OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS AND ENERGY USE
AT MAĆKOWICE NATURAL GAS
DEHYDRATION FACILITY
Artur Ryba

Diploma Thesis
Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas
AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow

Trondheim
June 2005

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii

Abstract
An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in
Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and
charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state
simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and
mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and
experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were
obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical
equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to
Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural
gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values
obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum
TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were
made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature
work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction.
A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

iii

Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Professor Jon Steinar
Gudmundsson. I am very grateful for the advice, support, guidance, assistance, patience and
enthusiasm.
I wish to thank Dr Hab. Inż. Stanisław Nagy, my supervisor from AGH University of Science
and Technology in Cracow, Poland for his support, propositions, help and understanding.
I am grateful to all my teachers who, giving me a small part of their wide knowledge, got me
to the stage when I am writing this thesis.
Special thanks to all contributors that make my Erasmus Link Scholarship possible. I would
like to especially mention here Dr Czesława Ropa, Professor Danuta Bielewicz, and Professor
Jan Falkus.
Special thanks to Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnow) for the
necessary materials, support and technical knowledge.
Last but not least thanks to my family, friends and colleagues who supported me in the time
spent on creating the thesis, and much longer than that. You are always there when I need you
and I appreciate that.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION iv List of Contents Abstract ................................ 31 5......................................................................................... Dewatering Technology ................................................. 31 5....................................................................................................... 40 5............................................................................................................................ Water Content of Natural Gas......................................... 45 6...................................1 Water content measurement .................................................................................................1 Use of glycol solutions ................................................ 35 5....................................................................................... 33 5.....2 Water content from GPSA diagram ................ Maćkowice Facilities .................................. Hysys simulations ...........................................3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual ................................................................................................................................viii Abbreviations................................................................... 23 4............................................ Introduction ......................... 26 5. 50 7..................................................................................................................................................... 9 2......... 20 2.....................................................1 Theory of hydrates ..... 18 2.................................................................................. Glycol solutions...................... iv List of Tables............................................................................................. 44 6........ vi List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Technologies used for dehydration .............................................. 37 5...........................iii List of Contents....................................................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgements...................................7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process ................................5 Dehydration by permeation ................................................ 6 2................... x 1...3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility. 11 2.............................................................4 Water content calculations from empirical equations .................................................................... Hysys Simulation Package.............................................5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program ................... 21 3........... 32 5..............................6 Water content results comparison ....................................8 Dew point values comparison .....................................4 Dehydration by adsorption ....... 1 2.................3 Dehydration by absorption ........................................... 47 6.............6 Dehydration by refrigeration ........................................ 42 5....................................................................... 45 6....................................................... 51 ........................................................... 6 2.................................................................2 Minimum strong TEG concentration ........................................

................................................................................ 66 Figures ......................................................................................................................................... 57 9......................... 118 Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] ................................................ 60 References ........... 126 ... Discussion... 62 Tables.................................................................................................................................... 117 Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil................................................................................Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] ..........................................................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION v 8............................................. 121 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas ........................ Conclusions .......... 94 Appendices ............................ 122 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation.......................................... 124 Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content ........................................................... 120 Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3.......................................................................................... 117 Appendix B ................................................................................................

............. 82 Table 5....... 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)......................... 81 Table 5........... 79 Table 5..................... 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3].............. 72 Table 5...... 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package ............................................... 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3]................................................. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]..... 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ............. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] .. 84 Table 5....... 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ....... 1985)......................................................................... 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3].... 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz......................................................................... 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] .. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P...................................................................... 66 Table 5.......................................... 75 Table 5......... 87 Table 5.................................................. 80 Table 5............ 89 Table 5.......................... 76 Table 5...................................................... 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3]............. 72 Table 5.................... 74 Table 5....................................... 73 Table 5.............................. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys)....................... 83 Table 5................................................................ 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]............ 88 Table 5.............................................................. 90 ...................................... 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner...... 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ....... Gandhidasan ............. 78 Table 5............................... 77 Table 5.............................................................. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package........................................... 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]........... 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys).................. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] ....... 86 Table 5.......................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vi List of Tables Table 2......................... 2004) ...... 73 Table 5....... 85 Table 5........ 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ...................................................... 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] ............... 68 Table 5............. 67 Table 5.................................. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3]........

... 91 Table 5................ 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions……………… 93 ............... 92 Table 6................................................................... 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations .................................................. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual..............................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION vii Table 5.......................

..... 106 Figure 5.................... 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics).. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys ........................... 2004) ............... 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys ....... 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG............ 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG...... 1988)........................ 1991) .................................... 2005).................... 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from GPSA Engineering Data Book................. 95 Figure 2..... 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys .................. 103 Figure 5........................... 94 Figure 2.... 98 Figure 3................. 96 Figure 2..................... 2005) ...... 97 Figure 2........................................... reproduced)............ 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual........................... Small and large cavities (Behlar et al. 1994) ...................................... 94 Figure 2............................. 101 Figure 3............................................... 1997) ......... 108 Figure 5..... 107 Figure 5....... 106 Figure 5...... 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics) ... 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP........... 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al..................................... 107 Figure 5................. 104 Figure 5.................................................. 105 Figure 5........... 110 ...... 100 Figure 3........... 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey.... 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP............................................. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations ........ 108 Figure 5............ 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski... 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations ........................ 1990) .......................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION viii List of Figures Figure 2................ 110 Figure 5. 96 Figure 2. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II........ 109 Figure 5........................................... Natural Gas Production Processing Transport......... 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual......... 102 Figure 5......................... 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA ................ 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations ............... 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al................................................ 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas..................................................................................... 2003........................... 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys......... 1959) ................. 11th edition).... 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys .. 2005)... 99 Figure 3....................... 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson........ 97 Figure 3.............................. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual............ 109 Figure 5.................

.......... 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG .............. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC ........... 111 Figure 5........... 116 .................. 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC .......... 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -29oC ....................... 112 Figure 5........ 111 Figure 5...................... 114 Figure 6........................................................OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION ix Figure 5...... 113 Figure 6.......................... 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC ................ 17 Dew point comparison ........................................................................... 115 Figure 6............................................................................................................................................... 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC .....................................................................................

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Abbreviations ATG - Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France BMP - Best Management Practice CH4 - Methane CO2 - Carbon Dioxide DEG - Diethylene Glycol EG - Ethylene Glycol EPA - Environmental Protection Agency GPSA - Gas Processors Suppliers Assn h - hour H2O - Water H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LTX - Low-Temperature Extraction MEG - Monoethylene Glycol Nm3 - Normal Cubic Meter NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance PHA - Process Hazards Analysis PRO-OP - Process Optimization Review PROs - Partner Reported Opportunities sI - Structure I (hydrate structure) sII - Structure II (hydrate structure) sH - Structure H (hydrate structure) Sm3 - Standard Cubic Meter TEG - Triethylene Glycol TREG - Tetraethylene Glycol VLE - Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Xe - Xenon yr - Year x .

the processing installation must be designed to meet transport or final specifications. through Ukraine. If the gas is to be transported. Therefore one of the processes in natural gas production. as a result of pressure drop. 1994). . Huge part of gas used in Poland is imported from Russia. Introduction In this paper the author is studying the possibilities of reducing energy use and triethylen glycol losses during natural gas dehydration process. the pressure generally varies considerably in the pipe. This is done on the example of Mackowice Treatment Facility. However. The presence of water raises a number of problems for the production operations depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. Poland. 2005). but also in the exploitation stage.. If the natural gas is transported by pipeline. If. the main requirement is to prevent the formation of a liquid phase. not only in the stage of designing and building facilities. With the increase of amount of gas to be processed and from the other side in order to be able to endure in the competition between natural gas companies there is a growing necessity of optimization of processes. likewise in other countries.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 1 1. One of the specifications of natural gas is the amount of water in gas for sale specified as dew point temperature of natural gas. the minimum temperature of the gas is for example 0 oC under 7 MPa pressure (typical conditions appearing in high pressure gas pipelines during the winter season in temperate climate). Gas demand increases in Poland. To avoid possible liquid-phase formation. processing and transportation is natural gas dewatering process (Rojey et al. Therefore every year larger quantities of natural gas need to undergo different processes (ROP. one condition frequently imposed is to set the dew point temperature at a value not exceeding the minimum temperature during transport. during transport. the dew point must not exceed this temperature at the same pressure. As it is usually off-spec when it arrives. dehydration process among them. before getting to the final receiver it has to be processed in order to meet the required conditions specified in Polish norms.

The major business benefits of process modeling include (Aspen Tech. The importance of optimization is significant. 2004).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 2 The problem of optimization has been known for many years now and recently becomes more and more important. As presented by Aspen Tech (2004) there are different approaches towards optimization and the model chosen depends on the base of optimization. Summing up the crucial part of manager’s job is to make decisions around capital allocation that will improve the performance of the corporation. The process industries must identify optimum designs quickly with minimum risk of rework while they remain competitive and maximize the business performance. It is also considered from economical viewpoint. Process engineers are challenged with making timely business decisions while meeting the business objectives of designing and operating efficient. 2004): a) usage of “what-if” scenarios and sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design based on operating and business targets. Optimization can be seen from the environmental point of view as a tool for environment conservation. Optimization of processes brings savings in materials. energy and labor. nowadays on every stage of projecting. Nowadays the competition in petroleum and natural gas market is extremely tough and therefore every corporation in order to compete with others has to minimize the costs maximizing profits. gas processing and petroleum refining industries are faced with the need to optimize the design of processes and achieve more reliable and stable operations. building and exploiting of any facility optimization has a big part. safer and profitable process plants (Aspen Tech. . As mentioned. The oil and gas production. And the last reason usually is the standpoint from which the decisions about granting money for optimization research are made. Optimization of processes is necessary. It may encompass safety. The most powerful technology that enables managers and engineers link critical business objectives to process design is process modeling. b) ensuring that process equipment is properly specified to deliver desired product throughput and specifications. which is a primary purpose of senior management.

This PRO-OP technique gives the user a structure to the process of optimization (Pontiff. and equipment downtime on process safety. 2005). production. This methodology can be used in conjunction with a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) for new facilities and prior to modification of en existing facility. and profitability. the PRO-OP technique is a systematic approach whereby processes and components (separators. There are many technologies and methods to reduce vent gas emissions that are readily available to operators. It is a systematic approach to assess processes at new and existing facilities with an emphasis on energy efficiency. The PRO-OP technique divides the oil and gas business into phases: drilling. and workover operations. where the focus is typically on like devices across a whole operation. e) assessment of equipment deficiencies such as heat exchanger fouling and column flooding by evaluating the equipment employed in different services or evaluating the consequences of a design basis change. Justifying and obtaining approval of optimization projects from management often requires that the projects are cost effective and have a net increase in profits. According to Pontiff (2005) a typical example of widely used optimization method is called Process Optimization Review (PRO-OP). reliability. PRO-OP is a systematic approach used in production operations to identify opportunities to increase profitability while reducing greenhouse gases.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 3 c) evaluation of the effect of feed changes. natural resource conservation and waste minimization. compressors. completion/stimulation. venting/flaring practices) are evaluated for cost effective natural gas reduction opportunities from the start of the process to the end. heater treaters. a potent greenhouse gas. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program supplies valuable optimization tools and resources to guide the oil and gas industry. The Natural Gas STAR Program is a flexible and voluntary program focused on helping the oil and gas industry to voluntarily and cost-effectively reduce methane emissions. upsets. d) monitoring of equipment performance against expectations. The Natural Gas STAR Program promotes the use of these emission reduction technologies and practices through the program’s Best Management Practices . Unlike other optimization techniques.

The reviewer should ask such questions as. The author is trying to solve the problem of setting the arrangement of equipment used in gas dehydration facility based on glycol solution in such a way that brings most profits and minimizes the loss in energy and glycol solvent. burn in a flare) the vent gas emissions?" Then the reviewer can perform a cost analysis to determine the effectiveness and profitability of optimization. the reviewer determines the mitigation techniques that can be used and then determines whether the mitigation can be implemented cost effectively. 2005. During the PRO-OP review. which in this example is done through reducing emissions (Pontiff. the components and processes of the facility are evaluated for identifiable hazards. 2005. or other safe guards. 2005. In a PHA review of an oil and gas production facility. In order to do so he compares the data provided in operating manuals of natural gas dewatering facility Maćkowice. or destroy (e. US EPA.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 4 (BMPs) and Partner Reported Opportunities (PROs) and in-depth Lessons Learned documents (Pontiff. Poland with analytical equation-based solution and numerical calculation made with use of petroleum engineering program Hysys. methane) emission reduction opportunities (Pontiff. 2005). The PRO-OP approach is analogous to a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) review. The PRO-OP process employs the same thought process. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specifications required by Polish norms. “Can I cost-effectively eliminate the source. These hazards are then mitigated through elimination. The bilding was begun in April 2004.. US EPA. each component and process in the facility flow scheme is evaluated for vent gas (i. US EPA. Once the optimization opportunities are identified. The author is also taking a general look at different economical aspects in the final part of this thesis. or capture for sales. 2005). The necessity of building this facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. Having the required results he is comparing them looking for the possibilities of energy and solvent savings. Mackowice Dehydration Facility was opened on 21st January 2005. 2005). .e. controls..g.

and charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a simulation of dewatering process under petroleum engineering program Hysys. Poland.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 5 The author shows his approach towards creating an optimization strategy for natural gas dehydration unit Maćkowice. Analytical and mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable results. . Operating manuals of devices. The optimization is to made on the basis of energy saving and glycol absorbent waste.

This is because the diameter of the molecule must be smaller than that of the cavity (or close to it) for the molecule to enter the cavity. Claussen. Only molecules having a certain range of diameters can form inclusions. Owing to this cage structure.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 6 2.. This led to limitation of appearance of hydrates which are inclusion compounds which result from the combination of water with some of the components of natural gas and primarily methane (Rojey et al. The interpretation of these early diffraction experiments by von Stackelberg and co-workers. In the presence of light gas. In the late 1940’a and early 1950’s von Stackelberg and co-workers summarized two decades of X-ray hydrate crystal diffraction experiments at the University of Bonn. water molecules can form a regular crystalline structure containing cavities.. 1994. It is stabilized by gas molecules. 2003. Carroll. and sufficiently large for the crystal lattice to be stable (Sloan. 2002. in which gas molecules are trapped. The crystal lattice is due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. Rojey et al.. 1997). These crystals are in fact hydrates of natural gas. 1994). Dewatering Technology 2.Gandhidasan. 2003). to determine that natural gas hydrates were blocking gas transmission lines frequently at temperatures above the ice point. 2002. first thought to be ice crystals. the hydrates belong to the category of inclusion compounds called clathrates. 1994. This discovery was pivotal in causing a more pragmatic interest in the gas hydrates. which are themselves held in the cavities by van der Waals forces (Sloan. Rosman 1973. Rojey et al. Gandhidasan. Carrll. 1997. 1997. In the mid-1930’s Hammerschmidt studied the 1927 hydrate review of Schroeder. and shortly thereafter led to the regulation of the water content in natural gas pipelines.1 Theory of hydrates Good reviews on hydrate theory were provided by Sloan. Since the beginning of the century the production of natural gas has encountered difficulties connected with the plugging of piping by the deposition of crystals. and .

is a basic building block of hydrate structures. Structure II is composed of sixteen small cavities (512) and eight large cavities. 1997). Nitrogen. propane and isobutene form structure-II hydrates (Sloan. ethane. The pentagonal dodecahedron. H2S and CH4. However. Because of to this restriction dodecahedra are necessarily associated with other types of polyhedron to form the structure of the hydrates (Sloan.1). since propane and isobutene molecules can enter only the large cavities of structure II. methane. forming large cavities. carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide form structure-I hydrates. a natural gas containing propane and isobutane generally forms structure-II hydrates. The small cavities are stabilized by molecules like Xe. Sloan. the 512 dodecahedra coexist with 435663 dodecahedra as well as 51268 polyhedra. Within the last decade structure H (sH). referenced as 51264 (Figure 2. and the large cavities by hydrocarbons with . 1997). In the pure state. 1994).1997. with twelve pentagonal faces and eight hexagonal faces. the water molecules form polyhedra. designed by the notation 512. Each of these polyhedra forms a cavity which can contain a molecule of natural gas components with which it forms a hydrate. The structure H was determined through diffraction and NMR studies. Methane fits into the small cavities (512) of structures I and II.2).. 1994. 1997). In this structure. Normal butane does not form hydrates as a pure component. In these structures. Structure I is composed of two small cavities formed by a dodecahedron and six large cavities formed by a tetradecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and two hexagonal faces referenced as 51262 (Figure 2. a third hydrate with a unit cell was discovered by Ripmeester (Sloan. Rojey et al. formed by a hexadecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and four hexagonal faces.. It is not possible to fill space entirely with dodecahedra. and in the large cavities (51262) of structure I. Hydrate formation can occur when normal butane is mixed with other components (Rojey et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 7 Pauling and Marsh led to determination of two hydrate structures (sI and sII).

.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 8 much higher molecular weights such as adamantine and methylcyclohexane (Figure 2. can form this new hydrate structure. The role that structure-H hydrates may play in natural gas production is still unclear. However. together with methane. 1997). under pressure and temperature conditions easily encountered in production and transport facilities (Sloan 1997). it has been proven that hydrocarbon molecules commonly found in condensates or oils.3) (Sloan.

For these reasons one specifies upper limits for both the water and hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. Gandhidasan.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 9 2. in order to reduce operational problems (Rosman. 2002). 2002). by altering the fugacity of the water. 2003). In both instances inhibitor must be introduced. 1973. If this is not feasible. It is necessary to prevent the corrosion and erosion problems in pipelines and equipment particularly when CO2 and H2S are present in the gas. Apart from the risk of hydrate formation. To avoid such situations. solidify. Dehydration of natural gas is the removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor form. 1997): . the liquids can reduce the volumetric capacity of the system and interfere with the operation of pressure regulators and filters. natural gas must be dehydrated. which caused an increase in operating pressures and potential damage to equipment due to liquid carryover. condense and cause the formation of hydrates. depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation. One way to achieve this is to dry the natural gas. Condensed liquids accumulated in pipelines. Operating outside the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation can be achieved either by raising temperature at a given pressure. Water is removed from the gas to meet water dew point requirements of a sales pipeline condition.2 Technologies used for dehydration It is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid water and hydrocarbons to ensure troublefree operation of a natural gas transmission system. Gandhidasan. or by lowering the pressure at a given temperature. which. production and transport installations must be protected from the risks of hydrate formation. or favor corrosion if the gas contains acid components. 1973.. lower the hydrate formation temperature (Rosman. Four types of processes are used (Rojey at al. To prevent pipe plugging. The water present in natural gas may. temperature and pressure conditions must be created to prevent formation of hydrates. and a refrigeration plant is used for control of the hydrocarbon dew point (Carroll. Onshore the natural gas conditioning process employs a dehydration process for control of the water dew point. such as water and hydrocarbon dew point limits. They are generally selected from solvents miscible in the aqueous phase. Many transmission companies impose restrictions on the quality of natural gas acceptable for transporting.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION a) absorption b) adsorption c) gas permeation d) refrigeration 10 .

however. Campbell. C. Ikoku. producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas (Campbell. and the bottom of the contactor d) low affinity for hydrocarbons and acid gases e) thermal stability. meet the criteria for a suitable commercial application. especially the reboiler vapor space. Few liquids. 1988. 2002. ATG. In case of absorption based natural gas dehydration processes the gas is dried by countercurrent scrubbing with a solvent that has a strong affinity for water.R. Several liquids possess the ability to absorb water from a gas stream. Sivalls. 1989.3 Dehydration by absorption The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid desiccant contactor-regeneration process. The water in the gas is absorbed in the lean solvent. A suitable solvent should have the following properties (Carroll. the stripping column of the regenerator. usually by the application of heat. 1987. Rojey et al. particularly in the high temperature ranges found in the reboiler f) easy regeneration to higher concentration for reuse. 1982. although other liquid desiccants are met which are calcium chloride. 2001)..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 11 2. Arnold and Steward. 1992): a) strong affinity to water (the absorbing liquid should be highly hygroscopic) b) low cost c) noncorrosive to the selected metallurgy of the hydrocarbon equipment.1976. 2002. In this process. 1990. The dehydrated gas leaves at the top of the column. 1980.. ATG.. The solvent is usually a glycol. 1994. 1994). Trent. Maddox and Erbar. the wet gas is contacted with a lean solvent (containing only a small amount of water). lithium chloride. etc. Tannehill at al. zinc chloride.E.. R. Rojey et al. which drives off the absorbed water g) low viscosity h) low vapor pressure at the contact temperature to reduce the amount of solvent losses due to vaporization . 1994. The glycol leaving the bottom is regenerated by distillation and recycled (Carroll. Kumar. 1992.

it has larger losses. Glycols will. Tetraethylene glycol is higher in cost and is more viscous than TEG. Carroll. Carroll. particularly in the reboiler. On the other hand TREG has a lower vapor pressure.. Several glycols have been found suitable for commercial application (Rejoy. They can be obtained in the pure state by fractionation by vacuum distillation. It exhibits most of the desirable characteristics listed earlier and has other advantages compared to other glycols (Rojey et al. The heaviest glycols are most hygroscopic.1 lists the main physical properties of commercial glycols.. however. 1994): a) Monoethylene glycol (MEG) which is commonly known as simply ethylene glycol (EG) b) diethylene glycol (DEG) c) triethylene glycol (TEG) d) tetraethylene glycol (TREG) Table 2. 2002). which reduces losses (Gandhidasan. decompose at elevated temperatures.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 12 i) low solubility in hydrocarbons (low solubility in the solvent minimizes the loss of desired product and reduces hydrocarbon emissions) j) low tendency to foam and emulsify. 2003. 2002). High viscosity translates into higher pumping costs. 1997. By comparison. Glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure.. and is the most widely used. 1994) . DEG is marginally lower in cost than TEG. The most common glycols for dehydration applications are (Rojey et al. The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. 1994. Rojey et al. including carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria. nor to chemical reactions with any of the natural gas constituents. TEG has less affinity to water and thus has less dew point depression. Triethylene glycol (TEG) offers the best cost/benefit compromise. however because DEG has a larger vapor pressure.

For very large diameters. Hot solvent from the accumulator is circulated through this heating coil to provide the required heat. Carroll.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 13 Before undergoing the actual dehydration process any free liquids in the natural gas stream are removed. The solvent is regenerated in a second column. The descriptions of these figures are provided by John Carroll. 1994). The absorption step is carried out in a plate or packed column. valve trays. finding more acceptance in glycol contactors (Carroll. usually at the base of the contactor with a chimney tray between the contactor bottom and the separator vessel. The actual stages could be either trays like bubble caps. 2003.. The separator should be equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor in the top part to remove any liquid entrainment and particulates from the gas stream before entering the absorber section. . The separator could be a two-phase or three-phase separator depending on the amount of free water expected. or a suitable packing material. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit (Carroll. 1994). Gandhidasan. 1994. 2003.5 show the flow schemes of a typical glycol units. Rojey et al. the liquid desiccant process is a two-step process. The solvent is then returned to the first column to remove water from more feed gas. the water is absorbed from the gas in the staged tower. packings are generally used. due to the higher viscosity of the glycol. Rojey et al. The inlet separator can be free standing with interconnecting piping to the contactor or it can be an integral part of the contactor. 1994.4 and 2. 2003 and Alexandre Rojey et al. For small diameters. while the larger columns are equipped with the bubble-cap or valve trays. Basically. However. The number of plates is usually between 6 and 8... A separator should be included upstream of the contactor to separate any hydrocarbon liquids and free water.. the use of structured packing is currently spreading. In the first step. 2003). Integral separators are usually outfitted with a heating coil to prevent water from freezing. Figures 2. When the stream is devoid of free liquids and mist the actual dehydration process starts (Rojey et al. The temperature at which the absorption step is carried is usually limited to 38 oC to avoid excessive glycol losses. or sieve trays. 2002. A lower temperature helps to reduce the losses as well as the water content in the processed gas.

Typically. 1994). Rojey et al. which is normally in the range of 4000 to 8500 kPa. 2003. Flash tank pressures are typically in the range of 300 kPa to 700 kPa (Carroll. 1994). The gas and liquid are mixed in the contactor.. and the actual water removal takes place there. enough to ensure mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid so that the outlet gas is at the desired water specification (Carroll. usually on level control. the glycol solution is sent to a three-phase separator in which the stripped hydrocarbon liquids and the dissolved gas are separated. followed by a cartridge filter to trap solid particles.. The rich glycol is withdrawn from the bottom of the contactor. The glycol leaves the flash tank. the lean glycol is preheated. The contactor consists of several equilibrium stages. The contactor is essentially isothermal (the temperature profile is essentially uniform throughout the contactor) (Carroll.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 14 The contactor (also called an absorber) is the workhorse of the dehydration unit. 1994). After the absorption step. again usually on level control.. The feed gas flow rate is the most significant factor in determining the diameter of the contactor. Then the rich glycol enters the lean-rich heat exchanger. The flow of streams is countercurrent. and finally an activated-charcoal filter to retain the chemical impurities (Carroll. 1994). Rojey et al. In some cases this process is divided in parts (Figure 2. 2003. often by passing it through tubes in the overhead condenser at the top of the still column. The outlet gas water content specification is the key to determining the contactor height. 1994). 2003. The contactor pressure is set by the feed gas pressure. 2003. Then it is flashed at low pressure in a flash tank.. Feed gas enters the bottom of the contactor and flows upward. although other factors contribute as well. The contactor is a typical absorber tower properly sized for the process objective(Carroll. whose basic purpose is to conserve . Rojey et al. where most of the volatile components (entrained and soluble) are vaporized. The solvent absorbs water as it travels downward through the column and the gas transfers the water to the solvent as it travels upward. Rojey et al. Lean solvent enters the top of the contactor and flows downward. then passes through a filter.. 2003. Rojey et al.5).

and a surge tank located below the reboiler. The lean glycol entering the contactor should be cool. 1994). At the top of the column the vapor is virtually pure water whereas there is very little water in the glycol in the bottom. A basic regeneration unit consists of a combination of a fired boiler. usually filled with packing. separation of water from glycol takes place by fractionation. The standard TEG dehydration unit operates effectively at the reboiler temperature around 175 oC. 2003). Furthermore the two substances can be easily separated by fractional distillation. 2003. .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 15 energy. Rojey et al. This coil often performs the dual purpose of preheating the rich glycol ahead of the flash tank (Carroll. The temperature difference causes the glycol vapor (heavy component) to condense and liquid water (light component) to vaporize.. 2003. The still column. and rich glycol to regeneration should be warm (Carroll. Also included in the regeneration unit is a condensing coil added to the top of a still column to provide reflux to improve solvent/water separation. In the regenerator.. water-rich vapor rises in intimate contact with descending glycol-rich liquid. Rojey et al. The size of the regenerator is determined by a balance between the solvent circulation rate.. 2003. lean glycol from regeneration is cooled with rich glycol from the contactor. In the lean-rich exchanger. 1994). This is accomplished in the still column mounted directly on the top of the reconcentration vessel (Rojey et al. 1994). Rojey et al. Gandhidasan. the amount of water vapor in the gas stream and the reboiler temperature. The reflux thus generated helps to reduce glycol losses. The solvent is regenerated by reboiling. or about 20 oC below the decomposition temperature of TEG. Between the two phases. Trays are sometimes used in very large units (Carroll. 2003.. hot.. is cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution. 288 oC for TEG). a continuous exchange of material and heat takes place. A small portion of the vapor mixture(mainly water) at the top condenses at the overhead condenser to provide sufficient reflux that will aid in the process of fractionation (Carroll. Rojey et al. 1994. located at the lower section of a horizontal vessel with a vapor space above the tube bundle. a distillation column (still column) connected vertically to the vapor space of the reboiler vessel. 1994). Water and glycol have widely varying boiling points (100 oC for water. Within the column.

Rojey et al.. These components are removed with the water on completion of the regeneration step. 1994. . leaves the bottom of the packed still column and enters the reboiler vessel. The high-pressure side consists of the glycol contactor and the inlet separator. Rojey et al. They are frequently released directly to the atmosphere.. 2003. ethylbenzene and xylenes present in the natural gas.6) (Carroll. 2003. Rojey et al. now becoming lean glycol. In addition to water. The hot.6 %. 1994). The typical example of a TEG regenerator is Stahl column. The stripping gas is sparged directly into the reboiler. Intensive dehydration of natural gas demands high purity of the recycled solvent. In a normal TEG dehydration unit. as they are toxic. where it is cooled. this temperature level has been found to cause no noticeable thermal decomposition of the TEG (Carroll.. This is deeply dried natural gas taken usually from the main stream of dehydrated gas. With the use of stripping gas the glycol solvents can have the concentrations up to 99. to vent the separated water to the atmosphere. Manning and Thompson. Ultimately it is returned to the contactor and the cycle is complete (Carroll. the flash tank and associated equipment. The hot lean glycol passes to the lean rich exchanger.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 16 Stripping gas is used to increase the lean glycol concentrations. called also a gasstriping column (Figure 2. and to recover the glycol vaporized by the reboiler. but. as noted before. lean glycol leaves the reboiler vessel and overflows by gravity to the surge tank. toluene. a vessel normally located below the reboiler vessel. This purity is improved by lowering the pressure and raising the temperature during the regeneration step. this incurs risks for the operating personnel . 1991). Thus the low-pressure side consists of the regenerator. 2003. The TEG natural gas dehydration unit operates. at relatively high pressure on the contactor side and low pressure on the regeneration side. Heat is applied in the reboiler to raise the temperature and cause partial vaporization. the solvent selectively absorbs H2S and aromatic compounds such as benzene. The main purpose of the still column is to effect final separation between the absorbed water and the absorbing TEG. The glycol-rich liquid. 1994).

1994): a) the already dehydrated gas is sent to the reboiler. The triethylene glycol is thus obtained with a purity that may be higher than 99. The regeneration temperature must also remain below an acceptable limit for glycol decomposition. to lower the water partial pressure by stripping with natural gas. This method is called Drizo process . To drop to even lower contents in the range of a few parts per million the purity of the recycled solvent must be even further increased. octane) is injected into the reboiler.9 %.4 %. Difficulties in burning noncondensable vapors in low-pressure burners were reported (Carroll. These regeneration conditions lead to a water content of about 35 g/1000 Sm3 in the processed gas. according to whether the gas is simply injected into the reboiler or introduced into an additional stripping section after the reboiler b) a hydrocarbon (toluene. without any consumption of carrier gas. Rojey et al. This temperature is 177 oC for diethylene glycol. This heteroazeotrope rises to the top of the column and.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 17 The installation of a condenser improves the situation. As an example the injection of 45 Sm3 of gas per m3 of triethylene glycol helps to purify the solvent to 99. the pressure must be kept slightly above atmospheric. after condensation of the vapor phase. the hydrocarbon is separated by simple settling and recycled. 204oC for thiethylene glycol and 224 oC for tetraethylene glycol (Rojey et al. forming a heteroazeotrope with water. but is generally not sufficient to eliminate the problem of aromatics releases completely. 1994).0 or 99.. 1994).. To prevent any air from entering. Rojey et al. 2003. the purity of the processed gas can be further improved to reach water contents in the range of 20 g / 1000 Sm3.. 2003. Two techniques are available for this (Gandhidasan. Complete elimination requires the incineration of the nonocondensable flare gas in the reboiler fire tube. By increasing solvent circulation.

1994). C. Trent.R. hot natural gas is sent to regenerate the adsorbent (Rojey et al.. four beds are needed in practice. ATG.4 Dehydration by adsorption Separation processes by adsorption uses a solid phase with large surface area.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 18 2. This is why adsorbents are normally used in fixed beds with periodic sequencing (Carroll. the same gas can be used for regeneration. the bed must be cooled. In these conditions. Rojey et al.. The desorption step is carried by different methods (Carroll. Tannehill. Maddox and Erbar. 1976. This is achieved by passing through cold natural gas. 1994). 1992. the gas to be processed is sent on the adsorbent bed which selectively retains the water.. 1987.. which selectively retains the components to be separated. The process is conducted alternately and periodically. 2001).. Rojey et al. Rojey et al.7. After regeneration and before the adsorption step.. R.C. Sivalls.. ATG. 1988. 1982. 2003. 1994): a) lowering the pressure.E. When the bed is saturated. 2003. The flow scheme of a dehydration operation by adsorption in a fixed bed is shown in Figure 2. 2003. Arnold and Stewart. 1994). Adsorbents are naturally unsuitable for continuous circulation. C. sometimes even under vacuum b) sweeping by an inert natural gas to lower the partial pressure of the component to be desorbed . After heating. 1994). The adsorbents are generally characterized by a microporous structure which affords a very large specific surface (Campbell. Kumar. with each bed going through successive steps of adsorption and desorption (Rojey et al.. one bed in cooling and one bed in regeneration (Carroll. 1990. Adsorption processes are generally applied when a high purity is required for the processed gas. two beds operating simultaneously in adsorption. 1989. During the adsorption step. owing to mechanical problems and also due to the risks of attrition (erosion of adsorbent particles due to friction and collisions during movement). 1994.

allows more effective desorption than with a simple elution gas d) heating. provided a number of precautions are observed c) molecular sieves (zeolites) used for gas processing are silicoaluminates. in which the crystal structure forms cavities making up a microporous network on a molecular scale. because of the thermal inertia of the adsorbent bed. The heavy hydrocarbons are adsorbed but cannot then be desorbed during regeneration. 1994): a) activated alumina – a low residual-water content of about 1 ppm vol can be achieved by using activated alumina. It can be used therefore to separate simultaneously the water and the condensate fraction of the gas processed. in which the temperature rises facilities desorption: in a fixed-bed operation. Rojey et al. 2003. the size of the access cavities varies . Therefore if such heavy hydrocarbons are present in the gas. Rojey et al..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 19 c) sweeping by a displacement agent. It adsorbs water from the hydrocarbons.. a significant variation in temperature between the adsorption and desorption steps is practical only if the cycle time is relatively long. Silica gel is easily regenerated at a temperature between 120 and 200 oC. which are then desorbed during regeneration. An adsorbent must have the following properties (Carroll. which. they have to be removed before the adsorption step b) silica gel – the water content of the gas processed by adsorption on silica gel is about 10 ppm vol. 1994): a) high adsorption capacity at equilibrium b) reversible adsorption allowing regeneration of the adsorbent c) fast adsorption kinetics d) low pressure drop e) attrition resistance f) chemical inertness g) no significant volume change with temperature and saturation The most widely used adsorbents today are the following (Carroll. This structure has cations that play the role of charge compensation. 2003. by being adsorbed. Depending on the type of zeolite.

or to reduce the gas loss substantially. which is extremely important for offshore production (Fournie and Agostini.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 20 2. which passes through the membrane driven by pressure difference.. to make this process economically viable.2 % and the membrane area is estimated 1430 m2 (Deschamps et al. 2003. 1989). the loss of gas in the permeate is estimated at 4. 1994. However. Rojey et al. .. the membrane must be very permeable with respect to the contaminant to be separated. These advantages only appear clearly in the case of single-stage operation without recycle or recompression of the permeate (Carroll. 1981). it is either necessary to find an application compatible with the production of gas low pressure. many investigations have demonstrated the potential value of such a process which. The membrane surface is dependent on the amount of gas permeating through it. 1994): a) modules with plane membranes wound spirally around a collector tube b) modules with a bundle of hollow fibers For a gas-permeation unit processing 1·107 Nm3/d of gas at 7 MPa and required to reduce the water content from 1040 to 170 ppm vol. The most widely used industrial modules belong to two types (Rojey et al.. Compact permeation modules with a high membrane area are therefore needed. by improving membrane performance (Deschamps et al. Deschamps et al. The permeability of methane must be accepted to avoid an excessively large membrane area nevertheless means a significant loss of methane in the permeate (Deschamps et al. Industrial applications of dehydration by gas permeation are currently very limited. 1989).5 Dehydration by permeation In the process of dehydration by permeation. could prove to be more economical and more compact. in comparison with a glycol dehydration unit. and it must be relatively impermeable to methane.. For the separation to be effective. which are generally expressed in thousands of square meters. 1981). Membrane separation processes require large membrane areas. 1984). the dried natural gas is going through a membrane leaving particles of water and impurities on its surface. Under these conditions.

1994): a) natural gasoline or condensate which is a light gasoline representing the C5+ fraction b) the LPG fraction which includes propane and butanes (normal butane and isobutene). it may include an LPG fraction if this fraction has not been separated in the liquefaction plant. 1997).. If the gas is not dehydrated before the refrigeration step the injection of an inhibitor is often the simplest and most economical solution. This separation is usually performed by lowering the temperature with the formation of a liquid phase. In most cases refrigeration is used for cases of a previously dehydrated gas to avoid hydrate formation during refrigeration. It can also be achieved by adsorption or absorption.. which is mainly formed of methane. 1994). The following liquid fractions can be obtained in succession by lowering the temperature (Rojey et al. the mixture of natural gasoline and LPG (which also contains ethane) obtained by lowering the temperature of the natural gas up to the LPG liquefaction point but without separation between natural gasoline and LPG.6 Dehydration by refrigeration If a natural gas contains a relatively large fraction of hydrocarbons other than methane (condensate gas or associated gas). as the process operates at low temperature thorough dehydration and carbon dioxide removal is needed to prevent formation of crystals though (Rojey et al. it becomes possible to liquefy the methane: the natural gas can thus be transported at atmospheric pressure in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). refrigeration simultaneously yields a .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 21 2. Examples are: process of liquids recovery by refrigeration. it may be necessary to separate of at least part of these hydrocarbons to avoid the formation of a liquid phase during transport (Rojey et al.. is called natural gas liquids c) by lowering the temperature to about -160 oC. refrigeration by isenthalpic expansion and expansion through a turbine which is similar to isenthalpic expansion but much more effective. In this way. and generally contains ethane.

The use of glycol as inhibitor allows relatively easy regeneration by distillation.. 1997). Refrigeration in the presence of methanol helps to control water and heavy-hydrocarbon contents simultaneously. Because of large pressure drops. . and the solution of water and methanol is regenerated without a distillation step (Rojey et al. 1991). It employs Joule-Thompson expansion (isothermal expansion) to dry the gas and recover condensate. This regeneration may. Cool gas holds less water than hot gas. Methanol is also used. Joule-Thompson expansion requires large pressure drops. This method is used at Lollsnes. the largest gas field in Norway.60*10-5 kg/m3 level (Carroll. however. Therefore the process of refrigeration removes also water. 2003). One of main ways of natural gas dehydration through refrigeration is carried through expansion refrigeration. usually ethylene glycol. become very costly if the water content is high. Norway to remove water from natural gas. A typical refrigeration process can easily reduce the water content of a gas stream down to 1. The cold temperatures in a refrigeration process result in water removal. 2003. This process is also known as low-temperature extraction (LTX). LTX is used only when the prime objective is condensate recovery (Manning and Thompson. Kollsnes receives the gas from Troll A. especially in the presence of free water. but is generally not recycled. 1994). In order to prevent the formation of ice and hydrates. the cold gas is mixed with a polar solvent. Rojey et al. Kollsnes is one of the largest systems in the world..OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 22 condensate and an aqueous phase consisting of the mixture of water and inhibitor(Carroll.

The imported gas hardly ever met dew point specification required by Polish norms (Figure 3.3.1). The internal diameters of gas pipelines are given on the figure. Subsequently part of the main gas stream from the direction of Ukrainian border. The necessity of building a dehydration facility was caused by high water content in the imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. or whole the amount of gas imported is carried through dehydration process in Maćkowice dewatering unit. It is owned and operated by Regional Department of Gas Transport (ROP). but also polish gas. c) closeness to power plant solves the problem of energy delivery d) pressure loss up to 0. Some of the gas is then sent to Strachocin. in comparison to the drying capability under lower pressure range b) possibility of drying not only imported. 2005): a) the possibility of drying two times larger amount of gas under higher pressure thanks to the neighboring gas compressor unit.2) The system of gas pipelines in the region of Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. The building was begun in April 2004. It is located in the neighborhood of compressor unit used for compressing gas imported from Ukraine.2 MPa acceptable due to proximity of compressor unit. The dehydrating facility was built in this location deliberately. about 10 km from Przemyśl (Figure 3. After dehydration the gas is sent to Jaroslaw compressor and metering station where the stream is split and sent to receivers. Tarnow. Maćkowice Facilities The gas drying unit Maćkowice. The facility was opened on 21st January 2005. It is used for drying natural gas flowing from Ukraine. . Poland is located 25 km from the Ukrainian Border.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 23 3. The gas may be previously compressed in neighboring compressor unit. The main reasons were (Stosur. The natural gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is metered and compressed in Hermanowice compressor station.

flows to system pipelines. The internal diameter is 1500 mm. vertical two-phase separators.4. The pressure of gas can be in the range from 2700 kPa to 4000 kPa for gas coming directly from Ukraine.The oil used for heater propelling is Aviaterm 6 (see Appendix A). They are equipped with a high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor to remove any free liquids and mist. depending on the strategy chosen.3). The pressure and temperature range for the dehydration facility is suggested by the Nafta-Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice facility. natural gas of different range of temperatures can be dryed (Figure 3. The gas enters the bottom part of the absorber and flowing upward meets countercurrent flow of lean TEG stream. . The stripping gas is heated to the temperature of 104 oC and depressurized to the regenerator pressure. The dehydration process scheme for Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on Figure 3. as the sales gas. The heater should keep the gas temperature between 10 oC and 38oC depending on chosen strategy. The separators are free standing. there may be a third gas stream led directly to the transport pipelines. Finally about 20 [Nm3/h] of the dry gas is directed to glycol regenerator as stripping gas and the remaining part. and in the range from 4700 kPa to 5500 kPa for gas going through compressor unit. Depending on the selected pressure 75 000 [Nm3/h] to 280 000 [Nm3/h] per one contactor can be dehydrated. Separators are placed upstream of the absorption columns. The column is filled with Mellapak structured packing provided by Sulzer company. The facility contains two independent drying units. Under different pressures.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 24 The process of dehydration is led with use of TEG absorption in typical way described in previous chapter (see Chapter 2.5). The first step of dehydration process is removing any free liquids from the natural gas stream. After leaving the absorber the natural gas stream goes through heat exchanger cooling down the TEG stream going into the dehydration column. After separating the free water the gas stream is directed through an oil propelled heater to absorbtion column where the actual dehydration takes place. The gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is split equally between them and.

TEG stream is directed through heat exchanger where it warms up rich TEG flowing towards the regenerator.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 25 The rich glycol leaves the contactor under the contactor pressure (depending of gas inlet pressure) and goes through valve decreasing the pressure to 400 kPa. Then the TEG stream flows through a heat exchanger in which it is heated before getting to the regeneration column. Then the lean TEG is mixed with TEG makeup stream in order to compensate the glycol losses.5 % TEG mole fraction. This helps to reduce the glycol losses. Aforementioned stripping gas is put in the upper part of the column in order to regenerate the glycol solution to concentration of 99. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through a heat exchanger where it is cooled down by the dry gas going out of absorber. A fired boiler and surge tank are located at the lower section of the vessel. In the regenerator it is further heated to the temperature of 180 oC to 200 oC. which allows TEG to lose most of the entrained and soluble volatile components while in the flash tank. The still column is filled with packing and cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution (condenser part). Subsequently it goes through a pump where the pressure is increased in order to surpass the pressure in absorber tower. After leaving the regenerator. The separation of water from TEG takes place by fractional distillation. .

2004). For the given composition of natural gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration unit different Fluid Packages were checked. 2004). therefore choosing the right Fluid Package for given compounds is substantial. all necessary information pertaining to pure component flash and physical property calculations is contained within the Fluid Package. both forwards and backwards. Hysys Simulation Package Aspen Hysys 3. Hysys helps process industries improve productivity and profitability throughout the plant lifecycle. Another Hysys feature is that modular operations are combined with non-sequential solution algorithm. In Hysys. The modular structure of the operation means they can be calculated in either direction. The program is built upon proven technologies. This flexibility combined with consistent and logical approach to how these capabilities are delivered makes Hysys a versatile process simulation tool (Aspen Tech. but finally the PengRobinson equation of state was chosen. operational improvement. business planning and asset management. In the used property package several . with more than 25 years experience supplying process simulation tools to the oil. optimization and business planning for oil and gas production. design. 2004). but the results of any calculation are automatically produced throughout the flowsheet. so not only is information processed as it is supplied. real-time applications and the integrated approach to the engineering solutions enable the user to improve designs. performance monitoring. performance monitoring. Hysys offers a high degree of flexibility because there are multiple ways to accomplish specific tasks. gas and refining industries.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 26 4. It proves an interactive process modeling solution that enables engineers to create steady state models of plant design. troubleshooting. as an ideal model for VLE calculations as well as calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems. The powerful simulation and analysis tools.2 is a process modeling tool for steady state simulation. gas processing and petroleum refining industries. optimize production and enhance decision-making (Aspen Tech. using information in an outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions (Aspen Tech.

The unit operations are used to assemble flow sheets. Once the Fluid Package for given compounds was chosen. Included in the available operations are those which are governed by thermodynamics and mass/energy balances. By connecting the proper unit operations and streams the user can model a wide variety of oil. compressor. 2004). Examples are conditions and composition pages. The properties pages display the property correlations of the inlet and outlet streams of the unit operations (Aspen Tech. separators. and the logical operations like adjust. likewise gas and glycol temperatures and pressures. and recycle (Aspen Tech. The process was reconstructed in as much detail as it was possible (Operating Manual of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. These tools interact with the process and provide additional information. set. All the known dimensions were inserted. This does not yet influence the simulation results as the amount of energy necessary to heat up the stripping gas stream is known.4).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 27 enhancements to the original Peng-Robinson model were made by the creators of Hysys program in order to extend the range of applicability and to improve its predictions in some non-ideal systems. gas. such as heat exchangers. 2004). Multiple properties pages are connected with every streams. All unit operations and utilities are connected by material and energy streams. Hysys offers an assortment of utilities which can be attached to process streams and unit operations. The author tried to avoid using simplified and non-physical units but failed by little as balance units for stripping gas getting into regenerators had to be used (Figure 3. the author prepared a detailed scheme of Maćkowice dehydration facility along with surrounding pipelines in order to be able to simulate dehydration and glycol regeneration processes. For the material stream the user has to define . The values were also compared to analytical results and only insignificantly differed (Aspen Tech. The results achieved with use of Peng-Robinson equation of state were found to be most similar to empirical calculations of all used Fluid Packages. 2004). 2003). Material streams are used to simulate the material traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. 2004). petrochemical and chemical processes (Aspen Tech.

and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected internal and external streams. In general the column appears as multi-feed multi-product unit. or build his own column along with side equipment such as pump arounds. 2003). The parameters necessary are the temperature. flow based for example on molar flow. The column is a special type of sub-flow sheet in Hysys. 2003). pressure. and energy stream provides the enthalpy difference between the two streams. In the next part of this chapter units used for building Maćkowice dehydration facility will be briefly described. side strippers and side rectifiers (Aspen Tech. 2003). 2003). The inlet stream is heated to the required outlet conditions. The user can choose between various heater types. and composition (Aspen Tech. 2003). The energy stream property view contains of fields allowing user to define stream parameters. Depending on demands the user can choose one of the predefined columns. The heater operations are one-sided heat exchangers. which determine the way in which heat is transferred to the vessel operation (Aspen Tech. The separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. one vapor and one liquid product stream. Energy streams are used to simulate the energy traveling in and out of the simulation boundaries and passing between unit operations. . These operations provide information on how much energy is required to heat a process stream with a utility (Aspen Tech. The main parameter for energy streams is heat flow (Aspen Tech. Every separator may be provided with some common features like for example the geometry of the vessel and heat loss model which accounts for the convective and conductive heat transfer that occurs across the vessel wall. Separator is an unit with one or multiple feeds. A sub-flow sheet contains equipment and streams. The sequence in which the description are provided reflects the sequence of TEG solution and natural gas flow.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 28 their main properties and composition so Hysys can solve the stream. view objects to which the stream is attached and specify dynamic information.

The heat exchangers calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids on the basis of temperatures of inlet and outlet streams. It is assumed that the valve operation is isenthalpic. One of the inlet streams is natural gas saturated with water in given conditions. Warm rich glycol flows into the regenerator where it is heated up and losses water. The column is designed in such a way that it should allows to dry the gas to the content of water in gas below 0. 2003). The calculations are based on equal material and enthalpy between the two streams. The separator used for removing vapor part from the rich TEG stream under lower pressure is similar to the one separating free water from rich gas stream. A valve is used to decrease the pressure of dry natural gas exiting from the TEG contactor to the value of 400 kPa.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 29 The column used by the author for separating water from natural gas is a typical absorber column with two inlet and two exit streams.050 [g/Nm3] which determines the dew point of -18 oC under the pressure of 3900 kPa (Aspen Tech. On the exit the vapor which is composed of volatile gases and a small quantity of water is taken out at the top part of the separator. and the liquid part composed of glycol and water is carried to the heat exchanger (Aspen Tech. 2003). 2003). Fully refluxed condenser is built at the top of the column. In the considered case the TEG stream is heated up to the temperature of approximately 100 oC by lean TEG stream exiting regenerator (Aspen Tech. The variable specified by the user is outlet pressure. The regenerator is an example of distillation column with two inlet and two exit streams. 2003). the other is lean TEG glycol. In order to dry the absorbent to higher concentration stripping gas in the quantity of 20 Nm3/h is injected into the regenerator. The rest of variables necessary for solving the valve operation is taken from the stream flowing out of the contactor (Aspen Tech. Hysys performs a material and energy balance on the inlet and exit streams of the valve. and a reboiler in the lower part of the column is added for heating up bottom liquid to the temperature range of 180 oC to 200 oC (Aspen Tech. The entering stream contains particles of vapor and liquid. Heat exchanger performs two-sided energy and material balance calculations. . 2003).

All material recycles. 2003). require a recycle operation. The properties of both streams entering the mixer are known. . the inlet pressure and the pump efficiency are known. After compression the lean TEG stream goes through another heat exchanger where it gives some of its energy to dry gas stream flowing out of TEG contactor. which subsequently gets to the TEG pump. 2003). On this ground Hysys calculates the amount of glycol necessary to compensate the TEG losses and the properties of absorbent entering the pump.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 30 The lean glycol flowing out of the regenerator is mixed with stream of additional TEG in the makeup mixer. Hysys uses the assumed values and solves the flowsheet around the recycle. just as the amount of lean TEG from the regenerator and amount of TEG going out of the pump. Based on the difference between the assumed and calculated values Hysys generates new values to overwrite the previous assumed values. The heat flow necessary for compression is calculated by Hysys. The mixer combines the two streams to produce a single outlet stream. The pump operation assumes that the inlet fluid is incompressible though (Aspen Tech. The additional TEG is put into the circulation in order to make up glycol losses due to solution in natural gas and vaporization. and internal absolute tolerances (Aspen Tech. The glycol is cooled down while the dry gas is warmed up. The outlet pressure. where downstream material mixes with upstream material. The dynamics pump operation is similar to the compressor operation in that it increases the pressure of its inlet stream. then it compares the assumed values in the attached streams to the calculated values in the opposite stream. The recycle operation is a theoretical block in process stream. Before getting to the contactor lean TEG stream goes through recycle operation. The pump operation is used to increase the pressure of an inlet liquid stream. This block gives Hysys the ability to backcalculate through many operations in a non-sequential manner. The given values are the amount of TEG going into the contactor given with relative tolerance. The calculation process repeats until the calculated values match the assumed values within specified tolerances.

.1. 1962). a cooler mirror is used to observe the water condensation temperature. 1994): a) by observation of the dew point b) by water retention on an adsorbent c) by absorption in liquid. and the water content of the gas is accordingly decreased. In the dew point method. In the widely used absorption based KarlFischer method. called the Karl-Fischer reagent). the water is absorbed in a solution.2 helps to correct the water contents given by the Figure 5. . The Figure 5. Alexandre Rojey et al. 1994 provides a short description of these methods. The water dew point is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the hydrocarbon dew point.1 shows the water content at saturation point of nitrogen-free natural gases as a function of pressure and temperature. Water Content of Natural Gas 5. The quantity of water adsorbed is determined by gravimetric method. the water dew point curve of the natural gas can be used to determine the zone where water may condense. and the water content is measured from the amount of gas required to neutralize the reagent (solution of iodine. The water content of natural gas can be measured by three different methods (Rojey et al. The amount of condensed water released from gas can be then calculated from the difference between the water content in gas at saturation point at the inlet and outlet respectively. as a function of salinity of the aqueous phase (after Katz.. The water content can also be measured by adsorption on magnesium perchlorate. Corrections can be made for the sake of the composition of gas and the salinity of the water.1 Water content measurement The water content of a natural gas at saturation conditions depends essentially on the temperature and pressure. The Figure 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 31 5. Dissolved salts reduce the partial pressure of water in the vapor phase. If the variation of temperature and pressure in an installation is known. pyridine and sulfur dioxide in methanol.

4000 kPa. The figure shows the amounts of water saturating natural gas in given temperature and pressure along with charts for correction for gas relative density and for salinity. the estimated water content of a sour gas is a molar average of the solubility of water in the hydrocarbons.3). 20 000 kPa. Estimates of the water content of these sour gases are required for the design of plant and pipelines facilities. 50 000 kPa. In the procedure outlined by GPSA. 30 000 kPa. 2000 kPa. 750 kPa. 40 000 kPa. 250 kPa. 8000 kPa. the predicted water content of sour natural gas is high when based on these experimental curves (Robinson et al.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 32 5.2 Water content from GPSA diagram Natural gases containing significant quantities of acid gas are encountered frequently in the world. A chart was prepared containing aheadmentioned curves for temperatures from -50 oC to 140 oC under pressures of 100 kPa. hydrogen. and the water content read for the acid gas components often corresponds to the solubility of water in nonaqueous liquid phase rather than in vapor phase. respectively. 3000 kPa. Both these binaries display liquidliquid equilibria at temperatures and pressures common in processing applications. In general. 1977). . 5000 kPa. and 60 000 kPa (Figure 5. 1000 kPa. 500 kPa. sulfide. 1500 kPa. Three methods are currently available for estimating the water content of sour natural gases. and carbon dioxide. The most commonly used procedure is prepared by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). The water content curves for H2S and CO2 are based on experimental data for the binary mixtures H2O-H2S and H2O-CO2..

although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences. This layout is useful though to calculations of the amount of water necessary to remove from natural gas under given conditions in order to dry gas to the point where it meets the required standards (see Chapter 5. The dew points for the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC with the water content of 0. Therefore it was kept this way deliberately. The table in Appendix B shows water content in natural gas in [g/Nm3] within the range of pressures between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa. and 20 oC (Figure 5. An attachment to the manual shows water content of natural gas within the range of pressures for which the facility was designed (Figure 3.5).6).018 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33. Graphic analysis of the results was prepared for the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5. Dew point temperatures exceeding -18 oC were omitted. .1. Only water dew point temperatures below -18 oC are considered as work points. This assumption is made because of the investor’s demand to keep the amount of water in dried gas below the dew point temperature of -18 oC.4). for the temperatures between 10 oC and 40 oC with stress to points within the temperature and pressure range for which the facility should be used.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 33 5. 15 oC (Figure 5. The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.6). Original layout given by the designer (Nafta – Gaz) was used. without using the compressor station is shown in Table 5. Appendix B).5. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating. The temperature range includes temperatures encountered in Polish gas pipelines. The part of the table pertaining to the pressures encountered when the gas is put into the dehydration facility under the import pipeline pressure. This layout may not be transparent as it repeats the same results many times for different gas temperatures.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual The designer of Maćkowice natural gas dehydration facility provided an operating manual.009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.8 oC for water content of 0.

The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30. For the gas temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.036 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.1 oC for water amount of 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 34 Similarly the dew points for the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22.019 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.6.9 oC for the water amount of 0.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.8 oC for the water amount of 0. .4 oC for water amount of 0.

001685 − ln Pg 0 .228 − ln 0.81462 (1) ).eq + 10 o C 18. A well designed and properly operated unit will have an actual water dew point 5 oC to 8oC higher than the equilibrium dew point.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 35 5. This is: (2) Tdew. the actual water dew point is always higher than the equilibrium dew point. In present study.81462 ).228 ⋅ ln(0. an 10 oC approach to the equilibrium dew point at the top of the dehydrator was assumed. Gandhidasan. The dew point acquired depends on amount of water leaving the dehydration facility and gas pressure.eq = 18. The values format was converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F).eq − 10 o C .act = Tdew. (3) The values obtained are given in kilograms of water per million standard cubic meters. from the equations (1) and (2) the water content in outlet gas may be obtained: wout = exp( Tdew. and is given by the formula: Tdew. Therefore . When the pressure and dew point temperature of natural gas are known. The assumed water dew point temperature is known.001685 ⋅ wout ⋅ Pg 0 . The natural gas is getting in the absorber under a known pressure. 2002. Since the gas and TEG are not in contact for a long enough time to reach equilibrium. which only insignificantly changes inside the absorber. The author’s approach was based on calculations with use of equilibrium dew point equation for gases according to P.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations On the ground of empirical equations the author calculated the amount of water present in natural gas leaving the absorber column. as the height of absorption column is not known and therefore the additional 2 oC was used.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 36 without noticeable mistake one can recognize the inlet pressure as the actual pressure. The calculations were made for the pressure range recommended by Nafta – Gaz Company – the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility.9 oC for the water amount of 0.8). The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating.011 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.9) The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in different conditions.016 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 33. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual. For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18. 15oC (Figure 5.6.017 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.1 oC for water amount of 0. The pressure values and the dew points were kept unchanged. and 20 oC (Figure 5.4 oC for water amount of 0. Diagrams were made to show graphically the water content in dehydrated natural gas in the work pressure range in the temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5. although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.7). The dew points in the gas temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0.013 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa. Similarly the dew points in the gas temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. The table was prepared for the same gas temperatures as the one reproduced from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. The dew points were kept same as in the Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual (Appendix B).020 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to 30. and the amounts of water for different dew points under the considered pressure range were calculated with the given formula (3).025 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26. . The results were put together and shown in a table (Appendix C).8 oC for water amount of 0. Typical gas temperatures encountered in Poland were taken into account. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.8 oC for the water amount of 0.

In order to achieve this result the author had to prepare a sheet containing values of molecular weight of natural gas. In the separator operation the water content above the saturation level is taken away as liquid from the bottom part of the separator. Z factor of the mixture in given conditions and mass density of gas in given conditions.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program A simple flow sheet was made with the use of Hysys program. By this means the water saturation points under given conditions can be checked. The flow sheet shows a stream of dry gas with no water content going in a mixer operation along with pure water stream. where the calculation of amount of water in natural gas was made. The rich gas is taken from the top part of the separator as vapor. Hysys application does not provide the possibility of checking the amount of water per standard cubic meter directly. mole fraction of gas and water. water. The computation had following course: a) the number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol was calculated on the basis of multiplication the density of gas-water mixture by 1 m3 and dividing the result by molecular weight of the mixture b) mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture was calculated through multiplication of the number of moles of gas per 1 m3 by the mole fraction of water and by the molecular weight of pure water c) calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of the real gas law equation called Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) was done d) the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was achieved by dividing the mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 by the standard volume of water-gas mixture. .10).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 37 5. and to be still present as liquid in the pipe (Figure 5. Therefore a stream of saturated gas with significant amount of free water above the saturation point is created in the mixer and flows to a two-phase separator. The computation course for exemplary conditions are shown in Appendix E. Subsequently the values were exported to Microsoft Excel application. The temperature and pressure of saturated gas are inserted by the user and on this basis Hysys calculates the water content of saturated natural gas. and gas-water mixture. The amount of water is high enough to saturate the gas.

The value of standard gas flow per hour can be calculated by Hysys as one of gas stream properties.02 % in every case. The results obtained were put in tables. . Therefore the author made a detailed study of the interest range. The results’ format was converted from mass of water per standard cubic meter to mass of water per normal cubic meter with use of the real gas law equation (see Appendix F). Table 5. The temperature range started with -40 oC and reached the temperature of 140 oC with 20 oC step. 750 kPa. for example water.2b. 3000 kPa.2c. Table 5.3) – see Chapter 5. 1500 kPa. 5. The conditions encountered in Maćkowice gas dehydration facility vary only within the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 5500 kPa and the temperature range between 10 oC and 30 oC. In Tables 5. The values achieved with both methods are almost identical.2b. The results’ comparison is shown in Table 5.6. 4000 kPa.2a. Hysys application can calculate mass and mole flows of every component of a given stream. 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 38 The computation was first made generally for wide range of temperatures and pressures.2d the range of conditions is very wide. 1000 kPa.2. 5000 kPa. 8000 kPa. The outcomes differ by less than 0. and 60 000 kPa (Table 5. 5. Second method of calculating the amount of water in standard cubic meter was discovered. The pressure range started with 100 kPa and reached 60 000 kPa. 20 000 kPa.2d). 50 000 kPa. 250 kPa.2c. The values for which the calculation took place were 100 kPa. 5. 40 000 kPa. 30 000 kPa. 5.5 . 5. These values were chosen deliberately in order to compare the results achieved with the chart provided by GPSA (Figure 5. The range of conditions taken under consideration was narrowed.2a. 2000 kPa. The outcome for the temperature range from -40 oC to 140 oC under the pressure of 60 000 kPa is shown in Table 5. 500 kPa. Comparison of results achieved with the Clapeyron equation was made with the method based on flow values obtained with Hysys application.4 shows the number of grams of water per normal cubic meter of natural gas.3 shows the number of grams of water per standard cubic meter of natural gas. This method is based on reading the value of standard gas flow per hour [Sm3/h] and dividing it by mass flow of water as one of the stream component.

gas temperatures and dew points were left unchanged.2c. As the difference between standard and normal condition is limited to temperature difference (15 oC for standard conditions.3) and with the use of empirical equations (Chapter 5. 5. The obtained results were put in a table (Appendix D).032 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -30. The input data included temperature range encountered in polish gas pipelines under the pressure range for which the Maćkowice gas dehydration facility was designed.11). A detailed study of water amount in gas under work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility was made. The Hysys application results unit was given in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas mixture.8 oC for water amount of 0. 15oC (Figure 5. Similarly the dew points in the temperature of 15 oC vary from -22. 5. For the temperature of 20 oC the dew points vary from -18.023 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -33. In order to make the comparison with other results possible the Hysys obtained values were transformed into grams of water per normal cubic meter. Similar values to those achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (Chapter 5. Graphical analysis was prepared for temperatures of 10 oC (Figure 5.4 oC for water amount of 0.2a. The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual and empirical calculations.2d. . The pressure range.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 39 The outcome unit was transformed.8 oC for the water amount of 0.13).009 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.010 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.9 oC for the water amount of 0.046 g/Nm3 at 2700 kPa to -26.12). The water content results obtained with Hysys are delivered. and 20oC (Figure 5. The dew points in the temperature of 10 oC vary from -27 oC for the water amount of 0.015 kg/Nm3 at 5500 kPa.1 oC for water amount of 0.2b. 0 oC for normal conditions) the real gas law equation was used for transformation (see Appendix F). 5. The layout of the table has changed in comparison with Tables 5.4) were achieved.

2c. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and Hysys application are shown in Table 5.57 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. Similarly in comparison between manual data and equation based calculations the average mistake was 7. Hence. 14.87 % for gas temperature of 25 oC. Gandhidasan. 27.94 % for gas temperature of 15 oC. 5.15).79 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 34.14). Only values pertaining to work-points were included in tables.8. Hysys computation and manual based data was made. The diagrams for temperatures 10oC (Figure 5.1977). For ten randomly chosen pressure and temperature values the amount of water was read from the GPSA chart. In every case the error was smaller than 20 mg H2O per standard cubic meter.15 % for gas temperature of 20 oC and 16.7. The difference was considerably lower for comparison between Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual and Hysys package. The comparison results are shown in graphic mode.2d) and the amount of water results achieved with use of GPSA chart (see Figure 5. The values of water amount in natural gas according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.6 Water content results comparison Comparison was made between the amount of water calculated from Hysys results (Tables 5. empirical equation.2a. The values obtained with different methods stay in reasonable conformity. Comparison of the results obtained with empirical equations. and 20oC (Figure 5. 2002 are shown in Table 5. The water saturation calculated with the use of empirical equations for given gas temperature is shown along with the water content for selected dew points according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (see Appendix B) and Hysys package.16) are provided.58 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC. and Hysys application were compared. 13.77 % for the gas temperature of 10 oC.3.2b. In case of the comparison between manual data and Hysys calculated values the average mistake was 5. as the GPSA chart is well recognized as accurate for predicting the amount of water in natural gas under given conditions (Robinson.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 40 5.2). 15oC (Figure 5.01 % for gas temperature of 15 oC. . see Chapter 5. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual and solution based on empirical equations according to P. 5. 15. 5. the author considers the values obtained with use of Hysys application as unquestionable. Average error was calculated from the values obtained.

The reason of this unconformity may be the generality of used equation in which the results are not dependent on natural gas composition. Therefore the author decides to use the Hysys results as correct and not burdened with error that would substantially influence subsequent deliberations over optimum energy and glycol strategy. Moreover the author notices that the results obtained with empirical calculations used are burdened with noticeable error in comparison to manual and Hysys based outcome. Empirical equations used provide results close to the ones computed with use of Hysys application and delivered from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual. This is gained as the inaccuracy was small and the obtained values show the same tendency in each case. These general empirical equations were used instead of more complex ones as the main goal of this part of author’s work was to check the harmony between empirical solution and computer program based calculation.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 41 The author concludes from the results that both Hysys and manual based data stay in good conformity. .

Table 5. and 25 oC under pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and from 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa are provided in Table 5.9. For every pressure chosen the dew points in the range of -31 oC to -18 oC with 1 oC step were counted the same way as for water content in given gas temperature and pressure (see Chapter 5. 15 oC. 20 oC. The values for gas temperatures of 10 oC.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process Calculation of water content under dew point temperatures in Maćkowice dehydration facility work pressure range was made. The results were recalculated with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) to values expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter. This led to specifying the amount of water to be removed in order to achieve a required dew point temperature under given pressure for a known medium temperature. Gas temperatures of 10 oC. The amounts of water under the temperature range encountered in Polish gas pipelines and Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area pressure range were calculated.5) were considered.11. 20 oC. In the range of temperatures between -19 oC and -18 oC the step was decreased to 0.11). The results were put in tables.12 The results pertaining to water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in the pressure range between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa (Table 5.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 42 5. The values in changed units are shown in Table 5. 25 oC and 30 oC in this part of pressure range which is in Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area (Figure 3. The results showing the amount of water in natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter were put in Table 5.10.9) were compared with the amounts of water in typical gas temperatures encountered in polish gas pipelines (Table 5. The results for normal conditions are provided in Table 5.The amount of water left in natural gas under dew point temperature was subtracted from the water content of natural gas in typical temperatures encountered in gas pipelines. For the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa the amount of water in natural gas was calculated with use of Hysys application.13 shows the amount of water to be removed in grams of water per .1 oC. as this range of dew point temperatures is usually sufficient. The values in mentioned table were given in grams of water per standard cubic meter. The results were then converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F).5). The range of temperatures taken into account corresponds with the dew points possible to achieve during gas dehydration. 15 oC.

Table 5. and Table 5.19 provides results of water amount to remove under gas temperature of 25 oC expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter. The value is given in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Table 5.18 shows data pertaining to the same gas temperature. Table 5. . Table 5. Table 5.22 transforms the unit to grams of water to remove from gas per normal meter of medium. Table 5.15 shows the water amount to be removed for 15 oC warm natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter of gas.14 shows the amount of water to be removed when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC. Table 5. Finally Table 5. but expressed in grams of water to remove per normal cubic meter.17 shows the amount of water to remove from gas under the temperature of 20 oC in grams of water per standard cubic meter.21 shows the amount of water to remove from 30 oC warm gas in grams per standard cubic meter.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43 standard cubic meter when the natural gas temperature equals 10 oC.16 provides the same data transformed to normal conditions.20 shows the same data expressed in grams of water per normal cubic meter.

. For preset values of water content in natural gas the dew point values were calculated and put in tables. Hysys obtained results stay in good conformity with manual obtained data.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 44 5. The data was prepared for the range of water content encountered after dewatering in Maćkowice dehydration facility in gas temperature of 10 oC. but within the whole range of pressure encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. Table 5. The calculation is aimed at checking the compatibility of Hysys computation and manual data.24 contains the values achieved from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual. The points were not selected for a given pressure. Alike in the survey of water content saturating the natural gas in given conditions. and Table 5.25 brings up values calculated with use of empirical equations. The difference between dew points computed with use of Hysys package and Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual data hardly ever exceeds the value of 1 oC. Therefore there are no contraindications against using Hysys outcome as reliable. which is between 0. Hysys computation and manual data was made. This is satisfying result. Table 5.018 g/Nm3.23 shows the values of dew point for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package. The graphical comparison is shown in the Figure 5.17.009 g/Nm3 and 0. Achieved values show good correlation between results obtained with use of computation and manual data.8 Dew point values comparison Comparison of dew points for given water content between empirical calculation. The results of empirical calculation differ insignificantly from the ones mentioned above .

The decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates. . and 33 % at 16. This is one of the most important features upon which a specific glycol absorbent is chosen.387 Sm3/s (Kohl and Riesenfeld. triethylene glycol (TEG). particularly in the reboiler. Glycols will. decompose at elevated temperatures.95 kPa vs.1 Use of glycol solutions Glycols are by far most commonly used solvents in natural gas dehydration.344. 1979) b) lower pressure drop (34. The crucial properties of glycol solvents suitable for dewatering were given before (see Chapter 2. All of mentioned glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure. 68.7 kPa for dry desiccants) c) glycol dehydration is continuous rather than batch d) glycol makeup is easily accomplished e) glycol units require less regeneration heat per pound of water removed f) glycol units can typically dehydrate natural gas to 0.008 g/Sm3 The disadvantages of glycol over solid desiccants are a) water dew points below -4 oC require stripping gas and Stahl column for TEG regeneration b) glycol is susceptible to contamination c) glycol is corrosive when contaminated or decomposed The glycols that are most common for dehydration applications are monoethylene glycol (MEG).OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 45 6. however.47 kPa – 68.95 kPa . Glycol solutions 6. diethylene glycol (DEG). According to Manning and Thompson (1991) the advantages of glycol over solid desiccants are: a) lower installed costs by 50 % less at 3. and tetraethylene glycol (TREG).277 Sm3/s.3). The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial application criteria.

It is marginally more expensive than DEG. 2003). Moreover TEG is more easily regenerated. 1991) . It also has less affinity for water and therefore less dew point depression. but brings much less losses due to lower vapor pressure. In comparison to TREG it is less viscious. and is the most widely used (Manning and Wood. has a higher decomposition temperature of 277 oC in comparison to DEG (245 oC) and is not too viscous above 4 oC (Manning and Thompson. which translates into lower pumping costs. 1993). which are not entirely compensated by lower vapor pressure (Carroll. It shows most of the properties mentioned and in comparison to the other absorbents it is most economically right. not mentioning higher costs of TREG purchase.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 46 Triethylene glycol offers the best cost/benefit compromise.

Therefore it is necessary to estimate the minimum concentration of TEG in the strong solution entering the top of the dehydrator to meet the exit gas water content specification. Calculation of the minimum strong TEG concentration required at the inlet to the dehydrator in order to dewater natural gas to given dew point temperature was made. In the Figure 6. Concentrations of TEG between 95 and 99. which would be obtained if the gas was brought to equilibrium with the TEG solution at the contactor temperature.1 shows the dew point obtained for a gas in equilibrium with a solution of triethylene glycol at different concentrations after ATG. 1988 (Rojey et al.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration The drying ability of the TEG is limited by the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water between the gas phase and the liquid TEG phase. More complete data can be obtained by referring to the to the manual published by the GPA (1980). Figure 6. Td. The water dew point is the dew point of the gas. Gandhidasan (2002): ξ in . 1994).. The strong affinity between glycols and water is attributed to hydrogen bonds. The distribution of water between the two phases at equilibrium is determined by introducing a partition coefficient assumed to be constant throughout the absorption column (Rojey et al.. 1994). According to ATG the dew point temperature possible to achieve differs with glycol concentration and solution contact temperature. Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for TEG–water system commonly are represented as charts of water dew point lines as a function of contactor temperature and liquid TEG concentrations. The calculation was carried out on the basis of equation provided by P. T (Chorng et al. (4) .036313 .97 % are taken into account.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 47 6.1 glycol concentration is given in weight percent of TEG in solution. 2004).. Solution contact temperatures shown vary between 0 oC and 80 oC.629 ⋅ exp(−0. A method of calculating the equilibrium between the gas phase and a TEG solution was presented by Rosman (1973).00173 ⋅ Tdew.min = 84.act ) ⋅ Tg 0.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

48

The minimum strong TEG concentration is dependent on the dew point temperature required
and natural gas temperature. The calculation was made for dew point temperature range from
-18 oC to -31 oC, which are dew points encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The
solution contact temperature which equals gas temperature between 1 oC and 25 oC is
considered. The results achieved are shown in Table 6.1.
Figures showing minimum strong TEG concentration in mass percent required to achieve a
given dew point temperature were made on this ground. Figure 6.2 shows minimum TEG
concentration for dew point temperature range between -18 oC and -29 oC. Figure 6.3 shows a
more detailed study on a more narrow range of dew point temperatures (-18 oC to -19 oC) with
0,1 oC step. The range between -18 oC and -19 oC, is the most commonly obtained.
Comparison of results after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1) and after P. Gandhidasan, 2002
(Figure 6.2) was made. For chosen points in range of operation area of Mackiwice
dehydration facility results were compared. The points were chosen on basis of minimum
strong TEG concentration table (Table 6.1). Points of TEG concentration equal to 95 %,
96 %, 97 %, 98 %, and 99 % were used.
The dew point chart after ATG is commonly used for determination of minimum TEG
concentration necessary in many dehydration facilities and bring good conformity with reality
(Rojey et al., 1994). Therefore the results obtained with it are unquestionable. The results
based on empirical solution shown by P. Gandhidasan, 2002 turned out to be burdened with a
few percent error in case of water content in natural gas and dew point temperature
calculations. Hence the author expects a similar distortion in results pertaining to the
minimum concentration of strong TEG stream.
According to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 the minimum TEG absorbent concentration necessary to
dewater 10 oC warm natural gas to dew point temperature of -18,5 oC is 95 % (Table 6.1). The
outcome was checked with dew point chart after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1). According to it the
minimum strong TEG concentration cannot be lower than 96 %.
After P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG concentration enabling to dewater natural gas to
-21 oC in gas temperature 12 oC is 96 %. The value of approximately 97 % TEG concentration

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

49

is read from dew point temperature of gas with solutions of triethylene glycol chart after
ATG, 1988.
Similar comparison was made for the gas temperature of 16 oC reaching the dew point
temperature of -21 oC. In this case according to P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG
concentration is 97 %. Which is by about 1 % less than the result achieved with the use of
Figure 6.1 (minimally less than 98 %).
The value of 98 % strong TEG concentration was calculated as minimum for dehydration of
24 oC warm gas to dew point temperature of -18 oC according to P. Gondhidasan. The value
obtained with use of the chart after ATG, 1988 equals approximately 98,5 %.
For TEG concentration of 99 % and gas temperature 25 oC the dew point temperature of
-23 oC is encountered with use of P. Gandhidasan proposed method. After ATG the value
equals approximately 98,5 %.
Aforementioned examples, alike Table 6.1 and Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 show clearly that the lean
TEG concentrations encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility are high enough to dry
the stream of natural gas to dew point below -18 oC in typical temperatures met in Polish gas
pipelines. The dew point temperature of -18 oC or lower is the demand from gas transport
company.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

50

6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility
According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual the TEG concentration varies
between 99,5 mass % on the inlet to absorber column, and not less than 95 % on the outlet
from the absorber. Tables are provided in the operating manual showing the minimum amount
of TEG necessary to dehydrate natural gas containing a known amount of water (Appendix
G). These are the minimum TEG amounts sufficient to keep the TEG concentration within the
desired range.
Calculation was made of the amount of water possible to remove with use of 1 cubic meter of
triethylene glycol. According to the installation requirements the concentration of TEG
solution cannot drop below the point of 95 mass percent. Therefore not more than 5 mass
precent can be filled by water taken out from dehydrated natural gas. Omitting other chemical
compounds dissolving in TEG and assuming the TEG density as 1122 kg/m3 the value of
approximately 56 kg of water per 1 cubic meter of TEG solution was calculated.
It stands to reason that the circulation of TEG depends on the amount of water present in
natural gas. This, in sequence, is dependent on the temperature and pressure of natural gas
flowing into the absorber column (Table 5.3). The amount of water saturating natural gas is
increasing with temperature, and decreasing with pressure.
For the instances where the amount of water flowing in natural gas can be decreased before
the actual dehydration process it should be done. Therefore gas should be deprived of any free
water before getting to absorber. Also increasing the inlet pressure can bring noticeable
effects while separating free water from natural gas before the actual dehydration process.
The gas temperature should be kept low. The gas should not be warmed up before entering the
absorber more than necessary. The gas entering the absorber should be always warmer than
10 oC though (see Chapter 2.3).
Some part of TEG is wasted through evaporation ans is carried over from absorber with
particles of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost depends on TEG vapor pressure in given
temperature.

and 8 oC for the pressure of 5500 kPa. the dehydration of the part of natural gas undergoing the dehydration must be very deep.2). Optimization was made by adjusting factors like temperature and pressure of gas entering the installations.2 g/Nm3. The water content of incoming gas was set at the level of 0. were directed to the dehydrators. Therefore to dehydrate the whole amount of gas coming from Ukraine (550 000 Nm3 per hour) to the water content below 0. TEG is being wasted through: a) evaporating and escape with dried natural gas stream from TEG Contactor and TEG Contactor-2 (Figure 3.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 51 7. which is the investor’s demand. Hysys application was used in search for the optimum solution for minimizing TEG waste and energy use. Even through decreasing the water content in natural gas undergoing the dehydration process to the level of 13 mg/Nm3. and tries to minimize it. The main gas stream was split in three parts. The installation was set to the lowest work pressure. the remaining part (400 000 Nm3/h) was put directly to the gas pipeline. . Natural gas temperature of 10 oC was chosen. and dew point temperature of the outgoing gas. Hysys simulations The author puts attention to the direct after-effect of evaporation of TEG which is TEG loss. This instance shows that the pressure chosen should be adjusted with consideration for the water content of gas at the inlet to the absorber.4). and under this pressure only 75 000 Nm3 of natural gas per one processing line can be dehydrated. alike energy consumption. after mixing with the not dehydrated gas the total water content was still way too high (145 mg/Nm3). The author will check the possibility of meeting the demand. 75 000 Nm3/h each. which is the point very seldom exceeded in recent two years for the natural gas imported from Ukraine (Figure 3. This water content suits the dew point temperature of -2 oC for the pressure of 2700 kPa. Even though the above this solution cannot be chosen. According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual this is the pressure of 2700 kPa. TEG circulation. calculation of TEG losses was made.050 g/Nm3. Two of them.

The amount of TEG equal to 1. Total annual TEG losses in this case would be approximately 28. The amount of TEG necessary to fill the leaks is 3. In the Outlet GAS stream (Figure 3. This makes up the loss of 28 m3 of TEG annually. The maximum amount of approximately 180 000 Nm3 of natural gas can be dehydrated with every processing line (Mackowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual. The pressure of 4720 kPa was assumed. In this case the absorber was able to dehydrate the streams of natural gas to water content of 25 mg/Nm3 which is 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 52 b) evaporating with natural gas taken from Gas From TEG Sep and Gas From TEG Sep-2 separators (Figure 3. For this amount of gas dehydrated the water content of outlet gas equals 75 mg/Nm3.4).620 m3 per 100 000Nm3 of natural gas (Appendix G). Under this pressure the maximum amount of 150 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated.4).6261 kg/h which gives the amount of 31764 kilograms of TEG per year.4). The TEG circulation was set to the level of .0184 kg/h. This setting cannot be used for natural gas containing assumed water content though. c) through getting into equilibrium with water during TEG regeneration in Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3.7 m3. In Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 streams the amount of TEG equals two times 0. as the water content in outlet stream is greater than 50 mg/Nm3. The same examination was used for the gas pressure of 5500 kPa and the whole main gas stream undergoing the drying process.000035 mass percent of water in natural gas. The TEG circulation was set according to the operating manual tips to 0. The greatest loss was observed in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams (Figure 3.4). which makes up 104 mg/Nm3. This is 3990 kPa. see Figure 3.4) the total water amount left is 57 kg. The losses mentioned are made up by New TEG and New TEG-2 streams (Figure 3. The temperature of gas entering dehydrator was 10 oC and did not differ from the gas temperature in the pipelines (little energy use in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2.4). No TEG losses were noticed in Gas From TEG and Gas From TEG-2 streams. This pressure requires the main imported gas stream to undergo compression before entering the dehydration facility. The installation was set to the maximum gas pressure without compression in compressor unit. 2004).7946 kg is wasted every hour through each of these streams.

The gas stream was dehydrated to the level of 6.9 m3/h.6 m3. The amount of 1. The total energy use equals 292 kW. The imported gas was split to three streams.3 mg/Nm3. The two of them that are undergoing the dehydration operation put through 212800 Nm3/h each. Reboiler En and Reboiler En-2 (135. The minimum share of gas undergoing the dehydration process has in order to meet the maximum 50 mg of water per Nm3 of gas demand increased to 237000 Nm3 per one processing line. The TEG loss equaled 29. The annual TEG loss achieved is 28.6 m3/yr. which gives the amount of 29. Hence the total energy us encountered is 3900 kW. . In this temperature the imported gas cannot fulfill the investor’s demands.7 kW each). For the same gas stream (5500 kPa.13 kW each).2 g of water per Nm3 of natural gas) an approach of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 35 oC was used.352 · 10-3 m3/h. as the En To Heater and En To Heater-2 heat flows equal 1801 kW each.5 kW each). Pump Q and Pump Q-2 (3. The energy use is high in comparison to previous instances. The TEG loss in this case was encountered through Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 (0.8 kg/h each). Total TEG waste amounts to 3. and Remnants and Remnants-2 (1. For TEG inlet of 3 m3 per one absorption column the outgoing gas contained only 5 mg of water per Nm3 of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost is 3. The TEG loss equals then 29. En To Heater and En To Heater-2 (0.4) are the Condenser En and Condenser En-2 (6. which is inconsiderably lower than in case of following operating manual hints.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 53 1. The gas was preheated to 25 oC. The energy streams necessary to perform the drying operations (Figure 3.3 kW each). 10 oC. which makes up the quantity of 30.5 · 10-3 m3/h. The same approach was used for different TEG circulations.5 m3/yr.2 m3/yr.4 m3/yr.16 kg/h each). 0.4 m3 of TEG per hour is flowing into the absorber column. For TEG inlet of 1 m3 per one absorption column the gas can be dehydrated to the amount of water in natural gas equal 13 mg/Nm3. The amount of gas dehydrated under the pressure of 5500 kPa was decreased to the level where the amount of water in the outlet gas stays close to the level of 50 mg/Nm3. The water content of the outgoing gas stream of 48 mg/Nm3 was achieved this way.

. By the energy use the author understands the heat flows of Condenser En. The same values were checked for higher pressures. The water content is left at the level of 0. The initial pressure was set to 4000 kPa. Calculation for 10 oC warm gas was made. Total energy use equals 260 kW. and the power supply necessary equals 260 kW. alike TEG loss. and applies only to the gas that did not undergo compression process in the neighboring compressor unit. Condenser En-2. The TEG loss is 28 m3TEG/yr. As the dehydration process cannot be completed with sufficient results under the lower variety of pressures from the range of non-compressed gas pressures (as the amounts of gas that can undergo the dewatering process for lower pressures are to low). and En To Heater-2.2 this is the amount of water that is not much above the minimum dew point temperature in winter conditions. Reboiler En. In these conditions the amount of gas undergoing the dehydration process is set to 150 000 Nm3/h per processing line. For the instance of dehydrating 150 000 Nm3 of gas in each absorber the water content of outlet stream is 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. For the pressure of 4700 kPa. the outlet water content amounts to 46 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. the heat flow amounts to 260 kW.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 54 Similar technique by a process of trial and error was used for water content in gas of 0. The energy consumption amounts to 1500 kW . As one can see in Figure 3. Reboiler En-2. Pump-2. This temperature is met only sometimes during the winter . En To Heater. which is 2 oC. The TEG loss equals 28 m3TEG/yr. The temperature of gas was set to the minimum temperature encountered in gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration facility. the amount of water in outlet stream has decreased to the value of 45 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. Pump Q. For the pressure of 5500 kPa.1 gH2O/Nm3GAS. Although this is the most energy and absorbent saving setup the dehydration process should be carried out in higher temperatures to prevent precipitation of hydrates. the highest pressure in work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility. Heat flow equals 260 kW.1 g/Nm3. the dehydration unit was set for the pressure of 4000 kPa. The TEG loss is amount to 28 m3/yr. and gas temperature of 2 oC. Water content of outlet gas equals 46 mg/Nm3. The gas is not preheated before entering the contactor. Therefore in case of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 10 oC the outlet gas water content changes insignificantly. which is the lowest pressure value for compressed gas.

1 g/Nm3.2 MPa. and one processing line in order to achieve the same amount of water in outgoing gas. That was probably the reason why the author did not obtain any differences in the outcoming stream. En To Heater stream is the total amount of energy necessary to get the required gas temperature. The outlet TEG concentration increased insignificantly. The main TEG loss is encountered in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams leaving Regenerator. In the considered case total energy loss encountered amounts to 132 kW. The temperature of the stream leaving the condenser was changed in range from 60 oC to 140 oC.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 55 Tests were made of adjusting the TEG Regenerator in different manners. An approach was made to calculate the energy consumption and TEG loss differences between using two processing lines. One processing line was used with the throughput of 280 000 Nm3/h. The water content of inlet gas was set to the value of 0.7 kW and the Pre Column Heater uses 0.4 MPa to the pressure of 6. TEG Pump consumes 3. The temperatures of Regen Feed and Regen Feed-2 streams were increased.2 kW (as the gas is not preheated).616·10-3 m3/h which gives the value of 14. but no change in the amount of TEG in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams was noticed. The process is repeated every time the conditions change. The Reboiler En was changed in order to achieve different reboiler temperature. The energy consumption is now encountered through Reboiler En. Therefore with the data the author possessed only changes in TEG loss of approximately 3 m3 per year are possible. Hysys application chooses the remaining dimentions and other values necessary depending on the conditions. The water content in . which still makes up 10 % of whole TEG annual use. The change in TEG loss was imperceptible. Gas temperature is 10 oC. Total TEG consumption amounts to 1. At first the possibility of dehydration to the water content required by the investor was checked. Pump Q is heat flow necessary for compressing lean TEG stream from the pressure of 0. The two streams entering TEG contactors are 140 000 Nm3/h each. Pump Q and En To Heater streams.2 kW. Reboiler En is the amount of energy necessary necessary for warming up TEG undergoing regeneration.7 mg/Nm3. The regenerator’s reboiler requires 127.2 m3/yr. The author did not have access to sufficient data pertaining to the regenerator. This was sufficient for achieving the water content of 49. Therefore it might be of purpose to try to change the setup of this unit in order to get smaller TEG waste. In case of running dehydration with use of two processing lines gas pressure can be lowered. Inlet pressure equals 5500 kPa. Similarly the results did not bring any change to the amount of TEG carried out with Remnants and Remnants-2 streams.

TEG consumption amounts to 3. Total energy consumption encountered is 254 kW. Dehydration of natural gas to the water content of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary.215·10-3 m3/h which equals 28. For fulfilling the demand for dew point temperature in summer season according to Polish norm which corresponds with the water content in dehydrated natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3. Polish norm characterizes the dew point temperature for summer and winter time. For the pressure of 5500 kPa.5 ng/Nm3. If the amount of water in natural gas was supposed not to exceed the value of 75 mn/Nm3.2 m3/yr. 280 000 Nm3/h of natural gas can be dehydrated. For the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3. For the amount of water in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 for most cases use of single processing line is sufficient. which corresponds with dew point temperature of 5 oC in pressure of 4 MPa (dew point requirement in summer conditions) the dehydration process for most time can be omissed.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 56 natural gas achieved equals 49. this would enable to dehydrate natural gas of water content at the inlet to the separator of approximately 170 mg/Nm3. especially for summer conditions. therefore the water amount is similar to the case of using single processing line. the incoming natural gas can contain up to 440 mg/Nm3. This high values were not encountered in the imported natural gas for over four years now. This allows using single processing line for achieving the water content of natural gas below 50 mg/Nm3 for all cases of water content lower than 100 mg/Nm3. . which is almost twice higher than in the previous example.

one processing line may sometimes not be sufficient for dehydration of the imported gas stream to the water content demand of the investor which is 50 mg per normal meter of natural gas. According to experimental data. and -10oC from 1st of October to 31st of March.1). . The maximum water content for transport of gas in pipelines is specified by Polish norm. Depending on gas inlet pressure each of them can dry up to 280 000 Nm3/h. This decree changed the values of dew point temperature at the pressure of 4 MPa to 5 oC in the period from 1st of April until 30th of September. Previously the values for summer time were slightly higher. The two drying equipment sets make renovation. Other gas treatment facilities are usually parts of gas storage facilities. while the water content of natural gas during winter period was lower. Therefore this decision seems to be correct from the economical point of view. Therefore any maintenance operations should be carried out during summer season. The dehydration process in Mackowice is carried with use of TEG based absorption method. This enables the whole amount of imported gas to undergo the dehydration process. The total amount of gas imported from Ukraine amounts to 550 000 Nm3/h. dehydration with use of TEG solution is the most economically justified way (see Chapter 6. which makes up 153 Nm3/s. Triethylene glycol was chosen for the absorbent by the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. while there is small probability of hydrate precipitation in gas pipelines. Discussion There is a constant necessity of dehydration the gas stream coming from Ukraine. The natural gas coming from Ukraine hardly ever meets the dew point temperature demand (Figure 3.2). and maintenance operations possible without necessity of turning off whole the dehydration facility. Mackowice dehydration facility is the only drying unit connected with Polish gas transportation system. The water content possible to achieve in this case is far below the water content of natural gas requirement and equals approximately 6 mg/Nm3 (see Chapter 7). for this amount of natural gas. The contemporary dew point temperature demand is determined by the Decree of the Minister of Administration issued on 24th of August 2000. The dehydration facility consists of two processing lines.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 57 8. The dehydration process chosen is absorption. As shown. conservation.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 58 During seasons of natural gas surplus the vent gas is burnt in flare.4) as fuel for energy source for operating Maćkowice dehydration facility.3). According to Hysys application computation the most energy demand occurs in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2.4). Gas From TEG Sep-2. or neighbouring comressors unit.Remnants and Remnants-2 (Figure 3. and storing it is impossible. This causes emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Even in the temperature and pressure range encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility the tendency is clear. but is justified from economical point of view. The main difference in the amount of TEG lost comes out of the amount of water in natural gas.1) and by GPSA (Figure 5. From the values obtained with Hysys application it is noticeable that processing the gas dehydration under lower temperatures brings better effects (see Chapter 7).13). The calculations of amount of water to remove from natural gas to reach required dew point temperature were made. as recompression of the gas stream and putting it back to system would be costly. Energy consumption simulation was made. An survey for ways of lowering the amount of TEG in these streams was done. According to Hysys computations the biggest TEG waste is encountered in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams outgoing from Regenerator and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3. For gas containing the same amount of water saving of . that the amount of water to be removed decreases considerably with pressure increase (Table 5. Besides economical aspect. this step would make the dehydration facility more independent from external energy source. Good results in energy saving can be brought by exploiting only one processing line at a time when it is enough to reach the water content of natural gas below the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3GAS. The results show insignificant changes in the amount of TEG lost in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. The results obtained with use of Hysys application stay with good conformity with experimental data provided by ATG (Figure 5. and the streams outgoing from regenerator containing the stripping gas .3. It might be advisable to calculate the costs and profits that could result from using the gas streams outgoing from Gas From TEG Sep. TEG loss simulation was made. Therefore the natural gas temperature should be kept low. The figures show clearly. Preheating of the natural gas stream should be carried out only when the gas temperature is lower than 10 oC for the reasons explained in Chapter 2.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 59 approximately 2 m3TEG per year can be achieved by carrying out the dehydration process under pressures close to the value of 5500 kPa.1) or lower is necessary. Until the water content is low enough. the demand for dew point temperature can be fulfilled with using only one processing line.1) is sufficient during summer season. According to the Polish Norm the dew point temperature of 5 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which amounts to the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. In the winter period the dew point temperature of -10 oC under the pressure of 4 MPa which equals the water content in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm3 (Figure 5. Lowering the water content in natural gas to the level of 50 mg/Nm3 is not necessary. This brings rational savings in TEG loss and energy consumption. . When the pressure equals 5500 kPa. In order to increase the gas pressure neighboring compressor unit is used. Dehydrating natural gas under high pressures enables drying bigger quantities of natural gas. 280 000 Nm3 per one processing line can be dehydrated. Therefore there is no need to dehydrate the natural gas stream to the level of 50 mgH2O/Nm3. Keeping the dew point temperature minimally below the dew point demand will in multiple cases bring savings in energy and TEG loss. The TEG absorbent waste can also be noticeably lowered this way. Until the process of dehydration can be lead with use of one processing line the energy demand equals half the demand calculated (see Chapter 7).

1. Table 5. Figure 5. as due to the higher viscosity of . as gas compression is necessary anyway.17. In this case less water would have to be removed from gas in the dehydration process to achieve a desired dew point under given gas temperature. which leads to the conclusion that results obtained with use of Hysys are reliable.12).19. The results obtained by the author with Hysys application were coherent with published results (Figure 5. unless its temperature is lower than 10 oC. From the study made the author concludes that working in high pressure range brings savings in energy consumption and reduces TEG consumption by approximately 2-3 m3 per year.3). The work temperature should be kept low. It also extends the period between maintenance operations and decreases the threat of malfunctions. The author concludes.13. The author suggests using the compressor unit neighbouring with Maćkowice dehydration facility for natural gas compression before undergoing the dewatering process. This approach brings savings in amount of TEG lost and energy consumption. Table 5. The incoming gas stream should not be warmed up.15.3. which makes up around 10 % of annual TEG loss.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 60 9. By comparison of these results with water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in range between -31 oC and -18 oC (Table 5. this approach prevents the necessity of compressing the gas after undergoing the dehydration process. The most energy consumption is encountered during heating of gas stream flowing in the absorber column. Conclusions Calculations of water content in natural gas under different temperatures and pressures were made. some part of water can be removed from natural gas as liquid before the actual dehydration process. The results show clearly that the amount of water in natural gas increases rapidly with temperature rise. Table 5. Only one processing line should be used at a time until it is able to dehydrate the outlet stream below the required dew point temperature. by increasing work pressure. Moreover. and decreases with pressure increase (Table 5. that in case of saturated gas flow. Table 5. In winter season increase in gas temperature caused by the compression may be advisable. Table 5.21).09) the amount of water to remove during dehydration process were determined (Table 5.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 61 the glycol. Poland. Unfortunately the author did not have enough data to carry out this investigation. water content in gas. . gas pressure and dew point temperature demand should be carried out and checked with the data achieved during the exploitation of Maćkowice dehydration facility. More in-depth study over an algorithm of choosing whether to run one or two processing lines depending on the gas temperature. temperature of about 10 oC is considered as a lower limit of the dehydration temperature range.

. Surface Production Operations. K. Tex.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 62 References Annual Reporting and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions.. 1995 Campbell. Aspen Technology. Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Elsevier Science. Gandhidasan. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1989 Behar. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France – Commision de Production et de Traitement. E. 4th edition. Parametric Analysis of Natural Gas Dahydration by a Triethylene Glycol Solution. Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France. Outlook to 2000.. A. Spring 2005. Paris. Vince Tassone. Partner Update. Stewart. Thomas. 1989 ATG. . Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France.. Gas Conditioning and Processing. Natural Gas Hydrates. Paris. Wayne D. ch. 2003 www..S.com Chorng H. 2002 Arnold. Twu. Book Division.141-234. Le Traitment du Gaz Naturel sur Gisement. 1990 ATG. Natural Gas in the World Gas. 2004. Editions Technip. 1984 Carroll.. 1988 ATG. Campbell and Company.. J. Delion.elsevier. FRA. Paris. Inc. L’Aide-memoire de l’Industrie du Gas. J. Houston. M. Advanced equation of state method for modeling TEG–water for glycol gas dehydration. Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities. Burlington. 7-9. Campbell Petroleum Series. M. A Guide for Engineers.. MA. Hydrate control in multiphase flow. p.. Sim and Suphat Watanasiri. John M.. Gulf Publishing Co.M. P.

.. Gulf Publishing Co. Gas Conditioning and Processing – Gas and Liquid Sweetening. Aspen Technology Inc. No..P. Volume One: Natural Gas. 2004.com. Senules. Penn Well Publishing CO. N.2 Documentation. and Wood.. www. F. 1987 Maddox. S. Gulf Publishing Co. Hicks. 1993 . F. Danner. H. Guidelines for glycol dehydrator design – Part 1.. 1991 Hysys 3. Penn Well Book. p. 55-58. 3-rd ed.5 Fournie. Hydrocarbon Processing. Design Institute for Physical Property Data – Americal Institute of Chemical Engineers (DIPPER-AIChE). Book Division.U. 1991 Manning. T. Agostini. Norman. R.E. Gas Purification.Y.. Oilfield Processing of Petroleum. Okla. Gas dehydration using glycol.1985.E.aspentech.. 1984 General Information About Hysys. Houston.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 63 Daubert. A. Aspen Tech Driving Process Profitability. J.N. p. W. Book Division. April. – 16th Annual Offshore Technological Conference. Thompson. 4-6.. Riesenfeld. A. J.. Okla. 4th ed... R. Houston. Campbell. New gas-water-TEG equilibria. Data Compilation Tables of Properties of Pure Compounds.. Tulsa. F. ch. Houston. 2003 Ikoku..L. R. R. Hydrocarbon Processing. Tulsa. 89-274. Tex.. Campbell Petroleum Series..P. Penn Well Publishing Co.S.M... Gas Production Engineering. 1985 Kumar. 4. E.. L. Penn Well Book.C. Permeation: a new competitive process in offshore gas dehydration. 1982 Manning. Proc. April.. C. 1980 Kohl. Separation and Processing In Natural Gas Engineering – A Systems Approach.S. P.. New Your.

Conference. Glycol Dehydration Design Manual.. Translation (updated and expanded) of Le gaz naturel. 1994 Rosman. March. C. Heideman. W. LA. S. Echterhoff. A.. Editions Technip. Paris. Michel Valais.C. E... conference accompanying opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. NY www..A. materials from conference accompanying the opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility. Institut Francais du Petrole Publications.G. R.. Newfield Exploration Co. 21st January 2005 Tannehill. 21st January 2005 Robinson.. Process optimization review. New York. J... . R.E. Jr.. 73rd Annual GPA Convention. SPE Journal. C. Cooperation of Mackowice Dehydration Facility with national gas transport system.. 1976 Sloan. Laurence Reid Gas Conditioning Conference. Nafta-Gas. New Orleans. 2005. Production.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 64 Nafta-Gaz. Traitement. Wichert.. 2004 Pontiff. August 1977 Rojey.N. Processing Gas Cond. 1994 .. copyright 1998 by Marcel Dekker. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport. Okla.R. Marcel Dekker. Bernard Durand. Sophie Jullian. Inc. Inc. Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operating Manual. and Leppin.. Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnów). Moore. Water Equilibrium in the ehydration of Natural Gas With Triethylene Glycol. L. The Cost of Conditioning Your Natural Gas for Market. Claude Jaffret . 1973 Sivalls.. 1997. Petrofina Canada Ltd. M. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gas. University of Calgary. E. Transport...com Stosur. Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe.dekker.. D. University of Oklahoma. A. Estimation of the Water Content of Sour Natural Gases.

Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.E. February.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Trent. 2001 65 . R. OK. Dehydration with Molecular Sieves. Norman..

11 123.068 106.122 150.30 245. 1985) Ethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene glycol glycol glycol glycol EG DEG TEG T4EG (TrEG) Overall chemical formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C8H18O5 Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 62.11 Abbreviation Absolute viscosity at 25 oC [Pa·s] Absolute viscosity at 60 oC [Pa·s] Specific heat at 25 oC [J/kg·K] Flash point [oC] .007 Density at 25 oC [kg/m3] 1110 1115 1122 1122 0.24 0.04271 0.45 -7.00522 0.00 -10.03021 0.89 176.01771 0.00787 0.175 194.35 -5.01063 2395 2307 2190 2165 111.27 0.05 0.228 Melting point [oC] -13.00 277.85 Vapor pressure at 25 oC [Pa] 12.00 Boiling point at 101325 Pa [oC] 197.67 196.03673 0. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner.66 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Tables Table 2.00989 0.85 307.

67

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004)
P [bar]

10 C

15 C

20 C

25 C

[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0

0,018

-27

0,025

-22,9

0,036

-18,8

27,6

0,017

-27,2

0,025

-23,1

0,035

-19

28,1

0,018

-26,9

0,026

-23,2

0,035

-18,8

28,7

0,018

-27,1

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

29,2

0,017

-27,5

0,024

-23,3

0,034

-19,3

29,8

0,017

-27,3

0,024

-23,2

0,034

-19,5

30,4

0,016

-27,9

0,023

-23,7

0,033

-19,6

30,9

0,016

-28,2

0,023

-23,9

0,032

-20

31,5

0,016

-28,1

0,023

-24,2

0,032

-20,3

32,0

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,4

0,031

-20,4

32,6

0,016

-28,5

0,022

-24,5

0,031

-20,6

33,2

0,015

-28,7

0,022

-24,6

0,03

-20,7

33,7

0,015

-28,9

0,021

-24,9

0,03

-20,7

34,3

0,015

-29,1

0,021

-25,1

0,03

-21,1

34,8

0,014

-29,2

0,021

-25,3

0,029

-21,3

35,4

0,015

-29,1

0,02

-25,3

0,028

-21,5

36,0

0,014

-29,3

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,6

36,5

0,014

-29,9

0,02

-25,8

0,028

-21,9

37,1

0,014

-29,7

0,019

-26

0,027

-22

0,039

-18,2

37,6

0,013

-30,4

0,019

-26,1

0,027

-22,2

0,037

-18,3

38,2

0,013

-30,5

0,019

-26

0,026

-22,4

0,037

-18,5

38,8

0,013

-30,6

0,019

-26,2

0,026

-22,5

0,036

-18,5

39,3

0,013

-30,8

0,018

-26,6

0,026

-22,6

0,035

-18,7

39,9

0,012

-30,9

0,018

-26,7

0,025

-22,8

0,035

-18,8

68

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac NG
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3] =
Name
Temperature C
Pressure Kpa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Wright
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG
-40
100
1
0
0,995188
0,853712
16,46942

Water In
-40,00
100
0
1
8,81E-04
1054,49
18,0151

NG
Water In
0
-40,59685
250
250
1
0
0
1
0,992517 2,21E-03
1,826639 1054,953
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,6056
500
500
1
0
0
1
0,985064 4,42E-03
3,680918 1055,034
16,46942 18,0151
NG
Water In
0
-40,61348
750
750
1
0
0
1
0,977643 6,62E-03
5,563285 1055,113
16,46942 18,0151

SatGas
-40
100
0,999822
1,78E-04
0,995188
0,853289
16,46115
0,135562
SatGas
-40
250
0,999928
7,20E-05
0,987959
2,147638
16,45213
0,054844
SatGas
-40
500
0,999963
3,67E-05
0,975872
4,345989
16,44272
0,02794
SatGas
-40
750
0,999975
2,49E-05
0,963736
6,598667
16,43672
0,018981

SatGas
-20
100
0,998802
1,20E-03
0,996218
0,785442
16,46774
0,913126
SatGas
-20
250
0,999515
4,85E-04
0,990553
1,973988
16,46217
0,369326
SatGas
-20
500
0,999754
2,46E-04
0,981116
3,984439
16,45592
0,187523
SatGas
-20
750
0,999833
1,67E-04
0,971687
6,032949
16,45126
0,12696

SatGas
0
100
0,994062
5,94E-03
0,996996
0,727702
16,47688
4,524305
SatGas
0
250
0,997606
2,39E-03
0,99251
1,826606
16,46902
1,823647
SatGas
0
500
0,998788
1,21E-03
0,985059
3,679663
16,46374
0,923569
SatGas
0
750
0,999181
8,19E-04
0,977642
5,560168
16,46018
0,623664

SatGas
20
100
0,977004
2,30E-02
0,997576
0,678777
16,504
17,52095
SatGas
20
250
0,990742
9,26E-03
0,994001
1,700705
16,48134
7,053893
SatGas
20
500
0,995321
4,68E-03
0,988072
3,419901
16,4721
3,565226
SatGas
20
750
0,996847
3,15E-03
0,982186
5,159245
16,46779
2,402648

SatGas
40
100
0,926761
7,32E-02
0,997954
0,638188
16,58206
55,8042
SatGas
40
250
0,970541
2,95E-02
0,995118
1,593395
16,51343
22,44607
SatGas
40
500
0,985134
1,49E-02
0,990382
3,197366
16,48937
11,327
SatGas
40
750
0,989998
1,00E-02
0,985684
4,816303
16,48047
7,621263

SatGas
60
100
0,800924
0,199076
0,997932
0,606935
16,77682
151,6903
SatGas
60
250
0,919972
8,00E-02
0,995834
1,503793
16,59211
60,97907
SatGas
60
500
0,959664
4,03E-02
0,992091
3,007565
16,52963
30,73496
SatGas
60
750
0,972894
2,71E-02
0,988345
4,522551
16,50811
20,65389

SatGas
80
100
0,525055
0,474945
0,996642
0,587882
17,20343
361,9035
SatGas
80
250
0,80903
0,19097
0,995826
1,433335
16,76397
145,5172
SatGas
80
500
0,903817
9,62E-02
0,993106
2,849244
16,61655
73,29028
SatGas
80
750
0,935425
6,46E-02
0,990195
4,273601
16,56683
49,20551

SatGas
100
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,991957
0,583746
17,965
737,3064
SatGas
100
250
0,590953
0,409047
0,993959
1,386413
17,10139
311,697
SatGas
100
500
0,793934
0,206066
0,99289
2,724768
16,78691
157,0241
SatGas
100
750
0,861717
0,138283
0,990927
4,069508
16,68139
105,3731

SatGas
120
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993004
0,553466
17,965
737,3215
SatGas
120
250
0,20153
0,79847
0,98718
1,371575
17,70357
608,453
SatGas
120
500
0,596676
0,403324
0,9899
2,641157
17,09231
307,3425
SatGas
120
750
0,729221
0,270779
0,989531
3,915565
16,88681
206,3396

SatGas
140
100
0,032416
0,967584
0,993883
0,526208
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
250
0,032416
0,967584
0,984592
1,327933
17,965
737,3351
SatGas
140
500
0,270738
0,729262
0,980576
2,612049
17,59653
555,7249
SatGas
140
750
0,509163
0,490837
0,983602
3,82412
17,22757
374,036

69

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Table 5.2b Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 2 of 4)
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=
Name
Temperature C
Pressure kPa
Comp Mole Frac Methane
Comp Mole Frac H2O
Z Factor
Mass Density kg/m3
Molecular Weight
c [gH2O/Sm3]=

NG

Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,62119
-40
-20
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1
0 0,999981 0,999873 0,999378
0
1 1,90E-05 1,27E-04 6,22E-04
0,970258 8,83E-03 0,951549 0,962267 0,97026
7,474177 1055,192 8,908599 8,120855 7,468663
16,46942
18,0151 16,43247 16,44758 16,45732
0,014508 0,096707 0,473805
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,63688
-40
-20
0
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1
0 0,999987 0,999913 0,999575
0
1 1,32E-05 8,73E-05 4,25E-04
0,955599 1,32E-02 0,927023 0,943466 0,955612
11,38324 1055,351 13,7116 12,41986 11,37161
16,46942
18,0151 16,42667 16,44207 16,45281
0,010051 0,066516 0,324139
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,65348
-40
-20
0
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
1
0 0,99999 0,999932 0,999673
0
1 1,03E-05 6,76E-05 3,27E-04
0,941109 1,77E-02 0,902296 0,924731 0,941132
15,41135 1055,511 18,77865 16,89122 15,39215
16,46942
18,0151 16,42274 16,43809 16,44932
0,007838 0,051486 0,249505
NG
Water In SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
0 -40,69075
-40
-20
0
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
1
0 0,999993 0,999952 0,99977
0
1 7,43E-06 4,80E-05 2,30E-04
0,912718 2,65E-02 0,852287 0,887568 0,912768
23,83609 1055,832 29,81105 26,38896 23,79828
16,46942
18,0151 16,41739 16,43263 16,44419
0,005662 0,036597 0,175293

SatGas

SatGas

SatGas

20
40
60
1000
1000
1000
0,997609 0,992429 0,979508
2,39E-03 7,57E-03 2,05E-02
0,976344 0,981032 0,984633
6,918913 6,450217 6,048684
16,46484 16,47543 16,49689
1,821597 5,768893 15,61413
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
1500
1500
1500
0,998371 0,994859 0,98612
1,63E-03 5,14E-03 1,39E-02
0,964803 0,971871 0,977337
10,4998 9,762924 9,134077
16,46059 16,46936 16,48483
1,241031 3,917547 10,57614
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
2000
2000
2000
0,998752 0,996072 0,989423
1,25E-03 3,93E-03 1,06E-02
0,953463 0,962913 0,970226
14,16351 13,13523
12,263
16,45741 16,46545 16,47806
0,951245 2,992914 8,059008
SatGas
SatGas
SatGas
20
40
60
3000
3000
3000
0,999131 0,997283 0,992722
8,69E-04 2,72E-03 7,28E-03
0,931448 0,945642 0,956597
21,74116 20,05625 18,64756
16,45267 16,46018 16,4701
0,662485 2,070397 5,545669

SatGas

SatGas
80
100
1000
1000
0,95123 0,895629
4,88E-02 0,104371
0,987268 0,988768
5,706312 5,420531
16,54156 16,62825
37,16258 79,53179
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
1500
1500
0,967032 0,929551
3,30E-02 7,04E-02
0,981485 0,984334
8,596383 8,140997
16,51558 16,57444
25,12137 53,68303
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
2000
2000
0,97493 0,946511
2,51E-02 5,35E-02
0,975846 0,979939
11,51855 10,88526
16,50195 16,54694
19,10334 40,75873
SatGas
SatGas
80
100
3000
3000
0,98282 0,963464
1,72E-02 3,65E-02
0,96508 0,97151
17,45501 16,44117
16,48725 16,51844
13,09114 27,84049

SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1000
1000
0,795648 0,629204
0,204352 0,370796
0,988409 0,984385
5,194701 5,039737
16,78348 17,04149
155,7211 282,5601
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
1500
1500
0,862171 0,749796
0,137829 0,250204
0,985479 0,983751
7,766747 7,481237
16,6794 16,85395
105,0286 190,6648
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
2000
2000
0,895465 0,810293
0,104535 0,189707
0,982294 0,982086
10,35645 9,93579
16,62675 16,75932
79,65841 144,5639
SatGas
SatGas
120
140
3000
3000
0,928768 0,870911
7,12E-02 0,129089
0,975949 0,977969
15,58522 14,88087
16,5731 16,66352
54,28041 98,37066

998209 1.3026 57.735116 0.10192 16.80019 16.41068 16.999818 0 1 6.52469 SatGas SatGas 80 100 8000 8000 0.885364 32.0151 16.999967 0.59576 75.42122 16.2057 16.984579 7.0151 16.44921 16.933332 SatGas SatGas 20 40 20000 20000 0.969835 26.086119 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -41.292802 SatGas 60 5000 0.94675 2.996808 3.43267 0.999594 0.295609 17.6919 16.46161 3.997885 6.2411 114.788426 0.24562 36.05E-02 0.999975 0.977002 1.54E-02 0.68723 32.064803 SatGas SatGas 120 140 4000 4000 0.995349 4.46516 4.12253 16.996052 0.85E-05 1.874918 64.337547 SatGas SatGas 20 40 8000 8000 0.49E-02 2.09E-02 2.61259 45.73488 -40 -20 0 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 1 0 0.50623 22.38932 16.44798 0.44918 16.556253 SatGas 60 4000 0.38908 SatGas SatGas 80 100 5000 5000 0.4118 16.833824 171.999962 0.299 1061.790572 73.0245 151.70 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.36004 47.992626 0.971931 1.44057 0.09E-05 8.4565 0.176007 0.61243 40.955041 0.1565 230.11E-03 0.70598 16.999996 0.3351 19.46845 16.992041 3.10392 -40 -20 0 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 1 0 0.901925 52.22E-03 0.48651 11.39992 1057.44117 16.945766 0.929306 29.76382 16.5037 16.677581 0.13E-04 0.015889 0.986757 0.019317 0.938915 48.79E-03 0.6143 86.7209 0.46942 18.859054 4.998245 5.42634 16.955393 0.37E-03 1.57841 SatGas SatGas 120 140 20000 20000 0.926502 124.8684 16.025071 0.364449 SatGas SatGas 80 100 4000 4000 0.46942 18.50335 10.99151 -40 -20 0 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 1 0 0.919462 4.946273 0.061717 SatGas SatGas 20 40 4000 4000 0.999995 0.37301 SatGas SatGas 120 140 8000 8000 0.9319 31.434047 1.21273 24.46E-02 9.19E-03 0.41364 16.890549 9.851043 0.09099 21.19285 16.612019 0.54E-05 1.4436 1.943805 25.95648 29.003357 0.43851 0.910429 0.901254 5.1548 196.32E-02 2.138633 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.99159 61.99943 0.96E-03 0.66101 27.46942 18.76E-03 0.45369 0.964497 0.97E-02 5.43786 0.973919 1.999919 0 1 4.06E-06 3.45682 3.5712 16.45474 2.58489 33.87E-02 0.157 42.815533 0.62E-04 7.999319 0.999994 0.994366 5.00403 0.95E-03 7.999738 0.488 56.970326 0.544099 SatGas 60 8000 0.29E-05 1.54E-04 0.985125 0.999996 0.5283 16.29E-06 3.839223 0.53849 22.7218 16.511 110.40396 16.008631 6.82E-04 0.44653 16.49374 8.46E-02 8.998775 4.78728 -40 -20 0 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 0 0.003252 0.42899 16.32E-02 0.2c Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 3 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.623604 0.50101 16.75104 0.922745 0.969976 0.63E-03 0.4498 40.0151 16.57958 73.199802 0.431904 SatGas 60 20000 0.88647 16.41E-06 2.30E-02 0.004616 0.47901 16.973769 20.46367 16.20853 1056.885287 3.901826 0.89146 16.76622 1056.999846 0 1 5.6512 27.619164 11.53E-02 0.30E-04 0.07962 16.029307 0.75109 SatGas SatGas 80 100 20000 20000 0.2535 16.43259 16.06E-04 1.963674 23.4832 99.54545 16.87495 .951349 0.8481 42.0151 16.10E-05 0.61474 41.2668 16.70E-04 1.47349 16.999887 0 1 4.790396 7.81E-04 2.24829 SatGas SatGas 120 140 5000 5000 0.21987 16.27E-06 2.47777 5.945414 0.87337 19.14E-01 37.048 271.06E-02 0.961818 106.989113 0.46942 18.88522 34.61E-02 0.65E-03 0.99927 2.117018 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.801717 0.999979 0.611285 SatGas SatGas 20 40 5000 5000 0.41E-02 0.871305 136.309711 0.4395 16.42444 0.79094 16.859158 42.519165 1.81E-02 0.960475 42.735258 197.

43795 16.97742 0.924049 192.476543 SatGas SatGas 20 40 40000 40000 0.999926 0 1 4.40719 16.013729 0.983118 9.0735 16.105999 1.529158 12.3983 16.956455 0.3943 16.43644 1.7149 1066.49E-02 1.67E-04 0.0151 16.88E-03 1.32E-04 6.163468 0.999996 0.6839 16.2648 143.0151 16.42806 0.42906 16.33E-03 1.999996 0.999768 0.233769 0.795334 3.37712 16.124344 224.4849 16.3745 16.46942 18.998783 1.0151 16.41775 0.46942 18.0578 286.44403 16.999505 1.220082 1.053222 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.47242 8.014345 0.43938 1.121822 1.16E-02 2.91E-04 4.522215 1.999983 0.44059 16.4322 0.1354 259.806 16.991199 0.6698 325.5492 352.45438 6.43581 16.376912 SatGas 60 30000 0.4457 16.54E-03 4.007714 235.491 353.03557 219.998674 1.733471 SatGas SatGas 80 100 60000 60000 0.63E-05 1.4489 16.4153 0.3435 312.40077 16.836689 260.9708 289.70E-06 1.9393 16.93605 -40 -20 0 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 1 0 0.7066 11.203081 1.36711 SatGas SatGas 120 140 60000 60000 0.99012 0.808816 0.4535 16.285294 1.45E-03 1.45887 16.20E-03 6.999934 0 1 3.99E-05 0.998865 1.999937 0 1 3.867052 0.968509 177.38031 16.88E-05 6.104182 268.836617 0.048174 SatGas SatGas 20 40 30000 30000 0.5396 16.955701 0.69E-02 1.38437 16.86498 SatGas SatGas 120 140 50000 50000 0.999785 0.199886 1.6695 1071.3253 372.782 321.2691 328.927037 SatGas 60 60000 0.994549 2.177091 0.864803 SatGas SatGas 80 100 30000 30000 0.1653 264.31423 .41319 0.136093 4.46424 7.997644 0.436294 1.90E-03 1.985083 8.120244 1.939258 3.73E-05 6.022349 1.043 1063.122926 10.431505 SatGas SatGas 120 140 30000 30000 0.211407 331.046991 1.9466 16.8061 254.89911 -40 -20 0 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 1 0 0.896785 233.999375 2.35E-02 1.83E-06 1.999408 153.050478 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.9951 2.035 1069.056669 NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.349965 0.997197 0.9262 16.098653 0.2381 16.7577 16.206158 295.32E-05 1.2995 181.42226 16.664 16.80E-03 5.999809 0.002921 0.999799 0.45003 2.2d Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 4 of 4) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= Name Temperature C Pressure kPa Comp Mole Frac Methane Comp Mole Frac H2O Z Factor Mass Density kg/m3 Molecular Weight c [gH2O/Sm3]= NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas 0 -40.5132 16.01E-04 5.42416 16.13E-06 1.999996 0.003146 0.42991 0.7493 16.44569 2.827251 15.50E-03 1.24902 SatGas SatGas 120 140 40000 40000 0.49E-03 0.15E-04 5.999433 2.153622 SatGas SatGas 80 100 50000 50000 0.45305 16.46942 18.43209 0.002819 0.986465 8.40366 16.964662 300.09869 330.134202 SatGas 60 40000 0.25E-04 0.979989 1.6145 16.999982 0.201229 279.13E-03 1.787539 0.5774 351.964618 0.254669 1.99998 0.996801 0.153415 0.36E-03 4.42069 0.80E-05 6.1048 16.145359 0.46942 18.99993 0 1 3.80E-03 1.99604 -40 -20 0 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 1 0 0.161 376.42638 16.00303 0.1631 16.2235 211.43412 0.71 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.87408 -40 -20 0 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 1 0 0.43994 1.115204 252.00E-02 0.786 394.45861 6.997455 0.991965 0.992353 275.985585 0.26E-04 1.995497 2.999474 2.099654 307.2511 16.808525 SatGas SatGas 80 100 40000 40000 0.998511 1.999981 0.2246 164.04E-03 1.5814 239.437416 4.2582 237.948025 0.010212 SatGas 60 50000 0.44E-05 0.400888 SatGas SatGas 20 40 60000 60000 0.233811 352.99369 3.98E-05 7.015052 0.22E-03 1.5998 213.988416 0.0151 16.9354 299.431976 SatGas SatGas 20 40 50000 50000 0.26321 0.0746 204.056396 192.6765 16.43479 0.44248 1.98E-06 1.31E-03 0.097277 1.013185 0.198501 251.95E-04 1.999996 0.109651 1.

411039 0.19652 1.096707 0. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Sm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.07273 4.249505 0.921685 1.002974 -20 0.295609 5.52095 7.7994 84.31423 80 381.524305 1.30922 1.059783 0.122926 737.99168 10.697 157.051486 0.8337 641.992914 2.123447 0.341949 0.37066 75.942848 7.61243 11.003511 0.376912 60 151.977973 0.015052 0.662485 0.369326 0.36711 10.0241 105.923847 0.015305 0.29028 49.90167 56.3396 155.053893 3.87495 15.808525 4.019317 0.020024 0.761118 2.37018 22.3351 555.90911 39.184155 1.015889 0.030917 0.004251 0.28041 41.57614 8.26286 43.292802 3.050821 20 18.00487 0.010051 0.010212 0.090851 0.848 777.95791 9.88124 35.075094 6.923569 0.053222 0.15298 13.003081 0.75873 27.002921 0.10334 13.6769 164.337547 0.070171 0.117018 0.768893 3.44147 3.48364 7.9035 145.772893 1.6648 144.5639 98.565526 1.053251 0.545669 4.397621 60 160.0286 79.2294 217.48759 12.02794 0.529158 6.7883 153.005973 0.984614 0.025071 0.31722 51.431904 1.5874 298.400888 0.848 586.25346 2.586816 0.008631 2.933332 0.15736 2.398034 5.029475 0.050478 0.8042 22.88095 Table 5.974314 0.52469 11.47204 11.733471 3.86498 11.013729 0.621263 5.67937 11.57134 2.00303 0.172449 0.951245 0.132796 3.20448 26.893979 100 777.15725 8.7211 105.457895 0.39675 6.134202 1. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [gH2O/Nm3] Temperature C Pressure [kPa] 100 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 8000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 -40 0.263214 0.064803 4.070397 1.453 307.431976 0.50166 20.699817 1.99822 29.065108 0.507 103.057858 0.431505 120 140 608.751411 5.135562 0.014508 0.611285 1.61413 10.008269 0.476543 0.036597 0.12137 19.544099 2.21078 0.102021 0.003197 0.92791 3.003542 0.85926 23.32957 32.68303 40.186821 0.939258 1.437416 2.00403 0.698885 0.326728 0.324139 0.7249 374.534662 1.038607 0.177091 0.45935 140 777.938607 3.657931 0.402648 1.17394 2.455711 0.5601 190.003252 0.054315 0.309711 0.138633 0.054844 0.8178 328.556253 0.026449 0.38281 64.3351 8.5172 73.53179 53.061717 0.136093 1.3064 311.003431 0.14625 0.57841 19.65389 15.029307 0.036 282.005662 0.42369 21.37301 40.38908 17.84049 21.422915 0.007838 0.96698 16.94936 8.81044 10.850376 4.6518 111.56431 18.3731 79.912319 .73883 2.066516 0.381843 3.312264 7.80799 20.97907 30.24829 61.821597 1.3425 206.059008 5.056669 0.004616 0.015879 0.015133 0.73496 20.864803 80 361.827251 7.20551 37.565226 2.24902 12.01391 0 4.913126 0.2593 394.64545 8.065718 0.133935 0.823647 0.8232 165.5127 77.014483 0.7066 6.2772 110.153415 0.153346 40 58.927037 0.14301 0.175293 0.795334 100 737.963297 0.241031 0.03524 57.620049 120 777.7756 79.389619 0.014345 0.013185 0 4.44607 11.75109 6.63265 42.018981 0.08687 13.163468 0.473805 0.16258 25.09099 8.74515 42.048174 20 17.327 7.72 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.056146 0.003357 0.54769 0.086119 0.623664 0.619164 3.187523 0.8845 324.917547 2.6903 60.501811 5.519165 0.010603 0.184924 0.99159 22.85487 11.57185 11.040013 6.002819 -20 0.0854 201.364449 1.12696 0.1628 83.1409 152.045811 1.161845 0.59576 33.199802 0.153622 3.528671 3.003146 0.145359 40 55.003319 0.78872 16.025 64.65841 54.434047 0.197827 0.499838 0.085865 4.020379 0.016762 0.439419 1.502727 0.87037 23.09114 10.

048174 0.864803 1.376896 0.00163 0.210783 0.31423 3.376896 0.293 4378.431096 6.31261 Table 5.00085 -0.013186 0.876656 15.002819467 0.861 4383.636424 1.145357 0.376912 0.31261 0.864741 1.122071 10.795161 3.795161 3.36E-06 -1.23E-02 4362.903 0.010 -0. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa c_flow= c_Clapeyron= Difference Percent Difference SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 0.002819812 0.864741 1.94011 45.122071 10.431096 6.145359 0.007 -0.003 -0.46727 4370.00017 -0.4E-06 -1.790811 7.004 -0.007 0.751 4387.013186 0.651129 3.501 4375.795334 3.048176 0.07368 26.013185 0.014 -0.00282 SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 5.253 4400.6E-05 -6.1E-05 -0.431505 6.012 -0. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys) Name Temperature C Pressure kPa CompMassFlowH2O kg/h Std Gas Flow STD_m3/h c= SatGas -40 60000 1.339 4380.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.001 -0.43E-07 1.048176 0.145357 0.76E-02 0.49 4408.565 0.45153E-07 9.715 4393.016 73 .00041 -0.122926 10.012 0.

9 47.0 27.4 50.7 2.2041 -24.8 -28.5 -33.06952 -1.6316 1.5 -21.66667 -25.8 -32.8 22.4493 -18.6 38.7 6.205 -29.667 -16.7 -32.5 19.1 9.5 5.67742 -29.0 36.1 16.9 11.9 31.4 0 -22. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and Hysys package P [bar] 27.6 0 -22.5385 -23.1 6.2 -26.5 -24.6 8.8 15 C % Tr[C] 21.644 -20 -20.6 -29.4 30.333 -25 -12.2 5.2857 -20.2 52.075 -33.4 -33.25 -28.3 20 -23.9302 -19.7 -33.9 -33 -33.4286 -20.8 -21 -21.5 32.6 33.2 15.875 -23.0476 -27.6 0 -21.8 20 -23.37 -18.4 -29.4 55.429 -21.57143 -22 3.25 -21.5 0 -22.3333 -30.8 0 -30.951 -23.8 -15.1671 -19.2 -18.22581 -29.789 -18.3 34.1 -29.2 14.66667 -29.9 -30 -30.7048 -27 23.1 5.2 1.7 6.3 48.7 34.4 Tr[C] .1 37.9 13.3 -18.273 -30.9 6.4 -21.3846 -24.5 37.7 29.3 -26.3 39.1 18.9 -26 -26.9 16.4 1.385 -20 -20.7391 -18.8 20.2222 -18.3 9.093 -25 -28.8 -29.8 39.7322 -27.22581 -26.1 51.1 -24.3 15.739 -27.828 -15.33333 -21.57143 -22.98507 -30.8 0 -26 0 -26.9 -21.51515 -30.2 -29.846 -21.828 -26.3 3.96078 -29.6 -21.821 -15.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -32.5587 0 -1.7 -28.5 51.6 -33.8 -21.442 -20.7 48.87 -24.8296 -25.6 0 -26.8 -25.7 -29.5 -28.9 -20.8 49.9785 -28.2 19.786 -19.3 -29.2 33.8148 -23.25 -28.333 -33.9 -29 -29.7895 -27.6 52.69565 -24.2692 -27.69 -21.667 -21.6 28.4 10.5 4.7 -25.9 54.207 -17.9 3.5 15.1 -22.1 -26.129 -23.7 11.3 0 -25.2222 -19 22.1 0 -26 0 -26.8 0 -25.1 -25 -25.0 50.5 -29.7 20 C % Tr[C] 21.74 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 -22.2 -33.2 3.34783 -24.4 -32.7 -18.2 38.3 15 -19.8 20.7647 -20.2 29.5 -18.8 30.1 5.7895 -20 15.517 -16.1 3.6 -32.154 -20.3 53.1194 -20.8 35.8 25 C % -2.44828 -21.3548 -22.7907 -27.4 36.5 -18.9 3.1 -33.2 -21.387 -22.183 -25 -25.875 -22.4 11.667 -17 -14.1 -25.9 0 -29.0 32.45455 -22.6 15.9 -25.5385 -24.667 -16.3 0 -29.1 28.5 0 -21.88235 -28.6 -8.2 47.88235 -28.0 10 C % Tr[C] 20.5 0 -30.8 53.9 21.1 -33.967 -16.8 -24.5 6.667 -16.841 -32.951 -22.857 -18.09091 -25.63 -20 -20.7 -24.7 11.9284 -0.2 -22.6 14.1297 -26.2 12.3 -33.9 -22.968 -21.2 -21.759 -28.667 -26.3 16.571 -21.2 18.4545 -18.

3 -3.2 -21.765 -23.3 39.872 -17.9816 -3.7 -33.5 -24.492 -14. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from manual and article according to P.4 -20.8 -28.871 -26 -14.1 0.1 -33.5 -37.7 -32.9 -25.5 -21.8619 -27.3 -5.8 39.397 -19.6 -24.8 6.663 -21.117 -26.8 -12.8 -41. Gandhidasan P [bar] 15 C % Tr[C] -25.602 -22.8 -29.3 53.742 -18.8 30.2 -10.8 53.213 -22.16637 6.3 48.2 -33.6 -36.659 -41.242 -28.29321 -20.2 52.7 1.742 -25.4 55.9 -30 -30.7 34.5 -18.6 -32.4 -29.5 32.3 -29.8 -22.1 -12.663 -32.7333 13.6 -33.3278 -1.5 -28.7 -29.4457 -3.2 -12.6 -33.602 -22.1 -9.1476 -30.5 -3.2 -5.831 -21.6518 -27.0501 -5.072 -18.7816 12.2 33.1 -9.471 -20.993 -19.32618 -0.9 31.8 -21.446 -24.696 -16.092 -16.3343 10.3018 11.436 -23.7 29.3561 9.853 -29.9 -7.7735 -1.1 -33.3 -17.2 -24.1 28.86292 9.9 -21.6 -21.3354 -28.6 -32.252 -20.1 -20.2 -21.985 -35.5 -32.6 -29.0093 -3.8715 -29.9 -33 -33.948 -21.2 47.0 32.5 0.161 -12.5 -8.074 -18.1 -25 -25.8 -21 -21.4 30.831 -28.375 -34.8 49.471 -22.4 -33.7 -36.306 -40.3 -29.8 -25.1 -22.8 -40.392 -33.945 -23.5 -29.3 -18.1 51.2 -22.288 -22.1 -29.3 -22.0216 -28.5 -9.786 -24.5 51.871 -13.1 37.774 -22.1 -25.9 -22.2 -6.392 -32.9 -51.8853 -2.6 33.515 -18.4 -36.32618 -29.9 -26 -26.342 -26.722 -33.5 -18.36706 17.8194 11.4914 -27.0 27.804 -17.8 -32.71 -24.7 -28.3 -14.4 -27.4 36.6 -11.6 -17.05 -20.105 -32.2 -20.3 -33.501 -30.774 -27.3 34.75 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.252 -20.7 -24.368 -24.72712 -30.2588 12.072 -18.2 -26.9 -20.4 -32.9 54.4 -22.628 -29.072 -18.9 -13.8465 10.5 -30.0216 -28.6 28.4754 -28.4 1.9 -29 -29.2 38.7 -33.9 10 C % Tr[C] -12.088 -29.4928 -30.026 -44.2221 -0.052 -25.8 35.722 -39.62585 13.8 -28.7 -21.68842 -30.7 -4.5 -33.8853 -29.67 -23.14217 5.172 -22.8 -24.368 -21.116 -14.5 -21.515 -25.509 -26.4553 -27.2 29.446 -20.8 25 C % 27.854 -19.9 -1.582 -27.3354 -3.1 -32.9 -5.0 50.2 -26.744 -15.7 48.2091 0.335 -25.07 -45.2 -18.948 -30.9 -23.515 -25.4754 -5.9 -28.208 -21.792 -22 -30.9 -18.0 7.7 -25.9038 -4.3 -41.1 0.4 -21.576 3.9 -26.628 -6.96 -27 -7.3 -35.8 47.272 -23.213 -26.463 -32.1 -33.0 36.7 20 C % Tr[C] -44.6 38.0093 -29.8 -17.1 -26.6 52.742 -18.5 37.4 Tr[C] .4 50.446 -18.871 -26 -13.2 -19.121 -21.031 -24.617 -19 -40.6038 -30.116 -26.1 -24.3 -26.7 -18.781 -20 -39.8 -39.94 -20.462 -23.6 -0.628 -29.2 -29.492 -26.6552 -28.3018 12.

62 13.46 10.66 26.04 22.16 32.70 37.06 16.40 28.17 26.75 27.45 26.11 28.39 12.37 36.10 20.52 38.62 21.59 27.48 21.53 24.13 15.12 24.43 22.31 34.47 31.80 23.85 31.29 35.12 17.75 22.27 27.87 28.88 37.51 20.84 23.98 11.37 9.26 23.19 14.64 17.16 27.69 35.01 45.76 35.28 14.11 26.48 16.00 33.59 27.33 27.24 33.40 14.71 20.83 38.74 21.7 44.63 36.41 40.08 12.20 20.35 20.00 19.88 37.88 38.17 13.96 26.1 28.13 36.16 11.24 25.20 37.87 21.47 27.23 32.86 27.46 11.16 27.30 19.63 28.62 25.89 23.28 30.25 24.07 17.30 19.68 19.03 15.87 39.7 34.50 38.32 24.43 29.72 42.38 31.05 -18.80 29.83 -28 19.09 20.27 12.17 20.78 36.83 17.35 16.45 18.52 12.13 31.97 22.57 37.15 40.92 44.64 43.42 17.07 30.18 27.38 36.44 13.20 38.12 21.35 13.36 17.09 34.44 19.19 11.1 51.72 16.05 18.23 14.33 21.36 -18.27 26.59 -18 47.57 26.54 43.93 43.86 14.71 15.82 18.20 43.87 35.86 30.73 13.94 41.13 28.75 30.47 16.15 34.81 13.54 11.39 18.22 29.53 29.55 33.74 36.78 41.80 26.85 10.17 42.42 24.15 35.01 19.55 43.79 26.06 28.39 33.30 20.55 13.97 23.58 14.62 10.80 40.25 33.22 14.23 21.02 16.89 19.57 42.27 25.52 37.63 38.28 16.81 28.94 36.78 18.86 27.66 16.85 23.30 41.96 33.28 19.45 34.55 15.49 35.83 24.75 29.82 34.56 30.89 26.11 15.69 32.27 27.76 30.42 21.92 11.77 14.58 13.37 15.02 12.24 9.36 41.43 25.01 12.07 10.13 -25 25.30 43.77 36.83 12.94 21.52 15.46 40.81 26.40 34.07 27.30 29.30 30.13 34.79 11.78 19.43 43.52 23.6 52.57 38.27 34.63 39.93 21.53 28.20 42.49 26.44 42.95 27.88 25.4 30.07 21.70 -18.69 9.30 38.32 36.91 19.67 23.54 27.96 35.60 22.40 28.26 40.01 25.21 35.91 27.81 17.18 43.01 25.23 37.36 28.07 29.88 28.73 26.91 34.46 19.54 18.13 38.61 16.31 29.81 18.16 13.54 38.60 19.77 27.25 21.67 36.22 28.68 44.05 27.40 10.09 9.52 41.56 23.60 28.11 34.96 38.52 37.8 35.49 33.93 27.13 10.57 29.95 26.16 34.76 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.72 41.40 27.20 17.30 44.8 53.39 35.00 27.23 15.07 45.57 35.5 45.48 28.80 38.49 41.10 32.61 40.4 50 50.24 18.13 9.06 14.23 26.11 19.65 38.63 27.03 29.90 24.5 37.8 39.77 40.81 15.53 34.96 38.98 14.9 31.81 29.36 13.15 28.31 27.12 30.72 17.42 9.52 5.06 11.25 26.84 17.45 15.33 16.69 14.54 12.73 13.67 18.47 35.98 32.25 36.92 40.24 39.14 26.99 35.45 31.92 27.38 27.5 32 32.49 9.46 38.69 27.45 28.30 9.82 37.53 30.89 10.15 20.07 36.98 17.28 31.20 10.34 24.30 33.92 12.31 35.31 11.33 44.36 27.78 25.43 40.83 28.19 30.05 28.02 16.82 16.29 20.73 24.91 15.40 30.60 28.33 28.64 28.42 35.70 16.03 -30 16.19 21.91 15.14 20.23 29.36 31.69 10.74 14.26 13.80 15.24 44.12 41.43 23.05 20.43 39.60 28.26 -18.15 30.95 9.89 32.4 45.11 28.70 35.8 30.31 30.69 33.3 46.73 12.46 23.64 17.80 26.84 26.13 17.21 42.94 34.65 17.44 18.35 29.17 38.52 27.56 37.43 30.49 20.63 40.2 52.51 36.6 28.46 27.02 35.29 33.88 25.87 28.32 40.75 37.11 40.88 11.86 14.17 43.84 38.07 9.09 13.29 16.70 28.04 27.09 29.45 15.25 37.37 36.71 20.80 11.79 12.59 24.09 27.96 14.72 30.02 42.72 26.01 32.12 33.04 18.25 46.72 27.4 55 -31 14.96 39.50 22.86 16.75 25.71 13.51 19.1 46.53 34.54 29.40 28.91 37.76 26.79 32.89 43.98 16.32 19.10 42.83 9.32 28.46 45.45 28.43 38.71 27.09 14.16 41.18 13.6 44.8 44.54 39.96 41.78 27.05 29.43 36.67 41.9 47.90 39.98 34.23 28.11 28.94 36.89 13.63 29.33 22.17 27.21 12.83 33.01 37.06 29.59 25.67 27.34 37.04 14.92 16.01 9.40 33.67 25.46 14.76 37.08 40.81 18.04 22.97 13.17 28.82 31.83 20.08 13.36 36.78 29.55 35.7 48.64 32.84 -27 21.86 44.81 41.82 27.87 28.45 35.25 16.31 41.74 40.95 10.60 36.00 35.05 26.21 22.17 16.36 36.38 26.98 27.66 11.84 20.6 33.87 14.52 18.91 35.40 18.13 41.65 31.8 49.13 28.11 34.66 27.29 38.88 22.60 42.03 13.75 13.40 14.69 26.43 25.89 -29 17.88 28.52 13.35 20.95 39.30 32.84 20.96 39.90 9.06 11.48 37.18 21.61 39.82 34.81 35.58 19.51 34.59 29.77 41.06 28.56 38.33 10.12 21.75 28.57 21.13 39.74 30.33 32.21 39.31 11.36 29.12 32.96 26.01 13.99 37.07 27.59 29.05 36.67 37.35 12.62 44.73 29.87 42.46 35.85 32.40 29.06 40.58 20.86 30.04 26.90 36.17 34.74 38.63 28.34 15.81 43.58 39.60 25.09 39.16 28.07 16.28 37.62 18.01 26.09 11.79 39.55 35.18 23.6 38.05 18.84 28.95 27.19 9.39 11.67 14.3 39.81 22.16 26.49 14.30 14.69 34.89 19.1 37.67 15.61 32.01 12.78 10.35 23.31 15.93 16.80 40.00 41.73 34.3 48.94 12.35 17.33 19.30 35.02 18.83 42.31 37.95 44.55 15.32 29.72 34.13 27.13 22.21 39.51 24.48 17.96 23.29 29.55 9.24 11.78 22.21 19.06 35.48 -18.71 18.77 25.88 14.48 43.51 12.01 37.22 15.69 37.21 12.46 22.3 53.58 24.44 15.48 41.41 11.2 33.69 28.56 26.44 26.58 25.86 15.5 51.46 13.39 45.75 22.50 34.97 35.98 40.75 9.14 -18.24 36.09 14.3 34. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Sm3] P [bar] 27 27.28 29.89 28.46 39.46 42.78 29.05 28.92 -18.92 17.30 12.65 19.18 28.2 47.01 27.56 42.83 -18.05 25.84 29.50 32.72 33.60 26.79 25.08 42.14 26.31 38.30 28.00 23.44 26.13 12.84 29.13 16.08 28.02 34.27 27.87 17.9 33.11 43.16 17.26 16.51 28.29 11.97 29.92 13.38 28.46 28.94 27.48 27.69 23.10 15.73 23.58 29.87 14.55 15.94 32.15 22.49 27.62 39.56 27.57 27.74 43.98 33.17 27.21 15.59 17.84 27.23 17.65 12.63 27.38 17.82 12.48 14.89 13.45 26.61 35.62 9.46 12.72 27.99 28.24 27.85 42.23 23.85 46.91 11.87 28.40 27.25 27.56 16.30 16.03 29.91 20.82 .61 14.21 38.27 28.62 23.57 36.13 14.95 33.24 13.40 34.77 28.08 25.81 -23 30.90 39.96 21.59 34.33 37.15 27.67 12.55 28.21 36.82 36.20 37.45 23.07 27.58 13.54 18.02 10.07 28.35 29.54 10.70 27.57 34.93 26.17 19.7 29.78 30.36 21.42 40.22 18.53 13.94 -26 23.4 36 36.19 23.28 18.73 34.93 44.77 21.65 33.2 29.39 34.82 26.37 42.92 35.42 39.70 21.60 29.2 38.18 22.15 24.93 28.05 19.42 -24 28.57 24.29 39.83 43.95 24.00 33.68 33.86 34.45 22.30 26.99 33.9 54.92 18.75 19.61 27.31 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.89 24.55 11.88 34.70 14.60 17.58 43.44 33.97 38.82 36.63 12.52 21.71 44.33 35.00 33.2 46.83 16.14 10.56 29.76 36.41 13.37 12.49 21.74 42.27 10.92 28.60 15.71 11.04 15.63 11.01 17.20 26.25 36.85 35.38 26.71 15.56 20.

52 26.46 30.46 37.31 18.22 27.79 38.61 45.83 35.06 27.05 15.21 36.32 Water saturation temperature -22 -21 -20 -19 -18.10 19.38 15.22 39.1 37.48 43.73 33.04 25.55 11.52 17.72 24.00 39.40 34.40 37.45 12.88 29.41 40.3 34.58 44.94 25.02 12.43 38.46 14.96 39.69 26.01 42.96 29.21 11.70 33.68 38.34 37.74 17.12 28.50 37.3 39.36 40.72 44.69 42.42 35.84 38.35 13.68 29.12 29.49 36.99 22.29 16.11 43.21 16.10 36.74 27.31 29.03 23.34 24.70 15.96 19.70 24.26 38.72 29.27 34.4 30.72 13.65 13.67 41.43 31.94 36.74 41.01 26.80 15.69 14.10 28.93 41.69 44.45 29.72 12.04 41.98 20.32 26.68 31.22 22.2 33.39 29.32 34.19 28.79 12.30 14.22 45.97 21.88 12.20 16.11 24.88 27.75 40.26 31.53 47.1 28.44 31.65 14.18 35.81 28.62 42.81 42.97 37.24 31.91 28.30 23.87 42.37 29.96 31.51 27.13 40.18 23.33 14.91 40.97 30.07 19.05 15.51 15.39 34.45 43.58 35.32 46.05 31.82 44.53 45.10 40.06 44.64 43.73 23.68 16.07 29.59 43.70 29.65 42.22 31.32 20.97 21.60 36.92 15.71 41.10 29.23 29.25 30.56 31.19 30.00 14.90 -25 27.82 42.50 22.47 29.98 26.21 38.73 37.67 28.32 37.53 27.99 45.68 15.89 34.79 14.91 30.44 11.54 19.94 9.83 45.09 36.4 55 -31 15.69 42.92 24.62 38.12 11.37 34.54 12.18 17.02 36.67 28.98 33.69 33.07 38.42 30.68 15.48 25.41 28.98 29.45 31.14 37.47 36.39 46.56 18.81 46.34 42.81 13.82 47.08 28.92 30.20 30.27 27.34 22.75 34.20 27.49 15.33 35.77 29.66 28.99 35.72 27.30 29.83 15.75 17.9 47.97 38.31 21.28 37.18 36.80 21.61 32.02 31.32 44.02 46.52 30.47 32.53 -30 17.71 30.13 31.4 36 36.73 20.86 14.97 10.89 10.7 46.86 24.65 20.30 39.78 16.98 23.63 32.08 43.36 13.25 15.61 38.11 28.33 39.63 29.82 9.00 28.8 30.11 36.81 22.27 14.63 39.91 27.78 29.25 17.34 20.30 18.41 33.44 10.33 44.14 13.6 33.46 40.70 9.21 25.15 10.16 26.85 44.23 20.90 14.8 46.51 41.10 13.7 29.87 15.99 46.57 30.93 11.23 13.53 16.96 29.49 13.96 21.46 19.5 32 32.20 26.80 14.81 35.43 36.64 19.45 19.03 24.57 16.67 22.56 10.75 9.41 22.90 27.79 16.00 37.28 14.07 28.1 51.48 31.00 18.35 30.16 28.85 45.44 12.14 23.65 46.02 16.23 44.18 21.96 30.36 26.45 29.59 15.56 19.88 31.28 25.14 17.67 40.21 21.62 10.33 41.43 13.79 13.03 29.94 -18.94 31.02 43.13 35.6 47.63 13.14 39.60 47.38 20.45 31.67 22.90 18.19 14.12 17.25 19.27 30.96 29.34 25.47 17.07 17.03 27.09 19.31 27.98 34.07 10.18 12.2 52.34 45.31 5.44 21.3 48.29 10.12 18.03 27.37 10.44 18.76 39.38 17.88 9.54 34.05 42.70 31.1 49.55 15.55 30.39 31.30 28.34 28.53 29.05 28.97 28.71 30.68 10.17 -18.04 32.78 36.88 27.74 13.26 -24 29.01 14.72 29.28 34.73 13.76 30.73 28.67 36.10 19.97 29.70 11.53 13.80 41.08 15.66 30.23 34.3 53.21 29.67 16.61 18.27 12.47 29.20 31.12 40.23 42.86 17.74 23.70 18.10 39.42 29.91 16.97 13.66 37.59 45.64 30.67 39.45 41.07 23.37 37.58 20.17 29.91 13.42 46.43 -29 18.74 24.00 23.28 37.25 36.97 18.37 42.01 32.04 36.61 18.26 21.18 14.92 22.47 21.29 37.2 38.41 16.22 35.98 21.81 44.04 36.09 39.81 19.77 39.52 37.75 28.89 28.35 12.35 36.53 20.79 46.59 29.17 35.13 47.89 13.67 27.69 21.76 30.64 29.17 22.90 43.08 38.38 13.60 21.16 20.71 21.04 28.97 37.24 29.01 16.66 29.64 40.9 54.04 10.53 35.57 21.32 25.51 26.04 12.96 45.51 30.94 31.76 20.44 27.63 41.88 30.19 47.14 17.86 24.9 31.30 12.15 41.43 38.01 11.48 29.71 26.88 27.17 38.57 37.89 33.07 18.64 17.73 14.19 14.40 -18.20 34.67 20.61 37.8 39.70 19.82 18.41 19.27 28.44 38.64 12.28 27.91 17.22 30.78 37.41 28.65 37.25 -18.93 46.57 12.2 47.83 25.81 41.20 24.89 12.09 27.7 48.45 23.40 24.65 38.28 28.58 30.42 -28 20.77 42.57 43.21 29.74 32.88 25.59 25.71 29.61 18.78 38.69 23.89 23.30 16.42 48.01 48.74 43.73 29.52 29.23 23.98 41.29 35.83 27.91 11.22 16.46 30.65 25.76 38.65 28.83 10.40 16.65 34.07 14.97 31.95 28.42 38.00 20.86 25.21 13.88 24. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mgH2O/Nm3] P [bar] 27 27.38 35.11 38.08 13.57 27.5 37.62 21.02 26.59 29.89 36.2 29.88 37.82 35.18 17.5 47.98 13.03 22.28 11.13 28.98 40.10 20.10 29.99 34.97 12.41 15.8 49.45 44.29 29.4 48.87 -18.21 30.85 17.49 29.90 30.22 10.20 44.50 14.71 -18.41 38.12 17.82 37.90 36.58 23.02 30.78 18.71 41.77 39.77 40.47 44.31 43.68 30.41 30.26 30.56 19.8 35.08 29.16 41.20 13.73 37.37 11.94 14.96 29.92 15.53 26.37 40.52 13.36 20.40 21.73 36.6 28.24 45.07 15.38 27.69 28.7 34.56 28.63 36.39 24.2 49.63 11.69 15.19 44.55 29.49 29.96 19.27 43.46 24.19 25.66 32.20 24.19 15.32 32.96 39.69 35.36 28.97 38.57 16.07 34.15 13.44 33.73 45.46 16.00 16.04 11.37 16.46 42.17 29.02 40.56 25.77 31.29 29.73 19.89 15.17 35.99 21.13 33.06 43.09 12.95 12.05 25.57 44.39 30.37 14.73 -23 32.37 17.08 45.95 45.46 30.13 27.09 37.26 42.81 18.57 18.50 28.46 36.58 9.11 28.57 12.49 14.96 43.43 39.08 44.43 43.78 11.37 18.8 53.26 25.72 12.83 26.18 12.80 11.32 38.84 19.64 40.98 42.85 29.05 27.51 20.94 48.59 40.23 36.09 41.74 39.30 38.94 34.63 28.43 24.77 28.44 28.98 16.20 28.10 40.22 19.71 29.33 30.96 17.57 17.57 14.18 15.78 17.79 14.71 27.46 22.60 28.11 -18 49.71 30.97 14.01 29.86 20.30 38.62 34.52 38.33 39.19 28.42 30.48 -18.78 30.10 26.31 21.22 30.88 37.96 22.05 12.5 51.42 41.07 22.40 16.52 25.93 40.34 18.71 43.45 28.85 19.66 23.16 16.41 36.9 35.92 16.14 45.58 41.08 39.64 9.67 30.3 48.21 21.07 12.53 28.58 39.00 46.65 14.06 41.46 30.26 30.53 42.6 52.31 21.20 37.69 35.84 48.17 25.52 24.93 30.71 26.71 35.02 36.93 31.79 36.29 19.73 16.21 29.73 36.35 29.33 13.42 24.80 22.63 45.94 29.49 11.98 20.42 31.94 33.20 41.91 28.12 35.87 35.63 38.69 36.27 15.49 -27 22.01 9.71 31.86 11.76 10.6 38.39 21.48 31.63 39.29 41.39 20.74 31.88 29.48 15.32 32.72 31.18 18.18 30.84 30.92 29.73 40.86 18.94 22.22 47.38 27.89 30.63 -18.61 29.40 16.60 22.96 43.45 23.57 35.84 20.93 38.32 40.41 42.40 46.71 22.96 30.62 18.72 47.42 39.77 28.89 27.45 40.84 37.22 29.35 .30 39.15 28.77 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.33 27.39 31.04 37.28 40.36 37.41 19.70 35.81 11.19 26.17 42.87 28.03 23.16 30.41 37.68 10.75 45.68 15.31 24.00 17.36 20.15 18.34 36.95 17.50 10.40 23.4 50 50.49 14.28 29.60 17.83 28.

81 223.6 33.88 776.43 312.87 559.14 413.2 33.19 458.47 335.2 29.06 438.30 645.4 50 50.2 52.3 48.09 858.10 495.37 626.96 341.43 305.78 550.86 555.43 218.70 351.7 34.2 38.76 404.99 296.37 370.54 846.62 78 .53 595.08 819.1 51.63 589.74 701.4 55 241.73 552.83 289.95 726.56 963.99 564.06 739.24 607.91 884.55 600.70 47.92 678.68 606.40 718.17 472.39 611.71 282.13 215.23 701.24 390.72 358.89 321.90 317.97 220.37 326.17 616.07 539.22 530.16 512.99 566.30 330.84 712.25 787.25 560.46 797.7 48.7 29.5 37.57 419.39 Pressure [bar] 333.8 35.77 423.62 275.26 279.38 445.4 30.65 745.15 434.08 300.54 233.84 395.36 569.39 809.07 296.8 39.04 430.56 930.71 318.95 478.15 409.64 464.04 532.77 303.50 737.3 39.41 432.76 403.25 916.63 406.8 49.55 733.9 Gas Temperature C 10 15 20 25 383.4 36 36.27 666.81 416.96 442.92 381.55 454.86 574.3 34.6 38.34 900.37 438.88 584.06 444.5 51.65 599.71 751.09 727.82 721.51 345.61 217.67 426.99 547.72 872.8 53.31 420.34 727.96 526.2 47.21 520.3 53.71 410.78 710.40 235.36 231.23 229.58 635.32 385.48 30 758.61 301.74 316.69 426.63 832.77 321.31 313.28 308.80 745.48 304.06 298.37 324.03 451.5 32 32.90 487.72 574.46 285.47 311.6 28.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.47 225.28 579.27 546.64 239.25 756.9 54.1 28.30 375.6 52.79 765.01 331.17 590.97 520.07 542.50 227.69 237.21 363.87 221.40 688.11 414.8 30.94 583. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Sm3] 27 27.18 292.47 503.97 654.9 31.57 327.15 450.15 308.1 37.41 948.48 982.56 400.

69 328.2 52.57 605.48 246.97 238.3 53.47 301.6 33.20 920.04 797.96 359.2 38.36 342.40 615.86 250.41 490.5 32 32.95 949.69 330.99 505.4 55 10 404.27 79 .50 383.97 767.91 739.08 349.55 297.22 236.58 325.86 523.45 751.93 807.10 475.16 548.51 967.44 377.26 577.85 479.74 294.4 50 50.56 645.23 351.98 416.58 498.45 248.25 325.88 475.78 568.57 320.23 457.03 316.7 48.06 726.73 426.53 628.39 981.62 390.00 435.91 354.67 462.2 47.73 749.1 51.28 690.11 432.61 339.01 308.84 442.8 53.3 48.32 853.84 305.38 343.5 37.99 905.62 229.19 773.06 227.07 514.39 793.65 468.79 597.22 446.4 36 36.25 681.37 767.94 338.99 606.88 633.99 780.91 590.16 715.91 455.09 450.47 818.97 892.9 31.1 28.44 864.73 407.92 601.89 933.36 450.92 622.04 702.51 878.29 317.6 28.6 38.40 1036.67 291.74 443.31 531.60 313.13 766.85 432.32 581.38 611.96 650.47 561.2 29.54 230.81 422.17 232.8 39.28 549.26 576.9 47.61 315.13 572.5 51.11 239.81 761.08 Gas Temperature C 15 20 25 560.97 583.71 1016.65 640.87 439.12 470.65 757.2 33.28 30 800.25 333.46 466.95 462.1 37.29 639.82 740.24 364.6 52.26 254.38 322.11 785.70 334.14 429.61 348.18 243.69 411.11 425.63 586.79 591.8 30.92 252.10 669.73 345.48 329.30 540.15 483.31 595.3 39.90 841.9 54.17 555.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.76 632.55 660.3 34.72 437. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mgH2O/Nm3] Pressure [bar] 27 27.28 396.4 30.89 454.53 777.7 34.7 29.42 312.8 49.17 234.78 371.36 622.66 402.95 1000.30 616.94 242.01 786.63 321.8 35.39 336.30 830.

5 300.0 272.9 208.2 255.2 188.6 259.2 210.2 275.8 220.1 244.6 263.3 201.8 346.7 331.7 332.7 209.1 274.3 -25.0 313.5 204.2 332.1 206.8 205.3 288.3 211.3 292.5 200.5 275.9 296.2 308.3 216.2 277.7 202.9 213.8 218.8 333.1 223.1 224.2 195.5 215.3 199.5 206.2 201.8 316.2 205.0 268.5 -26.8 -18.6 281.0 327.5 305.8 246.8 228.5 345.3 331.5 276.8 300.8 249.6 -23.7 221.8 211.6 207.0 274.4 261.1 319.2 323.4 334.4 206.8 244.1 278.9 307.0 363.8 195.3 198.5 310.6 .4 307.0 337.0 297.4 242.1 208.3 228.0 346.1 283.8 213.7 217.4 195.2 329.5 32.6 193.8 299.1 197.8 305.0 27.5 206.3 287.2 293.8 206.4 36.6 291.4 327.0 216.4 207.1 193.2 313.3 187.4 303.9 320.0 258.1 306.4 282.3 314.5 208.5 270.6 273.7 210.3 250.8 271.0 330.5 276.2 262.0 256.4 207.9 200.0 294.9 269.0 283.0 368.0 315.9 273.4 257.8 265.3 329.0 339.0 292.0 213.1 210.6 295.8 205.6 212.6 229.8 195.3 335.6 201.8 287.6 213.2 303.3 266.3 328.6 209.0 50.9 227.9 205.8 267.5 282.7 203.5 313.1 264.1 322.4 285.0 329.2 273.6 323.1 272.0 276.6 301.6 -28.7 195.5 199.9 259.3 219.6 205.4 55.3 207.7 203.5 318.9 225.3 262.7 189.7 215.4 261.8 196.0 244.6 38.4 197.1 198.1 199.5 -21.9 331.5 311.0 212.1 316.0 202.6 202.1 271.1 37.4 291.6 340.9 204.7 194.4 192.3 303.7 253.3 281.1 201.1 209.8 49.7 301.0 336.0 -24.1 208.9 252.6 192.3 261.7 287.6 217.1 279.2 202.2 222.9 212.8 266.8 241.0 310.0 210.7 316.7 315.6 28.6 212.2 38.8 349.4 259.0 324.9 192.9 272.1 286.2 260.0 348.9 47.1 253.8 231.6 288.1 220.3 53.7 275.0 246.8 318.8 215.4 271.6 305.4 191.2 200.4 291.3 272.1 268.0 248.1 208.0 258.7 288.7 189.6 252.0 207.0 251.8 188.7 245.6 52.9 209.6 343.4 289.7 265.3 267.0 312.2 263.7 279.7 271.4 191.3 268.4 212.3 296.7 229.3 344.3 249.2 204.3 278.8 306.0 286.0 352.5 278.0 215.9 328.3 299.5 251.8 199.2 204.9 255.9 189.8 322.4 265.9 222.0 365.2 247.6 263.4 300.9 198.7 305.7 206.0 203.9 195.1 292.7 211.7 338.3 358.6 320.1 51.6 223.5 268.6 272.5 243.1 192.6 262.1 207.6 294.0 357.2 205.9 332.0 311.4 208.1 215.2 274.5 252.3 201.4 281.2 193.2 204.8 267.4 270.1 286.9 216.5 275.4 208.2 295.1 211.0 204.8 270.8 208.8 262.0 310.5 302.6 282.8 208.8 321.2 338.8 299.0 254.8 280.5 194.6 283.5 202.7 197.2 241.9 333.4 253.0 290.2 190.9 294.7 191.3 336.4 337.6 308.9 245.6 210.5 301.6 274.7 248.8 193.3 218.2 217.6 33.8 224.3 291.1 205.7 204.4 304.3 -18.7 34.1 265.7 331.0 191.7 290.0 -31.8 -19.0 349.5 -18.7 284.4 315.0 301.3 207.9 31.0 320.1 189.1 261.0 267.8 347.8 297.7 214.5 292.4 253.7 258.5 270.1 209.4 246.6 254.4 205.3 209.2 260.3 210.6 325.6 273.4 284.6 356.9 226.2 209.8 202.6 225.2 219.0 285.5 257.9 209.2 295.6 226.3 290.7 193.3 255.0 280.8 283.5 -29.3 -18.0 193.9 359.0 256.7 210.5 279.8 53.7 280.6 262.0 355.1 287.6 295.1 208.3 309.7 292.0 361.4 211.9 256.9 264.6 305.3 291.7 252.7 213.7 251.7 222.8 331.9 264.6 -18.1 213.4 248.6 215.9 250.1 323.4 264.0 263.4 258.8 299.4 333.8 315.8 230.0 206.5 197.8 220.1 322.8 274.9 210.8 349.7 266.2 305.7 203.2 281.6 327.5 245.6 290.2 198.1 330.9 273.0 197.80 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 251.3 294.8 264.4 30.8 39.1 324.8 30.4 266.6 209.5 318.8 275.0 36.3 252.1 282.0 314.3 209.8 282.6 219.1 217.8 208.6 247.0 200.5 211.1 278.1 28.0 196.3 211.6 250.1 187.4 261.5 318.3 258.8 201.3 206.2 256.6 222.6 200.6 325.6 247.8 264.0 326.5 215.6 204.4 279.2 29.4 350.5 302.9 309.5 188.7 328.3 257.1 200.1 326.1 344.7 291.3 249.8 340.7 267.8 265.6 312.1 189.4 198.4 244.2 336.7 223.3 347.6 333.0 218.1 321.8 278.0 206.3 190.9 263.8 318.5 326.8 211.1 246.4 271.6 193.6 205.2 191.0 288.0 291.6 205.4 219.6 188.1 276.7 308.5 196.3 194.3 199.4 210.6 268.7 275.2 52.6 256.1 287.1 299.4 321.9 274.7 311.6 261.1 -18.5 207.1 198.2 317.3 342.3 299.0 309.7 354.1 304.2 269.0 227.6 195.5 208.4 296.6 294.9 297.7 261.1 257.1 326.3 206.6 212.0 -18.5 320.8 308.8 219.2 264.4 330.4 204.9 295.7 255.7 303.0 32.5 326.6 324.5 320.4 318.9 242.9 269.2 245.7 211.9 314.4 221.8 294.2 252.7 258.9 197.8 207.4 270.4 265.7 276.8 212.9 214.8 336.3 262.5 274.5 318.5 37.0 254.9 342.2 221.7 351.8 197.2 301.6 269.1 309.9 281.0 289.8 339.3 280.9 221.4 200.5 260.3 34.2 316.9 54.4 311.3 325.4 200.8 196.6 288.9 354.0 283.1 198.3 201.0 188.2 243.3 195.6 212.0 248.3 261.4 284.8 227.1 206.2 201.9 279.3 193.5 241.7 224.4 205.4 276.1 332.7 272.8 220.8 211.5 197.8 223.8 201.1 216.1 256.9 204.1 303.4 203.9 289.4 209.8 339.3 297.0 194.8 302.3 343.7 203.7 272.4 288.2 208.7 203.8 200.1 336.2 278.1 195.4 341.3 314.7 199.9 282.1 203.3 247.4 -30.7 328.4 267.0 334.7 325.1 195.6 249.9 301.5 211.5 306.3 48.7 243.2 327.0 201.2 196.0 343.7 260.4 215.3 196.9 295.2 294.2 284.7 198.3 292.9 284.9 311.8 304.2 197.9 213.9 315.7 198.9 308.0 336.1 210.3 196.8 190.6 217.6 -27.7 196.6 277.6 199.1 211.9 213.1 -22.1 304.6 242.5 331.3 206.9 262.7 29.3 202.3 269.4 286.5 304.6 205.7 -18.2 47.9 189.7 352.3 270.2 212.8 257.5 283.6 319.8 330.2 33.9 247.0 291.8 331.2 204.5 51.7 48.0 190.2 319.1 287.3 193.1 202.6 198.9 336.2 268.7 207.4 191.9 207.3 39.8 210.4 213.8 201.0 359.2 292.9 297.5 266.2 198.7 303.4 214.2 285.5 281.5 194.3 293.6 200.4 352.0 366.5 202.7 192.2 214.6 296.5 255.7 211.8 317.5 316.9 255.8 258.7 320.0 262.1 266.3 298.2 277.0 263.3 254.1 298.1 270.5 309.4 277.4 287.1 297.2 308.2 300.8 281.1 338.5 226.5 300.4 361.0 190.3 310.1 205.9 -18.9 268.0 254.7 -20.5 279.3 193.9 212.7 218.7 191.8 210.4 304.7 220.2 250.3 320.7 279.1 242.3 190.9 192.5 264.4 278.6 310.4 299.8 -18.8 260.5 217.6 259.4 225.8 209.8 211.9 267.7 281.7 286.7 218.8 35.1 209.9 201.3 192.9 296.5 198.5 190.6 338.5 213.5 337.6 207.4 274.1 221.0 203.1 267.3 189.5 199.0 202.2 206.8 310.4 321.4 272.5 321.9 326.4 355.3 214.7 306.3 341.9 224.7 314.6 345.3 211.0 337.1 192.2 203.8 260.1 277.4 272.1 312.8 219.6 246.5 201.5 204. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.3 315.8 194.6 206.6 190.3 283.4 189.4 300.6 208.3 337.6 200.9 217.5 203.9 339.4 50.0 293.4 285.1 296.4 194.2 203.7 325.

4 230.9 364.3 204.5 313.5 321.4 220.6 229.7 355.7 239.9 312.4 347.6 207.0 235.2 207.7 344.5 296.2 307.6 271.6 347.8 331.3 284.2 212.9 54.9 322.8 289.6 283.1 349.1 -23 371.2 290.8 285.0 223.1 210.4 204.8 288.7 315.3 210.2 285.1 327.5 216.8 282.9 275.8 203.2 198.2 208.5 214.2 349.3 368.9 216.5 316 310.3 281.5 349.6 223.0 282.1 283.7 265.6 346.8 215.3 278.0 302.4 209.1 303.4 326.3 308.7 203.2 280.9 290.6 217.5 313.6 278.0 214.2 297.3 316.8 318.4 55 244.2 -26 379.3 344.5 363.4 222.9 337.4 212.8 222.0 353.7 281.4 268.7 308.0 -24 374.1 294.0 218.1 206.3 261.5 317.5 330.6 227.1 346.9 337.1 260.9 225.4 315.3 284.3 297.5 215.9 219.0 -21 365.7 -27 381.6 308.5 279.6 200.6 200.3 257.0 219.1 271.1 281.0 265.7 281.7 218.6 318.7 233.0 273.9 212.2 357.5 223.9 282.8 334.6 33.7 327.4 280.7 293.9 219.1 346.9 317.2 213.3 275.5 295.3 311.3 304.5 351.4 -18.8 225.8 273.6 297.6 276.7 269.2 312.2 221.8 357.4 222.4 285.1 216.3 336 331 325.7 353.4 272.8 267.2 229.3 217.6 277.1 255.6 225.2 206.6 313.2 229.5 213.3 320.0 325.6 211.7 220.5 -18.5 37.8 279.4 265.8 270.6 205.7 257.2 293.6 258.7 48.1 289.2 223.7 221.4 225.6 218.4 223.1 -22 368.4 321.0 214.9 217.0 216.7 204.3 298.2 288.2 213.0 202.3 226.5 259.7 34.5 337.4 299.1 328.4 285.4 36 36.8 205.5 350.6 201.2 366.7 211.8 231.8 367.9 278.5 330.3 260.7 292.0 361.3 277.3 296.9 345.3 342.7 224.3 221.0 203.5 280.4 225.9 297.1 283.0 276.9 262.7 29.8 271.4 289.5 315.7 219.1 232.4 318.3 227.3 332.5 224.6 219.4 286.9 220.0 -28 383.4 269.9 .5 217.6 207.6 210.6 310.0 226.0 323.9 232.1 209.6 335.2 237.4 221.8 211.2 279.2 47.2 52.9 343.5 288.3 341.9 358.9 217.3 202.1 207.0 214.8 354.8 303.6 -20 362.1 321.4 219.3 211.3 -29 385.7 212.7 224.0 281.8 255.8 218.8 275.6 254.6 367.9 293.6 313.9 230.9 350.9 208.5 287.6 307.5 208.7 272.7 209.9 259.4 372.2 307.7 345.8 215.7 301.0 333.6 381.6 293.6 312.6 304.9 276.6 234.0 204.8 286.7 260.7 359.9 291.9 296.4 331.7 282.2 326.5 204.6 305.5 210.7 217 215 213 211.1 -18.4 348.7 199.6 299.3 348.2 335.8 291.7 -25 377.5 287.0 205.7 282.1 223.8 221.5 264 260.5 214.4 283.3 326.8 299.7 336.4 263.5 356.3 349.6 355.6 289.4 221. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27 27.9 220.1 352.3 355.4 320.4 339.4 256.5 309.3 292.1 228.0 294.1 372.8 218.1 334.3 278.4 267.2 238.1 369.1 268.3 300.7 212.1 273.0 300.2 268.8 39.7 214.1 51.2 274.8 213.7 211.2 332.5 308.5 285.6 201.7 331.1 291.1 200.8 342.0 315.7 229.4 222.2 263.3 282.8 299.7 220.3 272.6 200.0 315.5 289.5 303.5 312.4 207.2 267.8 206.2 224.4 217.8 242.8 328.8 200.4 238.5 217.6 215.1 236.1 320.8 -18 354.1 306 301.6 257.9 216.7 294.8 223.9 238.6 309.6 332.0 216.2 38.0 228.2 349.2 215.9 284.3 258.3 302.3 217.1 275.3 329.7 350.5 216.0 356.1 272.5 197.0 202.8 339.5 47.7 298.4 337.4 50 50.0 233.9 276.7 213.4 361.5 242.0 302.1 342.0 203.6 320.0 338.5 212.1 304.2 205.1 272.9 199.1 211.3 301.1 201.9 207.8 218.9 289.3 287.3 368.1 232.1 279.7 287.0 329.9 261.3 327.0 290.3 350.1 217.3 282.2 375.2 277.8 321.3 270.0 256.4 219.2 339.8 364.0 217.8 217.6 352.1 209.0 235.1 28.4 313.3 207.1 212.1 344.5 32 32.6 38.6 209.8 231.3 294.9 213.2 316.0 332.3 210.5 203.8 356.2 313.0 221.8 272.0 222.8 208.2 321.3 53.9 283.7 274.9 348.3 39.3 34.8 333.4 360.5 220.8 49.1 208.0 235.8 303.3 223.3 370.4 276.1 305.1 226.5 211.8 260.0 327.6 216.6 284.2 207.6 356.4 224.0 274.7 220.0 296.3 345.5 215.7 341.3 48.3 339.5 285 280.6 294.5 270.3 214.5 332.3 225.1 303.8 219.8 323.7 225.3 219.4 356.5 214.6 295.2 335.3 216.2 296.7 209.1 302.6 223.2 316.9 316.6 216.3 274.9 206.8 306.8 338.8 223.8 209.5 287.7 278.9 279.8 307.6 322.7 268.8 287.7 307.9 285.1 232.4 325.7 243.2 29.8 198.3 222.5 239.2 -18.6 225.1 222.8 226.8 227.3 213.5 307.5 202.3 349.2 209.2 255.7 256.7 311.8 216.4 233.5 236.4 338.5 338.6 28.0 311.9 313.2 280.6 223 221.4 308.1 354.8 300.8 204 202.4 199.2 274.7 273.7 263.1 -19 358.8 221.3 276.4 205.9 -31 388.8 30.2 297.9 231.5 267.5 221.7 330.6 210.7 213.0 224.5 221.9 295.5 241.1 287.1 340.1 311.5 222.0 228.7 348.4 295.5 324.4 325.6 206.1 336.9 209.0 204.4 319.4 378.2 204.8 356.8 230.4 311.6 317.2 234.7 310.6 278.4 264.3 237.0 219.7 -18.6 296.5 205.3 260.3 283.2 236.6 327.9 231.6 285.8 287.1 269.3 343.8 202.0 292.4 220.3 335.5 328.3 332.7 266.6 326.5 217.8 277.9 218.6 261.3 266.4 224.9 343.3 257.6 292.9 291.9 275.3 200.3 346.0 266.2 214.9 306.9 296.6 207.4 359.5 198.6 311.7 214.9 277 273.5 304.4 363.6 231.8 343.3 202.4 -30 387.6 219.2 286.1 299.0 270.2 239.7 225.5 51.1 263.3 261 258.6 323.2 212.2 221.9 262.8 322.8 53.3 335.1 351.8 302.8 264.1 315.1 301.9 216.0 318.8 -18.0 206.2 291.7 265.7 211.6 206.5 343.6 329.1 302.7 373.3 271.5 279.6 238.7 219.3 295.5 293.3 232.7 309.7 304.4 240.2 355.7 219.9 278.7 307.81 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 321.3 352.1 294.9 325.9 254.0 231.5 206.2 218.3 300.8 329.3 203.1 37.1 218.1 199.9 31.1 341.9 334.3 228.1 288.8 288.5 376.3 338.8 347.5 233.4 208.4 212.1 209.6 374.1 264.0 305.4 219.6 266.4 30.4 310.5 292.9 361.9 200.0 214.8 210.0 222.3 265.1 204.7 229.2 209.8 312.6 262.5 306.5 240.1 287.3 236.7 344.5 218.5 334.1 227.1 279.8 298.5 290.1 -18.1 316.2 262.6 52.1 220.5 231.8 201.7 358.5 212.7 358.4 338.9 310.2 355.2 259.6 298.4 215.8 241.2 365.3 289.2 322.9 307.1 324.4 222.6 274.4 212.0 201.6 332.9 235.2 33.3 201.4 200 198.3 310.8 221.9 298.2 289.5 216.1 230.6 275.7 350.7 357.8 201.7 322.5 277.4 221.7 318.3 344.7 229.9 327.2 225.5 286.7 282.5 227.3 309.5 227.5 255.7 320.3 235.3 319.3 205.4 271.5 334.9 199.0 223.2 214.5 361.8 326 320.8 290.7 310.0 269.2 201.9 -18.2 211.6 277.0 226.3 294.5 345.4 227.7 342.1 268.6 204.9 206.3 215.2 199.3 209.8 35.5 291.0 212.3 218.1 229.4 224.1 219 217.5 278.4 318.3 270.4 207.3 322.2 270.1 223.1 316.4 333.1 379.0 308.4 -18.7 208.5 269.3 317.9 294.8 340.0 214.6 338.3 299.9 299.6 280.4 302.2 220.8 325.6 211.

7 407.7 383.3 409.5 37.4 458.8 307.5 272.1 -24.5 419.1 273.0 391.7 423.9 303.4 369.5 273.6 277.7 418.4 355.8 315.1 284.6 303.6 288.0 -18.9 293.3 48.2 275.6 290.8 360.3 294.4 389.2 477.2 303.5 51.4 366.7 362.8 390.1 444.8 296.5 -18.1 481.3 285.8 348.2 304.5 393.1 437.6 414.1 316.0 286.3 347.4 467.6 443.0 423.5 432.9 451.6 315.9 54.8 393.0 513.1 390.7 364.0 302.4 284.0 509.4 374.7 279.5 388.6 289.8 299.4 388.5 370.3 352.1 269.1 293.3 359.6 308.5 372.4 276.3 501.7 489.8 294.4 293.3 489.1 446.8 303.8 430.2 432.5 283.2 47.3 289.4 383.0 298.0 516.2 353.4 385.3 282.5 287.9 303.1 274.2 385.0 375.5 405.0 347.7 292.2 272.1 425.9 296.5 445.6 364.8 301.0 444.2 439.1 277.6 286.3 394.4 423.7 317.5 358.2 433.1 286.3 484.8 365.6 350.3 453.7 453.6 309.7 429.0 473.1 287.6 432.3 404.5 437.8 414.4 461.9 398.9 304.8 30.5 478.5 378.3 295.7 491.0 476.1 470.0 297.2 484.6 453.5 464.5 393.8 396.5 451.9 293.1 310.4 277.3 417.9 284.3 400.9 397.3 399.8 396.6 483.6 287.1 461.5 385.8 486.1 297.1 311.4 485.8 454.2 495.4 395.3 361.5 421.6 461.7 304.4 458.2 281.2 408.8 286.4 477.0 286.5 281.4 353.3 460.6 278.2 377.8 388.9 360.2 467.6 407.2 295.4 438.8 477.5 307.9 399.3 294.4 -23.0 491.1 292.0 511.7 314.6 38.5 442.8 378.0 301.3 308.4 468.9 406.1 368.2 -20.9 285.1 294.1 372.7 389.7 462.2 406.1 371.82 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.5 449.5 442.8 438.3 396.1 394.6 385.9 369.1 474.1 285.7 321.3 382.1 469.3 479.3 391.1 37.5 458.0 294.9 271.5 297.0 359.1 -18.4 436.4 310.0 474.9 471.4 269.9 429.0 361.0 36.7 298.4 292.2 299.2 292.7 291.0 369.0 282.5 386.1 271.2 306.2 388.5 431.9 384.8 286.2 485.7 296.7 275.7 349.9 292.9 480.1 292.4 288.3 391.6 404.7 319.8 352.1 390.1 309.5 388.0 356.0 296.6 461.2 305.7 272.4 287.2 296.4 364.9 477.0 302.3 295.2 441.8 282.5 322.6 380.9 373.4 -21.6 291.3 292.7 467.2 452.7 462.0 507.8 370.5 394.8 -18.3 415.6 314.7 456.7 374.0 286.0 453.4 390.5 296.1 280.2 427.6 401.2 351.9 298.0 445.8 436.7 369.9 432.9 407.7 383.7 313.3 298.0 422.9 418.7 390.9 431.1 296.2 283.3 431.2 284.8 315.1 388.3 280.6 426.9 487.8 282.0 32.9 377.8 459.9 487.7 436.5 279.5 439.8 369.9 298.4 424.2 309.8 270.7 299.7 379.5 305.2 393.2 301.3 304.5 493.7 484.1 443.7 447.2 275.6 412.5 290.3 369.6 295.7 288.4 313.3 412.2 434.1 28.9 305.0 283.8 281.0 399.6 361.9 365.2 413.6 375.2 498.8 364.9 302.1 306.6 28.5 32.3 476.6 411.1 312.7 401.1 346.6 293.8 304.3 419.4 318.9 452.1 289.3 306.1 289.3 317.1 294.4 379.0 364.5 275.5 277.7 378.7 354.9 410.9 389.6 468.4 288.0 302.7 442.2 464.1 392.4 417.5 293.7 300.7 292.0 50.1 277.4 347.8 403.5 432.5 438.0 283.2 368.2 411.4 368.9 424.9 287.7 373.6 486.3 351.0 323.9 297.5 282.1 355.0 287.9 413.0 454.5 470.3 39.1 383.1 437.3 -26.2 447.7 277.0 277.1 436.0 305.6 -27.1 445.9 460.7 439.2 272.1 312.0 274.6 373.5 304.9 417.1 289.9 351.6 415.8 288.0 358.8 49.7 425.0 419.0 288.8 274.0 384.4 381.5 360.0 458.2 410.3 297.6 295.6 452.5 402.3 283.0 505.1 356.2 273.8 -25.4 298.6 400.0 439.6 380.0 461.7 48.0 374.9 301.0 284.5 476.5 371.1 -30.4 316.3 394.6 285.5 301.5 47.3 453.0 483.6 278.1 373.4 499.9 400.4 445.8 373.7 34.5 295.1 395.8 430.5 290.0 302.2 33.3 313.4 431.7 291.4 320.6 429.1 298.4 349.1 430.0 500.3 288.1 309.4 444.3 363.5 290.6 348.2 270.6 416.2 307.1 285.8 378.9 429.7 291.5 373.9 346.2 302.3 415.7 444.8 370.2 299.2 52.8 437.1 299.9 411.7 356.3 448.6 -18.4 454.0 458.2 375.5 -22.8 -19.3 280.4 382.1 465.7 384.2 371.2 286.7 383.3 403.6 281.5 450.2 441.3 271.6 419.0 390.6 317.5 364.2 293.8 297.7 374.1 378.0 401.6 303.6 469.0 502.2 431.1 287.9 289.1 276.8 405.1 51.1 425.2 360.5 396.8 426.1 288.4 319.5 377.9 273.5 433.4 55.4 376.2 418.2 448.6 366.5 404.0 380.3 372.5 281.4 424.3 365.5 297.9 401.1 377.8 378.2 279.8 39.7 360.5 356.5 413.3 -18.0 404.4 300.7 301.2 391.3 305.5 354.5 275.9 31.9 282.5 367.1 357.5 281.9 277.8 301.6 274.4 497.9 278.8 467.9 481.0 422.3 383.1 457.2 481.1 281.0 497.5 270.3 484.9 279.4 274.1 366.8 393.4 425.9 385.2 412.1 310.6 276.7 313.9 360.0 270.3 278.9 275.4 287.2 366.8 376.6 284.7 435.4 297.0 299.9 283.9 381.2 354.6 279.0 278.7 395.9 353.9 439.6 472.7 474.3 418.7 469.1 288.3 304.0 309.0 396.8 271.1 367.9 418.2 286.2 389.5 302.2 302.9 383.9 451.9 289.3 53.4 430.0 391.4 299.9 -28.2 38.2 -18.0 423.9 473.9 363.0 503.9 387.1 467.7 347.3 423.9 406.8 53.9 397.0 514.0 291.4 36.2 29.3 378.7 369.3 374.5 376.2 438.1 380.5 279.8 493.6 368.5 475.6 378.7 299.4 375.4 486.7 366.2 490.8 295.0 420.9 276.6 366.3 290.1 455.6 450.8 355.3 274.6 426.6 386.1 484.4 456.7 269.3 468.4 279.3 -18.1 314.6 374.6 504.7 477.9 285.1 279.2 308.6 401.8 300.5 424.7 424.5 485.3 384.2 370.8 470.3 399.8 410.8 465.5 294.9 -31.2 291.6 33.4 293.5 373.0 379.4 227.2 362.4 397.9 420.1 364.4 290.7 486.4 453.0 394.5 457.2 356.0 408.9 287.7 310.8 316.6 293.0 410.6 303.4 291.3 376.6 369.4 426.9 -18.1 295.5 286.3 426.3 289.6 417.0 487.4 487.3 270.3 379.6 284.5 298.2 401.7 -18.9 297.5 291.9 480.1 430.7 305.9 307.3 405.7 320.7 .4 370.5 469. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.6 280.4 289.7 386.3 34.4 284.3 406.7 437.5 351.9 475.7 295.9 269.3 403.5 487.6 365.6 399.0 300.5 393.3 292.4 50.2 298.5 460.3 296.0 352.7 283.9 375.8 405.9 475.9 482.1 280.4 459.8 312.6 418.6 405.6 295.4 399.7 361.0 494.1 454.8 446.5 289.6 406.7 303.9 362.2 284.3 409.6 52.7 408.1 303.6 359.0 283.6 285.9 410.0 281.1 273.5 446.7 474.4 385.5 465.8 496.5 461.1 506.1 422.2 471.2 269.8 357.4 303.7 463.2 311.0 301.7 293.5 389.8 291.6 290.8 278.1 306.7 413.7 302.9 356.0 366.2 434.1 290.4 30.2 495.8 284.9 412.7 476.8 400.5 280.8 435.6 413.8 445.9 412.7 273.8 291.9 273.7 29.7 433.1 300.8 290.0 27.8 394.7 437.6 417.6 271.7 368.2 300.6 312.1 398.3 420.0 272.9 380.5 289.1 -29.0 268.5 455.2 459.2 402.4 445.2 412.0 468.3 277.6 401.6 306.5 283.5 300.3 297.8 35.8 285.0 405.8 478.5 407.5 284.8 276.5 451.0 444.6 382.0 382.6 412.1 348.3 300.6 352.1 419.8 301.2 470.2 387.9 420.

8 465.7 301.5 455.1 320.1 393.6 310.1 331.1 406.8 425.5 440.3 525.7 313.0 330.7 306.7 306.8 469.5 422.5 319.1 302.9 434.5 394.0 388.1 510.1 475.7 322.4 298.8 392.3 503.7 -25.9 504.9 333.6 428.9 413.7 34.8 486.3 429.4 310.7 370.2 319.1 500.8 310.8 307.7 311.7 406.9 392.3 425.6 478.5 32.3 292.1 305.9 384.6 435.4 317.1 417.8 386.6 450.6 414.7 376.6 469.2 385.9 495.4 286.6 383.6 384.8 462.8 49.8 30.3 428.5 391.5 306.0 366.9 502.1 315.7 433.0 539.4 468.4 310.0 -24.8 -27.6 398.0 444.1 304.4 370.7 421.5 320.7 312.4 307.0 417.2 492.4 437.9 378.6 505.5 317.9 379.0 469.4 296.4 301.8 491.1 496.3 504.4 499.7 514.9 367.9 435.2 400.4 479.9 433.3 430.3 430.8 406.7 483.7 318.2 463.6 446.2 400.9 324.1 389.2 335.9 388.7 299.8 314.7 312.7 493.6 447.7 514.5 313.4 329.7 285.4 443.7 502.2 318.6 323.5 304.2 448.8 368.4 292.9 398.1 336.4 303.9 394.9 532.5 471.2 33.5 393.7 319.1 385.1 321.83 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 325.0 397.3 293.9 399.0 36.2 398.5 399.9 311.5 426.3 456.0 390.2 326.7 381.3 39.0 288.2 298.9 422.8 396.1 373.1 454.2 288.9 455.9 283.9 437.3 288.6 434.2 416.2 324.0 508.4 336.5 300.4 55.7 305.0 525.2 497.9 399.1 323.0 319.4 337.3 314.8 289.6 297.0 378.2 471.4 455.0 427.6 482.6 402.6 308.1 -28.3 323.5 484.4 335.1 299.5 438.8 511.6 33.2 530.8 293.5 285.1 308.1 404.0 32.7 399.4 527.0 527.4 365.8 438.6 327.0 341.2 372.4 315.4 314.5 449.7 307.6 441.4 382.1 283.6 487.6 433.8 307.9 292.9 296.0 518.2 389.2 380.2 311.8 457.3 462.2 291.2 306.1 479.4 390.0 294.6 442.8 493.8 405.0 371.3 -26.5 494.6 436.9 299.4 449.0 541.4 409.9 403.5 303.0 321.8 411.3 327.8 304.1 420.6 426.3 493.6 471.4 463.2 389.5 512.6 313.2 307.0 483.8 454.1 426.4 321.0 296.7 295.4 329.9 384.6 320.1 296.3 405.9 481.7 291.3 299.9 509.4 318.8 375.1 484.0 293.5 367.2 454.8 319.8 479.5 494.9 428.1 312.2 427.7 -18.8 410.0 530.2 421.5 453.9 486.2 297.1 368.1 508.9 54.2 449.0 303.7 290.4 315.7 516.7 442.1 303.9 302.4 308.1 297.6 436.5 .8 284.0 389.1 37.5 292.7 295.2 407.9 468.1 409.5 416.7 300.4 300.5 305.7 476.8 474.0 382.8 435.5 410.2 468.4 406.1 486.9 478.5 293.1 376.0 302.7 470.4 396.0 382.0 459.4 470.6 311.0 524.3 310.3 53.8 401.3 435.9 309.8 468.3 390.6 423.4 520.6 497.5 51.9 484.3 486.8 431.9 301.3 366.2 338.1 332.8 316.0 -18.5 421.9 371.0 294.9 522.0 289.4 309.6 289.9 295.4 292.3 486.4 313.0 316.4 418.2 441.2 285.1 461.9 303.7 484.4 458.4 288.1 481.1 386.1 322.5 380.4 489.9 407.9 428.3 495.3 441.6 374.9 480.5 511.1 503.9 307.5 390.4 381.3 315.0 416.6 429.8 466.0 484.0 436.2 421.1 463.4 318.3 -18.4 454.7 317.2 448.3 455.1 323.2 291.0 298.3 502.4 304.4 319.7 457.9 313.7 330.2 -19.5 290.3 284.9 412.9 306.5 375.2 332.2 326.1 518.9 308.6 367.8 313.9 300.2 -23.4 339.5 501.6 295.5 317.8 452.4 36.5 -18.4 455.5 496.1 395.0 446.2 384.2 461.3 449.5 492.4 373.9 427.3 315.8 -18.2 392.0 514.0 293.4 415.6 288.6 446.1 28.3 308.2 491.6 292.8 463.7 301.4 290.6 445.5 441.4 325.1 451.6 478.4 394.8 433.0 535.8 507.1 520.1 415.8 310.3 34.5 308.8 471.9 320.1 287.2 375.6 38.8 390.3 340.1 423.1 433.0 441.4 302.2 301.0 446.2 404.0 387.9 309.6 -18.3 485.2 511.6 388.9 417.6 299.9 -18.9 493.8 288.9 449.7 445.6 456.4 534.8 371.1 466.6 513.8 417.3 446.0 380.1 410.7 432.8 391.5 433.2 29.8 329.1 501.8 448.4 387.2 312.0 50.9 285.6 386.8 318.2 469.7 437.9 417.3 500.9 439.0 313.3 379.6 333.3 371.4 316.6 419.6 332.3 442.1 411.0 544.7 410.7 -20.4 443.1 416.4 448.2 323.4 479.5 412.0 448.2 390.5 -30.9 317.8 409.1 484.8 411.1 435.5 287.7 366.5 415.3 384.4 294.6 379.4 404.4 511.1 453.8 318.9 290.5 400.5 408.9 308.2 423.7 290.8 307.7 304.5 458.9 395.8 412.4 306.8 296.8 495.9 305.0 456.7 306.5 47.9 -31.6 456.5 314.1 431.8 401.6 284.5 421.8 35.5 431.6 477.7 517.5 309.1 51.3 414.9 327.2 321.2 -18.0 542.7 394.7 388.6 305.3 304.5 308.4 501.8 301.1 407.6 488.2 434.7 297.6 429.1 461.9 309.1 304.5 317.2 294.2 412.0 307.6 473.9 468.9 314.1 502.8 303.3 473.2 416.2 426.1 460.8 39.5 320.2 394.9 316.4 305.7 397.8 412.4 394.1 -18.6 461.9 311.9 374.1 365.9 375.4 300.7 399.7 506.4 30.4 486.7 299.2 399.3 284.3 327.7 309.7 452.5 500.1 422.5 491.8 372.6 315.1 460.6 308.7 319.4 311.7 320.8 399.8 391.6 389.6 488.0 429.4 428.0 463.8 380.2 326.0 418.8 460.1 286.3 436.5 387.1 310.3 511.7 319.6 298.2 337.8 454.3 333.8 53.0 461.0 424.1 309.0 537.9 386.5 318.3 294.2 300.9 312.2 317.4 50.0 478.5 417.1 370.7 320.8 384.4 499.0 407.3 470.0 419.1 311.1 494.9 389.8 404.8 303.4 290.7 485.9 433.8 421.1 459.0 423.0 516.6 427.3 -29.8 286.5 503. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.0 302.1 299.1 476.1 505.0 532.4 303.4 -18.3 48.2 514.0 449.0 510.9 335.7 495.4 301.1 402.7 48.5 480.7 456.4 328.1 288.2 410.9 513.8 513.4 396.9 302.6 321.2 393.6 385.7 309.4 427.7 298.3 443.6 305.9 291.1 331.6 28.8 409.5 503.1 482.4 470.9 297.8 300.7 513.7 447.8 477.7 475.9 311.6 403.9 424.7 325.3 289.8 292.1 404.3 302.8 415.8 287.5 328.6 52.8 452.6 315.4 473.4 376.9 313.1 284.9 385.4 395.7 297.8 395.7 315.0 292.3 374.1 329.1 405.1 292.4 314.7 313.7 500.2 -22.6 424.9 442.6 371.5 386.6 395.0 305.1 447.1 314.5 461.0 315.4 378.4 467.6 463.1 414.0 -21.0 318.3 312.0 521.1 470.5 460.2 299.4 496.6 439.8 416.2 385.3 397.1 401.4 321.2 295.0 443.8 300.6 302.6 398.0 498.1 489.5 395.7 29.1 413.7 475.0 294.5 411.4 529.6 324.2 305.4 299.1 440.3 305.4 302.8 379.7 318.0 414.2 420.9 430.5 524.1 396.7 443.8 317.2 487.8 326.2 47.5 372.8 380.9 440.2 401.2 38.6 312.8 375.7 299.4 312.9 298.1 330.2 367.6 512.8 376.3 394.4 297.6 286.8 382.2 467.7 494.0 319.3 388.3 399.2 52.9 31.8 400.1 381.7 311.3 389.3 403.6 301.0 324.4 410.2 434.2 422.3 326.2 309.4 424.0 27.6 306.9 407.0 320.2 478.9 440.4 334.3 512.8 321.3 308.4 291.0 296.0 304.9 423.9 297.3 396.4 287.8 330.0 377.7 294.9 307.1 441.8 315.7 507.1 413.7 462.9 522.6 404.7 296.3 303.9 470.5 37.1 316.8 403.6 509.2 322.9 301.3 287.8 321.0 312.1 297.3 316.4 405.5 477.1 404.1 302.5 290.1 476.2 411.0 285.

4 593.7 383.3 575.7 598.6 666.2 529.4 497.1 586.2 399.7 669.2 38.8 381.1 623.3 39.1 497.7 651.8 648.2 417.8 540.7 499.0 510.1 499.1 432.0 618.1 437.5 398.2 625.3 547.8 629.6 568.6 538.8 422.2 413.1 669.4 577.7 576.1 419.7 682.1 524.6 420.3 538.8 517.1 595.7 569.1 -29.2 524.2 395.7 377.4 376.6 532.7 560.4 585.3 392.6 435.7 388.0 377.9 412.7 384.9 645.7 412.6 28.6 33.7 406.3 48.6 645.3 426.3 404.3 517.0 375.2 410.9 491.8 667.1 657.5 420.1 559.8 546.4 568.7 576.4 582.5 424.1 635.7 48.4 504.1 537.8 399.8 393.3 514.0 692.7 409.4 634.6 543.5 492.9 -28.8 659.5 402.1 402.4 -18.0 505.4 411.5 47.6 614.6 517.3 -26.4 569.0 654.2 398.1 502.6 427.5 644.7 610.6 38.5 418.6 519.8 606.1 413.1 679.1 550.8 387.2 423.3 566.5 436.1 577.6 389.7 604.6 513.5 37.2 406.7 417.5 504.2 606.7 504.0 409.0 405.6 668.9 548.2 -24.1 416.2 552.4 443.1 515.6 636.2 47.6 405.2 381.9 404.6 619.1 512.4 393.5 424.0 399.4 -23.2 376.2 581.7 643.0 395.9 409.0 32.9 591.1 415.7 537.0 396.2 503.4 30.3 682.5 396.2 596.2 52.3 407.8 644.8 385.7 383.6 .1 518.8 561.6 432.6 434.3 431.5 625.9 414.4 604.6 404.8 612.0 493.6 666.6 379.0 610.5 430.6 515.2 554.0 562.8 625.9 430.2 676.2 392.1 567.0 392.2 380.3 408.4 55.8 585.6 565.9 382.0 401.5 -22.2 640.6 681.5 400.0 551.7 398.1 415.1 604.3 680.6 52.8 529.9 521.8 509.0 379.9 376.8 35.6 659.8 408.0 705.8 492.7 635.7 555.5 560.6 695.9 614.3 684.7 405.4 36.7 427.3 511.2 575.5 391.5 438.0 594.1 388.6 523.7 531.2 535.1 579.3 649.1 554.5 588.1 406.9 516.4 680.8 554.2 388.0 698.2 636.0 686.1 28.6 421.9 656.0 27.0 541.3 405.4 493.0 599.6 612.9 599.2 696.8 587.1 420.1 605.2 33.0 407.4 664.2 433.8 403.9 436.5 377.8 596.5 622.6 641.0 527.7 493.1 546.0 427.8 402.5 409.0 596.7 428.5 406.8 561.2 680.5 524.6 614.8 524.4 567.8 539.0 423.5 499.3 417.5 494.9 424.2 410.5 406.9 389.1 594.1 516.0 417.6 434.5 503.8 417.6 498.9 413.8 518.4 586.5 520.6 403.2 577.0 444.1 428.6 633.9 632.9 627.6 386.8 547.8 548.9 532.7 410.5 511.1 424.7 590.3 415.0 557.5 493.7 376.8 567.5 421.6 666.3 53.8 506.0 603.6 629.2 414.8 693.3 414.6 532.6 565.1 544.5 518.9 401.9 656.3 629.1 424.7 487.3 416.7 579.0 628.9 602.8 526.5 412.9 487.1 671.1 624.4 561.0 381.6 534.9 659.5 553.8 567.5 685.8 386.5 545.0 380.6 402.9 513.8 658.6 605.9 405.0 684.4 573.7 485.9 564.6 396.3 671.9 -19.7 542.8 421.9 54.4 667.9 676.3 423.4 678.4 413.4 597.4 621.1 561.5 388.7 681.8 389.4 50.0 409.6 673.6 518.3 389.7 426.3 430.0 573.2 585.5 496.4 561.6 698.7 394.84 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 407.3 438.3 572.5 397.1 422.8 416.7 657.5 51.4 394.0 388.9 668.2 553.3 403.9 498.7 687.9 402.0 631.7 612.0 398.9 499.3 385.7 392.8 414.1 414.1 644.0 405.5 544.1 661.3 -20.5 397.2 406.8 530.1 576.9 551.0 531.8 -18.6 384.5 541.0 538.3 637.4 525.8 586.3 -18. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.2 539.1 528.4 647.5 626.8 425.0 385.7 524.9 412.8 39.2 488.4 657.2 503.1 617.0 485.9 552.2 576.6 547.8 594.6 613.4 383.0 711.0 516.3 604.4 418.3 510.7 512.7 504.4 524.1 545.5 408.7 390.9 397.4 669.3 526.1 644.1 376.6 668.3 439.5 606.0 387.1 560.3 499.0 708.6 668.8 560.4 379.0 401.2 431.8 497.4 537.9 615.9 31.2 425.5 595.8 405.5 378.8 395.6 406.2 493.8 682.8 554.8 593.0 410.9 532.8 650.9 389.4 599.0 700.7 537.6 574.3 620.4 537.7 646.1 642.8 635.9 529.7 414.1 607.1 578.0 706.6 394.5 429.4 530.6 404.1 571.6 420.4 497.0 592.6 414.4 578.5 391.4 616.4 394.1 429.7 381.5 508.2 528.7 424.1 538.6 571.1 620.4 632.8 522.3 523.3 615.1 506.5 389.9 420.3 546.3 420.6 525.9 392.0 646.8 640.4 410.4 637.1 569.3 531.5 624.6 391.4 391.1 588.9 679.0 710.9 509.4 662.9 511.3 614.8 497.5 488.1 560.7 522.2 505.1 656.8 535.1 559.2 388.6 509.5 -18.5 392.4 487.0 525.0 391.3 521.2 -18.4 420.5 32.1 385.8 512.2 386.5 424.9 523.9 637.6 512.5 417.7 643.8 394.1 399.9 393.8 404.5 549.7 428.0 702.5 681.0 562.2 412.4 414.2 -30.5 635.4 562.1 402.8 30.6 416.0 397.9 411.5 552.4 579.0 528.9 379.5 560.3 531.1 51.7 531.0 674.2 518.2 426.8 581.7 562.8 423.1 568.3 387.6 425.0 -18.1 391.8 595.5 529.7 399.8 577.6 418.7 546.8 398.2 416.5 618.5 550.1 612.0 679.8 49.9 428.7 547.9 533.2 396.1 397.1 568.9 682.0 406.0 383.2 29.7 578.3 587.6 422.1 530.3 563.8 391.7 623.8 416.8 636.2 602.3 408.6 422.4 386.4 389.5 587.6 640.0 622.9 578.4 413.5 539.0 530.4 401.6 422.8 638.8 582.2 567.0 662.5 395.2 511.8 380.9 -18.9 399.8 375.0 695.5 393.6 441.6 656.5 -21.1 562.9 521.5 505.3 34.5 442.3 409.7 568.4 545.0 683.9 689.5 385.2 418.4 624.6 404.1 510.1 544.3 397.5 398.1 504.4 603.4 402.9 507.1 533.3 536.9 430.5 603.3 377.9 674.6 414.2 440.7 516.0 634.3 397.4 424.6 399.6 423.7 382.1 658.8 412.8 494.3 505.1 542.4 546.9 601.6 557.7 424.4 419.9 400.3 538.8 511.9 409.7 395.1 492.9 381.7 590.0 666.4 680.8 425.1 402.5 594.4 516.2 552.1 395.3 646.3 626.2 645.6 413.9 400.6 673.2 410.6 659.0 392.1 501.0 396.5 596.5 382.1 490.5 631.8 391.2 613.8 513.1 37.2 498.8 -25.4 386.7 536.0 514.1 421.3 437.8 404.6 646.0 687.1 546.3 669.6 621.1 413.2 492.2 658.8 515.4 624.4 410.3 385.2 518.8 526.3 656.3 587.0 691.4 583.8 588.3 562.3 512.4 585.4 399.2 551.1 379.0 502.0 435.3 623.2 655.2 401.7 401.0 50.9 651.6 553.8 594.1 588.0 570.7 525.5 664.1 382.6 407.6 411.7 394.8 507.8 553.2 666.2 539.5 380.1 398.6 570.3 416.6 433.5 635.5 605.1 553.5 661.3 506.4 576.9 539.7 396.6 383.3 539.5 405.5 554.0 558.0 646.7 385.8 415.1 607.5 486.3 517.7 29.5 421.5 526.3 524.3 602.9 402.0 386.7 -27.8 569.0 387.8 383.3 425.9 396.6 439.8 605.1 587.3 421.6 425.1 -18.5 612.6 510.6 419.9 569.0 689.9 613.7 -18.2 610.8 584.3 652.6 634.7 34.8 53.8 412.8 -18.8 594.0 547.7 389.8 545.4 649.2 402.0 400.0 653.2 637.7 395.8 504.3 606.8 578.8 486.7 392.0 555.1 486.9 613.8 520.4 392.0 403.2 420.5 586.5 433.8 499.9 421.8 624.0 408.3 416.3 395.9 391.7 495.7 609.6 612.0 535.5 512.2 432.5 403.3 570.7 379.0 36.7 393.1 389.9 -31.3 417.6 585.9 396.4 615.0 505.3 420.2 668.3 486.3 409.6 509.5 593.5 501.9 517.2 591.

1 664.7 695.0 533.2 426.5 718.3 629.2 531.1 514.2 413.4 399.8 646.7 449.8 436.8 660.4 439.5 695.7 722.9 549.1 628.0 749.1 598.5 451.9 424.6 38.3 403.6 442.4 452.6 554.3 534.2 429.2 455.5 577.8 536.7 425.0 439.9 608.0 584.6 564.9 447.8 449.8 520.3 442.4 577.2 706.5 449.3 632.9 462.0 648.2 439.1 673.3 518.0 467.7 29.9 682.2 581.2 533.1 533.1 417.4 583.1 407.4 578.7 729.7 630.6 33.7 434.1 438.0 731.6 642.7 428.8 35.0 546.9 404.8 532.1 609.7 525.6 28.1 656.1 466.2 448.4 443.9 648.5 428.1 464.2 38.0 437.6 682.0 445.0 32.2 29.2 657.3 436.6 446.8 428.7 48.4 424.8 723.7 431.6 430.0 512.7 636.2 576.9 654.6 670.8 646.7 512.3 551.0 662.6 420.4 599.3 671.5 563.7 649.6 542.7 696.5 574.4 520.6 591.3 658.0 520.4 414.0 583.4 -18.8 575.2 433.7 654.9 426.7 433.6 601.5 638.7 532.2 555.8 39.4 610.9 443.2 519.0 750.9 417.3 541.4 525.0 447.1 610.1 525.2 629.1 546.7 582.8 419.5 526.2 554.4 447.2 414.7 458.0 406.8 691.6 561.8 688.1 652.2 47.2 624.0 436.8 459.1 -18.0 -26.3 407.3 550.7 552.7 594.8 30.8 -28.4 578.4 440.1 611.0 547.3 436.6 455.0 36.8 713.9 670.3 644.3 724.0 410.2 444.5 456.0 617.1 618.0 431.0 560.4 414.3 437.7 398.4 434.1 577.5 632.9 554.5 600.8 694.8 546.3 717.9 602.4 557.8 420.1 679.3 567.1 571.3 415.6 421.7 515.0 636.8 599.7 566.9 444.2 643.3 559.2 561.3 396.8 401.6 586.8 49.8 711.1 402.4 524.7 420.7 34.3 552.0 529.5 544.8 443.5 647.0 668.2 686.3 572.1 454.5 584.0 396.8 444.0 591.8 454.8 460.7 598.8 555.3 611.2 725.3 440.3 569.0 432.8 649.4 718.8 435.4 514.3 404.5 432.0 449.8 427.2 600.5 423.9 31.9 405.0 745.6 403.3 614.6 437.6 626.2 531.7 423.8 580.6 570.0 427.3 617.9 400.7 551.0 50.0 572.7 598.6 667.3 538.7 592.0 524.1 427.5 416.2 455.9 444.0 621.2 420.6 639.5 681.9 537.1 435.2 423.6 -18.9 627.3 526.3 415.2 423.8 628.4 584.9 398.4 -27.1 410.4 549.7 441.3 544.4 416.1 671.1 647.2 542.8 -18.4 55.3 512.1 617.2 443.5 409.3 715.5 412.2 433.4 417.1 588.5 545.9 425.8 560.9 605.9 513.7 658.0 397.4 616.8 608.0 582.0 639.2 417.5 591.1 420.1 568.5 602.0 553.7 692.4 424.8 597.7 736.9 680.2 698.8 629.7 424.1 659.0 526.1 420.1 448.2 545.0 747.8 514.8 437.9 719.7 593.8 685.5 690.2 601.6 692.5 576.6 566.5 663.9 -31.2 521.8 407.4 602.9 452.1 565.4 440.1 577.3 459.8 573.6 447.1 641.2 428.8 601.6 657.8 540.8 545.1 447.4 705.2 429.6 519.6 612.7 543.7 635.0 670.0 699.0 559.9 702.9 430.2 438.4 718.6 418.9 453.0 404.1 414.1 400.1 412.1 524.7 435.6 660.5 555.0 540.6 635.6 557.7 406.8 401.2 457.2 527.6 462.8 702.4 598.1 28.0 582.2 682.6 531.7 583.5 410.9 423.2 665.2 660.3 401.3 419.4 398.1 646.9 430.1 576.3 427.4 574.9 448.8 442.5 514.3 53.9 720.1 465.8 404.7 409.5 401.9 519.3 -18.0 426.6 706.4 450.0 530.8 553.0 703.0 435.0 591.5 444.1 596.7 585.3 567.0 741.6 415.0 419.2 421.9 641.0 432.9 531.8 -19.6 560.7 622.2 52.9 419.6 689.5 51.7 719.5 419.4 517.5 601.9 -22.2 592.9 554.0 627.0 733.6 694.7 581.3 435.9 647.0 716.2 47.7 588.0 468.0 433.7 439.0 538.5 576.2 680.4 461.5 733.9 411.0 609.5 600.2 456.2 433.1 535.7 451.2 424.7 682.4 400.2 627.6 648.8 409.5 540.9 705.7 426.0 426.2 411.0 624.6 569.6 442.1 681.8 591.2 607.4 -25.7 567.0 743.2 669.5 431.2 533.1 425.3 553.3 670.8 454.7 443.5 436.6 418.7 584.6 559.7 609.3 719.4 558.0 639.2 569.6 527.7 679.7 559.8 53.8 618.0 713.1 446.0 437.5 37.6 414.1 717.1 619.8 704.8 441.8 706.2 447.0 430.5 410.7 643.2 416.8 396.7 627.8 457.3 649.1 37.5 432.2 540.4 627.1 596.3 427.3 687.5 408.6 702.0 414.3 420.4 637.8 575.8 548.9 544.2 .6 447.6 431.0 704.5 685.2 656.0 727.6 396.5 519.4 697.9 569.3 658.7 463.2 415.4 646.5 628.0 584.6 532.1 541.8 632.0 567.0 -18.6 700.0 724.8 693.6 546.8 397.3 539.9 569.1 687.7 445.0 637.0 421.8 637.3 609.7 431.7 680.4 669.7 417.5 673.5 524.9 537.0 694.2 647.4 593.0 560.6 437.1 403.6 675.7 564.4 50.9 406.5 445.3 412.4 439. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] 27.3 438.5 547.3 568.7 671.4 703.6 719.5 620.5 446.4 410.4 541.7 412.7 428.2 413.1 588.3 448.5 575.6 420.7 461.8 414.5 32.1 51.5 453.3 626.2 653.6 651.8 524.7 411.1 424.1 579.6 407.9 706.4 546.4 604.6 409.2 445.1 400.7 622.2 537.1 447.6 621.7 563.7 -18.2 560.8 669.5 545.0 445.4 418.5 434.4 411.9 417.4 428.4 676.1 620.3 561.1 555.3 34.0 677.3 428.6 52.7 399.4 607.7 452.2 423.2 613.0 408.7 547.2 432.2 734.5 -18.9 638.4 406.5 406.6 708.2 704.0 610.5 416.3 522.1 401.8 539.8 435.7 414.9 620.8 672.4 699.5 638.9 626.2 541.4 593.4 563.2 567.2 397.7 625.8 421.0 716.3 407.6 544.3 560.85 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.4 609.1 683.4 569.0 585.0 661.1 422.8 617.7 593.1 546.0 521.7 414.5 711.5 409.4 559.3 556.5 679.3 591.2 440.8 666.7 446.2 447.0 431.9 432.2 599.8 576.0 440.0 568.7 645.3 658.4 441.9 624.1 599.1 565.2 402.8 440.8 708.2 592.7 -24.6 607.3 608.6 404.3 590.8 574.3 604.2 717.4 652.7 679.9 539.7 568.3 452.7 692.7 440.2 532.8 413.5 532.2 418.0 566.7 538.2 410.7 458.4 672.3 439.2 33.5 553.3 435.9 54.5 538.8 -18.0 27.1 577.3 419.9 443.9 -23.1 419.2 544.6 417.9 418.2 431.3 450.0 426.9 402.2 619.2 437.7 600.3 582.3 424.7 649.5 427.7 581.0 668.3 680.1 422.2 513.0 -29.3 592.0 627.1 428.6 406.1 575.3 421.0 583.4 533.7 558.0 542.3 593.8 407.0 445.3 594.9 527.0 705.8 672.7 664.2 413.9 403.2 637.9 439.3 409.1 429.6 553.6 561.6 443.6 513.5 413.3 539.4 402.2 444.0 645.7 432.7 464.0 551.1 460.2 639.2 455.5 727.5 534.7 416.7 -21.4 528.9 635.0 720.7 731.7 521.5 659.1 421.5 397.8 600.3 640.4 36.1 721.6 553.9 418.5 433.0 552.0 535.7 417.5 437.8 417.2 424.7 422.3 655.9 550.5 557.2 682.0 592.1 -18.8 646.1 619.4 634.9 438.3 710.8 657.5 619.7 410.3 710.3 589.0 605.8 615.7 451.0 739.4 -20.1 406.7 443.2 620.2 694.4 425.3 425.3 48.0 435.4 617.8 450.5 676.7 533.6 526.6 608.6 400.3 607.0 736.2 660.0 428.3 408.0 409.1 631.6 419.6 431.9 586.6 704.8 577.9 658.0 692.9 421.2 638.8 619.1 -30.5 413.3 426.2 692.2 537.3 695.5 548.4 439.7 610.1 530.5 412.6 444.4 693.5 700.3 667.6 539.4 30.0 675.9 404.0 593.3 39.9 615.8 719.8 425.1 520.9 416.

6 538.6 531.9 546.2 858.2 751.3 904.2 47.4 541.5 760.9 538.6 738.2 33.3 932.0 545.4 945.7 697.6 770.5 519.2 833.1 762.0 694.7 843.5 37.5 739.2 792.7 548.2 912.4 866.3 562.1 577.5 542.2 796.9 842.7 898.4 522.2 909.9 583.4 557.6 599.5 730.0 47.6 937.3 552.5 845.6 52.9 534.2 925.0 753.6 786.6 892.5 876.8 584.3 -25.5 586.9 794.0 528.0 570.9 -23.2 691.5 701.9 572.3 781.0 945.4 804.6 799.0 771.6 886.3 742.0 522.0 530.0 541.6 860.2 582.7 -20.2 709.2 818.1 558.4 30.4 562.6 527.0 537.5 543.7 783.4 876.0 757.3 518.7 567.4 842.1 844.4 577.8 768.0 552.4 541.6 818.2 571.0 874.8 691.9 873.1 709.0 704.9 537.0 887.9 567.4 586.0 960.5 806.2 537.6 781.0 967.0 905.9 744.0 561.5 570.0 958.8 516.8 519.4 709.5 562.6 551.5 546.5 668.1 741.5 703.2 831.1 692.7 848.7 541.4 887.8 556.2 567.5 523.7 888.0 519.4 551.4 772.1 677.2 733.7 886.7 676.5 561.2 572.6 759.8 576.2 794.9 520.8 30.5 938.1 854.9 904.8 53.9 938.2 564.0 685.9 771.2 701.4 533.6 33.4 582.6 902.1 581.6 529.6 567.3 782.2 739.3 577.7 48.2 823.3 573.8 889.0 27.7 520.2 725.7 927.1 903.6 684.1 535.3 749.6 552.6 731.5 801.9 719.0 524.3 684.6 533.0 712.2 816.4 779.9 529.8 551.5 -18.4 567.4 830.8 933.4 856.1 857.8 725.2 773.9 913.3 695.8 811.1 532.0 805.6 730.2 872.8 942.4 537.6 771.4 542.0 542.3 676.7 709.4 702.1 675.8 559.8 596.8 711.7 546.3 550.8 775.4 693.9 716.6 -18.1 537.2 729.8 843.6 783.4 912.7 679.1 857.7 571.3 837.3 669.0 32.1 730.3 771.8 667.9 739.7 529.4 915.6 878.4 808.6 792.2 541.6 542.2 719.9 727.8 532.2 759.6 710.9 830.1 935.9 784.8 545.8 552.3 805.8 714.0 579.8 560.0 721.3 -19.3 674.2 896.8 917.4 542.0 684.8 49.6 561.8 872.9 574.3 758.5 719.0 951.0 566.3 563.7 777.7 706.9 537.2 520.1 704.6 551.4 578.8 808.6 905.8 542.0 743.8 35.5 781.2 29.7 552.4 901.0 560.0 710.0 746.0 785.4 859.2 531.9 832.4 676.2 668.3 560.5 764.9 721.0 964.2 544.5 532.1 51.0 780.86 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.9 577.5 833.4 555.1 683.7 566.2 515.6 727.4 936.2 556.8 585.3 519.9 698.3 523.3 728.1 888.9 583.9 750.0 50.3 564.0 556.7 588.9 -21.8 585.9 793.4 844.0 803.7 .8 569.3 874.5 530.5 722.7 584.1 532.8 761.3 710.2 711.4 547.7 582.5 555.5 527.9 702.8 885.2 570.5 816.1 807.6 714.2 697.6 547.9 668.5 546.5 933.4 755.4 769.2 760.2 38.1 28.6 575.3 801.6 -24.2 688.8 938.2 685.8 930.8 682.4 820.9 31.5 563.6 865.3 -18.5 51.9 563.5 667.1 761.4 754.6 524.9 789.3 729.0 781.6 759.7 553.4 753.9 859.2 901.0 918.2 825.7 903.3 538.5 720.6 874.5 537.6 547.8 589.4 782.9 570.7 532.8 555.6 794.7 -26.0 902.9 528.6 729.5 587.3 574.5 735.0 573.8 919.5 560.1 776.1 727.7 574.4 36.6 749.5 536.3 545.0 806.2 757.7 861.2 530.1 538.9 566.7 836.2 918.0 807.7 700.3 564.3 516.3 882.1 821.5 571.7 532.7 550.8 740.5 685.1 667.5 751.0 689.4 516.7 808.1 920.8 830.9 570.0 554.4 847.5 571.6 918.9 541.8 739.1 551.7 571.1 529.0 938.7 576.3 833.7 796.6 746.3 682.2 693.5 592.0 948.3 721.0 582.2 749.9 882.5 873.8 677.6 566.0 515.5 581.1 844.5 887.7 528.4 600.2 550.3 770.6 597.8 527.7 774.8 568.5 859.4 55.3 571.2 565.5 937.0 556.6 542.9 886.9 687.7 856.9 739.4 807.7 515.5 858.5 885.8 595.5 566.2 554.7 798.1 523.2 547.9 690.7 593.0 544.7 34.4 948.0 557.8 701.2 935.3 936.9 883.9 562.4 724.2 712.8 819.3 543.6 759.8 39.3 894.6 541.2 576.0 525.1 935.0 966.0 521.5 596.6 859.8 579.4 520.0 728.9 693.8 752.7 545.8 879.0 947.1 830.8 751.7 554.7 728.0 962.8 524.5 515.6 819.4 572.7 589.9 -31.4 -18.0 601.6 546.3 53.0 787.9 920.7 944.0 795.8 561.8 916.1 591.5 549.5 528.4 793.2 817.7 825.3 48.8 871.4 531.1 531.9 729.3 886.1 -18.5 880.7 541.3 34.0 532.0 669.0 782.2 795.2 528.1 529.3 594.9 890.8 553.6 676.1 516.6 587.8 767.4 567.6 550.8 720.5 694.2 52.7 719.1 702.7 678.6 580.9 858.6 793.9 818.0 860.8 773.7 567.8 540.2 524.4 576.1 564.6 -30.4 688.9 775.7 591.5 832.7 822.8 783.8 844.6 545.0 749.2 566.7 683.8 772.5 740.0 555.3 859.6 722.7 920.2 589.1 568.7 899.7 906.9 759.8 585.4 828.1 560.9 523.4 -28.8 -18.9 54.8 895.6 516.7 842.7 527.1 514.8 762.9 551.7 668.3 749.5 677.7 771.4 690.7 780.3 699.6 545.2 580.9 819.5 849.4 524.3 863.0 698.0 536.8 549.8 761.0 898.3 529.4 695.0 533. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] 27.4 536.2 927.7 531.5 693.1 857.7 930.8 806.3 738.0 536.9 778.7 794.3 680.7 781.8 840.6 829.6 814.6 742.9 760.9 868.9 817.2 533.9 723.0 676.1 540.5 772.2 869.6 555.3 835.8 831.2 588.7 578.3 39.0 -22.8 697.0 535.9 903.8 692.9 536.7 711.5 565.0 935.7 806.3 554.4 885.4 760.5 556.5 711.7 547.7 570.0 578.7 582.8 857.7 937.4 919.1 -27.4 843.3 873.6 537.0 720.1 740.2 550.7 721.0 546.9 766.7 839.4 717.9 577.4 667.8 715.8 -18.1 570.3 545.5 558.6 581.8 669.8 833.1 818.7 543.2 536.7 539.0 791.7 562.3 546.0 684.2 918.5 32.2 816.4 924.7 685.8 560.3 564.6 555.8 594.2 703.7 590.2 792.3 764.6 537.5 854.7 717.0 942.4 870.9 758.5 904.2 793.5 580.4 910.4 788.5 692.6 702.1 593.9 572.7 747.8 703.6 520.4 535.4 806.5 708.9 576.8 569.1 541.9 684.3 744.1 694.2 744.1 37.9 810.2 705.5 547.3 779.0 954.0 549.2 525.2 561.7 583.1 687.4 740.9 533.4 874.5 535.9 710.8 872.6 735.0 956.2 889.3 572.2 566.8 723.1 917.2 772.7 549.0 571.2 832.6 534.0 36.3 689.3 740.7 703.5 842.5 817.7 598.7 814.6 798.4 780.9 770.1 875.0 844.8 581.2 750.0 731.5 888.4 853.5 795.1 558.0 749.1 578.3 707.4 908.4 574.9 672.9 580.5 760.2 729.7 29.5 832.5 851.0 699.3 737.8 694.1 764.6 680.3 514.4 683.1 839.0 738.3 531.9 769.6 791.1 830.0 843.4 685.4 540.6 559.8 730.7 805.8 812.7 702.8 527.4 720.8 706.7 940.8 758.2 702.3 532.7 807.6 523.7 -18.3 751.7 782.6 750.1 693.9 560.6 577.4 902.2 556.6 38.2 520.9 713.4 905.2 819.4 709.8 544.3 842.0 724.7 704.7 556.4 719.4 727.1 720.3 581.8 521.2 582.3 906.9 715.4 734.7 875.1 929.9 577.8 675.7 576.6 693.6 525.7 817.2 -18.9 -18.3 769.7 683.7 863.9 795.5 831.1 804.4 678.5 920.1 923.1 845.6 28.9 550.3 527.6 582.3 555.4 817.1 585.4 915.7 711.6 733.0 738.0 559.9 580.3 539.0 733.5 752.4 50.1 523.4 528.4 867.2 554.0 827.6 -29.8 552.7 851.5 917.2 892.

8 -18.1 608.0 549.8 781.1 768.8 969.0 770.2 829.0 898.6 956.3 803.9 750.3 597.3 802.9 588.4 790.8 704.6 542.3 715.2 740.9 994.5 572.4 834.3 861.4 838.4 758.0 877.2 549.7 603.9 613.9 816.7 801.6 595.8 760.9 780.5 575.8 769.6 1019.2 755.0 566.5 548.2 582.6 628.1 613.3 772.2 969.2 787.2 745.9 822.9 723.5 553.5 895.1 549.5 930.2 990.4 749.3 723.9 970.6 603.4 574.4 773.5 595.3 748.8 764.9 906.0 962.2 34.8 754.7 722.6 706.8 929.1 776.1 572.2 945.6 617.5 562.1 723.4 30.0 565.9 916.9 -18.7 556.7 38.0 -30.4 27.2 835.6 862.4 748.9 851.3 779.0 893.8 799.4 761.1 587.1 -18.0 -20.9 556.2 823.0 826.1 732.2 52.9 989.3 801.5 722.3 814.3 562.8 587.2 889.1 563.0 622.6 561.1 883.9 741.1 792.4 1009.0 879.6 836.6 614.0 836.1 564.8 943.0 548.7 749.5 544.8 889.4 901.5 850.5 584.3 567.2 856.7 602.9 760.6 608.6 589.1 987.9 999.0 556.0 831.0 740.2 721.9 54.1 1006.2 563.1 920.9 871.9 33.3 548.9 545.1 35.5 704.2 712.7 565.2 47.1 591.9 876.6 968.5 601.7 613.3 543.1 932.9 850.5 603.8 620.0 603.4 55.9 890.4 892.0 -18.9 .7 923.1 580.5 876.8 882.7 612.2 967.6 595.3 813.6 922.6 576.4 572.7 920.3 812.1 711.0 590.5 32.7 581.1 566.3 714.7 824.8 608.8 573.7 726.6 951.4 721.6 933.8 748.4 571.2 616.1 989.0 614.1 581.4 610.0 562.1 829.8 627.0 722.6 626.5 622.9 825.8 757.1 888.6 769.9 921.0 30.9 814.4 580.6 572.6 47.7 800.5 768.3 761.3 715.9 779.8 543.8 862.3 716.3 575.7 566.3 800.4 923.5 577.2 813.1 606.6 761.3 779.3 845.6 595.8 767.9 712.3 735.2 849.7 558.7 567.9 832.0 618.8 53.7 994.5 988.1 718.5 842.5 905.3 740.4 801.7 863.5 760.1 561.9 750.8 614.2 978.6 837.4 549.2 954.6 741.2 592.6 770.0 577.9 776.9 598.4 622.0 924.8 720.6 606.9 740.8 553.9 732.9 718.4 914.2 580.6 761.0 953.6 765.9 592.6 1011.2 936.9 934.3 874.3 733.6 763.5 742.5 557.6 36.2 907.3 772.5 952.8 628.4 823.2 544.2 567.2 612.7 566.6 955.2 568.2 598.6 572.2 617.8 610.1 875.7 613.3 801.9 824.8 790.0 27.3 583.3 -18.1 810.7 812.2 720.6 571.2 845.3 625.0 906.8 833.1 607.4 586.3 720.0 739.9 813.0 787.8 936.4 770.5 730.0 971.5 547.7 565.8 630.3 937.6 796.1 610.7 569.2 611.4 588.3 890.4 612.4 975.6 742.0 -25.3 732.5 823.4 598.3 579.4 582.5 561.1 599.4 705.8 859.2 869.7 748.3 889.6 891.7 840.7 731.8 561.6 784.6 715.3 826.2 618.5 891.5 734.7 -18.5 968.4 50.2 602.6 601.8 873.9 597.0 852.6 39.5 543.5 873.0 837.7 601.0 -22.1 985.8 592.2 603.8 803.9 576.8 841.4 567.2 891.6 813.9 903.0 752.3 888.1 941.8 781.7 907.4 617.6 597.1 574.6 780.2 604.0 740.7 557.1 790.6 -18.6 982.9 591.6 52.8 730.2 741.1 552.1 748.5 781.4 568.2 603.7 838.7 548.4 558.4 981.9 737.9 575.3 850.8 576.3 48.6 592.3 814.0 614.1 560.8 556.4 592.5 51.7 564.7 754.0 589.9 601.2 620.6 559.2 952.5 1013.9 721.6 575.1 729.9 567.2 565.8 560.6 877.4 742.6 721.4 731.7 995.4 911.0 34.8 876.3 585.2 956.7 792.3 572.9 608.1 822.1 826.0 558.8 954.5 793.9 593.0 862.4 583.9 836.1 878.9 579.1 593.9 720.0 891.5 806.5 921.3 750.0 955.4 765.4 791.2 724.2 796.7 582.7 549.1 728.3 559.4 609.8 586.1 615.4 806.6 852.0 991.1 713.1 767.3 606.7 570.2 853.7 599.0 908.3 785.5 970.1 863.0 838.3 774.0 1020.3 764.9 571.5 623.4 793.7 746.3 554.1 37.9 591.5 585.5 990.2 569.6 924.7 912.9 549.2 729.8 544.9 767.2 877.1 984.6 37.3 839.3 934.6 861.8 759.4 615.6 583.1 769.5 963.9 631.9 587.8 594.1 51.1 730.9 959.2 557.0 971.1 782.3 609.3 811.7 966.9 905.4 600. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.2 591.1 554.1 547.2 -18.3 576.8 967.0 -24.5 818.9 552.8 575.9 906.7 714.9 758.4 1015.8 900.6 1003.2 824.6 740.1 850.9 997.0 -19.7 879.1 857.5 607.7 557.8 768.6 597.1 1017.0 778.8 935.3 851.6 585.0 922.3 950.2 958.0 802.3 587.6 567.8 576.4 907.9 965.7 553.9 599.2 834.3 905.7 987.4 997.5 785.0 577.9 609.3 988.1 557.1 983.4 613.2 825.1 760.5 759.0 556.3 706.3 976.6 586.8 31.8 938.5 36.4 793.0 -23.7 888.8 604.0 634.4 879.4 608.5 773.8 585.1 704.9 745.6 904.1 896.3 986.2 759.2 581.1 552.8 745.9 937.8 791.4 558.7 48.8 612.7 815.5 954.8 742.5 824.9 986.9 988.3 614.3 597.6 850.3 599.7 802.1 774.8 904.0 749.2 881.4 804.8 885.8 1000.8 825.6 596.3 836.6 560.2 750.0 743.4 621.6 939.9 839.2 576.5 556.6 727.6 987.2 806.2 566.5 889.8 781.7 792.5 713.0 569.8 809.9 558.6 906.2 758.4 969.9 574.1 901.6 750.3 600.6 552.8 744.9 610.4 563.3 848.7 735.3 904.0 -28.1 597.0 801.0 551.3 778.4 860.6 816.4 723.0 948.0 804.8 750.2 620.6 598.6 573.7 885.3 853.3 828.0 557.0 570.6 551.6 561.5 934.9 962.1 791.9 966.9 800.8 596.8 817.9 581.7 732.9 876.5 839.0 755.4 591.1 578.8 927.0 614.7 839.8 778.7 953.9 952.5 725.9 736.2 974.7 605.2 904.8 560.2 585.0 864.0 618.8 547.2 756.2 579.9 609.2 801.3 947.0 625.3 790.3 53.3 29.6 592.0 576.4 602.9 582.6 738.4 567.7 545.4 792.0 -27.2 876.6 779.0 562.9 623.9 585.4 592.5 562.4 919.0 603.6 865.5 769.2 735.6 862.5 601.4 798.0 871.3 601.5 -18.9 911.0 863.4 936.1 586.1 960.8 607.2 821.4 570.3 731.3 39.5 920.1 543.9 590.0 935.2 558.4 886.0 917.0 731.7 864.6 594.4 571.0 859.4 803.5 978.8 633.5 29.0 794.4 714.6 818.9 864.8 566.1 28.8 575.2 562.1 604.6 568.7 848.9 38.3 820.0 705.6 935.0 50.5 753.3 914.6 564.4 -18.7 566.9 577.1 598.2 703.2 851.9 888.7 878.7 941.4 808.7 607.4 864.1 866.3 561.1 585.9 584.6 851.6 571.6 624.7 843.6 572.0 927.3 863.6 812.8 930.7 553.1 571.9 602.3 727.7 587.0 544.87 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.2 610.9 949.0 591.8 33.9 629.8 577.1 616.8 713.9 812.3 586.3 921.2 936.6 590.9 572.7 743.2 751.6 815.5 614.2 767.4 579.3 779.0 -29.1 575.9 922.0 878.0 714.1 553.0 800.5 790.9 577.6 1000.2 605.2 780.9 728.4 582.8 709.1 923.4 627.8 49.6 560.0 968.1 594.6 937.9 703.4 783.3 553.2 32.4 551.1 587.4 28.6 591.6 609.8 632.9 861.1 612.3 952.7 705.3 878.3 737.9 597.6 814.9 560.6 945.4 581.7 562.3 838.5 759.5 825.3 784.6 731.1 751.1 953.8 794.8 823.7 989.8 580.6 720.0 -21.6 890.4 898.0 589.6 596.4 904.4 726.7 837.3 970.9 847.0 -26.6 732.3 855.3 706.4 581.7 581.5 789.1 769.1 570.3 552.1 868.6 763.3 585.7 761.6 815.7 738.8 849.0 980.4 781.3 615.7 770.3 917.

3 -18.0 717.9 715.8 -18.7 -18.1 37.3 713.3 701.6 695.1 724.7 712.2 717.3 738.7 694.0 -20.9 727.5 717.7 732.5 709.4 731.4 741.9 54.8 725.0 728.7 29.3 39.7 747.1 28.2 47.1 702.5 723.9 712.5 711.5 713.8 49.4 720.2 711.3 706.3 723.4 720.3 48.1 718.7 701.3 53.6 705.8 717.9 704.5 706.0 716.6 734.2 -18.0 32.88 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.1 729.8 30.4 30.6 707.1 710.0 732.2 695.5 742.4 727.4 705.0 -30.9 718.9 726.8 39.3 706.0 725.8 717.4 700.2 741.0 -22.3 694.5 709.5 -18.6 734.9 730.5 32.2 704.2 718.3 724.4 711.0 723.8 53.5 37.8 745.8 739.8 35.4 722.8 700.8 706.2 712.4 712.9 707.3 716.9 711.1 700.3 742.8 693. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Sm3] -31.8 695.1 -18.0 714.2 38.0 -21.9 31.0 27.6 731.4 55.7 730.8 726.1 716.4 739.9 724.0 -18.5 712.0 -24.8 722.5 694.7 711.2 723.0 749.8 713.0 -26.6 724.7 735.0 36.6 33.5 735.1 51.2 724.7 48.9 729.1 712.3 730.2 33.3 34.4 703.8 746.2 730.6 28.9 709.1 727.8 730.8 708.7 723.7 723.1 717.0 706.0 696.3 720.6 52.6 -18.0 694.9 705.6 38.4 707.1 705.5 731.1 715.0 731.6 700.7 34.2 52.4 36.4 50.7 712.4 717.4 716.0 -23.9 710.0 729.5 740.2 706.5 721.9 701.4 724.0 -27.5 730.8 731.2 734.0 737.4 695.4 -18.0 -25.2 704.1 698.6 719.6 725.0 700.1 706.0 711.8 713.9 729.0 -29.9 734.3 718.0 -28.0 50.3 738.9 714.5 51.0 .7 701.6 732.0 -19.0 731.7 744.6 748.7 736.7 717.5 722.9 -18.9 699.1 730.5 701.6 718.9 694.8 27.0 718.2 29.9 47.0 699.7 724.

0 740.2 767.0 -29.9 738.1 763.5 32.8 736.4 745.5 781.5 780.0 790.6 738.6 751.9 27.4 30.3 774.1 770.9 31.4 772.3 769.6 761.1 738.7 34.8 767.2 745.9 770.1 739.5 762.6 769.8 739.1 747.6 762.2 742.2 29.0 732.5 754.9 750.2 751.7 765.7 757.1 751.0 744.6 751.4 734.7 770.0 -20.0 781.4 745.2 770.3 764.0 -24.3 769.2 758.5 757.0 -30.5 740.3 759.8 788.3 771.6 771.4 760.6 754.7 48.2 776.6 782.3 739.3 752.8 53.8 786.9 47.8 762.3 750.0 757.4 750.0 772.7 -18.5 51.1 746.7 744.4 775.4 739.4 774.3 751.8 748.6 38.7 745.3 756.9 758.5 753.9 750.3 768.8 752.4 -18.6 -18.7 755.4 733.6 734.1 -18.8 756.8 763.2 52.0 27.2 779. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30 oC [mgH2O/Nm3] -31.6 746.7 758.9 774.3 48.0 36.2 769.2 33.3 53.6 784.1 37.3 34.5 756.5 37.6 28.1 750.8 748.4 741.9 745.3 39.9 733.6 52.8 35.3 -18.7 789.5 743.1 51.0 -21.8 771.89 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.3 731.4 55.8 751.3 749.2 748.9 778.7 733.8 49.0 764.1 28.2 47.0 756.0 -19.3 773.2 765.4 758.9 777.4 764.0 32.3 763.4 780.2 772.3 752.4 36.8 39.1 733.5 783.2 773.0 -27.0 -18.5 744.8 787.3 763.2 732.8 746.0 771.2 757.9 54.0 -28.0 743.0 .5 767.2 760.8 30.2 766.2 744.7 752.0 752.4 783.0 -22.9 751.0 50.5 -18.2 743.5 760.7 756.0 766.8 762.6 740.2 38.8 757.4 770.2 -18.3 776.5 764.7 29.2 744.0 -23.1 755.0 764.8 755.5 763.8 -18.8 763.6 756.5 771.6 33.6 770.9 -18.5 756.4 750.5 732.8 740.0 -26.8 764.7 732.4 50.5 776.6 739.8 738.0 -25.0 758.

2 47.3 48.015 0.2 38.7 34.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.0 32.2 33.01 0.016 0.01 0.01 0.5 37.8 35.9 31.9 54.016 0.01 0.013 0.0 36.8 49.013 0.1 51.011 0.013 0.2 29.018 0.012 Tr[C] -29 -30 -29 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -29 -29 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -29 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30 -31 47.8 53.5 51.01 0.017 0.7 48.01 0.015 0.4 30.01 0.011 0.014 0.0 27.018 0.6 28.6 33.016 0.018 0.3 39.8 30.01 0.3 34.1 28.6 52.017 0.0 0.1 37.017 0.8 39.009 -30 -30 -30 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 90 .014 0.4 36.01 0.016 0.014 0.5 32.4 50.3 53.01 0. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of Hysys package P [bar] 27.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.014 0.015 0.7 29.6 38.0 50.4 55.013 0.2 52.011 0.015 0.01 0.016 0.

8 30.015 0.5 -27.7 29.01 0.8 35.4 -32.8 53.2 -26.017 0.1 -28.3 -27.9 47.2 -29.014 0.3 -29.5 37.6 38.5 -28.8 49.2 47.1 51.7 48.8 39.0 36.01 0.4 -30.2 -28.01 0.2 -33.1 -29.5 32.01 0.016 0.7 -33.6 -32.015 0.01 0.9 -33 -33.9 -29.3 53.5 51.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.6 -33.016 0.2 38.6 52.6 33.4 30.1 -33.014 0.018 0.01 0.01 0.017 0.011 0.016 0.011 0.018 0.011 0.012 Tr[C] -27 -27.6 -30.014 0.2 29.015 0.3 34.8 -30.8 -32.4 55.01 0.8 91 .7 34.4 50.1 -33.9 -29.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.01 0.014 0.9 31.0 32.3 -33.5 -30.9 -28.01 0.018 0.3 48.4 36.2 52.017 0.9 54. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual P [bar] 27.013 0.013 0.1 37.013 0.1 -27.7 -32.016 0.0 0.7 -28.5 -33.5 -28.9 -27.1 -29.0 50.7 -30.4 -33.013 0.016 0.2 33.01 0.3 39.1 28.009 -32.0 27.015 0.6 28.

657 -24.2 33.011 0.016 0.127 -25.5 37.2 52.462 -25.195 -26.01 0.848 92 .013 0.4 55.015 0.01 0.0 32.01 0.088 -24.591 -24.02 -25.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 5.922 -24.534 -25.4 36.1 51.0 50.6 38.343 -26.9 54.186 -23.01 0.0 27.015 0.5 32.016 0.013 0.011 0.2 47.0 36.119 -26.8 39.394 -25.8 30.091 -26.548 -25.883 -24.018 0.164 -24.704 -26.6 52.7 29.4 30.779 -25.7 34.01 0.326 -25.3 39.013 0.3 48.2 38.4 50.558 -25.6 28.011 0. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of empirical equations P [bar] 27.1 28.015 0.01 0.522 -26.016 0.7 48.641 -25.017 0.8 53.704 -25.032 -24.01 0.355 -25.403 -24.494 -24.018 0.9 10 C [g/Nm3] 0.01 0.8 35.793 -25.228 -25.017 0.014 0.6 33.0 0.009 -25.08 -25.9 31.018 0.014 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.8 49.3 53.872 -24.014 0.016 0.016 0.014 0.37 47.012 Tr[C] -24.637 -24.3 34.5 51.1 37.875 -25.013 0.2 29.136 -26.01 0.305 -25.017 0.811 -24.

58 93.95 98.87 96.20 94.24 94.55 97.62 91.07 97.10 96.33 97.21 96.51 98.98 98.80 95.41 95.90 100.41 89.52 99.38 96.02 91.96 92.10 98.17 97.31 94.70 96.0 100.71 97.04 99.30 94.59 96.25 95.27 97.37 89.90 94.21 93.75 98.81 97.50 94.95 98.85 92.56 90.1 100.63 98.76 90.76 98.03 97.20 99.22 87.48 94.14 98.99 91.89 92.55 99.72 95.79 97.64 90.86 94.10 97.67 96.35 98.70 95.60 93.27 87.34 97.53 98.09 93.69 96.29 91.93 97.98 91.17 96.29 97.97 92.49 97.55 96.30 87.87 99.71 97.31 95.41 97.83 94.68 97.08 97.61 93.93 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Table 6.43 97.17 92.91 96.72 96.64 87.93 96.84 91.39 99.41 95.73 99.86 92.99 96.41 96.16 97.78 94.89 91.18 98.70 98.91 96.81 94.59 96.88 95.68 98.96 96.19 96.68 95.18 98.55 97.22 97.92 95.32 98.46 96.24 93.51 98.18 94.95 91.14 97.86 96.49 96.83 91.29 93.8 -18.25 87.20 96.36 96.92 97.20 99.33 97.15 94.09 97.31 89.58 97.54 96.15 87.72 95.25 97.62 95.21 99.88 97.85 98.70 94.97 92.28 87.50 97.17 94.72 93.15 96.02 94.37 97.29 93.44 97.00 95.0 89.62 93.59 93.41 92.68 90.73 94.67 95.47 97.00 97.33 95.42 97.74 97.66 96.23 87.19 97.68 98.37 99.33 92.34 89.90 98.61 90.08 96.83 96.25 92.70 98.88 93.92 92.92 91.71 99.39 97.08 95.87 91.13 93.02 98.23 97.59 97.87 100.85 98.52 98.88 97.00 95.74 96.60 96.73 97.27 94.16 98.94 98.28 93.91 90.42 97.00 91.02 98.93 98.47 95.27 95.66 97.67 97.60 97.40 89.07 95.69 94.12 98.43 96.22 93.66 95.26 93.78 97.97 91.2 -18.69 91.38 89.5 -18.62 90.17 99.16 97.84 96.35 99.89 98.35 89.87 97.62 94.31 91.69 93.16 97.87 99.67 95.83 97.13 95.44 93.65 92.57 92.77 93.73 99.03 95.61 93.3 -18.33 96.81 88.04 93.52 90.46 97.98 88.92 97.87 98.64 95.51 97.08 97.68 95.58 96.70 99.01 98.04 99.15 88.24 96.58 95.34 98.83 96.58 95.28 94.50 97.82 97.00 97.61 97.75 97.94 95.39 97.09 96.93 93.26 97.53 98.66 94.87 99.28 95.33 88.71 96.19 94.49 92.59 90.54 99.56 99.51 94.00 98.57 94.37 96.40 95.67 93.33 95.61 97.95 95.22 96.18 99.4 -18.94 92.34 96.91 92.43 89.70 98.27 93.19 94.02 97.89 100.34 93.24 96.2 100.37 99.12 96.10 98.94 96.72 98.07 98.88 96.01 94.68 97.35 94.38 96.33 98.41 98.07 98.55 95.35 95.21 99.41 96.61 94.27 98.57 96.50 98.76 97.66 97.65 97.09 98.56 94.98 96.64 96.38 99.58 90.99 95.85 98.58 98.32 94.97 97.02 95.47 87.39 96.86 91.13 96.64 97.80 96.7 -18.69 95.05 97.00 98.49 96.47 97.25 95.67 95.53 98.42 96.89 96.28 98.12 97.85 99.18 98.80 94.84 98.24 97.57 95.42 94.38 99.94 91.22 90.97 95.19 98.9 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 Gas Temperature: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 87.05 98.66 98.24 96.16 96.33 97.50 95.08 96.89 97.74 97.83 97.10 97.30 96.84 94.45 93.15 98.38 95.63 95.34 98.67 91.85 94.01 99.47 91.06 90.18 87.18 93.81 95.30 95.65 95.3 .05 97.91 91.14 95.34 94.97 98.01 98.91 97.83 97.98 94.73 97.02 98.90 98.55 96.85 97.14 91.63 96.62 96.25 96.81 92.35 98.99 98.59 94. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions Dew Point -18 -18.56 97.22 97.15 94.71 94.38 95.03 99.02 98.17 98.04 98.00 99.58 96.88 92.60 95.31 97.64 95.91 97.84 95.84 98.04 96.02 99.05 95.78 92.29 95.80 97.83 99.25 94.64 93.48 96.78 97.09 92.19 93.71 97.32 89.96 96.49 97.28 97.13 87.74 97.54 95.85 98.04 99.56 93.75 94.33 96.81 92.76 94.22 94.65 96.94 92.30 97.05 96.91 96.53 97.17 95.83 98.37 90.06 97.21 99.66 96.55 90.67 98.55 99.32 93.61 89.86 99.83 92.81 98.39 97.90 97.67 97.78 96.17 87.58 94.67 88.41 96.64 95.83 97.66 96.66 93.36 97.53 90.97 99.77 96.17 98.46 89.98 97.56 97.24 98.36 98.20 87.2 89.35 98.00 91.36 95.45 98.68 97.80 99.50 95.82 94.97 95.49 98.84 88.05 95.77 93.58 95.21 96.63 97.88 96.20 93.6 -18.11 98.99 98.13 92.00 98.15 91.44 97.51 97.21 95.30 93.69 97.44 89.00 97.21 97.30 95.70 95.47 95.93 93.97 95.14 96.74 94.26 97.70 93.08 97.25 94.66 90.84 98.50 88.83 97.44 96.53 94.74 96.92 98.36 93.1 -18.

Small and large cavities (Behar et al. 1994) . 1965 – figure reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics) Figure 2. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 94 Figures Figure 2. 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey..

3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Sloan. 1997) 95 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2.

5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from John Carrol. 1988) Figure 2.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 96 Figure 2. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG. Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers. 2003) .

7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al. 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson. 1997) 97 . 1991) Figure 2. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 2.

1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski. 2003.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3. reproduced) 98 .

2 0.2004-01.1999-12.2004-1128 23 19 15 09 14 09 06 01 28 24 20 Water content of imported gas Water content limit Figure 3.1 Change in the Polish Norm 0 1995-10.2002-05.1999-02.2001-07.5 c 0.1998-04.1996-08.6 between 21-11-1995 do 10-01-2005 Water content [g/Nm3] 0.3 0.1997-06. 2005) 99 .4 0.2003-03.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water Content In Ukrainian Gas 0. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP.2000-10.

3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP. 2005) 100 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION towards ROZWADÓW ID 700 ID 300 Gas compressor ID 400 towards TARNÓW JAROSŁAW ID 500 ID 300 ID 700 ID 600 towards LUBACZÓW ID 300 ID 500 MAĆKOWICE ID 700 Gas Drying Gas compressor ŻURAWICA ID 500 ID 700 Gas compressor ID 600 ID 300 towards STRACHOCIN HERMANOWICE ID 600 Gas compressor ID700 ID 500 POLAND / UKRAINE BORDER Figure 3.

2005) 101 . 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

2004) 102 . 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 3.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 1990) 103 . 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5. 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al. 1959) 104 .

3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA 105 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.

006 0.1 30.7 36.3 50.1 30.5 33.6 53.015 0.9 .2 31.018 0.0 38.8 55.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.012 0.016 0.8 55.4 51.3 47 48.8 37.002 27 28.3 47 48.5 52.6 34.2 .0 29.0 38.2 49.01 Manual 0.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.4 32.6 53.5 33.7 36.02 Manual 0.0 29.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.8 37.4 32.6 34.1 39.4 51.025 0.1 39.2 31.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 10 C 0.008 0.01 0.2 . 4 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to manual Water content according to manual 15 C 0.014 0.9 .5 52.005 27 28.004 0. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to manual 106 .2 49.02 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.3 50.

8 55.035 0.002 27 28.5 33.3 47 48.4 32.0 38.7 36.3 47 48.2 .6 34.01 Article 0.1 30. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to manual Water content in dehydrated gas 10 C 0.3 50.004 0.1 30.018 0.2 31.3 50.4 32.5 52.014 0.025 Manual 0.005 27 28.5 52.012 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to manual 20 C 0.9 .006 0.6 34.5 33.2 .0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.015 0.8 37.2 49.0 29.0 29.0 38.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.6 53.8 55.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.8 37.03 0.01 0.1 39.2 49.7 36.02 0. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to equations 107 .016 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.4 51.1 39.9 .008 0.2 31.4 51.6 53.

4 32.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.1 30.02 0.7 36.015 Article 0.1 39.6 34. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to equations Water content in dehydrated gas 20 C 0.0 38.01 0.3 50.6 53.2 31.8 37.8 55.025 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.1 39. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to equations 108 .8 37.7 36.2 49.03 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.02 0.2 49.0 0 pressure[bar] Figure 5.9 .5 52.9 .01 0.4 51.8 55.005 27 28.015 Article 0.0 29.3 47 48.0 38.6 53.3 50.025 0.5 52.1 30.005 27 28.2 .2 31.3 47 48.4 32.4 51.5 33.6 34.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content in dehydrated gas 15 C 0.5 33.0 29.2 .

005 27 28. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys Water content according to Hysys 10 C amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.2 .6 53.7 36.5 33.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Figure 5.01 0.5 52. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10 oC according to Hysys 109 .8 37.4 51.0 38.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.3 50.8 55.1 39.025 0.1 30.9 .015 Hysys 0.3 47 48.6 34.4 32.2 49.2 31.0 29.02 0.

13 Water content of natural gas at 20 oC according to Hysys 110 .005 27 28.6 53.035 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.5 33.3 50.6 34.01 0.005 27 28.025 0.1 30.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.02 0.8 55.0 29.1 39.05 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.3 47 48.2 31.5 52.2 49.4 51.2 49.015 0.03 0.015 0.4 32.1 39.2 .0 38.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.8 37.4 32.0 29.8 37.9 .4 51.01 0.03 0.1 30. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15 oC according to Hysys Water content according to Hysys 20 C 0.3 50.7 36.5 52.2 .0 38.9 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content according to Hysys 15 C 0.045 0.02 Hysys 0.7 36.8 55.2 31.3 47 48.6 53.6 34.035 0.5 33.025 Hysys 0.04 0.

4 32. 15 Water content comparison at 15 oC 111 .7 36.5 5 2 .2 49.05 0.1 39.0 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.3 50.04 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.5 33.02 0.06 amount of water 0.0 38.025 0.9 .8 55.02 0. 14 Water content comparison at 10 oC Water content comparison 15 C 0.8 55.045 0.6 53.0 0 pressure Figure 5.4 51.6 53.3 47 48.1 30.5 33.8 37.01 27 28.03 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 10 C 0.05 0.04 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.03 0.2 .035 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.015 0.7 36.0 29.2 49.6 34.01 0.2 31.005 27 28.0 38.3 50.4 5 1.9 .0 29.3 47 48.8 37.2 .2 3 1 .6 34.5 52.4 32.1 3 0.1 39.

4 37 .02 0.01 47 .03 0.06 0.8 54 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Water content comparison 20 C 0.1 38 .05 Manual Hysys Article Saturation 0.04 0. 16 Water content comparison at 20 oC 112 .07 amount of water [g/Sm^3] 0.7 49 .8 0 pressure [bar] Figure 5.4 32 .4 27 .0 33 .0 28 .7 35 .7 30 .1 52 .4 51 .08 0.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

113

0,011
0,011
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,010
0,009

-21

0,018
0,018
0,017
0,016
0,016
0,016
0,015
0,014
0,014
0,014
0,013
0,013

Dew Point For Water Content

-23

-25
Dew Point

Manual
Article
Hysys
Wielom. (Article)
Wielom. (Manual)

-27

-29

Wielom. (Hysys)
-31

-33

-35
Water Content

Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

114

Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG, 1988

115

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

Minimum Strong TEG Concentration

100,00

98,00

TEG Min Concentration [% mas]

96,00
-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28
-29

94,00

92,00

90,00

88,00

86,00
1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

Gas Temperature [C]

Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18oC and -29oC

5 -18.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 116 Minimum strong TEG concentration 100.2 -18.00 90.1 -18. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between -18oC and -19oC .00 88.00 98.7 -18.00 -18 -18.00 TEG Min Concentration [% mass] 96.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Gas Temperature C Figure 6.4 -18.00 92.8 -18.00 86.6 -18.9 -19 94.

2004) Table of Aviaterm 6 oil specifications was provided with Mackowice dehydration Facility operation manual. It is used as heat carrier in the temperature range between -18 oC and 280 oC (Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 117 Appendices Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil Aviaterm 6 is heating oil used for warming up natural gas flowing into absorbtion column. Colour Amber – light brown Form Transparent fluid Boiling point [C] Over 300 oC Freezing poing [C] Below -16 oC Density [kg/m3] 860 kg/m3 Ignition temperature [C] Over 200 oC Range of explosivness [g/m3] From 45 g/m3 Self-ignition temperature [C] Omissible in Maćkowice temperature work range .

034 -19.4 0.02 -25.032 -20.04 -17.7 0.1 0.8 0.012 -31.3 0.8 0.8 37.5 0.018 -27.1 0.041 -17.8 43.4 29.5 31.6 0.7 0.045 -15.5 0.7 0.012 -31.7 0.8 0.049 -14.05 -14.034 -19.048 -15.7 0.2 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.018 -26.7 0.2 0.018 -27.1 0.4 42.1 0.014 -29.9 0.044 -16.017 -27.018 -26.024 -23.2 0.028 -21.014 -29.035 -18.048 -15.039 -17.6 0.1 0.3 0.072 -10.026 -22.7 34.7 27.039 -17.036 -18.9 0.046 -15.8 0.5 0.6 0.033 -19.025 -22.034 -19.7 0.5 39.013 -30.035 -18.3 0.023 -23.6 0.017 -27.3 0.7 0.8 29.2 0.016 -28.9 34.5 0.8 0.018 -26.019 -26 0.065 -11.019 -26.051 -14.036 -18.025 -23.019 -26 0.015 -28.9 0.042 -16.025 -23.035 -19 0.5 0.018 -27 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.052 -14.3 0.4 0.043 -16.5 0.6 0.2 0.118 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix B .034 -19.012 -30.3 0.9 0.2 0.068 -10.2 0.032 -20 0.1 0.3 0.058 -12.021 -25.1 41.8 0.03 -20.3 0.016 -28.4 0.067 -11 30.5 0.7 32 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.033 -19.073 -9.013 -30.8 0.8 0.057 -12.034 -19.2 0.015 -28.5 36.6 0.6 0.025 -22.057 -13.025 -22.012 -31 0.7 0.061 -12.064 -11.2 0.014 -29.043 -16.017 -27.012 -31.035 -18.033 -19.4 0.2 33.3 0.2 0.051 -14.6 42.022 -24.031 -20.029 -21.047 -15.3 0.2 0.012 -31.8 39.8 0.015 -29.9 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.047 -15.02 -25.2 28.025 -22.5 0.5 0.025 -23.017 -27.024 -23.053 -14 37.026 -23.023 -23.045 -16 0.6 0.026 -22.3 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.024 -23.023 -24.026 -22.4 0.027 -22 0.012 -31.037 -18.2 38.059 -12.022 -24.4 0.5 0.053 -13.049 -14.052 -14.6 0.013 -30.4 0.9 0.3 0.1 28.6 0.028 -21.055 -13.5 0.5 0.022 -24.2 0.1 0.018 -26.041 -17.7 0.5 0.5 33.5 36 0.039 -18.9 40.037 -18.Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27 0.1 0.069 -10.2 0.8 0.5 0.02 -25.5 0.2 0.1 41 0.8 .035 -19 0.048 -15.9 0.8 0.052 -14.014 -29.1 35.015 -29.3 30.2 0.8 0.062 -12 32.028 -21.024 -23.048 -15.047 -15.071 -10.2 0.055 -13.2 0.019 -26.9 0.7 0.1 0.031 -20.1 0.016 -28.4 0.063 -11.6 0.4 38.7 0.021 -24.7 0.4 0.018 -27 0.9 0.03 -20.018 -26.046 -15.03 -21.1 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.035 -18.021 -25.016 -27.9 0.016 -28.05 -14.017 -27.2 0.027 -22.013 -30.5 0.1 0.024 -23.

037 -18.016 -28.015 -28.6 0.3 50 0.7 51.9 0.5 50.03 -20.4 0.042 -16.03 -21 0.027 -21.023 -24.3 0.021 -25 0.5 0.7 0.014 -29.038 -18.019 -26.019 -26 0.4 0.5 0.044 -16.1 0.019 -26.023 -23.01 -33.04 -17.2 0.02 -25.8 0.9 0.021 -24.015 -28.8 0.042 -16.4 0.043 -16.2 0.016 -28.3 0.028 -21.6 46.2 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.014 -29.014 -29.1 0.9 0.017 -27.8 0.014 -29.02 -25.026 -22.2 0.1 52.01 -33.026 -22.011 -32 0.9 0.7 0.013 -30.021 -25.2 0.5 0.3 0.038 -18 52.045 -16 44.038 -18.8 0.6 0.8 0.01 -33.8 0.7 0.011 -32.1 48.011 -32.021 -24.1 0.01 -32.04 -17.2 48.9 0.011 -32.2 0.3 0.01 -33.8 0.6 0.015 -29 0.028 -21.7 0.8 0.6 0.014 -29.011 -31.9 0.1 0.2 0.009 -33.9 0.023 -24 0.019 -26.041 -17.021 -25.01 -33.2 0.8 0.2 0.019 -26.028 -21.9 0.7 0.01 -33.1 0.8 0.039 -17.1 0.029 -21.4 0.5 0.2 0.031 -20.6 0.029 -21.01 -32.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 44.4 54.5 0.1 0.022 -24.1 0.1 0.04 -17.023 -23.022 -24.031 -20.2 53.7 51.03 -20.043 -16.036 -18.8 0.7 0.016 -28.014 -29.3 0.4 49.029 -21.032 -20.015 -28.8 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.011 -32.4 0.014 -30 0.1 53.9 47.4 0.4 0.041 -17.2 0.016 -28.033 -19.4 0.044 -16.3 45.037 -18.3 0.2 0.9 0.6 .037 -18.5 0.014 -29.031 -20.01 -33.028 -21.4 0.9 0.011 -32.027 -22.7 47.7 0.4 0.01 -33 0.5 46 0.027 -22.3 0.015 -29.022 -24.1 0.032 -20.9 0.015 -29.011 -31.011 -32.8 0.5 55 0.5 0.022 -24.015 -28.9 0.01 -33.119 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 43.02 -25.5 0.039 -17.

9 0.0204 -22.9 -25.02499 -18.02554 0.6 0.02074 -22.1 -26.1 -33.01468 -28.4 38.4 -18.7 -29.2 0.01585 -27.8 0.1 -22.02178 -21.1 32.6 0.4 -29.02568 0.01492 -28.6 0.5 -21.1 -25.7 -32.2 0.02006 -22.0212 0.02096 -22 0.01858 -24.1 0.1 -29.0 0.7 33.9 0.3 0.02301 -20.7 0.1 -18.3 -33.1 -24.02227 0.01828 -24.01134 0.1 0.01147 0.0114 0.9 -33 -33.7 37.0254 0.02108 0.01952 -23.01769 -25.01567 -27.02431 -19.9 34.02251 -20.6 -29.3 0.2 31.02085 0.5 0.9 -20.6 0.8 53.1 34.8 -32.02499 -18.01367 0.3 0.1 -18.4 0.0155 -27.02074 0.5 0.3 30.01452 -28.4 0.2 -21.8 0.02167 0.01374 -29.01769 0.5 -29.02251 -20.01602 -26.01428 0.2 0.2 0.02289 -20.2 28.02143 -21.01444 0.01808 0.02499 -18.3 48.02405 -19.01683 -26 0.7 -24.3 53.9 0.01287 -30.0142 -29.01665 0.02512 0.1 0.01405 -29.120 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] P [bar] 10 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 27.01788 -24.7 -33.2 -18.0219 0.2 52.1 29.01374 0.1 0.6 0.02597 0.5 29.02108 0.01674 0.2 -21.5 0.9 -30 -30.01818 -24.8 -28.02203 -21.01711 0.8 49.02155 0.2 -18.5 0.01166 0.2 35.1 -25 -25.2 -26.4 0.7 -25.1 51.8 25 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01656 0.5 -18.01683 -26 0.02051 -22.01468 -28.7 0.01172 0.6 0.3 36.01359 -29.3 0.02143 0.8 0.8 39.2 0.7 48.4 -33.01185 0.01778 0.01308 -30.8 15 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.01693 0.6 39.4 50.015 -28.7 0.3 0.0191 -23.4 0.9 47.6 -32.9 54.01153 0.01702 0.9 30.01665 -26.1 -33.4 30 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.8 0.3 -18.8 -21.01352 0.0254 0.5 38.2 -33.2 0.01963 -23.01359 0.2 -29.01838 -24.7 -28.01889 -23.0219 0.5 0.9 28.5 -18.02215 0.7 20 C [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.9 -26 -26.02108 -21.4 0.6 0.01702 -25.0 50.5 -33.01436 -28.01436 0.9 0.01294 -30.01788 0.6 -21.0 0.9 37.02239 0.0254 0.02155 -21.7 -18.01683 0.02597 0.6 52.8 0.02006 -22.8 0.01702 -25.6 0.02582 0.01452 0.01517 -27.9 -29 -29.2 -22.01109 0.01322 -30.01576 -27.0114 0.4 55.3 0.3 -26.01159 0.01828 0.01749 -25.3 -29.2 0.01674 -26.2 47.02391 -19.02471 -19 0.5 32.5 33.01769 0.1 0.8 0.01412 0.4 -32.4 -22.01412 -29.8 -29.0142 0.01647 0.01344 0.0162 -26.8 0.6 -33.01116 0.9 0.01382 0.5 -18.5 51.8 -24.8 -25.01963 -23.4 -21.0 0.01122 0.0 0.8 0.02264 -20.0234 -20 0.01389 0.6 0.8 0.0142 -29.6 .8 -21 -21.01749 -25.1 0.01798 0.7 0.01629 -26.01974 -23.2 0.9 0.5 -28.01995 -22.02582 0.02029 -22.01593 -27 27.3 0.5 0.02526 -18 -18.7 0.02499 -18.9 -22.9 -21.0204 -20.02611 0.01397 0.01103 0.01315 -30.5 -24.3 0.01405 0.1 36.02051 0.01128 0.01097 -32.

031 -22.1 -33.2 0.0 36.9 0.0 50.026 -24.2 -21.0151 0.8 49.1 0.7 0.0153 -29.1 0.0155 -29.0295 0.034 -20.0216 0.0 27.0275 -22.0154 0.009 -32.6 0.2 -26.6 0.5 37.2 0.025 0.019 -26 0.0243 0.022 -25.9 -25.3 0.8 0.02 -25.3 -29.0174 0.7 -29.2 52.3 0.4 36.0389 -19.02 -25.016 -28.8 0.5 32.0223 -25.0245 -24.0106 0.015 0.01 0.0208 -27.03 -23.012 -30.4 30.2 38.6 .03 -23.2 0.011 0.017 -28.01834 -28.6 -33.6 0.2 29.8 0.5 -18.032 -21.017 -28.8 -25.1 0.5 -24.0115 0.02199 -26.4 0.5 0.0186 -26.3 0.8 0.0377 -20.012 0.0225 -25.1 -25.01 0.1 0.7 -33.2 -18.7 -32.7 34.0195 0.9 -29 -29.035 -20.6 38.7 0.0122 0.9 0.013 -30.046 -18.0374 -18.3 0.6 28.8 -24.01 0.03 -21.023 0.0227 -27 0.01 0.028 -18 -18.0125 0.0245 0.1 -22.025 -22.044 -18.1 0.8 -29.028 -22.018 -26.1 37.3 -33.7 -25.02162 -27.2 0.1 0.0132 -30.2 0.023 -24.7 0.0155 -29.7 -28.028 -21.3 34.1 -18.0 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C w Tr[C] w Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] 0.8 35.0152 0.4 55.015 -24.9 -22.9 -30 -30.0284 0.7 48.1 -29.0175 0.7 0.4 50.0134 -30.5 -33.0247 0.2 0.4 0.0219 0.1 28.0211 0.01 0.014 -29.5 0.3 39.5 -29.0217 0.2 0.012 0.01 0.0104 -28.01 0.032 -23.6 -21.6 33.0301 0.035 -20.6 52.1 0.9 -21.8 0.9 0.3 0.6 -29.045 -19 0.3 -26.019 -27.043 -19.8 0.8 0.0107 0.8 -21.0124 0.3 0.04 -19.9 0.0363 -18.6 0.016 0.1 0.038 -20 0.8 0.5 0.4 -22.2 -21.032 -22.0105 0.0105 0.025 0.029 -21.0299 0.9 31.2 -29.0121 0.9 -20.8 39.2 -22.0172 0.8 30.0205 -20.01 0.9 -33 -33.5 0.014 -29.7 0.6 0.019 0.0305 0.5 0.2 0.4 -32.01 0.021 -27.1 -18.9 0.0177 0.0228 0.6 0.5 51.015 -29.026 -23.7 0.2 47.023 -24.8 -21 -21.011 0.7 -24.045 -18.5 0.3 48.5 -21.9 0.1 -33.0288 0.0358 -18.4 -33.7 0.9 -26 -26.0153 0.0 32.0371 -20.0215 0.019 -26.3 0.9 0.0156 0.016 -28.8 53.019 -26 0.8 0.8 -28.0249 0.8 0.02231 -27.038 -18.2 33.012 -30.3 0.01 0.4 0.4 0.1 51.2 -33.6 0.3 0.6 -32.1 -26.019 -26.028 -22 0.5 0.1 -25 -25.4 -29.0345 -18.2 0.9 0.031 -23.8 -32.5 0.9 54.0123 0.013 0.4 -18.9 0.7 29.9 47.0173 0.5 0.028 -21.026 -24.027 -23.01 0.5 0.026 -22.0186 -28.121 OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3 P 27.011 0.011 0.3 53.026 -22.035 -18.5 0.022 0.4 -21.4 0.1 0.

46115 ⎢ kg ⎥ kmol ⎣⎢ kmol ⎦⎥ ng −w = 0.1m ⋅ C w ⋅ M w kg ⎡ ⎤ m w.995188 Mass density of water-gas mixture ρg-w = 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 122 Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas Calculation of water amount saturating natural gas in given conditions was made.853289 kg/m3 The number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m3 expressed in kmol is n g − w.1m = n g −w 1m 3 ⋅ ρ g − w M g −w ⎡ 3 kg ⎤ ⎥ kg 1 ⋅ 0.853289 ⎢ m ⋅ m3 = = = kmol ⎥ ⎢ kg 16.05184 ⋅ 1.1m = 0.0151 kg/kmol Molecular weight of gas with water Mg-w = 16.0151⎢kmol ⋅ = kg ⎥ kmol ⎣ ⎦ . The composition of natural gas is known.1m = n g − w.05184 kmol Mass of water accumulated in 1 m3 water-gas mixture mw.46115 kg/kmol Mole fraction of pure water Cw = 1.78 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 18. Solution for one chosen gas pressure and temperature is shown below Input data: Gas pressure Pg = 100 kPa Gas temperature Tg = -40 oC The data obtained from Hysys application: Molecular weight of water Mw = 18.78*10-4 Z-factor Z = 0.

15 0. = 1 ⋅ ( )⋅ [1m 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 1Sm 3 ] 101325 − 40 + 273.c .c.15 1 Pa K )⋅( V s . c = 0.1m = 1.c .2256Sm 3 Finally the mass of water per 1 Sm3 was calculated c= c= m w. 1.6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg Calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of Clapeyron equation was done. = 1. For details on Clapeyron equation see attachment 5.c.c . T Z 100000 15 + 273.2256 Sm c = 1. ) ⋅ Ps.995188 Pa K Vs.c .6623 ⋅ 10 −4 kg [ 3] 1.1m V s . = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION m w. V s .136 g Sm 3 123 .2) water content in grams per standard cubic meter is given.3563 ⋅ 10 − 4 [ kg ] Sm 3 In attached table (5.

This leads to the equation (3): P1 ⋅ V1 P2 ⋅ V2 = T1 ⋅ Z 1 T2 ⋅ Z 2 where: 1 .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 124 Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation Real gas law equation is known also as Clapeyron Equation. volume. (3) . Individual gas constant equals (2): Rn = R ·n (2) where: R – universal gas constant n – number of moles of gas As individual gas constant is non-changeable for a given gas mixture one of the four variables (pressure. Z factor and pressure. V – gas volume. Z factor and pressure. temperature) may be calculated in given conditions if all four variables are known for the mixture at any other conditions. temperature. temperature. Rn – individual gas constant . Z factor. General form of Clapeyron equation (1): P ⋅ V = Z ⋅ Rn ⋅ T (1) where: P – gas pressure. 2 – stands for different volume. Z – Z factor.stands for given volume. T – temperature.

c.c. temperature and Z factor for given pressure are known.c. (5) . ) ⋅ Ps. Vs. = 288.c. Ts.c. = 101325 Pa).c.c. = T ⋅Z Ts. – standard pressure (Ps.c .OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION 125 For any vapor the Z factor in standard conditions equals 1 Zs. After transformation the equation (4) assumes the following form (5): V s . – standard volume.c. – standard temperature (Ts.15 K = 15 oC). = V ⋅ ( T 1 P ) ⋅ ( s .c . (4) where: Ps. ⋅ Vs.c. T Z From the equation (5) gas volume in standard conditions is calculated when pressure.c. = 1 Therefore for comparison between standard conditions and any given conditions the equation (3) becomes the following (4): P ⋅ V Ps.

295 9.0 10 0.OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content The values given are obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operation instruction.1 3.0 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.4 -5 0. Without compression (pressure between 2.5 0 0.215 6.075 2.39 12.155 4.20 6.29 9.4 0 0.7 MPa and 3.7 10 0.2 5 0.2 126 .14 4.110 3.8 5 0.5 MPa) Dew point Water content in inlet Amount of TEG to temperature of sour natural gas dehydrate gas gas [oC] [gH2O/Nm3] [dm3TEG/1000 Nm3] -10 0.1 With compression (pressure between 4.5 MPa and 5.1 -5 0.

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