression of the permeate (Carroll. 1981). 1994): a) modules with plane membranes wound spirally around a collector tube b) modules with a bundle of hollow fibers For a gas-permeation unit processing 1·107 Nm3/d of gas at 7 MPa and required to reduce the water content from 1040 to 170 ppm vol. 2003. many investigations have demonstrated the potential value of such a process which. 1989). 1981). in comparison with a glycol dehydration unit. by improving membrane performance (Deschamps et al. the loss of gas in the permeate is estimated at 4. However.. which are generally expressed in thousands of square meters.5 Dehydration by permeation In the process of dehydration by permeation.. The most widely used industrial modules belong to two types (Rojey et al.

it may include an LPG fraction if this fraction has not been separated in the liquefaction plant. This separation is usually performed by lowering the temperature with the formation of a liquid phase.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 21 2. Examples are: process of liquids recovery by refrigeration.. refrigeration by isenthalpic expansion and expansion through a turbine which is similar to isenthalpic expansion but much more effective. If the gas is not dehydrated before the refrigeration step the injection of an inhibitor is often the simplest and most economical solution. as the process operates at low temperature thorough dehydration and carbon dioxide removal is needed to prevent formation of crystals though (Rojey et al. In most cases refrigeration is used for cases of a previously dehydrated gas to avoid hydrate formation during refrigeration. 1997). The following liquid fractions can be obtained in succession by lowering the temperature (Rojey et al. In this way.6 Dehydration by refrigeration If a natural gas contains a relatively large fraction of hydrocarbons other than methane (condensate gas or associated gas).. 1994): a) natural gasoline or condensate which is a light gasoline representing the C5+ fraction b) the LPG fraction which includes propane and butanes (normal butane and isobutene). refrigeration simultaneously yields a .. 1994). which is mainly formed of methane. the mixture of natural gasoline and LPG (which also contains ethane) obtained by lowering the temperature of the natural gas up to the LPG liquefaction point but without separation between natural gasoline and LPG. it becomes possible to liquefy the methane: the natural gas can thus be transported at atmospheric pressure in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). it may be necessary to separate of at least part of these hydrocarbons to avoid the formation of a liquid phase during transport (Rojey et al. and generally contains ethane. is called natural gas liquids c) by lowering the temperature to about -160 oC. It can also be achieved by adsorption or absorption.

Refrigeration in the presence of methanol helps to control water and heavy-hydrocarbon contents simultaneously. Kollsnes is one of the largest systems in the world. Because of large pressure drops.. Methanol is also used. The cold temperatures in a refrigeration process result in water removal. the largest gas field in Norway. the cold gas is mixed with a polar solvent. and the solution of water and methanol is regenerated without a distillation step (Rojey et al. 1991). LTX is used only when the prime objective is condensate recovery (Manning and Thompson. 1994). A typical refrigeration process can easily reduce the water content of a gas stream down to 1. Cool gas holds less water than hot gas. Kollsnes receives the gas from Troll A. The use of glycol as inhibitor allows relatively easy regeneration by distillation. This process is also known as low-temperature extraction (LTX). One of main ways of natural gas dehydration through refrigeration is carried through expansion refrigeration. This regeneration may. become very costly if the water content is high. Joule-Thompson expansion requires large pressure drops. It employs Joule-Thompson expansion (isothermal expansion) to dry the gas and recover condensate. 2003). In order to prevent the formation of ice and hydrates.60*10-5 kg/m3 level (Carroll. 2003. . but is generally not recycled. 1997). Norway to remove water from natural gas. Therefore the process of refrigeration removes also water. especially in the presence of free water.. Rojey et al. usually ethylene glycol. however.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 22 condensate and an aqueous phase consisting of the mixture of water and inhibitor(Carroll. This method is used at Lollsnes.

in comparison to the drying capability under lower pressure range b) possibility of drying not only imported. The necessity of building a dehydration facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. Subsequently part of the main gas stream from the direction of Ukrainian border. It is located in the neighborhood of compressor unit used for compressing gas imported from Ukraine. c) closeness to power plant solves the problem of energy delivery d) pressure loss up to 0. 2005): a) the possibility of drying two times larger amount of gas under higher pressure thanks to the neighboring gas compressor unit. After dehydration the gas is sent to Jaroslaw compressor and metering station where the stream is split and sent to receivers.2 MPa acceptable due to proximity of compressor unit. about 10 km from Przemyśl (Figure 3. Maćkowice Facilities The gas drying unit Maćkowice.2) The system of gas pipelines in the region of Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. The natural gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is metered and compressed in Hermanowice compressor station.1). Tarnow. but also polish gas. The gas may be previously compressed in neighboring compressor unit. The main reasons were (Stosur. The building was begun in April 2004.3. or whole the amount of gas imported is carried through dehydration process in Maćkowice dewatering unit. It is used for drying natural gas flowing from Ukraine. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specification required by Polish norms (Figure 3. Poland is located 25 km from the Ukrainian Border. The dehydrating facility was built in this location deliberately. Some of the gas is then sent to Strachocin.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 23 3. It is owned and operated by Regional Department of Gas Transport (ROP). The internal diameters of gas pipelines are given on the figure. . The facility was opened on 21st January 2005.

5). The stripping gas is heated to the temperature of 104 oC and depressurized to the regenerator pressure. The gas enters the bottom part of the absorber and flowing upward meets countercurrent flow of lean TEG stream. The separators are free standing.3). The column is filled with Mellapak structured packing provided by Sulzer company. The internal diameter is 1500 mm. Finally about 20 [Nm3/h] of the dry gas is directed to glycol regenerator as stripping gas and the remaining part. After leaving the absorber the natural gas stream goes through heat exchanger cooling down the TEG stream going into the dehydration column. The dehydration process scheme for Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. The facility contains two independent drying units. Under different pressures. depending on the strategy chosen.The oil used for heater propelling is Aviaterm 6 (see Appendix A). The heater should keep the gas temperature between 10 oC and 38oC depending on chosen strategy. The gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is split equally between them and. Depending on the selected pressure 75 000 [Nm3/h] to 280 000 [Nm3/h] per one contactor can be dehydrated. as the sales gas. They are equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor to remove any free liquids and mist. . After separating the free water the gas stream is directed through an oil propelled heater to absorbtion column where the actual dehydration takes place. vertical two-phase separators. flows to system pipelines. Separators are placed upstream of the absorption columns. there may be a third gas stream led directly to the transport pipelines. The pressure and temperature range for the dehydration facility is suggested by the Nafta-Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice facility.4.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 24 The process of dehydration is led with use of TEG absorption in typical way described in previous chapter (see Chapter 2. and in the range from 4700 kPa to 5500 kPa for gas going through compressor unit. The first step of dehydration process is removing any free liquids from the natural gas stream. natural gas of different range of temperatures can be dryed (Figure 3. The pressure of gas can be in the range from 2700 kPa to 4000 kPa for gas coming directly from Ukraine.

Then the lean TEG is mixed with TEG makeup stream in order to compensate the glycol losses. This helps to reduce the glycol losses. Then the TEG stream flows through a heat exchanger in which it is heated before getting to the regeneration column. After leaving the regenerator.5 % TEG mole fraction. The separation of water from TEG takes place by fractional distillation. Subsequently it goes through a pump where the pressure is increased in order to surpass the pressure in absorber tower. Aforementioned stripping gas is put in the upper part of the column in order to regenerate the glycol solution to concentration of 99. The still column is filled with packing and cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution (condenser part). In the regenerator it is further heated to the temperature of 180 oC to 200 oC. which allows TEG to lose most of the entrained and soluble volatile components while in the flash tank. A fired boiler and surge tank are located at the lower section of the vessel. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through a heat exchanger where it is cooled down by the dry gas going out of absorber. TEG stream is directed through heat exchanger where it warms up rich TEG flowing towards the regenerator.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 25 The rich glycol leaves the contactor under the contactor pressure (depending of gas inlet pressure) and goes through valve decreasing the pressure to 400 kPa. .

operational improvement. The program is built upon proven technologies. with more than 25 years experience supplying process simulation tools to the oil. troubleshooting. design. This flexibility combined with consistent and logical approach to how these capabilities are delivered makes Hysys a versatile process simulation tool (Aspen Tech. Hysys offers a high degree of flexibility because there are multiple ways to accomplish specific tasks. using information in an outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions (Aspen Tech. optimize production and enhance decision-making (Aspen Tech.2 is a process modeling tool for steady state simulation. but finally the PengRobinson equation of state was chosen. all necessary information pertaining to pure component flash and physical property calculations is contained within the Fluid Package. 2004). In the used property package several . It proves an interactive process modeling solution that enables engineers to create steady state models of plant design. optimization and business planning for oil and gas production. performance monitoring. business planning and asset management. Hysys helps process industries improve productivity and profitability throughout the plant lifecycle. therefore choosing the right Fluid Package for given compounds is substantial. In Hysys. 2004). 2004). gas and refining industries. The modular structure of the operation means they can be calculated in either direction. performance monitoring. as an ideal model for VLE calculations as well as calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems. Hysys Simulation Package Aspen Hysys 3. gas processing and petroleum refining industries. real-time applications and the integrated approach to the engineering solutions enable the user to improve designs. For the given composition of natural gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration unit different Fluid Packages were checked. The powerful simulation and analysis tools. both forwards and backwards. but the results of any calculation are automatically produced throughout the flowsheet. Another Hysys feature is that modular operations are combined with non-sequential solution algorithm. so not only is information processed as it is supplied.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 26 4.

compressor. The values were also compared to analytical results and only insignificantly differed (Aspen Tech. gas. The results achieved with use of Peng-Robinson equation of state were found to be most similar to empirical calculations of all used Fluid Packages. separators. By connecting the proper unit operations and streams the user can model a wide variety of oil.4). All the known dimensions were inserted. Hysys offers an assortment of utilities which can be attached to process streams and unit operations. the author prepared a detailed scheme of Maćkowice dehydration facility along with surrounding pipelines in order to be able to simulate dehydration and glycol regeneration processes. and recycle (Aspen Tech. 2004). The process was reconstructed in as much detail as it was possible (Operating Manual of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. Multiple properties pages are connected with every streams. 2004).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 27 enhancements to the original Peng-Robinson model were made by the creators of Hysys program in order to extend the range of applicability and to improve its predictions in some non-ideal systems. These tools interact with the process and provide additional information. petrochemical and chemical processes (Aspen Tech. such as heat exchangers. set. This does not yet influence the simulation results as the amount of energy necessary to heat up the stripping gas stream is known. 2004). The properties pages display the property correlations of the inlet and outlet streams of the unit operations (Aspen Tech. Material streams are used to simulate the material traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. The unit operations are used to assemble flow sheets. likewise gas and glycol temperatures and pressures. All unit operations and utilities are connected by material and energy streams. Once the Fluid Package for given compounds was chosen. The author tried to avoid using simplified and non-physical units but failed by little as balance units for stripping gas getting into regenerators had to be used (Figure 3. and the logical operations like adjust. For the material stream the user has to define . 2003). Examples are conditions and composition pages. 2004). Included in the available operations are those which are governed by thermodynamics and mass/energy balances.

which determine the way in which heat is transferred to the vessel operation (Aspen Tech. In the next part of this chapter units used for building Maćkowice dehydration facility will be briefly described. The column is a special type of sub-flow sheet in Hysys. The heater operations are one-sided heat exchangers. The separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected internal and external streams. Energy streams are used to simulate the energy traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. Depending on demands the user can choose one of the predefined columns. The parameters necessary are the temperature. . 2003). pressure. In general the column appears as multi-feed multi-product unit. and composition (Aspen Tech. A sub-flow sheet contains equipment and streams. 2003). or build his own column along with side equipment such as pump arounds. Every separator may be provided with some common features like for example the geometry of the vessel and heat loss model which accounts for the convective and conductive heat transfer that occurs across the vessel wall. side strippers and side rectifiers (Aspen Tech. 2003). view objects to which the stream is attached and specify dynamic information. The inlet stream is heated to the required outlet conditions. 2003).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 28 their main properties and composition so Hysys can solve the stream. These operations provide information on how much energy is required to heat a process stream with a utility (Aspen Tech. The sequence in which the description are provided reflects the sequence of TEG solution and natural gas flow. one vapor and one liquid product stream. and energy stream provides the enthalpy difference between the two streams. Separator is an unit with one or multiple feeds. flow based for example on molar flow. The main parameter for energy streams is heat flow (Aspen Tech. 2003). The energy stream property view contains of fields allowing user to define stream parameters. The user can choose between various heater types.

The heat exchangers calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids on the basis of temperatures of inlet and outlet streams. In the considered case the TEG stream is heated up to the temperature of approximately 100 oC by lean TEG stream exiting regenerator (Aspen Tech. Hysys performs a material and energy balance on the inlet and exit streams of the valve. On the exit the vapor which is composed of volatile gases and a small quantity of water is taken out at the top part of the separator. Warm rich glycol flows into the regenerator where it is heated up and losses water. Fully refluxed condenser is built at the top of the column. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 29 The column used by the author for separating water from natural gas is a typical absorber column with two inlet and two exit streams. One of the inlet streams is natural gas saturated with water in given conditions. the other is lean TEG glycol. and a reboiler in the lower part of the column is added for heating up bottom liquid to the temperature range of 180 oC to 200 oC (Aspen Tech. 2003). The separator used for removing vapor part from the rich TEG stream under lower pressure is similar to the one separating free water from rich gas stream. 2003). The variable specified by the user is outlet pressure.050 [g/Nm3] which determines the dew point of -18 oC under the pressure of 3900 kPa (Aspen Tech. 2003). In order to dry the absorbent to higher concentration stripping gas in the quantity of 20 Nm3/h is injected into the regenerator. The column is designed in such a way that it should allows to dry the gas to the content of water in gas below 0. A valve is used to decrease the pressure of dry natural gas exiting from the TEG contactor to the value of 400 kPa. The calculations are based on equal material and enthalpy between the two streams. The entering stream contains particles of vapor and liquid. 2003). 2003). It is assumed that the valve operation is isenthalpic. Heat exchanger performs two-sided energy and material balance calculations. and the liquid part composed of glycol and water is carried to the heat exchanger (Aspen Tech. The rest of variables necessary for solving the valve operation is taken from the stream flowing out of the contactor (Aspen Tech. The regenerator is an example of distillation column with two inlet and two exit streams.

and internal absolute tolerances (Aspen Tech. the inlet pressure and the pump efficiency are known. require a recycle operation. Based on the difference between the assumed and calculated values Hysys generates new values to overwrite the previous assumed values. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through another heat exchanger where it gives some of its energy to dry gas stream flowing out of TEG contactor. The given values are the amount of TEG going into the contactor given with relative tolerance. The additional TEG is put into the circulation in order to make up glycol losses due to solution in natural gas and vaporization.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 30 The lean glycol flowing out of the regenerator is mixed with stream of additional TEG in the makeup mixer. The recycle operation is a theoretical block in process stream. The dynamics pump operation is similar to the compressor operation in that it increases the pressure of its inlet stream. Before getting to the contactor lean TEG stream goes through recycle operation. 2003). The pump operation assumes that the inlet fluid is incompressible though (Aspen Tech. The heat flow necessary for compression is calculated by Hysys. just as the amount of lean TEG from the regenerator and amount of TEG going out of the pump. Hysys uses the assumed values and solves the flowsheet around the recycle. The mixer combines the two streams to produce a single outlet stream. The outlet pressure. On this ground Hysys calculates the amount of glycol necessary to compensate the TEG losses and the properties of absorbent entering the pump. where downstream material mixes with upstream material. 2003). which subsequently gets to the TEG pump. The properties of both streams entering the mixer are known. . The glycol is cooled down while the dry gas is warmed up. The pump operation is used to increase the pressure of an inlet liquid stream. then it compares the assumed values in the attached streams to the calculated values in the opposite stream. All material recycles. The calculation process repeats until the calculated values match the assumed values within specified tolerances. This block gives Hysys the ability to backcalculate through many operations in a non-sequential manner.

1 Water content measurement The water content of a natural gas at saturation conditions depends essentially on the temperature and pressure. The Figure 5. The Figure 5. 1962). Dissolved salts reduce the partial pressure of water in the vapor phase.2 helps to correct the water contents given by the Figure 5. . The water content can also be measured by adsorption on magnesium perchlorate. and the water content is measured from the amount of gas required to neutralize the reagent (solution of iodine. The quantity of water adsorbed is determined by gravimetric method. The water content of natural gas can be measured by three different methods (Rojey et al. and the water content of the gas is accordingly decreased.. the water is absorbed in a solution. a cooler mirror is used to observe the water condensation temperature.1. The water dew point is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the hydrocarbon dew point. as a function of salinity of the aqueous phase (after Katz. 1994 provides a short description of these methods. the water dew point curve of the natural gas can be used to determine the zone where water may condense. The amount of condensed water released from gas can be then calculated from the difference between the water content in gas at saturation point at the inlet and outlet respectively. In the widely used absorption based KarlFischer method. If the variation of temperature and pressure in an installation is known. Alexandre Rojey et al. called the Karl-Fischer reagent). 1994): a) by observation of the dew point b) by water retention on an adsorbent c) by absorption in liquid. Corrections can be made for the sake of the composition of gas and the salinity of the water.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 31 5. In the dew point method. pyridine and sulfur dioxide in methanol.1 shows the water content at saturation point of nitrogen-free natural gases as a function of pressure and temperature.. Water Content of Natural Gas 5.

5000 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 32 5. The water content curves for H2S and CO2 are based on experimental data for the binary mixtures H2O-H2S and H2O-CO2. 250 kPa. sulfide. and 60 000 kPa (Figure 5. the estimated water content of a sour gas is a molar average of the solubility of water in the hydrocarbons. A chart was prepared containing aheadmentioned curves for temperatures from -50 oC to 140 oC under pressures of 100 kPa. and carbon dioxide. The figure shows the amounts of water saturating natural gas in given temperature and pressure along with charts for correction for gas relative density and for salinity. Three methods are currently available for estimating the water content of sour natural gases. 3000 kPa. The most commonly used procedure is prepared by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). respectively. .3). 1500 kPa.2 Water content from GPSA diagram Natural gases containing significant quantities of acid gas are encountered frequently in the world. 1000 kPa. 30 000 kPa. Both these binaries display liquidliquid equilibria at temperatures and pressures common in processing applications. 40 000 kPa. hydrogen. 20 000 kPa. 50 000 kPa. Estimates of the water content of these sour gases are required for the design of plant and pipelines facilities. 1977). the predicted water content of sour natural gas is high when based on these experimental curves (Robinson et al. 2000 kPa. 500 kPa. 4000 kPa. and the water content read for the acid gas components often corresponds to the solubility of water in nonaqueous liquid phase rather than in vapor phase. In general.. In the procedure outlined by GPSA. 8000 kPa. 750 kPa.

Therefore it was kept this way deliberately. The table in Appendix B shows water content in natural gas in [g/Nm3] within the range of pressures between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa.018 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33. The temperature range includes temperatures encountered in Polish gas pipelines. and 20 oC (Figure 5. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences. This layout may not be transparent as it repeats the same results many times for different gas temperatures. 15 oC (Figure 5. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating. for the temperatures between 10 oC and 40 oC with stress to points within the temperature and pressure range for which the facility should be used. Dew point temperatures exceeding -18 oC were omitted.8 oC for water content of 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 33 5.4).3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual The designer of Maćkowice natural gas dehydration facility provided an operating manual. Original layout given by the designer (Nafta – Gaz) was used. Graphic analysis of the results was prepared for the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5. The dew points for the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC with the water content of 0. The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.6).5).009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. This assumption is made because of the investor’s demand to keep the amount of water in dried gas below the dew point temperature of -18 oC. Appendix B). The part of the table pertaining to the pressures encountered when the gas is put into the dehydration facility under the import pipeline pressure. This layout is useful though to calculations of the amount of water necessary to remove from natural gas under given conditions in order to dry gas to the point where it meets the required standards (see Chapter 5. An attachment to the manual shows water content of natural gas within the range of pressures for which the facility was designed (Figure 3. Only water dew point temperatures below -18 oC are considered as work points. .5.6). without using the compressor station is shown in Table 5.1.

036 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 34 Similarly the dew points for the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. . For the gas temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.6. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.1 oC for water amount of 0.019 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.4 oC for water amount of 0.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30.8 oC for the water amount of 0.9 oC for the water amount of 0.

2002. as the height of absorption column is not known and therefore the additional 2 oC was used. (3) The values obtained are given in kilograms of water per million standard cubic meters. When the pressure and dew point temperature of natural gas are known. The values format was converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F). This is: (2) Tdew.228 ⋅ ln(0. Since the gas and TEG are not in contact for a long enough time to reach equilibrium. Therefore . which only insignificantly changes inside the absorber. A well designed and properly operated unit will have an actual water dew point 5 oC to 8oC higher than the equilibrium dew point. The dew point acquired depends on amount of water leaving the dehydration facility and gas pressure. and is given by the formula: Tdew. an 10 oC approach to the equilibrium dew point at the top of the dehydrator was assumed. from the equations (1) and (2) the water content in outlet gas may be obtained: wout = exp( Tdew.228 − ln 0.eq + 10 o C 18.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations On the ground of empirical equations the author calculated the amount of water present in natural gas leaving the absorber column. The natural gas is getting in the absorber under a known pressure. In present study.act = Tdew.eq = 18. The assumed water dew point temperature is known.001685 − ln Pg 0 .81462 (1) ). Gandhidasan. the actual water dew point is always higher than the equilibrium dew point.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 35 5.eq − 10 o C .001685 ⋅ wout ⋅ Pg 0 .81462 ). The author’s approach was based on calculations with use of equilibrium dew point equation for gases according to P.

The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual. For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18. Diagrams were made to show graphically the water content in dehydrated natural gas in the work pressure range in the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.1 oC for water amount of 0. and the amounts of water for different dew points under the considered pressure range were calculated with the given formula (3).025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.9 oC for the water amount of 0. Similarly the dew points in the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.7).9) The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.016 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 33.017 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The calculations were made for the pressure range recommended by Nafta – Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences. The pressure values and the dew points were kept unchanged.4 oC for water amount of 0. .6. The dew points were kept same as in the Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual (Appendix B). The results were put together and shown in a table (Appendix C). The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5. and 20 oC (Figure 5.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The dew points in the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0.8 oC for the water amount of 0.020 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 30. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 36 without noticeable mistake one can recognize the inlet pressure as the actual pressure. Typical gas temperatures encountered in Poland were taken into account. The table was prepared for the same gas temperatures as the one reproduced from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.8 oC for water amount of 0.011 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. 15oC (Figure 5.8).

Therefore a stream of saturated gas with significant amount of free water above the saturation point is created in the mixer and flows to a two-phase separator. water. . Hysys application does not provide the possibility of checking the amount of water per standard cubic meter directly.10).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 37 5. and gas-water mixture. Subsequently the values were exported to Microsoft Excel application.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program A simple flow sheet was made with the use of Hysys program. The rich gas is taken from the top part of the separator as vapor. In the separator operation the water content above the saturation level is taken away as liquid from the bottom part of the separator. where the calculation of amount of water in natural gas was made. In order to achieve this result the author had to prepare a sheet containing values of molecular weight of natural gas. The flow sheet shows a stream of dry gas with no water content going in a mixer operation along with pure water stream. mole fraction of gas and water. Z factor of the mixture in given conditions and mass density of gas in given conditions. and to be still present as liquid in the pipe (Figure 5. The computation course for exemplary conditions are shown in Appendix E. By this means the water saturation points under given conditions can be checked. The temperature and pressure of saturated gas are inserted by the user and on this basis Hysys calculates the water content of saturated natural gas. The computation had following course: a) the number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol was calculated on the basis of multiplication the density of gas-water mixture by 1 m3 and dividing the result by molecular weight of the mixture b) mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture was calculated through multiplication of the number of moles of gas per 1 m3 by the mole fraction of water and by the molecular weight of pure water c) calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of the real gas law equation called Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) was done d) the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was achieved by dividing the mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 by the standard volume of water-gas mixture. The amount of water is high enough to saturate the gas.

5. 4000 kPa. Therefore the author made a detailed study of the interest range. 5.2d the range of conditions is very wide. 5.3) – see Chapter 5.6. Comparison of results achieved with the Clapeyron equation was made with the method based on flow values obtained with Hysys application.5 . 3000 kPa. The results’ comparison is shown in Table 5. 250 kPa. The value of standard gas flow per hour can be calculated by Hysys as one of gas stream properties. 40 000 kPa. The temperature range started with -40 oC and reached the temperature of 140 oC with 20 oC step.02 % in every case. 20 000 kPa. The values achieved with both methods are almost identical. The values for which the calculation took place were 100 kPa. The pressure range started with 100 kPa and reached 60 000 kPa. 30 000 kPa. Table 5. for example water.2a.2c. .2b. The results obtained were put in tables. 750 kPa. These values were chosen deliberately in order to compare the results achieved with the chart provided by GPSA (Figure 5. 5000 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 38 The computation was first made generally for wide range of temperatures and pressures.4 shows the number of grams of water per normal cubic meter of natural gas.2a. In Tables 5. This method is based on reading the value of standard gas flow per hour [Sm3/h] and dividing it by mass flow of water as one of the stream component. 1000 kPa. 50 000 kPa. 500 kPa. Second method of calculating the amount of water in standard cubic meter was discovered. Table 5.2b. Hysys application can calculate mass and mole flows of every component of a given stream. 5. The outcome for the temperature range from -40 oC to 140 oC under the pressure of 60 000 kPa is shown in Table 5.2d). The outcomes differ by less than 0. 8000 kPa.2. 1500 kPa. The results’ format was converted from mass of water per standard cubic meter to mass of water per normal cubic meter with use of the real gas law equation (see Appendix F). The conditions encountered in Maćkowice gas dehydration facility vary only within the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 5500 kPa and the temperature range between 10 oC and 30 oC. and 60 000 kPa (Table 5.2c.3 shows the number of grams of water per standard cubic meter of natural gas. The range of conditions taken under consideration was narrowed. 5. 2000 kPa. 5.

009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.032 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30.13).4 oC for water amount of 0. The water content results obtained with Hysys are delivered. 15oC (Figure 5.010 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. and 20oC (Figure 5. The input data included temperature range encountered in polish gas pipelines under the pressure range for which the Maćkowice gas dehydration facility was designed.2a.2c. The dew points in the temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0. The Hysys application results unit was given in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas mixture.8 oC for water amount of 0.1 oC for water amount of 0.11).4) were achieved. 5.3) and with the use of empirical equations (Chapter 5. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual and empirical calculations. Graphical analysis was prepared for temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.12).9 oC for the water amount of 0. gas temperatures and dew points were left unchanged. The obtained results were put in a table (Appendix D).046 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26. Similarly the dew points in the temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.023 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33.8 oC for the water amount of 0. 5. The layout of the table has changed in comparison with Tables 5.2d.2b. 0 oC for normal conditions) the real gas law equation was used for transformation (see Appendix F). A detailed study of water amount in gas under work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility was made. Similar values to those achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (Chapter 5. In order to make the comparison with other results possible the Hysys obtained values were transformed into grams of water per normal cubic meter. For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18. 5. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 39 The outcome unit was transformed. As the difference between standard and normal condition is limited to temperature difference (15 oC for standard conditions.015 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. The pressure range.

For ten randomly chosen pressure and temperature values the amount of water was read from the GPSA chart. Similarly in comparison between manual data and equation based calculations the average mistake was 7. In case of the comparison between manual data and Hysys calculated values the average mistake was 5. 15oC (Figure 5.3. 15. Gandhidasan. The water saturation calculated with the use of empirical equations for given gas temperature is shown along with the water content for selected dew points according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (see Appendix B) and Hysys package. and 20oC (Figure 5. Hysys computation and manual based data was made.2b. In every case the error was smaller than 20 mg H2O per standard cubic meter. 2002 are shown in Table 5.79 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 34.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 40 5. The values of water amount in natural gas according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. The values obtained with different methods stay in reasonable conformity.16) are provided. 27.6 Water content results comparison Comparison was made between the amount of water calculated from Hysys results (Tables 5. 14.2d) and the amount of water results achieved with use of GPSA chart (see Figure 5. 13.58 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC. The diagrams for temperatures 10oC (Figure 5.77 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC. as the GPSA chart is well recognized as accurate for predicting the amount of water in natural gas under given conditions (Robinson. 5. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and Hysys application are shown in Table 5.2). and Hysys application were compared. Average error was calculated from the values obtained. see Chapter 5. .01 % for gas temperature of 15 oC. The comparison results are shown in graphic mode.94 % for gas temperature of 15 oC. Only values pertaining to work-points were included in tables. 5.87 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. the author considers the values obtained with use of Hysys application as unquestionable.8.2a.14).15).2c. empirical equation.57 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. 5.15 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 16. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and solution based on empirical equations according to P. The difference was considerably lower for comparison between Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual and Hysys package.7. Comparison of the results obtained with empirical equations.1977). Hence.

. The reason of this unconformity may be the generality of used equation in which the results are not dependent on natural gas composition.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 41 The author concludes from the results that both Hysys and manual based data stay in good conformity. Empirical equations used provide results close to the ones computed with use of Hysys application and delivered from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. This is gained as the inaccuracy was small and the obtained values show the same tendency in each case. Moreover the author notices that the results obtained with empirical calculations used are burdened with noticeable error in comparison to manual and Hysys based outcome. Therefore the author decides to use the Hysys results as correct and not burdened with error that would substantially influence subsequent deliberations over optimum energy and glycol strategy. These general empirical equations were used instead of more complex ones as the main goal of this part of author’s work was to check the harmony between empirical solution and computer program based calculation.

In the range of temperatures between -19 oC and -18 oC the step was decreased to 0.5). The results were put in tables.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 42 5.10. The results for normal conditions are provided in Table 5.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process Calculation of water content under dew point temperatures in Maćkowice dehydration facility work pressure range was made. Table 5.9.The amount of water left in natural gas under dew point temperature was subtracted from the water content of natural gas in typical temperatures encountered in gas pipelines. and 25 oC under pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and from 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa are provided in Table 5. The results were recalculated with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) to values expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter.1 oC. The values for gas temperatures of 10 oC. The results were then converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F).11). The values in changed units are shown in Table 5. as this range of dew point temperatures is usually sufficient.12 The results pertaining to water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in the pressure range between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa (Table 5. 20 oC. 15 oC.13 shows the amount of water to be removed in grams of water per . The results showing the amount of water in natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter were put in Table 5.11. For every pressure chosen the dew points in the range of -31 oC to -18 oC with 1 oC step were counted the same way as for water content in given gas temperature and pressure (see Chapter 5. 15 oC.9) were compared with the amounts of water in typical gas temperatures encountered in polish gas pipelines (Table 5. 25 oC and 30 oC in this part of pressure range which is in Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area (Figure 3. This led to specifying the amount of water to be removed in order to achieve a required dew point temperature under given pressure for a known medium temperature. The amounts of water under the temperature range encountered in Polish gas pipelines and Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area pressure range were calculated. For the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa the amount of water in natural gas was calculated with use of Hysys application. The values in mentioned table were given in grams of water per standard cubic meter.5) were considered. Gas temperatures of 10 oC. 20 oC. The range of temperatures taken into account corresponds with the dew points possible to achieve during gas dehydration.

Table 5.17 shows the amount of water to remove from gas under the temperature of 20 oC in grams of water per standard cubic meter. Table 5. The value is given in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Table 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43 standard cubic meter when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. Finally Table 5.21 shows the amount of water to remove from 30 oC warm gas in grams per standard cubic meter. Table 5.16 provides the same data transformed to normal conditions.19 provides results of water amount to remove under gas temperature of 25 oC expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter.20 shows the same data expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter.18 shows data pertaining to the same gas temperature. and Table 5. but expressed in grams of water to remove per normal cubic meter. Table 5. Table 5.14 shows the amount of water to be removed when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. Table 5.22 transforms the unit to grams of water to remove from gas per normal meter of medium.15 shows the water amount to be removed for 15 oC warm natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas. .

The data was prepared for the range of water content encountered after dewatering in Maćkowice dehydration facility in gas temperature of 10 oC.17. The difference between dew points computed with use of Hysys package and Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual data hardly ever exceeds the value of 1 oC. which is between 0. but within the whole range of pressure encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. Hysys computation and manual data was made. Therefore there are no contraindications against using Hysys outcome as reliable. The graphical comparison is shown in the Figure 5. .009 g/Nm3 and 0. The calculation is aimed at checking the compatibility of Hysys computation and manual data. Table 5. Alike in the survey of water content saturating the natural gas in given conditions.24 contains the values achieved from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual. Table 5. The results of empirical calculation differ insignificantly from the ones mentioned above .25 brings up values calculated with use of empirical equations. For preset values of water content in natural gas the dew point values were calculated and put in tables. Hysys obtained results stay in good conformity with manual obtained data. and Table 5.8 Dew point values comparison Comparison of dew points for given water content between empirical calculation.018 g/Nm3.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 44 5. The points were not selected for a given pressure. This is satisfying result. Achieved values show good correlation between results obtained with use of computation and manual data.23 shows the values of dew point for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package.

47 kPa – 68.344. and tetraethylene glycol (TREG). particularly in the reboiler. The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria.277 Sm3/s.3).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 45 6. Glycols will.95 kPa vs. The crucial properties of glycol solvents suitable for dewatering were given before (see Chapter 2. however. triethylene glycol (TEG).387 Sm3/s (Kohl and Riesenfeld. All of mentioned glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. and 33 % at 16. decompose at elevated temperatures.7 kPa for dry desiccants) c) glycol dehydration is continuous rather than batch d) glycol makeup is easily accomplished e) glycol units require less regeneration heat per pound of water removed f) glycol units can typically dehydrate natural gas to 0.1 Use of glycol solutions Glycols are by far most commonly used solvents in natural gas dehydration.008 g/Sm3 The disadvantages of glycol over solid desiccants are a) water dew points below -4 oC require stripping gas and Stahl column for TEG regeneration b) glycol is susceptible to contamination c) glycol is corrosive when contaminated or decomposed The glycols that are most common for dehydration applications are monoethylene glycol (MEG). . Glycol solutions 6. 68.95 kPa . 1979) b) lower pressure drop (34. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. This is one of the most important features upon which a specific glycol absorbent is chosen. According to Manning and Thompson (1991) the advantages of glycol over solid desiccants are: a) lower installed costs by 50 % less at 3. diethylene glycol (DEG).

1991) . In comparison to TREG it is less viscious. It is marginally more expensive than DEG. and is the most widely used (Manning and Wood. It also has less affinity for water and therefore less dew point depression. Moreover TEG is more easily regenerated. 2003). 1993). but brings much less losses due to lower vapor pressure. which translates into lower pumping costs.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 46 Triethylene glycol offers the best cost/benefit compromise. not mentioning higher costs of TREG purchase. has a higher decomposition temperature of 277 oC in comparison to DEG (245 oC) and is not too viscous above 4 oC (Manning and Thompson. which are not entirely compensated by lower vapor pressure (Carroll. It shows most of the properties mentioned and in comparison to the other absorbents it is most economically right.

Solution contact temperatures shown vary between 0 oC and 80 oC. In the Figure 6. which would be obtained if the gas was brought to equilibrium with the TEG solution at the contactor temperature. Gandhidasan (2002): ξ in . The strong affinity between glycols and water is attributed to hydrogen bonds. Td. 2004). Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for TEG–water system commonly are represented as charts of water dew point lines as a function of contactor temperature and liquid TEG concentrations.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 47 6.036313 .1 shows the dew point obtained for a gas in equilibrium with a solution of triethylene glycol at different concentrations after ATG. The calculation was carried out on the basis of equation provided by P. 1994).min = 84. Therefore it is necessary to estimate the minimum concentration of TEG in the strong solution entering the top of the dehydrator to meet the exit gas water content specification.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration The drying ability of the TEG is limited by the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water between the gas phase and the liquid TEG phase.629 ⋅ exp(−0. Figure 6. According to ATG the dew point temperature possible to achieve differs with glycol concentration and solution contact temperature.. A method of calculating the equilibrium between the gas phase and a TEG solution was presented by Rosman (1973).act ) ⋅ Tg 0. The water dew point is the dew point of the gas..1 glycol concentration is given in weight percent of TEG in solution..00173 ⋅ Tdew. Calculation of the minimum strong TEG concentration required at the inlet to the dehydrator in order to dewater natural gas to given dew point temperature was made. (4) . More complete data can be obtained by referring to the to the manual published by the GPA (1980). Concentrations of TEG between 95 and 99. T (Chorng et al. 1994).97 % are taken into account. 1988 (Rojey et al. The distribution of water between the two phases at equilibrium is determined by introducing a partition coefficient assumed to be constant throughout the absorption column (Rojey et al.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

48

The minimum strong TEG concentration is dependent on the dew point temperature required
and natural gas temperature. The calculation was made for dew point temperature range from
-18 oC to -31 oC, which are dew points encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The
solution contact temperature which equals gas temperature between 1 oC and 25 oC is
considered. The results achieved are shown in Table 6.1.
Figures showing minimum strong TEG concentration in mass percent required to achieve a
given dew point temperature were made on this ground. Figure 6.2 shows minimum TEG
concentration for dew point temperature range between -18 oC and -29 oC. Figure 6.3 shows a
more detailed study on a more narrow range of dew point temperatures (-18 oC to -19 oC) with
0,1 oC step. The range between -18 oC and -19 oC, is the most commonly obtained.
Comparison of results after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1) and after P. Gandhidasan, 2002
(Figure 6.2) was made. For chosen points in range of operation area of Mackiwice
dehydration facility results were compared. The points were chosen on basis of minimum
strong TEG concentration table (Table 6.1). Points of TEG concentration equal to 95 %,
96 %, 97 %, 98 %, and 99 % were used.
The dew point chart after ATG is commonly used for determination of minimum TEG
concentration necessary in many dehydration facilities and bring good conformity with reality
(Rojey et al., 1994). Therefore the results obtained with it are unquestionable. The results
based on empirical solution shown by P. Gandhidasan, 2002 turned out to be burdened with a
few percent error in case of water content in natural gas and dew point temperature
calculations. Hence the author expects a similar distortion in results pertaining to the
minimum concentration of strong TEG stream.
According to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 the minimum TEG absorbent concentration necessary to
dewater 10 oC warm natural gas to dew point temperature of -18,5 oC is 95 % (Table 6.1). The
outcome was checked with dew point chart after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1). According to it the
minimum strong TEG concentration cannot be lower than 96 %.
After P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG concentration enabling to dewater natural gas to
-21 oC in gas temperature 12 oC is 96 %. The value of approximately 97 % TEG concentration

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

49

is read from dew point temperature of gas with solutions of triethylene glycol chart after
ATG, 1988.
Similar comparison was made for the gas temperature of 16 oC reaching the dew point
temperature of -21 oC. In this case according to P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG
concentration is 97 %. Which is by about 1 % less than the result achieved with the use of
Figure 6.1 (minimally less than 98 %).
The value of 98 % strong TEG concentration was calculated as minimum for dehydration of
24 oC warm gas to dew point temperature of -18 oC according to P. Gondhidasan. The value
obtained with use of the chart after ATG, 1988 equals approximately 98,5 %.
For TEG concentration of 99 % and gas temperature 25 oC the dew point temperature of
-23 oC is encountered with use of P. Gandhidasan proposed method. After ATG the value
equals approximately 98,5 %.
Aforementioned examples, alike Table 6.1 and Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 show clearly that the lean
TEG concentrations encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility are high enough to dry
the stream of natural gas to dew point below -18 oC in typical temperatures met in Polish gas
pipelines. The dew point temperature of -18 oC or lower is the demand from gas transport
company.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

50

6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility
According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual the TEG concentration varies
between 99,5 mass % on the inlet to absorber column, and not less than 95 % on the outlet
from the absorber. Tables are provided in the operating manual showing the minimum amount
of TEG necessary to dehydrate natural gas containing a known amount of water (Appendix
G). These are the minimum TEG amounts sufficient to keep the TEG concentration within the
desired range.
Calculation was made of the amount of water possible to remove with use of 1 cubic meter of
triethylene glycol. According to the installation requirements the concentration of TEG
solution cannot drop below the point of 95 mass percent. Therefore not more than 5 mass
precent can be filled by water taken out from dehydrated natural gas. Omitting other chemical
compounds dissolving in TEG and assuming the TEG density as 1122 kg/m3 the value of
approximately 56 kg of water per 1 cubic meter of TEG solution was calculated.
It stands to reason that the circulation of TEG depends on the amount of water present in
natural gas. This, in sequence, is dependent on the temperature and pressure of natural gas
flowing into the absorber column (Table 5.3). The amount of water saturating natural gas is
increasing with temperature, and decreasing with pressure.
For the instances where the amount of water flowing in natural gas can be decreased before
the actual dehydration process it should be done. Therefore gas should be deprived of any free
water before getting to absorber. Also increasing the inlet pressure can bring noticeable
effects while separating free water from natural gas before the actual dehydration process.
The gas temperature should be kept low. The gas should not be warmed up before entering the
absorber more than necessary. The gas entering the absorber should be always warmer than
10 oC though (see Chapter 2.3).
Some part of TEG is wasted through evaporation ans is carried over from absorber with
particles of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost depends on TEG vapor pressure in given
temperature.

calculation of TEG losses was made. 75 000 Nm3/h each. Two of them. Hysys application was used in search for the optimum solution for minimizing TEG waste and energy use. Therefore to dehydrate the whole amount of gas coming from Ukraine (550 000 Nm3 per hour) to the water content below 0. Optimization was made by adjusting factors like temperature and pressure of gas entering the installations. and tries to minimize it. The installation was set to the lowest work pressure. The main gas stream was split in three parts. the remaining part (400 000 Nm3/h) was put directly to the gas pipeline. TEG circulation.2 g/Nm3. which is the investor’s demand. Natural gas temperature of 10 oC was chosen. This instance shows that the pressure chosen should be adjusted with consideration for the water content of gas at the inlet to the absorber. which is the point very seldom exceeded in recent two years for the natural gas imported from Ukraine (Figure 3. and dew point temperature of the outgoing gas. . the dehydration of the part of natural gas undergoing the dehydration must be very deep. alike energy consumption. Even through decreasing the water content in natural gas undergoing the dehydration process to the level of 13 mg/Nm3. were directed to the dehydrators. Even though the above this solution cannot be chosen.4). The author will check the possibility of meeting the demand. and 8 oC for the pressure of 5500 kPa. after mixing with the not dehydrated gas the total water content was still way too high (145 mg/Nm3).2). The water content of incoming gas was set at the level of 0. According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual this is the pressure of 2700 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 51 7. and under this pressure only 75 000 Nm3 of natural gas per one processing line can be dehydrated. TEG is being wasted through: a) evaporating and escape with dried natural gas stream from TEG Contactor and TEG Contactor-2 (Figure 3. This water content suits the dew point temperature of -2 oC for the pressure of 2700 kPa.050 g/Nm3. Hysys simulations The author puts attention to the direct after-effect of evaporation of TEG which is TEG loss.

4).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 52 b) evaporating with natural gas taken from Gas From TEG Sep and Gas From TEG Sep-2 separators (Figure 3.4).620 m3 per 100 000Nm3 of natural gas (Appendix G).7946 kg is wasted every hour through each of these streams. c) through getting into equilibrium with water during TEG regeneration in Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. In the Outlet GAS stream (Figure 3. The pressure of 4720 kPa was assumed. The TEG circulation was set to the level of .6261 kg/h which gives the amount of 31764 kilograms of TEG per year. This is 3990 kPa. This pressure requires the main imported gas stream to undergo compression before entering the dehydration facility. as the water content in outlet stream is greater than 50 mg/Nm3. For this amount of gas dehydrated the water content of outlet gas equals 75 mg/Nm3. The amount of TEG equal to 1. The amount of TEG necessary to fill the leaks is 3. This makes up the loss of 28 m3 of TEG annually. The installation was set to the maximum gas pressure without compression in compressor unit. The TEG circulation was set according to the operating manual tips to 0.0184 kg/h. see Figure 3.4). 2004). The greatest loss was observed in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams (Figure 3.4).4) the total water amount left is 57 kg. Total annual TEG losses in this case would be approximately 28.4). The maximum amount of approximately 180 000 Nm3 of natural gas can be dehydrated with every processing line (Mackowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual. The losses mentioned are made up by New TEG and New TEG-2 streams (Figure 3. The temperature of gas entering dehydrator was 10 oC and did not differ from the gas temperature in the pipelines (little energy use in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2.000035 mass percent of water in natural gas. In Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 streams the amount of TEG equals two times 0. The same examination was used for the gas pressure of 5500 kPa and the whole main gas stream undergoing the drying process. which makes up 104 mg/Nm3.7 m3. This setting cannot be used for natural gas containing assumed water content though. In this case the absorber was able to dehydrate the streams of natural gas to water content of 25 mg/Nm3 which is 0. No TEG losses were noticed in Gas From TEG and Gas From TEG-2 streams. Under this pressure the maximum amount of 150 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated.

The TEG loss equaled 29.13 kW each). The energy streams necessary to perform the drying operations (Figure 3.9 m3/h.5 m3/yr.4) are the Condenser En and Condenser En-2 (6.6 m3. . The amount of 1. The water content of the outgoing gas stream of 48 mg/Nm3 was achieved this way.5 · 10-3 m3/h.4 m3 of TEG per hour is flowing into the absorber column. The minimum share of gas undergoing the dehydration process has in order to meet the maximum 50 mg of water per Nm3 of gas demand increased to 237000 Nm3 per one processing line. The gas was preheated to 25 oC.2 g of water per Nm3 of natural gas) an approach of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 35 oC was used. For TEG inlet of 3 m3 per one absorption column the outgoing gas contained only 5 mg of water per Nm3 of natural gas. In this temperature the imported gas cannot fulfill the investor’s demands. and Remnants and Remnants-2 (1. which is inconsiderably lower than in case of following operating manual hints. The two of them that are undergoing the dehydration operation put through 212800 Nm3/h each. The amount of TEG lost is 3. 0. as the En To Heater and En To Heater-2 heat flows equal 1801 kW each. Pump Q and Pump Q-2 (3.3 kW each). Hence the total energy us encountered is 3900 kW.5 kW each). The TEG loss equals then 29.4 m3/yr.7 kW each). Reboiler En and Reboiler En-2 (135.16 kg/h each). The TEG loss in this case was encountered through Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 (0.352 · 10-3 m3/h. which makes up the quantity of 30.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 53 1. Total TEG waste amounts to 3. The gas stream was dehydrated to the level of 6.2 m3/yr. For the same gas stream (5500 kPa. which gives the amount of 29. For TEG inlet of 1 m3 per one absorption column the gas can be dehydrated to the amount of water in natural gas equal 13 mg/Nm3. The energy use is high in comparison to previous instances. 10 oC. The total energy use equals 292 kW. The imported gas was split to three streams.8 kg/h each). En To Heater and En To Heater-2 (0.6 m3/yr. The amount of gas dehydrated under the pressure of 5500 kPa was decreased to the level where the amount of water in the outlet gas stays close to the level of 50 mg/Nm3.3 mg/Nm3. The annual TEG loss achieved is 28. The same approach was used for different TEG circulations.

2 this is the amount of water that is not much above the minimum dew point temperature in winter conditions. The gas is not preheated before entering the contactor. the heat flow amounts to 260 kW. Therefore in case of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 10 oC the outlet gas water content changes insignificantly. The temperature of gas was set to the minimum temperature encountered in gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration facility. Condenser En-2. En To Heater.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 54 Similar technique by a process of trial and error was used for water content in gas of 0. Pump Q. Although this is the most energy and absorbent saving setup the dehydration process should be carried out in higher temperatures to prevent precipitation of hydrates. The TEG loss is 28 m3TEG/yr. and the power supply necessary equals 260 kW. Pump-2. Total energy use equals 260 kW. the outlet water content amounts to 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. By the energy use the author understands the heat flows of Condenser En. and gas temperature of 2 oC. and applies only to the gas that did not undergo compression process in the neighboring compressor unit. the highest pressure in work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility. As the dehydration process cannot be completed with sufficient results under the lower variety of pressures from the range of non-compressed gas pressures (as the amounts of gas that can undergo the dewatering process for lower pressures are to low).1 gH2O/Nm3GAS. Reboiler En-2. This temperature is met only sometimes during the winter . alike TEG loss. For the pressure of 4700 kPa. and En To Heater-2. The TEG loss is amount to 28 m3/yr. In these conditions the amount of gas undergoing the dehydration process is set to 150 000 Nm3/h per processing line. The energy consumption amounts to 1500 kW . Reboiler En. The initial pressure was set to 4000 kPa. Water content of outlet gas equals 46 mg/Nm3. . Calculation for 10 oC warm gas was made. the dehydration unit was set for the pressure of 4000 kPa. The same values were checked for higher pressures. For the pressure of 5500 kPa. Heat flow equals 260 kW. the amount of water in outlet stream has decreased to the value of 45 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. which is 2 oC.1 g/Nm3. The TEG loss equals 28 m3TEG/yr. For the instance of dehydrating 150 000 Nm3 of gas in each absorber the water content of outlet stream is 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. As one can see in Figure 3. The water content is left at the level of 0. which is the lowest pressure value for compressed gas.

Gas temperature is 10 oC. which still makes up 10 % of whole TEG annual use.1 g/Nm3. The two streams entering TEG contactors are 140 000 Nm3/h each.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 55 Tests were made of adjusting the TEG Regenerator in different manners. An approach was made to calculate the energy consumption and TEG loss differences between using two processing lines. The main TEG loss is encountered in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams leaving Regenerator.2 m3/yr.4 MPa to the pressure of 6. TEG Pump consumes 3. That was probably the reason why the author did not obtain any differences in the outcoming stream. The temperatures of Regen Feed and Regen Feed-2 streams were increased.2 MPa. The change in TEG loss was imperceptible. The process is repeated every time the conditions change. In case of running dehydration with use of two processing lines gas pressure can be lowered.7 mg/Nm3. but no change in the amount of TEG in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams was noticed. The outlet TEG concentration increased insignificantly. This was sufficient for achieving the water content of 49. Hysys application chooses the remaining dimentions and other values necessary depending on the conditions. Pump Q and En To Heater streams. The water content in . and one processing line in order to achieve the same amount of water in outgoing gas. Pump Q is heat flow necessary for compressing lean TEG stream from the pressure of 0. Similarly the results did not bring any change to the amount of TEG carried out with Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. En To Heater stream is the total amount of energy necessary to get the required gas temperature. At first the possibility of dehydration to the water content required by the investor was checked. The energy consumption is now encountered through Reboiler En. The author did not have access to sufficient data pertaining to the regenerator. The Reboiler En was changed in order to achieve different reboiler temperature. In the considered case total energy loss encountered amounts to 132 kW. Total TEG consumption amounts to 1. The water content of inlet gas was set to the value of 0.2 kW. The regenerator’s reboiler requires 127. One processing line was used with the throughput of 280 000 Nm3/h. Reboiler En is the amount of energy necessary necessary for warming up TEG undergoing regeneration.7 kW and the Pre Column Heater uses 0. Therefore with the data the author possessed only changes in TEG loss of approximately 3 m3 per year are possible.616·10-3 m3/h which gives the value of 14.2 kW (as the gas is not preheated). The temperature of the stream leaving the condenser was changed in range from 60 oC to 140 oC. Therefore it might be of purpose to try to change the setup of this unit in order to get smaller TEG waste. Inlet pressure equals 5500 kPa.

Total energy consumption encountered is 254 kW. For the pressure of 5500 kPa. especially for summer conditions. Dehydration of natural gas to the water content of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. which is almost twice higher than in the previous example. For fulfilling the demand for dew point temperature in summer season according to Polish norm which corresponds with the water content in dehydrated natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3.2 m3/yr. For the amount of water in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 for most cases use of single processing line is sufficient. the incoming natural gas can contain up to 440 mg/Nm3. TEG consumption amounts to 3. If the amount of water in natural gas was supposed not to exceed the value of 75 mn/Nm3. 280 000 Nm3/h of natural gas can be dehydrated. therefore the water amount is similar to the case of using single processing line. this would enable to dehydrate natural gas of water content at the inlet to the separator of approximately 170 mg/Nm3. which corresponds with dew point temperature of 5 oC in pressure of 4 MPa (dew point requirement in summer conditions) the dehydration process for most time can be omissed. This allows using single processing line for achieving the water content of natural gas below 50 mg/Nm3 for all cases of water content lower than 100 mg/Nm3. This high values were not encountered in the imported natural gas for over four years now. For the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3. .5 ng/Nm3.215·10-3 m3/h which equals 28. Polish norm characterizes the dew point temperature for summer and winter time.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 56 natural gas achieved equals 49.

Other gas treatment facilities are usually parts of gas storage facilities. The natural gas coming from Ukraine hardly ever meets the dew point temperature demand (Figure 3. for this amount of natural gas.1). The dehydration process chosen is absorption. The two drying equipment sets make renovation. while there is small probability of hydrate precipitation in gas pipelines. The dehydration process in Mackowice is carried with use of TEG based absorption method. Previously the values for summer time were slightly higher. Discussion There is a constant necessity of dehydration the gas stream coming from Ukraine. one processing line may sometimes not be sufficient for dehydration of the imported gas stream to the water content demand of the investor which is 50 mg per normal meter of natural gas. while the water content of natural gas during winter period was lower. This enables the whole amount of imported gas to undergo the dehydration process. This decree changed the values of dew point temperature at the pressure of 4 MPa to 5 oC in the period from 1st of April until 30th of September. which makes up 153 Nm3/s. Therefore any maintenance operations should be carried out during summer season.2). conservation. The total amount of gas imported from Ukraine amounts to 550 000 Nm3/h. Triethylene glycol was chosen for the absorbent by the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. Therefore this decision seems to be correct from the economical point of view. The contemporary dew point temperature demand is determined by the Decree of the Minister of Administration issued on 24th of August 2000.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 57 8. Depending on gas inlet pressure each of them can dry up to 280 000 Nm3/h. and maintenance operations possible without necessity of turning off whole the dehydration facility. . dehydration with use of TEG solution is the most economically justified way (see Chapter 6. and -10oC from 1st of October to 31st of March. Mackowice dehydration facility is the only drying unit connected with Polish gas transportation system. The maximum water content for transport of gas in pipelines is specified by Polish norm. The water content possible to achieve in this case is far below the water content of natural gas requirement and equals approximately 6 mg/Nm3 (see Chapter 7). As shown. The dehydration facility consists of two processing lines. According to experimental data.

The results show insignificant changes in the amount of TEG lost in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. Energy consumption simulation was made.4).4) as fuel for energy source for operating Maćkowice dehydration facility.3. or neighbouring comressors unit.3). Good results in energy saving can be brought by exploiting only one processing line at a time when it is enough to reach the water content of natural gas below the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. The figures show clearly. as recompression of the gas stream and putting it back to system would be costly. According to Hysys application computation the most energy demand occurs in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2. The calculations of amount of water to remove from natural gas to reach required dew point temperature were made. It might be advisable to calculate the costs and profits that could result from using the gas streams outgoing from Gas From TEG Sep. The main difference in the amount of TEG lost comes out of the amount of water in natural gas. Gas From TEG Sep-2. TEG loss simulation was made. The results obtained with use of Hysys application stay with good conformity with experimental data provided by ATG (Figure 5. but is justified from economical point of view. From the values obtained with Hysys application it is noticeable that processing the gas dehydration under lower temperatures brings better effects (see Chapter 7).1) and by GPSA (Figure 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 58 During seasons of natural gas surplus the vent gas is burnt in flare. and the streams outgoing from regenerator containing the stripping gas . According to Hysys computations the biggest TEG waste is encountered in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams outgoing from Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. An survey for ways of lowering the amount of TEG in these streams was done. Therefore the natural gas temperature should be kept low. Besides economical aspect.13). This causes emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. For gas containing the same amount of water saving of . Even in the temperature and pressure range encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility the tendency is clear.Remnants and Remnants-2 (Figure 3. Preheating of the natural gas stream should be carried out only when the gas temperature is lower than 10 oC for the reasons explained in Chapter 2. that the amount of water to be removed decreases considerably with pressure increase (Table 5. and storing it is impossible. this step would make the dehydration facility more independent from external energy source.

1) or lower is necessary. Dehydrating natural gas under high pressures enables drying bigger quantities of natural gas. Until the process of dehydration can be lead with use of one processing line the energy demand equals half the demand calculated (see Chapter 7).1) is sufficient during summer season. Therefore there is no need to dehydrate the natural gas stream to the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3. the demand for dew point temperature can be fulfilled with using only one processing line. Until the water content is low enough. When the pressure equals 5500 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 59 approximately 2 m3TEG per year can be achieved by carrying out the dehydration process under pressures close to the value of 5500 kPa. Keeping the dew point temperature minimally below the dew point demand will in multiple cases bring savings in energy and TEG loss. In the winter period the dew point temperature of -10 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which equals the water content in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. According to the Polish Norm the dew point temperature of 5 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which amounts to the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. Lowering the water content in natural gas to the level of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. The TEG absorbent waste can also be noticeably lowered this way. . 280 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated. In order to increase the gas pressure neighboring compressor unit is used. This brings rational savings in TEG loss and energy consumption.

Table 5. In winter season increase in gas temperature caused by the compression may be advisable. Moreover.1. that in case of saturated gas flow.3.3). The results obtained by the author with Hysys application were coherent with published results (Figure 5.13. In this case less water would have to be removed from gas in the dehydration process to achieve a desired dew point under given gas temperature. Only one processing line should be used at a time until it is able to dehydrate the outlet stream below the required dew point temperature. This approach brings savings in amount of TEG lost and energy consumption. It also extends the period between maintenance operations and decreases the threat of malfunctions. unless its temperature is lower than 10 oC. The author suggests using the compressor unit neighbouring with Maćkowice dehydration facility for natural gas compression before undergoing the dewatering process.19. this approach prevents the necessity of compressing the gas after undergoing the dehydration process. which makes up around 10 % of annual TEG loss. Figure 5. The most energy consumption is encountered during heating of gas stream flowing in the absorber column. From the study made the author concludes that working in high pressure range brings savings in energy consumption and reduces TEG consumption by approximately 2-3 m3 per year. Table 5. By comparison of these results with water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in range between -31 oC and -18 oC (Table 5. Table 5. Table 5.17. Table 5. The results show clearly that the amount of water in natural gas increases rapidly with temperature rise. which leads to the conclusion that results obtained with use of Hysys are reliable. The incoming gas stream should not be warmed up. Conclusions Calculations of water content in natural gas under different temperatures and pressures were made. and decreases with pressure increase (Table 5.21). The author concludes. some part of water can be removed from natural gas as liquid before the actual dehydration process. by increasing work pressure. The work temperature should be kept low. as due to the higher viscosity of .15.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 60 9. as gas compression is necessary anyway.09) the amount of water to remove during dehydration process were determined (Table 5.12).

gas pressure and dew point temperature demand should be carried out and checked with the data achieved during the exploitation of Maćkowice dehydration facility. water content in gas. Poland. More in-depth study over an algorithm of choosing whether to run one or two processing lines depending on the gas temperature. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 61 the glycol. Unfortunately the author did not have enough data to carry out this investigation. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit of the dehydration temperature range.

. Natural Gas Hydrates. Editions Technip. Aspen Technology. Burlington. Wayne D.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 62 References Annual Reporting and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions.. A Guide for Engineers. Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities. Thomas. Partner Update. Parametric Analysis of Natural Gas Dahydration by a Triethylene Glycol Solution. Stewart. Book Division. 1988 ATG.S. A. Hydrate control in multiphase flow. 1995 Campbell... E. 2004. p. J. 1990 ATG. 1989 Behar. K. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France. L’Aide-memoire de l’Industrie du Gas. Spring 2005. Twu. Tex.elsevier. 2002 Arnold.M.. Outlook to 2000. Vince Tassone. P. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France – Commision de Production et de Traitement. Inc. 2003 www. M. Advanced equation of state method for modeling TEG–water for glycol gas dehydration. . Surface Production Operations. 1989 ATG. Gulf Publishing Co.. Delion. John M. Natural Gas in the World Gas. Le Traitment du Gaz Naturel sur Gisement. Paris. Gas Conditioning and Processing. ch. 1984 Carroll. Houston.. Sim and Suphat Watanasiri.com Chorng H. J. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Gandhidasan.. Paris. Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Elsevier Science.. MA. 7-9.. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France.141-234. Campbell Petroleum Series. Paris. 4th edition. FRA. M. Campbell and Company.

com. ch. 4. R..S.. T. Norman. Gas dehydration using glycol..P. and Wood.2 Documentation.. Hydrocarbon Processing. 2003 Ikoku. Thompson.S. Gulf Publishing Co. p.N. 1993 . Gas Purification. S. Agostini. – 16th Annual Offshore Technological Conference.. Proc. p.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 63 Daubert. Penn Well Book.. Campbell. N. Penn Well Publishing Co.5 Fournie. 1987 Maddox. Tex. P. H. Penn Well Book. F. A. Okla. L.. April. 1980 Kohl. April. Book Division. 4-6. Book Division. New Your. Tulsa. Okla.. 1982 Manning. A. 1985 Kumar.. Hydrocarbon Processing.. W.Y. 89-274. New gas-water-TEG equilibria. R. Gas Conditioning and Processing – Gas and Liquid Sweetening. Permeation: a new competitive process in offshore gas dehydration. E. 55-58. Oilfield Processing of Petroleum. C. 2004. Riesenfeld.. Guidelines for glycol dehydrator design – Part 1. F. www. Senules. F. Houston. Houston.. 1991 Hysys 3.1985. Gulf Publishing Co. Aspen Technology Inc. Separation and Processing In Natural Gas Engineering – A Systems Approach.C.M..U.E. Penn Well Publishing CO. Data Compilation Tables of Properties of Pure Compounds.. Campbell Petroleum Series.. J. R.E. R. Tulsa. Danner. Design Institute for Physical Property Data – Americal Institute of Chemical Engineers (DIPPER-AIChE). J.L. Houston. 4th ed.P.aspentech.. Gas Production Engineering. 1991 Manning... Aspen Tech Driving Process Profitability. Hicks.. 1984 General Information About Hysys. 3-rd ed. No. Volume One: Natural Gas..

Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnów). LA. Laurence Reid Gas Conditioning Conference. Editions Technip.dekker.. Processing Gas Cond. materials from conference accompanying the opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. A. Michel Valais. copyright 1998 by Marcel Dekker. Transport. R.E. 1973 Sivalls. Production. New York. Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe. August 1977 Rojey.. Paris.. 1976 Sloan. S. L. Moore. Echterhoff. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gas. Process optimization review. D. C. M. A. Estimation of the Water Content of Sour Natural Gases. 21st January 2005 Robinson... 2004 Pontiff. Okla. R. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. conference accompanying opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility.. March. Water Equilibrium in the ehydration of Natural Gas With Triethylene Glycol. Jr.C. Cooperation of Mackowice Dehydration Facility with national gas transport system. Bernard Durand. Glycol Dehydration Design Manual. 1994 . Petrofina Canada Ltd. J. W. Nafta-Gas. NY www.. . and Leppin. 1997..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 64 Nafta-Gaz.A. 21st January 2005 Tannehill. New Orleans... Marcel Dekker.. Conference.N. Heideman. Inc. E. Claude Jaffret ... Traitement..G.. Wichert.. Inc. The Cost of Conditioning Your Natural Gas for Market. Translation (updated and expanded) of Le gaz naturel. 1994 Rosman. Institut Francais du Petrole Publications.. 2005. Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operating Manual. University of Oklahoma. University of Calgary. E. SPE Journal. C. Sophie Jullian.com Stosur.. 73rd Annual GPA Convention.R. Newfield Exploration Co.

Norman. 2001 65 . February.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Trent.. OK. R. Dehydration with Molecular Sieves.E. Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.

00989 0.89 176.00 -10.228 Melting point [oC] -13.122 150.007 Density at 25 oC [kg/m3] 1110 1115 1122 1122 0.03021 0.11 123.00 Boiling point at 101325 Pa [oC] 197.00 277.01063 2395 2307 2190 2165 111.85 Vapor pressure at 25 oC [Pa] 12.05 0.175 194.01771 0.00522 0.85 307. 1985) Ethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene glycol glycol glycol glycol EG DEG TEG T4EG (TrEG) Overall chemical formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C8H18O5 Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 62. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner.11 Abbreviation Absolute viscosity at 25 oC [Pa·s] Absolute viscosity at 60 oC [Pa·s] Specific heat at 25 oC [J/kg·K] Flash point [oC] .04271 0.35 -5.30 245.068 106.03673 0.45 -7.27 0.00787 0.24 0.66 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Tables Table 2.67 196.

67

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004)
P [bar]

10 C

15 C

20 C

25 C

[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0

0,018

-27

0,025

-22,9

0,036

-18,8

27,6

0,017

-27,2

0,025

-23,1

0,035

-19

28,1

0,018

-26,9

0,026

-23,2

0,035

-18,8

28,7

0,018

-27,1

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

29,2

0,017

-27,5

0,024

-23,3

0,034

-19,3

29,8

0,017

-27,3

0,024

-23,2

0,034

-19,5

30,4

0,016

-27,9

0,023

-23,7

0,033

-19,6

30,9

0,016

-28,2

0,023

-23,9

0,032

-20

31,5

0,016

-28,1

0,023

-24,2

0,032

-20,3

32,0

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,4

0,031

-20,4

32,6

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,5

0,031

-20,6

33,2

0,015

-28,7

0,022

-24,6

0,03

-20,7

33,7

0,015

-28,9

0,021

-24,9

0,03

-20,7

34,3

0,015

-29,1

0,021

-25,1

0,03

-21,1

34,8

0,014

-29,2

0,021

-25,3

0,029

-21,3

35,4

0,015

-29,1

0,02

-25,3

0,028

-21,5

36,0

0,014

-29,3

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,6

36,5

0,014

-29,9

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,9

37,1

0,014

-29,7

0,019

-26

0,027

-22

0,039

-18,2

37,6

0,013

-30,4

0,019

-26,1

0,027

-22,2

0,037

-18,3

38,2

0,013

-30,5

0,019

-26

0,026

-22,4

0,037

-18,5

38,8

0,013

-30,6

0,019

-26,2

0,026

-22,5

0,036

-18,5

39,3

0,013

-30,8

0,018

-26,6

0,026

-22,6

0,035

-18,7

39,9

0,012

-30,9

0,018

-26,7

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

68

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac NG
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3] =
Name
Temperature C
Pressure Kpa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG
-40
100
1
0
0,995188
0,853712
16,46942

Water In
-40,00
100
0
1
8,81E-04
1054,49
18,0151

NG
Water In
0
-40,59685
250
250
1
0
0
1
0,992517 2,21E-03
1,826639 1054,953
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,6056
500
500
1
0
0
1
0,985064 4,42E-03
3,680918 1055,034
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,61348
750
750
1
0
0
1
0,977643 6,62E-03
5,563285 1055,113
16,46942 18,0151

SatGas
-40
100
0,999822
1,78E-04
0,995188
0,853289
16,46115
0,135562
SatGas
-40
250
0,999928
7,20E-05
0,987959
2,147638
16,45213
0,054844
SatGas
-40
500
0,999963
3,67E-05
0,975872
4,345989
16,44272
0,02794
SatGas
-40
750
0,999975
2,49E-05
0,963736
6,598667
16,43672
0,018981

SatGas
-20
100
0,998802
1,20E-03
0,996218
0,785442
16,46774
0,913126
SatGas
-20
250
0,999515
4,85E-04
0,990553
1,973988
16,46217
0,369326
SatGas
-20
500
0,999754
2,46E-04
0,981116
3,984439
16,45592
0,187523
SatGas
-20
750
0,999833
1,67E-04
0,971687
6,032949
16,45126
0,12696

SatGas
0
100
0,994062
5,94E-03
0,996996
0,727702
16,47688
4,524305
SatGas
0
250
0,997606
2,39E-03
0,99251
1,826606
16,46902
1,823647
SatGas
0
500
0,998788
1,21E-03
0,985059
3,679663
16,46374
0,923569
SatGas
0
750
0,999181
8,19E-04
0,977642
5,560168
16,46018
0,623664

SatGas
20
100
0,977004
2,30E-02
0,997576
0,678777
16,504
17,52095
SatGas
20
250
0,990742
9,26E-03
0,994001
1,700705
16,48134
7,053893
SatGas
20
500
0,995321
4,68E-03
0,988072
3,419901
16,4721
3,565226
SatGas
20
750
0,996847
3,15E-03
0,982186
5,159245
16,46779
2,402648

SatGas
40
100
0,926761
7,32E-02
0,997954
0,638188
16,58206
55,8042
SatGas
40
250
0,970541
2,95E-02
0,995118
1,593395
16,51343
22,44607
SatGas
40
500
0,985134
1,49E-02
0,990382
3,197366
16,48937
11,327
SatGas
40
750
0,989998
1,00E-02
0,985684
4,816303
16,48047
7,621263

SatGas
60
100
0,800924
0,199076
0,997932
0,606935
16,77682
151,6903
SatGas
60
250
0,919972
8,00E-02
0,995834
1,503793
16,59211
60,97907
SatGas
60
500
0,959664
4,03E-02
0,992091
3,007565
16,52963
30,73496
SatGas
60
750
0,972894
2,71E-02
0,988345
4,522551
16,50811
20,65389

SatGas
80
100
0,525055
0,474945
0,996642
0,587882
17,20343
361,9035
SatGas
80
250
0,80903
0,19097
0,995826
1,433335
16,76397
145,5172
SatGas
80
500
0,903817
9,62E-02
0,993106
2,849244
16,61655
73,29028
SatGas
80
750
0,935425
6,46E-02
0,990195
4,273601
16,56683
49,20551

SatGas
100
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,991957
0,583746
17,965
737,3064
SatGas
100
250
0,590953
0,409047
0,993959
1,386413
17,10139
311,697
SatGas
100
500
0,793934
0,206066
0,99289
2,724768
16,78691
157,0241
SatGas
100
750
0,861717
0,138283
0,990927
4,069508
16,68139
105,3731

SatGas
120
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993004
0,553466
17,965
737,3215
SatGas
120
250
0,20153
0,79847
0,98718
1,371575
17,70357
608,453
SatGas
120
500
0,596676
0,403324
0,9899
2,641157
17,09231
307,3425
SatGas
120
750
0,729221
0,270779
0,989531
3,915565
16,88681
206,3396

SatGas
140
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993883
0,526208
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
250
0,032416
0,967584
0,984592
1,327933
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
500
0,270738
0,729262
0,980576
2,612049
17,59653
555,7249
SatGas
140
750
0,509163
0,490837
0,983602
3,82412
17,22757
374,036

69

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5.2b Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 2 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG

Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,62119
-40
-20
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1
0 0,999981 0,999873 0,999378
0
1 1,90E-05 1,27E-04 6,22E-04
0,970258 8,83E-03 0,951549 0,962267 0,97026
7,474177 1055,192 8,908599 8,120855 7,468663
16,46942
18,0151 16,43247 16,44758 16,45732
0,014508 0,096707 0,473805
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,63688
-40
-20
0
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1
0 0,999987 0,999913 0,999575
0
1 1,32E-05 8,73E-05 4,25E-04
0,955599 1,32E-02 0,927023 0,943466 0,955612
11,38324 1055,351 13,7116 12,41986 11,37161
16,46942
18,0151 16,42667 16,44207 16,45281
0,010051 0,066516 0,324139
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,65348
-40
-20
0
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
1
0 0,99999 0,999932 0,999673
0
1 1,03E-05 6,76E-05 3,27E-04
0,941109 1,77E-02 0,902296 0,924731 0,941132
15,41135 1055,511 18,77865 16,89122 15,39215
16,46942
18,0151 16,42274 16,43809 16,44932
0,007838 0,051486 0,249505
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,69075
-40
-20
0
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
1
0 0,999993 0,999952 0,99977
0
1 7,43E-06 4,80E-05 2,30E-04
0,912718 2,65E-02 0,852287 0,887568 0,912768
23,83609 1055,832 29,81105 26,38896 23,79828
16,46942
18,0151 16,41739 16,43263 16,44419
0,005662 0,036597 0,175293

SatGas

SatGas

SatGas

20
40
60
1000
1000
1000
0,997609 0,992429 0,979508
2,39E-03 7,57E-03 2,05E-02
0,976344 0,981032 0,984633
6,918913 6,450217 6,048684
16,46484 16,47543 16,49689
1,821597 5,768893 15,61413
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
1500
1500
1500
0,998371 0,994859 0,98612
1,63E-03 5,14E-03 1,39E-02
0,964803 0,971871 0,977337
10,4998 9,762924 9,134077
16,46059 16,46936 16,48483
1,241031 3,917547 10,57614
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
2000
2000
2000
0,998752 0,996072 0,989423
1,25E-03 3,93E-03 1,06E-02
0,953463 0,962913 0,970226
14,16351 13,13523
12,263
16,45741 16,46545 16,47806
0,951245 2,992914 8,059008
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
3000
3000
3000
0,999131 0,997283 0,992722
8,69E-04 2,72E-03 7,28E-03
0,931448 0,945642 0,956597
21,74116 20,05625 18,64756
16,45267 16,46018 16,4701
0,662485 2,070397 5,545669

SatGas

SatGas
80
100
1000
1000
0,95123 0,895629
4,88E-02 0,104371
0,987268 0,988768
5,706312 5,420531
16,54156 16,62825
37,16258 79,53179
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
1500
1500
0,967032 0,929551
3,30E-02 7,04E-02
0,981485 0,984334
8,596383 8,140997
16,51558 16,57444
25,12137 53,68303
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
2000
2000
0,97493 0,946511
2,51E-02 5,35E-02
0,975846 0,979939
11,51855 10,88526
16,50195 16,54694
19,10334 40,75873
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
3000
3000
0,98282 0,963464
1,72E-02 3,65E-02
0,96508 0,97151
17,45501 16,44117
16,48725 16,51844
13,09114 27,84049

SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1000
1000
0,795648 0,629204
0,204352 0,370796
0,988409 0,984385
5,194701 5,039737
16,78348 17,04149
155,7211 282,5601
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1500
1500
0,862171 0,749796
0,137829 0,250204
0,985479 0,983751
7,766747 7,481237
16,6794 16,85395
105,0286 190,6648
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
2000
2000
0,895465 0,810293
0,104535 0,189707
0,982294 0,982086
10,35645 9,93579
16,62675 16,75932
79,65841 144,5639
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
3000
3000
0,928768 0,870911
7,12E-02 0,129089
0,975949 0,977969
15,58522 14,88087
16,5731 16,66352
54,28041 98,37066

62E-04 7.53E-02 0.3351 19.0151 16.922745 0.10392 -40 -20 0 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 1 0 0.54545 16.99927 2.945766 0.6143 86.788426 0.999994 0.76E-03 0.32E-02 0.42899 16.40396 16.95648 29.09E-02 2.46942 18.015889 0.019317 0.969976 0.999996 0.19E-03 0.44798 0.41E-02 0.54E-04 0.24829 SatGas SatGas 120 140 5000 5000 0.46942 18.46161 3.43267 0.46845 16.44057 0.87495 .623604 0.999975 0.49E-02 2.919462 4.59576 75.851043 0.88647 16.989113 0.619164 11.003357 0.44918 16.43786 0.70E-04 1.295609 17.299 1061.22E-03 0.06E-06 3.999846 0 1 5.996808 3.833824 171.874918 64.10E-05 0.1548 196.37E-03 1.66101 27.945414 0.57958 73.933332 SatGas SatGas 20 40 20000 20000 0.70598 16.9319 31.8481 42.3026 57.971931 1.926502 124.81E-02 0.43259 16.556253 SatGas 60 4000 0.65E-03 0.901925 52.37301 SatGas SatGas 120 140 8000 8000 0.544099 SatGas 60 8000 0.58489 33.999818 0 1 6.12253 16.4118 16.003252 0.997885 6.4436 1.0151 16.21273 24.999995 0.2411 114.004616 0.94675 2.996052 0.871305 136.292802 SatGas 60 5000 0.81E-04 2.87E-02 0.42444 0.76622 1056.54E-05 1.61243 40.1565 230.87337 19.5712 16.885287 3.6512 27.27E-06 2.048 271.52469 SatGas SatGas 80 100 8000 8000 0.431904 SatGas 60 20000 0.76382 16.5037 16.938915 48.2535 16.885364 32.999919 0 1 4.973769 20.992626 0.955393 0.50335 10.43851 0.30E-04 0.951349 0.24562 36.029307 0.199802 0.961818 106.8684 16.82E-04 0.337547 SatGas SatGas 20 40 8000 8000 0.929306 29.7218 16.901826 0.42122 16.70 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.0151 16.611285 SatGas SatGas 20 40 5000 5000 0.064803 SatGas SatGas 120 140 4000 4000 0.46942 18.970326 0.75104 0.45682 3.46516 4.0245 151.45369 0.89146 16.46E-02 8.85E-05 1.176007 0.969835 26.29E-06 3.05E-02 0.2668 16.061717 SatGas SatGas 20 40 4000 4000 0.79E-03 0.985125 0.790396 7.999887 0 1 4.995349 4.46367 16.53849 22.7209 0.994366 5.086119 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -41.78728 -40 -20 0 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 0 0.47901 16.54E-02 0.910429 0.986757 0.859158 42.47777 5.309711 0.36004 47.48651 11.999738 0.2c Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 3 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.47349 16.50101 16.14E-01 37.44921 16.88522 34.09E-05 8.4395 16.46E-02 9.95E-03 7.68723 32.2057 16.4498 40.19285 16.025071 0.45474 2.38908 SatGas SatGas 80 100 5000 5000 0.790572 73.984579 7.999962 0.07962 16.61E-02 0.99943 0.97E-02 5.488 56.901254 5.999594 0.999319 0.955041 0.49374 8.57841 SatGas SatGas 120 140 20000 20000 0.998209 1.946273 0.46942 18.29E-05 1.50623 22.5283 16.61474 41.41E-06 2.992041 3.890549 9.6919 16.32E-02 2.63E-03 0.96E-03 0.008631 6.998775 4.80019 16.13E-04 0.4832 99.42634 16.20853 1056.44117 16.677581 0.44653 16.815533 0.999967 0.41068 16.839223 0.75109 SatGas SatGas 80 100 20000 20000 0.30E-02 0.963674 23.999996 0.0151 16.960475 42.99159 61.06E-02 0.09099 21.735116 0.977002 1.612019 0.06E-04 1.519165 1.735258 197.38932 16.801717 0.61259 45.964497 0.511 110.943805 25.364449 SatGas SatGas 80 100 4000 4000 0.859054 4.434047 1.99151 -40 -20 0 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 1 0 0.10192 16.117018 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.4565 0.998245 5.157 42.138633 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.41364 16.999979 0.21987 16.973919 1.73488 -40 -20 0 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 1 0 0.79094 16.39992 1057.00403 0.11E-03 0.

995497 2.83E-06 1.986465 8.46942 18.120244 1.985083 8.43795 16.6145 16.948025 0.73E-05 6.40719 16.3983 16.015052 0.88E-03 1.2d Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 4 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.43994 1.99998 0.5396 16.42638 16.998674 1.13E-03 1.2995 181.198501 251.01E-04 5.400888 SatGas SatGas 20 40 60000 60000 0.048174 SatGas SatGas 20 40 30000 30000 0.40366 16.836689 260.999799 0.836617 0.161 376.0746 204.5998 213.999505 1.45887 16.002819 0.20E-03 6.67E-04 0.6839 16.220082 1.5814 239.38031 16.998511 1.9262 16.36E-03 4.26E-04 1.153622 SatGas SatGas 80 100 50000 50000 0.43412 0.014345 0.795334 3.177091 0.4535 16.153415 0.994549 2.999408 153.43581 16.1631 16.0151 16.9708 289.45003 2.3745 16.349965 0.4489 16.44059 16.254669 1.46424 7.2582 237.3253 372.999996 0.035 1069.939258 3.2511 16.999768 0.233811 352.5132 16.046991 1.31423 .437416 4.491 353.22E-03 1.050478 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.806 16.6698 325.999433 2.927037 SatGas 60 60000 0.42806 0.3435 312.37712 16.32E-04 6.056396 192.6765 16.864803 SatGas SatGas 80 100 30000 30000 0.25E-04 0.42991 0.664 16.956455 0.9393 16.992353 275.010212 SatGas 60 50000 0.46942 18.99E-05 0.7149 1066.122926 10.0151 16.24902 SatGas SatGas 120 140 40000 40000 0.999996 0.782 321.285294 1.0735 16.49E-02 1.36711 SatGas SatGas 120 140 60000 60000 0.89911 -40 -20 0 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 1 0 0.91E-04 4.04E-03 1.136093 4.999996 0.44248 1.32E-05 1.43938 1.45305 16.0151 16.80E-03 1.991199 0.63E-05 1.043 1063.69E-02 1.09869 330.2381 16.988416 0.786 394.787539 0.15E-04 5.105999 1.431976 SatGas SatGas 20 40 50000 50000 0.00303 0.46942 18.924049 192.99993 0 1 3.4849 16.45438 6.1048 16.26321 0.997455 0.998865 1.053222 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.97742 0.999785 0.43644 1.999982 0.50E-03 1.991965 0.0578 286.43479 0.93605 -40 -20 0 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 1 0 0.808816 0.7066 11.5492 352.2235 211.997197 0.80E-03 5.2648 143.206158 295.99012 0.999375 2.49E-03 0.997644 0.3943 16.45861 6.03557 219.121822 1.13E-06 1.233769 0.896785 233.46942 18.45E-03 1.109651 1.431505 SatGas SatGas 120 140 30000 30000 0.998783 1.002921 0.42906 16.098653 0.436294 1.90E-03 1.95E-04 1.86498 SatGas SatGas 120 140 50000 50000 0.40077 16.43209 0.201229 279.87408 -40 -20 0 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 1 0 0.6695 1071.955701 0.376912 SatGas 60 30000 0.013729 0.42416 16.42069 0.056669 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.44E-05 0.98E-05 7.8061 254.4457 16.42226 16.44403 16.968509 177.529158 12.115204 252.99369 3.827251 15.0151 16.104182 268.5774 351.80E-05 6.41319 0.999809 0.54E-03 4.808525 SatGas SatGas 80 100 40000 40000 0.983118 9.7577 16.9354 299.099654 307.47242 8.2691 328.022349 1.33E-03 1.999996 0.70E-06 1.007714 235.98E-06 1.964618 0.145359 0.996801 0.867052 0.199886 1.99604 -40 -20 0 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 1 0 0.4153 0.476543 SatGas SatGas 20 40 40000 40000 0.9466 16.733471 SatGas SatGas 80 100 60000 60000 0.211407 331.163468 0.2246 164.1653 264.097277 1.00E-02 0.999926 0 1 4.985585 0.31E-03 0.88E-05 6.003146 0.999983 0.999934 0 1 3.999981 0.134202 SatGas 60 40000 0.44569 2.964662 300.16E-02 2.013185 0.38437 16.35E-02 1.71 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.203081 1.999937 0 1 3.9951 2.522215 1.41775 0.979989 1.4322 0.7493 16.124344 224.1354 259.999474 2.

029475 0.002819 -20 0.010051 0.923847 0.053222 0.529158 6.018981 0.9035 145.38281 64.015305 0.90911 39.364449 1.927037 0.519165 0.184155 1.556253 0.453 307.57841 19.52469 11.473805 0.2593 394.52095 7.145359 40 55.80799 20.324139 0.050478 0.38908 17.153415 0.5601 190.003431 0.586816 0.96698 16.389619 0.524305 1.42369 21.013185 0 4.01391 0 4.376912 60 151.48759 12.75873 27.8845 324.008631 2.821597 1.053251 0.808525 4.431904 1.12696 0.951245 0.699817 1.00403 0.81044 10.059008 5.3351 8.78872 16.544099 2.263214 0.15298 13.172449 0.565526 1.187523 0.038607 0.08687 13.619164 3.048174 20 17.72 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.398034 5.39675 6.003357 0.534662 1.163468 0.68303 40.751411 5.3425 206.004251 0.977973 0.29028 49. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.85487 11.457895 0.938607 3.65389 15.44607 11.44147 3.502727 0.31423 80 381.59576 33.02794 0.913126 0.059783 0.123447 0.97907 30.422915 0.75109 6.37066 75.075094 6.528671 3.3396 155.005662 0.545669 4.015133 0.88095 Table 5.21078 0.053893 3.8337 641.085865 4.136093 1.050821 20 18.20551 37.005973 0.3064 311.921685 1.064803 4.32957 32.57134 2.437416 2.030917 0.439419 1.003146 0.138633 0.99822 29.175293 0.2294 217.249505 0.040013 6.7066 6.003197 0.864803 80 361.86498 11.008269 0.199802 0.772893 1.090851 0.122926 737.942848 7.134202 1.326728 0.963297 0.061717 0.003542 0.0854 201.620049 120 777.99168 10.5127 77.056146 0.7994 84.20448 26.020379 0.14625 0.014483 0.161845 0.197827 0.99159 22.025 64.917547 2.015052 0.292802 3.30922 1.7883 153.3731 79.241031 0.381843 3.36711 10.004616 0.92791 3.007838 0.621263 5.00303 0.768893 3.15725 8.24902 12.029307 0.5639 98.066516 0.19652 1.014508 0.3351 555.015879 0.2772 110.7756 79.431505 120 140 608.1409 152.16258 25.6518 111.54769 0.499838 0.051486 0.431976 0.019317 0.17394 2.003511 0.56431 18.476543 0.117018 0.045811 1.03524 57.850376 4.992914 2.24829 61.402648 1.48364 7.15736 2.565226 2.327 7.31722 51.065718 0.0241 105.61243 11.369326 0.133935 0.67937 11.662485 0.84049 21.054844 0.455711 0.016762 0.893979 100 777.135562 0.6769 164.5172 73.94936 8.63265 42.57614 8.025071 0.37301 40.6648 144.74515 42.848 777.411039 0.397621 60 160.974314 0.50166 20.923569 0.054315 0.400888 0.65841 54.795334 100 737.10334 13.003319 0.065108 0.53179 53.61413 10.95791 9.7249 374.12137 19.014345 0.697 157.501811 5.013729 0.07273 4.036597 0.933332 0.015889 0.09099 8.912319 .6903 60.507 103.47204 11.186821 0.8232 165.036 282.823647 0.85926 23.002921 0.7211 105.102021 0.8178 328.00487 0.26286 43.28041 41.37018 22. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.984614 0.010212 0.070397 1.939258 1.5874 298.309711 0.733471 3.611285 1.73496 20.90167 56.434047 0.096707 0.002974 -20 0.698885 0.086119 0.026449 0.14301 0.153346 40 58.848 586.87037 23.25346 2.153622 3.010603 0.73883 2.45935 140 777.657931 0.003252 0.184924 0.337547 0.09114 10.57185 11.87495 15.623664 0.312264 7.177091 0.070171 0.056669 0.0286 79.761118 2.057858 0.341949 0.295609 5.132796 3.88124 35.8042 22.020024 0.003081 0.827251 7.1628 83.64545 8.

1E-05 -0.07368 26.46727 4370. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa c_flow= c_Clapeyron= Difference Percent Difference SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 0.00085 -0.376896 0.00017 -0.861 4383.007 0.004 -0.145357 0.864741 1.31423 3.293 4378.016 73 .43E-07 1.376896 0.339 4380.145359 0.864803 1.45153E-07 9.431096 6.012 0.253 4400.376912 0.048174 0.013186 0.00041 -0.048176 0.013186 0.76E-02 0.31261 Table 5.014 -0.007 -0.002819812 0.903 0.122071 10.012 -0.31261 0.876656 15.795161 3.122071 10.048176 0.431505 6.636424 1.23E-02 4362.00282 SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 5.49 4408.145357 0.795334 3.431096 6.715 4393.002819467 0.010 -0.210783 0.790811 7.122926 10.013185 0.94011 45.003 -0.565 0.6E-05 -6.001 -0.651129 3.00163 0.501 4375.4E-06 -1.751 4387.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.795161 3.864741 1.36E-06 -1. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa CompMassFlowH2O kg/h Std Gas Flow STD_m3/h c= SatGas -40 60000 1.

5385 -23.207 -17.5 0 -21.1 -25 -25.667 -21.1 -33.4 -29.7 -25.1 5.3 -26.8 -28.98507 -30.7 48.571 -21.4 -32.7048 -27 23.5 15.7 6.9 -25.8 -32.9 -21.5 -18.1 -25.3 34.739 -27.96078 -29.7 2.25 -28.0 10 C % Tr[C] 20.45455 -22.2 -26.6 14.8 53.1 37.789 -18.7391 -18.2 33.9 3.7 -24.5 -18.5385 -24.6 -8.0 32.2 -33.6 -33.2 38.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -32.9 6.5 0 -22.37 -18.5 -33.25 -28.7 11.828 -26.821 -15.6 -29.8 30.154 -20.2 15.0 50.5 -21.968 -21.6 33.0476 -27.5 19.3548 -22.3 0 -29.4 -33.2041 -24.517 -16.8296 -25.9 3.7907 -27.8 35.7 -32.875 -23.951 -23.3 3.4 11.3 53.33333 -21.87 -24.828 -15.857 -18.2 14.1 9.875 -22.69 -21.183 -25 -25.9 -33 -33.2 29.093 -25 -28.129 -23.7322 -27.9 31.2222 -19 22.4493 -18.1 -22.44828 -21.9 -22.66667 -29.1 6.5587 0 -1.1194 -20.51515 -30.7 29.3 9.759 -28.2692 -27.5 6.4 1.1 28.7895 -27.644 -20 -20.8 22.429 -21.1 5.385 -20 -20.6 28.2 -22.3 -33.8 20.8 25 C % -2.1 51.667 -17 -14.9 54.667 -16.5 37.8 -21 -21.7 20 C % Tr[C] 21.8 20 -23.67742 -29.6316 1.442 -20.3 20 -23.9 47.2 -21.7 -18.1 -24.3 -18.951 -22.3333 -30.667 -26.8 -25.8 15 C % Tr[C] 21.5 5.8 0 -26 0 -26.5 -29.7 -33.2 -21.6 -21.7 -29.9 -29 -29.4545 -18.0 27.4 Tr[C] .7 11.6 -32.7647 -20.5 51.2 12.3 39.09091 -25.2 3.9 -20.4 -21.1 3.786 -19.5 -28.34783 -24.075 -33.88235 -28.841 -32.74 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.6 8.3 48.846 -21.2 19.3 -29.333 -25 -12. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package P [bar] 27.4 50.9284 -0.2 5.6 38.9302 -19.8 20.1671 -19.2 52.4 55.4 -22.8 -29.8 0 -30.06952 -1.4 10.8 49.9 13.8 0 -25.9 0 -29.4 30.2 1.9785 -28.205 -29.2 -18.88235 -28.8 -24.1 -33.3 16.6 0 -21.6 52.9 11.2222 -18.1 0 -26 0 -26.7 -28.2 47.333 -33.2857 -20.0 36.667 -16.7895 -20 15.1 18.1 -29.3 15.22581 -26.5 0 -30.3 0 -25.57143 -22 3.6 15.8148 -23.69565 -24.7 34.1 16.66667 -25.5 -24.667 -16.273 -30.1297 -26.4 0 -22.2 -29.9 -26 -26.3 15 -19.6 0 -22.6 0 -26.9 -30 -30.4286 -20.5 32.967 -16.387 -22.3846 -24.1 -26.4 36.8 -21.8 39.8 -15.57143 -22.5 4.9 21.2 18.9 16.7 6.22581 -29.25 -21.63 -20 -20.

9 -51.8194 11.392 -32.9 54.7 -24.3354 -28.4 Tr[C] .8 -39.9 -28.774 -27.306 -40.6 38.1 0.6 33.2 -21.3 -29.088 -29.446 -20.36706 17.3 -5.8 -28.2 -20.4 -27.1 28.68842 -30.4 -33.9 -33 -33.5 -28.05 -20.9 -25.2 -26.1 -22.172 -22.0 27.742 -25.0 32.1 -9.3 -35.8853 -2.6 -24.074 -18.602 -22.7 -33.462 -23.161 -12.446 -24.6 -33.9 31.1 -33.86292 9.471 -20.9 -20.2 -24.804 -17.5 51.5 -21.7816 12.948 -21.1 -25 -25.9 -22.0216 -28.052 -25.1 -33.3561 9.4754 -28.6518 -27.9 -18.2221 -0.2 -22.1 51.8 -25.6 -17.4553 -27.8619 -27.576 3.7 -28.14217 5.5 -33.252 -20.9 -13. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P.031 -24.32618 -0.854 -19.4 -20.3 -14.67 -23.2 29.1476 -30.8 30.2091 0.2 52.5 -24.446 -18.29321 -20.116 -14.3278 -1.3 39.617 -19 -40.1 -12.3018 12.7 20 C % Tr[C] -44.4 50.945 -23.1 -26.4 30.871 -26 -14.985 -35.722 -33.4457 -3.2 -12.8 -24.0 7.3 -41.3 48.9 -23.4 36.4928 -30.121 -21.208 -21.342 -26.62585 13.2 33.1 -9.242 -28.1 0.213 -26.3 -22.116 -26.5 -18.9 10 C % Tr[C] -12.7 -21.471 -22.628 -29.7 -25.5 -32.4 -32.375 -34.32618 -29.742 -18.5 -21.1 -25.4 -29.0093 -3.8 -21 -21.5 -8.492 -14.2 -29.2 -18.75 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.96 -27 -7.026 -44.5 -3.8 -17.7 -36.515 -18.7 -32.7333 13.6 -36.628 -6.492 -26.8465 10.9 -21.335 -25.3018 11.663 -32.0216 -28.1 -29.7 29.8 -28.6 -11.628 -29.7 48.744 -15.786 -24.092 -16.871 -26 -13.6 52.5 32.7 -33.9816 -3.831 -21.6 28.2 -33.993 -19.3 34.71 -24.1 -24.1 -32.4 55.072 -18.831 -28.9038 -4.582 -27.3 -29.7735 -1.072 -18.774 -22.9 -1.722 -39.272 -23.6 -32.8 39.117 -26.72712 -30.6 -33.8 -40.3343 10.781 -20 -39.1 37.392 -33.2 -6.6 -32.509 -26.436 -23.3 -33.8853 -29.765 -23.94 -20.105 -32.8 -21.0093 -29.6038 -30.072 -18.9 -5.4 1.252 -20.397 -19.8 47.2 -19.7 -4.2 47.16637 6.6 -29.2 -10.515 -25.602 -22.4 -22.8 -22.368 -24.5 0.1 -20.8 25 C % 27.5 -37.368 -21.501 -30.4 -36.0 36.5 -18.5 -29.663 -21.7 -29.8 -41.4754 -5.9 -26.3354 -3.872 -17.213 -22.1 -33.948 -30. Gandhidasan P [bar] 15 C % Tr[C] -25.696 -16.871 -13.7 -18.7 1.8 -32.853 -29.6 -0.5 37.9 -30 -30.07 -45.288 -22.8 6.5 -9.8 -29.8715 -29.2 -21.8 -12.9 -26 -26.4 -21.9 -7.792 -22 -30.0501 -5.659 -41.3 -17.5 -30.2 -26.8 53.463 -32.3 53.2 38.9 -29 -29.8 49.6552 -28.515 -25.2588 12.0 50.6 -21.742 -18.4914 -27.3 -26.3 -18.3 -3.2 -5.8 35.7 34.

9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] P [bar] 27 27.62 44.63 27.45 35.98 34.99 28.96 14.77 14.12 30.74 43.87 14.15 34.83 12.6 33.41 13.98 14.7 29.40 28.58 13.36 -18.76 37.02 16.30 41.87 21.56 23.13 17.81 22.18 23.2 33.49 14.94 34.94 21.25 33.96 35.06 11.30 38.13 9.48 27.60 29.80 29.13 10.89 43.84 23.30 19.88 34.65 17.83 9.51 24.84 28.60 28.60 17.63 38.63 12.09 14.73 29.37 36.94 -26 23.42 21.30 20.19 23.05 36.56 38.17 34.04 22.75 19.1 46.58 13.82 36.8 35.98 32.09 20.94 36.70 27.01 25.09 13.16 34.60 42.49 33.46 38.88 28.56 29.46 28.59 29.98 33.62 39.04 18.81 -23 30.74 14.23 26.25 36.40 10.18 13.59 27.73 34.82 37.65 33.81 29.55 9.54 29.97 23.29 33.17 16.30 33.24 11.21 19.92 40.91 20.54 43.89 13.94 32.68 44.14 -18.72 41.50 34.45 15.07 21.71 44.19 14.69 14.65 12.39 11.25 37.31 30.6 38.84 29.58 29.32 24.75 25.36 41.25 27.53 30.11 34.75 28.44 15.93 16.39 33.49 41.69 35.54 38.62 10.72 27.29 16.87 39.45 26.60 28.7 34.64 17.08 12.22 29.96 21.69 33.86 34.46 23.42 35.31 15.36 21.93 21.72 34.55 43.75 9.25 16.05 25.9 54.69 37.74 36.48 37.12 21.96 38.97 38.87 28.37 15.56 26.07 16.58 19.90 24.63 28.00 33.2 29.85 23.56 30.8 53.4 50 50.84 26.92 -18.70 21.83 20.4 55 -31 14.20 42.43 30.33 21.22 14.2 52.23 15.15 20.26 16.55 28.29 38.40 28.15 35.13 15.06 28.84 -27 21.76 26.64 28.79 12.12 17.13 34.38 31.21 35.14 26.77 36.44 33.11 43.15 22.51 12.01 37.95 27.22 18.16 28.36 29.02 35.25 46.30 26.24 9.40 14.88 37.77 25.89 24.96 33.00 33.11 28.8 30.87 17.67 23.52 13.75 22.81 15.10 42.37 36.46 27.49 27.92 16.36 17.54 12.30 9.31 38.75 29.88 25.33 10.07 9.82 18.60 26.55 15.02 12.57 21.30 16.97 35.11 19.82 26.45 22.79 39.57 37.34 24.86 44.43 40.61 14.89 19.07 27.13 14.08 40.8 49.51 34.55 11.96 39.50 22.30 14.63 40.33 32.28 18.51 36.45 34.95 27.3 46.43 23.35 23.57 26.36 36.06 28.17 27.16 41.54 11.01 45.87 28.04 27.69 28.85 46.03 -30 16.96 41.70 28.40 27.16 27.87 35.28 31.72 30.70 16.01 26.19 30.81 17.34 37.78 25.15 40.9 47.48 21.39 34.04 26.94 36.42 40.86 30.89 26.52 21.77 27.95 39.35 13.16 32.38 36.54 27.85 31.82 34.16 27.18 28.32 28.72 33.86 27.04 14.11 28.23 23.82 12.12 41.8 44.11 28.75 30.84 20.92 17.65 31.71 13.63 28.10 20.72 42.07 29.44 19.08 42.53 34.02 10.90 39.41 11.67 36.27 27.43 36.29 29.39 45.26 13.71 11.97 13.09 27.69 10.89 23.43 22.01 25.21 39.36 27.49 21.01 13.57 29.4 36 36.72 26.99 35.96 38.20 37.24 36.23 21.04 15.25 24.60 19.57 24.80 40.62 18.33 16.46 14.79 32.51 20.74 42.32 40.78 19.49 26.53 28.29 20.91 34.37 9.55 15.60 15.86 30.31 27.44 26.8 39.94 27.62 25.83 28.86 14.13 22.91 27.64 43.27 34.03 29.81 26.29 11.52 27.09 11.81 18.58 43.74 21.78 30.73 26.95 10.80 26.53 24.87 28.50 38.38 27.11 15.61 32.77 41.70 35.91 19.27 10.40 29.27 27.38 26.25 26.87 14.52 5.44 18.63 27.28 30.20 20.78 36.72 27.89 10.05 26.3 53.33 28.81 13.78 29.16 17.88 25.13 36.40 27.05 19.31 29.40 18.70 37.46 45.14 20.17 20.91 35.57 42.17 19.61 27.59 -18 47.95 44.67 14.48 14.83 42.58 25.21 42.78 29.36 36.55 35.67 37.88 38.92 28.42 39.26 -18.58 39.22 15.07 45.69 26.52 23.97 22.59 24.12 24.07 27.63 36.66 16.27 27.10 32.33 35.47 16.71 15.03 13.62 23.56 42.23 17.62 13.68 33.02 34.3 34.35 29.48 17.28 16.85 42.93 28.21 38.08 13.83 24.52 12.14 10.99 33.06 14.69 27.12 32.21 36.84 29.96 26.14 26.42 17.40 30.84 17.05 18.67 12.71 18.43 39.23 29.5 51.30 30.98 27.73 23.62 21.70 14.96 26.07 17.08 28.66 11.95 33.16 26.92 13.13 39.49 9.84 38.86 15.78 18.19 11.32 19.42 24.15 24.24 25.15 30.52 15.30 32.73 34.91 37.93 27.95 9.60 28.83 38.92 12.88 28.13 -25 25.57 38.1 37.28 37.61 40.01 32.44 13.17 43.30 44.59 25.02 42.96 39.30 19.82 36.09 29.01 17.05 -18.24 27.51 28.52 38.38 17.00 27.20 43.28 14.09 34.79 26.67 18.06 40.17 13.01 37.93 44.46 13.00 35.23 14.10 15.78 10.47 27.75 37.77 28.5 45.16 13.32 36.66 26.30 28.22 28.45 28.91 11.44 42.76 36.58 14.31 11.48 43.18 43.65 19.9 31.17 42.76 35.20 26.98 40.27 28.73 13.73 13.29 35.63 11.46 22.52 37.89 32.6 52.76 30.83 -28 19.88 11.6 28.74 30.86 14.20 37.35 20.84 20.46 19.69 9.59 29.71 20.55 33.30 35.36 31.30 43.21 39.92 11.00 41.65 38.55 15.05 28.20 17.85 32.71 15.17 27.49 20.46 12.67 27.31 11.83 43.40 34.23 37.53 29.33 19.98 17.45 26.82 34.12 21.46 10.87 42.82 .25 21.24 39.75 27.7 48.64 17.92 44.88 37.87 28.33 44.24 44.6 44.13 31.90 9.64 32.75 22.12 33.91 15.18 22.81 41.73 12.30 12.88 14.56 16.26 23.43 43.39 35.2 46.40 28.99 37.46 42.38 28.28 29.51 19.07 10.80 15.08 25.81 35.62 9.78 22.29 39.33 22.53 13.07 28.23 32.48 16.17 28.35 16.54 39.19 21.42 9.95 24.74 38.52 37.90 36.06 11.32 29.05 20.47 31.72 17.01 27.13 27.53 34.43 25.86 16.21 15.89 19.05 27.69 23.80 26.54 18.5 32 32.21 22.24 18.60 36.45 28.52 41.46 11.4 45.89 13.01 19.00 33.76 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.24 13.5 37.36 28.94 41.9 33.37 12.52 18.34 15.05 28.11 26.61 39.69 32.71 20.61 16.67 15.83 33.92 27.3 39.07 30.7 44.60 25.89 -29 17.45 18.39 18.81 18.42 -24 28.44 26.43 29.58 24.05 18.35 29.58 20.2 47.35 17.49 35.13 28.21 12.40 33.57 27.01 12.21 12.97 29.80 38.02 18.3 48.4 30.31 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.01 9.13 12.01 12.13 38.74 40.09 9.85 35.79 11.39 12.27 12.27 26.56 27.85 10.23 28.59 17.96 23.46 35.61 35.31 41.13 28.69 34.50 32.82 31.25 36.88 22.83 17.78 27.20 38.04 22.05 29.55 13.93 26.40 14.18 21.78 41.45 31.92 35.67 41.80 40.55 35.41 40.93 43.35 20.95 26.63 39.28 19.89 28.43 38.70 -18.37 42.18 27.43 25.26 40.03 15.00 23.56 37.30 29.03 29.06 35.1 28.98 16.57 35.33 27.06 16.13 16.17 38.56 20.15 28.48 28.13 41.38 26.48 -18.81 28.92 18.24 33.77 21.83 -18.36 13.79 25.54 18.68 19.33 37.07 36.54 10.90 39.80 11.84 27.82 27.57 34.02 16.75 13.1 51.19 9.66 27.45 15.27 25.31 34.98 11.47 35.20 10.94 12.11 40.31 35.40 34.57 36.82 16.17 26.59 34.06 29.73 24.77 40.71 27.16 11.72 16.80 23.00 19.59 27.46 40.09 14.91 15.48 41.07 27.35 12.15 27.83 16.67 25.31 37.2 38.11 34.45 23.63 29.86 27.09 39.81 43.60 22.46 39.

3 48.21 11.33 44.85 44.39 21.21 38.21 21.52 29.68 30.77 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.29 19.8 39.42 48.2 33.99 45.34 28.22 30.36 28.57 44.40 16.34 25.83 28.5 37.41 42.66 29.74 27.57 12.10 36.3 48.53 29.12 28.06 27.23 42.97 18.75 40.53 47.33 35.03 22.09 37.78 11.94 31.21 30.28 25.91 30.37 17.22 19.82 18.96 29.07 23.82 35.85 45.04 12.14 23.48 25.96 29.26 -24 29.22 27.56 28.98 29.9 47.88 29.47 29.29 35.33 13.81 41.45 40.43 36.48 29.81 44.41 37.85 17.73 40.42 46.73 37.39 31.39 30.11 36.67 30.20 28.38 20.10 19.49 13.62 42.14 37.01 14.67 27.41 22.76 10.89 30.70 31.22 10.89 34.05 42.52 17.1 51.16 26.30 38.40 34.61 18.93 11.59 45.29 10.49 11.96 45.41 33.00 28.48 43.68 16.35 36.12 40.74 39.88 29.32 32.62 21.57 18.31 18.00 46.69 36.80 14.20 27.76 30.17 -18.65 13.89 15.99 35.86 24.53 13.25 19.45 41.74 41.63 32.94 14.19 44.85 19.03 24.40 -18.68 15.36 40.27 27.83 25.55 15.53 -30 17.63 28.53 20.38 27.98 20.66 23.45 44.97 14.98 26.40 46.68 29.63 36.03 27.28 11.94 9.27 28.34 45.40 16.96 29.22 16.96 19.8 30.04 36.78 29.02 36.88 37.2 52.63 41.44 21.18 17.88 12.82 47.21 29.65 14.44 18.12 29.90 14.65 20.79 38.43 39.94 36.87 -18.7 29.20 44.14 39.36 20.33 41.30 14.38 35.72 31.59 40.27 14.78 18.68 15.23 44.19 25.65 34.3 53.03 23.00 20.89 23.62 10.93 41.73 45.82 42.42 35.40 16.69 35.61 37.16 30.52 26.96 17.05 27.91 11.55 30.81 19.65 14.34 36.71 26.32 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.08 13.91 27.07 29.11 28.10 29.81 46.68 10.73 33.52 24.02 43.18 14.45 29.63 29.43 13.37 29.71 22.55 29.37 37.84 38.20 16.50 37.60 47.67 16.13 33.94 22.74 43.05 25.49 -27 22.57 37.1 28.93 31.88 37.57 17.15 13.84 19.2 47.63 38.41 36.07 14.48 31.02 26.55 11.2 29.19 30.93 38.84 37.48 -18.26 31.91 28.26 30.86 14.13 28.42 30.71 41.53 42.94 34.71 -18.66 32.98 41.38 27.31 5.02 40.78 36.3 39.45 23.69 14.20 31.21 29.19 28.43 -29 18.46 16.60 21.19 26.78 37.63 45.08 15.09 27.40 37.08 45.04 37.72 12.61 29.94 31.39 24.86 24.46 30.24 45.02 36.69 15.67 36.65 37.43 31.77 28.96 43.28 27.63 -18.92 24.31 21.84 20.35 13.28 40.75 28.71 30.10 19.33 39.25 -18.02 46.52 13.14 17.30 38.04 32.54 12.37 18.73 13.23 13.69 42.9 54.15 10.22 31.58 41.66 28.79 12.95 12.51 27.70 35.42 38.34 22.84 30.80 41.46 40.58 39.64 40.71 30.90 43.17 42.78 16.32 40.59 25.44 33.39 46.3 34.21 29.77 39.83 10.88 25.64 29.28 37.47 21.58 44.96 30.03 29.42 30.70 11.24 29.1 37.14 45.31 21.89 10.72 12.69 28.7 48.08 39.73 -23 32.33 27.2 49.62 18.50 10.74 24.44 10.02 16.00 18.89 36.09 41.08 44.46 24.26 38.45 28.18 30.58 23.98 23.20 30.49 36.28 37.71 35.4 30.72 44.15 18.91 16.30 39.67 39.35 .07 17.81 11.83 27.74 23.58 20.14 17.71 31.71 29.8 49.24 31.31 21.51 30.10 40.94 33.07 10.01 26.65 38.52 37.57 30.60 28.77 39.83 45.34 37.29 29.32 34.45 43.73 29.9 31.23 20.30 23.15 28.35 29.11 38.10 20.70 18.96 30.51 41.11 24.19 47.30 39.93 30.09 39.94 48.23 36.97 21.4 48.21 25.60 22.68 38.01 42.03 23.87 35.71 30.91 28.76 30.18 12.57 16.65 46.88 27.88 30.51 15.48 15.42 39.77 40.02 30.39 34.13 27.44 38.04 41.31 43.96 29.82 44.56 19.64 12.79 46.47 32.36 13.96 31.44 27.5 51.4 55 -31 15.04 10.19 28.46 19.21 21.27 34.77 42.22 29.75 34.43 43.91 40.60 36.07 15.37 16.56 10.56 25.93 46.41 15.18 17.73 37.97 10.63 39.94 29.64 40.71 29.98 21.90 30.50 28.86 25.11 43.85 29.88 27.1 49.40 23.79 14.45 29.07 38.37 34.81 13.45 19.68 31.08 28.77 28.73 23.52 30.29 37.67 40.76 38.10 29.45 23.48 31.17 22.86 18.20 13.49 15.32 38.78 17.95 45.20 37.97 30.73 14.92 30.77 29.43 24.07 12.75 9.09 36.44 12.47 36.37 40.8 35.05 28.44 31.98 34.43 38.97 38.25 15.41 28.42 31.33 30.79 36.80 21.83 26.35 30.65 42.59 15.80 22.73 20.17 38.29 29.92 22.97 21.82 9.22 45.36 37.65 28.64 17.16 28.98 42.53 26.61 18.41 16.32 20.19 14.34 42.18 18.09 12.30 18.18 21.42 41.45 31.16 20.00 17.72 13.83 15.92 16.58 9.60 17.30 28.12 11.40 24.58 30.96 39.20 24.01 48.53 16.72 29.87 42.81 22.01 9.96 22.26 21.59 29.01 11.66 30.17 35.30 29.6 47.34 18.41 30.27 43.86 11.93 40.05 15.45 12.44 11.27 30.83 35.74 31.56 19.79 14.34 24.6 38.97 31.06 41.46 37.05 15.36 20.31 27.32 26.00 39.18 12.42 24.84 48.99 22.4 50 50.97 38.37 11.21 16.20 41.13 47.8 53.46 30.97 13.81 42.73 36.54 19.25 36.90 -25 27.98 20.92 15.57 16.10 39.07 22.69 42.57 12.89 28.37 10.01 29.06 44.11 28.57 14.12 17.49 29.94 25.72 29.22 39.91 13.67 28.31 29.73 19.96 19.22 22.87 28.38 15.89 33.74 13.6 52.86 17.9 35.49 14.18 36.04 25.15 41.41 19.28 28.63 13.49 14.95 17.87 15.67 28.02 31.11 -18 49.59 43.25 30.58 35.99 34.90 27.08 43.32 46.16 16.18 23.50 14.44 28.06 43.73 28.69 35.72 27.69 23.88 9.07 34.36 26.20 26.47 44.64 30.54 34.88 24.17 29.99 21.18 15.41 19.38 17.62 34.78 38.97 28.66 37.39 29.74 17.21 36.63 11.99 46.37 14.76 39.12 35.97 37.12 17.17 35.70 29.49 29.64 9.34 20.97 37.41 38.8 46.6 33.13 31.71 43.08 29.07 28.56 18.31 24.61 38.29 41.96 21.80 11.42 -28 20.46 30.20 34.90 18.75 45.67 20.78 30.70 15.04 28.00 23.63 39.27 12.22 30.07 19.22 35.7 46.61 18.76 20.57 27.73 36.03 27.75 17.52 38.27 15.00 16.14 13.88 31.74 32.33 14.39 20.89 12.5 47.25 17.30 12.32 37.41 28.72 47.46 14.19 15.02 12.04 36.2 38.71 27.57 43.13 40.89 13.97 12.67 22.45 31.67 22.23 23.01 32.04 11.23 29.98 16.17 25.35 12.73 16.7 34.64 19.39 31.32 44.51 26.70 9.79 16.65 25.79 13.92 15.22 47.46 22.07 18.10 40.23 34.47 29.92 29.53 45.13 35.16 41.77 31.57 35.10 13.97 29.28 14.68 15.69 21.01 16.61 32.69 33.12 18.88 27.68 10.90 36.26 25.91 17.81 18. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] P [bar] 27 27.09 19.72 24.20 24.96 39.30 16.10 28.4 36 36.95 28.17 29.6 28.70 24.80 15.41 40.00 37.26 42.82 37.70 33.46 30.28 34.37 42.71 41.10 26.46 42.98 33.53 35.71 21.46 36.38 13.29 16.61 45.19 14.64 43.00 14.26 30.08 38.51 20.67 41.53 27.96 43.50 22.5 32 32.86 20.70 19.69 44.05 12.42 29.62 38.89 27.98 13.47 17.81 28.28 29.94 -18.81 35.71 26.69 26.32 32.98 40.43 38.57 21.53 28.05 31.18 35.21 13.32 25.59 29.40 21.52 25.33 39.56 31.

25 787.27 546.46 797.23 229.37 370.15 308.4 30.43 312.55 454.47 225.4 55 241.25 916.57 327.25 560.79 765.7 34.6 38.71 410.17 590.8 49.3 39.32 385.70 351.6 52.47 503.3 34.92 678.51 345.14 413.54 846.5 37.99 296.7 48.46 285.64 464.97 654.07 542.84 712.8 53.9 54.50 737.4 50 50.9 31.30 645.3 48.01 331.94 583.89 321.99 564.97 520.78 550.10 495.7 29.1 37.86 574.50 227.62 78 .9 Gas Temperature C 10 15 20 25 383.2 29.72 574.8 39.09 858.69 237. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] 27 27.2 38.74 701.11 414.64 239.28 308.57 419.63 832.31 313.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.17 616.21 520.34 727.87 221.41 948.8 35.72 358.88 584.13 215.25 756.55 600.15 450.47 335.23 701.3 53.72 872.40 718.48 982.81 223.37 626.36 231.08 300.87 559.67 426.80 745.99 547.24 390.2 52.58 635.39 Pressure [bar] 333.96 442.88 776.06 739.39 809.30 375.71 751.2 33.77 303.76 403.77 321.24 607.38 445.69 426.55 733.82 721.90 317.81 416.07 539.5 32 32.63 589.83 289.06 444.39 611.65 745.56 400.95 478.54 233.92 381.40 235.43 305.6 28.8 30.18 292.48 304.73 552.62 275.31 420.28 579.1 28.95 726.03 451.6 33.74 316.4 36 36.56 963.04 430.36 569.78 710.04 532.71 282.06 438.43 218.63 406.37 326.77 423.70 47.34 900.40 688.99 566.17 472.5 51.09 727.96 341.41 432.37 324.15 409.16 512.97 220.91 884.2 47.22 530.07 296.30 330.26 279.90 487.61 217.08 819.71 318.37 438.65 599.47 311.76 404.96 526.84 395.53 595.86 555.48 30 758.56 930.06 298.15 434.61 301.1 51.21 363.27 666.19 458.68 606.

4 36 36.97 583.29 639.73 407.5 32 32.97 767.94 338.61 348.96 359.89 933.84 305.97 892.06 227.31 595.57 320.65 640.3 48.39 793.3 53.30 830.29 317.41 490.45 751.71 1016.62 390.82 740.26 577.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.60 313.00 435.2 47.5 51.89 454.65 468.86 523.12 470.93 807.17 232.17 234.47 561.16 548.30 540.96 650.8 49.08 Gas Temperature C 15 20 25 560.47 818.1 51.92 252.10 475.22 236.42 312.13 766.24 364.19 773.04 702.36 622.38 611.01 308.55 297.72 437.10 669.03 316.18 243.23 457.6 38.8 30.20 920.44 864.91 590.26 576.4 30.48 329.70 334.2 38.69 328.66 402.8 35.9 47.7 48.8 39.79 597.99 905.06 726.92 622.8 53.39 981.38 322.45 248.95 949.07 514.6 52.87 439.91 455.99 780.3 34.53 777.67 462.51 878.37 767.65 757.78 568.27 79 .67 291.94 242.36 342.58 498.69 411.53 628.46 466.36 450.11 432.44 377.57 605.40 615.69 330.81 422.50 383.14 429.86 250.11 785.3 39.78 371.81 761.92 601.7 29.17 555.32 853.73 426.25 333.15 483.99 606.76 632.91 739.95 462.38 343.9 31.16 715.47 301.90 841.28 396.88 633.9 54.61 315.6 28.31 531.97 238.54 230.25 681.61 339.55 660.91 354.09 450.39 336.28 690. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3] Pressure [bar] 27 27.7 34.2 29.4 50 50.79 591.01 786.84 442.98 416.1 28.95 1000.26 254.85 479.08 349.6 33.99 505.48 246.30 616.1 37.28 30 800.04 797.56 645.5 37.28 549.63 586.22 446.74 443.73 345.63 321.23 351.25 325.40 1036.2 33.88 475.13 572.58 325.62 229.11 425.11 239.85 432.32 581.74 294.51 967.73 749.2 52.4 55 10 404.

4 191.2 252.2 332.1 324.5 251.7 281.3 207.2 295.2 329.8 304.8 195.1 210.8 206.0 366.0 291.3 336.4 192.2 292.9 204.3 262.2 204.5 200.4 303.4 287.8 190.3 329.0 314.5 345.3 290.2 209.3 211.8 219.4 270.2 222.5 196.6 212.7 292.7 189.1 264.8 207.8 281.3 207.9 205.5 316.3 258.3 199.3 343.6 274.2 275.8 267.0 309.1 323.8 201.9 207.9 201.6 324.7 34.0 293.5 279.3 272.5 270.5 194.7 325.2 219.5 283.4 194.1 344.4 271.4 257.0 196.2 203.3 -25.3 48.4 36.6 217.5 215.1 306.0 212.4 266.7 291.0 368.3 251.7 305.2 52.7 199.6 209.5 37.8 316.1 242.6 291.0 292.5 206.7 210.6 325.7 29.9 -18.1 277.7 265.6 262.0 330.1 303.5 326.2 198.8 265.0 352.1 187.4 337.6 294.6 310.7 198.8 305.7 266.5 208.3 216.6 223.9 213.7 352.2 198.4 261.0 -18.4 276.1 256.9 339.8 336.5 278.1 205.5 313.2 205.5 268.8 215.9 195.8 275.3 347.9 31.4 208.2 308.1 292.4 272.8 199.1 296.5 204.4 50.4 291.9 259.4 246.8 219.2 300.7 223.3 309.9 204.7 191.6 207.4 299.3 325.1 271.4 304.7 211.8 223.0 326.7 311.0 190.8 300.0 337.0 207.5 310.4 330.2 277.3 288.8 318.7 218.9 217.1 208.5 300.1 299.4 197.3 315.5 245.6 246.0 254.9 284.6 206.3 314.1 37.4 284.3 187.4 277.1 189.5 198.8 310.0 313.2 197.3 299.3 249.9 189.7 258.2 263.2 204.2 203.4 191.2 308.4 307.3 214.3 -18.6 252.0 320.8 283.3 287.8 287.8 49.4 30.7 331.4 274.5 243.6 320.8 299.2 47.5 326.0 254.6 -18.0 301.6 296.8 265.4 291.2 202.6 38.9 273.4 304.5 281.7 316.6 247.9 268.7 301.6 200.5 292.6 277.6 205.8 241.0 248.3 211.3 -18.3 209.9 252.8 208.5 208.2 294.8 195.6 308.3 218.7 213.9 200.6 345.8 220.8 346.1 304.1 217.5 311.0 213.9 54.0 290.3 270.5 305.0 363.6 202.2 217.3 190.8 208.1 211.7 354.2 33.3 189.8 205.6 288.4 198.6 217.3 281.7 245.3 254.9 221.0 365.9 295.3 296.8 278.9 222.7 215.9 213.0 50.5 318.4 214.9 295.6 219.9 281.0 246.4 205.4 221.9 301.7 272.9 208.7 48.2 284.5 306.0 202.2 196.0 274.1 253.7 328.0 -24.9 359.0 268.2 195.6 205.4 355.6 204.7 314.3 342.7 218.6 .4 279.3 34.7 189.7 224.4 282.0 339.0 285.4 321.2 247.6 256.5 202.1 198.8 308.4 261.6 295.7 229.9 328.9 307.6 201.1 286.2 319.9 198.3 202.0 216.9 256.6 325.0 283.1 198.1 338.1 211.4 318.2 221.4 281.7 320.4 333.2 336.6 192.3 53.4 271.5 211.3 262.5 252.5 276.8 246.6 269.1 193.4 270.2 193.4 204.2 214.6 250.6 288.1 195.7 315.1 287.4 327.0 -31.4 205.0 188.6 273.4 244.0 256.0 227.2 243.8 317.6 282.6 323.9 224.9 262.8 321.0 190.1 298.2 305.2 316.2 204.3 266.7 243.8 208.4 300.6 343.6 205.4 285.8 294.1 199.5 51.7 203.9 264.0 218.6 263.4 207.7 195.4 259.8 200.6 225.9 212.9 333.5 276.1 282.2 269.1 319.1 220.6 259.5 279.6 212.4 211.5 266.1 -18.9 212.3 255.6 301.3 299.3 298.2 188.1 287.8 331.0 315.5 275.5 201.1 270.7 196.3 303.7 255.5 318.9 242.0 288.2 260.9 269.6 193.1 326.0 329.1 283.7 279.3 280.8 213.4 272.0 355.7 211.6 200.9 272.2 204.0 263.6 333.9 247.5 226.7 206.1 208.8 340.7 328.9 315.5 300.6 283.7 286.6 262.6 295.2 268.1 215.4 191.4 261.5 197.6 188.0 248.9 354.7 193.9 213.0 206.5 337.4 361.1 332.4 195.3 261.9 255.2 277.5 309.9 189.1 189.4 209.6 281.0 310.3 206.7 275.1 330.9 245.0 197.7 204.9 225.8 333.7 222.7 202.1 209.0 210.8 210.1 197.1 206.1 326.2 313.7 210.0 263.4 203.0 272.8 211.1 202.1 261.6 273.7 203.3 201.7 211.7 280.7 260.6 199.5 241.3 190.1 192.3 194.1 278.8 -18.2 205.1 208.6 212.9 209.8 274.1 198.1 286.2 264.6 195.3 320.6 209.9 47.5 203.8 264.8 299.0 203.3 199.2 274.1 267.2 295.6 215.2 245.0 32.5 318.0 36.8 197.5 -18.9 255.9 226.8 218.4 264.4 212.2 200.8 322.0 258.5 318.2 208.4 219.6 305.4 315.2 278.6 319.6 28.2 338.7 198.9 264.1 321.2 206.3 206.5 199.2 273.9 197.0 244.9 342.7 267.1 322.8 211.3 267.6 259.1 278.3 250.8 280.7 284.0 200.5 260.9 314.1 51.0 336.8 282.7 203.2 293.8 231.0 336.7 -18.7 252.4 278.9 320.6 338.8 202.3 314.2 303.6 -27.1 272.3 294.0 283.0 258.8 260.2 256.8 188.0 267.8 264.1 316.0 256.0 193.5 215.9 192.3 331.1 221.8 224.4 285.7 253.7 325.5 320.1 -22.4 300.5 211.6 210.1 206.0 311.9 269.4 215.1 216.0 254.4 334.0 191.4 341.4 296.9 336.3 341.1 336.3 297.0 297.0 27.8 306.8 339.0 361.8 201.3 293.8 257.9 279.2 262.3 193.3 328.9 297.3 268.6 290.5 302.80 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 203.4 210.4 253.3 261.2 317.5 282.6 213.3 292.3 269.3 283.1 287.3 201.6 52.2 260.1 208.4 311.7 194.9 309.1 209.5 197.9 250.3 310.7 -20.7 331.8 347.0 280.6 229.7 287.5 304.1 207.1 312.2 210.6 205.1 265.5 255.4 267.0 359.8 39.1 209.8 -18.4 189.6 207.8 331.1 257.5 320.8 209.9 267.8 262.7 207.8 193.4 225.8 201.5 204.2 201.0 348.8 302.0 346.1 213.9 311.5 188.1 246.8 297.0 324.0 276.8 228.5 213.1 205.0 201.0 289.0 262.4 213.5 202.9 308.6 249.5 194.8 227.8 210.9 227.7 290.8 349.6 356.6 226.7 271.6 193.1 210.2 301.2 255.7 248.5 274.2 285.3 257.1 201.6 263.3 249.4 352.0 291.3 209.6 340.3 358.0 312.2 38.1 192.9 209.9 263.3 192.7 272.3 196.3 196.8 266.5 270.1 268.5 302.5 321.8 -19.7 203.9 274.4 258.8 299.8 212.1 276.0 357.2 250.0 294.4 350.4 206. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.9 289.5 331.7 251.4 289.8 196.3 201.3 206.7 197.6 272.2 190.6 212.0 337.6 294.8 220.9 192.6 208.6 190.9 331.3 39.9 296.9 297.1 304.9 326.0 327.3 291.9 332.7 220.7 276.9 296.4 242.5 -29.9 273.2 327.3 211.7 306.3 335.6 327.0 310.8 349.7 191.6 305.6 254.8 53.3 198.6 200.6 312.5 -21.1 223.4 288.7 279.1 224.7 261.1 200.2 29.8 258.2 201.6 242.3 291.3 219.0 334.6 268.4 -30.2 281.7 275.0 286.1 297.8 30.7 203.7 209.8 270.1 244.4 207.3 337.8 194.3 228.4 265.4 55.8 220.3 278.8 211.4 200.3 210.8 330.8 196.9 282.7 217.5 190.2 241.0 203.4 286.7 303.4 200.8 35.5 217.5 264.0 194.8 211.8 318.6 33.8 271.3 247.1 322.4 284.3 193.7 221.0 204.5 32.3 193.8 249.0 206.6 247.1 266.6 -28.0 343.0 215.6 261.1 309.7 332.7 351.7 308.7 338.5 206.8 205.1 28.8 230.0 202.8 339.5 301.2 191.4 265.9 294.0 251.1 279.4 253.5 207.7 258.0 349.4 321.4 208.8 260.3 252.9 210.2 323.7 192.3 292.4 248.8 267.5 199.6 222.9 214.7 214.5 -26.7 288.6 198.2 212.5 257.9 216.3 195.1 195.1 274.7 303.8 315.6 -23.3 344.5 275.8 244.

6 296.4 313.4 326.8 221.1 222.0 217.2 365.3 227.1 346.3 349.1 287.6 298.9 284.8 198.0 311.4 333.2 274.2 211.6 318.7 342.5 351.1 209.3 300.5 -18.9 310.8 225.0 308.2 366.8 364.1 217.8 270.8 217.2 213.8 285.8 211.9 350.8 277.5 231.2 355.7 318.2 355.9 259.9 337.4 372.3 237.5 233.6 210.9 217.1 305.3 235.4 272.0 212.9 296.8 219.2 349.8 231.9 289.3 295.2 357.6 332.4 320.3 275.8 298.5 279.6 293.3 297.7 219.4 295.2 218.2 29.6 28.4 219.6 215.0 269.4 36 36.2 229.2 213.4 224.3 346.1 230.5 216.5 343.2 335.3 271.8 231.3 257.1 218.9 207.4 207.2 263.0 296.0 226.9 291.0 353.7 272.7 287.6 367.1 283.9 -18.4 50 50.0 228.1 275.1 303.2 214.6 347.6 320.7 219.7 330.3 203.3 341.2 199.5 308.2 212.3 281.4 363.1 289.5 321.3 283.9 343.3 221.3 277.2 52.2 307.9 361.5 337.5 204.7 304.1 204.1 328.8 326 320.3 201.8 333.7 213.3 214.1 209.6 352.6 346.3 350.7 301.4 302.1 336.5 303.7 345.7 310.0 300.7 322.6 338.9 275.2 313.0 266.1 291.3 370.4 325.5 363.6 266.8 242.5 277.6 310.4 256.4 356.5 213.1 226.0 315.1 37.6 304.9 283.0 202.0 222.8 306.6 326.1 273.0 270.2 267.1 302.9 225.6 356.1 255.5 203.5 214.3 228.2 349.4 222.0 206.3 207.4 30.3 236.4 212.4 331.6 52.1 212.4 217.5 289.5 37.9 216.7 -18.8 222.6 225.2 204.0 338.0 302.7 353.4 207.4 222.6 205.9 296.7 221.6 274.8 339.1 320.7 219.4 289.1 210.7 274.6 238.1 223.1 223.8 303.6 229.0 274.4 215.5 313.5 278.0 356.5 242.6 257.7 204.9 -31 388.1 316.6 294.9 230.3 355.7 265.2 229.5 221.5 221.1 281.1 269.2 297.0 305.5 304.5 338.5 198.3 316.6 312.0 228.8 272.6 258.7 220.6 223 221.3 210.4 311.9 279.5 332.1 268.4 223.3 352.6 278.0 265.0 218.6 317.3 265.3 278.8 208.5 312.1 288.2 221.2 326.3 278.5 32 32.9 219.2 238.4 220.6 216.5 255.8 215.6 329.7 266.3 308.5 286.1 229.9 325.6 262.5 307.2 332.0 327.8 205.8 287.6 283.5 328.5 216.2 215.7 -27 381.5 309.0 235.2 221.2 307.0 235.0 302.4 265.3 298.4 264.8 334.3 266.1 28.3 223.3 219.7 224.5 210.5 285 280.4 315.0 216.2 -26 379.8 287.4 55 244.7 315.4 268.5 267.4 276.6 277.3 200.0 219.6 307.9 334.6 381.5 296.6 322.7 217 215 213 211.4 219.9 291.7 294.3 317.5 241.5 285.4 348.8 300.8 223.3 282.8 218.3 336 331 325.3 217.5 240.7 211.7 309.0 256.8 286.1 340.4 321.2 321.8 303.2 198.7 203.5 214.7 199.9 261.3 368.7 225.7 239.81 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 206.4 219.8 275.9 299.5 270.3 261 258.3 348.1 334.2 259.1 354.3 260.1 279.8 328.9 276.1 208.9 277 273.9 290.8 53.9 209.8 356.9 54.9 276.4 286.7 357.8 329.1 216.2 312.5 216.1 283.7 256.4 205.8 271.4 283.6 297.6 275.9 348.3 270.7 307.8 264.8 201.8 210.3 216.7 48.6 38.4 310.1 346.8 223.5 279.0 273.2 286.8 200.8 338.8 290.4 318.0 282.6 207.8 342.0 -21 365.3 34.6 218.3 344.8 227.8 299.6 261.7 359.8 216.4 -30 387.5 223.0 214.7 229.5 334.5 215.5 236.8 206.1 263.6 201.9 345.5 280.2 291.4 267.0 226.3 289.2 296.6 332.3 211.3 349.8 367.1 264.7 278.8 312.5 316 310.9 298.6 355.6 323.0 201.7 308.5 264 260.9 278.6 289.8 39.3 257.2 297.1 303.4 285.8 356.4 325.7 211.4 359.8 354.6 211.7 208.2 220.4 225.7 211.0 214.3 53.6 335.8 282.7 225.2 285.3 343.9 358.1 351.1 321.5 239.0 235.4 220.6 210.9 199.2 33.4 285.4 361.7 293.3 344.6 33.5 293.0 205.6 216.5 349.1 211.3 302.4 321.3 215.6 211.4 271.6 311.7 212.3 226.1 294.1 272.0 -28 383.8 209.2 277.9 216.9 285.3 260.2 279.9 217.3 310.2 375.1 220.8 215.1 232.9 317.0 325.6 299.9 307.9 206.8 273.3 304.6 207.9 .8 226.8 291.2 214.6 271.6 217.3 202.5 317.3 296.4 338.0 -24 374.6 219.4 240.6 206.7 263.3 299.0 214.1 301.8 -18 354.2 224.7 224.5 47.8 260.9 322.5 222.9 213.4 263.2 274.3 284.2 262.1 294.2 280.8 221.9 219.1 209.3 319.4 -18.8 267.6 219.6 277.5 214.3 -29 385.1 199.2 239.9 31.3 204.6 223.5 290.8 307.1 344.1 206.2 236.8 323.5 361.0 219.3 345.9 295.3 209.4 360.8 288.9 200.6 313.6 225.6 374.5 212.4 238.5 51.8 279.0 204.7 298.8 218.2 208.6 308.7 358.7 344.6 201.9 254.5 212.1 372.2 290.7 243.0 231.4 225.8 347.4 319.9 306.9 293.9 313.3 300.1 327.4 222.5 205.9 262.8 321.8 221.7 229.1 228.3 276.2 335.5 224.5 288.2 209.9 208.0 204.9 212.5 295.3 294.1 369.1 379.4 -18.2 201.2 225.6 206.0 216.7 358.3 213.1 -23 371.3 272.8 35.5 197.5 376.3 270.0 203.1 304.5 334.2 280.0 281.3 210.0 203.6 309.1 311.4 221.3 222.0 214.4 212.7 220.7 350.6 280.3 274.3 332.2 322.2 223. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27 27.8 340.7 214.4 338.5 218.6 200.1 207.5 287.8 322.4 308.5 287.7 310.3 39.0 223.0 202.5 208.5 291.1 232.1 306 301.1 232.0 323.3 322.1 271.3 326.2 205.4 208.3 309.9 364.6 254.7 282.8 49.3 287.5 215.8 325.0 276.3 284.1 341.9 282.7 260.3 218.7 273.4 318.9 231.3 332.5 330.6 295.6 207.2 268.0 214.1 324.7 336.8 203.8 299.8 -18.8 255.3 205.3 301.7 373.7 344.8 241.2 234.7 233.9 316.8 318.5 259.2 47.3 202.4 224.4 212.7 307.7 341.4 378.7 331.3 48.7 209.4 200 198.7 218.5 292.6 231.7 281.7 320.2 316.5 356.4 224.6 200.3 292.7 269.3 335.7 348.9 220.8 30.7 257.0 223.8 202.4 299.0 290.9 312.1 272.2 38.2 212.2 339.9 231.1 227.6 313.3 258.6 276.1 -19 358.7 327.4 280.7 311.2 237.4 222.3 261.9 278.2 289.9 337.8 357.8 302.1 -18.2 209.9 235.4 339.2 -18.7 355.7 -25 377.5 217.2 316.0 315.1 -22 368.8 289.5 217.4 199.5 269.8 218.9 238.3 294.5 217.6 285.7 229.7 268.9 262.1 299.8 230.5 227.3 329.8 331.6 305.7 350.8 343.5 350.6 204.9 297.7 29.0 332.1 200.1 51.3 335.3 338.4 227.9 218.5 211.2 255.0 333.7 282.1 260.1 315.3 311.8 204 202.3 217.6 -20 362.9 343.9 199.2 207.3 327.1 236.3 225.4 221.6 200.8 288.4 204.0 318.1 -18.7 212.0 292.1 268.5 220.7 213.2 293.4 233.7 34.1 316.4 337.3 342.0 294.9 327.1 201.1 352.1 279.6 278.2 206.6 234.5 287.7 265.4 221.2 288.1 219 217.0 233.0 329.9 294.5 306.7 220.9 216.4 269.8 213.4 209.4 230.3 368.1 349.3 320.3 232.5 315.1 302.9 232.8 201.5 324.0 222.0 224.5 227.7 209.6 223.7 281.6 284.2 207.3 339.7 214.5 206.5 345.0 221.3 282.9 275.6 292.5 202.5 330.1 342.4 347.7 292.6 209.6 227.1 287.6 327.0 361.2 270.5 313.9 220.7 282.

9 451.1 470.4 445.8 445.8 388.8 295.2 308.2 439.5 304.1 287.0 502.5 389.9 283.0 380.3 304.1 390.8 369.5 354.1 467.9 473.2 -20.8 370.2 281.9 273.6 385.6 312.6 373.6 432.7 456.4 453.0 283.2 307.9 471.8 297.3 405.5 300.5 -22.9 475.9 297.1 430.5 421.5 290.7 288.5 289.7 300.6 288.8 357.5 37.4 468.5 283.6 468.4 293.0 423.7 366.2 299.8 -19.7 29.1 380.1 279.5 356.3 460.6 361.3 479.2 388.9 482.0 288.3 363.6 303.7 368.8 284.1 292.6 365.9 385.7 269.5 442.1 306.8 435.3 379.3 415.2 464.9 296.5 279.7 489.2 418.8 282.3 399.9 303.6 277.6 359.5 458.1 312.0 286.9 293.7 319.6 28.2 485.3 378.7 304.8 276.8 459.9 282.0 359.3 292.0 294.8 436.0 461.9 480.5 438.1 286.0 296.7 273.1 280.5 396.7 364.3 409.7 442.7 369.8 315.6 368.6 401.9 417.1 299.8 316.1 51.0 323.1 285.1 357.9 373.0 297.3 -18.9 360.1 284.2 279.5 478.5 297.8 286.2 305.4 458.7 467.2 448.4 436.7 474.7 439.4 383.1 296.4 459.4 388.6 274.9 451.2 302.3 278.0 474.3 296.2 432.4 276.5 291.0 36.1 443.8 53.7 435.6 416.7 305.8 486.8 365.3 289.7 277.0 503.9 292.2 301.2 366.4 467.3 365.2 377.4 454.3 294.3 34.0 369.1 425.6 280.5 404.5 290.1 355.0 404.8 301.1 506.2 272.5 476.6 374.5 302.4 399.8 348.8 307.7 292.7 -18.4 426.2 302.1 311.1 419.0 509.5 460.8 290.6 386.4 499.0 476.0 399.0 483.5 284.7 291.2 275.2 52.9 460.9 362.8 396.2 299.9 410.2 311.7 491.5 277.3 384.4 395.6 411.6 295.2 467.9 356.3 351.1 312.5 457.9 477.1 37.3 288.2 362.7 362.7 384.7 383.0 401.4 269.1 294.9 304.2 298.5 281.8 286.4 318.7 299.9 287.8 414.9 298.4 431.6 293.5 386.6 -18.5 47.0 358.5 283.5 433.1 392.4 287.5 51.3 468.1 437.8 465.3 -26.8 378.1 444.6 443.5 378.5 301.7 361.3 306.5 364.5 281.0 453.2 309.7 423.9 301.82 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 448.3 419.1 394.6 306.4 288.8 437.1 373.5 287.4 485.7 484.6 405.3 317.4 444.4 353.2 498.5 394.7 407.2 484.3 53.8 370.5 385.0 282.8 278.3 403.8 294.1 314.9 381.9 279.1 290.1 271.3 399.6 400.4 397.1 300.3 501.7 437.8 -25.6 276.0 473.4 424.5 388.9 351.0 507.5 449.5 402.6 450.9 411.0 302.6 366.8 438.7 279.0 283.6 407.5 370.4 297.5 446.7 310.6 399.7 433.0 278.1 469.2 269.2 295.3 280.5 289.5 475.9 429.9 418.0 32.6 303.2 33.7 379.2 371.5 442.6 38.5 279.7 462.8 470.5 487.3 294.8 393.2 412.7 320.2 272.5 372.1 422.4 30.1 454.4 298.4 347.5 485.5 373.8 39.7 373.2 447.1 289.1 288.9 -18.4 303.3 361.9 275.5 470.2 38.6 33.1 -24.1 436.4 375.7 469.7 374.5 275.9 383.1 269.6 284.1 276.2 354.2 438.8 315.6 429.4 299.1 465.9 31.6 303.0 468.5 437.6 317.1 294.6 426.3 297.0 513.5 293.9 387.7 477.6 412.9 377.0 284.2 495.0 420.9 269.4 389.0 274.8 478.4 461.2 -18.5 282.6 284.4 227.5 493.9 363.6 295.9 439.2 401.5 367.6 380.1 274.1 295.4 425.2 360.5 450.4 370.2 303.1 285.9 284.3 418.6 382.2 433.3 -18.7 34.6 415.3 453.5 469.0 390.4 287.8 410.9 369.3 394.2 431.4 320.6 412.6 469.5 290.5 461.2 402.3 271.6 364.4 417.7 447.4 310.6 426.3 313.4 316.0 27.4 364.7 453.6 406.9 431.8 430.4 36.8 271.5 377.5 413.6 348.1 366.3 292.4 -21.6 287.0 391.9 480.2 273.5 432.4 279.3 274.0 374.3 304.3 396.3 297.0 281.3 391.1 455.7 314.2 296.5 424.9 285.3 372.8 282.0 302.9 398.2 393.9 429.5 445.9 285.3 382.7 293.7 317.2 356.5 -18.7 321.2 286.1 292.8 373.3 285.2 283.7 303.8 285.1 316.2 452.1 474.9 384.7 349.4 369.1 293.1 -29.1 437.5 273.0 444.2 351.8 35.1 288.9 397.1 287.0 302.6 285.0 291.7 354.9 406.4 438.9 353.5 351.5 439.3 484.2 412.6 315.6 291.0 375.7 298.3 283.8 493.0 516.7 463.3 289.2 292.4 300.3 282.9 54.0 268.0 286.4 486.6 472.8 291.2 434.0 298.4 274.9 277.7 295.1 378.7 291.0 277.1 461.2 284.7 424.9 432.8 304.8 288.9 271.6 401.0 458.2 411.4 458.8 405.7 474.3 48.6 369.9 410.7 291.4 291.3 280.8 296.1 346.6 483.4 366.2 481.7 395.7 425.3 374.0 347.6 504.1 297.5 294.9 293.5 298.2 29.6 308.8 -18.1 273.4 292.7 275.1 395.1 28.3 403.9 401.2 391.7 476.3 39.4 477.7 369.0 439.7 347.7 429.6 378.7 408.1 367.4 423.6 461.2 410.2 275.4 497.9 424.3 347.1 280.3 476.6 375.5 464.5 307.8 477.9 406.0 391.1 484.1 273.9 305.1 364.7 418.0 286.7 356.3 369.6 352.8 364.8 496.2 385.9 412.5 360.7 296.9 -28.8 454.0 -18.0 458.2 459.0 384.5 322.0 497.3 415.8 378.9 289.6 278.7 437.8 301.6 413.2 495.1 -30.5 376.0 454.9 302.1 372.8 430.4 319.6 278.5 455.1 289.2 375.5 419.8 291.9 487.9 307.7 378.6 281.1 310.3 383.8 467.9 475.8 49.5 373.6 279.0 309. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.8 300.4 430.0 422.4 376.2 300.0 394.0 500.7 272.4 355.5 270.1 368.7 283.0 396.9 365.8 426.6 452.9 413.4 284.5 431.7 48.3 431.5 407.4 424.3 423.2 370.1 303.6 350.2 490.1 445.1 309.8 274.3 295.6 418.6 366.2 291.4 50.0 405.5 451.9 273.8 376.9 399.7 313.6 290.7 413.1 277.3 489.0 419.7 360.9 287.1 430.1 398.0 410.8 360.3 412.8 312.4 368.4 390.1 356.9 407.3 359.1 388.2 293.9 298.2 270.5 280.8 303.4 289.4 456.3 406.5 275.4 379.2 286.0 445.9 360.0 283.0 361.2 471.0 352.3 426.0 366.2 470.8 355.9 420.3 409.4 284.1 289.6 414.1 310.1 390.0 50.6 52.9 375.8 403.7 386.4 -23.4 313.9 389.1 377.1 -18.4 487.5 405.6 419.9 276.3 376.6 309.3 270.2 284.3 400.0 270.0 287.5 371.7 301.0 299.4 385.1 383.6 271.3 391.7 389.9 303.9 380.1 481.3 404.4 288.7 383.6 293.8 30.8 446.1 306.7 390.0 491.7 313.6 285.7 383.9 452.3 295.9 412.6 290.2 353.1 298.5 297.5 451.4 381.5 393.9 -31.4 382.8 405.7 444.0 379.8 394.2 304.0 382.0 272.2 389.9 418.0 422.9 420.7 462.0 305.6 380.9 278.1 348.4 385.0 364.3 420.8 378.4 55.8 301.5 296.3 308.1 425.6 417.0 300.9 487.2 441.6 486.6 286.1 371.5 32.9 397.5 393.0 356.7 436.2 434.3 300.7 299.5 388.6 401.9 400.6 453.6 404.0 302.7 486.9 289.5 465.1 446.8 270.8 393.5 358.6 295.9 297.5 272.8 281.3 394.8 396.0 505.3 277.9 481.7 .7 401.6 461.2 47.8 390.0 444.0 408.2 413.0 301.2 408.6 314.3 298.2 441.3 352.1 281.3 305.5 281.4 445.0 514.5 295.1 277.3 484.4 293.4 277.0 511.6 417.5 432.6 289.6 -27.7 292.2 387.5 286.8 400.5 305.2 368.4 374.2 427.8 352.3 453.7 374.1 457.9 346.8 299.0 494.7 302.3 290.3 417.5 393.0 487.0 301.0 423.2 477.2 306.4 349.2 406.1 309.4 290.

2 399.7 319.2 448.8 321.6 478.7 294.3 441.8 452.9 478.7 493.3 53.0 302.5 -18.9 502.1 494.9 423.2 449.2 319.1 304.1 496.9 439.3 389.5 524.8 292.5 375.4 310.9 296.7 330.3 305.3 442.5 399.1 431.6 487.2 467.6 446.9 311.7 313.3 294.8 425.4 394.6 321.9 301.5 328.2 394.4 473.9 422.1 404.1 405.8 438.5 480.6 429.9 413.1 320.4 306.9 468.6 429.5 391.9 417.9 314.6 433.0 510.2 471.9 442.3 284.2 380.5 51.4 -18.0 316.0 294.8 448.6 423.6 332.5 320.5 292.3 495.8 404.0 469.2 318.6 442.6 33.2 297.9 31.4 499.9 440.7 311.2 29.6 320.4 334.8 395.5 411.5 290.1 481.0 313.8 380.7 -20.3 325.4 300.3 288.0 36.6 310.0 417.7 318.5 308.7 376.8 457.6 398.8 403.7 307.1 302.0 305.6 445.0 341.7 295.9 399.4 406.3 470.4 302.9 493.4 36.6 38.7 447.4 437.8 416.6 461.8 318.5 438.6 456.1 299.7 433.3 502.4 339.8 288.1 441.5 491.9 317.7 311.8 330.4 321.0 27.1 311.4 448.1 297.3 -18.4 337.2 288.6 305.7 442.0 330.8 -27.8 460.1 286.5 410.2 326.7 432.1 413.2 52.0 315.4 286.9 389.2 404.2 375.4 479.4 458.2 530.3 374.0 461.3 511.9 311.8 486.0 388.8 468.1 435.4 449.1 28.7 500.9 309.0 289.4 534.7 514.7 313.4 303.7 298.9 306.6 305.2 -19.4 314.4 463.1 476.5 440.7 299.1 292.7 296.4 296.1 310.9 433.9 290.6 333.6 469.9 504.4 415.8 321.0 446.3 512.0 32.1 323.0 446.5 477.5 503.3 340.7 318.5 492.7 312.9 522.1 466.1 288.1 505.7 299.1 415.2 468.2 384.1 -18.3 462.6 427.5 449.8 375.6 482.0 304.2 427.2 38.7 319.9 291.8 491.4 317.7 410.1 453.1 470.3 390.8 477.4 315.2 401.7 285.8 301.7 320.0 441.3 446.3 435.2 487.7 -18.4 467.9 309.1 460.8 300.8 391.9 480.2 367.5 317.1 322.8 39.6 315.9 303.0 294.5 408.0 521.2 511.0 294.3 303.1 482.2 309.2 -18.7 399.0 320.8 310.9 312.9 367.7 290.2 -23.4 479.8 452.4 313.1 520.6 297.6 414.6 403.4 443.7 322.4 318.6 513.8 303.5 511.6 509.0 -18.8 463.2 411.4 329.4 424.1 447.8 289.9 386.7 506.6 505.3 414.9 433.5 390.1 440.1 413.2 305.2 463.4 307.6 284.4 314.6 367.6 311.3 473. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.3 48.9 484.7 315.1 321.9 532.5 .7 300.4 290.3 -29.5 484.7 48.0 416.9 424.0 296.4 329.9 384.4 328.3 396.5 441.2 398.9 378.4 310.8 465.5 400.8 386.0 527.9 403.5 412.9 285.5 421.8 53.9 302.7 320.6 313.5 293.3 485.4 382.0 537.7 513.0 292.4 319.2 -22.8 284.6 383.9 309.5 287.0 319.9 481.0 508.0 -21.0 448.0 298.8 315.0 389.4 489.8 412.9 437.3 379.6 384.2 392.4 378.4 294.1 484.5 300.1 389.0 312.7 297.3 -26.8 382.2 291.6 404.5 417.8 313.4 30.5 501.3 388.7 483.2 385.9 430.7 290.7 366.0 436.1 368.1 37.9 299.3 436.6 434.7 514.5 372.9 302.4 301.2 47.5 47.6 473.8 462.6 426.2 514.3 486.6 398.0 397.5 317.1 411.1 463.0 459.2 324.0 463.0 319.2 285.0 539.0 414.8 380.3 327.0 50.9 385.1 329.6 386.4 370.0 518.7 421.8 329.2 33.2 434.5 317.1 402.5 309.9 470.2 420.7 445.83 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 373.0 418.9 -31.9 428.9 407.3 403.3 455.4 311.1 503.7 452.7 494.1 461.7 502.6 450.2 295.7 495.0 449.4 443.4 520.7 301.4 427.4 318.8 415.5 460.3 304.4 455.2 389.4 396.9 333.1 297.9 298.8 318.0 478.3 299.0 371.2 491.6 424.8 30.3 293.9 455.9 308.7 516.8 399.8 495.8 401.5 416.9 399.5 37.2 426.0 532.9 434.9 428.2 317.4 454.8 513.5 461.6 395.5 471.8 368.4 428.1 283.1 416.4 287.8 307.7 475.1 396.8 433.6 306.1 331.2 410.9 486.4 300.6 385.4 365.5 503.2 416.1 459.0 535.3 34.0 427.7 309.8 375.1 422.3 405.5 494.8 435.8 49.4 297.7 457.4 50.3 456.1 381.9 509.3 310.9 292.2 454.0 -24.1 299.8 384.6 324.2 372.1 407.6 446.8 303.7 388.0 525.6 292.3 425.1 -28.9 307.5 303.1 385.1 303.1 486.8 466.3 316.3 327.1 305.6 52.4 387.5 304.2 492.3 314.3 315.0 407.7 507.4 409.1 460.8 400.8 287.9 522.1 51.2 300.0 293.8 300.6 28.7 475.2 311.0 285.8 372.9 335.8 454.9 301.9 435.1 417.1 386.8 35.8 326.7 325.9 54.6 436.8 411.8 296.4 511.6 488.3 308.5 494.5 32.7 309.9 300.0 366.6 436.2 298.1 404.3 366.3 384.6 312.0 387.8 409.4 405.5 308.9 297.2 421.8 479.9 313.2 400.4 302.0 530.8 307.2 307.8 293.3 503.0 382.5 -30.5 306.0 483.5 387.4 470.8 405.4 470.9 313.4 335.4 304.0 423.4 325.7 484.3 443.6 289.7 297.6 298.6 488.1 502.1 426.4 291.8 371.1 423.1 308.3 371.6 435.2 390.4 292.2 393.2 423.1 404.2 306.7 456.1 461.1 500.6 327.6 308.8 316.0 307.6 456.4 290.5 422.9 427.3 302.9 324.7 437.6 447.8 391.8 392.4 299.8 507.5 313.2 301.1 365.4 501.6 371.1 401.7 304.0 380.4 292.9 449.1 323.0 443.7 305.8 421.3 292.4 496.8 390.1 330.3 428.6 299.1 302.7 29.0 377.2 312.6 301.8 310.2 434.8 493.2 326.0 542.2 321.3 430.9 379.6 389.3 39.8 379.9 320.4 55.0 302.9 316.4 486.3 429.7 306.6 379.2 416.2 422.2 469.0 444.5 426.5 285.7 485.9 394.8 454.0 514.9 412.5 415.2 291.2 338.8 376.4 303.0 524.7 397.1 287.4 410.0 303.1 393.1 312.9 392.1 501.3 430.3 486.6 441.5 421.2 323.2 337.1 475.6 419.4 418.1 409.9 311.7 406.7 291.9 375.5 512.5 319.1 410.6 286.1 451.8 474.6 315.4 312.0 516.7 381.5 500.2 400.0 318.2 421.8 317.9 398.5 320.1 484.7 443.4 315.1 309.1 479.8 471.9 327.2 299.4 499.1 296.6 302.6 323.5 367.7 299.7 394.2 326.0 321.2 389.1 331.2 332.1 376.5 393.1 476.6 512.8 319.1 518.9 374.6 477.4 390.6 471.3 394.9 388.7 370.6 439.4 468.9 407.8 286.1 315.9 495.8 410.9 283.4 455.7 476.2 322.0 378.6 288.0 429.4 301.1 454.9 440.4 404.8 469.3 397.8 -18.7 317.6 402.9 305.0 390.7 -25.1 314.3 399.6 388.6 428.5 394.5 305.0 288.9 395.2 294.2 407.7 34.9 417.0 324.3 504.2 497.9 468.3 323.4 316.4 395.7 306.3 449.5 431.6 463.5 318.1 370.7 517.2 412.1 510.5 453.2 385.4 396.3 333.8 511.3 315.4 373.4 381.6 497.7 319.4 529.7 301.1 508.9 308.7 312.3 284.1 420.9 -18.9 295.8 307.4 305.3 525.0 424.0 382.3 289.2 478.8 304.7 462.6 295.2 441.9 307.2 461.1 406.8 396.7 399.1 489.1 414.6 478.7 295.8 417.4 376.4 298.6 374.6 308.5 380.1 395.5 395.3 287.9 384.0 544.4 394.5 433.0 498.5 496.1 336.3 500.5 314.1 304.4 308.8 409.0 296.0 484.5 290.3 326.1 332.8 431.7 306.4 336.0 419.0 293.1 433.3 493.3 312.5 458.5 386.8 412.0 456.2 335.4 321.9 297.4 527.2 448.8 406.8 411.6 -18.5 455.1 284.9 371.9 513.4 288.1 316.7 470.8 314.3 308.0 541.4 309.8 401.

4 376.6 421.2 413.9 659.3 512.5 385.8 412.0 653.4 399.0 541.2 637.1 397.1 -18.9 389.5 541.8 547.9 679.1 579.3 377.0 530.7 687.4 669.5 631.9 552.5 503.8 507.4 516.6 391.4 637.2 539.7 401.1 518.8 567.7 424.0 32.7 392.6 52.0 407.6 668.1 554.9 421.3 652.2 380.0 397.8 522.3 680.5 392.2 503.8 35.7 612.5 37.3 426.5 550.9 569.4 424.2 577.9 578.6 525.0 405.3 587.4 410.2 552.7 34.6 434.2 529.7 504.0 403.1 516.0 562.5 -22.0 525.4 632.5 398.6 668.0 631.5 681.6 614.4 379.6 673.2 392.4 -23.2 518.4 392.4 410.9 517.7 562.1 644.9 521.0 387.0 387.9 499.6 422.2 511.1 421.8 375.1 669.8 693.7 499.2 610.7 424.5 526.7 395.1 419.6 383.5 664.3 506.9 516.8 486.5 433.6 404.7 525.0 401.3 39.4 680.8 380.1 428.6 420.9 409.9 428.2 402.5 417.6 423.4 413.6 432.1 544.1 37.3 629.1 437.8 624.6 646.2 552.2 433.1 420.8 540.1 623.2 33.5 -18.1 562.1 402.2 410.0 666.0 406.1 617.2 388.8 578.0 36.7 610.9 396.1 406.1 553.7 398.7 381.7 394.3 385.1 -29.5 685.5 442.9 414.9 382.0 562.7 417.8 594.0 377.8 518.1 661.3 623.7 376.9 409.4 664.4 578.5 520.6 656.6 659.8 -25.1 604.3 392.9 405.8 606.8 594.4 624.0 27.2 492.4 537.5 588.0 557.2 596.6 681.3 409.4 545.3 517.4 593.4 546.1 588.5 618.1 538.2 696.7 643.2 47.6 406.0 618.4 585.7 395.3 531.9 513.1 578.8 585.8 404.0 505.3 48.8 30.5 499.1 486.0 493.8 381. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.8 548.7 590.6 605.1 376.3 587.2 581.7 547.3 602.9 402.6 441.5 400.8 553.0 385.3 437.8 658.4 573.2 420.1 594.5 511.9 564.6 403.9 511.5 593.8 587.5 529.1 379.1 544.2 655.2 518.2 585.5 552.3 34.6 498.3 505.3 536.6 413.7 569.6 396.1 502.7 546.8 499.4 585.4 50.2 553.0 646.0 599.3 -18.5 420.3 387.3 -20.4 569.6 510.5 644.4 582.3 414.2 591.9 381.5 595.7 426.6 612.8 513.6 425.7 635.2 658.8 667.5 518.7 394.5 436.9 656.2 645.0 400.5 47.8 383.0 679.0 538.8 524.0 50.4 394.3 423.7 396.9 420.8 408.4 624.0 634.5 622.0 395.0 646.4 386.5 504.0 444.5 398.2 440.5 605.0 570.0 391.4 414.2 418.8 530.8 635.0 558.3 439.2 493.1 413.9 601.5 418.9 412.2 399.7 383.3 -26.3 539.6 425.2 52.7 406.9 509.1 657.2 395.6 414.5 486.9 627.3 524.0 700.5 501.0 692.0 375.5 587.3 626.6 384.1 559.3 570.1 398.2 567.2 426.8 402.6 629.1 533.2 406.0 662.2 606.6 33.9 404.6 640.6 418.2 498.5 424.8 391.3 614.8 526.1 497.2 381.2 551.2 423.1 413.6 519.6 411.9 632.9 548.3 438.0 683.1 389.3 416.4 680.4 497.4 649.8 529.8 526.3 620.4 418.5 395.7 390.4 562.7 29.1 658.3 430.6 666.8 414.2 388.0 711.1 545.1 644.0 514.4 419.2 554.9 521.4 394.6 547.5 -21.3 409.4 402.6 404.9 413.9 412.7 531.3 397.2 432.1 569.8 421.8 417.4 504.8 53.9 -19.0 547.7 384.7 504.5 508.0 383.4 407.9 393.7 377.4 55.0 396.9 656.5 412.4 586.4 561.8 539.7 537.7 385.2 539.2 398.5 438.4 393.9 54.9 430.9 637.0 502.5 408.1 671.2 613.5 596.0 710.9 411.9 602.4 621.1 391.2 410.5 544.3 425.6 414.0 392.3 53.1 432.1 501.5 496.1 506.6 571.4 615.6 427.3 526.6 568.7 609.4 420.2 412.9 599.5 624.6 666.0 510.1 415.7 568.1 607.0 689.1 382.7 383.8 517.8 554.8 596.6 515.2 29.1 561.4 413.6 532.1 399.7 669.3 407.4 401.1 612.2 668.3 486.3 572.8 638.1 635.8 504.3 517.2 406.5 586.3 510.1 571.0 695.7 410.5 553.4 383.0 551.6 636.2 680.4 634.2 -30.6 614.8 -18.8 423.3 546.3 521.3 405.6 394.5 635.5 612.7 555.1 586.7 657.7 379.6 509.1 422.5 421.5 492.7 428.1 504.6 543.0 654.8 415.5 391.9 507.9 529.3 562.2 576.6 399.6 659.0 386.0 706.4 667.0 628.8 49.9 397.3 397.5 524.8 416.6 419.4 -18.1 28.9 424.6 612.2 488.0 555.9 539.8 644.1 568.5 661.0 409.1 605.0 686.1 51.8 425.2 503.5 378.1 576.2 636.3 416.0 531.7 393.3 656.7 409.8 605.0 603.1 620.5 393.5 406.7 -27.7 542.3 531.7 48.7 560.6 634.1 499.4 391.3 421.6 422.9 400.4 497.0 596.2 535.5 424.5 380.3 575.3 416.9 436.9 689.0 392.6 407.4 530.9 613.7 531.9 400.4 487.4 604.5 635.1 415.6 570.0 396.0 381.3 615.1 528.2 676.6 379.0 705.2 38.1 642.7 604.3 431.8 594.5 51.0 485.8 520.1 656.0 435.8 560.8 593.8 648.6 695.5 430.5 397.9 668.8 389.5 494.0 527.9 389.9 533.0 409.5 545.8 636.7 493.7 382.7 682.8 659.4 386.6 565.8 492.0 573.0 622.6 619.4 678.5 388.4 30.2 396.3 415.8 640.9 532.9 392.1 395.9 614.6 386.1 546.0 594.0 698.8 511.6 416.3 408.6 532.1 530.6 698.4 597.7 598.0 535.6 553.3 649.3 417.7 412.5 402.7 405.3 389.6 435.3 606.4 568.0 423.6 28.7 427.3 566.4 662.6 534.8 612.2 505.3 538.6 509.0 702.4 525.2 386.7 536.3 514.9 676.0 610.6 517.6 668.8 515.0 417.7 590.8 650.6 513.6 565.8 -18.5 505.0 388.8 425.3 404.0 592.5 382.5 626.0 -18.5 549.8 398.9 491.8 512.4 657.3 684.7 643.8 595.6 518.0 516.3 420.9 402.8 629.2 528.0 528.6 405.5 606.9 651.7 578.1 559.6 420.6 512.2 425.5 397.8 387.8 584.9 376.7 487.4 443.3 604.2 417.5 488.7 -18.0 398.7 392.7 414.5 625.3 511.3 395.1 567.5 512.6 434.4 577.8 535.4 576.7 399.1 490.8 682.6 613.3 547.1 568.7 651.4 561.4 603.7 646.9 674.5 429.8 494.5 396.2 416.1 587.3 646.8 546.2 625.7 516.9 379.0 674.84 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 512.1 679.2 414.3 408.4 537.2 524.3 523.6 641.3 403.8 506.9 551.5 403.8 582.0 379.7 428.6 574.3 682.2 410.9 430.9 -31.5 493.0 410.6 538.8 554.9 613.1 515.2 376.8 394.8 403.9 -28.0 708.2 431.6 557.4 567.5 377.9 -18.6 433.8 625.6 666.7 389.7 576.5 32.2 602.8 405.8 385.7 522.1 537.4 389.1 595.3 420.1 414.5 539.8 39.9 532.9 615.5 389.5 554.6 585.1 510.4 36.5 594.9 487.8 422.9 645.7 537.7 495.1 560.5 406.8 416.8 497.6 389.6 38.7 388.6 404.9 396.5 405.2 -18.3 538.7 579.1 546.9 399.3 499.0 408.7 623.8 567.8 395.1 388.6 673.1 429.1 492.0 687.4 493.3 563.9 682.4 583.6 621.2 640.6 633.8 399.1 402.8 569.5 409.7 576.6 645.8 561.8 586.9 591.6 .2 575.3 417.1 624.5 603.8 561.9 401.8 509.4 616.1 416.3 669.0 691.5 391.2 -24.7 681.1 588.5 424.0 505.8 545.9 31.6 439.0 427.8 412.6 402.8 577.2 401.8 497.4 579.6 523.8 581.7 524.1 577.4 599.1 607.0 684.4 524.5 560.5 560.0 405.1 385.3 671.1 560.1 542.6 422.0 401.2 666.4 411.8 588.4 647.7 485.0 399.9 391.7 512.3 385.5 421.9 523.8 391.3 637.1 402.8 393.0 380.8 386.8 404.9 498.1 524.1 424.1 424.1 550.

8 414.4 55.9 670.2 444.8 646.2 653.6 608.2 560.6 527.7 645.8 546.5 444.4 676.0 521.7 411.1 541.0 404.6 409.0 627.7 398.8 719.5 32.7 584.8 573.1 628.8 637.0 467.4 524.1 647.9 417.4 428.5 409.0 -18.1 447.2 717.1 28.5 416.5 526.0 699.8 449.6 526.5 584.2 592.8 53.0 410.9 425.2 581.5 524.0 533.0 27.4 578.6 455.4 583.4 36.7 533.5 676.3 541.5 544.4 634.4 514.2 432.7 449.2 725.8 442.7 428.8 608.7 566.1 447.2 542.3 593.4 525.6 566.3 415.8 520.1 425.6 586.5 401.9 462.2 639.8 545.9 419.2 433.7 658.6 670.2 694.3 655.4 440.3 649.8 -19.8 536.3 450.4 443.4 411.0 584.0 694.3 412.1 656.4 593.7 412.4 557.6 692.0 593.9 719.3 567.7 441.1 422.7 532.7 600.2 698.2 415.9 -23.3 518.5 413.0 624.7 722.2 600.6 418.3 550.8 713.8 421.8 723.7 731.8 409.1 646.7 564.2 423.7 582.1 422.5 538.7 598.0 703.1 454.8 666.3 560.7 439.7 417.6 601.0 736.2 416.2 443.4 602.5 647.8 435.5 37.4 -20.4 447.0 605.7 585.9 539.6 719.8 711.7 399.0 432.4 604.4 439.4 399.9 647.1 579.7 409.6 406.7 463.4 406.0 406.1 546.5 409.5 410.6 554.6 635.4 617.2 544.2 420.0 447.3 680.5 574.9 31.5 555.85 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 398.6 648.6 708.2 592.8 646.7 432.2 686.7 410.1 424.3 34.4 705.0 716.7 464.1 -30.3 568.7 515.0 583.4 578.3 604.0 572.0 639.8 657.0 716.3 407.1 438.0 591.7 414.2 .7 521.3 401.2 431.2 599.8 524.0 677.7 451.3 48.9 417.3 419.2 682.0 560.0 396.9 418.8 441.5 433.5 673.6 675.2 637.2 457.1 407.5 718.6 591.3 556.7 416.0 437.1 565.4 452.2 447.3 425.0 668.6 447.1 401. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.4 652.8 413.4 546.3 419.0 670.0 436.2 554.0 724.9 602.3 526.5 548.6 415.5 591.6 396.6 667.8 576.1 435.4 607.5 451.3 590.5 601.2 444.1 412.1 37.6 570.7 29.6 443.8 457.6 28.8 397.4 669.4 693.8 459.1 683.9 537.5 437.1 575.3 632.1 576.2 533.4 418.9 411.5 663.0 743.0 731.7 440.5 711.1 400.9 680.8 396.9 706.4 569.1 577.3 614.3 592.9 513.9 635.5 434.4 528.7 431.1 555.9 626.8 555.2 619.9 448.9 439.6 702.2 428.8 672.3 396.9 443.0 727.8 704.2 643.1 577.0 637.0 50.2 521.3 -18.2 657.1 420.7 594.4 424.3 427.9 658.3 658.8 407.8 548.9 648.6 403.3 424.2 537.3 553.7 446.3 404.9 608.5 432.8 454.5 659.2 413.6 542.7 34.7 420.4 402.7 567.9 443.0 440.4 541.0 583.0 426.1 403.0 662.3 611.0 713.7 696.0 435.5 446.1 402.5 412.0 426.7 552.0 621.2 620.0 582.2 627.0 512.3 539.2 555.9 452.3 448.8 444.1 448.1 465.9 654.5 638.2 545.9 423.9 527.7 736.3 39.7 -18.8 407.8 649.1 664.6 519.9 430.6 430.3 559.1 535.2 680.6 700.5 685.3 719.8 706.9 627.0 445.7 682.9 424.3 667.8 597.0 739.3 534.2 402.3 551.1 466.2 561.7 428.2 613.2 527.3 591.4 417.7 593.1 429.0 435.5 679.3 710.2 418.6 569.0 -26.8 672.0 409.1 546.9 406.6 642.0 36.1 577.7 431.4 520.6 418.2 660.0 397.9 400.9 418.8 35.8 599.3 589.6 706.6 553.4 400.8 427.5 412.8 401.5 416.2 429.8 450.2 440.8 619.9 444.7 435.7 679.1 419.8 660.2 629.3 710.3 594.2 413.8 574.8 436.0 582.6 52.3 608.6 38.9 624.4 577.0 535.5 -18.4 -18.7 443.3 715.7 547.7 593.4 718.7 414.8 577.8 39.8 693.1 679.5 628.1 533.1 659.1 588.9 620.7 538.8 575.4 450.4 517.0 540.5 534.1 464.2 413.3 421.2 423.8 514.5 545.6 437.8 -28.1 406.6 689.6 660.7 423.0 639.9 404.6 561.7 434.2 704.2 638.9 720.2 692.1 571.4 50.8 539.7 433.2 533.4 559.3 717.0 408.3 426.2 456.8 30.3 572.9 569.2 445.2 424.8 575.6 442.7 627.6 560.7 622.1 400.0 568.7 692.0 584.5 397.9 537.1 619.7 48.3 561.9 438.4 416.2 567.5 431.6 559.2 33.8 540.0 592.6 442.7 424.3 439.4 439.0 468.7 649.6 420.9 544.1 673.2 682.7 559.0 560.4 574.3 569.6 682.9 641.8 440.6 539.2 455.9 447.7 543.3 459.6 553.1 599.1 460.0 733.8 560.6 513.8 618.3 687.2 669.7 729.8 688.2 513.5 576.4 703.6 33.0 591.0 431.2 734.3 617.4 718.3 427.0 668.1 631.5 553.8 694.2 426.6 532.8 420.8 -18.9 405.2 455.0 547.4 439.0 661.7 654.2 569.1 427.0 538.1 717.0 747.9 605.0 750.6 417.6 -18.7 417.2 531.0 567.7 422.7 406.6 431.2 706.8 401.7 445.1 565.7 458.6 447.0 431.9 404.5 540.3 629.2 660.9 403.9 615.4 610.4 697.9 519.1 420.7 635.1 524.7 458.2 411.8 -18.0 585.5 436.0 32.6 621.8 691.5 445.6 444.4 -27.8 404.9 554.8 601.1 681.1 525.9 398.6 657.4 672.6 462.0 617.3 407.4 616.2 531.6 546.1 598.5 563.1 514.5 406.8 629.2 601.2 38.2 47.4 414.0 526.2 424.5 620.0 704.3 435.3 544.8 553.0 439.4 584.8 417.5 419.5 577.8 532.2 607.3 408.9 682.0 553.1 51.7 664.5 575.4 699.8 632.6 414.0 749.2 455.2 397.0 432.3 522.1 620.7 525.6 639.4 646.9 702.8 428.1 -18.6 404.0 427.8 669.2 541.3 539.8 460.6 694.5 632.4 599.0 720.9 430.0 551.5 453.0 426.8 591.1 721.9 54.2 52.3 440.8 646.1 687.6 419.4 558.5 410.6 704.5 681.3 658.4 410.1 652.3 436.6 544.5 532.7 643.1 610.3 695.2 532.9 -31.0 524.3 409.6 557.9 416.7 598.6 400.2 417.0 636.3 609.2 421.5 557.2 29.2 448.1 446.3 640.4 549.8 443.3 567.7 609.3 626.3 452.5 427.0 449.2 576.0 675.0 430.1 520.4 609.0 421.2 624.5 51.1 410.8 617.0 610.3 724.7 680.5 449.6 607.0 627.2 439.6 651.8 600.6 626.5 638.3 670.7 625.5 695.6 564.5 413.6 531.9 444.6 437.8 454.7 692.8 628.6 407.3 435.7 425.0 745.0 552.7 452.1 530.0 692.1 414.7 551.1 588.1 596.7 451.7 512.9 554.7 581.4 637.5 519.3 607.5 547.8 49.9 432.7 443.5 700.2 410.5 423.1 421.7 426.2 519.1 417.4 30.5 408.3 428.1 618.4 424.0 645.1 617.0 530.4 627.3 437.1 568.7 622.4 440.7 583.7 581.3 582.0 566.7 630.2 537.1 428.4 533.0 741.5 432.4 461.4 -25.8 437.8 685.7 649.0 433.3 538.7 610.9 421.8 435.6 446.7 563.9 586.5 600.0 428.1 641.2 423.5 727.8 708.4 434.0 542.1 619.7 719.7 558.2 433.3 512.1 611.3 420.4 593.8 425.1 671.5 600.3 415.0 559.2 437.8 580.2 665.3 403.7 -24.2 47.1 596.9 453.8 615.8 419.4 563.2 647.9 638.6 421.3 671.5 733.6 420.0 -29.3 436.2 540.0 437.5 456.5 514.7 636.0 445.4 414.5 545.6 561.5 619.3 644.4 425.6 431.7 588.9 549.9 550.3 438.0 414.7 461.2 447.5 602.3 442.8 702.9 402.5 690.2 438.4 598.0 705.0 520.2 414.3 552.0 419.7 568.1 -18.0 445.7 592.4 441.0 609.2 656.7 679.5 428.9 569.9 426.0 546.2 433.5 576.6 612.7 695.7 671.0 648.0 529.9 -22.7 -21.9 705.3 658.3 53.1 609.2 429.9 531.

9 784.7 567.7 549.9 566.8 768.0 712.8 553.4 55.7 781.6 33.9 789.8 576.6 538.4 683.7 706.6 918.3 34.6 794.1 564.9 570.1 776.8 589.1 709.8 871.5 781.4 719.3 771.4 36.7 562.0 561.4 709.8 879.2 711.0 782.0 573.5 586.2 872.2 705.0 757.2 580.9 830.5 560.9 859.6 746.9 890.0 546.0 728.6 937.5 730.1 935.7 541.4 551.1 830.1 51.8 843.3 801.4 720.1 683.9 54.6 -30.9 719.2 544.4 804.8 516.2 760.8 714.4 528.3 873.0 601.7 590.9 541.4 536.2 889.7 543.2 749.7 529.0 549.7 34.0 733.0 542.4 576.5 858.3 769.0 843.4 885.4 693.0 746.5 536.7 528.2 751.6 547.3 782.7 566.7 547.5 519.9 739.9 693.7 679.9 570.4 780.4 808.9 913.6 524.8 49.3 837.8 519.7 717.2 896.5 708.7 .1 667.5 565.7 808.6 865.0 555.8 761.1 523.9 795.2 525.2 792.6 730.3 874.7 899.3 529.8 694.0 521.4 572.9 537.2 561.7 906.7 851.8 35.6 525.0 554.3 523.1 523.8 521.9 580.6 905.3 737.2 566.2 547.0 749.7 839.7 515.1 692.8 -18.2 912.5 535.5 587.5 571.3 689.7 920.4 688.7 848.3 594.6 684.1 578.8 579.7 593.7 539.2 892.7 -18.6 798.3 564.8 594.2 554.3 882.0 556.9 842.5 703.4 -18.9 868.1 537.9 778.3 545.2 832.8 811.3 695.1 581.3 53.0 967.1 920.7 702.8 751.1 541.9 873.7 927.3 805.2 520.8 933.7 548.4 542.1 535.3 516.8 812.7 683.2 554.4 676.3 -19.8 552.8 917.7 -26.2 701.6 582.0 771.2 541.7 711.1 577.8 692.6 878.3 904.6 693.8 540.5 543.3 710.3 560.1 37.1 677.6 722.8 723.5 917.6 597.7 703.5 760.3 833.2 703.0 532.1 529.3 886.5 859.8 857.1 693.7 584.9 551.0 676.2 772.7 554.1 854.1 741.2 927.9 534.9 31.3 842.9 744.0 47.3 531.7 774.5 580.6 750.6 733.5 566.4 915.9 576.4 924.6 702.6 860.5 849.1 821.7 709.7 843.0 689.7 814.7 930.2 537.1 730.6 575.4 844.3 764.0 -22.2 818.4 541.8 711.6 738.5 933.8 552.8 761.4 887.0 545.0 544.5 817.0 36.4 859.1 538.6 28.2 909.9 750.3 779.9 794.0 803.8 762.7 719.0 960.0 905.9 771.5 885.8 545.8 581.8 691.9 -21.8 595.8 701.4 567.0 956.7 48.4 788.4 876.7 532.9 536.6 566.6 547.6 561.4 -28.0 541.4 912.9 572.2 925.4 586.5 739.5 832.4 727.7 588.1 727.0 948.7 856.0 947.4 842.3 554.9 766.4 516.0 669.1 818.5 523.7 711.9 819.2 697.8 916.5 876.5 -18.6 729.9 882.9 758.4 820.4 30.1 540.8 720.9 723.3 740.4 905.3 562.8 889.9 903.1 929.5 845.9 883.8 559.7 553.6 742.2 712.4 915.2 795.7 582.3 676.0 528.6 577.3 577.8 725.0 785.5 842.3 749.2 572.8 675.5 722.2 773.3 758.1 694.6 567.9 -23.0 724.4 948.0 945.5 549.3 729.9 560.6 550.2 582.4 866.3 538.4 685.3 -25.8 772.5 888.4 853.1 857.4 690.7 546.9 -31.8 752.1 807.3 863.8 840.9 668.6 552.8 831.7 898.1 857.5 51.0 958.4 910.5 596.9 886.3 563.8 584.4 531.0 536.4 600.9 759.4 902.0 938.7 589.2 520.0 559.0 533.9 574.5 37.0 954.6 759.2 688.9 577.8 585.0 887.9 739.5 937.2 530.6 791.2 693.4 557.3 552.8 549.1 917.6 551.3 546.9 533.3 699.9 684.9 818.5 592.1 591.0 570.2 515.4 567.9 577.9 760.0 827.8 819.0 806.9 580.8 715.7 571.3 751.5 555.2 570.7 782.7 796.3 770.5 558.1 28.1 687.7 944.1 529.6 520.8 833.3 527.4 50.9 920.4 724.6 551.0 522.3 532.9 687.8 527.0 738.1 570.2 729.4 524.3 680.7 783.9 -18.4 533.5 832.2 589.5 938.4 828.9 572.2 702.7 591.3 550.7 598.9 713.2 685.2 -18.3 518.3 894.0 898.4 772.2 588.9 583.7 825.1 516.9 698.7 574.4 520.6 545.5 546.2 567.7 531.6 533.2 750.2 823.2 52.2 556.1 830.6 527.0 536.6 759.2 709.9 546.2 817.5 887.6 599.8 560.5 904.6 -24.4 753.5 667.7 805.2 565.7 545.5 764.1 762.1 702.6 749.7 747.1 935.3 39.0 694.5 752.4 867.3 859.0 743.8 569.5 677.5 694.0 753.8 930.5 816.8 938.9 562.3 572.9 938.9 583.4 678.2 759.9 523.3 48.1 558.8 783.0 844.2 582.2 744.6 516.4 577.5 801.5 806.5 854.8 697.1 740.4 817.3 906.9 550.0 556.2 793.7 886.6 38.5 831.7 532.9 710.8 30.6 555.3 545.4 740.5 719.8 532.9 858.8 524.4 522.9 690.3 573.6 580.1 839.6 886.9 563.7 875.9 567.6 781.0 698.8 -18.9 727.7 576.9 769.8 758.7 777.4 535.4 555.3 781.7 836.4 769.1 -27.7 863.2 816.7 721.1 875.3 728.8 556.7 520.5 920.2 819.0 780.6 -29.4 870.4 847.9 538.8 942.0 791.4 734.4 574.2 733.4 807.6 814.2 528.8 544.3 744.0 781.3 543.7 668.3 674.2 739.5 546.4 537.3 571.7 571.2 550.8 568.6 818.7 771.9 729.7 676.1 845.0 579.7 567.8 872.7 550.4 717.0 942.4 578.5 701.6 523.3 669.2 533.4 830.7 697.4 667.0 966.4 806.0 685.2 935.7 582.6 -18.6 902.4 547.3 721.9 832.9 537.5 692.0 27.2 47.5 720.6 676.3 682.4 760.5 740.6 545.9 528.8 775.2 725.3 564.2 550.3 581.7 552.6 680.7 -20.7 556.5 530.8 703.6 587.9 672.5 562.0 902.7 578.3 936.2 668.8 895.8 561.0 720.0 951.9 721.1 857.0 918.0 552.8 53.8 585.8 808.8 872.7 780.0 738.7 822.86 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.8 677.7 570.5 581.8 919.5 532.2 33.2 719.6 859.5 527.2 531.9 775.8 560.9 702.8 806.2 757.5 668.8 885.5 851.8 585.6 531.5 880.6 714.9 904.1 844.5 547.2 556.7 541.0 860.8 682.2 831.3 835.1 704.6 783.5 563.6 731.4 779.8 730.3 555.0 684.1 532.0 962.0 578.7 817.5 515.1 923.0 519.1 593.8 551.5 735.3 749.2 794.0 935.5 711.8 555.0 557.0 749.8 739.1 888.2 796.1 844.0 721.5 570.6 546.8 667.2 38.4 540.0 524.3 519.4 695.5 751.2 729.0 805.5 833.9 716.5 542.9 529.2 869.9 520.4 919.7 29.7 937.7 700.2 858.2 576.7 861.0 684.2 566.8 740.5 528.0 582.8 844.6 559.8 542.2 918.1 761.6 793.4 843.5 561.3 738.8 39.1 531.4 936.6 534.1 558.0 699.0 807.2 816.4 755.5 760.7 583.6 792.0 704.4 709.8 773.7 842.5 571.2 29.6 727.1 514.4 945.0 50.7 678.7 807.2 536.6 537.6 541.4 541.8 767.3 684.6 771.6 542.3 707.8 706.1 675. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.5 685.6 874.4 908.0 795.5 556.6 555.0 731.5 795.6 529.7 704.9 770.1 903.1 532.7 527.1 804.2 524.4 856.2 571.7 794.5 772.2 901.9 810.8 569.7 728.6 581.0 964.3 932.4 562.1 551.6 52.6 892.0 874.7 683.0 535.2 691.2 833.7 576.2 792.6 829.8 527.0 710.0 787.0 571.9 715.1 764.1 720.5 32.3 742.5 537.3 514.1 585.2 564.6 537.7 940.3 574.4 702.4 782.8 669.0 530.3 539.2 825.7 685.6 735.0 537.5 873.8 830.0 560.9 577.3 564.6 759.5 693.6 770.3 -18.6 819.1 560.7 903.6 542.4 582.6 786.4 901.0 32.4 793.1 -18.1 568.7 888.6 710.4 542.4 874.8 596.7 798.0 566.6 799.4 754.2 918.7 806.0 525.0 515.9 817.9 793.

7 966.0 570.6 572.9 767.4 28.0 787.5 818.6 738.9 732.5 742.2 813.2 806.8 745.6 594.0 836.2 821.3 -18.1 960.7 848.1 553.7 812.4 901.9 906.0 878.9 906.7 920.0 -23.0 -20.7 800.6 891.0 -29.6 731.6 36.9 703.6 865.0 -21.2 756.9 584.0 864.4 571.3 937.1 554.4 714.3 597.6 982.8 767.4 742.2 616.4 627.3 733.6 815.5 -18.8 809.2 758.1 615.1 598.8 791.0 -26.1 552.9 585.6 564.6 763.8 633.5 793.87 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.6 592.0 971.2 563.7 564.9 718.6 862.1 751.8 627.6 552.5 895.9 38.6 779.1 578.2 569.6 720.6 784.4 592.0 714.1 51.5 623.1 932.9 949.4 731.0 804.8 576.4 558.2 703.4 806.1 987.5 968.0 991.8 709. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.9 988.2 544.9 599.0 -25.4 570.4 563.5 963.2 604.1 732.9 591.2 603.3 905.9 847.4 892.3 601.5 577.6 1019.9 588.0 30.3 950.9 986.2 891.8 748.2 745.4 617.3 575.1 37.0 800.7 743.6 571.2 954.2 829.6 595.0 50.0 562.5 769.4 783.7 565.3 53.4 1009.5 873.0 -24.9 965.7 792.6 721.3 904.6 52.5 562.0 852.3 790.2 558.4 798.0 589.6 1000.7 732.2 823.4 600.7 748.3 988.3 727.8 730.6 595.8 -18.1 878.0 722.2 824.9 989.5 572.8 553.8 781.1 552.6 814.2 729.9 871.8 556.1 920.0 544.3 720.2 34.8 608.9 888.1 883.9 876.8 744.9 800.8 628.0 948.3 576.1 1006.1 748.0 551.8 577.1 857.6 780.7 885.1 564.7 556.5 952.4 773.2 796.3 778.5 607.2 853.5 584.7 995.9 576.3 850.2 592.4 588.0 743.2 549.3 812.1 888.9 999.8 790.5 556.2 956.0 831.9 591.5 562.3 737.5 51.8 967.9 997.3 878.6 542.3 813.0 -30.9 582.9 851.3 39.1 776.2 978.7 761.5 32.5 1013.8 585.7 863.9 813.9 861.3 553.7 815.3 811.0 618.7 545.0 837.9 577.3 914.9 952.4 612.0 917.2 834.1 28.1 560.0 705.6 47.9 593.3 732.6 567.2 52.3 848.3 543.5 773.6 596.0 591.5 753.2 780.0 955.6 583.8 560.9 613.4 860.3 597.0 922.6 818.4 781.3 801.6 861.2 579.7 582.4 551.8 943.3 48.9 728.7 840.3 772.1 594.3 599.4 864.9 592.2 787.6 955.3 814.5 622.5 759.6 568.1 718.0 576.8 859.6 904.4 886.9 545.0 770.4 582.8 759.5 760.9 720.9 587.2 580.8 713.7 907.1 850.5 36.2 881.1 608.2 856.0 740.8 31.8 580.4 792.1 612.1 791.4 591.3 986.3 714.0 -18.9 916.4 586.9 721.2 617.0 603.3 715.0 27.4 609.5 990.6 877.3 772.2 618.6 890.1 -18.0 577.1 896.7 549.8 587.4 581.8 794.2 565.0 953.2 967.1 571.9 962.7 726.5 920.9 922.7 558.1 711.2 759.4 793.4 608.0 927.9 937.7 581.3 801.0 614.8 614.2 750.0 614.7 802.7 888.0 898.4 622.7 557.4 726.9 890.7 553.3 800.9 760.9 779.1 610.8 817.9 832.1 863.1 941.6 812.0 569.7 565.4 919.1 581.0 863.7 824.3 970.4 803.6 591.6 851.9 558.7 553.8 969.7 941.6 933.5 575.5 934.2 562.2 712.6 924.3 779.0 589.3 606.4 969.8 927.0 962.3 814.2 557.3 889.3 839.9 839.4 904.4 581.0 752.9 609.3 947.2 591.6 561.1 1017.6 601.5 730.5 876.8 873.6 937.2 620.7 570.4 981.6 573.1 782.6 968.3 559.0 980.1 769.1 767.0 590.8 929.2 851.3 548.6 626.6 571.3 29.8 544.3 585.0 877.1 983.3 952.0 -19.9 623.6 715.3 874.7 735.1 901.9 608.7 749.1 616.4 997.4 568.9 723.2 889.6 590.8 882.9 905.7 987.3 855.0 -27.4 580.4 923.4 804.7 994.4 610.6 585.2 969.7 722.7 864.7 566.9 712.4 749.4 791.3 561.0 558.2 835.0 1020.8 576.2 958.3 934.2 904.8 561.9 .1 953.2 869.9 549.8 885.0 603.5 768.9 572.0 778.1 774.7 843.1 607.6 852.3 828.5 595.4 572.0 749.4 907.7 923.3 625.5 29.9 552.3 761.2 936.8 573.3 615.8 849.8 889.4 574.0 859.7 801.3 614.2 755.3 735.6 560.9 822.2 945.3 802.2 611.8 704.2 907.2 845.1 613.0 34.2 605.5 725.2 566.4 975.2 581.0 634.6 559.0 879.7 912.3 723.4 549.9 -18.4 911.4 55.9 609.2 602.0 618.1 989.9 598.5 553.2 720.7 953.0 549.4 571.5 789.5 825.9 994.8 610.6 836.3 706.7 603.4 582.3 706.0 565.7 601.8 742.9 567.6 763.3 838.0 556.8 560.3 552.1 866.4 1015.2 567.4 621.2 825.9 776.4 823.6 560.2 620.4 758.5 785.5 548.9 574.2 603.9 812.9 581.9 745.5 614.4 838.6 576.6 575.9 610.8 543.5 824.6 850.7 839.6 551.1 580.1 985.3 774.8 862.8 904.1 587.1 728.8 768.7 878.2 585.8 620.0 906.1 923.8 594.2 598.9 816.1 561.0 614.3 779.4 598.9 824.1 585.3 567.5 988.3 748.1 593.0 562.9 876.0 968.3 609.1 557.5 713.5 970.6 589.7 -18.6 951.7 581.7 714.3 836.2 576.7 557.7 770.0 -22.7 562.2 936.4 579.8 53.1 566.2 721.6 742.1 599.6 815.7 605.3 785.8 938.6 732.0 971.4 705.6 617.1 730.3 890.0 935.7 48.4 592.9 825.3 779.8 833.3 803.8 760.5 734.1 826.5 759.5 905.3 764.8 876.9 836.9 921.7 837.9 579.8 592.3 740.2 47.0 566.1 606.5 954.5 806.4 765.5 585.5 601.4 -18.6 761.8 769.4 615.6 606.8 799.9 597.2 952.2 751.6 624.8 612.4 801.7 587.7 602.4 936.1 547.8 930.5 781.6 765.2 801.5 543.6 770.6 -18.7 566.6 741.1 822.9 560.9 911.0 826.5 930.2 990.0 -28.2 974.0 548.9 575.2 -18.5 544.5 790.7 569.6 816.8 781.4 761.8 750.7 705.6 796.7 879.2 877.0 893.6 595.7 607.9 903.0 622.2 32.4 879.7 612.2 767.8 1000.0 802.3 845.8 596.6 945.3 587.3 572.1 723.4 567.2 610.9 631.3 888.1 829.2 740.3 917.9 970.1 572.9 33.7 754.6 727.3 554.4 748.4 914.6 761.9 966.2 876.3 562.3 731.4 793.9 741.0 891.5 889.7 548.1 574.7 838.9 602.2 612.8 823.9 590.3 784.8 607.8 757.6 922.2 849.6 39.6 596.6 837.3 976.3 921.3 863.3 851.1 875.6 572.7 738.8 803.0 755.4 770.8 954.7 613.8 825.4 27.9 577.1 769.8 630.5 823.9 780.6 1011.3 826.6 37.1 570.0 801.4 808.5 839.4 613.2 568.1 586.1 549.8 575.6 597.4 723.5 601.4 30.2 582.0 794.6 769.1 543.0 740.1 792.8 632.1 868.1 604.1 729.1 597.6 614.6 603.4 834.9 740.5 921.7 567.1 587.8 547.1 704.5 722.5 704.1 591.6 706.8 936.8 604.6 906.8 586.6 987.7 599.8 781.3 716.1 760.4 721.2 724.9 597.7 566.5 842.8 33.8 566.7 38.0 557.8 778.0 908.5 603.5 561.9 601.8 720.9 758.3 579.5 850.9 864.6 813.9 959.3 583.0 556.9 934.6 609.8 49.4 558.1 575.4 583.6 572.6 628.5 978.5 891.6 1003.2 735.1 713.6 598.8 841.9 556.8 575.9 750.4 898.3 585.9 54.4 567.3 820.0 871.9 750.8 900.9 736.7 792.8 935.0 739.5 557.5 547.1 35.9 571.8 764.6 586.9 737.7 613.0 924.6 956.9 850.9 814.3 600.3 715.3 853.4 50.6 740.8 754.6 750.0 625.1 810.3 861.7 731.7 989.1 768.1 563.6 608.6 597.4 602.4 790.0 862.6 939.0 577.3 586.6 561.7 746.6 862.1 790.9 629.6 935.6 592.1 984.0 731.3 750.0 838.2 741.

3 706.9 729.9 718.4 741.7 736.4 700.0 700.0 -19.7 711.0 -29.9 694.6 707.3 724.4 36.3 713.9 709.4 30.9 724.6 724.2 741.5 709.7 732.4 720.0 -25.4 -18.1 51.9 727.8 739.0 711.1 28.8 39.0 732.7 694.2 734.7 -18.6 748.8 717.9 714.4 727.9 31.5 51.4 739.4 716.0 -30.5 713.9 715.0 714.9 699.4 711.3 720.6 700.1 712.8 35. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] -31.6 705.2 724.7 744.7 712.3 738.8 746.8 725.0 50.0 -26.8 693.9 54.0 36.8 713.8 745.0 .5 731.0 725.0 -20.0 706.1 729.6 38.1 716.4 720.0 699.8 717.8 722.0 -24.5 735.9 711.6 28.3 738.5 722.2 29.7 735.9 701.5 37.0 -27.5 721.6 -18.9 729.9 704.8 49.6 695.1 718.8 695.2 706.5 717.8 -18.8 27.9 710.6 734.7 701.0 716.7 701.1 706.3 730.6 731.4 55.0 737.7 34.3 716.6 734.2 -18.9 707.5 -18.6 33.3 39.0 694.5 711.5 694.0 717.88 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 705.1 717.2 695.0 -21.1 700.3 742.9 47.9 734.5 701.8 706.0 32.0 723.0 -22.6 725.2 52.7 48.5 730.4 731.4 717.0 -23.4 724.0 718.2 704.5 32.2 723.0 731.2 47.4 707.9 -18.5 712.7 723.8 700.1 710.1 698.4 703.9 712.5 740.2 718.0 728.6 52.7 712.8 30.7 724.6 732.5 742.2 717.0 749.7 730.4 722.1 -18.9 730.8 713.3 718.5 709.1 724.8 53.7 747.2 711.3 694.5 706.3 706.5 723.1 37.0 -28.2 712.7 717.2 730.1 702.0 696.0 -18.9 705.9 726.1 727.8 708.1 715.4 695.0 729.3 701.1 705.1 730.4 50.2 38.3 48.0 27.8 726.4 712.6 718.2 704.0 731.6 719.7 29.3 34.7 723.3 -18.3 53.8 730.2 33.8 731.3 723.

2 744.8 755.8 53.8 736.0 -30.2 745.5 771.4 750.5 732.6 769.3 752.6 739.4 30.5 754.8 788.1 747.4 750.6 33.0 781.9 777.5 780.0 -29.7 34.2 -18.4 758.9 750.0 .3 764.7 744.2 52.2 758.4 733.7 755.4 55.2 760.5 744.5 757.9 750.4 741.2 776.7 765.3 769.2 772.9 774.3 776.8 35.6 740.1 770.3 749.2 770.9 738.5 756.4 739.0 27.2 779.3 763.3 34.5 760.7 733.9 -18.1 763.5 776.4 780.2 757.3 771.0 -22.6 754.2 769.3 750.8 39.8 746.0 752.3 763.1 51.0 758.3 48.3 39.0 790.0 744.9 778.0 -27.0 732.7 732.6 52.7 789.4 764.8 762.0 -24.6 28.8 752.0 764.8 763.9 751.6 782.8 786.6 770.4 772.1 28.6 738.3 739.2 33.9 27.8 787.4 760.3 768.1 -18.0 757.9 31.3 53.0 772.8 748.5 753.2 751.4 36.8 757.9 770.7 770.8 756.3 774.4 -18.0 743.7 756.1 738.5 37.7 745. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.1 746.8 751.5 763.7 752.0 -28.5 783.4 734.9 745.4 770.0 36.2 47.5 743.0 50.2 744.2 732.5 762.6 751.3 -18.0 771.2 29.2 765.5 -18.6 734.2 773.3 769.2 742.7 29.8 764.0 -23.5 756.6 756.0 -26.3 751.5 32.4 783.0 764.3 759.1 733.5 51.7 758.6 784.7 -18.8 -18.6 751.5 740.9 758.7 757.1 755.0 -18.8 763.3 731.8 49.8 771.0 756.4 50.9 47.1 750.1 37.0 766.0 -25.1 751.9 733.0 740.2 748.7 48.8 30.0 32.2 38.1 739.3 752.0 -21.9 54.8 740.4 775.8 767.0 -19.3 756.3 773.6 761.2 766.5 781.2 767.6 746.6 38.6 -18.6 762.8 748.5 764.4 774.5 767.0 -20.4 745.4 745.8 738.8 739.89 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 743.6 771.8 762.

01 0.0 32.2 38.014 0.8 49.4 30.6 38.011 0.1 37.011 0.016 0.1 51.017 0.0 50.018 0.013 0.014 0.01 0.6 28.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.016 0.1 28.0 27.0 0.013 0.9 31.013 0.012 Tr[C] -29 -30 -29 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -31 47. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package P [bar] 27.015 0.01 0.015 0.016 0.015 0.4 50.9 54.2 52.3 48.8 39.6 33.01 0.017 0.018 0.3 53.2 29.01 0.016 0.014 0.016 0.013 0.4 55.3 34.009 -30 -30 -30 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 90 .4 36.0 36.011 0.6 52.01 0.8 53.2 47.8 30.5 32.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.01 0.01 0.7 29.7 34.01 0.017 0.7 48.2 33.015 0.5 51.014 0.01 0.01 0.018 0.8 35.5 37.3 39.

0 50.013 0.017 0.013 0.7 -28.4 -32.9 47.017 0.5 -30.5 51.3 34.0 32.8 -30.7 -32.01 0.2 33.01 0.016 0.3 -29.015 0.1 -33.6 -32.8 49.01 0.2 -28.1 -33.8 53.9 54.1 -29.6 33.9 -29.018 0.016 0. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual P [bar] 27.5 -27.01 0.014 0.2 38.3 48.011 0.1 -28.011 0.1 -29.013 0.017 0.5 37.3 53.7 -30.016 0.2 47.5 32.011 0.7 29.01 0.9 -29.2 -26.8 30.016 0.1 28.01 0.01 0.2 52.1 -27.6 -33.8 91 .5 -33.7 48.4 30.1 37.7 -33.5 -28.015 0.01 0.018 0.015 0.01 0.016 0.9 31.7 34.014 0.8 39.4 -33.3 -27.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.2 -29.6 52.9 -28.014 0.013 0.01 0.4 55.0 36.8 -32.2 -33.6 38.009 -32.015 0.018 0.6 -30.9 -33 -33.014 0.3 39.8 35.6 28.1 51.012 Tr[C] -27 -27.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.01 0.4 50.4 -30.9 -27.0 0.0 27.2 29.4 36.3 -33.5 -28.

779 -25.1 28.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.922 -24.883 -24.017 0.522 -26.7 34.012 Tr[C] -24.548 -25.0 50.3 34.4 36.3 53.2 29.4 50.088 -24.164 -24.657 -24.0 0.01 0.032 -24.01 0.2 38.6 33.127 -25.4 30.872 -24.494 -24.5 51.641 -25.5 37.2 52.534 -25.326 -25.1 37.0 32.016 0.5 32.015 0.016 0.018 0.013 0.7 48.119 -26.011 0.016 0.848 92 .01 0.4 55.8 53.811 -24.343 -26.018 0.591 -24.014 0.015 0.403 -24.014 0.558 -25.875 -25.02 -25.011 0.01 0.014 0.793 -25.017 0.009 -25.8 39.091 -26.305 -25.3 48.6 38.6 28.37 47.462 -25.013 0.1 51.014 0.8 49.186 -23.017 0.011 0.3 39.08 -25.016 0.013 0.355 -25.8 35.01 0.018 0.394 -25.0 36.2 33.016 0.704 -26.8 30.01 0.015 0.0 27.013 0.637 -24.01 0.01 0.228 -25.7 29.01 0.9 31.6 52.195 -26.015 0.9 54.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.01 0.704 -25. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations P [bar] 27.136 -26.2 47.01 0.

20 93.13 96.93 93.49 97.01 98.21 99.09 92.80 95.45 98.08 97.49 96.73 99.20 87.59 96.21 96.03 97.64 93.33 95.25 94.53 94.39 96.34 98.83 97.83 92.12 97.55 95.80 96.67 97.44 89.66 94.51 98.23 87.81 92.15 96.38 99.44 97.46 96.86 91.71 97.67 98.71 96.69 91.12 96.84 94.33 92.15 91.93 96.83 91.87 99.26 97.94 92.67 95.28 97.74 97.43 96.81 88.29 91.02 98.97 92.55 99.83 96.30 96.17 98.52 98.17 97.41 97.00 91.8 -18.83 94.64 97.68 95.73 97.92 98.20 94.64 96.46 97.00 95.25 96.51 94.56 97.35 98.25 87.39 97.99 91.04 98.85 98.21 96.86 94.63 97.18 98.71 99.53 90.19 98.88 93.68 90.83 98.17 92.79 97.06 97.28 94.02 99.69 97.00 91.32 98.27 98.27 94.15 94.04 96.64 95.99 96.61 97.12 98.30 95.71 97.02 91.66 95.68 95.37 99.91 96.97 98.66 97.78 97.81 92.56 94.89 100.08 96.83 97.68 97.05 95.96 92.88 96.71 97.24 93.71 94.67 96.69 93.20 96.54 99.90 98.98 91.80 94.83 96.25 97.99 95.56 97.05 97.33 97.64 90.87 99.97 91.53 97.29 93.62 95.14 91.77 93.10 97.54 95.15 98.83 97.33 96.19 94.16 96.72 98.36 96.44 97.66 90.30 94.80 97.65 96.00 97.21 97.70 96.74 94.17 99.78 92.89 92.86 96.37 96. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions Dew Point -18 -18.58 98.69 96.20 99.41 96.60 93.91 96.17 98.59 93.85 98.14 96.85 98.42 97.47 97.97 97.89 97.30 87.09 93.21 93.55 99.36 95.13 92.31 94.50 94.66 93.66 96.90 98.53 98.76 94.72 95.08 97.86 92.31 89.91 97.21 99.94 96.15 88.81 98.89 98.25 94.26 97.02 97.95 98.10 98.70 93.47 95.51 97.24 96.47 91.77 93.32 89.29 95.74 97.97 95.93 98.16 98.06 90.94 92.11 98.67 95.37 90.58 93.22 87.56 93.07 98.37 97.72 93.22 94.34 89.99 98.3 -18.42 96.70 95.83 97.24 98.65 92.75 97.48 96.63 98.61 97.01 94.90 100.38 95.28 93.88 97.03 95.66 98.70 99.55 96.85 97.41 92.92 91.62 91.50 95.69 94.49 97.35 99.30 95.87 97.63 95.97 92.35 89.5 -18.35 95.22 96.92 97.87 96.59 94.83 99.64 95.85 94.08 97.35 94.70 95.00 98.00 97.48 94.19 96.10 98.14 98.66 96.18 99.74 97.28 87.58 97.78 94.57 92.01 98.97 95.33 95.94 95.67 88.65 97.47 95.28 98.86 99.58 95.68 98.40 89.87 99.1 -18.96 96.15 94.92 97.39 97.07 97.17 96.74 96.50 97.90 97.73 94.97 95.05 97.73 99.03 99.34 98.53 98.82 94.93 93.38 95.77 96.13 87.17 95.90 94.91 96.09 97.61 89.31 91.95 98.58 90.43 89.9 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 Gas Temperature: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 87.0 89.49 96.58 95.84 91.63 96.49 98.93 97.72 96.24 97.85 99.13 95.76 90.52 90.00 98.2 -18.51 98.00 99.02 95.89 96.4 -18.02 98.27 95.41 95.98 98.78 97.92 92.55 96.56 90.41 89.98 88.64 95.07 98.65 95.30 93.56 99.61 90.81 94.88 97.58 95.50 98.3 .49 92.27 97.27 93.44 96.57 94.10 96.38 96.41 95.15 87.25 92.66 96.17 87.33 97.94 91.7 -18.32 94.37 89.13 93.87 100.34 97.29 93.81 97.36 97.0 100.58 96.34 94.97 99.34 93.55 97.81 95.60 96.19 93.51 97.47 87.08 96.31 97.62 96.75 98.21 95.09 98.61 93.00 95.69 95.91 91.40 95.89 91.74 96.45 93.01 99.55 90.88 95.70 98.78 96.87 91.60 97.96 96.36 93.62 93.62 90.47 97.66 97.18 98.91 97.19 97.22 93.18 98.18 87.85 92.67 95.09 96.41 98.94 98.39 99.22 97.10 97.41 96.76 98.22 97.26 93.70 98.59 97.21 99.37 99.68 97.43 97.67 97.88 92.31 95.39 97.18 93.95 91.70 94.19 94.75 94.98 94.05 96.88 96.92 95.04 93.46 89.38 96.84 98.18 94.84 88.33 88.24 94.80 99.84 95.67 93.52 99.61 93.87 98.57 95.59 90.1 100.16 97.62 94.16 97.50 95.24 96.67 91.42 94.24 96.98 96.14 95.27 87.73 97.41 96.02 98.93 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 6.84 98.00 97.35 98.91 90.38 99.02 94.68 98.05 98.55 97.16 97.58 94.84 96.50 88.95 95.32 93.60 95.00 98.04 99.64 87.53 98.25 95.07 95.33 96.83 97.59 96.36 98.35 98.42 97.82 97.91 92.34 96.58 96.70 98.38 89.22 90.30 97.99 98.33 98.29 97.20 99.61 94.85 98.2 100.02 98.04 99.14 97.28 95.2 89.05 95.72 95.33 97.54 96.08 95.44 93.50 97.17 94.57 96.25 95.76 97.68 97.04 99.6 -18.23 97.98 97.84 98.

Small and large cavities (Behar et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 94 Figures Figure 2. 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics) Figure 2.. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. 1994) . 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2. 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Sloan. 1997) 95 .

Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 96 Figure 2. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from John Carrol. 1988) Figure 2. 2003) .

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2. 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al. 1991) Figure 2. 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson. 1997) 97 .

1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski. 2003. reproduced) 98 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

1999-02.2003-03. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP.1 Change in the Polish Norm 0 1995-10.2 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water Content In Ukrainian Gas 0.5 c 0.4 0.1998-04.1999-12.3 0.2001-07.2000-10.1996-08.2004-01.6 between 21-11-1995 do 10-01-2005 Water content [g/Nm3] 0.1997-06. 2005) 99 .2004-1128 23 19 15 09 14 09 06 01 28 24 20 Water content of imported gas Water content limit Figure 3.2002-05.

3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP. 2005) 100 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION towards ROZWADÓW ID 700 ID 300 Gas compressor ID 400 towards TARNÓW JAROSŁAW ID 500 ID 300 ID 700 ID 600 towards LUBACZÓW ID 300 ID 500 MAĆKOWICE ID 700 Gas Drying Gas compressor ŻURAWICA ID 500 ID 700 Gas compressor ID 600 ID 300 towards STRACHOCIN HERMANOWICE ID 600 Gas compressor ID700 ID 500 POLAND / UKRAINE BORDER Figure 3.

4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. 2005) 101 .

2004) 102 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG. 1990) 103 .

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al. 1959) 104 .

3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA 105 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

8 55.1 30.014 0.01 0.3 50.1 30. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual 106 .018 0.0 38.7 36.6 53.5 33.7 36.9 .008 0.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual Water content according to manual 15 C 0.02 Manual 0.006 0.015 0.2 .5 52.0 29.004 0.5 52.0 38.0 29.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.1 39.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.002 27 28.012 0.6 53.3 47 48.9 .8 55.2 49.5 33.01 Manual 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 10 C 0.02 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.3 50.2 31.6 34.3 47 48.005 27 28.6 34.4 32.2 49.8 37.025 0.2 .1 39.4 51.8 37.4 51.016 0.2 31.4 32.

3 47 48.6 34.006 0.8 55.005 27 28.004 0.5 33.1 30.0 29.5 52.1 39. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual Water content in dehydrated gas 10 C 0.01 Article 0.035 0.4 32.2 49.014 0.8 37.2 49.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 20 C 0.9 .025 Manual 0.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.7 36.01 0.8 55.3 50.1 39.2 .3 47 48.008 0.02 0.3 50.0 38.6 53.9 .03 0.002 27 28.1 30. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations 107 .6 53.4 32.5 33.7 36.4 51.016 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.8 37.012 0.2 31.4 51.0 38.5 52.6 34.018 0.2 31.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.2 .015 0.0 29.

01 0.6 34. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations Water content in dehydrated gas 20 C 0.8 55.4 32.2 31.025 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.7 36.2 .2 .5 52.9 .3 50.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.1 39.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.6 53.3 47 48.2 49.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.4 51.5 33.7 36.1 30.4 51.8 37.4 32.01 0.8 37.02 0. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations 108 .3 47 48.015 Article 0.0 38.5 33.9 .005 27 28.005 27 28.2 49.6 34.5 52.3 50.8 55.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content in dehydrated gas 15 C 0.02 0.0 38.0 29.0 29.025 0.2 31.6 53.1 39.1 30.015 Article 0.

4 51.8 37.005 27 28.5 52.015 Hysys 0.0 29.5 33.3 50.6 34.6 53.8 55.1 30.3 47 48.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys 109 .2 49.01 0.025 0.9 .7 36.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.4 32.2 31. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys Water content according to Hysys 10 C amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.0 38.1 39.02 0.2 .

3 50.1 39.5 33.02 0.8 37.1 39.015 0.01 0.0 38.0 29.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to Hysys 15 C 0.025 0.9 .6 34.03 0.2 31.015 0.045 0.2 49.05 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.4 32.2 31.5 52.8 55.2 .03 0.4 32. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys 110 .6 53.5 52.04 0.01 0.2 49.9 .025 Hysys 0.6 53.035 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.6 34.7 36.3 50.0 29.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.3 47 48.4 51.0 38.3 47 48.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.8 55.035 0.1 30. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys Water content according to Hysys 20 C 0.5 33.1 30.4 51.005 27 28.7 36.005 27 28.8 37.2 .02 Hysys 0.

0 0 pressure Figure 5.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.0 29.1 30.4 32.025 0.2 49.6 53.8 55.8 37.2 31.6 34.1 3 0.1 39.005 27 28.5 33.0 38.0 38.06 amount of water 0.1 39.05 0.02 0.7 36.9 .8 37.5 52.3 50.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.0 29.2 3 1 .01 0.05 0.4 32.4 51.4 5 1.015 0.03 0.04 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC Water content comparison 15 C 0.2 .6 34.9 .045 0.3 50. 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC 111 .8 55.02 0.03 0.6 53.035 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.2 49.7 36.5 5 2 .2 .5 33.3 47 48.3 47 48.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 10 C 0.01 27 28.

8 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.4 32 .07 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.0 33 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 20 C 0.4 51 .02 0.0 28 .08 0. 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC 112 .7 35 .01 47 .7 49 .1 38 .04 0.05 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.7 30 .8 54 .1 52 .06 0.03 0.4 37 .4 27 .

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

113

0,011
0,011
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,009

-21

0,018
0,018
0,017
0,016
0,016
0,016
0,015
0,014
0,014
0,014
0,013
0,013

Dew Point For Water Content

-23

-25
Dew Point

Manual
Article
Hysys
Wielom. (Article)
Wielom. (Manual)

-27

-29

Wielom. (Hysys)
-31

-33

-35
Water Content

Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

114

Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG, 1988

115

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Minimum Strong TEG Concentration

100,00

98,00

TEG Min Concentration [% mas]

96,00
-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28
-29

94,00

92,00

90,00

88,00

86,00
1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

Gas Temperature [C]

Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18oC and -29oC

00 98.00 92.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 116 Minimum strong TEG concentration 100.9 -19 94.4 -18.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Gas Temperature C Figure 6.6 -18.00 86.00 90.7 -18.00 -18 -18.00 TEG Min Concentration [% mass] 96.5 -18.00 88.1 -18. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC .2 -18.8 -18.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 117 Appendices Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil Aviaterm 6 is heating oil used for warming up natural gas flowing into absorbtion column. 2004) Table of Aviaterm 6 oil specifications was provided with Mackowice dehydration Facility operation manual. It is used as heat carrier in the temperature range between -18 oC and 280 oC (Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual. Colour Amber – light brown Form Transparent fluid Boiling point [C] Over 300 oC Freezing poing [C] Below -16 oC Density [kg/m3] 860 kg/m3 Ignition temperature [C] Over 200 oC Range of explosivness [g/m3] From 45 g/m3 Self-ignition temperature [C] Omissible in Maćkowice temperature work range .

2 0.1 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.1 0.033 -19.014 -29.048 -15.9 40.6 0.8 37.7 34.6 0.043 -16.052 -14.013 -30.051 -14.8 0.5 0.035 -18.024 -23.3 0.7 0.015 -28.5 0.019 -26 0.1 0.7 0.053 -13.027 -22.048 -15.1 0.4 0.05 -14.015 -29.024 -23.8 39.016 -27.5 0.047 -15.6 0.8 0.5 0.039 -17.048 -15.3 0.018 -27.025 -23.036 -18.2 0.7 0.5 0.062 -12 32.018 -26.047 -15.8 0.024 -23.1 0.035 -19 0.7 0.016 -28.7 0.044 -16.036 -18.019 -26.6 0.6 0.021 -25.8 0.5 36.7 0.025 -22.061 -12.9 0.3 0.4 0.046 -15.021 -25.5 0.2 28.1 0.6 0.013 -30.02 -25.018 -26.053 -14 37.018 -26.2 33.012 -31.045 -15.034 -19.043 -16.9 0.2 0.017 -27.035 -18.7 27.035 -18.2 38.03 -20.7 0.067 -11 30.022 -24.4 42.3 0.9 0.2 0.025 -23.035 -18.118 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix B .058 -12.051 -14.2 0.3 0.032 -20 0.8 0.057 -13.018 -26.013 -30.055 -13.1 0.5 0.1 0.025 -22.5 0.5 0.4 29.3 0.3 0.012 -31.026 -22.026 -22.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.045 -16 0.5 0.4 0.042 -16.5 0.029 -21.072 -10.025 -23.049 -14.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 36 0.2 0.8 0.059 -12.014 -29.2 0.033 -19.3 0.5 0.034 -19.8 0.8 29.Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27 0.2 0.03 -21.014 -29.3 0.049 -14.048 -15.021 -24.035 -19 0.7 0.017 -27.8 0.5 0.6 0.016 -28.3 0.012 -31.012 -30.025 -22.4 0.8 43.034 -19.069 -10.4 0.3 0.031 -20.02 -25.03 -20.4 0.7 0.015 -29.023 -23.018 -27.012 -31 0.9 0.022 -24.3 0.018 -27 0.3 0.064 -11.5 0.6 0.039 -17.073 -9.024 -23.034 -19.052 -14.027 -22 0.6 0.022 -24.039 -18.019 -26 0.026 -22.014 -29.017 -27.063 -11.9 0.046 -15.016 -28.012 -31.9 0.6 0.032 -20.025 -22.1 0.3 0.9 0.2 0.3 0.047 -15.015 -28.026 -23.024 -23.052 -14.6 0.4 0.6 42.017 -27.071 -10.013 -30.05 -14.068 -10.037 -18.1 0.4 0.1 41.2 0.012 -31.4 0.033 -19.2 0.023 -23.018 -27 0.028 -21.1 35.9 34.031 -20.023 -24.041 -17.028 -21.037 -18.9 0.9 0.1 28.5 39.8 0.8 0.1 0.5 33.7 0.055 -13.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 41 0.018 -26.7 0.8 .028 -21.8 0.2 0.7 32 0.02 -25.3 0.041 -17.4 38.1 0.2 0.5 0.019 -26.5 31.057 -12.3 30.7 0.065 -11.2 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.017 -27.034 -19.04 -17.6 0.7 0.016 -28.

027 -22.01 -33.1 48.7 0.01 -33.3 0.01 -33.03 -21 0.011 -32.021 -25 0.039 -17.7 0.1 0.4 0.2 48.016 -28.042 -16.038 -18.6 0.2 0.043 -16.011 -32.032 -20.9 0.8 0.2 0.042 -16.028 -21.015 -29.4 0.031 -20.01 -33.032 -20.014 -29.028 -21.014 -29.031 -20.015 -28.5 0.9 0.011 -32 0.009 -33.2 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.022 -24.5 0.3 0.016 -28.7 0.5 0.041 -17.026 -22.04 -17.3 0.028 -21.011 -31.014 -29.2 0.023 -23.028 -21.044 -16.2 0.3 45.3 0.014 -29.4 54.2 0.6 0.029 -21.7 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.022 -24.01 -33.4 0.013 -30.5 0.7 0.6 0.01 -33 0.3 50 0.7 51.2 0.011 -32.1 0.2 0.011 -31.9 0.015 -29 0.8 0.04 -17.019 -26.4 0.015 -28.039 -17.5 46 0.4 0.2 53.014 -30 0.5 50.043 -16.4 49.6 0.6 0.026 -22.017 -27.6 0.014 -29.9 0.011 -32.1 53.1 52.01 -33.038 -18.036 -18.4 0.021 -24.021 -25.019 -26.02 -25.7 51.02 -25.011 -32.7 0.9 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.019 -26.6 46.4 0.3 0.119 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43.014 -29.037 -18.031 -20.3 0.03 -20.037 -18.8 0.5 0.041 -17.9 0.021 -25.6 0.016 -28.9 47.016 -28.019 -26 0.4 0.03 -20.01 -33.8 0.1 0.9 0.8 0.029 -21.7 47.4 0.3 0.019 -26.2 0.9 0.045 -16 44.015 -28.044 -16.5 55 0.01 -32.01 -33.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.011 -32.022 -24.01 -32.1 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.027 -21.9 0.022 -24.015 -29.7 0.1 0.023 -24 0.8 0.029 -21.033 -19.023 -24.2 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.2 44.8 0.6 .5 0.1 0.038 -18 52.1 0.4 0.027 -22.04 -17.023 -23.015 -28.7 0.037 -18.021 -24.02 -25.5 0.3 0.014 -29.

1 36.01452 -28.01436 0.7 0.01517 -27.1 -29.02215 0.01749 -25.0254 0.4 -32.01352 0.3 53.2 0.8 0.4 50.7 -18.3 0.1 0.4 0.0254 0.4 0.5 32.01788 0.5 0.5 51.5 38.5 -24.2 31.01702 0.9 -21.6 -32.9 0.5 -21.01116 0.1 51.0 50.01397 0.0 0.8 -24.01185 0.5 0.5 33.3 0.9 -30 -30.0254 0.0212 0.7 -32.2 -26.1 0.01769 -25.8 49.9 -26 -26.9 0.02431 -19.02074 -22.01308 -30.5 -18.2 -33.2 28.0204 -22.01711 0.9 37.01287 -30.01374 0.02499 -18.5 0.8 0.01828 0.01647 0.01778 0.02554 0.02051 -22.01436 -28.01172 0.4 -21.01103 0.01683 0.4 0.9 0.0155 -27.01134 0.9 47.01963 -23.02251 -20.7 0.01159 0.8 53.02108 0.6 52.6 39.01749 -25.0 0.3 30.02108 -21.7 -24.01818 -24.02597 0.01665 -26.01674 0.01602 -26.02597 0.7 -25.8 25 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01128 0.1 -18.0219 0.4 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.02108 0.01444 0.1 32.3 0.01665 0.2 0.6 0.02289 -20.01585 -27.015 -28.02611 0.02203 -21.6 .7 0.02582 0.0142 0.2 -29.9 -20.0 0.2 0.5 0.02227 0.6 0.2 35.3 0.0142 -29.9 34.2 -18.01359 0.7 0.01382 0.8 -25.02074 0.01344 0.4 -18.6 0.0162 -26.01808 0.01147 0.6 -21.01122 0.01656 0.01367 0.9 54.8 0.6 0.4 0.01858 -24.02264 -20.4 -22.02167 0.3 0.6 0.01567 -27.4 -33.2 -18.3 -33.01702 -25.02155 0.01452 0.01838 -24.3 -26.02029 -22.7 0.4 0.0142 -29.5 0.1 -33.02155 -21.2 -21.9 -29 -29.5 -29.8 -32.02391 -19.5 -18.8 0.01576 -27.01889 -23.9 0.2 -21.9 30.3 0.02143 -21.0114 0.3 -18.6 -33.3 48.1 -25.1 -18.01974 -23.02143 0.02301 -20.1 -24.5 29.01412 -29.02568 0.1 0.02096 -22 0.120 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27.02499 -18.7 37.9 -25.8 39.8 0.01315 -30.01828 -24.01995 -22.3 0.2 52.0204 -20.8 15 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01952 -23.01963 -23.01166 0.2 47.01097 -32.8 0.02512 0.2 0.02051 0.01322 -30.5 -18.7 33.01405 -29.4 38.8 0.5 -28.6 0.9 -22.8 -21.01788 -24.02526 -18 -18.0191 -23.02405 -19.1 0.01405 0.3 0.02178 -21.0 0.8 -29.6 0.02499 -18.01294 -30.01629 -26.7 20 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.2 0.2 0.02582 0.1 0.01798 0.01693 0.01374 -29.01389 0.01428 0.8 0.9 0.3 -29.1 34.01359 -29.01153 0.01769 0.01769 0.02006 -22.9 0.02251 -20.8 0.0234 -20 0.1 -33.1 -26.8 -28.01674 -26.5 -33.3 36.01683 -26 0.5 0.01468 -28.6 0.1 29.8 -21 -21.1 0.6 0.02499 -18.1 -22.01468 -28.2 0.01593 -27 27.2 -22.4 55.01492 -28.02239 0.9 -33 -33.01683 -26 0.0114 0.01412 0.01702 -25.8 0.02471 -19 0.1 -25 -25.0219 0.02085 0.4 -29.7 -29.2 0.9 28.01109 0.7 -28.7 -33.6 -29.02006 -22.7 48.

038 -18.5 0.0155 -29.9 0.4 30.9 0.1 0.016 0.019 -27.009 -32.0301 0.019 0.0295 0.028 -18 -18.02231 -27.9 31.0156 0.044 -18.8 -25.045 -18.014 -29.0299 0.0 32.0186 -26.1 -33.0249 0.0 36.3 -33.8 0.019 -26.0225 -25.0211 0.026 -24.017 -28.8 0.5 -24.2 -18.3 39.016 -28.3 -29.4 0.9 -21.1 -33.8 39.8 0.0195 0.9 -20.2 0.6 52.0 27.8 35.0172 0.5 0.3 0.026 -22.4 -18.2 38.025 -22.9 0.7 -29.0132 -30.3 0.6 -32.023 -24.121 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3 P 27.0245 0.0153 0.2 -33.4 0.1 0.4 36.028 -22.012 -30.5 0.0205 -20.3 34.2 -21.0154 0.6 0.3 0.0275 -22.015 -29.8 -28.013 0.8 53.2 0.1 51.1 0.9 0.0243 0.8 -29.3 53.0152 0.03 -21.9 0.0284 0.1 -29.8 0.6 0.0151 0.0122 0.8 30.5 -29.034 -20.0228 0.045 -19 0.026 -24.0217 0.5 0.9 0.0124 0.7 0.2 33.025 0.7 0.9 47.02162 -27.9 -26 -26.015 0.011 0.2 29.029 -21.2 0.02 -25.015 -24.2 -21.0215 0.032 -23.9 0.01 0.0223 -25.0216 0.8 0.9 -30 -30.7 0.1 0.6 0.0247 0.012 0.0 50.5 0.0153 -29.0374 -18.031 -23.2 0.2 0.0377 -20.0105 0.6 33.0155 -29.02199 -26.6 38.5 32.1 0.4 -29.046 -18.023 -24.022 -25.0 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C w Tr[C] w Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.6 0.016 -28.5 -18.0227 -27 0.1 0.1 0.028 -21.011 0.01 0.7 -32.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.025 0.01 0.01834 -28.043 -19.9 -25.0288 0.5 -21.023 0.031 -22.8 0.019 -26 0.0245 -24.6 28.1 -25.7 -28.0115 0.03 -23.04 -19.5 51.7 48.4 50.8 -21 -21.6 0.0175 0.5 0.7 34.2 0.0363 -18.01 0.5 0.5 0.1 -18.9 -33 -33.0121 0.8 0.035 -20.4 0.1 28.4 -33.012 -30.8 0.7 29.0389 -19.6 0.0186 -28.0104 -28.4 -32.026 -23.3 0.014 -29.032 -21.027 -23.8 0.4 -21.0177 0.7 -25.018 -26.01 0.9 54.019 -26 0.1 -25 -25.1 -22.0305 0.1 -26.038 -20 0.9 0.2 -26.0371 -20.0208 -27.7 0.9 -29 -29.8 -21.01 0.2 52.3 0.8 0.026 -22.4 55.1 0.6 -21.1 0.01 0.7 -33.0134 -30.5 0.01 0.0125 0.011 0.5 37.01 0.03 -23.028 -22 0.019 -26.3 48.8 49.7 -24.0106 0.4 -22.02 -25.0123 0.035 -18.2 0.0107 0.3 0.0345 -18.0358 -18.0219 0.2 0.2 -29.2 0.6 0.0174 0.8 -32.01 0.012 0.028 -21.011 0.5 0.035 -20.3 0.0105 0.6 .2 47.01 0.3 0.6 -33.9 -22.7 0.1 -18.013 -30.7 0.5 -33.0173 0.6 -29.8 -24.017 -28.032 -22.3 -26.1 37.9 0.7 0.022 0.2 -22.021 -27.

853289 kg/m3 The number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol is n g − w.995188 Mass density of water-gas mixture ρg-w = 0.1m = n g −w 1m 3 ⋅ ρ g − w M g −w ⎡ 3 kg ⎤ ⎥ kg 1 ⋅ 0.05184 ⋅ 1.46115 ⎢ kg ⎥ kmol ⎣⎢ kmol ⎦⎥ ng −w = 0.78*10-4 Z-factor Z = 0.1m ⋅ C w ⋅ M w kg ⎡ ⎤ m w.46115 kg/kmol Mole fraction of pure water Cw = 1.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 122 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas Calculation of water amount saturating natural gas in given conditions was made. Solution for one chosen gas pressure and temperature is shown below Input data: Gas pressure Pg = 100 kPa Gas temperature Tg = -40 oC The data obtained from Hysys application: Molecular weight of water Mw = 18.853289 ⎢ m ⋅ m3 = = = kmol ⎥ ⎢ kg 16.0151⎢kmol ⋅ = kg ⎥ kmol ⎣ ⎦ . The composition of natural gas is known.1m = 0.0151 kg/kmol Molecular weight of gas with water Mg-w = 16.1m = n g − w.78 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 18.05184 kmol Mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture mw.

V s .1m = 1.2) water content in grams per standard cubic meter is given. T Z 100000 15 + 273.c.c . = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s .c.3563 ⋅ 10 − 4 [ kg ] Sm 3 In attached table (5.6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg [ 3] 1. = 1 ⋅ ( )⋅ [1m 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 1Sm 3 ] 101325 − 40 + 273.995188 Pa K Vs.2256 Sm c = 1.c . For details on Clapeyron equation see attachment 5.15 0. = 1.15 1 Pa K )⋅( V s .6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg Calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of Clapeyron equation was done. 1.2256Sm 3 Finally the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was calculated c= c= m w.136 g Sm 3 123 . c = 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION m w.1m V s .c . ) ⋅ Ps.c .

Z factor and pressure. 2 – stands for different volume. Individual gas constant equals (2): Rn = R ·n (2) where: R – universal gas constant n – number of moles of gas As individual gas constant is non-changeable for a given gas mixture one of the four variables (pressure. V – gas volume. temperature. Z – Z factor.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 124 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation Real gas law equation is known also as Clapeyron Equation. T – temperature.stands for given volume. Z factor and pressure. temperature) may be calculated in given conditions if all four variables are known for the mixture at any other conditions. temperature. Rn – individual gas constant . Z factor. (3) . volume. General form of Clapeyron equation (1): P ⋅ V = Z ⋅ Rn ⋅ T (1) where: P – gas pressure. This leads to the equation (3): P1 ⋅ V1 P2 ⋅ V2 = T1 ⋅ Z 1 T2 ⋅ Z 2 where: 1 .

After transformation the equation (4) assumes the following form (5): V s . temperature and Z factor for given pressure are known. T Z From the equation (5) gas volume in standard conditions is calculated when pressure. = 101325 Pa). (4) where: Ps.c.c.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 125 For any vapor the Z factor in standard conditions equals 1 Zs. (5) .c. Ts. = 288.c .c. = 1 Therefore for comparison between standard conditions and any given conditions the equation (3) becomes the following (4): P ⋅ V Ps. = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s . – standard temperature (Ts.15 K = 15 oC). ) ⋅ Ps.c.c. = T ⋅Z Ts.c. ⋅ Vs.c. – standard volume. – standard pressure (Ps.c . Vs.c.c.

7 10 0.075 2.155 4.4 -5 0.5 0 0.29 9.4 0 0.5 MPa and 5.7 MPa and 3.215 6.110 3.2 5 0.1 3.0 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content The values given are obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operation instruction.295 9.14 4.1 -5 0.39 12.1 With compression (pressure between 4.5 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.2 126 . Without compression (pressure between 2.0 10 0.20 6.8 5 0.

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