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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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semiconductor physics. In normal operation, a system turns on a MOS transistor by applying a voltage to the gate electrode. When the voltage on the drain increases, the drain current also increases until it reaches saturation. The saturation current depends on the gate voltage. Introduction The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor) is by far the most common semiconductor device, and the primary building block in all commercial processors, memories, and digital integrated circuits. During the past decades this device has experienced tremendous development, and today it is being manufactured with feature sizes of 90 nm and

smaller. Cross-section TEM (transmission electron microscope) image of a 70-nm MOSFET fabricated in the clean room at the Royal Institute of Technology in Kista, Sweden (a project of P.-E. Hellstrm and others). This model shows the basic functionality of a MOS transistor, where the gate voltage controls the drain-source resistance and thus the drain current. At a certain gate voltage, VGS, and at low drain voltages, the drain current is almost linearly dependent on the drain voltage. When the drain voltage increases, the drain current saturates. The level of saturation depends on the gate voltage. The gate voltage also influences the coefficient describing the linear dependence between the gate voltage and gate current at low drain voltages. This coefficient is generally known as the On resistance (Ron). In digital devices the transistor operates as a switch, making Ron an important parameter influencing the transistors power loss and driving ability. Its ability to drive an output is of special importance. This characteristic is described by the fanout, the number of outputs that a device is capable of driving. In high-speed systems, parasitic effects make the situation more complicated. Model Definition DEVICE GEOMETRY The structure in Figure 12-7 is a cross section of a simplified MOS transistor. The electric field in the gate influences the low-doped p-type silicon; specifically, at a certain gate voltage a thin layer of it, close to the silicon-oxide surface, turns into an n-type material. This process, called inversion, creates a conducting channel between the highly doped n-type source and the drain regions. With this channel present, a voltage across the source and the drain drives a drain current. This model uses the following dimensions: a gate length of 0.2 m, a gate oxide

Figure 12-7: The model geometry. The simulation replaces the contacts with boundary conditions. DOMAIN EQUATIONS This example models a MOS transistor using the standard drift-diffusion approximation coupled with Poissons equation. With the aid of some generally accepted simplifications such as neglecting magnetic fields, assuming a constant density of states in both the valence and the conductance bands, and assuming a Boltzmann distribution of the carriersit is possible to derive these equations from Maxwells equations and Boltzmann transport theory. The model in this example formulates the problem using three dependent variables: (the electrostatic potential), n, and p. The three basic semiconductor equations are

Where p and n are the hole and electron concentrations, respectively, and N represents the fixed charge associated with ionized donors. You can express the electron and hole current densities, Jn and Jp, with a drift term and a diffusion term

where n and p are the carrier mobilities, and Dn and Dp are the carrier diffusivities. Another term, RSRH, represents the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, which is a general recombination process using traps constituting energy levels in a semiconductors forbidden band gap. In the recombination equation

ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration, n and p are the carrier lifetimes, and n1 and p1 are parameters related to the trap energy level. If that level is located in the middle of the band gap (which this model assumes), then n1 and p1 equal the intrinsic carrier concentration, ni. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS For boundaries in contact with an insulator or far away from the active device area, you can use the symmetry or zero charge (flux) boundary condition for the electrostatic (diffusion) problem. At boundaries in contact with a metal, the electrostatic potential is fixed. Assuming infinite recombination velocity at the contact, the mass action law is valid. Using this law along with the assumption that there is no charge at the contact, it is possible to calculate the carrier concentrations. The applied voltage equals the Fermi level in the semiconductor at the contact, so the electrostatic potential at the contact is the applied

voltage plus the potential difference between the Fermi level and the electrostatic reference level:

where Va is the applied voltage. In this model the reference potential is the vacuum level. This is often a good choice when several materials with different affinities or work functions are present. As a result, the electrostatic potential is continuous across all material interfaces. This reference level also finds use in heterojunction device simulations. The band diagram in Figure 12-8 shows how this model represents the metal-oxide semiconductor material system.

Figure 12-8: A band diagram of the MOS material system. The necessary parameters to align the materials are the affinities of the oxide and semiconductor, plus the work function of the polysilicon gate, which this model assumes has the same properties as aluminum. The material parameters in the MOS transistor are: NOTATION ni(Si) r(Si) r(SiO2) n(Si) VARIABLE ni_Si epsilonr_Si epsilonr_Si mun VALUE 1.461016 m-3 (T = 300K) 11.8 4.2 0.10 m2/Vs (low concentration) 0.05 m2/Vs (low concentration)

p(Si)

mup

Dn

20.710-4 m2/s

Dp

5.1710-4 m2/s

INITIAL-VALUE CALCULATION The rapid changes and large dynamics of the solution variables in the PDEs require a special technique to calculate the initial value. This model solves an extra electrostatics application mode separately to get the initial value for the other application modes. This extra application mode also solves Poissons equation but with the difference that it replaces the carrier concentrations with the formulas

This step produces the exact solution for the full system when all applied voltages are zero. You perform the steps to get the initial condition with the solver scripting functionality in the Solver Manager dialog box. Results and Discussion The systems nonlinear behavior makes it necessary to use the parametric solver to reach the desired voltage for each contact. This example first raises the gate voltage to 0.8 V and then sweeps the drain voltage to 1 V. Including the first initial-value calculation, three solution steps are necessary, and by employing solver scripting you can execute all of them with one

click on the Solve button. The result from the last step appears in Figure 12-9.

Figure 12-9: Drain current as a function of drain voltage for VGS = 0.8 V. Note that Ronis 1/ (slope of the curve) at the point where VDS = 0, which falls at the far left of the curve. A surface plot is useful to view the shape of the solution variables. Figure 12-10 shows the electrostatic potential at the final bias condition. The large negative shift for the potential is due to the vacuum reference potential.

Figure 12-10: Surface plot of the electrostatic potential inside the MOSFET.

The conducting channel at the oxide-semiconductor interface becomes visible in a logarithmic surface plot of the electron concentration (Figure 12-11).

Figure 12-11: The channel close to the interface becomes visible in an electron-concentration plot. Note the sharp drop in the channel concentration close to the drain contact, which is responsible for the saturation of the drain current. Model Library Path: COMSOL_Multiphysics/Semiconductor_Devices/MOS_transistor Modeling Using the Graphical User Interface MODEL NAVIGATOR 1In the Model Navigator, select 2D in the Space dimension list. 2Click the Multiphysics button. 3Select the COMSOL Multiphysics>Electromagnetics>Electrostatics application mode. Enter phi0 in the Dependent variables edit field, and enter init in the Application mode 4name edit field. 5Click Add. 6Enter phi in the Dependent variables edit field. 7Click Add. Select the COMSOL Multiphysics>Diffusion>Convection and Diffusion>Steady-state 8analysis application mode. Enter nc in the Dependent variables edit field, and enter cde in the Application mode 9 name edit field. 10Click Add Click Application mode properties, select Conservative in the Equation form list and 11Ideal in the Weak Constraints list. Click OK. Enter pc in the Dependent variables edit field, and enter cdh in the Application mode 12name edit field. 13Click Add. Click Application mode properties, select Conservative in the Equation form list and 14Ideal in the Weak Constraints list. Click OK. 15Click OK. OPTIONS AND SETTINGS 1From the Options menu, choose Constants.

In the Constants dialog box, define the following constants with names, expressions, and 2descriptions (the Description field is optional): NAME q T0 k epsilonr_si EXPRESSION 1.602e-19 300 1.38e-23 11.8 DESCRIPTION Elementary charge (C) Lattice temperature (K) Boltzmann constant (J/K) Rel. permittivity for Si Rel. permittivity for SiO2 Intrinsic carrier concentration for Si (m-3) Electron mobility for Si (m2/Vs) Hole mobility for Si (m2/Vs) Electron affinity for Si (eV) Electron affinity for SiO2 (eV) Work function for poly-Si (eV) Band gap of Si (eV) Electron carrier life time (s) Hole carrier life time (s) Thermal voltage (V) Help coordinate (m)

mun_si

0.1

X_poly

4.5

x2 ch

2e-7

yj/sqrt(log( Characteristic length of NDimpl/NAsub)) implanted region (m) 1e-7 1e25 Junction depth (m) Peak concentration of implanted profile (m-3) Substrate doping (m-3) Gate voltage (V) Drain voltage (V)

yj NDimpl

NAsub Vg Vd

5e23 0.8 0

3Click OK. 4From the Options menu, choose Functions. 5In the Functions dialog box, click the New button. In the New Function dialog box, type flguass in the Function name edit field. Click OK to 6create the new function. Type x, y, x1, y1, ch in the Arguments edit field, and type the following in the Expression 7edit field. (exp(-((y-y1)/ch)^2)*(y<y1)+(y>=y1))*(exp(-((x-x1)/ch)^2)*(x>x1)+(x<=x1)) 8Click OK. GEOMETRY MODELING 1 Draw rectangles with the properties according to the following table.

NAME WIDTH HEIGHT CORNER DESCRIPTION R1 1e-6 5e-7 (-4e-7,-5e- Substrate 7) (-1e-8,0) (-4e-7,0) Gate oxide Air region

R2 R3

2.2e-7 3.9e-7

5e-9 5e-8

2Click the Zoom Extents toolbar button. Click the 2nd Degree Bezier Curve button and draw an arc from (-1e-7, -1e-7), with control 3point (0, -1e-7), ending it at (0, 0). Continue the arc with straight lines by clicking the Line button and then click the coordinate 4sequence (-4e-7, 0) and (-4e-7, -1e-7). Close to a solid by clicking the right mouse button. Drawing a curve at coordinates with many decimals or using an expression can be difficult, and you might be forced to specify extra grid points. Here is an alternative approach. First you draw a curve with a similar shape as the final curve, using the existing grid points. Then you

alter the properties of the curve segments with the dialog box Object Properties. Do the following to draw the small spacer regions on the sides of the poly-gate: Click the 2nd Degree Bezier Curve button and draw an arc from (-1e-7, 0), with control 5point (-1e-7, 1e-7), ending it at (0, 1e-7). Continue the arc with straight lines by clicking the Line button and then click the coordinate 6sequence (0, 0) and (-1e-7, 0). Close to a solid by clicking the right mouse button. 7From the Draw menu, choose Object Properties. In the Object Properties dialog box, change the properties for each curve segment 8according the table below. CURVE POINT X NUMBER NUMBER (ROW IN TABLE) 1 1 Y WEIGHT

9 Select the objects CO1, CO2, and R3, and click on the Mirror button. In the Mirror dialog box, enter 1e-7 in the x edit field at the Point on line row. Leave all 10other fields at their default values and click OK. The geometry should look like the figure

below. PHYSICS SETTINGS Expression Variables 1From the Options menu, choose Expressions>Scalar Expressions. In the Scalar Expressions dialog box, define the following variables with names and 2expressions, and descriptions (the Description field is optional): NAME Dn Dp n0 EXPRESSION Vt*mun Vt*mup ni*exp((phi0+X_si+ 0.5*Eg_si)/Vt) DESCRIPTION Electron diffusivity Hole diffusivity Electron concentration in thermal equilibrium Hole concentration in thermal equilibrium Shockley-ReedHall recombination term Initial guess for phi0

p0

ni*exp(-(phi0+X_si+ 0.5*Eg_si)/Vt)

R_srh

(nc*pc-ni^2)/(taun*(pc+ni)+ taup*(nc+ni))

phi_init

n_init

(abs(Ndoping)/2+ sqrt(Ndoping^2/4+ni^2))* (Ndoping>=0)+ ni^2/(abs(Ndoping)/2+ sqrt(Ndoping^2/4+ni^2))* (Ndoping<0) (abs(Ndoping)/2+ sqrt(Ndoping^2/4+ni^2))* (Ndoping<0)+ ni^2/(abs(Ndoping)/2+ sqrt(Ndoping^2/4+ni^2))* (Ndoping>=0)

p_init

Doping concentration

1From the Options menu, choose Expressions>Subdomain Expressions. 2In the Subdomain Expressions dialog box, define the following variables: SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 4, 5, 7 ALL OTHER

3Click OK. Boundary Variables 1From the Options menu, choose Expressions>Boundary Expressions. In the Boundary Expressions dialog box, define the following variables with names and 2expressions: BOUNDARY 6, 19 ALL OTHER

Jn

q*lm3 q*lm4

Jp

3Click OK. Integration Coupling Variables The drain current Id is defined as an integral of the normal current density along the drain contact. This can be implemented by using an integration coupling variable: 1From the Options menu, select Integration Coupling Variable>Boundary Variables. In the Boundary Integration Variables dialog box, select boundary 19 and then type Id in 2the Name column, and type Jn+Jp in the Expression column. Subdomain Settings 1On the Multiphysics menu, select the Electrostatics (init) application mode. 2From the Physics menu, select Subdomain settings. 3 In the Subdomain Settings dialog box, enter the following settings: SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 ALL OTHER epsilonr 0

r 4

epsilonr q*(p0n0+Ndoping)

Click the Init tab, and enter the following initial value:

5Click OK. 6On the Multiphysics menu, select the Electrostatics (es) application mode. 7 Open the Subdomain Settings dialog box and enter the following settings: SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 ALL OTHER epsilonr 0

r 8

epsilonr q*(pcnc+Ndoping)

Click the Init tab, and enter the following initial value:

9 Click OK. 10On the Multiphysics menu, select the Convection and Diffusion (cde) application mode. Open the Subdomain Settings dialog box, select subdomains 3, 4, 5, 7, and 11 8, and clear the Active in this subdomain check box. Then enter the

following settings for the other subdomains SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 D isotropic u velocity v velocity R 12 Dn mun*phix mun*phiy -R_srh Click the Init tab and enter the following initial value:

SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 nc(t0) n0

13Click OK. 14On the Multiphysics menu, select the Convection and Diffusion (cdh) application mode. Open the Subdomain Settings dialog box, select subdomains 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8, and clear the Active in this subdomain check box. Then enter the 15 following settings for the other subdomains SUBDOMAIN 1, 2, 6 D isotropic U Dp mup*phix mup*phiy -R_srh Click the Init tab, and enter the following initial value:

R 16

Boundary Conditions 1On the Multiphysics menu, select the Electrostatics (init) application mode. From the Physics menu, select Boundary Settings. Select the Interior boundaries check 2box. 3 In the Boundary Settings dialog box, enter the following settings: BOUNDARY 2, 6, 19 11, 12, 17 1, 3, 5, 7, 18, 21 23 Zero charge/Symmetry

Boundary condition V0

4Click OK. 5On the Multiphysics menu, select the Electrostatics (es) application mode. Open the Boundary Settings dialog box, select the Interior boundaries 6 check box, and enter the following settings: BOUNDARY 2, 6 19 11, 12, 17 Electric potential 1, 3, 5, 7, 18, 2123 Zero charge/ Symmetry

Boundary condition

V0

phi_init

phi_init+Vd VgX_poly

7Click OK. 8On the Multiphysics menu, select the Convection and Diffusion (cde) application mode. 9 Open the Boundary Settings dialog box and enter the following settings: BOUNDARY 2, 6, 19 Boundary condition nc0 ALL OTHER

Concentration Insulation/Symmetry

n_init

10Click OK. 11On the Multiphysics menu, select the Convection and Diffusion (cdh) application mode. 12 Open the Boundary Settings dialog box and enter the following settings: BOUNDARY 2, 6, 19 Boundary ALL OTHER

Concentration Insulation/Symmetry

13Click OK. MESH GENERATION 1From the Mesh menu, choose Free Mesh Parameters. 2Click the Custom mesh size button and enter 5e-8 in the Maximum element size edit field. 3Click the Subdomain tab. 4Select subdomains 2 and 6 and type 1-8 in the Maximum element size edit field. 5Click the Boundary tab. 6Select boundaries 4, 20, 24, and 26 and type 5e-9 in the Maximum element size edit field. 7Select boundary 13 and type 2e-9 in the Maximum element size edit field. 8Click the Remesh button and then click OK. COMPUTING THE SOLUTION 1From the Solve menu, choose Solver Manager 2In the Solver Manager dialog box, click on the Script tab. Click the Solve using a script check box, and enter the following script in the large text 3area. init = asseminit(fem); fem.sol=femstatic(fem, ... 'init',init, ... 'solcomp',{'phi0'}, ... 'outcomp',{'lm3','phi','phi0','pc','nc','lm4'}); fem0=fem; fem.sol=femstatic(fem, ... 'init',fem0.sol, ... 'solcomp',{'lm3','phi','pc','nc','lm4'}, ... 'outcomp',{'lm3','phi','phi0','pc','lm4','nc'}, ... 'pname','Vd', ... 'plist',[0:0.02:0.2 0.25:0.05:1]); fem0=fem;

Click OK and then click the Solve button to start the simulation. Note that the script 4overrides all other settings in the Solver Parameters and Solver Manager dialog boxes. POSTPROCESSING AND VISUALIZATION 1Open the Plot Parameters dialog box. Enter the expression phi as both Surface expression and Height expression on the Surface 2page of the Plot Parameters dialog box. Remember to select the Height data check box. Click OK to get the plot in the figure below.

3 To plot the drain characteristics open the Domain Plot Parameters dialog box from the 4Postprocessing menu. Choose the Point plot type and check that all parameters are selected in the Parameter 5value list. 6On the Point tab, type Id in the Point expression edit field. 7Select vertex 1 and click OK. In a separate window you should see the plot below.

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