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Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Table of Contents
ABOUT THE MESCHINO HEALTH COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO ACCESSORY NUTRIENTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS ........................... 4 MESCHINO HEALTH NATURAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT ...........................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. COENZYME Q10 (UBIQUINONE) ................................................................................................................................................. 6 CREATINE................................................................................................................................................................................ 11 DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE (DHEA) .................................................................................................................................... 17 DIGESTIVE ENZYMES ............................................................................................................................................................... 21 DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL (DMAE) ....................................................................................................................................... 26 (DEANOL)................................................................................................................................................................................ 26 DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA) (FISH OIL) (SEE ALSO EPA) ................................................................................................... 29 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID (EPA) (FISH OIL) (SEE ALSO DHA) ................................................................................................... 31 FLAXSEED OIL AND ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID ............................................................................................................................ 34 GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID (GLA).............................................................................................................................................. 36 GAMMA-ORYZANOL ............................................................................................................................................................... 39 GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 GLUTAMINE ............................................................................................................................................................................ 45 GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AND RELATED PROCYANODOLIC OLIGOMERS (PYCNOGENOL) ............................................................ 49 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN (5-HTP) .......................................................................................................................................... 51 INDOLE-3-CARBINOL ............................................................................................................................................................... 54 LIPOIC ACID (THIOCTIC ACID) .................................................................................................................................................. 58 L-LYSINE.................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 MALIC ACID ............................................................................................................................................................................ 62 MELATONIN ............................................................................................................................................................................ 64 MODIFIED CITRUS PECTIN....................................................................................................................................................... 68 METHYLSULFONYL METHANE (MSM) ..................................................................................................................................... 72 N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC) ....................................................................................................................................................... 76 PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE ............................................................................................................................................................ 79 POLICOSANOL (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM) ......................................................................................................................... 81 PREBIOTICS (FOS AND OTHER OLIGOSACCHARIDES) ............................................................................................................... 86 PROBIOTICS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 89 PSYLLIUM (PSYLLIUM HUSK FIBER OR PSYLLIUM SEED) .......................................................................................................... 93 QUERCETIN ............................................................................................................................................................................. 98 S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE (SAM) ........................................................................................................................................... 101
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
SHARK CARTILAGE ................................................................................................................................................................ 105 SOY AND SOY EXTRACT......................................................................................................................................................... 108 JAMES MESCHINO DC, MS,ND .............................................................................................................................................. 108 TAURINE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 112 TRIMETHYLGLYCINE (BETAINE) ............................................................................................................................................. 116
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
About the Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
The Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Vitamins is one of four eBooks on nutrients written by Dr. James Meschino: 1. 2. 3. 4. Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Vitamins Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Herbs Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Minerals Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
All four books were written to both educate and provide an easy to use quick reference to answer important questions regarding nutrients. Users of the guide can quickly find which health conditions the nutrient can impact, proper dosage, possible effects of a deficiency or the effect any potential toxicity associated with the nutrient. Finally any drug-nutrient Interactions associated with the nutrient. More eBook and eQuick Guides Meschino Health is excited to be able to provide tools and resources to help you achieve your healthy living objectives. Sharing the Healthy Living message and helping anyone who is interested in living a healthy happy life is what Meschino Health is all about. Visit www.MeschinoHealth.com to learn the latest a science based research on diet and supplementation that can prevent and treat health conditions often associated with aging. New eBooks and eGuides are added every month and can be downloaded free of charge.
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Meschino Health Natural Health Assessment
Welcome to the Nutrition, Lifestyle and Anti-aging Assessment.
The most powerful health assessment on the internet
Easy to Complete Online Questionnaire Your Personal Health Assessment is generated Instantly and can be downloaded to your computer The Meschino Health Assessment is a 15 to 20 page comprehensive report complete with diet, lifestyle and supplement considerations that are specific to your profile.
The Meschino Health Assessment is a free service created by Dr. James Meschino. The feedback in your report is based on your answers to the questions in the Health Assessment, and highlights the dietary, lifestyle and supplementation practices that are best suited to your circumstances, according to currently available scientific studies The Meschino Health Assessment is a Free Service
Why take it?
We all know that we should eat better, exercise more and change some of our less then desirable lifestyle habits. Did you know that 7 out of 10 North Americans are taking some form of nutritional supplements to augment their diet? While that might sound like good news, the downside is that many people are guessing at what supplements to take! So which one should you take? Better yet, what does eating better look like? You need a plan. But where would you even begin to find a health assessment that takes into account your personal health status, diet, lifestyle activities and family health history-before recommending a plan of action? Where? Right here.
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone)
CoQ10 is an essential component of the electron transfer system in the mitochondria. More specifically, it functions to shuttle hydrogen electrons from NAD to cytochrome b, facilitating the release of energy required to recouple ADP with inorganic phosphate in the synthesis of ATP. As such, CoQ10 is an integral part of the bioenergetic system that enables cells to produce adequate amounts of ATP through aerobic pathways. ATP is the primary fuel required to power the body’s metabolic reactions, maintain optimal function of cells and sustain life. A deficit in ATP synthesis can compromise any number of energy-dependent cellular functions and hasten the onset of dysfunction and if severe enough, cell death. Although the body can synthesize CoQ 10, deficiency states of CoQ10 tend to exist and are associated with various health conditions. Moreover, supplementation studies with CoQ 10 have been shown to effectively treat and sometimes reverse a number of these conditions. There is evidence that a decline in CoQ10 synthesis occurs with aging, predisposing individuals to a number of CoQ10 deficiency-related disorders and diseases. Professor F.L. Crane and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin first discovered CoQ 10 in 1957. Since then, Dr, Karl Folkers at the University of Texas (Austin) is most responsible for the ongoing research on CoQ10.1-4 Coenzyme Q10 is also a fat soluble antioxidant, which has been shown to reduce oxidation of LDL-cholesterol and the mitochondrial DNA.5,6 CoQ10 supplementation has been shown to modulate immune system function, enhancing levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), in the serum of patients provided with 60 mg CoQ10 per day.7 The average person may consume about 5 mg per day of CoQ 10 from foods, with the main sources being meat, fish, soybeans and some vegetable oils. Clinical Coenzyme Q10 studies have involved daily supplemental intake levels ranging from 60 mg to 300 mg per day; far greater than food alone can provide.8
Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications
1. Cardiovascular Disease Biopsy results from heart tissue in patients with various cardiovascular diseases (especially congestive heart failure) show a deficiency in CoQ10 in 50 to 75 percent of cases. Low blood levels of CoQ10 are also a consistent finding in the majority of these patients.9-12 Supplementation studies with patients suffering from various cardiomyopathies (i.e. ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart valve disorders) and congestive heart failure have demonstrated significant improvement in heart function (according to the New York Heart Association functional scale) in a high percentage of cases. Many patients in these studies have been able to reduce the number of cardiac drugs required (1-3 medications reduced in 43 percent of CoQ10 supplemented patients in one study of 424 patients, over an eight year period). Heart function parameters monitored have included left ventricular wall thickness, mitral valve inflow slope, and fractional shortening.13,14,15 Congestive Heart Failure - Several controlled studies using Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure have demonstrated significant improvement in cardiac ejection fraction, reduced shortness of breath, and increased muscle strength. Other studies have demonstrated increased stroke volume and cardiac index, improved survival and improved quality of life, in general. Of great significance is the fact that when patients discontinue CoQ 10 supplementation, cardiac function deteriorates. Thus, CoQ10 needs to be a lifelong intervention in these cases.16,17,18 www.meschinohealth.com
A small study has shown that CoQ10 supplementation can reduce angina episodes and nitroglycerine use and improve treadmill exercise tolerance. with a rise in HDL and a reduction in total cholesterol from 229. three times per day.28-34 5. Larger trials are required to substantiate this data. Beta-Blockers and HMG CoA Reductase (statin) drugs for cholesterol lowering are known to inhibit the endogenous synthesis of CoQ10. Psychotropic Drugs Coenzyme Q10 supplementation has been shown to reduce the cardiac side effects of phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressant drugs.24 3. diastolic 98-86) in hypertensive patients. Aerobic Exercise Performance A study of 25 cross-country skiers has provided preliminary evidence that CoQ10 supplementation may improve exercise performance in endurance athletes. fat burning and oxygen transport after beginning an exercise program.Several studies have provided evidence that CoQ10 supplementation can lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (i.e. requiring dose adjustment.com . Exercise Performance Studies: 60 mg per day27 Toxicity and Contraindications Coenzyme Q10 is well tolerated.26 Dosage Ranges 1. Chemotherapy Q10 supplementation can mitigate the cardiac side effects and cardiotoxicity of the chemotherapy drug known as adriamycin (100 mg per day of CoQ10 supplementation). Periodontal Disease: 50 mg per day has been used in clinical trials 3.18-22 2. The group supplemented with CoQ 10 demonstrated greater improvement in these aerobic parameters compared to the placebo group.27 Drug-Nutrient Interactions 1. in a 4-8 week trial period. 2. CoQ10 supplementation can compensate for this inhibition effect and is indicated as a concurrent therapy when these drugs are in use (100 mg of CoQ10 per day is recommended in these cases). systolic 164-146.7 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Angina .9 mg/dl to 213. Some studies use a dosage of 2 mg CoQ 10 for each kilogram of body weight. and no serious adverse effects have been reported with long-term use.25 Sedentary individuals have also demonstrated improvement with work capacity. Anticoagulants www. Periodontal Disease Several intervention trials involving patients with periodontal disease have revealed that CoQ 10 supplementation can be useful in reversing the condition to various degrees.meschinohealth. Warfarin CoQ10 supplementation has been shown to antagonize the anti-coagulant effects of warfarin. Cardiovascular Conditions: typical dosage is 50-60 mg. Improved blood cholesterol levels also occurred in one study. oxygen consumption. Large doses (up to 300 mg) may be needed in severe heart disease. 3.19 Hypertension .23. 4.3 mg/dl. 2. Even children with lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma realized this benefit compared with the placebo group.
p. p. Int J Vit Res 1970. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharnacol 1982. Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Holmer G.39 13. Ames BN. Frei B. Biguanides: decreases CoQ10 synthesis.42 8. Ho L. Willis R. Increase in levels of lgG in serum of patients treated with coenzyme Q10.41 11. Tamura H. 1984. Haloperidol: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. Yamaguchi A. Vol 4. et al. Elsevier/NorthHolland Biomedical Press. editors. Langsjoen P. Reavely N. there are reported cases of CoQ 10 countering the action of warfarin. 1984. Folkders K. Effect of dietary coenzyme Q10 as an antioxidant in human plasma. Langsjoen P. Hydralazine: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. Folkers K. Biomedical and clinical aspects of Coenzyme Q. et al. Yamamura Y. glyburide. Yamamura Y. 5. 4. Jakobsen TS. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1985. Amsterdam.34. Sawatani O.37 9. Littarru GP. Amsterdam. 243-52.39 5.82:901.36 2.41 7. Proc Natl Acad Sce 1990.35 The following drugs may reduce the body’s levels of CoQ10: 1. Vol 1. Otaki M. Gemfibrozil: (cholesterol-lowering drug). Yamamura Y. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. 353-61. Mortensen SA. Vadhanavikit S. Folkers K.37 3. Vol 2. Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in human heart disease.39 10.40 6. tolazamide). minerals. Paulsen G. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. Weber C. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. Ubiquinenol-10 is an effective lipid-soluble antioxidant at physiological concentrations. Folkers K. Methydopa: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology: A long-term study. 6. Phenothiazines: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. Kitamura N.. 8. Folkers K. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q. Beta blockers: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. Clondine: decreases CoQ10 synthesis.1(Suppl):165S-75S.meschinohealth. 1981. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1972. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q.87:4879-83. the physician prescribing warfarin may need to adjust the warfarin dose if CoQ10 is to be used and therefore must be consulted. Yamamura Y. In: Folkers K. 7. Folkers K. 1977. Mycocardial tissue level of coenzyme Q10 in patients with cardiac failure. Mol Aspects Med 1994. www. Kim MC.com . Langsjoen H. Holland.38 4. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. 13. Thiazide Diuretics: decrease CoQ10 synthesis. Vol 4. 1980. Folkers K. et al. Folkers K. editors.38:335. Yamamura Y. 1998. editors. 11. 9. supplements and herbs.38 12. Evidence for a deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in human heart disease. Sulfonylureas: some of these drugs decrease CoQ10 synthesis (acetohexamide. Thus. Part II.8 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils As noted above. 10.41 1. Inc. Vol 3.40:380. Mortensen SA. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland biomedical Press. Orlistat: reduces CoQ10 absorption. Holland: Elsvier Science. Folkers K and Ito Y. Tricyclic Antidepressants: decrease CoQ10 synthesis.42:413.Publ. 12. New York: Evans M and Company. editors. editors. HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors: decreases CoQ10 synthesis. 3. 2. New encyclopedia of vitamins. Minoji T.15(Suppl):97S-102S. Mol Aspects Med 1994.
Mol Aspects Med 1997. 17. Judy WV. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. Vol 3. Grossi G. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. 281-90. Auricchio U. Almdal TP. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Aberg F. Digiesi V. 139-54. Langsjoen P. Dugan W. Ylikoski T. Vol 4. III. Agner E. Langsjoen PH. Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q10. Curr Thes Res 1992. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. Folkers K. et al. et al. Vol 2. Coenzyme Q10 reduction in adriamycin cardiotoxicity. 235-41. Morisco C. editors. Bisi G.17(1):157-64. Judy WV. Gandini R. Folkers K. Mechanocardiography of ischemic or hypertensive heart failure.9 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 14. Vol 1.15(Suppl):207S-12S. In: Yamamura Y. Biomedical and clinical aspects of Coenzyme Q. 231-41. 1994. Mol Aspects Med 1994. Kishi T. Kishi T. Mol Aspects Med 1994. 1984. Okamoto T. Coenzyme Q10 and physical performance. Mol Aspects Med 1994. Kokubu T. 1980. p. Hall JH. Battino M. Kazarani Y. Holland. Vol 2. Tsuyusaki T. Folkers K. Kishi H. p. Toth PD. 296-308. Treatment of periodontal and other soft tissue diseases of the oral cavity with coenzyme Q10. 16. Mol Aspects Med. 29. Yamamura Y. In: Folkers K. Ito Y. p. Makino K. Vanfraechem JHP. Effect of CoQ10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: A long-term multicenter randomized study. Kobayashi A. 32. et al.15:265-72.71(Suppl):134S-6S. Ito T. Exogenous CoQ10 supplementation prevents plasma ubiquinone reduction induced by HMG-CoA reductate inhibitors. Myocardial effects of co-enzyme Q10 in primary heart failure. Kikawada R. Yamamura Y. 38. 33. Makino K. 26. Folkers K. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. Vol 4. Mechanism of action of coenzyme Q10 in essential hypertension. Trimarco B. 15. 37. Angelin B. editors. editors.18(Suppl):283S-90S. Kishi T. Nutley. Sept 2000. 27. Folkers K. Folkers K.82:4240-4. In: Yamamura Y. Study of Co Q10 enzymes in gingiva from patients with periodontal disease and evidence for a deficiency of coenzyme Q10. Folkers K. 35. Penttinen J. Amsterdam. Mol Aspects Med 1997. Murano A. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. Biomedical and clinical aspects of Coenzyme Q. Coenzyme Q10 in essential hypertension. Yamazaki N. p. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. Kishi H. Leth A. p. Casale F. Nakamura R. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. In: Folkers K. Toth PD. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. editors. Piirainen J.15(Suppl):187S-93S. Ugeskr Laeger. Gemfibrozil-induced decrease in serum Ubiquinone and alpha. Yamamura Y. Hall JT. CA: Prima Publishing. 40. Yamamura Y. Deweitt BA. Littrau GP. Amsterdam. Kamikawa T. 273-88. Folkers K. Lukes AL. Plancher AC. 1996. Hayashi H. Heck AM. 21. editors. 251-65. Inhibition of myocardial respiration by psychotherapeutic drugs and prevention by coenzyme Q. editors. Eriksson M. Okamoto T. p. 23. Bargossi AM. Wilkinson EG. Carmosino G. Gaddi A. 18.18(Suppl):137S-44S. 1977. 28. Folkers K. Noro C. Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on anthracyclines cardiotoxicity: Control study in children with acute lyphhoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 30.56:247-51. Inhibition of coenzyme Q10-enzymes by clinically used adrenergic blockers of beta-receptors. 1981. Vol 4. Kishi H. Folkers K. www. 1980. 139–54. Brodbeck B. Folkers K. Inhibition of coenzyme Q10-enzymes by clinically used anti-hypertensive drugs. Correlatio between serum CoQ10 level and myocordiol contractility in hypertensive patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1985. et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1974. 25. Cantini F. Eur J Clin Invest 1998. Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductate inhibitors. Arnold RM.7(3):307-21. Rocklin. Watanabe T. Yamamura Y. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. Hanninen O. 1980. Xenical (orlistat). Agretto A. NJ: Roche Laboratories.and gamma-tocopherol levels in men with combined hyperlipidaemia. Mol Aspects Med 1994. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland biomedical Press. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. p. In: Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine XI. 1984. 41. Holland.. In: Folkers K. Bröijersén A. 263-70. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. Yamamura Y. 1998. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine XV.71:1456. Response of patients in classes III and IV of cardiomyopathy to therapy in a blind and crossover trial with coenzyme Q10. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1975.15(Suppl):257S-63S. Interaction between warfarin and coenzyme Q10. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Appelkvist EL. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press. 34.57(13):1221-30. 36. Folkers K and Ito Y. Folkers K. Ito Y. 24. Yamashita T. Kishi H. Kishi T. Inhibition of myocardial respiration by psychotherapeutic drugs and prevention by coenzyme Q10. Vol 2. Ochi T. Di Giulio R. Condorelli M. 1977. Clin Invest 1993. Passeri M.51:668-72.28(3):235-42. Vadhanavikit S. Kishi T. 22. Rohde M. Watanabe T. Hjemdahl P. J Med 1976. Hamada M. Pg. p. Landbo C. Murry M.160(22):3226-7. editors. editors. Cantini F. Fiorella PL. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q.15(Suppl):287S-94S.meschinohealth. Iarussi D. Baggio E. CoQ10 Drug Surveillance Investigators. Giuliano M. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. In: Folkers K. Folkers K. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on the exercise performance of cross-country skiers. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000. Wilkinson EG. 20.12(3):533-40. In: Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q10. Am J Cariol 1985. Studies on coenzyme Q and Diabetes Mellitus. Biomedical and clinical aspects of Coenzyme Q. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. Product Prescribing Information.com . 19. 31. 39. 1984. Inc. Mortensen SA. Digiesi V.
J Clin Pharmacol 1993. Ghirlanda G. Uccioli L. Manto A. et al. www.33(3):226-9.meschinohealth.lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a double-blind. Oradei A. Evidence of plasma Co10. Lippa S. placebo-controlled study.com . Caputo S.10 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 42.
During explosive or intensive exercise. The free energy released from the breakdown of Creatine phosphate is used to regenerate ATP. A half-pound of raw meat contains about 1 gram of Creatine. 1. plus free energy.13. This may be of some significance as free radicals generated from exercise can affect muscle fatigue and protein turnover. Increased muscular fluid retention may also participate in muscle volume gains with Creatine use. which is thought to occur from increased protein synthesis. substantial evidence suggests that Creatine supplementation increases lean body mass. as the muscle lays down an increased number of contractile myofilaments (protein bands that contract and generate force). Animal protein (especially meats) normally provides at least half that amount. After the loading phase is completed.24 It also appears that Creatine supplementation may allow athletes to train harder (due to increased available energy for muscle concentration).meschinohealth. Typically an athlete will mix a heaping teaspoon of Creatine monohydrate crystals into a glass of juice to obtain about 5 grams of Creatine. which promotes strength gains. but fish is also a good source. Recent reports suggest that taking Creatine with glucose (a simple carbohydrate) may increase the amount of Creatine absorbed by the muscles. with approximately one gram per day synthesized by the liver. muscular strength.7 Creatine has also been shown to provide antioxidant properties.11 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Creatine General Features It is now widely accepted that Creatine supplementation can increase muscle strength and mass.12.3 This in turn leads to an increase in muscle mass.5.11. Increased Strength and Performance In Athletes Several studies have shown that Creatine supplementation improves performance in repeated bouts of high intensity strength work and repeated sprints.2.15 Individuals may vary in their response to Creatine supplementation.16. During the loading phase the athlete does this on 4 or 5 occasions throughout the day to attain an intake of 20-25 grams. 8. the maintenance daily dosage is usually 5 to 10 grams per day.2 The normal daily requirement for Creatine is about 2 grams for a person weighing 70 kg. and increases muscle size due to hypertrophy (larger muscle fiber size).18 In short.188.8.131.52 Creatine is an amino acid that is stored in muscle in the form of Creatine phosphate. when combined with proper training and diet. plus phosphate. but it is not uncommon to see a 5 to 10 lb. which are requirements for many sports.24 Significant gains in strength and lean mass often occur in the first 6 weeks of Creatine supplementation. As such. college football players who took Creatine supplements for 28 days during resistance and agility training had significant gains in lean mass when compared to players who took the placebo. and sprint power.com . which is the fuel that powers muscle contraction. www. some manufacturers combine Creatine with carbohydrates in a premix product to help improve Creatine delivery to muscles. Creatine phosphate is broken down by a specific enzyme to yield Creatine.3. increase in weight within the first six weeks.3 The established protocol for Creatine supplementation used by athletes involves a loading dosage of 20 to 25 grams per day for the first 5 to 7 days. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that short-term Creatine supplementation increases Creatine phosphate stores in skeletal muscle by 10% to 40%.25 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.6. In one study.10.2.
Creatine use is based on the same principle as carbohydrate loading in that an athlete is manipulating their dietary intake to optimize muscle Creatine phosphate stores for more explosive power and enhanced performance. Izquierdo et al. hawthorn extract and L-carnitine. Witte et al.17 4. increased lean mass and endurance power. placebo-controlled study involving 20 male and female students whose right legs were immobilized in casts for a period of two weeks.14. 2. they showed that short-term Creatine supplementation (20 gms per day for 5 days) enhanced repeated sprint performance and attenuated decline in jumping ability after repetitive high-power-output exercise bouts (MRPB). in subjects performing repeated sprint cycling.16 3. tennis and any sport requiring repeated bouts of all-out lower extremity explosive power and/or jumps. These studies suggest that Creatine supplementation may help to forestall or reverse muscular atrophy and progressive weakness that occurs during aging. lower body mean power. Along with Coenzyme Q10. Among other positive benefits revealed in their study of nineteen trained athletes. enhancing their quality of life.12 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Approximately 80% of Creatine studies have reported a performance-enhancing effect. Cottrell et al. and that Creatine supplements are not banned by the International Olympic Committee or the National Collegiate Athletic Association.10. volleyball. basketball. As reported by K.22 Similar results have been documented by G. of which Creatine may be one of the principle factors. Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Creatine was shown to speed recovery of muscular power in a double blind. Athletes requiring repeated bouts of explosive power may also benefit from Creatine supplementation as demonstrated by M.14 Huntington’s disease. lower extremity functional capacity. This is quite impressive when you consider the fact that Creatine is not structurally or functionally related to anabolic steroids. soccer. have resulted in significant gains in several indices of muscle performance including increased maximal dynamic and isometric strength.20 Other studies have noted that younger individuals respond to Creatine supplementation more efficiently than do older subjects in that muscular phosphocreatine stores were shown to increase on average by 35% in young subjects (~24 years of age) and 7% in older subjects (~70 years of age) after five days of Creatine supplementation www.11.23 These studies have important implications for many sports such as hockey. Creatine is one of few natural health products that is shown to reverse certain parameters of heart failure. and subjects 59-72 years of age. McArdles disease 15 and Myasthenia Gravis 16 have shown that Creatine supplementation can produce an increase in strength and thus. football.15.14 Clinical studies in patients with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).19. Those given Creatine supplementation during and after leg immobilization displayed more muscular power and greater muscle size after three to ten weeks of physical rehabilitation than did subjects who took the placebo. and that Creatine may be useful as an intervention to improve the ability of certain elderly individuals to perform functional living tasks.meschinohealth. Anti-Aging in Older Subjects Creatine supplementation provided to active subjects over 70 years of age. Parkinson’s disease. Heart Failure Creatine supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with heart failure in some studies.18 5. there is evidence for a possible role for micronutrient deficiency in heart failure. decreasing dependency and. increased fat-free mass.com . lacrosse. provide symptomatic treatment and improved quality of life for many of these patients. Neuromuscular Diseases Creatine supplementation in humans has been reported to enhance power and strength both in normal subjects and in patients with various neuromuscular diseases.
indicating that higher insulin levels are likely a key to greater muscle uptake and utilization of Creatine. 34 although one patient with myasthenia gravis demonstrated significant improvement with 5 gm of Creatine per day combined with resistance training.The usual protocol is 5 gm. 3 times per week. followed by 5 gm. and a reduction in urinary loss.36. the combination of Creatine and carbohydrate loading appear to improve performance by increasing muscle Creatine and muscle glycogen. lean mass etc. resulted in a 60% increase in total muscle Creatine compared to subjects ingesting the same amount of Creatine in the absence of a simple carbohydrate drink.37 4. has shown good results over the 5-10 day test period.40 3.13 A study comparing Creatine users.14 This dose may be appropriate for all neuromuscular diseases mentioned above in regards to adult supplementation. endurance and improved skeletal function upon exertion. As such.18 5.27 2. have been beneficial for individuals with various muscular dystrophies. to control subjects has shown that Creatine users have no remarkable differences in their Creatine.22.com .g. researchers are still working to identify the ideal single. Many athletes cycle one month on. it may take a longer period to maximize Creatine stores in older subjects with Creatine supplentation. Thus.25 Additionally. 26 Other studies demonstrate that a 5 gm oral load of Creatine. fruit juice). daily and cumulative doses of Creatine for various applications. sprint and repeated sprint power. twice daily as the maintenance dose. Studies show that a 6-8 gm oral load of Creatine results in approximately 50% of the ingested Creatine being excreted in the urine. Athletic Performance (strength.A daily dose of 20 gm of Creatine per day. Toxicity and Contraindications As for the safety of Creatine supplementation. a daily dose of Creatine of approximately 10 gm per day. Anti-aging in Older Patients .27 Dosage and Standardized Grade (2:1 powdered extract) 1. one month off to prevent any possibility of toxicity and to prevent the body from compensating by reducing its own endogenous synthesis of Creatine in the liver. As supercompensation of muscle glycogen is also an ergogenic factor in exercise performance. in 5 gm divided doses. concurrent administration of Creatine and glycogen reveal that Creatine supplementation enhances muscle levels of glycogen (glycogen supercompensation) beyond that attainable from glycogen loading alone. www.) . followed by a maintenance dose of approximately 4 gm per day has been used successfully to increase muscular strength. a 1997 study showed that short-term Creatine use (20 grams per day for 5 days) did not increase markers of kidney stress in five healthy men.One study used 20 gm per day in 5 gm divided doses for 7 days.23.meschinohealth.20 Adverse Side Effects. 35 Other researchers have shown that a daily adult dose of 10 gm of Creatine per day.Same dose as for athletic performance. followed by 3 gm per day for 3-6 months. and a daily dose of 5 gm of Creatine for children. Thus. Heart Failure .39.26. 4-5times per day for five consecutive days during the loading phase. Neuromuscular Diseases / Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis .13 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils (20 gms per day).Same dose as for athletic performance. 16 In McArdles disease.17. Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation During and After Immobilization . it is accepted that Creatine utilization is enhanced by concurrent ingestion of a simple carbohydrate drink (e.28.21 Absorption and Utilization Creatine absorption from the intestinal tract is very efficient. followed by 93 gm oral load of simple carbohydrate in solution ( water ) at 30 minutes postCreatine intake (4-times per day). Participants showed improvement in strength.19. Subjects ingesting Creatine and the simple carbohydrate drink had higher insulin levels and significantly less Creatine lost in their urine. for up to five years duration.
10. and these former tissues have been largely unstudied with respect to the effects of Creatine supplementation. the safety of Creatine supplementation has not yet been investigated in these individuals. and plasma albumin clearances compared to controls.S. The researchers conclude that neither short-term.30 However.30 As pointed out by other experts.com . experts strongly recommend against use of Creatine among children and adolescent athletes. His kidney function returned to normal after discontinuing Creatine supplementation. and testes.31 To date no liver abnormalities have been evident in short-term Creatine challenge studies.14 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils urea. Until all safety issues have been evaluated.meschinohealth. nor long-term oral Creatine supplements induce detrimental effects in the kidney of healthy individuals. with Creatine sales reaching $200 million in the U. as well as skeletal muscle. few reported adverse side effects from Creatine use have been reported despite its widespread use among young athletes.32 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has advised athletes to consult a physician or a health care professional before embarking on any scheme of Creatine loading or supplementaion. in 1998. individuals with pre-existing kidney disease should be cautious as evidenced by the development of kidney dysfunction in a 25 year old soccer player taking Creatine who previously had been treated for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis of the kidney. brain.11 Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for Creatine at this time.28 Some experts suggest that compulsory regular kidney and liver monitoring should accompany the use of Creatine due to the increased burden placed upon the liver and kidneys. 1 Other infrequently reported side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances and muscle cramps. Creatine is normally found in cardiac muscle. It's a low molecular weight compound that is excreted in the kidneys by simple diffusion.29. medium-term. Creatine supplementation appears to be safe for healthy adults. In the maintenance phase.38 www.28 Nevertheless. which is usually about 2 gm per day. 30 In regards to children and younger athletes.33 Overall. athletes consume only slightly more Creatine (3-5 gm per day) than is generally found in the diet.30.
The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Available at: httyp://www. Rapola J. Auquier H.g. Burke LM. Reavley NM.edu/users/tboone2/asep/jan3.6(3):222-3 52. International Series on Sport Sciences: Biochemistry of Exercise VII. Earnest CP. Persky AM. strength. Green HJ (eds. Sports Illus 1998. Kreider RB. Eur J appl Phsiol 1997. Boon H and Smith M. abstract. Simell O et al. 3.27(3):56-61 53. J Neurol Sci 2001 Oct 15. Creatine supplement: analysis of ergogenic value.19:167-78 47. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results. Kreider RB. Murray M. The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementaiton on running velocity. Minerals. Brazeau GA. Mora G. Int J Sports Nutr 1996. Colombo R. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. Accessed May 5. and sprint performance. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men.191(1-2):139-44 57. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. and Herbs. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements.css. The role of the phosphocreatine energy shuttle in exercise and muscle hypertrophy. Aust J Sci Med Sports 1995. Res 1976. Ferreira M.15 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Wilson M et al. the next ergogenic supplement? Sportscience Trainng and Technology. Snell PG. Available at: http://www. Kreider RB. Acta Physiol Scand 1995.). Pharmacol Rev 2001 Jun.com . Moody A et al. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement.30(1):73-82 55. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. Circ. Graham BL et al. Prima Publishing 1995. Bessman SP. Sipila I. Redondo DR. 43. FASEB J 1997. and concerns. Bramberger M. medical safety. Champaign.38(5 suppl 1):1115-23 48. Prima Publishing 1998. Effects of calcium-HMB supplementation with or without creatine during training on strength and sprint capacity. Balzarini C.meschinohealth. Accessed May 5. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. 1998 45.org/traintech/cretine/rbk. 4. Pyne DB.html. Renaut V et al.sportsci. 1(1). Cutler M.. 1998 44. Kreider R.html. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 1981. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition.53(2):161-76 www. Ferreira M et al. Supplements. Telford RD. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 1998. De Ambrogio R et al. Evans and Company Inc. muscular strength and body composition. Creatine. Murray M. The magic potion. in: Taylor AW.6(3):213-21 54. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Pastore I. Savabi F. Int J Sports Nutr 1996. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998. Dowling EA.76(6):566-7 56.304(5):867-70 49. Gollnick PD. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroids and retina. Almada a.88(16):58-65 46. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. IL Human Kinetics 1988. Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate.153(2):207-9 51. Internet Society for Sports Science. Creatine and the control of muscle-specific protein synthesis in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Mazzini L.11:A374 50. Dawson B. 1997. Ingwall JS. 1998. Rodriguez R et al. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. 2. Poortmans JR.
com . Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease.. Wu G. Lawler JM. Hagerman FC.31(8):1108-10 72. Sewell DA. Andrews R. Smith. May E. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Jun1. Chilibeck PD. Dietary Supplement Information Bureau. J. Skladal D. Reilich P et al. Witte KK. Demaree S. Muscle glycogen supercompensation in enhanced by prior creatine supplementation. Hultman. Greenhaff P.15(1):59-62 69. Fry. Mar 1999. 2002 Jan.. Day R. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002 Mar.placebo-controlled clinical study. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. JR. WS. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review.30(3):413-8 79. Healthnotes. Miles MP Differential response of muscle phosphocreatine to creatine supplementation in young and old subjects.meschinohealth. Lochmuller H.290(1):47-52 67.E. Johnson. Gotshalk LA. Culpepper R Michael. Poortmans.33(12):2111-7 62. Head B. Smith-Palmer T Holt LE. Eckerson JM. www. Davison KS. Better Nutrition May 2002. et al. Stone M. Jul 2000. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Eur Heart J.. Kokkonen J. A leg to stand on.com 76. M. Acta Physiol Scand. González-Badillo JJ. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients. Herb RA Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. R. and sprint performance. Francaux. Creatine supplmentation improves muscular performance in older men.. Ezquierdo M. Neurology 2000. Neurology. 2002 Feb. Felber S.www. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind.. Utter. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Sep1995. Chrusch MJ.33(2):183-8 74. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.30(3):155-70 73.174(1):57-65 64. 1999 Aug. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction? Sports Med. 2001 Jul. endurance. B. Song W. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Stout JR. Kraemer WJ. Effects of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation on myasthenia gravis: a case study. Arch Neurol. Arnall DA. A. Burke DG. Coast JR. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Apr1998. Greenhaff PL. Grehl.91(9):890-3 71. Clark AL. Hultman E. L. Chad KE. Inc 2001.T. Francaux. 2001 Feb.57(7):956-63 78. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Neurol Res 2000.T. Med Sci Sports Exerc.22:145-50 www. Burke DG. M. Cleland JG. Martin J. Wyss M et al. 1996 Nov. Gordon A.16(1):109-16 66. T. Direct antioxidant properties of creatine. J Strength Cond Res. 2002 Jan 11. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Oral creatine supplementation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a clinical and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Macdonald IA.. Coglianese. E...33(6):869-72 59. Coulter C.8(4):298-304 75. Tarnopolsky M.healthnotes.34(3):537-43 63. Schilling. Vorgerd. Ibañez J. Creatine supplementation: Safe as steak? Southern Medical Journal. 2002 Feb... Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. J Strength Cond Res.54:1848-50 82.37(7):1765-74 60. Poortmans.intramedicine. Nelson AG. Cottrell G. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 Dec. Sep98. Clarkson PM. Denegar CR. Gorostiaga EM Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power.33(7):1096-100 70. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 Jun. Walter MC.52(4):854-7 77.16 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 58. Kearney. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure.. Bradley-Popovich GE. Jager. Juhn MS. Staron RS. M. Am J Physiol. M. M.S. 2000 Sep. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Chilibeck PD The effect of 7 days of creatine suppelmentation on 24-hour urinary creatine excretion.C. Clin J Sport Med.K. Tarnopolsky M. Stone. M. Green AL.com 81..34(2):332-43 65.H. M. O’Bryant.19(4):617-22 80. Rawson ES. A. Volek JS.. Evans J. 2001 Feb. Crdiovasc Res. Price TB. Keith.. JR. Barnes. Kaijeser L et al. Starks. 1998 Oct.64(5):p20 61. H.271(5 Pt 1):821-6 68. R. Curtis S et al.
supplementing with wild yam as a means to affect hormone levels is unsubstantiated. In fat tissue androstenedione can be converted to estrone hormone by the aromatase enzyme.17 www. while women make about 19 mg.3. the body is unable to convert diosgenin into DHEA or any other hormone. which is further converted to testosterone. DHEA blood levels peak in early adulthood and then starts a lifelong descent. DHEA supplementation can affect the increased production of androstenedione as well as testosterone and estrogen.sulfate). All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. when monitoring various conditions.15 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1.meschinohealth. while the placebo group increased by almost a full point. whereas the placebo group increased their dose of corticosteroids by forty percent. we make 90 percent less DHEA than a young adult.e. DHEA is the most abundant hormone made by the adrenal glands. The serum concentration of DHEA (really DHEA .4 These findings have led some researchers to investigate whether returning DHEA levels to those of a young adult (through supplementation) can serve as an anti-aging.5-13 As a result many health authorities are cautious about recommending DHEA supplementation as an anti-aging intervention. By age 90. ovarian or prostate cancer should not supplement with DHEA indiscriminately until further studies are completed. which is also known as estrogen synthase enzyme. This was a three-month study only. and degenerative disease prevention strategy. where it is picked up by other tissues (i. adipose. DHEA patients had significantly fewer flare ups and their required dosage of corticosteroid drug used to control symptoms decreased by 35 percent.com . Individuals with a history or family history of breast. testis. However. Systemic Lupus Erythematesus (SLE) In a Stanford Medical Center study. Some DHEA is secreted by the adrenal glands and circulates in the bloodstream.16. is used as a measure of adrenal androgen production. Thus.17 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) General Features DHEA is an intermediate steroid hormone produced mostly by the adrenal glands. Some evidence suggests that DHEA supplementation (25-200 mg per day) can reverse some parameters of aging and improve wellbeing.2 In humans. From DHEA the adrenal glands can synthesize androstenedione. Other reports correlate higher blood DHEA levels (and supplementation in some cases) with increased risk of prostate cancer. postmenopausal breast cancer. and ovarian cancer. Thus. ovaries) and further converted into other androgens or estrogens. Long-term benefits are yet unknown and the major side effects in this study was mild to severe acne in women in the DHEA group. DHEA supplementation (200 mg per day) decreased the SLE Disease Activity Index by nearly two points. In the synthesis of adrenal androgen hormones cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone and then to DHEA. By the age of 70 DHEA levels have declined by up to 75 percent compared with young adult levels. Preliminary reports in this regard are conflicting.14 The average male produces 31 mg of DHEA per day.1 DHEA supplements can be made in the laboratory from diosgenin a steroid compound found in wild yams.
18 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 2. Dementia (Age-Related) DHEA is found in high concentrations in the brain and declining levels with aging may affect memory and cognitive functions.19 3.21.24.com . as does methyltestosterone. Tribuls terrestris. Less frequently reported are breast tenderness. women 15-25 mg per day).18. muira puama). There are no long-term human studies to indicate whether DHEA is appropriate for diabetics at this time. DHEA supplementation shows promise in enhancing memory and improving cognitive function (men 2550 mg per day.26-33 Drug-Nutrient Interactions Methyltestosterone DHEA supplementation has been shown to increase blood levels of testosterone. Erectile Dysfunction A double-blind research study provided evidence that 50 mg of DHEA per day (six months) improved erectile function in men presenting with erectile dysfunction problems. headache. maintenance dose unknown Dementia: men – 25-50 mg per day women – 15-25 mg per day Erectile Dysfunction: 50 mg per day Diabetes: 25-50 mg per day. 4. ovarian and endometrial cancer development. but requires substantiation Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity At doses of 50-200 mg patients often experience acne. ginkgo biloba. 4. mood alteration.22 Dosage Ranges 1. ovarian or prostate cancer (extreme caution should be used in these cases) 14 precludes indiscriminate use of DHEA supplementation.meschinohealth. Diabetes A couple of short-term (3 week duration) studies have shown that DHEA supplementation increases insulin sensitivity at a daily dosage of 25-50 mg. 2. Females taking DHEA should be monitored for breast. the addition of DHEA supplementation to methytestosterone treatment may result in an excessive increase of blood testosterone and increase risk of related side effects. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: 100-200 mg per day for three months. Thus. increased facial hair and increased perspiration.25 www. weight gain. 3. oily skin and menstrual irregularity.20 Be aware that other phytonutrients can correct erectile dysfunction and are known to have fewer potential side effects than DHEA (ie.23 Contraindications Any history or family history of breast. Males taking DHEA should have their PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels monitored to screen for prostate cancer development.
41:3360-3. Smith C. Cancer Res 1981. 21. Leidich R. Jones JA.meschinohealth. Luu-The V. 143-9. placebo-controlled. Vol 1. McGuire JL. NY: M. Scientific verdict still out on DHEA. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women. Wolf S. Relationship of prediagnostic serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to the risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer.78. Arthritis Rheum 1995. Cancer Res 1981. NY: Mary Ann Liebert Publ. Fukushima DK. J Emdocrinol 1996. et al. Longcope C. McNeil C. J Clin End Met 1957. Levin J. 3. The super antioxidants. 5. Migeon C.37. Bates CW. 2. et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994. Straub M. An open study of DHEA in system lupus erythermatosus. Zumoff B. Basic medical biochemistry: A clinical approach. Holloszy JO. 8. DHEA and androsterone levels in human placenta. p. Clin Parmacol Therapeutics 1993. Simard J. Stephenson HE Jr. Regelson W.6:1360-7.54:498-506. 14. Strain GW.17:1051-62. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women: Potential remedial effects. 10. Nelson-White T. Bélanger A. McGuire JL. Bush TL. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995. Straughn AB. Abnormal 24-hr mean plasma concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-sulfate in women with primary operable breast cancer.63:1027-31. 6.53:590-5.5:533-9. 4. Use of DHEA in a patient with advanced prostate cancer. Veech RL. 25. Human lives DHEA – sulfotransferase: Nature and extent of individual variation. Inc. Relationship of prediagnostic serum estrogen and androgen levels to breast cancer risk. 15. Gomez J-L.50:3859-62. Casson PR. Villareal DT. Aksoy IA.89:681-3. Morales AJ. Potential drug DHEA hits snags on way to clinic. Effect of replacement dose of DHEA in men and women of advancing age. Miller R. Pycha A. Zumoff B. Cusan L. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995. Engleman EG. Metabolic effects of 12-month percutaneous DHEA replacement therapy in post menopausal women.774:16-28. JAMA 1996. New York. Comment [c2]: Could not find other authors Comment [c3]: Could not find other authors Comment [c4]: Could not find other authors Comment [c5]: Could not find other authors www. et al. DHEA and peripheral androgen and estrogen formation: intracinology. Evans and Company.59:147-57. van Vollenhoven RF. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996. 19. Kohrt WM. Morales AJ. The relationship of DHEAS to endocrin-metabolic parameters and functional status in the oldest old. Bush TL. 22. Abraham GF. Engleman EG. 18. Leidich RB. et al.291-3. Markham M.. 23. Skolnick AA.150(Suppl):43S-50S. et al. Fertil Steril 1995. 27.774:128-42. Neumann O. Comment [c1]: Could not find other authors. 20.276:1365-7. 1998. Marks M. et al. et al. DHEA attenuates study-induced declines in insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Replacement of DHEA enhancer T-lymphocyte insulin binding in postmenopausal women. Yen SSC. Life Sce 1996. Cancer Res 1992. Abnormal 24-hr mean plasma concentration of DHEA and DHEAS in women with primary operable breast cancer. Ravaglia G. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995. et al.50:784-8. Gordon GB. Rosenfeld RS. Levin J. Diamond P. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997.41:3360-3. 675-88.9:1305-10. Strasburger CJ. Wolf OT. 16. Balch J. Lebrie C.49:421-32.774:128-42. Nelson JC. Yen SS. Umstot ES. Marksham M. et al. Arthritis Rheum 1994. Franz C. placebocontrolled study. a case report and review. Morales AJ. 29. DHEA in systemic lupus erythematosus: Results of a double-blind. body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Potential drug DHEA hits snags on way to clinic. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Hellhammer DH. Clin Endocrinol (oxf) 1998. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997. 26.38:1826-31. Nguyen A. Buster JE. Straub M. Urology 1999. The effect of six months treatment with a 100mg daily dose of DHEA on circulating sex steroids.1996. 9.19 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 1. Casson PR. Wolf S. 24. Araghiniknam M. Egerman RS. Marks A. 7. van Vollenhoven RF. p.89:681-3. Chung S. Nolan JJ. Dressendorfer RA. Strain GW. Alberg AJ. Nguyen A.com . Ann NY Acad Sci 1995. Comstock GW. 1996. randomized clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997.50:784-8. Fukushima DK. Geiben AC. Schatzl G. Khorram O. Eskelson C. Watson RR. Effects of a two-week physiological DHEA substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. Buster JE. 12. Labrie F. Faquin LC. Larchment. Use of DHEA in a patient with advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review. Cancer Res 1990. 11.81:1173-7. Fabrie F. Gordon GB.82:2263-7. Helzlsouer KJ.52:1-4. Dorgan JF. 13. MD: Williams & Wilkins. 17. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkeres Prev 1996. Balitmore. Effect of age and sex: day-to-day and diurnal variations. Falk RT. Stentz FB. Jones JA. Urology 1997. Reiter WJ. 28. Relationship of serum levels of DHEA and DHEAS to the risk of developing postmenopausal breast cancer. DHEA-a pleiotropic steroid: How can one steroid do so much? In: Klatz RM: Advances in anti-aging medicine. Helzlsouer KJ. Anderson RN. Bates CW. DHEA in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective double-blind reandomised. Urology 1997. Veech RL. Rosenfeld RS. McNeil C. Belanger A.
Gynecol Obstet Invest 1987. Sciajno R. Ross RK. Friedlander NJ. et al.50:6571-4. Koivula T. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996. 32. Bolelli G.meschinohealth.88:291-6.61:298-302. Muti P. Heinonen PK. Krogh V.23:271-4. 33. Bernstein L. Cancer Res 1990. Hormone levels in older women: a study of post-menopausal breast cancer patients and health population controlds. Br J Cancer 1990. Pike MC.20 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 30. Khaw KT. Henderson BE. 31. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and breast cancer risk. Brown JB. Berrino F.com . Serum sex hormone levels after menopause and subsequent breast cancer. Barrett-Connor E. Decreased serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer. www. Pystynen P. Micheli A.
or fibrositis. celiac disease and Crohn’s disease) or an in -born defect resulting in insufficient lactase enzyme synthesis (lactose intolerance). giardiasis. osteoarthritis. 7 Other reports include favorable outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis and lupus (systemic lupus erthymatosus). A.6 There is also evidence that many people show a trend towards reduced digestive enzyme concentrations as they age. in certain instances. there is a corresponding pancreatic enzyme deficiency. belching or gas tend to have low gastric acidity if the symptoms arise shortly after consuming a meal.21 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Digestive Enzymes General Features The vast majority of Digestive Enzymes in the body are secreted by the pancreas and the epithelial cells of the upper intestinal tract. Some cases of ankylosing spondylitis and Still’s disease (Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis) have also responded well to this intervention. but these sources do not factor significantly into the overall digestion of a meal or snack. and supplementation of Digestive Enzymes has been shown to be a legitimate aspect of treatment.com .9 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.g. lipase and pepsin. One clinical observation of significance suggests that individuals who chronically experience post-meal (postprandial) bloating. Some authorities link this decline to an increased risk of degenerative diseases and provide some evidence that digestive enzyme supplementation may be beneficial to counter these outcomes as we age. excess alcohol consumption. Celiac Disease These conditions have been shown to benefit from the use of digestive enzyme supplementation as insufficient digestive enzyme synthesis and secretion are hallmark features of each of these conditions. reported in the Annals of Rheumatic Diseases that he obtained good results with enzyme treatment in over 700 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. benefit from the use of digestive enzyme supplementation.8.2. very rich meal.5. whereas in patients where these symptoms develop an hour or more after eating.184.108.40.206 In health conditions. some health practitioners indicate good results with various arthritic patients when Digestive Enzymes are added to the treatment program. allowing certain partially digested food matter to be absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis. 7 Other studies reveal that digestive enzyme supplementation may be helpful in the management of various arthritic and allergic conditions as well as being a potentially important adjunctive treatment for certain cancers. in individuals with normal digestive processes. Cystic Fibrosis. where there has been damage to the intestinal tract epithelial cells. producing www. Post-Meal Bloating and Abdominal Discomfort (Indigestion or Dyspepsia) Evidence has shown that digestive enzyme supplementation can improve digestion of a large. Saliva and stomach juices contain small quantities of Digestive Enzymes. such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis.meschinohealth. damage from non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Once in the bloodstream these substances trigger a response from the immune system. Renshaw from Manchester in England.. Dr. such as amylase. Arthritic Conditions Although not well acknowledged. The subjects given the Digestive Enzymes reported less bloating. which implies that the normal gut lining has been damaged or is somehow defective. perception of gas and fullness after consuming the same large. very rich meal as those given the placebo.4.10 Some reports indicate that 58% of the population suffer from some type of digestive disorder and may thus. high fat.6 3. the problem is more likely to be a result of digestive enzyme deficiency.3. (e. Animal and human studies demonstrated that.7 2. Crohn’s Disease. the use of Digestive Enzymes is also of proven value.1 In certain conditions. a person can develop a leaky gut. high fat. The mechanism of action in these cases appears to involve interaction with the body’s immune system.3.
meschinohealth. In the two-year study by Gonzalez.13 The overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is normally less than one percent at five years. Despite the ridiculing he received for this theory. which included diet.14 www. Gonzalez was asked by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to present some of his cancer cases. helping to improve the patient’s overall condition. was highly effective in reducing fecal fat loss. Beard realized that the day the placenta stopped growing was the same day the pancreas started producing enzymes. stop the growth of invasive cells. was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and treated himself with high dose oral pancreatic enzymes.9. Beard also noted that the placenta of all mammals invades the uterus and then on a certain day. detoxification procedures and large doses of proteolytic enzymes (25-40 gms of porcine lyophilized pancreas product daily. is considered to be incurable at this time. he was able to significantly improve survival in the majority of patients who followed his protocol.12 4. Cancer Treatment Support Studies on humans and animals suggest that Digestive Enzymes may also be of value in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers. away from meals. at a dose of 1000 units of lipase enzyme per gram of ingested dietary fat. Based on his presentation.11. and is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. proposed in 1906 that pancreatic enzymes represent the body’s main defense against cancer and would be useful in cancer treatment. taken in capsule form. nutritional supplements. Gonzalez.13 After Beard’s death in 1923. a number of researchers pursued this line of investigation and the medical literature in the first two decades of the 20th century provided documentation of several case reports of tumor regression and even remission in terminal cancer patients treated with pancreatic enzymes. its invasive growth is shut off. claiming 27. which in humans is 56 days after conception. a study was performed to test the efficacy of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in AIDS patients with known fat malabsorption problems.22 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils immune complexes (a type of antigen-antibody reaction).9 5. Gonzalez was a awarded a research grant from the NCI to perform a study on 12 patients with diagnosed pancreatic cancer. It is one of the most highly malignant cancers of humankind. a doctor involved in the use of Digestive Enzymes. including many different human cancer cell lines. German researchers have shown that the use of digestive enzyme supplements in these cases can dissolve and clear these immune complexes.2. From this he theorized that pancreatic Digestive Enzymes were a signaling agent that stopped the cancer-like invasion of the placenta into the uterus. Gonzalez has now gone on to receive full funding to do multi-institute studies using Digestive Enzymes. Recent studies have shown that pancreatic insufficiency is a co-determining factor of malabsorption in these cases. The treatment was successful and in 1993. Beard and others went on to shown that Digestive Enzymes can. HIV and AIDS Nutrient malabsorption is a negative prognostic factor in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).com . The study showed that the use of the digestive enzyme product Creon. As such. Dr. Acting on his hypothesis. Beard (an embryologist) discovered that in all animals the pancreas is secreting enzymes well before birth. He presented 25 cases involving a variety of different cancers.9 Dr. in fact. Dr. Dr. with accompanying inflammatory reaction and a worsening of the above-noted conditions. after diagnosis. when Dr. the enzyme theory was largely forgotten until 1963. based on these encouraging preliminary results. The researchers indicate that if other double-blind studies reveal similar findings. The Scottish embryologist.800 lives in 1996. then pancreatic enzyme supplementation can be added to the weapons in the fight against HIV/AIDS-associated malabsorption. John Beard. and spread evenly throughout the day).
allergies and pancreatic insufficiency etc. and those derived from non-animal sources (e. three times per day between meals.doses as high as 1. Digestive Enzymes are not associated with any adverse side effects or toxicity. respectively. and 330 IU of protease.900 IU of amylase.000 U/g Proteases .000 U/g Lipase . Severe Pancreatic Insufficiency . which catalyzes the transformation of one micromole of substrate per minute under defined conditions (e. Bromelain and papain enzymes are also available from the pineapple stem and the papaya.com .6. Patients took six to ten capsules per day17 3.g.. have also reported very few side effects and/or cases of intolerance. Toxicity and Contraindications At supplemental doses used to improve digestion and health optimization.11. For improvement of digestion and general health support.200 U/g Lactase . Potency of Digestive Enzymes is often listed as U/gm. HIV/AIDS .1.000 U/g 15.24.17. Studies using significantly higher doses for the treatment of cancer.19 www.10.g. and not less than 25 USP units of protease activity (USP represents United States Pharmacopoeia).000 IU of lipase.5.a product known as Pancreatin (10X) has been used in these cases. at 350700 mg.8. Each commercial digestive enzyme product has a different composition and U/g potency.a proven intervention has used a pancreatic enzyme source yielding 5. the following minimum requirements would define a respectable digestive enzyme product on a per dosage basis: Amylase .2.13.000 U/g Cellulase .the study by Gonzalez used 25-40 gms per day of porcine lyophilized pancreas product in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. lactase.researchers used a product known as Creon at 1. where IX potency indicates that the preparation of hog pancreatic enzymes has in each milligram not less that 25 USP units of amylase activity.23 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dosage and Standardized Grade Digestive Enzymes are available in two forms. sucrase and maltase.16 1.. where U equals activity units.meschinohealth. cellulase.19 Adverse Side Effects.12. A full strength product usually provides 10 times the 1X dosage or is listed as 10X potency. as well as protease I and protease II Digestive Enzymes). making it very difficult to decide which of these is effective for certain applications. Multiple Sclerosis and Cystic Fibrosis . 25 degrees C and optimal pH conditions).000 units of lipase enzyme per gram of ingested fat. and 1 unit (U) is defined as the amount.000.000 USP units of Pancreatin were successful in managing severe pancreatic insufficiency in a clinical trial. Celiac Disease .9 220.127.116.11.7. those derived from the glands of animals (usually hog pancreas).. the fermentation of wheat bran by Asperigillus oryzae to yield carbohydrases such as alpha and beta amylase. General Health Support and Improved Digestion (see above minimum requirements) 2.18 4.14. not less than 2 USP units of lipase activity. Cancer Treatment .6. 14 6. 2.4.
Standard Textbooks of Nutritional Science: A. Hendler S. Lee K. Apr1994. with… Nutrition & Cancer 1999.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. ILSI Press 2001. placebo-controlled trial. 9. Prima Publishing 1998.2:422-6 Gonzalez NJ. Prentice Hall Inc.28(1):3-10 Patel RS. editors. C. 3.B. 2nd ed. Pancreatic enzymes: secretion and luminal nutrient digestion in health and disease.89(4):566-70 Layer P. Prima Publishing 1995. 2. 4.. Issacs. 3. nutrition and diet therapy. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Graham DY. editors. Olson J and Ross C. randomized. Celiac disease and recurrent pancreatitis.33(2):p117 www.54(suppl 2):43-7 Bitonsky. Gastrointest Endosc 1999. It is best not to take betaine hydrochloride at the same time as Digestive Enzymes to improve digestion. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. Saunders Company 2000. 7. The treatment of food allergy and indigestion of pancreatic origin with pancreatic enzymes. 8 th ed. Present knowledge in nutrition. Wittenkind J. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). 6. LL. Escott-Stump S and Mahan LK. Evans and Company Inc. 2. although the inclusion of high dose bromelain may potentially enhance the anti-clotting effects of warfarin.24 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for Digestive Enzymes. Evaluation of pancreatic proteolytic enzyme treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. Johlin FC Jr. Digestion 1993. Bowman B and Russell RM. Experts suggest taking betaine hydrochloride at the beginning of a meal and Digestive Enzymes at the end of a meal.20 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Shils M. and Herbs. 9th ed.meschinohealth. Digestive Enzymes: The Missing Link. Supplements. J Clin Gastroenterol Jan1999. Murray M. 5. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1993.com . B. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. All lactase preparations are not the same: results of a prospective. 4. Nutrition in perspective. editors. 8. The Doctor’s Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. Reavley NM.50:823-7 Gullo L. 1987. as the acidity from betaine hydrochloride will denature the Digestive Enzymes. Marilyn. Murray M. Boon H and Smith M.. 10th ed. Feb2000. Keller J. Am J Dig Dis Nutr 1935. Kreutler PA and Czajka-Narins DM. when these supplements are being used to improve digestion and absorption. 1998. W.g. 1. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. 1997. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. Indication for pancreatic enzyme treatment in non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Simon and Schuster 1990:347-8 Ramirez FC. rendering them inactive. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. D. Am J Gastroenterol. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements.6(2):p16 Oelgoetz AW. Life Extension. Oelgoetz PA. Minerals. Murray JA. Shike M. Food.
www. Enzyme Therapy. Literature review & commentary: Pancreatic enzymes improve digestion. Pizzorno J.23:63-70 20. New york: Vantage Press 1972:135-220 13. The effect of systemic enzyme therapy on cancer cells and the immune system. Nakamura T. 1995. Carroccio A. Healthnotes. Inc.com 17.com/healthnotes www. Sabinsa Corporation Product Manual. (Product Brochure) www. Berni Canani R. Specialty Enzymes and Biochemicals Co. et al. Townsend letter for Doctors & Patients. www. Prima publishing 1997:138-9 19. 2001. Tandoh Y. Effects of high-lipase pancreatin on fecal fat. Innovation: The health Letter of FAIM.sabinsa. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine 2nd ed. Guarino A.com 16.com .25 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 10. Gaby. Wolf M. Pizzorno J. neutral sterol.meschinohealth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001 Oct. Terada A et al. Digesyme. Prima publishing 1997:327-8 18. Int j Pancreatol 1998. Zuin G.puritan. Sep97(3):p13 14. Cichoke AJ. Verghi F.Nov:30-2 12.15(10):1619-25 15. and short-chain fatty acid excretion in patients with pancreatic insufficiency resulting from chronic pancreatitis. bile acid. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Apr 2000(210):p40 11.4enzymes. Gonzalez. Efficacy of oral pancreatic enzyme therapy for the treatment of fat malabsorption in HIV-infected patients. AR. Murray M. Murray M. N. Preliminary results of Pancreatic Cancer Study. Healthnotes Online. Ransberger K. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine 2nd ed.
some patients have reported increased confusion and drowsiness in trials with Alzheimer ’s patients.5 DMAE is now a natural health product and is no longer categorized as an over-thecounter or prescription drug. irritability and anxiety.1. attentiveness. sounder sleep and better ability to concentrate than the placebo group. results do not show an improvement in memory or cognitive function.9 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. Attention Deficit Disorder. a nutrient used by the brain to make the memory chemical acetylcholine. DMAE’s effects generally develop slowly over a period of two to four weeks.10. when given a daily www.26 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) (Deanol) General Features Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). 500 mg of Deanol per day was shown to be as effective or better than the drug methylphenidate with respect to improved learning capability and correction of behavior disorders. Studies on DMAE date back to the 1950’s and indicate that DMAE may be of value in the treatment of autism and for children with hyperkinetic behavior and learning disorders. but concrete evidence is lacking to support this effect in humans. Initially.8 Dosage and Standardized Grade 1.9 2.4. One study on medical students demonstrated greater daytime energy. Childhood Attention Deficit Disorder. but do suggest that it may reduce depression. General Wellness . and increase motivation-initiative.4.3.Doses up to 600 mg. Overall. is a naturally occurring substance that is structurally similar to choline. it was claimed that DMAE could increase brain levels of acetylcholine based upon animal experimentation. three times per day.3 However.Doses as low as 10 to 20 mg per day have been used to produce a pleasant degree of central nervous system stimulation within 7-10 days. but 100 mg once or twice per day can be used. In one study involving 74 children referred for treatment for childhood hyperactivity.4. 1 2. have been used without untoward side effects.12 3. with two parents indicating improvement for every one parent reporting a worsening of the condition from DMAE supplement use.4 A 1988 survey by the Institute for Child Behavior in San Diego revealed that DMAE was the second most popular supplement used by parents to help their children with autism. also known as Deanol. Childhood Hyperactivity and Autism Some studies have shown that DMAE can improve attention span and decrease irritability in children affected by attention deficit problems and hyperactivity disorders.2.11.7 Principle Active Constituents 2-Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is the active ingredient and was marketed as a prescription drug in the 1960’s and 1970’s under the name Deanol. Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease Several studies have tested the use of DMAE in Alzheimer’s and dementia patients.meschinohealth. Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia .1. after vitamin B6 and magnesium.3.com .500 mg per day has been used in various studies. Hyperactivity And Autism .
5. Clin Pharmacol Ther.25(6):241-4 Lewis JA. Chou D. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1977. Murray M.1:195-244 www. 10. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.11. Jenden DJ. J Am Geriatr Soc. Gershon S.27 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils dosage of 10 mg for the first week and two. Parasympathetic neurohumors.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. Supplements. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. Clark C. Better Nutrition. Dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) metabolism in rat brain and its effect on acetylcholine synthesis. Sahelian R.. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition).200:545-59 Pfeiffer CC. Minerals. dull headache can occur when used in large initial doses and continued over-dosage can produce insomnia and tenseness of the neck. Thus. Deanol and methylphenidate in minimal brain dysfunction.13 Drug-Nutrient Interactions Anticholinergic Medications . Possible precursors and effect on behavior. Sathananthan G. 2.13 Epilepsy . DMAE for brain health. it is better to build up the dosage slowly over time. trihexyphenidyl and scopolamine. Jun1977. Apr99. Prima Publishing 1995. Hanin I. and other sites. scopolamine. after which the subjects could modify their own dosage for a total of six consecutive weeks. 9 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Is 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) indeed a precursor of brain acetylcholine? A gas chromatographic evaluation. Boon H and Smith M. ipratropium.61(4):p32 Jope RS.DMAE may exacerbate epileptic seizure frequency. Senile dementia: treatment with deanol. International Review of Neurobiology. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine.13 Adverse Side Effects. 3. 4.meschinohealth. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. jaw.12 As well.17(5):534-40 Zahniser NR. legs. Murray M. Evans and Company Inc. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. 2.211(3):472-9 Ferris SH. hyposcyamine. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins.DMAE has the potential to alter the action of drugs intended to increase acetylcholine levels. benztropine. Toxicity and Contraindications DMAE can cause drowsiness and confusion in some Alzheimer’s patients. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. 1. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. Other reported side effects include lucid dreaming.com . Dec1979. and Herbs. Prima Publishing 1998. Young R. 1997. 1959. May1975. 6. 1998.g. Reavley NM. depression and hypomania (moderate mania). 3. such as atropine. 10 mg tablets per day for the second week. 4.13 Studies on humans and animals do not reveal any significant toxicity of DMAE. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc.
Helmes E.com . 9. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.138:970-2 Sergio W. Jun-Jul1995. 1979.meschinohealth. Townsend Letters for Doctors & Patients.26:255-7 Casey DE.51(2-3):369-73 Fisman M. Med Hypotheses. Psychopharmacology. Helmes E. Jul1981.138(7):970-2 Dietary Supplement Information Bureau.28 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 7.8:752-6 www. Effects of nicotinic demithylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze. 10.com/DMAE Fisman M. 1981. 8. Mersky H. Double-blind trial of 2-dimethylaminoethanol in Alzheimer’s disease. Levin ED. Meical journalist report of innovative biologics: Forestalling the effects of aging with Dimethylaminoethanol. 11. www. Mersky H. Mood alterations during deanol therapy. Abood L.62:187-91 Walker.intramedicine. Am J Psychiatry. 1988. Double-blind trial of 2-dimethylaminoethanol in Alzheimer’s disease. 13. Am J Psychiatry. Use of DMAE (2-dimethylaminoethanol) in the induction of lucid dreams. Morton. Rose JE. 11/01/1990. 12.
3 DHA is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain. DHA does not directly participate in the formation of prostaglandins or eicosanoids (hormone-like substances produced by local tissue). which are less inflammatory. Unlike EPA. flaxseed oil or fish oil supplementation.meschinohealth. are conducting a large intervention trial with ADHD children to see if essential fatty acid supplementation yields an improvement over placebo. or enhance metabolism of EPA and DHA.8. most commonly 250 – 1.29 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (Fish Oil) (See also EPA) General Features DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid that is found in fish oil along with EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid). which is the immediate precursor of prostaglandin series-3.4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Some evidence suggests that children with ADHD may have significantly lower proportions of plasma Docosahexaenoic Acid. Although good results have been reported with gamma-linolenic acid. Eczema Supplementation with various essential fatty acids has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of eczema. Nerve Conduction Individuals with a genetic disorder known as Zellweger Syndrome are known to have low levels of DHA.16 www.1 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1. helping to improve muscle and vision function. Asthma Increasing DHA and EPA intake (through supplementation) can improve asthma in children by reducing the concentrations of arachidonic acid. DHA may not reduce platelet clotting behaviour. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of inflammatory 4-series leukotrienes.1. DHA supplementation in these individuals has demonstrated improvement in nerve myelination and nerve impulse conduction.5 Double-blind evidence links DHA supplementation in premature infants to better brain functioning.15 Dosage Ranges Therapeutic use of DHA is usually in the range of 1-3 gms of DHA from fish oil. However. Thus fish oil supplementation may be the preferred essential oil supplement for these patients.10 3. nervous system and retina. DHA can be converted to EPA. Burgess et al. studies seem to show that the degree of improvement correlates with the increased concentration of DHA in serum phospholipids. which may reflect an impairment in the ability to convert EPA into DHA.2.com . 7 2. helping to relieve asthma symptoms and improving respiratory function.6 DHA has been shown to reduce levels of blood triglycerides. where it is required for normal growth and development of the brain. The ingestion of fish oil supplements shifts leukotrienes synthesis from series 4 to series 5. DHA is essential for normal visual and neurological development in infants.9. It also appears that unlike EPA.11 4.000 mg per day.
12. et al. Kleppinger KM. Arm JP.31(Suppl):1775S-81S. placeb-controlled trial. is not contraindicated with their use. 11. Davidson MH. 15. 14. Broughton KS. 12. 9. Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma: Results of a 1-year double-blind study.126:3032-9. Supplementation with an algae source of DHA increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects. Martinez M.139:1395-400.30 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity See EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) Contraindications and Drug-Nutrient Interactions Fish oil supplementation may increase blood cholesterol and at high doses may increase insulin resistance in diabetics. Resortin the DHA levels in the brains of Zellweger patients. 13. Lipids 1996. and blood coagulation in humans. J Mol Neurosci 2001. Pace BK.14 1. Kaul S. Healthnotes Online. Am J Clin Nutr 2000. 8. et al. Effect of dietary DHA on brain composition and neural function in term infants. 10. Soyland E. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dry J. Werkman SH. Makrides M. Am J Clin Nutr 1997.32:1129-36.37:1567-73. Dietary supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis: a double-blind.meschinohealth.intramedicine. A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed DHA until nine months.130:757-64. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia: A randomized. Lipids 1996:31:91-7.13.95:156-7. Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production. Int Arch Allergy Apply Immunol 1991. Healthnotes Inc 2000:DHA. Schectman G. www. Schaefer EJ. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on the airway response to inhaled allergen in bronchial asthma. Dietary Supplementation Information Bureau. Axelrod L. Br J Dermatol 1994. et al. Neumann MA. There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for DHA.com . 6. double-blind.31:115-9. Stevens L. et al. 3. Kalkowski J.com:DHA. J Nutr 1996. platelet fatty acid composition. Diabetes Care 1994. multicentre study. Effect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDM. Johnson CS. J Am coll Nutr 1997:16. Is dietary DHA essential for term infants? Lipids 1996.65:1011–7. Drennan KB. Diabetes 1988. The effect of dietary DHA on platelet function. Gibson RA.content. DHA does not potentiate the effects of anti-coagulant drugs and therefore. Liebman M. who should not exceed 2.85(6):966-74. Makrides M. Nelson GJ. 2. Am Rev Respiratory Dis 1989.7(Suppl):327S-30S. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factor in non-insulin dependent diabetics(NIDD). Lipids 1997. Burgess JR. Comment [c6]: Could not find other authors Comment [c7]: Could not find other authors Comment [c8]: Could not find other authors Comment [c9]: Could not find other authors www. 4. Unlike EPA. Kassebah AH.5 gm of fish oil per day (taken as a supplement). 7.17:37-45. Torri SA. Zhang W. 5. Holub BJ. Gibson RA.71. Conquer JA. Maki KC. Carlson SE. Neumann MA. Peck L. 16.3:236-43.
11. with fish consumption three or more times per week (plus low fat protein foods. for a total of 30 percent omega-3 composition. Blood Pressure Many studies have revealed that supplementation with either fish oil or flaxseed oil can lower blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.7 3. These unique omega-3 fatty acids provide a number of health benefits such as lowering triglycerides.2 www. vegetables and some nuts). a professor of Neurology.com .3.e.e.5. Omega-3 fats from fish oil have been studied extensively and a number of clinical trials reveal the benefit of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the prevention and management of various health conditions. via the conversion of EPA to prostaglandin-series 3 end products. 40-50 gms (3-4 tablespoons) of polyunsaturated vegetable oils. These omega-3 fatty acids occur in fish oil typically as 18 percent EPA.S. Over a dozen studies of this nature suggest its superiority in this regard to oils that feature gamma-linolenic acid (i. joint tenderness and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids.8. Roy Swank. salmon oil 30 gms per day). Rheumatoid Arthritis Studies using fish oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrate that it can profoundly reduce morning stiffness. Lower Triglycerides Fish oil supplementation has consistently been shown to help reduce hypertriglyceridemia by 30-64 percent5 (i.meschinohealth.1. In short the Swank Diet encourages less saturated and hydrogenated fats. while facilitating vasodilation.4. evening primrose oil).12 6.6 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1.3.10 4. one teaspoon per day of cod liver oil (containing EPA and DHA).9. Multiple Sclerosis Dr. More typically 15 gm of fish oil per day is used to lower triglyceride levels. Decrease Platelet Stickiness Studies demonstrate that fish oil supplementation reduces platelet coaguability and thrombotic tendencies.5 2.5 Various polyunsaturated fats of the omega-6 and omega-3 series provide the precursors for prostaglandin and eicosanoids synthesis.6 5. 12 percent DHA. reducing platelet stickiness and providing immediate precursors that provide anti-inflammatory activity. provided evidence that manipulating dietary fats can slow the progression of M.31 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) (Fish Oil) (see also DHA) General Features Fish oil contains Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA).5.6. Crohn’s Disease Fish oil supplementation has been shown to benefit patients with Crohn’s Disease via its effects on promoting the formation of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids.2 Supplementation with fish oil has been shown to increase the synthesis of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances) and other eicosanoids that reduce inflammation and decrease platelet coaguability and thrombotic tendencies.4.
A randomized.47:405-24. 1996.13 8. 8. which may help diabetics reduce risk of cardiovascular complications. Dyerberg J. 5.32 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 7. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids on in vitro neutraphil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil generation. certain heart disease patients must exercise caution with use of fish oil supplementation. 7. Angerer P. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: possible mechanisms. Schmidt EB. thus.130:554-62.meschinohealth.U. Lipid. per day).B.com . Lokesh B. Weber P.18 High doses of fish oil can increase insulin resistance in diabetics. 6. lipoprotein. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1985. double-blind.53:1210-6. Omega-3 fatty acids: Current status in cardiovascular medicine. but fish oil is easily damaged by oxygen forming undesirable peroxides and other free radicals. Pajares JM. Strasser T. Leukotriene B5 is formed in human neutrophils after dietary supplementation with EPA.14 N. This level appears to be safe and may decrease platelet stickiness.19 1. Mate J. ideal amount for healthy people has not been determined.52:1-28. Garcia-Samaniego J. 3. Castanos R. Does dietary fish oil maintain the remission of Crohn’s disease: a case study.16 Contraindications and Drug-Nutrient Interactions Patients on anti-coagulant therapy must consult with their physicians before supplementing with fish oil. Drugs 1994.100:A228[abstract]. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Fish oil can further enhance the anti-clotting behaviour of platelets and potentially increase risk of bleeding disorders. www. New Eng J Med 1985. 2. Abbey M. Murray M. 4.82:1540-3. The maximum dosage for diabetics should not exceed 2.6 DHA and EPA are very non-toxic. Side Effects and Toxicity Some individuals report gastrointestinal upset and fish-tasting regurgitation. fish oil has helped some people with Raynaud’s Phenomenon in double-blind research. Am J Clin Nutr 1990. Lee TH. Rocklin. Theisen K.5 gm fish oils or 900 mg of purified EPA supplementation. Fischer S. p. Ulcerative Colitis Treatment with EPA (3-4 gms per day) was shown to decrease the synthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes and platelet responsiveness in patients with ulcerative colitis in a small study. von Schacky C. Ann Intern Med 1999. It should be consumed with adequate vitamin E to guard against oxidation (100-400 I. Mudra H. Kothny W. and hemostatic effects of fish vs fish oil w-3 fatty acids in mildly hyperlipidemic males. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. Raynaud’s Phenomenon Due to its effects on prostaglandin metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1991. Williams JD. placebo-controlled trial. CA: Prima Publishing. Hoover RL.312:1217-24. Stone RA.: for eczema and asthma. Clifton PM. see DHA (fish oil) Dosage Ranges For the above conditions mentioned in this section the usual dosage of fish oil is 10-15 gms of EPA plus DHA A lesser. Gastroenterology 1991.15 Some patients experience nose bleeds due to the anti-clogging effect of EPA. Cobiac L.17 Fish oil supplementation may also increase blood cholesterol. et al. Kinsella JE. 249-78.
Alpha-linolenic acid vs long-chain fatty acids in hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Lipids 1988. Garden City.meschinohealth. n-3 fatty acids as a risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke. S. 15. Appel LJ. Cullen-Dean G. Kremer JM. 13. Dose supplementation of diet with “fish oil” reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.8:133-5.23:370-1. 12. 17. prospective. Boschi. Briones E. 1977. Seidler AJ. Kassebah AH. J Pediats 1990. www. DiGiacoma RA. Reglink E. Diabetes Care 1994. Effect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDM. Cole PD. A. The Multiple Sclerosis Diet Book. Kleinman K. Malondialdehyde excretion by subjects consuming cod liver oil vs a concentrate of n-3 fatty acids.33 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 9. controlled prospective study. Belluzzi. 11.17:37-44. G. Pederson HS. Diabetes 1988. Lancet 1999. Shah DM. Schoenfeld D. NY: Doubleday.37:1567-73. 10.116:139-41. et al. Clarke JTR. 16. Brignola.153:1429-38. 19. et al.7:368–76. controlled study. Cariani. Schectman G. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease. C.71(Suppl):339S-42S. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: A double-blind. Swank RL. Axelrod L.com . Nutrition 1991. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM: a randomized. Williams E. Multiple sclerosis: fat-oil relationship. Piche LA. 14. Nutrition 1992. Whelton PK. Arch Intern Med 1993. Swank RL. Miller ER. Camuso J. Increased incidence of epistaxis in adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia treated with fish oil. Miglio F. A. double-blind. Draper HH. Kaul S.353:812-3. Am J Clin Nutr 2000. Am J Med 1989. et al. 18.86:158-64. Munarini. Singer P.
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Flaxseed Oil and Alpha-Linolenic Acid
Flaxseed Oil is a very rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fat that the body can slowly convert to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA is the prominent omega-3 fat found within fish and fish oil that is linked to the prevention of heart disease, cancer and demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties.1-4 Flaxseed Oil supplementation can help the body achieve a more optimal ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids, which is considered to be 4:1.5 The North American diet provides a 20:1 ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega3 fatty acids, which is thought to contribute to the development of many chronic degenerative diseases. 6 Various polyunsaturated fats of the omega-6 and omega-3 series give rise to the formation of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that regulate local tissue inflammation, proliferation and other factors). Studies reveal that supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids and lowering the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio results in increase of synthesis of anti-inflammatory and more health-promoting prostaglandins.7,8 Studies reveal that Flaxseed Oil has a favourable effect on the immune system and that its alpha-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the immediate precursor of prostaglandin series-3 derivatives.9,10
Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications
1. Anti-inflammatory and Autoimmune Reaction Some evidence suggests that Flaxseed Oil inhibits autoimmune reactions as well as fish oil (EPA). It may take a little longer, but it is less expensive and Flaxseed Oil does not produce the fish smelling regurgitation associated with fish oil supplementation.11 2. Cancer Dr. Joanna Budwig of Germany is a leading expert on essential fatty acid nutrition and has built an international reputation for treating cancer and other degenerative diseases with Flaxseed Oil.12 A major study demonstrated that the combination of high dose antioxidants with essential fatty acids (including alpha-linolenic acid) was able to halt the further progression of breast cancer in a group of 32 affected women, with spread of their condition to the axillary lymph nodes. Supplementation was initiated as an adjustment to standard breast cancer treatment. 13 3. Heart Disease Alpha-linolenic acid has been reported to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, in preliminary trials.14,15
Flaxseed Oil supplementation for most applications is in the range of 1,000-4,000 mg per day.
Contraindications and Toxicity
Flaxseed Oil toxicity has not been reported at the above levels of intake and there are no known contraindications.
There are no well-known drug interactions with Flaxseed Oil.16
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
Nordstrom DCE, Honkanen VEA, Nasu Y, Antila E, Friman C, Konttinen YT. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs safflower oil. Rheumatol Int 1995;14:231-4. von Schacky C, Angerer P, Kothny W, Theisen K, Mudra H. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:554-62. Mate J, Castanos R, Garcia-Samaniego J, Pajares JM. Does dietary fish oil maintain the remission of Crohn’s disease: a case control study. Gastroenterology 1991;100:A228[abstract] Gonzalez MJ. Fish oil, lipid peroxidation and mammary tumor growth. J Am Coll Nutr 1995;14:325. Schlomo Y, et al. Modulating the learning pain thresholds, and thermoregulation in the rat by preparations of free purified alpha-linolenic and linolenic acids: Determination of the optimal w3-to w6 ratio. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1993;90:10345-7. Murray M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1996. p. 249-78 Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD, Sperling RI, Ravalese J, Spur BW, et al. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil generation. New Eng J Med 1985;312:1217-24. Strasser T, Fischer S, Weber P. Leukotrien B5 is formed in human neutrophils after dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1985;82:1540-3. Bjerve KS, et al. Clinical studies with alpha-linolenic acid and long n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 1992;8:130-2. Mantzioris E, James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary substitution with alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases EPA concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9. Kelly DS. Alpha-linolenic acid and immune response. Nutrition 1992;8:215-7. Erasmus U. Fats and oils. Vancouver, BC: Alive Books; 1986. p. 273. Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Folkers K. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1994;199:1504-8. Chan JK, Bruce VM, McDonald BE. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linoleic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1230-4. Singer P, Jaeger W, Berger I, et al. Effects of dietary oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids on blood pressure, serum lipids, lipoproteins and the formation of eicosanoid precursors in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Human Hypertansion 1990;4:227-233. Healthnotes online. 2000 Healthnotes Inc: Flaxseed Oil.
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)
Evening primrose oil, black currant oil and borage oil contain Gamma-Linolenic Acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid. Gamma-Linolenic Acid is a precursor in the synthesis of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), which is known to have antiinflammatory properties.1 Thus, Gamma-Linolenic supplementation has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.2 The body can synthesize Gamma-Linolenic Acid from linolenic acid (found in many vegetable oils), however people with certain conditions appear to have a defect in the delta-6 desaturase enzyme that converts linolenic acid (LA) to Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA). Patients with premenstrual syndrome, diabetes, scleroderma, Sjogren’s Syndrome, Tardive Dyskinesia, eczema, and other skin conditions tend to have this metabolic block and research demonstrates that supplementation with a medicinal oil, rich in GLA, has helped people with these conditions. Furthermore, the delta-6 desaturase enzyme requires vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc as cofactors to convert LA to GLA. Suboptimal status of these micronutrients also impairs the conversion of LA to GLA, as does the presence of transfatty acids and alcohol in the diet.3-15 There is also evidence that an excess intake of LA stimulates conversion of GLA to arachidonic acid via the delta-5 desaturase enzyme. Arachidonic acid is proinflammatory and contributes to cardiovascular risk and other health problems.16 Nevertheless, supplementation with oils that contain Gamma-Linolenic Acid have shown them to be of benefit for certain conditions.11-15 As a general reference, evening primrose oil contains 9 percent Gamma-Linolenic Acid, borage seed oil is 22 percent GLA and black currant seed oil is 22 percent GLA and also contains 13 percent omega-3 fatty acids as alpha-linolenic acid.1
Supplementation Studies and Clinical Application
1. Diabetic Neuropathy Supplementation with Gamma-Linolenic acid-containing oil has been shown to help repair diabetic neuropathy and prevent nerve damage in diabetics as evidenced by placebo-controlled studies. Objective parameters, including nerve conduction studies, sensation and reflex testing were used to verify the neurological improvement. Diabetics have a decreased ability to convert LA to GLA, which is important for nerve cell membrane structure and impulse conduction. Supplementation of oils yielding as little as 240 to 480 mg of GLA have shown proven benefit in the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. 17 2. Arthritis and Joint Inflammatory Diseases Some studies have demonstrated that supplementation with evening primrose oil or black currant oil can significantly reduce symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis in double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. Other studies have failed to show improvement and researchers attribute this failure to the ability of GLA to raise tissue levels of arachidonic acid, while reducing cell membrane concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. In these
16:815[reviews].com .16:8-15.2:259-64. Med Hypoth 1984. Murray M. CA: Prima Publishing. Abnormalities in plasma essential fatty acid levels in women with pre-menstrual syndrome and with non-malignant breast disease. Rocklin. Horrobin DF. Walker J. Pye JK. 557-66. 6. et al. NY: Alan R Liss. Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. 7. twice a day). Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. Sjogren’s syndrome and the sicca syndrome: the role of prostaglandin E1 deficiency. Allawi J. Manku MS.14:233-47. 11. Horrobin DF. Payan J. Manku M. 9. 1990. et al. Vaddadi KS. DF. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis.27 N. p. 1990.21-24 Dosage Ranges For most conditions mentioned in this review supplementation of 270-540 mg GLA per day is typically used. 4.19. J Nutr Med 1991. Concurrent supplementation of GLA. Ann Pharmacother 1993. fish oil or flaxseed oil may be more beneficial. New York.000-6.3:118-39.18. Effects of essential fatty acids on cyclical mastalgia and noncyclical breast disorders. The importance of gamma-linolenic acid and prostaglandin E1 in human nutrition and medicine. Evening primrose oil has been reported to exacerbate symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy. 3. . Br J Derm 1984. 1996. vitamin C. et al. Hart LL. Med Hypoth 1980. zinc and magnesium helps to encourage the synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins (series 1 and 3). 252-68.20:1045-53.110:643. Hughes LE. New York. In: Omega6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Jamal GA. Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. Comment [c10]: Could not find the other authors Comment [c11]: Could not find the other authors Comment [c12]: Could not find the other authors www.26 Drug-Nutrient Interactions GLA-containing oils may increase seizure activity in patients taking anti-seizure medications. 333–43. p.20 3. which can sometimes be mistaken for schizophrenia. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. as evening primrose oil is 9 percent GLA content. Skin Inflammatory Conditions (Eczema. p. vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989. Treatment with essential fatty acids and vitamin C. 12. This implies that 3. Campbell A. Horrobin DF. Horrobin DF. Joe LA. and schizophrenia. These vitamins and minerals act as cofactors to help catalyze enzymatic conversion of essential fatty acids to the more desirable prostaglandins of the one and three series.8gm per day of GLA.25. Horrobin DF. The dosage of GLA used in the successful studies reported here used an oil yielding 2. Weir AI.meschinohealth. Psoriasis) Supplementation with oils that yield GLA have demonstrated improvement in patients suffering from eczema (atopic dermatitis) and psoriasis (GLA content of 274 mg.B. Keen H. 8. 10. or LNA with a B-50 complex. Diabetes Care 1993. Brush M. et al.6:225-32. 5. Horrobin DF. EPA. Morse NL. Side Effects and Toxicity GLA is very non-toxic. editor. Keen H.37 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils cases fish. Essential fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids of patients with atopic eczema. Horrobin. Essential fatty acids. J Holistic Med 1981. 2. Gilleard CJ.27:1475-7[review].000 mg of evening primrose oil would be required to yield this amount of pure GLA. In: Horrobin DF. Mansel RE. editor. Allawi J. Payan J. Diabetes Care 1993.1 1. Essential fatty acid metabolism in diseases of connective tissue with special reference to scleroderma and to Sjogren’s syndrome. tardive dyskinesia. NY: Alan R Liss.Studies using increased fish consumption or fish oil supplementation have also shown benefit in patients with psoriasis.
Amerio P. Boyce EG. Vaddadl KS. Br J Rheumatol 1994.14:233-47. Zaremba K. Zurier RB. Brit J Dermatol 1987.48:124-7. 15.6:375-9. Vapaatalo H. Arch Dis Child 1996. Andreassi M. A placebocontrolled double-blind study. Keen H. tardive dyskinesia. Annals Rheum Dis 1989. 1990. Mattila L. Walker J. p.16:8-15. Jansen CT. plasma phospholipid fatty acids and circulating blood prostaglandins. NY: Alan R Liss. Efficacy of gamma-linolenic acid in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. Gamma-linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.5:266-74.38 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 13. A randomized. Prostaglandins Med 1981. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids. Arch Intern Med 1998. Diabetic Care 1993.com . Janti J. Masci S. Forleo P. Hederos C. Di Lorio Z. 18.11:1808-17. Ursell A. 24. Jantti J. 27. et al. The use of gamma-linolenic acid and linolenic acid to differentiate between temporal lobe epilepsy and schizophrenia. A. Annals Rheumatol Dis 1989. Payan J. Arthritis Rheum 1996. Vaddadi KS. Collier PM. Leventhal LJ. Ew J Clin Nutr 1993. Epogam evening primrose oil treatment on atopic dermatitis and asthma. 22.meschinohealth.4:251-4.117:11-9. Zurier Rb. Staughton RC. Horribin DF. Borrek S. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis.9:847-52. 14.6:494-7. 333-43. et al. J Int Med Res 1997. Comment [c13]: Could not find the other authors Comment [c14]: Could not find the other authors www. 21. In: Horrobin DF. Gilleard CJ. Weir AI. Jamal GA. et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with black currant seed oil. Med Hypoth 1984.48:124-7. Miller LG. Abate G. 23. A trial of evening primrose oil in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. 19. Sanders T. J Orthomol Psychiatr 1983.3:100-4. 26. Berg. placebocontrolled trial. Hildebrandt A. Schalin-Karrila M. 17. Evening primrose oil in the treatment of atopic eczema: effect on clinical status. Allawi J. Essential fatty acid metabolism in diseases of connective tissue with special reference to scleroderma and to Sjogren’s syndrome. Rossetti RG. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. Payne CM. Bell AFJ. Effect of regular consumption of oily fish compared with white fish on chronic plaque psoriasis. Klin Padiatr 1997. Nikkari T. Essential fatty acids. The Gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group.158:220011. and schizophrenia. Forster J. Gamma-linolenic acid-rich borage seed oil capsules in children with atopic dermatitis. Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Uotila P. Changes in serum lipids and fatty acids. Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. 25. editor. 16. 20. New York.12:302-4. Holman CP. Solakivi T. Jacobson EW.
e. mood changes) result indirectly from the over-secretion of leutinizing hormone.14. 150 mg.cholesterol receptors on body cells. taken in divided doses (i. 150 mg.13 Dosage Menopausal Symptoms: 300 mg per day. Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lowering (Hypo-Lipidemic Effects) A number of clinical traits reveal that 300 mg per day of Gamma-Oryzanol supplementation can lower cholesterol by 8-12 percent and triglycerides by approximately 15 percent in subjects with elevated lipid levels. and inhibits the absorption of cholesterol from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream. The lack of response by the immature egg cells in the ovaries in menopause results in an over-secretion of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH by the pituitary.2 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1. twice per day) Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Toxicity studies on animals demonstrate that it is a very safe compound. which is attempting to initiate the start of another ovulatory cycle. The decline in circulating estrogen levels with menopause predisposes postmenopausal women to a rise in blood cholesterol and the development of atherosclerosis. Gamma-Oryzanol was shown to be effective in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.1 As far back as the 1960’s. twice per day) has been shown to reduce the secretion of leutinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary and promote endorphin release by the hypothalamus. including hot flashes. twice per day) Hypolipidemic Effects: 300 mg per day. increases bile acid excretion.com .8. taken in divided doses (ie.12. This is. have revealed that 67-85 percent of women treated with Gamma-Oryzanol have experienced a significant reduction in menopausal symptoms. in part.39 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Gamma-Oryzanol General Features Gamma-Oryzanol (esters of ferulic acid) is a growth-promoting substance in grains and is isolated from rice bran oil for use as a supplement.10.15 www. No significant side effects have been reported in human trials or experimental studies. due to the fact that estrogen increases the number of LDL. Menopausal Symptoms Supplementation with Gamma-Oryzanol (150 mg. 4 Clinical trials involving menopausal women and women who had their ovaries surgically removed.5. In 1970 Gamma-Oryzanol was approved as a medicinal treatment to lower cholesterol and triglycerides (Japan).6 2.11 These are important considerations for post menopausal women as heart disease is the most common cause of death in women over 50 years of age in North America. 1 Orally administered Gamma-Oryzanol is converted in the body to free ferulic acid.meschinohealth.9 Gamma-Oryzanol supplementation increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. enabling the body to remove LDL-cholesterol from the bloodstream very effectively.7. contributing to the onset of hot flashes and related symptoms. and subsequent studies have supported these findings. 3 Hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms (profuse sweating.
11.40 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Drug Nutrient Interactions There are no reported drug-nutrient interactions for gamma-olyzanol. The Merk Manual.45:543-52. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Sakamoto K. Kazumi T. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. p. Kadowaki H. Hennekens C. 14. Carcinogenicity study of gamma-oryzanol in B6C3F1 mice.12:263-8.45:559-65. et al. Willett W. www. Otaki Y.meschinohealth. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynecol 1984. Murray M.316:1105-10. Takahashi T. Jap J Pharmacol 1987. Chandrasekhara N. Durr Ther Res 1989. Sasaki J. 1996. Effect of oryzanol on cholesterol absorption and biliary & fecal bile acids in rats. 3. 6. Mass fragmentographic determination of ferulic acid in plasma after oral administration of gamma-oryzanol. Shimizu Y. 1. Amano M. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in dyslipidemic schizophrenics receiving major tranquilizers. Horm Metabol Res 1981. Kimura S. 8. et al. 13. Otaka T. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on serum lipid peroxide levels and climacteric disturbances. Ind J Med Res 1990. 5. Effects of gamma-oryzanol on hyperlipidemic subjects. Murase Y. 332-5. Yoshino G. et al. et al. Science 1995. Inhibition of LH secretion by gamma-oryzanol in rat. Iishima H. Takahashi T. Estrogen: key player in heart disease among women. et al. Clinical studies of oral administration of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric complaints and its syndrome. Kimura S.com .30:41-8. Seetharamaiah GS. Stampfer M. Carcinogenicity study of gamma-oryzanol in F344 rats.13:185. et al. Food Chem Toxicol 1992. Clin Ther 1990.30:49-56. Curr Ther Res 1989. Gura T.269:771-3. Rocklin. 16th edition. Tamagawa M.10:317. Chem Parm Bull 1982. p. 15. Obtet Gynecol Prac 1963. Miwa T.30:973-979. Food Chem Toxicol 1992. Rosner B. 12. 9. CA: Prima Publishing. 1767-8. et al.975-82. New Engl J Med 1987. 4. 10. Fujiwara S.45. Yoshino G.92:471-5. 2. Effects of gamma-oryzanol and cycloartenol ferulic acid ester on cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.12:147-9. Ishihara M. 7. Tamagawa M. Otaka T. 1992. Yamauchi J. Colditz G. Effects of gamma-oryzanol and probucol on hyperlipidemia. Merck & Co.
glycosaminoglycans chains repel each other. It also serves as a barrier to microorganisms from reaching cells. Keratan sulfate I 7. arterial walls. they lose the ability to manufacture sufficient levels of glucosamine-6-phosphate. Chondroitin sulfate 2. permitting compression and reexpansion (shock absorbing function) There are at least seven types of glycosaminoglycans. Because they are long and negatively charged. Hyaluronic acid 6. which differ from each other based upon the monosaccharides present in their repeating disaccharide units: 1. Proteoglycans are found in the synovial fluid of joints. which are then linked to UDP. The synthesis of all glycosaminoglycans is dependent upon the presence of glucosamine-6-phosphate. The repeating disaccharides usually contain an uronic acid or a glucuronic acid. Radioisotope studies using C14 glucosamine indicate that glucosamine supplementation is a good substrate for a kinase enzyme which yields glucosamine-6-phosphate. Heparin 4. Both N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl galactosamine are used as monosaccharides to form various glycosaminoglycans. The glycosaminoglycans in joint cartilage are comprised of repeating units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl galactosamine. All hexosamines are derived from glucosamine-6-phosphate. Hence the synthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate is essential to the production of ground substance throughout our lives. www. It appears that as some people age.com . and are frequently sulfated. Heparin sulfate 5. Glucosamine can then be N-acetylated by an acetyltransferase enzyme to yield Nacetyl glucosamine-6-phosphate and N-acetyl galactosamine. They are major components of the extracellular matrix or ground substance. the vitreous humor of the eye. and a hexosamine.41 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Glucosamine Sulfate General Considerations Glucosamine-6-phosphate is the precursor from which all proteoglycans are synthesized. as well as bone and cartilage. and are hence also referred to as proteoglycans. and thus. Keratan sulfate I is attached to asparagine. usually attached covalently to serine or threonine residues. Dermatan sulfate 3.meschinohealth. Their properties also give resilience to substances such as cartilage. The result is that cartilage loses its ability to act as a shock absorber and erosion of cartilage and ground substance can lead to osteoarthritis. This extracellular matrix is more than glue that holds cells together. Proteoglycans are proteins that contain many chains of glycosaminoglycans (formerly called mucopolysaccharides). a gelatinous material that forms a meshwork between cells. unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. Glucosamine-6-phosphate The body normally synthesizes glucosamine-6-phosphate by the transfer of an amino group from the amide of glutamine to fructose 6-phosphate. there is a reduction in the synthesis of N-acetyl galactosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine. As well. determining which substances approach a nd leave cells. which can then be used to form glycosaminoglycans. the proteoglycans occupy a very large space and act as “molecular sieves”. the glycosaminoglycans are linked to proteins. Glycosaminoglycans are long. Keratan sulfate II Except for hyaluronic acid.
Mechanism: oral glucosamine increases production of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by the vascular endothelium. the total daily dosage should be 20 mg/kg body weight. adhesion.1-9 Clinical Conditions and Mechanisms 1. N-acetylglucosamine is a poor substrate for a kinase activity and glucosamine hydrochloride has poor supportive evidence for its use. Wound healing Oral glucosamine may speed the healing of surgical wounds and may diminish scarring.42 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils The best form of glucosamine has been shown to be Glucosamine Sulfate. placebo controlled studies. Mechanism: Promoting the synthesis of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts in the early stages of healing. the metastatic capacity of cancer cells tends to correlate with their ability to produce heparanase.17-28 Dosage and Standardized Grade For arthritic conditions and wound healing an oral dose of 500 mg taken three times per day is typical. in a large number of double-blind. 3. This may also have application in Rheumatoid Arthritis as well. cross-linking proteins and reducing their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. as well as along the vascular endothelium and subepithelial basal lamina. It is concluded that heparan sulfate proteoglycans play an important role in stabilizing the subendothelial extracellular matrix.10-16 2. Mechanism: promoting the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and collagen by chondrocytes. Glucosamine ingestion also has a concurrent effect on increasing collagen production by chondrocytes. In heavier patients and those on diuretics. www. For arthritic patients improvement is usually noted within 8-12 weeks. In both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease there’s a marked deficiency in extracellular sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the mucosa (ulcerative colitis) and submucosa (Crohn’s disease). Osteoarthritis Oral Glucosamine Sulfate has been shown to decrease pain and improve mobility in osteoarthritic patients without side effects. GI ulcers and inflammatory bowel disorders In animal studies. and chemotaxis and like glucosamine has been reported to be effective for managing inflammatory bowel syndromes. It appears that the sulfur component of Glucosamine Sulfate may be critical to its beneficial effects on arthritis and other problems. thereby improving the endothelium’s barrier function. keloids. Extravasation of leukocytes and metastatic cancer cells requires degradation of heparan sulfate. Interestingly.meschinohealth.com . glucosamine supplementation has been shown to be clinically useful for these conditions. strictures. Heparan therapy has been successful in animals and humans with ulcerative colitis. Heparan can inhibit neutrophil activation. adhesions. The best form of glucosamine is Glucosamine Sulfate. helping to reverse the osteoarthritic process.
Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
Toxicity and Contraindications
At the above recommended levels glucosamine sulfate is highly non toxic. Rare side effects have included stomach upset, heartburn, diarrhea, nausea and indigestion. Patients with sulfa drug or sulfite allergies can still take Glucosamine Sulfate. It is impossible to be allergic to sulfur because it is an essential mineral for life. Individuals taking diuretics may need higher dosages (20 mg/kg body weight).29 There is some suggestion that glucosamine supplementation may increase insulin resistance in diabetics. The clinical importance of this remains to be determined.30,31
There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for Glucosamine Sulfate.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
Murray M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1996. p. 336-42. Marks DB, Marks AD, Smith CM, editors. Basic Medical Biochemistry: A clinical Approach. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins; 1996. p. 452-64. McCarthy M. Neglect of glucosamine as a treatment for osteoarthritis-a personal perspective. Medical Hypotheses 1994;42:323-7. McCarthy M. Glucosamine for wound healing. Medical Hypothesis 1996;47:273-5. Palmoski MJ, Brankt KD. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on proteoglycan metabolism and organization in canine articular cartilage. Arthritis Rheum 1980;23:1010-20. Roden L. Effect of hexosamines on the synthesis of chondroitin sulphuric acid in vitro. Arc Kemi 1956;10:345-52. Karzel K, Domenjoz R. Effects of hexosamine derivatives and uronic acid derivatives on glycosaminoglycan metabolism of fibroblast cultures. Pharmacology 1971;5:337. Kim JJ, Conrad HE. Effect of D-glucosamine concentration on the kinetics of mucopolysaccharides biosynthesis in cultured chick embryo vertebral cartilage. J Biol Chem 1974;249:3091-7. Matalon R, Dorfman A. The structure of acid mucolpolysaccharides produced by Hurler fibroblasts in tissue culture. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1968;60:179-85. Vidal RR, et al. Articular Cartilage Pharmacology: Parmacol Res Comm 10 1978;557-569. D'Ambrosia E, Casa B, Bompani R et al. Glucosamine sulphate. A controlled clinical investigation in arthrosis. Pharmacotherapeutica 1982;2:504-8. Vas AL. Double-blind clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulfate in the management of osteoarthroses of the knee in out-patients. Current Med Res Opinion 1982;8:145-9. Refinster JY, et al. Glucosamine sulfate significantly reduces progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:292. Delafuente JC. Glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Rheum. Dis Clin North Am 2000;26(1):1-11. Gottleib MS. Conservative management of spinal osteoarthritis with glucosamine sulfate and chiropractic treatment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(6):400-14. Glucosamine Sulfate [monograph]. Altern Med Rev 1999;4(3):193-5. Moriga M, Aono M, Murakami M, Uchino H. The activity of N-acetylglucosamine kinase in rat gastric mucosa. Gastroenterol Japonica 1980;15:7-13. Vlodavsky I, Fuks Z, Bar-Ner M, et al. Lymphoma-cell-mediated degradation of sulfated proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix: Relationship to tumor cell metastasis. Cancer Res 1983;43:2704-11. Nakajima M, Irimura T, Di ferrante D, et al. Heparam sufate degradation: Relation to tumor invasion and metastsitc properties of mouse B16 melanoma sublines. Science 1983;220:611-2. Ricovery W, Cappelletti R. Heparan sulfate endoglycosidase and metastatic potential in murine fibrosarcoma and melanoma. Cancer Res 1986;45:3855-61. Nakajima M, Irimura T, Nicolson GL. Heparanase and tumor metastasis. J Cell Biochem 1988;36:157-67. Vlodavsky I, Eldor A, Bar-Ner M, et al. Heparan sufate degradation in tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1988;233:201-10.
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Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
23. Clodavsky I, Korner G, Ishai-Michaeli R, et al. Extracellular matrix resident growth factors and enzymes: Possible involvement in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 9 1990;203-26. 24. Dwarakanath AD, Yu LG, Brookes C, et al. ‘Sticky’ neutropolis pathergic arthritis and response to heparin in pyoderma gangrenosum complicationg ulcerative colitis. Gut 1995;37:585-8. 25. Gaffney PR, O’Leary JJ, Doyle CT, et al. Response to heparin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1991;337:238-9. 26. Gaffney PR, Doyle CT, Hogan J, Gaffney A. Paradoxical response to heparin in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1993;104:A703. 27. Murch SH, MacDonald TT, Walder-Smith JA, et al. Disruption of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in intestinal inflammation. Lancet 1993;341:711-4. 28. Lee JCL, Spittel JA Jr., Sauer WG, et al. Hypercoagulability associated with chronic ulcerative colitis: Changes in blood coagulation factors. Gastroenterology 1968;54:76-85. 29. Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1995. 30. Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, Daniels MC, Targher G, Caruso B, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes. 2000;49(6):926-35. 31. Shankar RR, Zhu JS, Baron AD. Glucosamine Infusion in rats mimics the beta-cell dysfunction of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1998; 47(5):573-7.
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Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils
L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream and in the body. It is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid, fulfilling a number of biochemical needs. It operates as a nitrogen shuttle, taking up excess ammonia and forming urea. Ammonia, a by-product of certain normal biochemical reactions in the body (including the brain) is toxic to the human body and thus glutamine serves an important function in helping to convert ammonia into urea, a non toxic end product, which the body can easily eliminate. L-Glutamine can contribute to the production of other amino acids, glucose, nucleotides, protein and glutathione. It is the principal metabolic fuel for the epithelial cells that line the small intestine (enterocytes), and for certain immune cells, namely lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts.1 Glutamine intake has been shown to enhance glutathione stores in conjunction with N-acetylcysteine, which may forestall the progression of HIV infection to AIDS in afflicted patients. 2 Glutamine supplementation has been shown to help protect the gastrointestinal tract from damage by certain chemotherapy drugs (i.e. fluorouracil) and also prevents diarrhea that these drugs are known to produce.1,3 Glutamine supplementation has been shown to enhance immune system function and result in a lower level of infection and a shorter stay in hospital following surgery, radiation treatment, bone marrow transplantation, and in patients suffering from injury, compared with patients receiving Glutamine-free parenteral nutrition.4,5,6 Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid in that the body can synthesize it from the amino acid glutamic acid via the Glutamine synthase enzyme.7 However, during periods of fasting, starvation, critical illness, cancer, AIDS and following trauma, radiation treatment, surgery, bone marrow transplantation or in patients with a weakened immune system or catabolic stress, extra Glutamine replenishment has been shown to be beneficial to re-establish homeostatis.7 Glutamine is also a main anti-catabolic agent in muscle, which when supplemented, may help preserve muscle tissue (preventing its breakdown), during and after exercise. The heavier one trains, the greater the stress on the muscle and the greater is the use of Glutamine.8 During and following exercise or trauma, large amounts of alanine and Glutamine are released from muscle. They then travel through the blood stream to the liver where they can be used to form glucose and glycogen. The total loss of alanine and Glutamine induced by exercise is above the amount available in muscle and represents more than 50 percent of the total loss of muscle amino acids and nitrogen loss from muscle tissue during exercise. Studies show that during exercise other muscle amino acids (branched-chain amino acids) are used to donate their carbon skeletons to make alanine and certain alpha ketoacids and amino acids, such as alpha ketogluturate and glutamic acid are converted within the muscle to glutamine. Most notably, the branched-chain amino acid, leucine, isoleucine and valine serve as a substrate for alanine synthesis, but higher levels of intramuscular glutamine (via supplementation) may help to stop the catabolism of branched chain-amino acids, as glutamine can diffuse from the muscle and become a source of glucose in the liver to help maintain blood glucose and liver glycogen levels during periods of stress (i.e. exercise)8,9,10 This is also the role played by alanine, and thus, higher glutamine concentrations may reduce the requirement for alanine synthesis in the muscle, and thereby spare the breakdown of muscle tissue (branched-chain amino acid catabolism) during exercise and under other periods of catabolic stress (burn victims, infection, post surgery etc). 8,9,10
25 www.46 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1. although it may be required as part of parenteral nutrition requiring medical prescription and supervision. 11 However.000 mg per day of L-Glutamine post exercise session.24 Dosage Ranges N. in general.25 Another study. in 151 endurance athletes resulted in a significantly lower incidence of infections (19%) compared to the placebo group (51%). jeopardizing recovery and performance respectively. Muscle anti-catabolic-anabolic effect with exercise training: 2-4 gms.15. L-glutamine at a dose of up to 2. taken after the end of exercise.000 mg per day appears to be safe. Oral ornithine alpha-ketogluturate reduces muscle catabolism in burn and surgery patients and is known to increase muscle Glutamine levels. Prevention of Infections in Athletes Glutamine supplementation in endurance athletes has been shown to reduce the incidence of infections in this population. 1. in divided doses. A doubleblind.17 4. 2 2. Anti-Catabolic Effect with Exercise Oral Glutamine has been shown to maintain muscle mass in catabolic patients. Ornithine alpha-ketogluturate also stimulates the release of growth hormone and may thereby further provide an anti-catabolic and indirect anabolic effect on muscle tissue and lean mass. who are known to have their immune system suppressed by excess training of this nature.000 mg per day of L-Glutamine. Higher glutathione status correlates with a slowing of the progression of HIV to AIDS. demonstrated that 81% of athletes taking Glutamine had no subsequent infection during the study period compared to 49% in the placebo group. Post Bone Marrow Transplant. 12. twice daily with 7 gm of L-Arginine twice daily.meschinohealth. Glutathione depletion is common in these patients due to increased free radical production.000-5. Certain Chemotherapy Agents These patients have been shown to benefit from additional Glutamine. Glutathione is a first line antioxidant in the quenching of free radicals and participates in Phase I and Phase II liver detoxification functions. using the same protocol. placebo-controlled study showed that Glutamine supplementation at a dose of 5 gm. HIV-Infection Glutamine supplementation plus N-acetylcysteine supplementation enhances glutathione levels in HIV patients. Glutamine supplementation may increase ammonia levels and add to the ammonia burden of certain patients and athletes.com . As oral Glutamine supplementation can potentially produce undesirable levels of ammonia in the body.B.24.22 2. without contributing to ammonia build up. three times daily with meals (ornithine alphaketogluturate) or 2. Recovering from illness (elderly). A daily dosage of 2-4 mg per day of ornithine alpha-ketogluturate is required to increase growth hormone levels.8 To overcome this burden the use of alpha-ketogluturate has been shown to act as a Glutamine precursor.16 3. As an alternative oral ornithine alpha-ketogluturate has been used to elevate Glutamine status without ammonia build up when taken orally.14 4. surgery.4 3. Radiation Therapy.13. during the study period.24 It has been suggested that the immune system suppression associated with endurance exercise. Prevention of Infections in Athletes: 5. HIV-infection: 7 gm. due to reduction in Glutamine that results from intensive training. may be in part. it is unclear as to what levels of intake are safe (as a supplement). burn or wound healing: 10-30 gms per day of ornithine alphaketogluturate. However. Post-Trauma.
com . Buchman AL. Albarede JL. Nutrients and HIV: part three N-acetylcysteine. Soo-Kyung-Lim. placebo controlled.26 Mania symptoms may develop at doses above 2.4:290-305. randomised trial. 18. 6. Optimum Sports Nutrition.8 Ornithine alpha-ketogluturate supplementation is not associated with any side effects to date.000-5. De Vivo R.4:239-48. Felig P. Nitrogen sparing effects Ornicetil in the immediate post operative state. ornithine hydrochloride and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects. Amino Acid Metabolism in thermal burns.13:752-4. A Complete Nutritional Guide for Optimising Athletic Performance. Thus.17.48:28-33.19 Glutamine may trigger epileptic seizures in epileptic patients. Altern Med Rev 1999. Nutrition 1997. Glutamine and the immune system. alpha-lipoic acid. Cynobar L.47 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Side Effects and Toxicity L-Glutamine supplementation may increase the ammonia load on the body. 11. paclitaxel and chemotherapy drugs. 5. Lioret N. Gut 2001. Colgan M. Lacey JM. double-blind trial of ornithine oxoglutarate in 194 elderly.48:297-309. 379. 16. Therapeutic considerations of L-glutamine: a review of the literature. 8. A randomized controlled trial of the influence of the mode of enteral ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate administration in burn patients. New York.000 mg per day. et al. et al.3:227-41. Pignata S. Nutrition 1998. et al. 7.22 References 1. Glutamine for the gut: mystical properties or an ordinary amino acid? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 1999. et al. Wilmore DW. 12. et al. Patrick L. 18. www. Clin Imunol 1999. Amino Acids 1999. Comment [c26]: Could not find other authors. Le Boucher J. Chang WK.13:196. 19.20. NY: Advanced Research Press: 1993. Comment [c27]: Could not find other authors. Griffiths RP. Cynobar L. Felig P. Glutamine: An anabolic effector. The glucose-alanine cycle. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: the puzzle.9:2-12. Brocker P. Cynober LA.23:303-6.3:187-91.22:179-86. These symptoms may develop in the absence of prior bipolar disease. Calder PC. Metabolism 1973. 4.4:43-51. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid? Nutr Rev 1990.meschinohealth. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine.128:563-9. Nutrition 1987. ambulatory. 3.3:294-301. Leander U. p.14:870-73 [review]. Giboudeau J. Roth E. medical supervision should accompany high dose supplementation of L-Glutamine (above 2. 10. JPEN 1989.50:2703-8. Yang KD. Your Competitive Edge. L-Lglutamine. randomized. Altern Med Rev 2000. J Amer Coll Nutr 1990. Yaqoob P. Poynard T. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on protein metabolism in burn patients. 2. Effect of glutamine on TH1 and TH2 cytokine responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. two case reports exist to support this side effect. De Martino S. Shaio MF. 14. Clin Nutr 1985. 9. Saizy R. Age Aging 1994. 15.26 Drug-Nutrient Interactions L-Glutamine: Supplementation with L-Glutamine has been shown to reduce side effects associated with the use of methotrexate.000 mg per day). Gallo C. Miller AL. Comment [c28]: Could not find other authors. Vellas B. Coudray-Lucas C. 17. J Parent Ent Nutr 1990. Use of Glutamine in these applications should be implemented in collaboration with the attending medical physician. et al. Wahren J.417-23.21 Ornithine Alpha-ketogluturate: There are no well-known drug interactions with ornithine alpha-ketogluturate. A two-centre. convalescent subjects. It may also improve the efficacy of some chemotherapy drugs. Daniele B. 13. J Nutr 1998. Oral glutamine in the prevention of fluorouracil induced intestinal toxicity: a double blind. De Bandt JP. Perrone F. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate. and L-carnitine. Amino acid metabolism in exercising man.14:1305-65. Cynobar L. Comment [c25]: Could not find other authors. J Clin Invert 1971.
Healthnotes online.48 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 20. Newsholme EA. Lang NP.com . Comment [c29]: Could not find other authors. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1996. Nwokedi E. Keast D. 206-7. et al. Grow Young with HGH. Klimberg VS. Klimberg VS. J Parent Ent Nutr 1992. New York: Harper Perrenial Pub 1977. L-glutamine and mania. Poortmans JR. 21.141:1303[letter]. Hutchins LF. Broadwater JR.23:488-90. Healthnotes. Rowbottom DG. Nwokedi E. Morton AR. 23. 25.meschinohealth. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992.16(6Suppl):83S-7S. 22. Am J Psychiatry 1984. Inc 2000. Pappas AA. Mebane AH. p. et al. Klatz R.16(6Suppl):83S-7S. Castell LM. Glutamine facilitates chemotherapy while reducing toxicity. Hutchins LF.21:80-90[review]. 24. www. 26. Glutamine facilitates chemotherapy while reducing toxicity. Sport Med 1996. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining.
capillary fragility. respectively. PCO also inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine. No side effects have been reported to date.2 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1. diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration of the eye.49 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Grape Seed Extract and Related Procyanodolic Oligomers (Pycnogenol) General Features Grape Seed Extract and pine bark extract belong to a group of compounds known as procyanidolic oligomers (PCO). PCO also demonstrate powerful antioxidant function. They are water-soluble and any excess is excreted in the urine. Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no known drug interactions for procyanidolic oligomer extracts.3-9 2.11. varicose veins. to ensure sufficient amounts these bioactive agents. These features make them useful agents in the prevention and treatment of capillary fragility. These extracts contain flavonoids called proanthocyanidins. diabetic retinopathy. capillary fragility. Vision PCO extract has been used to help reverse or stabilize diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. No clinical trials with arthritis patients have been published. It has also been used to improve visual performance in the dark and after exposure to glare (200 mg per day).9 Daily Dosage (standardized to 92-95% PCO content) 1. including venous insufficiency. proteases. macular degeneration): 150-300 mg per day. varicose veins. diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. General Health Support: 50-75 mg per day2 Toxicity and Contraindications Procyanidolic oligomer extracts have been shown to be very non-toxic.12 3. venous insufficiency. PCO extracts have been used to treat venous and capillary disorders. ligaments and cartilage. prostaglandins and leukotrienes. They also help to prevent cartilage destruction associated with inflammation and arthritis. in divided doses 2. anecdotal evidence and biological plausibility suggest that PCO extract supplementation may be useful in chronic arthritic and connective tissue disorders. varicose veins.10. These unique flavonoid compounds are powerful antioxidants and have been shown to inhibit the destruction of collagen. however. 1. trimers. Connective Tissue Support PCO support the collagen and ground substance of tendons. 8. Therapeutic Purposes (Venous insufficiency.com . which are bound to other proanthocyanidins forming proanthocyanidin dimers.13 www. Blood Vessel Support PCO support collagen and ground substance. decreasing capillary permeability and fragility. preserving the integrity of blood vessels and capillaries throughout the body. tetramers and larger molecules. They also inhibit the inflammatory process to a certain degree.2 Grape Seed Extract and pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) products should contain 92-95 percent and 80-85 percent PCO.meschinohealth.
44:592-601. et al. Stabilization of collagen by procyanidolic oligomers. Boissin JP. 320-31. 4. Veno-lymphatic insufficiency. J Fr Ophthalmol 1988. 1993.46:313-25. Henriet JP. 1973. Arzniem Forsch 1994. OPC in Practice: Biflavanols and their Applications. A study of the effects of procyanidolic oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies. Facino R. CA: Prima Publishing. Rocklin. Murray M.88:1734. Dumas J. Tixier JM. Ann OH Clin Ocul 1988.114:85-93. 1995.meschinohealth. Italy: Alfa.11:453-60. The Healing Power of Herbs. 12. 2nd edition. Biochem Pharmocol 1984. et al. Maffei F. Carinin M. Godeau G. Varicose veins of the lower extremities:symptomatic treatment with a new vasculotrophic agent. 2. Grillot A. Masquelier J. Masquelier J. Soyeux A. 10. 3.38:293-6. Phlebologie 1993. 9. Acta Therap 1981. Oliver-Martin F. Endotelon: Diabetic retinopathy and hemorrheology (preliminary study). Dumon MC. Siou A. p.57:1399-401. 5. Murray M. 11.com . Bull Soc Ophthalmol Fr 1987. 1996. et al. Corbe C. Robert AM. Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinefera. Siou A. Omega. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding to pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Chorioretinal circulation and dazzling: use of procyanidol oligomers. Schwitters B.7:101-5. www. Light vision and chorioretinal circulation: study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers (Endotelon).87:14441-4 Proto F. Lagrue G. p.33(24):3933-9.50 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 1. Rome. 7. Sem Hosp Paris 1981.177-9. 6. 8. 13. Bull Soc Ophthalmol Fr 1988. CA: Prima Publishing. Gomez Trillo JT. Hornebeck W. Electrophysical study of vitis vinifera procyanoside oligomers effects on retinal function in myopic subjects. 184-91. Rocklin. Prensa Med Mex. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Boissin JP. Corbe C.
patients with depression should be under the care of a qualified health professional and combining 5-Hydroxytryptophan supplementation with other anti-depressant drugs or supplements is contraindicated and may result in life-threatening side effects (i. serotonin syndrome). a single 100 mg dose of 5-HTP. As a result. studies indicate that over seventy percent of an oral dose of 5-HTP is converted to serotonin. 5-HTP has been used in clinical trials to treat depression.7 3.9-13 Dosage Ranges 1. one hour before bedtime. easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. three times daily2 Insomnia: a single dose of 25-100 mg. Insomnia 5-HTP has been shown to improve insomnia and quality of sleep in affected subjects.com . Migraine Migraine Headache Studies have provided evidence that patients who suffer from migraine headaches may experience a reduction in frequency and severity of attacks with a dosage range of 400-600 mg per day. As serotonin is a neurotransmitter that elevates mood and improves sleep quality. including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor drugs (SSRI) such as fluvoxamine (Luvox). three times daily8 Migraine headaches: 150 mg.6 2.meschinohealth. known as the “Griffonia Simplicifolia”. 3. unlike the amino acid tryptophan.4 Fibromyalgia: 100 mg. Fibromyalgia Some evidence suggests that 100 mg (5-HTP) taken three times per day may reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia. three times daily. Zoloft.8 4. The usual dosage for this application is 100 mg. For insomnia.1 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1.51 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) General Features 5-HTP is a naturally occurring agent that is extracted from the seed of an African plant. three times per day9 Anxiety: 100 mg. 5-Hydroxytryptophan has been shown to be as effective as other traditional antidepressants and tends to be associated with fewer and less severe side effects. and Paxil. 2.e. including pain and insomnia. three times daily8 www. 5. while only three percent of an oral dose of tryptophan is converted to serotonin in the brain. Depression In several clinical trials 5-Hydroxtryptophan has been tested on its own or against other antidepressant drugs.1-5 However. 5-HTP. insomnia and other conditions where a rise in serotonin levels may be desirable. Some evidence suggests that 5-HTP also increases endorphin and other neurotransmitter levels as well. In general. in divided doses. Fluvoxamine exerts anti-depressant activity comparable to Prozac. Depression: 100 mg. 4. one hour before bedtime has been shown to improve duration and depth of sleep in one placebo-controlled study.
303:782-7. 6.18:201-9. Poldinger W. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987.15. Sarzi Puttini P.17 Toxicity Animal studies have shown that high doses of 5-HTP can cause muscle jerks in guinea pigs. Comparison of the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan and propranoiol in the interval treatment of migraine. Biol Psychiatry 1981. Davalos A.6. J Int Med Res 1990. 9. Soulairac A. Schweiz Bundaschau Med (Praxis).com .52 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Adverse Side Effects In clinical studies using the above dosages.25:327-9. Judd LL. Camuffo M. Maissen CP. In: Wurtman RJ. or anxiety. Matlew WT. Med Wochen 1991. muscle pain. 5-hydroxytryptophan: A review of its antidepressant efficacy and adverse effects. Nutrition and the Brain. John’s Wort on brain neurotransmitters and vice versa. some patients experience gastrointestinal upset (i. Alom J. Lemus C. 5-hydroxytryptophan in the prophylaxis of magraine. 2.16 1. To date. nausea) or. Headache 1978. New York: Raven Press: 1986. Schwarz W.24:53-81.e.7:127-37 [review]. 5.meschinohealth. Grosser BI. Caruso I. John’s Wort 5-HTP may potentiate the effect of St. 14. 11. 89-139 Martin TG. Calanchini B. A functional-dimensional approach to depression: serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan and fluvoxamine. 1998. and when injected has caused kidney damage in rats.6:230-40. 7. Van Woert MH. Headache in association with sleep disorders in children. Praag HM. Management of depression with serotonin precursors. 8.16:291-310. De Benedittis G.13:425-33. Titus F. less often. Eur Neurol 1986. L-5 hydroxytryptophan in depression: the first substitution therapy in psychiatry? Neuropsychobiology 1980. Ann Everg Med 1996. Baker H. 5-HT precursors in migraine prophylaxis: a double-blind cross-over study with L-5 hydroxytryptophan versus placebo.28:520-6. Iannuccelli M.2. 13.6.e. Reimherr FW.77(34a):19-23. Miletto R. Scerni S. these problems and serotonin syndrome have not been reported in humans. weight control drugs. 5-hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of magraine. Sternberg EM. Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytyptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome.1-13 Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Contraindications 5-HTP should not be taken with other antidepressants. Vol 7. headache. Cazzola M. Development of a soleroderma-like illness during therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan and carbidoba. Ludin HP. Psychopathology 1991.3:123-9. in combination with antidepressant drugs) is very plausible. Van Praaf HM. or agents known to cause liver damage. Lambinet H. Van Hiele JJ. Drugs Exptl Clin Res 1987. Young SN. other serotonin-modifying substances. Clin J Pain 1986. A Psychodiagnostic evalutation and controlled clinical study with L-5HTP versus placebo. Massei R. Codina A. www. 12. Wurtman JJ editors. Magnussen I. 10.121:1585-90. sleepiness.14 Herb-Nutrient Interactions St. 3. sur les troubles du sommell. These supplements should not be taken concurrently. Serotonin syndrome. Byerley WF. Individuals with liver disease or scleroderma should also avoid 5-HTP. Monoamine precursors in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. but the potential for serotonin syndrome to develop under certain circumstances (i. Etudes cliniques de liaction du precurseurs de la serotinine le L-5-hydroxy-tryptophane. Schweiz. p.18:111-3. Azzolini V. 4. New Engl J Med 1980. De Giorgis G. Gauthier S et al.
meschinohealth.com .8(2):197-200. Hagan JJ. Hirai M. Nakajima T. 16. L-5-hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The role of 5-HTID and 5-HTIA receptors in mediating 5-hydroxytryptophan induced myoclonic jerks in guinea pigs. 17. Kahn RS. J Affect Disord 1985.294:743-51. Eur J Pharmacol 1995. Westenberg HG. Biochemical studies on the mechanism of difference in the renal toxicity of 5-hydroxy-L-Tryptophan between Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats. Hatcher JP. Slade PD. www.86:907-13. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1979.53 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 15.
15. the ingestion of Indole-3-Carbinol is highly associated with the prevention of reproductive organ cancers in women and men.9 It is formed by the action of myrosinase enzyme acting on the parent compound glucosinolates. Prevention of Female Reproductive Cancers In experimental animal testing with mice and rats. cabbage.4. 29 Animal studies have also shown that indole-3-carbinol can help prevent cervical cancer in the presence of various carcinogens. Cervical Cancer: In a 12-week double-blind study. 3. the prostate gland. Frequent consumption of these vegetables (broccoli.11 Indole-3-Carbinol and other glucosinolates (e.31 2. 1-8 Indole -3-Carbinol is a member of the class of sulfur-containing chemicals called glucosinolates (previously called thioglucosides). according to modern wisdom. reducing the ability of stronger estrogens from over stimulating reproductive tissues such as the breast.8 It also promotes the metabolism of certain endogenous estrogens (estrone) into a safer. helping to reduce risk of breast cancer. can bind to estrogen receptors in the body. other indoles and isothiocyanates such as sulforphane) are antioxidants and potent stimulators of Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver and intestinal epithelial cells. including many carcinogens.g. Thus. Brussels sprouts. conversely. 18. cervix. Indole-3-Carbinol and brussels sprouts.21.28 To date there are no human intervention trials that have tested Indole-3-Carbinol as a preventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer.26..24 A large prospective study involving 5. less cancer-promoting form (2OH-estrone).22 In human studies.33 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.14 In this capacity it helps the body more easily eliminate toxic compounds. have demonstrated an ability to reduce mammary cancer incidence in animals exposed to carcinogens that are known to promote mammary cancer in these species.12. uterus. Breast Cancer: Epidemiological studies and experimental evidence strongly suggests that Indole-3-Carbinol may reduce breast cancer risk through the above-cited mechanisms. the ingestion of Indole-3-Carbinol has been shown to increase the metabolism of estrone hormone to 2-hydroxyestrone rather than the16-alpha-hydroxyestrone metabolite.27.20 Thus far. further helping to reduce risk of reproductive organ cancers.meschinohealth.23.17 Indole-3-Carbinol also acts as a phytoestrogen (plant-based estrogens) and.54 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Indole-3-Carbinol General Features Indole-3-Carbinol has been shown to be one of the major anti-cancer substances found in cruciferous vegetables. chewing) or cooked.32 www. In this regard.25.10.com . 2-hydroxyestrone is associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk. and in males.000 Italian women and a second study of patients with either benign or malignant breast lesions highlighted the ability of a higher 2/16 hydroxyestrone ratio to predict which women were less prone to breast cancer development.16.30. Studies indicate that 16-alpha-hydroxyestrone is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women and. kale and bok choy) is associated with reduced risk of cancer in many human and animal studies.13. Respiratory Tract Papillomas Indole-3-Carbinol supplementation reduced or halted the formation of papillomas (precancerous lesions) in 12 out of 18 patients with recurrent respiratory tract papillomas in a small trial. a. 8 of 17 patients with early-stage cervical cancer given 200 or 400 mg of Indole-3-Carbinol per day experienced a complete reversal of their condition. in this capacity.g. b.. cauliflower. whenever cruciferous vegetables are crushed (e. Indole-3Carbinol influences the body’s enzyme systems in a fashion that favorably influences the 2 -hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone ratio.21. human studies have used a dose of 300-400 mg per day to demonstrate this outcome. respectively.20.19.
8 A Seattle study of men living in that city indicated that men consuming three or more servings per week of cruciferous vegetables had a risk of prostate cancer that was 50% lower than men consuming fewer servings of these vegetables.33 To date there no human intervention trials have tested Indole-3-Carbinol as a preventive or therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.33 2. Indole-3-Carbinol is a powerful stimulator of phase I detoxification enzymes. Thus. one challenge study of this kind revealed that Indole-3-Carbinol intake did not interfere with oral contraceptive medications. Toxicity and Contraindications At doses of 800 mg per day. More Rapid Detoxification Of Other Drugs: As stated above. Dosage and Standardized Grade 1. they should not be taken at the same time of day or at the same meal. However. According to animal studies.33 www. Indole-3-Carbinol has caused dizziness and unsteady gait (signs of nervous system toxicity) in humans and in animal studies. after controlling for other confounding variables. if taken at therapeutic doses concurrently with other drugs. the ingestion of Indole-3-Carbinol has been shown to inhibit the growth of PC-3-type human prostate cancer cells by arresting their cell division cycle and by promoting apoptosis (programmed cell death). health practitioners and patients should monitor their response to Indole-3Carbinol supplementation. and as such. this appears to be especially true in regards to the following medications: testosterone replacement therapy oral contraceptives hormone replacement therapy anti-seizure medications immune-suppressant and anti-viral drugs digoxin33 Drug-Nutrient Interactions 1. As well. changing their required dosage. it may speed up the detoxification of certain medications. Antacids and Heartburn medications (H-2 antagonist drugs ): By reducing stomach acidity these drugs reduce the absorption of indole-3-carbinol. Therefore.meschinohealth. Indole-3-Carbinol may speed up the detoxification of any number of drugs due to its stimulation affect on phase I detoxification centers. Prostate Cancer In animal studies.55 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 3. Therapeutic Applications: 300-400 mg per day23 Adverse Side Effects. General Health Maintenance: 25-100 mg per day34 2.com .33 Nevertheless. patient monitoring is required with Indole-3-Carbinol supplementation at the therapeutic doses mentioned previously (300-400 mg per day).
Hecht SS. Differential induction of mixed-function oxidase (MFO) activity in rat liver and intestine by diets containing processed cabbage. 2. Li Y. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. May1994.56 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. 1997. Chambers SJ.54:985-8 McDanell R. Gescher A. Sarkar FH. Cancer Res. Minerals. 1998. Curr Med Chem. [Part I]. 9. et al. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement.17:277-82 Plumb GW. 15. CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane. 1998. 1. 12. 4. et al. 1997. Reavley NM. Gardiner JM. [Part II]. [Part II]. Morel F. 6. Evans and Company Inc. 8. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. 16. [Part I]. 1998. 7. Chem Biol Interact. Broadbent HS. 3.5:733-48 [review] Talaley P. Am J Clin Nutr. et al. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. 3. Broadbent HS. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements.59(5suppl):1166S-70S Loub WD. Chipman JK. 13. Broadbent HS.5:337-52 Broadbent TA. G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Murray M. Goldbohm RA.25:75-86 Dhinmi SR. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc.5:469-91 Broadbent TA. Prima Publishing 1995. 1999. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. 1987. Food chem. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998. Curr Med Chem. et al. Food Chem Toxicol. Are whole extracts and purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables antioxidants? Free Radic Res. 1997. JNCI.129:7688-94S Verhoeven DT. Oncogene. 1975. Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk. 1996. J Nutr. Lambert N. and Herbs. Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals in Brassica oleracea vegetables – a review.57:3649-52 Barcelo S. 5. 11. G. Zhang Y. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. The chemistry and pharmacology of indole-3-carbinol (indole-3-methanol) and 3-(methoxymethyl) Indole..24:806-10 Maheo L. The chemistry and pharmacology of indole-3-carbinol (indole-3-methanol) and 3-(methoxymethyl) Indole. Prima Publishing 1998. 24May2001. Upadhyay S.103:79-129 [review] Verhoeven DT.33:537-43 Broadbent TA. Chemoprevention of cancer by isothiocyanates.5:469-91 Beecher CW. Chemoprotection against cancer by isothiocyanates and glucosinolates. 1995. modifiers of carcinogen metabolism. Biochem Soc Trans. Broadbent HS. The chemistry and pharmacology of indole-3-carbinol (indole-3-methanol) and 3-(methoxymethyl) Indole. 1996. Koppolu PK. Boon H and Smith M. van Poppel.. Murray M. 1996. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. 2.g. Curr Med Chem.5:337-52 Broadbent TA. et al.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. Supplements. 1996. Curr Med Chem. Cancer preventive properties of varieties of Brassica oleracea: a review. 14. 4. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) – induced cell growth inhibition.20(23):2927-36 Stoewsand GS. Toxicol. 1998. Carcinogenesis.meschinohealth. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction in rat tissues by naturally occurring indoles of cruciferous plants.25:363-8 www. et al. van Poppel G. The chemistry and pharmacology of indole-3-carbinol (indole-3-methanol) and 3-(methoxymethyl) Indole. 10. Inhibition of cytochromes P-450 and induction of glutathione S-transferases by sulforaphane in primary human and rat hepatocytes.com . Langouet S. Goldbohm RA.
1995. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention. Jin L. Bradlow HL. Zeligs M.768:180-200 27. Yuan F. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. Bradlow HL. Effect of dietary indole-3 carbinol on intestinal and hepatic monooxygenase. H. 1994. 1990. 1999. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention. et al. 2000:78. Protective effects of dietary Brussels sprouts against mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.com . et al.X. et al. 1994. Chen DZ. Increase in the extent of estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation in human breast tissue: A potential biomarker of breast cancer risk. et al.82:947-9 24. Long-term responses of women to indole-3-carbinol or a high fiber diet. Gynecol Oncol. et al. Sepkovic DW. 2000. Hendrich S. 1983. Anti-estrogenic activities of indole-3-carbinol in cervical cells.. gluatathione-S-Transferase and epoxide hydrolase activities in rat. Crowley-Nowick P. Schizandra chinensis and alfa alfa on the benzopyrene metabolic enzyme system in mouse liver. Woodson GE. Suppression of breast cancer invasion and migration by indole-3-carbinol: associated with up-regulation of BRCA1 and E-cadherin/catenin complexes. Food Chem Toxicol. Halper M.78:155-65 29. Chen DZ. Brussels sprouts. Indole-3-carbinol. Ann NY Acad Sci. Telang NT. Telang NT. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. The Cruciferous Choice. Ann NY Acad Sci. Cancer Res. Meng Q. (1990) Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent.85:1917-20 19. Stoewsand GS.889:204-13 26.57 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 17. Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole-3-carbinol. JNCI. Tiwari RK. Ilicium verum.889:204-13 28. Bradlow HL.sabinsa. 1999. Bjeldanes LF. 1998. et al. Telang NT. 1993. Liu K.118:810-5 33. Rosen CA. Aug/Sept 2001. Sabinsa Corporation. Indole-3-carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice. Food Chem Toxicol. Indole-3-carbinol. Implication for prevention of cervical cancer.meschinohealth. Bradfield CA. Bradlow. Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN. Bell MC.39:199-207 23. Bradlow HL. Osborne MP. Osborne MP. Michnovicz JJ. J Mol Med. (217/218):p47-48 34. Qi M.22:227-9 20. Effects of dietary cabbage. 1999. Cancer Lett. et al. Michnovicz JJ. Sepkovic DW. a chemopreventive agent. 1998.86(2):126-31 22. Bjeldanes. et al. 1999. Preliminary results of the use of indole-3-carbinol for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.59:3991-7 32..3:591-5 21. Selective responsiveness of human breast cancer cells to indole-3-carbinol. Michnovicz JJ. Anticancer Res.21:479-86 18. JNCI. Bradlow HL. Indole-3-Carbinol Product Manual (www.123-9 30. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Ann NY Acad Sci.19(3A):1673-80 31.22:977-82 25. 1988. Thompson JW. Chen D. Osborne MP. Qi M. 1984. JNCI. LF. Sepkovic DW. Osborne MP. et al.com) www.L.
providing a potential anti-aging effect in preserving mitochondrial DNA structure and function. The daily dosage was 1.200 I. heart disease.1 Lipoic Acid is also a water soluble and fat soluble antioxidant. Diabetic Neuropathy: 300-600 mg daily1. All of these factors are important biomarkers in AIDS progression. For diabetic neuropathy studies reveal that combining 600 mg of Lipoic Acid daily. supplementation has been shown to be beneficial. it appears to protect mitochondrial DNA from the damaging effects of oxygen-free radicals. with 100 mcg of selenium. of vitamin E. General Support: 20 – 50 mg daily www. which explains its beneficial effects on blood glucose regulation and reduced blood amino acid glycosylation.meschinohealth. produced significant results over the placebo.2 With coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. AIDS Lipoic Acid supplementation in AIDS patients has been shown to increase plasma ascorbic acid.e. However. heavy metal toxicity and support for detoxification and antioxidant functions.58 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid) General Features Lipoic Acid is a sulfur-containing. suggesting that Lipoic Acid supplementation may help slow the progression of HIV and AIDS. improve blood flow to peripheral nerves and stimulate regeneration of nerve fibers in diabetic subjects. Studies indicate that Lipoic Acid inhibits HIV replication by reducing the activity of reverse transcriptase (the enzyme responsible for manufacturing the virus from the DNA of lymphocytes) and inhibits the activation in HIV that leads to viral replication. and T-helper lymphocytes and T-helper/suppressor cell ratio in a significant number of patients.12 3.3 2.U. AIDS (HIV): 1.4-9 2. Lipoic Acid enhances insulin sensitivity in diabetics. or 1. cataracts.500 mg three times daily 3. hemoglobin glycosylation). Lipoic Acid functions as a co-enzyme (with vitamin B1 and niacin) in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl co-enzyme A. glutathione. under certain circumstances.11.3 Supplementation Studies 1. vitamin like substance.com . Dosage 1. Its therapeutic effects appear to be mediated through its antioxidant effects. Other Applications Lipoic Acid supplementation may be considered in liver cirrhosis and other liver damage. Diabetic Neuropathy In Germany Lipoic Acid is approved as a drug for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.10. reduce glycosylation of amino acids (i. it has also been shown to improve blood glucose metabolism. Although the body manufactures Lipoic Acid. three times daily.500 mg. thus it is essential for aerobic energy metabolism.
Schiemann AL. Swanson C. Harrer T.59 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Toxicity and Contraindications Lipoic Acid is a very safe supplement with no significant adverse effects reported in over three decades of use in diabetics. Nickander KK. Nagamatsu M.43:1359-1362. Drug-Nutrient Interactions As Lipoic Acid supplementation increases insulin sensitivity. Biochem Pharmacol 1992. 5. Animal studies demonstrate low toxicity. 7. Fuchs J.203. Baur A. et al. Barbiroli B. reduces oxidative stress. Kagan VE. Free Rad Res Comms 1992. p. Packer L. Simon I. Serbinova E. Comment [c30]: Could not find other authors. Medori R.44:1637-49. Diabetic Care 1995. J Neurol. Plotz C. Suzuki YJ. Ruhlmann C. Reduction of peroxyl. Suzuki YJ.69:722-4. Packer L. Klopstock T.meschinohealth. Schmelzer JD. Clancy DE. Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication Klin Wochenschr 1991. Henriksen EJ. Arzneim Forsch 1993. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow. Lipoic (thioctic) acid increases brain energy availability and skeletal muscle performance as shown by in vivo 31P-MRS in a patient with mitochondrial cytopathy.1 1. et al. Results of adjuvant antioxidant supplementation.18:1160-7. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kB activation in human T cells. Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Tritschler HJ. 6. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Arzneim Forsch 1995. Aggarwal BB. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1994. Rocklin. 12. Kahler W.17:211-7. Z Gesamte Inn Med 1993. Kuklinski B. Lipoate prevents glucose-induced protein modifications. 4. Peukert M. and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. et al. 343-6. Powell R.com . Alpha-lipoate can protect against glycation of serum albumin. the dosage of oral hypoglycemic drugs may also need to be adjusted with Lipoic Acid supplementation. 1995. Therefore. 1996. Schofer H. Murray M. Jacob S. Tritschler HJ. these patients should not use Lipoic Acid supplementation without consulting their physician or diabetic specialist. Milbradt R. Packer L. 9.99-104. Khan S. Shvedova A. Studies on lipoate effect on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. but not low density lipoprotein. In non-insulin dependent diabetics.738:257-64. ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Annals NY Acad Sci 1994. Reichmann H. 3. Diabetes mellitus: a free radical-associated disease.48(5):223-32. Kawabata T.45(8):872-4. 11. Packer L. 10.189:1709-15. CA: Prima Publishing.242:472-7. Seibel P. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1992. insulin-dependent diabetics will need to adjust their insulin dosage with Lipoic Acid supplementation. Tsuchiya M. et al. Dihydrolipoic acid-A universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. 8. 2. www.
Foods high in lysine include most vegetables.7 Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity At supplemental amounts (1.000 mg per day is the usual daily dosage in the treatment or prevention of herpes I and II. Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well known drug interactions with L-Lysine.meschinohealth.5 2.1 Note that during a herpes outbreak some patients my take more than 10 gm per day to block the replication of the virus.7 Dosage Ranges 1.000 mg per day may also help to reduce the number of outbreaks as a prophylactic measure. which implies that it cannot be synthesized by the body.60 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils L-Lysine General Features Lysine is an essential amino acid. Herpes Simplex: 1.4 Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1.000 mg taken just prior to bedtime. A review of the research trials investigating the benefits of lysine supplementation for people with cold sores (herpes type I) or genital herpes (herpes type II) generally supports its use for these conditions. fish.000 mg L-Lysine. It is though that these foods should be restricted in patients with herpes viruses to help minimize or contain outbreaks. peanuts. Abdominal cramps and transient diarrhea have been reported at doses of 15-40 gms per day. seeds.000 mg per day) no consistent adverse effects have been reported in humans.com . three times daily has been shown to help contain the episode. almonds and other nuts.3 Foods high in arginine content include chocolate.000 – 2. Growth Hormones L-lysine supplementation has been shown to increase the release of growth hormones and thus may be used to support lean mass and an anti-aging intervention by some individuals.000 mg of arginine pyroglutamate. All essential amino acids must be supplied by the diet or supplements in order to avoid a deficiency state.6 www. Herpes I and II At the first sign of an outbreak. L-Lysine appears to block the uptake of arginine or substitutes for it. 2.000-3. turkey and chicken. usually in conjunction with 1. Growth Hormone Release: 1.000-3.1.000 – 2. inhibiting the herpes virus from accessing the arginine it requires to thrive. Taking 1. peas.2 Herpes viruses tend to extract the amino acid arginine from the bloodstream in order to synthesize proteins they require. 1 Lysine deficiency is rare in developed countries. 1.2. beans.000-3. At supplemental levels of intake lysine interferes with replication of herpes viruses.
pharmacology and toxicology of lysine. 521-2. 4. 1997. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Healthnotes online. Dermatoliga 1987. 204-5. p. J Am Coll Nutr 1997. 5. 7. Walsh DE. The metabolic roles. Flodin NW.meschinohealth. Failure of lysine in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. DeLong D. Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue culture. Klatz R. DiGiovanna JJ. Griffith R.120:48-51. Chemotherapy 1981. p. Pizzorno J. Griffith RS. www. 2. Inc: Lysine. Grow young with HGH. Rocklin.175:183-90. Myrmel KH. Treatment and prophylaxis. CA: Prima Publishing.61 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 1. Murray M.com . 3. New York: Harper Perrenial Publishers.27:209-13.16:7-21. Healthnotes 2000. Revised 2nd Edition. Blank H. Arch Dermatology 1984. Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. 1998. 6. Nelson J.
6 www.8 to 21. However. chronic fatigue syndrome is similar in nature to fibromyalgia. 3. Toxicity and Contraindications Current research does not indicate any adverse side effects from the use of Malic Acid at the above-cited levels of intake.Malic Acid.meschinohealth.com . involving 24 fibromyalgia patients. twice per day and magnesium. During the cross-over period. when placed on the placebo. 1 It occurs in high concentrations in apples and is often referred to as apple acid.5 within two days. acid drinks. 150 mg. 6 Drug-Nutrient Interactions At present there are no known drug-nutrient interactions with Malic Acid. However. double-blind. in the six patients comprising this sub-group.4 Adverse Side Effects. twice per day (up to 2400 mg of Malic Acid and 600 mg of magnesium have been used safely). their muscle pain scores rose from 6. Malic Acid is also used in cosmetic products to adjust the pH of the product and to act as a moisturizing agent. in a shorter trial of only four weeks. 3. thus practitioners may wish to utilize this intervention on a therapeutic trial basis. There is one published report to support this contention. This may indicate that a longer period of treatment is required to realize improvement in these cases.Malic Acid supplementation in combination with magnesium supplementation has been shown to improve fibromyalgia in a six-month. during the period they ingested 1200-2400 mg of Malic Acid and 300-600 mg of magnesium per day.It is speculated that Malic Acid supplementation in combination with magnesium supplementation may be helpful in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. fruit juices. cross-over trial of patients with fibromyalgia. but better controlled studies are required to substantiate this application. 2 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. In this study. which is the body’s primary source of energy. Fibromyalgia . 5 Dosage and Standardized Grade Fibromyalgia (and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) . 600 mg. In food processing it is used to acidify wines.62 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Malic Acid General Features Malic Acid is synthesized in humans as one of the steps in the Kreb’s cycle during the production of ATP. cross-over trial. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome . often in the form of sodium malate. the treatment group demonstrated a significant reduction in the severity of pain and tenderness and in some psychological symptoms associated with their condition. the combination of Malic Acid (1200 mg) and magnesium (300 mg) was not effective in reducing pain in a double-blind.4 2. soda water and various soft drinks.
J Rheyumatol.3:49. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Abraham GE.com . 5. crossover pilot study. double blind. and Herbs. 1. Flechas JD. Michalek JE.. Medical Biochemistry. Hypothesis: Management of fibromyalgia rationale for the use of magnesium and malic acid.puritan. Int J Toxicol 2001. Boon H and Smith M. Murray M. Inc. 4. Murray M.meschinohealth. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. 3. 3. Prima Publishing 1998. 2. Prima Publishing 1995. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition).com www. 4. Supplements.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. 2. placebo controlled. New York: Mosby. Evans and Company Inc. Baynes J. 6. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine.59 Anonymous. Minerals. 1999:182-3 Fiume Z. Final report on the safety assessment of Malic Acid and Sodium Malate. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. 1997. Reavley NM. 1998.22(5):953-8 Abraham GE. A follow-up on malic acid: CFIDS Buyers Bluc Health Wathc. J Nutr Med 1992. 1993 Healthnotes. Flechas JD. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. 2001.g. May1995. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. Spring.63 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. dominiczak M. Malic acid:www. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized.20(Suppl1):47-55 Russell IJ.
2 Comment [c31]: Melatonin is capitalized as per instructions of Arlene. Melatonin has been shown to shorten the time needed to fall asleep. This sameness is a rare occurrence in biology. Peak amounts occur around two or three o’clock in the morning. It is synthesized from serotonin. Insomnia Low Melatonin secretion at night which commonly accompanies aging. Supplementation Studies and Clinical Applications 1. five times as efficient as glutathione. Other Considerations As Melatonin is also an antioxidant. However. whereas Vitamin E. Melatonin is unique in that it is both a water-soluble antioxidant and a fatsoluble antioxidant. antioxidant and immune system modulator. and other antioxidants. and improve sleep quality. In all the life forms studied.11-16 3. can be a cause of insomnia. Taken within one hour of bedtime. who manufacture 90-99 percent less Melatonin than a ten-year old. 1 With respect to its antioxidant properties. Melatonin has been produced in the same circadian (daily secretion pattern) rhythm. In the human body Melatonin acts as a hormone. reduce the number of night awakenings. Shift workers may also take advantage of this strategy to reset the body internal wake-sleep cycle. Melatonin is produced in picograms (a trillionth of a gram – the smallest amount of any hormone). and five hundred times more effective than the synthetic DMSO. are present in much higher concentrations.3-10 2. with higher levels produced at night than during the daytime. It is best known for its ability to induce sleep and elevate mood.64 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Melatonin General Feature Melatonin is a molecule that has been found in every animal and plant studied to date. In each organism. Some studies suggest that as an antioxidant it is twice as effective as Vitamin E. Humans produce five to ten times more Melatonin at night than during the day. neurotransmitter. a circadian rhythm found in animals as well. Melatonin is produced and secreted by the pineal gland in the brain. which itself is synthesized from 5-hydroxytryptophan and tryptophan. Several double-blind trails show that Melatonin supplementation can be useful in the treatment of insomnia. Low Melatonin levels are an extremely common cause of insomnia in the elderly. an immune system modulator and a core temperature regulator it is being tested for various other health applications: www. After puberty the body’s production of Melatonin declines. The best approach appears to be taking Melatonin in the first evening after arriving at the new destination (where there is a time zone change). Melatonin’s molecular structure is identical.com . Jet Lag Several double-blind studies demonstrate that Melatonin is very effective in relieving jet lag.meschinohealth. In humans. from human beings to the most primitive one-celled algae that evolved more than three billion years ago. By age 40 humans produce approx imately 60 percent less Melatonin than a 10 year old and by age 70 or 80 Melatonin levels may be undectable.
Further research is underway to substantiate these findings (20 mg at night).38 Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Taking doses that are too high can result in morning grogginess.35.33 www. who is able to monitor blood work and other parameters.B.1 mg to 3. headaches and/or abdominal cramps.Preliminary evidence has shown improvement in patients with sarcoidosis (20 mg at night). as an adjunct to cancer treatment may help inhibit the progression of breast cancer. Adjunctive Cancer Treatment . which is linked to cluster headaches.20-27 In a study of cancer patients with solid tumors in various organs the intake of Melatonin (40 mg per day) enhanced the effectiveness of interleukin-2 therapy by enhancing its anti-tumor immune effect or by increasing susceptibility of cancer cells to the cytolysis by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Sarcoidosis .30 Dosage Ranges Insomnia and Jet Lag (Shift Workers) . as these dosages are still experimental and long-term safety is unknown at this time.18 This affect has been attributed to Melatonin’s ability to prevent a rise in core temperature.32 Melatonin testing in humans and animals indicate that it is very non-toxic. a cascade of events is set in motion releasing important signalling agents (cytokines) that strengthen immune function in various ways. more research is required before any conclusive statements can be made about this application. Melatonin may also inhibit viral replication and has been shown to increase T-helper cell numbers and natural killer cell numbers in HIV-infected individuals. Tension and cluster headaches . Birth Control/Contraceptive . Of course.Maestroni and Conti demonstrated in 1995 that T-helper-2 lymphocytes possess Melatonin receptors.com . It is best to start with a small dose and work up. Immune System and AIDS . as well as patients with brain and lung cancer (20 mg at night). 31. based upon improved sleep with no awakening and morning drowsiness.3 mg of progestin.28.37 d. one to two hours before bedtime. natural killer cell production rose by 240 percent in healthy young men taking 20 mg of Melatonin each night for a period of two months. double-blind studies suggest that Melatonin supplementation may help in certain cases (1-3 mg at night).1 mg equals 100 mcg).0 mg (note 0.29 e.1. It contains no estrogen. reduce the PSA levels in prostate cancer patients and improve disease-free survival in melanoma patients.Early trials indicate that Melatonin supplementation.17. N. A new birth control is now being tested known as B-Oval.Some preliminary. When Melatonin docks with its receptor on the T-helper cell. For example.65 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils a.meschinohealth.36 b.Very high doses of Melatonin inhibits ovulation in animals and women.19 c.0. but rather high dose Melatonin (75 mg) and 0. Taking a high dosage of Melatonin (5 – 75 mg) should only be undertaken with knowledge of a physician.
Zhdanova IV. New York. Delayed sleep phase syndrome response to melatonin. et al. 4. Biol Psychiatry 1992. Lancet 1995. Leone M. Laudon M. Zisapel N. Waldhauser F. Chazot G. Arendt J. 20. Lancet 1991. Marks M. 17. Fossati V.33:526-30. Dahlitz M. 6. Petrie K. Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening.1 The clinical significance of this is yet to be determined. et al. such as fluoxetine (Prozac).66 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Contraindications and Drug-Nutrient Interactions Some cases of depression can be aggravated by Melatonin supplementation. Sleep 1998.30:1379-98. 3-30. 8. fluoxetine (Prozac).21:52-68. Cagnoni ML. 12.57:552-8. Support Care Cancer 1995. Silvy S. Folkard S. Sack RL. 11. Barni S.309:167. Alverez B. Nave R. Kerkhof GA. Chamberlain K. Headache 1998. Pignone A. 35.30:371-6. Cleghorn JM. 1995.5:315-20.com . Thompson L. 5. Wurtman RJ.36 A number of drugs have been shown to deplete Melatonin levels. Lynch HJ. Br J Cancer 1994. A randomized study of neuroimmunotherapy with low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 plus melatonin compared to supportive care alone in patients with untreatable matastatic solid tumor. The role of melatonin and circadian phase in age-related sleep maintenance insomnia: assessment in a clinical trial of melatonin replacement. Morabito C. 15. ibuprofen.298:705-7. Robinson J. Sleep disorders and melatonin rhythms elderly people. Sassolas G. David M. van der Meer YG. tranquillizers. Nagtegaal JE.34:587. Lamy-Freund MT. Melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a double-blind pilot study with parallel groups. et al. 21. Aldhous M. Melatonin improves evening napping. betablockers. A double-blind trial of melatonin as a treatment for jet lag in international cabin crew. Shida CS. D’Amico D. Ardizzoia A. Melatonin-responsive headache in delayed sleep phase syndrome: Preliminary observations. A randomized study with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin 2 alone vs interleukin 2 plus the pineal neurohormone melatonin in advanced solid neoplasms other than renal cancer and melanoma. Brook R. Castrucci AML. NY: Bantam Books. Melatonin. Lewy AJ. et al. et al.32:705-11. Tancini G. Thompson L. James SP. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995. 7. p. Rusconi AC. Vignau J. Trinchard-Lugan I. Lombardi A. The effects of exogenous melatonin on the total sleep time and day-time alertness of chronic insomniacs: A preliminary study.275:213-6. Biol Psychiatry 1993. Lissoni P. Brown GM. Hughes RJ. Biol Psychiatry 1993. Brun J. in regards to whether or not patients on these substances require Melatonin supplementation to compensate for the depletion of Melatonin (author’s note). sleeping pills. MacFarlane JG.69:196-9. Chronobio Intern 1993. 1. Conaglen JV. Arendt J. Smits MG. may lower Melatonin levels.16:494-6. Haimov I. Neuropsychopharmacology 1990. Sleep laboratory investigations on hypnotic properties of melatonin. English J. 19. Claustrat B. English J. Melatonin for treatment of chronic refractory sarcoidosis [letter]. Lino A. High melatonin solubility in aqueous medium. It is probably best at this time not to combine Melatonin with any other drug that targets brain chemistry or neurotransmitter levels. Peled R. et al. Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights. Dedola GL. Arendt JH.10. Lissoni P. Melatonin administration in insomnia. caffeine. 10. Melatonin and jet lag: Treatment schedule. Saletu B. 16. Br Med J 1989. Cephalagia 1996. Souroujon M.100:222-6. Piotrovska VR. Eur J Pharmacol 1995.346(4):1229-30.3:19-23. Parkes JD. BMJ 1994. Biol Psychiatry 1991. 9. Moschiano F. Dawson AG. Cazzaniga M. Reitar RJ. J Pineall Res 1994. Marks V.3(3):194-7. Nof D. 3. calcium channel blockers. Can melatonin improve shift workers’ tolerance of the night shift: Some preliminary findings. Melatonin and jet lag: Confirmatory result using a simplified protocol. Shlitner A. Some effects of jet-lag and their alleviation by melatonin. Comment [c32]: Could not find other authors Comment [c33]: Could not find the other authors www.16:198-201. 13. Cerinic MC. 14. 2. Psychopharmacol 1990. Ergonomics 1987. 34 Some antidepressant drugs stimulate the production of Melatonin and others. Streiner DL. 18. Some of these include aspirin. Clark M. Condorelli L.337:1121-4. Petrie K.38:303-7. Lavie P. Swart AC. steroids and tobacco.meschinohealth. Arendt J.
Ardizzoia A. Cattaneo G. Cazzaniga M. 34.31:17881. Tancini G. Lissoni P. 28. Tancini G. et al. Modulation of human lymphoblastoid interferon activity by melatonin in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A phase II study. NY: Bantam Books. 1994. Lissoni P. Robinson J. Cancer 1994. Engel HO. Peres MF. et al. Rovelli F. Maestroni. Moroni F.12:697-706. et al. Ardizzoia A. Acute Pharmacology of Melatonin. Nicita G.51(4):344-7.com: Melatonin. 23. 24. Fiorelli C. Paoletti MC. 25. Lancet 1999. editors. J Pineal Res 1995. Lancet 2000. Cazzaniga M. XI. Crispino S. Seabra ML. 32. In: Advances in Pineal Research.71(4):8546. A randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in patients with brain metastases due to solid neoplasms. Maestroni G. Oncology 1992. Eur Urol 1997. Melatonin. et al.49:558-567. Natural Products Encyclopedia. Shannon M. Randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in advanced non-small cell lung cancer resistant to a first-line chemotherapy containing cisplatin.67 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 22. Reiter RJ. Cazzaniga M. GJ. Barni S. et al. Toxicology of melatonin. Barchas J. Neri B. Comment [c34]: Could not find the other authors Comment [c35]: Could not find the other authors Comment [c36]: Could not find the other authors. Reitar RJ. Esposti D. Guardiola-Lemaitre B. Fossati V. Br J Cancer 1995.consumerslab. Oncology 1991.meschinohealth. Ponchieatti R. Xerum melatonin measures in patients and matched control subjects.214:919-220. www.354:1001-2. A new cluster headache precipitant: increased body heat. Comment [c37]: Could not find the other authors. Cluster headache and melatonin.18:84-9. Oncology 1994. Arch Gen Psychiat 1992. Esposti D. Lissoni P. T-Helper-2 lympocytes as peripheral target of melatonin signalling. Reversal of clinical resistance to LHRH analogue in metastatic prostate cancer by the pineal hormone melatonin: efficacy of LHRH analogue plus melatonin in patients progressing on LHRH analogue alone. Ardizzoia A. Efficacy of the concomitant administration of the pineal hormone melatonin in cancer immunotherapy with low-dose IL-2 in patients with advanced solid tumors who had progressed on IL-2 alone. 35. Meregalli S. 30. Barni S. 27. 37. Lissoni P. 29. Barni S. Tancini G. Alternative medicines toxicology: A review of selected agents. et al. Brivio F. Clinical results with the pineal hormone melatonin in advanced cancer resistant to standard antitumor therapies. Neuroendocrine aspects of primary indogenous depression.49:336-9.com . The role of melatonin in the pathophysiology of oxygen radical damage. 278. Moller M. p. Esposti G. J Biol Rythms 1997. Lissoni P. 8. London: John Libbey and Co. et al. Rubin RL. Cancer 1994. Clin Toxicol 1999.73(12):3014-9. Tancini GE. 38. 1995. Pevet P. Modulation of cancer endocrine therapy by melatonin: A phase II study of tamoxifen plus melatonin in metastatic breast cancer patients progressing under tamoxifen alone. Conti A. Barni S. Blau JN. Zukerman E. p. Paolorossi F. New York.48:448-50. Lissoni P. 36. www.. Tufik S. Nature 1967.355:147[letter].37:709-3. 33. 166-7. et al. et al. 31. Barni S. 26. Vol.73:699-701.
Galactose has a strong affinity for binding to the surface of metastatic cancer cells. oranges and tangerines. but rather appears to play an important role in preventing the spread of cancer to other tissues (metastasis). Research into this area. the binding of Modified Citrus Pectin to the galectin-3 receptor on metastatic cancer cells creates a type of galectin-3 blockade. which contain certain carbohydrate-binding proteins (galectins) on their cell surface. Modified Citrus Pectin is a special form of pectin that has been altered in the laboratory by a proprietary process that shortens the length of pectin’s polysaccharide chain. while maintaining its ability to bind to carbohydrate-binding proteins (glycoproteins) on the surface of metastatic cancer cells.com . enabling the molecule to be absorbed through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. which usually is the manner in which cancer death occurs. researchers were interested in manipulating pectin’s structure is such a way as to allow it to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as lemons. Modified Citrus Pectin has been shown to attach to galectin-3 receptors on metastatic cancer cells. and inhibiting their proliferation and colonization into new tumor masses. www. is primarily categorized as a type of water-soluble fiber with a proven ability to lower cholesterol and provide other health benefits via its actions in the intestinal tract. confirms that galectin-3 receptors play a very pivotal role in the metastasis of cancer in the body. with strong evidence to support its use in the prevention and/or management of prostate cancer metastasis. Principle Active Constituents The laboratory modification of citrus pectin to Modified Citrus Pectin yields a galactose-rich pectin product with a lower molecular weight than citrus pectin in its native (original) form. it appears that these galectins are essential for the spread of cancer (metastasis) to a very significant degree. Thus. Interestingly. in fact. Thus. the blockade of the galectin-3 receptor prevents cancer cells from adhering to each other. With the galectin-3 receptor blocked in this fashion. which express a particular cell surface receptor known as galectin-3 (a galactoside-binding lectin). By contrast. Modified Citrus Pectin does not prevent the development of cancer (cancer initiation).meschinohealth. Its long chain of monosaccharides has numerous branches with important binding cap abilities. As well. which play a key role in pectin’s unique anti-metastatic attributes. As explained below. preventing their clustering and colonization into a larger tumor mass and blocking their ability to spread to other tissues. This structural modification allows Modified Citrus Pectin to be absorbed from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream. Galectins on the surface of cancer cells are known for their carbohydrate-binding abilities. blocking their ability to invade adjacent tissue. Preventing the Spread of Cancer (Anti-metastatic) One of the dominant carbohydrates contained within Modified Citrus Pectin is galactose. essentially inhibiting cancer cells from invading and spreading to new areas and tissues in the body (anti-metastatic effect).68 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Modified Citrus Pectin General Features Modified Citrus Pectin is a dietary supplement that has demonstrated an ability to prevent the spread of cancer (metastasis). and exert an anti-metastatic effect on cancer cells. non-metastatic cancer cells do not have high levels of galectins on their cell surface. discouraging their ability to form colonies (tumor mass). Therefore. pectin itself cannot be absorbed from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream and thus. This results in a lower molecular weight. grapefruits. If cancer cells are deprived of their own adhesive ability. Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. they fail to thrive and can be more easily destroyed by the body’s immune system. cancer cells are less able to adhere to other healthy tissues and cells. In turn.
3 with other in vitro studies showing similar effects for cancer of the breast and larynx. Tampere. as well as lymphoma..4. Modified Citrus Pectin is currently under investigation to see how effectively it can perform these functions.1.3. Human studies of the colon. Upon binding to other cancer cells they encourage the development of a larger tumor mass (colonization) and upon binding to healthy cells they are able to invade these tissues and propagate further spread of the cancer. Higher galectin levels encourage greater adhesion of cancer cells to each other. and larynx. Bile acids are a building block of cholesterol in the body. were in relapse after radical prostatectomy. and the lack of proven therapies against metastasis would justify its inclusion into comprehensive orthomolecular anticancer regimes.6 2. and also facilitates the process of binding to non-cancerous cells at distant sites within the body.1 Human Cancer Studies . one patient had stable disease and one patient did not respond. and were either untreated or off intermittent hormone blockade. including carcinoma of the prostate.2. allowing improved blood flow and reducing risk of heart disease and stroke. 1999.2. breast.2. galectin-3 receptors bind to the galactose molecules on neighboring cancer cells. Finland.6 There is also evidence to show that Modified Citrus Pectin may augment the immune response in cancer by enhancing cytotoxicity of CD3+ T-cells and natural killer cells. As Modified Citrus Pectin still retains much of the properties of pectin fiber (with the exception that it can be absorbed into the bloodstream and pectin fiber cannot). May 28-June 2.1 As reported by PM Kidd. external beam radiation therapy or cryosurgery. prostatectomy is correct www. This research abstract of this study was presented at the International Conference on Diet and Prevention of Cancer. melanoma and glioblastoma. aluminum. Modified Citrus Pectin’s apparent safety and proven anti-metastatic action. three times per day) increased the length of the PSA doubling time by 30% in 4 of 7 patients. In essence. and that all patients were still alive three years after the official end of the study. by binding to and fully saturating all of their galectin-3 cell surface receptors. Modified Citrus Pectin appears to be able to pull cholesterol out of the artery wall in places where it was previously deposited. demonstrated that supplementation with 15 gms per day of Modified Citrus Pectin (5 gms.1 A significant number of animal trials have revealed that Modified Citrus Pectin inhibits metastasis of melanoma cancer in mice. Modified Citrus Pectin has also been shown to act as chelating agent in the bloodstream by pulling out heavy metals that were previously deposited due to environmental exposures and heavy metals entering the body from contaminated food and water. as well as to the other sugars and monosaccharides on the surface of healthy cells. Ph.com .D.5. This effect helps to open up the artery. Modified Citrus Pectin denies metastatic cancer cells of the opportunity of attaching to other cancer cells and healthy cells. Pectin fiber also binds to certain heavy metals (lead.69 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils playing an important role in cellular interactions during the metastatic process. cadmium) in the intestinal tract and helps to block their absorption into the bloodstream. prostate cancer in rats 1. The importance of this mechanism of action is highlighted by the fact that many human cancer cells express galectins on their cell surface. thus pectin fiber is known to help reduce high blood cholesterol by inhibiting the absorption of both dietary cholesterol and bile acids. another constituent of Modified Citrus Pectin. Reversal of Atherosclerosis and Heavy Metal Chelation In its native form citrus pectin is a water-soluble fiber that is known to bind to cholesterol and bile acids in the intestinal tract and block their absorption into the bloodstream. colon. These effects have been shown to be due to the presence of rhamnogalacturonan. stomach and thyroid cancers have also shown that the amount of galectin produced increases proportionally as the cancer progresses from its early to advanced stages. while also mediating increased monocyte cytotoxicity. one patient had a partial response. In short.meschinohealth.1.A pilot study involving prostate cancer patients who failed first-line androgen-deprivation therapy. The researchers conclude that Modified Citrus Pectin appears to slow the PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients with low levels of PSA.7 Comment [U38]: Spelling? Prostatectomy? Yes .
1. 4.com . The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. Lehr J.. Altern med Rev Dec2000. Naik H. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995 Mar 1.5(6):573-5 Pienta KJ.1Drug-Nutrient Interactions Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for Modified Citrus Pectin.8 2. Prima Publishing 1998. Cholesterol Lowering . Glycoconj J 1994 Dec. 1998. Am J Gastroenterol. 2. Floch MH. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. May1985. To Help Prevent Cancer Metastasis . 5. three times per day. Scientific Journal for Natural Therapies: Alternative Medicine Review.g. Effects of natural complex carbohydrate 9citrus pectin) on murine melanoma cell properties related to galextin-3 functions. 4. 1997.11(6):527-32 Modified Citris Pectin-Monograph. A. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. Up to 30 gms per day may be taken safely.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. Murray M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. 3. Dilute Modified Citrus Pectin powder in favorite beverage.70 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dosage and Standardized Grade 1. 2.Typically 5 gms.7 Adverse Side Effects. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. and Herbs.80(5):361-4 www. Inhibition of spontaneious metastasis in a rat prostate cancer model by oral administration of modified citrus pectin. Doyle R. The role of modified citrus pectin in the prevention of cancer metastasis. No toxic effects have been seen in animal or human intervention studies. a unique pectin that blocks cell surface lectins. Akhtar A. Boon H and Smith M. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. Reavley NM. Replogle TS. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Jul97(168):p145 Vargo D.1(1):4-10 Inohara H. Toxicity and Contraindications Modified Citrus Pectin is well tolerated. A new approach to metastatic cancer prevention: modified citrus pectin (MCP). Yamazaki K. Colonic bacterial flora and serum cholesterol: Alterations induced by dietary citrus pectin. 1997.1. Alternative medicine Review Jan 1. Jul99(192):p64 Kidd PM. Murray M. et al. Eliaz I.meschinohealth. It is also available in capsules and tablets. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients.5 gms. 3. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. 7. 6. Supplements. Prima Publishing 1995. Raz.1 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. with no reported side effects except for occasional mild gastrointestinal complaints.87(5):348-53 Klotter J. Minerals. three times per day 1. Evans and Company Inc.
McDermed J.meschinohealth. Strum S.71 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 8. May 1999 www. Tampere.com . Modified citrus pectin slows PSA doubling time: A pilot clinical trial. Finland. Scholz M. Presentation: International Conference On Diet and Prevention of Cancer.
As such. allicin. cartilage. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was reluctant to approve its use as a www. 4. where it becomes oxidized (photochemically) to form a variety of sulfur compounds. is emerging as a significant intervention in the treatment and prevention of a number of common conditions. ligaments and bursitis problems. meat and cow’s milk. many holistically minded practitioners are showing a high level of interest in MSM supplementation for use as a preventive and therapeutic agent.. allyl propyl disulfide. including MSM and DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide). 10 Unfortunately. During the development of higher life forms on this planet three nutrients were always present: water. nails. toxicity studies using DMSO revealed that it causes damage to the lens of the eye in animal studies. 9 DMSO has also been used by athletes for topical treatment of sports-related injuries involving inflammation of muscles. which was shown to be reversible upon DMSO with drawl. according our present scientific understanding. hormones. When MSM is broken apart by plants and animals. As such. fish. 7 Thus. isothiocyanates. at levels that exceed those attainable from food alone. MSM is very volatile and considerable amounts are destroyed during modern day food processing. a portion of the sulfur is used to synthesize sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cystine) and another portion is used directly to produce many other biologically important organo-sulfur molecules (e. and immunoglobulins. From a historical perspective it has been argued that MSM is a chemical that has been present on earth for a very long time. green vegetables. 8 In this capacity. MSM supplementation. sodium chloride and MSM. 3 Yet. hair. tendons. which first arose from a complex series of reactions in the surface waters of the ocean. MSM is considered to be an integral part of maintaining the structural integrity of connective tissues. which serves to strengthen the notion that MSM may be an overlooked and vital nutrient that is required for health maintenance. 3 From a therapeutic standpoint. DMS is a volatile liquid that easily finds its way into the upper layers of the atmosphere. skin. MSM in its native form is a common nutrient found in small amounts in grains. diallyl disulfide).5–1. Thus. 2 Rain of marine origin is the dominant carrier of atmospheric MSM. MSM has been shown to be a factor in the diets of our ancestors. Arthritis and Inflammatory Conditions Of The Musculoskeletal System For many years the compound DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) has been used as a topical agent in veterinary medicine due to its well established anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.com .g. 3 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. MSM’s hexavalent sulfur atom is abstracted by living organisms and is primarily used for the biochemical synthesis of many divalent sulfur-containing products.72 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Methylsulfonyl Methane (MSM) General Features MSM is a naturally occurring sulfur compound. In regards to stability. 6 Maintenance levels of MSM in humans has been shown to be as low as 0. and certain enzymes. Although this effect has not been demonstrated in humans. which primarily acts as a sulfur donor to repair and restore damaged covalent disulfide bonds and the sulfhydral groups of many enzymes.0 mg/kg of body weight per day. which provides much of the sulfur used to make biologically important sulfur –containing nutrients that we derive from plant and animal foods. many foods contain unadulterated MSM in its native form that has been absorbed from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain.meschinohealth.5 In this native form MSM is well absorbed and shows up in human urine with an excretion rate ranging from 4–11mg per day. 1 One of the products of oceanic phytoplankton production is the compound DMS (dimethylsulfide). a person weighing 70 kg would require 35 –70 mg per day of MSM.
As indicated by Drs Jacob and Lawrence.000 patients suffering from osteoarthritis and a variety of autoimmune diseases.com .000 mg per day.14.27 More recently. but further investigation is necessary to substantiate this application. However. For the treatment of a broad spectrum of pain and inflammatory conditions (non-migraine headache. lupus. Other conditions that may benefit from MSM supplementation include rheumatoid arthritis. Results demonstrated that pain relief was significantly greater in patients given the MSM. to assist in the management of arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. 19 2. 12 An additional drawback to the use of DMSO is the strong garlic-breath one is left with after its application.16 Animal studies have demonstrated that MSM has potent anti-inflammatory properties and can help to halt the further destruction of joint cartilage in osteoarthritis. 11. Jacobs has used MSM in the treatment of more than 18. 1. This occurs due to the fact that the body metabolizes much of DMSO to DMS. It is very soluble in water and is readily absorbed from the GI tract.000-6. carpal-tunnel syndrome) the authors cite figures of up to 70% of patients reporting marked relief of symptoms when MSM was added to the treatment regime. These studies also revealed an improvement in joint mobility. 19 Dr. provides an anti-inflammatory effect to some degree and may have mild analgesic properties as well. DMSO was approved by the FDA for its use as an effective treatment for interstitial cystitis. including rheumatoid arthritis. fibromyalgia. Interstitial Cystitis Based on the proven benefit of DMSO in the cases. Jacob compared MSM to the over-the-counter. It is generally accepted that MSM acts to support the structural integrity of joint cartilage. MSM can be taken orally for therapeutic purposes. Jacob and Lawrence have conducted controlled studies using MSM in cases of arthritis. Eighty-two percent of the patients given the MSM reported significant pain reduction versus 18% in the placebo group. The combination of these effects is thought to account for the results seen in clinical studies involving arthritic patients and patients presenting with other musculoskeletal and inflammatory conditions. 19 Both of these clinicians also use MSM supplementation in the treatment of back pain. and possibly other natural anti-inflammatory agents. 20.18. Lawrence compared MSM to a placebo in a double-blind study. Drs.19 Dosage and Standardized Grade When administered as a single treatment agent a dose as low as 250 mg per day has been shown to be effective. 13 Unlike DMSO. which does not produce the garlic-breath effect generated by DMS. Subjects in both groups reported the same degree of pain relief after one month of follow up. It appears that MSM may also be of useful in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. in 1978. 19. preliminary research has been undertaken with MSM. Scleroderma When applied topically.meschinohealth. 17. Jacob and Lawrence indicate that efficacy of MSM is further enhanced by combining it with glucosamine sulfate. 21 www. it is likely best to use MSM in conjunction with glucosamine sulfate. a number of human trials have been undertaken to establish the efficacy of MSM in musculoskeletal disorders. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. 19 Dr. Dr. MSM may also reduce scarring and provide benefit for people with scleroderma —a disorder that involves hardening of the skin as one clinical aspect.73 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils therapeutic compound for humans. scleroderma and interstitial cystitis. tendonitis. Other studies have used doses as high as 2. Motrin. 20 Both Drs.15. 10 Approximately 15% of DMSO is metabolized by the body into MSM.19 3.
Supplements.25 ppm.I.g. vegetables. reporting no or very low toxicity at extremely high doses. Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Evans and Company Inc. and beverages. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. 23 Other animal studies of toxicity have provided similar evidence.2–0.meschinohealth. At high doses (28 gms per day). magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia.J. Murray M. 1997. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement.H. 22 The LD-50 in rats has been determined in excess of 20g/kg BM/d.. Lovelock.74 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Adverse Side Effects. Herschler Williams. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e.E.30 How this applies to humans at this time is not known.122:865 Pearson. J Agr Food Chem 1981.J. some gastric upset or diarrhea may occur.B. et al. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Toxicity and Contraindications There are naturally occurring concentrations of MSM in the human system of approximately 0. 4. T. grains. Boon H and Smith M. excretion and metabolism of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in man. indicating that MSM is an extremely non-toxic compound. Reavley NM. Atmospheric dimethyl sulphide and the natural sulphur cycle. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. presumably originating from food. 13.. 4. et al. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. 3. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. 3. Murray M. Natural occurring levels of dimethyl sulfoxide in selected fruits. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1966. and Herbs.. MSM: The Scientific Rationale For Nutritional Sulfur – A summary of writings and conversations with R. K. 1998. Minerals. H. which results in fragile chromosomal linkages leading to mutations) or related more to its anti-proliferative action.com .237:453-453 Hucker.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. 24. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Nature1972. 2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1967. Prima Publishing 1995. 2. 5. Prima Publishing 1998. Studies on the absorption. MSM has been established as a safe supplement. 1.W. Dimethyl sulfone: isolation from cows’ milk.155(2):309-317 Herschler.25 Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions at this time in regards to MSM supplementation. 29. 26 Other Frontiers Of MSM Research Include Cancer Prevention In animal studies MSM supplementation has been shown to prevent and delay the development of colon and breast cancer in rats treated with known chemical carcinogens. 23 In humans.29:1089 www. R. J. 28 This effect may be due to its ability to support methionine levels (helping to prevent hypomethylation of DNA.
Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into methionine and cysteine of guinea pig serum protein. R.W. Williams. E. J. 15.com .R. (eds. The Miracle of MDM: The Natural Solution for Pain. Natural Way Publications. Morton. 1991. Life Sciences 1986..23(6):422-8 Richmond.878 Metcalf.Sulfur.411:11-13 Jacob. V. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1986. R. Siegel. Int J Anti-Aging Medicine 1998. DACVS. 14.7:268-269 Herschler.E. MSM – A dietary derivative of DMSO. Methylsulfonylmethane. 1998Feb28 Richmond. Sulfur Power. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.herbaladvisor. Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into guinea pig serum proteins. www.A. www. J. Putman’s Sons 1999 Lawrence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM): A double-blind study of its use in Degenerative Arthritis. Nutraceutical of the Century. April issue:38-40 Repine. L. Eq Vet Data 1986.75 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 6. Diminished inflammatory joint disease in MRL/1pr mice ingesting dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethylsulfone (MSM). Use of Methylsulfonylmethane to enhance the diet of an animal. Equine Vet Data 1983. Will medicine keep your horse sound? 1996.I.43(6):Abs 42 Richmond.. W. J. Fox. 21. R. Ann NY Acad Sci 1983. Zucker.39:263-8 Hanson.39:263-8 Richmond. 27.com Moore.3(5):174-175 Cronin.C.P.M. In Vitro Cell Develop Biol 1987.071.141:333345 National Academy of Sciences Research Council. Dimethyl sulfone: Isolation from human urine. Rubin.1(1):50 MSM Herbal Advisor. K. 19. M. 28. MSM status report. 30. 26. New York: National Academy of Sciences 1973 Challem. Jack. Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into guinea pig serum proteins.M.692 Layman.R.7:332-4 Deichman. DVM. 25. Life Sci 1986. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the bactericidal function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. 17. S. B. 9. The Horse.J. Gerards.L. 10.I. New York.A. Introductory Remarks: Dimethyl sulfoxide after twenty years.183:227-30 www. V. Growth inhibitory effects of dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone on vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in vitro. Barnett. R. 24. United States Patent 5. G.. Herschler.B. (ed. The Power of MSM: Let’s Live (magazine) 2001January 2000 Healthnotes. J.39:263-8 Morton. V.healthnotes.I. MSM: A nutrient for the horse. 22. R. J. Ann NY Acad Sci 1983. Equ Vet Data.V. Lawrence.I. R.411:13-17 Metcalf..D. J. 29.F. Arch Biochem Biophys 1966..M. 69th Annual Meeting 1985 April:p. 18..) New York:Academic Press 1969 Challem. Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into guinea pig serum proteins. 1986. 7. D.W.W.H. H. 13.. Life Sci 1986. 11. Inc. R. Ann NY Acad Sci 1967. 23.meschinohealth. Am J Clin Nutrition. K. Ocular effects of oral and dermal application of dimethyl sulfoxide in animals. S. Effects of oral dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone on marine autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease.113:251-252 Herschler. 8. Berger.W. Dimethyl sulfoxide as a therapeutic agent: Report of the ad hoc committee on dimethyl sulfoxide. 16. 20.B. V.com 2001 Jacob. 12.) Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals. R.
1 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.5. lung fluid. however supplementation with vitamin C (500-3. N-acetylcysteine. Conjugation reactions either neutralize toxins produced by Phase I detoxification enzymes and/or make the toxin more easily excreted through the urine or bile.7 As glutathione is the main intracellular defence against oxidative stress.6 N-Acetylcysteine supplementation in these patients has been shown to cause approximately a 2-fold inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase activity and had a synergistic effect when tested simultaneously with vitamin C.com . prevent viral replication while reactive oxidants tend to stimulate the virus. namely cysteine.u. glutathione is rapidly used up and a glutathione deficiency state may occur.2. HIV infection and certain chemical toxicities that damage the liver. HIV Infection and AIDS Studies reveal that individuals infected with HIV have compromised antioxidant status. vitamin C.4 There is evidence that supplementing HIV patients with N-Acetylcysteine can significantly increase the synthesis of glutathione and slow the progression of the disease. Conditions that are linked to glutathione deficiency include HIV infection.3 Certain antioxidants. In conditions of heightened oxidative stress. and is decreased in the plasma.76 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) General Features N-Acetylcysteine is a modified form of the amino acid cysteine. glutamic acid and glycine. idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome. supplementation with N-Acetylcysteine has been shown to be a very effective way to boost glutathione levels. per day) have been shown to raise blood and liver glutathione levels in various studies. In turn this can lead to glutathione deficiency and a worsening of the patient’s condition.3 Moreover. A single dose of N-Acetylcysteine has been shown to increase the concentration of cysteine in the plasma and mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients. a decline in glutathione status may be a biomarker signalling a more rapid progression of HIV to full blown AIDS. When high levels of toxin exposure results in extensive free radical intermediate build up from Phase I detoxification processes. Certain conditions that increase oxidative stress also more rapidly use up glutathione in its antioxidant function. Glutathione also provides a detoxification role in Phase II detoxification by acting as a conjugating agent. Glutathione conjugation is extremely useful to convert fat-soluble toxins into a water-soluble form. allowing more effective excretion via the kidneys. vitamin E and selenium are important www. Glutathione supplements are not well absorbed. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids. In liver detoxification the most important antioxidant for neutralizing the free radicals produced as Phase I by products is glutathione.meschinohealth. which when taken as a supplement can help the body increase its glutathione stores – an important antioxidant and detoxification agent. 16 Studies have shown that intracellular concentrations of glutathione are correlated with the absolute CD 4 (T-helper cells) lymphocyte counts. and T-lymphocytes in individuals with AIDS. such as glutathione. the supplementation of NAcetylcysteine can be used to elevate or re-establish more optimal levels of liver and blood glutathione.000 mg per day) and Vitamin E (400 – 800 i. In patients with AIDS or HIV infection.
Thus. with half the dose given in the first 15 minutes. allowing free radical intermediates to accumulate from Phase I detoxification enzyme activity. it is not recommended for general prevention and anti-aging practices at this time. AIDS.77 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils considerations for these patients because they help to replenish glutathione. or 300 mg/kg infused over 20 hours.000-3000 mg per day 2.000 mg NAC per day. Patients with unusually high chronic exposures may benefit from 1. nicotine from cigarette smoke.com . even when given at high doses (i.000-2. In chronic acetaminophen toxicity states a hepatitis-like clinical picture develops involving liver scarring. this reduces the antioxidant capacity of the liver.13 Drug-Nutrient Interactions N-Acetylcysteine may reduce the effectiveness certain drugs such as acetaminophen. it may act as a pro-oxidant rather than as an antioxidant. insecticides) and epoxides (carcinogens). Early treatment with N-Acetylcysteine (given intravenously) is the medical antidote for acetaminophen induced liver toxicity because it is known to reconstitute liver glutathione levels. also methylmercury and arsenic-induced oxidative stress). treatment of acute acetaminophen poisoning). carbon tetrachloride. While supplementing the diet with high doses of NAC may be beneficial in cases of extreme oxidative stress (i. nitroglycerine and nitroglyn. Liver Support: N-Acetylcysteine helps the liver defend itself against various toxins (acetaminophen. delay beyond 16 to 20 hours renders the treatment ineffective.9 2.e. Therapy must begin within 10-12 hours of poisoning. Liver Damage Glutathione plays a key role in the detoxification of acetaminophen. when taken as supplements.14 www. some chemotherapy drugs and may produce adverse reactions with metoclopramide. This circumstance requires appropriate medical attention and monitoring. In turn. at doses as low as 3 gms of acetaminophen per day.1. These reactive free radical species are left unchecked to damage liver cells and can lead to acute liver failure and death.e. In these individuals. liver glutathione is used up in the detoxification process.10 Dosage Ranges 1. Toxicity and Contraindications N-Acetylcysteine is non-toxic. resulting in a glutathione deficiency state. 1 Under circumstances of acute or chronic exposure to the drug acetaminophen (Tylenol). carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen exposure). Acetaminophen Poisoning (Acute Overdose): Doses of 10-15 gms of acetaminophen require treatment with NAcetylcysteine at 140mg/kg followed by 70 mg/kg q 4h for 3 days.10 3.12 Adverse Side Effects.2 NAC supplementation has been shown to significantly increase glutathione in HIV patients and improve survival in a 2 to 3 year follow-up trial. 10 Some gastrointestinal effects may occur at high oral doses. organophosphates (i.e. it may lead to increased free radical formation in otherwise healthy individuals.meschinohealth. HIV and AIDS: 1. and life threatening consequences may ensue.11. in these cases.
Stalenhoef AFH.3. Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. et al. Therefore.15 1. 8.U. Roederer M. N-Acetylcysteine is best taken in conjunction with vitamin .11:1389-93. Wilmore DW. p. Aroda VR. J Mol Med 2000. Marmor M. 12. 11.43:639-42. Favier A. et al. www. Micoud M. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility following combined administration of N-acetylcysteine and meso 2. 6. N-acetylcysteine enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in neutrophils and mononuclear cells from healthy adults and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.30.339:1603–4. 2. Staal FJ. Ballatori N. Demacker PNM.36:278-8. Glutathiore deficiency and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 1995. – 800 I. Herzenberg LA. Roederer M. 7. Faure P. Low serum thiol levels predict shorter times-to-death among HIVinfected injecting drug users. Ela SW.U. De Rosa SC.) selenium (100 – 200 mcg). Rocklin.1 and Vitamin C (500 . 9. Herzenberg LA. Alcabes P. E (400 I. Staal FJ. Berthon G. 15. Ela SW. 104-25. Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replication is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with HIV. p. Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in healthy subjects. Herzenberg LA. Anderson MT. supplemental zinc and copper should be added when supplementing with NAC for extended periods. Healthnotes Inc. Lancet 1992. Hacht B. Penn A.172(6):1492-502. B N-Acetylcysteine supplementation may increase the urinary loss of zinc. Pizzoino J. Dubs JG. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992. Leclerc P.3dimercaptosuccinic acid in rats. Krasinski K. Ela SW. De Rossa SC.78(1):55-62. Environ Health Perspect 1998. Ank BJ.com): Drug Interactions Summary for N-Acetylcysteine. 4. 10. Glutathione deficiency and HIV infection. Thomas Nebe C. Breitkreutz R. Pittack N.com . 13. Sappey C.meschinohealth. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997. AIDS 1997. Herzenberg LA. Glutathione deficiency is associated with impaired survival in HIV disease. 14. 2nd edition. Comment [c39]: Could not find other authors. Raju PA. Eur J Clin Invest 2000.106(5):267-71. Roberts RL.26(11):865-9.10:91529. et al. Filella M. Wang W.339:909-12. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1999. Brumas V. Robinson MK. Can N-acetylcysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote? Agents Action 1992. 16th edition. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1990. Healthnotes 2000. 3. Lancet 1992. Schuster D.healthnotes. N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. 906-9. CA: Merck Research Laboratories. Roederer M.78 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils N To raise liver glutathione levels. (www.000 mg). Kleinveld HA. 1992.199-210. Hong RW. The Merck Manual.91:165-80. Beichert M. Flora SJ. Zaretsky MD. Frenkel K.94:1967-72. et al. Lieberman MW. 16. Anderson MT.87:4884-8. Titus S. Murray M. N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. Dubs JG. 5. Brust J. CA: Prima Publishing. San Diego. 1998. Chem Biol Interact 1994.
a product that is no longer available (due to the possible risk of “mad cow” disease. mood states and cognitive function with Phosphatidylserine supplementation of 100 mg. the body makes its own Phosphatidylserine.3. Most of the Phosphatidylserine available in the marketplace today is derived from soy.11. aiding the conduction of nerve impulses and improving the movement of nutrients in and out of nerve cells.11. the dosage can be reduced to 100 mg per day as a maintenance regime.12 The serine portion of Phosphatidylserine can also be converted into choline and significantly improve acetylcholine synthesis in the brain. Scandinavia and other parts of Europe Phosphatidylserine is widely used to help restore declining mental function and depression in the elderly. behaviour. involving more than 1. 12 This is largely attributable to the role that Phosphatidylserine plays within the nerve cell membrane. The brain can manufacture Phosphatidylserine. but requires folic acid. including Alzheimer’s disease patients. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter (brain chemical) required for memory.12 Dosage Range Age-Related Cognitive Decline (Age-Associated Memory Impairment). the neurotransmitter required for memory function.1-4. As noted.meschinohealth. but when required to treat mental decline and memory loss. senility and depression of the elderly has been used successfully in a number of well designed clinical trials.2. vitamin B12 and S-adenosylmethionine as cofactors (methyl donors) for its synthesis. aiding memory and reversing some age-related brain changes.com . The use of Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of agerelated memory loss and depression is primarily based upon the positive results demonstrated by bovine-derived Phosphatidylserine. three times daily. The serine fraction of Phosphatidylserine can also be converted into choline within the brain and is used as substrate from which brain cells can synthesize acetylcholine. three times per day in the treatment of age-related cognitive impairment. Soy and bovinederived Phosphatidylserine are not chemically identical.1. preliminary animal studies show that soy-derived Phosphatidylserine does have effects on brain function similar to that of bovine-derived Phosphatidylserine.4 Thus.79 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Phosphatidylserine General Features Phosphatidylserine is the major phospholipid in the brain and plays a role in determining the integrity and fluidity of nerve cell membranes (the outer skin of brain cells). Note that the above cited studies used bovine (cow-brain)-derived Phosphatidylserine.12 In Italy.000 patients suggest that Phosphatidylserine supplementation improves behaviour and mental function in patients with moderate to severe mental decline. a therapeutic dosage is required from external sources. www. Once improvement is noted (usually within 3-6 months). but there have been only a limited number of studies using this source of Phosphatidylserine in studies evaluating cognitive function. Phosphatidylserine may aid memory and cognitive function via its participation as a vital phospholipid component of the nerve cell membrane and as a bioactive agent that can increase brain levels of the memory chemical acetylcholine. or more correctly Creutzfeld-Jacob disease). Soy-derived Phosphatidylserine is a relatively new product by comparison. however. 5-10 A number of double-blind studies. and Depression in the Elderly: 100 mg.1-4 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action Treatment of Depression and/or Impaired Mental Function in the Elderly Numerous studies in elderly patients (65-93 yrs) with moderate to severe senility and depressed elderly patients have demonstrated significant improvement in memory. Low levels of Phosphatidylserine in the brain are associated with impaired cognitive function and depression in the elderly. 11.
Pepeu G. Satzger W.55:819-25. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SKAT). 2000. Pharmacopsychiat 1989. Rocklin. Healthnotes Inc. CA: Prima Publishing. Crook T.317:1235-46. Milan F. Picotti GB.22:125-8. Eur.com . 1992. Toffano G. Cenacchi T. Gunther W. Casamenti F. et al. Neuropsychopharmacol. Natural Products Encyclopedia.41:644-9.11. Panerai A. 356-358.5:123-33. Cenacchi T.80 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Nevertheless. Yesavage J. Baggen M. Bertoldin T. Comment [c40]: Couldn’t find the other authors Comment [c41]: Couldn’t find the other authors. 10. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992. Mistlberger G. Gerke S.1. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. 1996.12 Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Phosphatidylserine is generally regarded as safe when used at recommended dosages. human trials are necessary to confirm the clinical efficacy of soy-derived Phosphatidylserine for the above-cited purposes. Funfgeld EW. Guidolin D. Nunzi MG. Zanotti A. Massari DC.2:149-55. 6.1-4. Engel.11. No significant side effects or adverse reactions have been noted. Nedwidek P. 11. placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration.1 1. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind.9:657-60. Murray M. Tinklenberg J. p. 8. 7. 12. Wells C. Valzelli L. placebo in subjects with early cognitive deterioration of the Alzheimer type. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Healthnotes Online. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. Richstein B. Aging 1993. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990. other than mild gastrointestinal distress on rare occasions. Petrie W. 3. Activity of phosphatidylserine on memory retrieval and on exploration in mice. Decrease of acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats: Investigations into its reversal by phosphatidylserine. Massari DC. www.28:61-6. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Effect of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Petrie W. 5. J Neurochem 1990. Kozak W. 2. 9. Farina C. et al. Nunzi MG. Kathmann N. Bondiolotti GP. Vannucchi MG.com: Phosphatidylserine. Effects of phosphatidylserine administration on age-related structural changes in the rat hippocampus and septal complex.consumerslab.meschinohealth. Bove D. et al. www. Crook TH.12 Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well known drug-nutrient interactions for Phosphatidylserine. Meth Find Extl Clin Pharmacol 1987. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989. RR. Nobil P. et al. Maggioni M. 4.81:265-70. Neurology 1991.
but it is known to suppress cholesterol synthesis in the liver. dizziness. safety and lack of toxicity of this natural health product makes it a very desirable supplement in the management of high cholesterol as it has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels equally as well as many prescription medications. Octacosanol is a long chain fatty alcohol (similar in structure to cholesterol.8. Nor does it produce the side effects associated with the use of statin drugs. Keeping octacosanol together with other naturally occurring fatty alcohols makes it more stable and seems to enhance the efficacy of this supplement.meschinohealth. which has been shown to significantly reduce high cholesterol in human and animal studies.4. diarrhea. respectively. as are statin drugs. improving blood flow and aiding patients with intermittent claudication and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. 1. without producing significant side effects. 1. heartburn.3 The efficacy.com . fatigue. However. 1 Postmenopausal Women .9 Human Trials A review of the clinical trials using Policosanol to lower cholesterol levels in humans appeared in the American Heart Journal in 2002.Policosanol has been shown to reduce high levels of blood cholesterol to a significant degree (LDL-cholesterol reduction ~ 20%) in human and animal studies. it is not officially considered to be an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. it can not be excluded that effectiveness may be even greater. It also has been shown to reduce platelet stickiness.2. at doses of 10 to 20 mg per day lowers total cholesterol by 17% to 21% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 21% to 29%. After www.81 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Policosanol (Saccharum officinarum) General Features Policosanol is a natural compound derived from sugar cane wax. muscle pain.3% and 26. 1. the good cholesterol) cholesterol by 8% to 15%.6. Its mechanism of action is not completely understood. skin rash.4 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. and raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL. a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. This is of great clinical significance as heart disease is the number one cause of death in postmenopausal women.5 Principle Active Constituents Policosanol is a mixture of higher primary aliphatic alcohols isolated from sugar cane wax.Policosanol has been shown to reduce elevated total and LDL-cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women by 17. which is also an alcohol ). A review of the available peer-reviewed journal publications revealed that Policosanol. 4. whose main component is octacosanol. Cholesterol Lowering . in 56 women who showed no cholesterol lowering to a 6-week standard lipid-lowering diet that has been followed prior to the administration of Policosanol. skin rash and male impotence.7%. which include potential liver damage. as studies of greater than three years of therapy indicate. 4. Policosanol is a combination of octacosanol and several other long chain alcohols — hence the name poli-cosanol.30 Large trials over long periods have demonstrated that Policosanol supplementation can lower and maintain blood cholesterol levels as well as most conventional drugs.7. Daily doses of 10 mg of Policosanol have been shown to be equally effective in lowering total and LDL cholesterol as the same dose of simvastatin or pravastatin (two widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering statin drugs). Triglyceride levels are not influenced by Policosanol supplementation. The researchers state that because higher doses have not been tested up to now. without producing untoward side effects. Policosanol is safe and well tolerated. At doses of up to 20 mg per day. This effect appears to be related to its modulation of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme.
Patients with type II hypercholesterolemia are known to have a genetically based defect that encourages lifelong elevation of blood cholesterol. in a randomized. This did not occur in the Policosanol group. 15 Improved Exercise ECG Results in Coronary Patients . respectively.Sixty-two patients with intermittent claudication were given either 10 mg of Policosanol.a condition that is difficult to manage through diet and exercise alone. HDL-cholesterol levels have been shown to rise by 15. This was a 6. in patients with high cholesterol and high triglycerides. HDL-cholesterol collects the cholesterol that has been deposited in the artery wall and transports it back to the liver where it can be cleared from the blood stream and eliminated from the body via its conversion to bile acids.5% to 28. Total and LDL-cholesterol can be expected to drop by up to 17. platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk are more favorable than those induced by the same doses of Pravastatin.Policosanol supplementation was tested in patients with myocardial ischemia (severe blood flow restriction to the heart muscle) versus placebo. The 10 mg dose produced better results in all cholesterol parameters compared to the 5 mg dose. The results showed that www. Fibrate drugs are often used to help lower triglyceride levels. 13 Used In Conjunction With Fibrate Drugs .” 12 A second study tested the efficacy of Policosanol against Lovastatin and Simvastatin (two popular statin drugs). this reduces clearance of cholesterol from the bloodstream permitting blood levels of LDLcholesterol to rise. likely due to liver damage). another important risk factor in cardiovascular disease. respectively. an effect that is not produced to a substantial degree by Policosanol.4% and 25.A study involving older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia tested the efficacy of the statin drug Pravastain against Policosanol.com . twice per day or a placebo for 6 weeks. The results showed that Policosanol reduced LDL-cholesterol by 24% on average compared to a 22% and 15% reduction with Lovastatin and Simvastatin.6%. HDL levels rose significantly in the Policosanol group and no change was seen in the patients receiving Lovastain or Simvastatin. 9 Type II Hypercholerterolemia . The results showed that Policosanol was more effective than Pravastatin in reducing total and LDL-cholesterol and was able to raise HDL-cholesterol by 18.week trial involving patients with an LDL-cholesterol level of over 160 mg/dl. the combination of both agents has been shown to be effective and safe. whereas Pravastatin showed no effect on HDL-cholesterol levels. No change was seen in the placebo group. predisposing women to heart attack and ischemic stroke. Studies have shown in a convincing manner that Policosanol supplementation significantly lowers cholesterol levels even in these more challenging patients.levels by up to 29. Thus. which indicates potential damage to liver cells. which is a remarkable finding due to the fact that it is difficult to raise HDL levels and that higher HDL levels are known to significantly reduce risk of heart attack.meschinohealth. The researchers conclude “the effects of Policosanol (10 mg per day) on lipid profile. the administration of Policosanol at 5 mg or 10 mg per day was shown to significantly reduce total and LDL-cholesterol levels and raise HDL. 11 Head-To-Head Trials Against Statin Drugs .4%. Policosanol also more effectively reduced platelet aggregation than did Pravastatin. double-blind study.1%.A study combining the use of Bezafibrate and Policaosanol demonstrated that these cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering agents can be used together to produce a positive outcome on blood lipids with no untoward side effects. Two patients dropped out of the Pravastatin group due to adverse side effects (myocardial infarction and jaundice. 14 Intermittent Claudication .4% in these patients. The Policaosanol group realized a significant improvement on treadmill walking distance during the course of the study. In turn. Patients receiving Pravastatin over the 6-week trial period experienced a rise in their serum levels of alanine amine transferase enzyme. 10 Even in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia presenting with more than one concomitant atherosclerotic risk factor.82 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils menopause the decline in estrogen levels is associated with a decrease in LDL-cholesterol receptors on the cell surface.
8. twice per day is the most common daily dosage of Policosanol used to treat hypercholesterolemia. 1.5% and LDLcholesterol by 21. then Policosanol can be used alone at a dose of 20 or 40 mg per day. twice per day.19. with increasing anti-coagulant effects at 40 mg per day. 19 A dose of 20 mg per day of Policosanol has been shown to provide the same degree of anti-coagulant activity as 100 mg of aspirin per day in human subjects.20. Anti-coagulant effects appear to start at a dose of 20 mg per day.3% and triglyceride levels fell by 6. 10 mg. None of these changes occurred in the placebo group. Moreover.A randomized single-blinded. HDL-cholesterol levels rose by 11.com . The researchers conclude “ Policosanol is effective and safe in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia.To lower cholesterol in patients not taking anti-coagulant therapy (including aspirin) doses of Policosanol from 5 mg per day to 40 mg per day have been used. in comparison to no improvement in these parameters in the placebo group. The researchers state that Policosanol treated patients with coronary heart disease showed improved clinical evolution. 22 Studies in mice showed no adverse effects or carcinogenicity at doses of 50500 mg/kg administered orally for 18 months.In a study of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients with high cholesterol levels. aspirin ) appear to be able to safely take up to 10 mg per day of Policosanol to lower cholesterol without risk of potentiating the action of anti-coagulant drugs.4. The 12 patients given the Policosanol demonstrated a significant reduction in blood cholesterol levels and exhibited a clinical tendency to improvement of their coronary heart disease. “ These findings show the effectiveness of low dose of Policosanol lowering total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and suggest a coronary heart disease improvement in middle-aged patients with primary or marginal hyperlipidemia.8. patients taking other anti-coagulants (warfarin. Policosanol supplementation at 10 mg per day was shown to reduce total cholesterol by 17. Anti-Coagulant Effects Policosanol has been shown to exert anti-coagulant effects on platelet function. it is best to limit the dose of Policosanol to 5 mg.5. 1. However. then it is wise to limit the dose of Policosanol to 10 mg per day.83 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils after 20 months the Policosanol group experienced an incremental improvement in ECG exercise testing (aerobic functional capacity percent) and a decline in blood cholesterol levels. owing to the amelioration of myocardial ischemia. Thus. this does not seem to be the case when administered at 5 or 10 mg per day.8% compared with baseline and placebo. 23 Overall Policosanol is considered to be an extremely safe therapeutic agent for cholesterol lowering.7. and exercise-ECG responses.24 www.” 18 2.21 Adverse Side Effects.” 17 Diabetic Patients With High Cholesterol . Dosage and Standardized Grade Cholesterol Lowering . placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 23 middle-aged outpatients with established coronary heart disease.9.7. 18 Animal studies reveal that Policosanol is extremely safe even when administered to beagle dogs at 180 mg/kg for 52 weeks. If the patient is already on anti-coagulant therapy. These results were even better when Policosanol was combined with 125 mg of aspirin per day. Most typically. 16 Coronary Heart Disease Patients . Toxicity and Contraindications Long term studies with Policosanol in humans has not shown any significant side effects and appears to have a safer profile than statin drugs (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor drugs) that are commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol. coumadin. 4.meschinohealth. indicating that the use of aspirin in conjunction with Policosanol may be of greater benefit to certain heart patients than is aspirin alone. 20 This implies that if an anti-coagulant effect is desired along with a cholesterol lowering effect. which is 620 times higher than the therapeutic dose of 20 mg per day.6% in the Policosanol group. Policosanol did not adversely affect glucose levels or glycemic control. where a cholesterol lowering effect is desirable.9 A case of erthyma was reported in one trial with diabetics.4. In patients using anti-coagulant drugs.
Am Heart J 2002Feb. Fernández. 3. their prothrombin time should be properly monitored. González RM. 4. Fernández JC. Anti-Hypertensive Drugs .Policosanol has been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. Illnait J. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. Fernández JC. Fernández L.com . 4. et al.meschinohealth.29 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Berthold HK. 3.50(2):123-30 A Natural Anti-Cholesterol Dietary Supplement: Policosanol. Amor AM. Comparative effects of policosanol and two HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors on type II hypercholesterolemia..15(4):159-65 www. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. it is best not to recommend a daily dosage of more than 5 mg. A double-blind. 1997. Diabetes Care 1995Mar. 5.18(3):393-7 Castaño G.7(6):24 Prat H. JC. Roca J. Murray M. 2. coumadin and aspirin. Illnait J. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Selman E. Más Ferreiro R. Anti-coagulant Drugs . Thus. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. 2.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. Rev Med Chil Mar1999. Alfonso JL.127(3):286-94 Menéndez R. González PC.143(2):356-65 Torres O. Policosanol: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Policosanol modulates HMG-CoA Reductase activity in cultured fibroblasts. Prima Publishing 1995. twice per day in patients on concomitant anti-coagulant therapy. Reavley NM. Fernández L. and Herbs. 1998. Studies on humans and animals have not shown a significant enhancement of anti-platelet activity when Policoasanol has been combined with warfarin or aspirin. placebo-controlled studyof the effects of policosanol in patients with intermittent claudication. Más R. 6. Prima Publishing 1998. Angiology 1999Feb. 1. Minerals. et al. Moreira M. A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinaemia. Murray M. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Evans and Company Inc. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995. in the interest of patient safety.27. may potentiate the effects of anti-coagulant drugs such as warfarin. Arch med Res 2001Jan-Feb.32(1):8-12 Canetti M. et al.g. Más R.28 2. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. 7. Illnait J. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. 25. Life Extension Jun2001. Agramonte AJ. Rodeiro I. blood pressure should be monitored in order to see if a dose reduction in beta-blocker medication is required once Policosanol supplementation has been implemented.84 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Drug-Nutrient Interactions 1. and even then. Gouni-Berthold I. Nevertheless.26. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with policosanol. Boon H and Smith M. Beta-Blocker. Supplements. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. Fernández L.Human and animal studies reveal that Policosanol can potentiate the effects of beta-blockers used to lower high blood pressure.
58(1):61-4 Mesa AR. Comparative effects of policosanol and two HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors on type II hypercholesterolemia. Román O.61(6):346-57 Castaño G. Mar1995. Fernández JC. Comparative study of policosanol. Pereztol O. 24. Mas R.36:469-73 Mirkin A.18(3):393-7 Arruzazabala ML. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999. Más R. Pino E. Boccanera R. Long-term therapy with policosanol improves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. The Body Press 1999. 26.36(4):293-7 Carbajal D.50(2):123-30 Stüsser R. et al. 9. et al. Long-term therapy with policosnol improves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. Padrón R. Peréz B. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2001. 13. 15. Mas R.127(3):286-94 Marcello S. 25. 22. A 14-month pilot study. Más R. Alemán C.36(4):293-7 Stusser R. Sosa F. Feb1999. 21. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids Jan1998.65(4):439-47 Castaño G. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of policosanol in patients with intermittent claudication. J Gerontol A Biol Sci med Sci 2001Mar. 17. Toxicol Lett 1994. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Mar1996. Fernández L. Effects of policosanol and pravastatin on lipid profile. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.MHG-CoA Reductase inhibitors:418-419 www.19(4):105-16 Prat H. Noa M.70:77-87 Mas R. Gladstein J.36(9):469-73 Batista J. et al. 23. Effect of policosanol successive dose increases on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. et al. Rev Med Chil 1999Mar. et al. Alvarez E. Noa M et al. Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998Sep. 28. Toxicity of policosanol in beagle dogs: one-year study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Sep1998. Más R. Illnait J.65(4):439-47 Carbajal D. 18. aspirin and the combination therapy policosanol-aspirin on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.34(5-6):181-5 Arruzazabala ML. Current Therapeutic Research 2000Jun. Effect of policosanol on platelet aggreagation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. et al. et al. 29. Martinto M. et al. 20. Effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with policosanol.73:81-90 Aleman CL.21(1):31-41 Más R. Valdes S. Complete Guide to Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs.36(9):469-73 Carbajal D.58(1):61-4 Arruzazabala ML. Study of the pharmacological interaction with nifedipine and propranolol. Mas R. Arch Med Res Mar1998. et al. A 12-month study of policosanol oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. 19. Arruzazabala ML. Fernández JC. 30. Fernández L.com . MD. Illnait J. et al. Batista J. Long-term therapy with policosanol imporves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. aspirin and the combination therapy policosanol-aspirin on platelet aggreagation in healthy volunteers. et al. et al. Effect of policosanol on arterial blood pressure in rats. Castaño G.34(3):134-7 Torres O. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids Jan1998. Robertis A. Hernandez C et al. Angiology.56(3):186-92 Castaño G. Comparative study of policosanol. et al. Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia dn additional coronary risk factors. Interaction policosanol-warfarin on bleeding time and thrombosis in rats.29(1):21-4 Griffith W. Toxicol Lett 1994. Más R. Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors. 11. Diabetes Care. 12. Saéz F. 14.meschinohealth. platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older hypercholesterolemic patients. Stüsser R. Arruzazabala ML. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998. 16. Pharmacol Res Oct1997.38(2):89-91 Molina Cuevas V. et al. Tesone P.85 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 8. Stusser R. Fernández J. Pharmacol Res Aug1998. 10. Padron R. 27. Pharmacol Res Nov1996. Effect of policosanol on hyperlipidemia dn coronary heart diseases in middle-aged patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999Apr. Poudes R. Batista J. Pharmacol Res Oct1997. Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr1999. Illnait J.
aid elimination processes and favorably affect the immune system of the gut and the systemic immune system. The same has been shown for supplementation with two other Prebiotics.2. This short-chain fatty acid also induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) of colon cancer cells.5-9 Higher doses may help to lower cholesterol. This appears related to an inhibition of certain enzymes that are known to produce bowel carcinogens.1. through fermentation of Prebiotics and other fiber sources.000-3. enhancing their growth and cell division rate. It is an important fuel for colon cells and evidence exists to show that colon cells exposed to various carcinogens are less inclined to be transformed into malignant cells in the presence of adequate butyrate supply. Human studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation reduce concentrations of components that are genotoxic in human colon cells. Human studies demonstrate that supplementation with Prebiotics (and probiotics) encourages the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB).1. Lower pH in the colon is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in various studies.000 mg a day of additional FOS can favourably alter the bacteria populations of the large bowel. enhance detoxification by intestinal mucosal cells.2. “Thus.11.13.86 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Prebiotics (FOS and other Oligosaccharides) General Features Prebiotics is a term used to refer to short-chain polysaccharides (carbohydrates) that are not completely digested by the human intestinal tract. enzyme induction by butyrate.meschinohealth. namely inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS).5-9 Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin consist of short chains of fructose molecules. 4 Human studies show that supplementation with FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) increases bifodobacteria and lactobacilli populations in the flora of the large intestine while simultaneously reducing the colonies of detrimental bacteria. or www.3 The official definition of Prebiotics is stated as “nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of one species or a limited number of species of bacteria in the colon”. but rather serve as a food supply for the friendly bacteria of the large bowel (bifodobacteria and lactobacilli).12 From a standpoint of general wellness. Butyrate has also been shown to increase the concentrations of glutathione transferase enzyme in co lon cells. improved control of autoimmune conditions and a lessening of skin reactions secondary to food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. reduce the concentrations of large bowel mutagens and carcinogens. making it a more acidic environment. Experimental data and some epidemiological evidence indicate that increased LAB protects against colon cancer development. which is the second leading cause of cancer death in North America (combining statistics for men and women).com . while inhibiting the proliferation of cancerous cells. under experimental conditions. after lung cancer. gives rise to the production of short-chain fatty acids and lowers the pH of the colon. supplementation with Prebiotics or probiotics have been shown to improve digestion and absorption of some nutrients. These effects are related to favorable changes in the concentrations of friendly gut bacteria resulting from pre. Butyrate has been shown to increase the proliferation of normal cells. In regards to immune modulation. triglycerides and help better regulate blood glucose in type II diabetics.14 An important feature of prebiotic supplementation is its potential impact on reducing risk of colorectal cancer. these positive effects extend to include reduced hypersensitivity reactions secondary to food sensitivities.4.3 The estimated average daily intake of FOS from food sources (mostly vegetables) is 800 mg.10 Supplementation studies demonstrate that 2. Experimental data demonstrates that Prebiotics increase the proliferation of LAB which also. Galacto-oligosaccharides consist of short chains of galactose molecules.and probiotic supplementation.
Alles MS. Br J Nutr 1996. Health effects of oligosaccharides.12. elimination and immune function) a daily dosage of 500-1. Tomomatsu H. Thus.17 1. Am J Clin Nutr 1996.000-3. Guibert A. Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Generally. GOS) is commonly utilized. Nagengast FM. Hartemink R. General Wellness For health promotion purposes (e. et al. Molis C.000 mg is often recommended. may be an important mechanism or protection against carcinogen-enhanced colon cancer. Skin Conditions Prebiotics may be used to increase friendly gut bacteria (Bifidobacterium. more research is required before any conclusive statements can be made in this regard. 4. and energy value of fructooligosaccharides in healthy humans. bifidum and longum. to reduce concentrations of carcinogens in the large bowel.64:324-8. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and mutin. Autoimmune Conditions. oligosaccharides are well tolerated.7:29-37.”15 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. excretion.11.000 mg of FOS per day and/or other Prebiotics (inulin. Hautvast JG.meschinohealth. Fate of fructo-oligosaccharides in the human intestine.16 4. Rheumatoid Arthritis. Ourne F. Cummings JH. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. 2.g. Gibson GR. Duggan C. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1983. Other studies have not shown this beneficial effect. Wang X. but not all. 5. Food Sensitivity and Intolerances. Some studies. Digestion. At very high levels. Butyrate is known to inhibit liver cholesterol synthesis and provide a source of energy for human colon epithelial cells. Lartique S. 3. Type II Diabetes Some evidence suggests that prebiotic supplementation at 8-15 gm per day can help better regulate blood glucose in type II diabetics.1 Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug interactions with FOS or other Prebiotics.16 3. Van Laere KM. demonstrate that supplementing with 8-15 gms of Prebiotics can significantly lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides.12. Gannon J. Flourie B. In these conditions a therapeutic dosage of – 2. yielding short chain fatty acids like butyrate.87 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils by the microflora and increased activity by Prebiotics.5-9 2.com . This is not a consistent finding at this time. Gastroenterology 1995. and Lacto bacillus acidophilus).76:211-21. Walker WA. Am J Clin Nutr 2002:75(5):789-808. Beatty EH.106:975-82. (40 gm). Gailing MF. improve digestion. www. FOS and other oligosaccharides may induce diarrhea. Some individuals report increased flatulence initially. Digestive Disorders. Lipid Lowering Prebiotics are metabolized by large bowel bacteria.
Dietary fibre. Roberfroid M.com):FOS. Clohessy AM. 12. Tomomatsu H. Arvilommi H. Am J Clin Nutr 2001.73(Suppl 2):406S-9S. Wollowski I. Bouhnik Y. Salminen S. Health effects of oligosaccharides. et al. (www. Br J Nutr 1999. Effects of fructo-oligosoccharides on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic subjects. Probiotics.82:23-30. 7. Gibson GR. Jackson KG. Roberfroid M. 14. The effect of the daily intake of inulin on fasting lipid. Beatty ER. Rechkemmer G. Gramet G. 13. Prebiotics: preferential substrates for specific germs. Am J Clin Nutr 2001:73(Suppl 2):444S-50S. 16. J Nutr 1997. Pool-Zobel BL.healthnotes. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. J Nutr 1999.108:975-82.33:103-48. Am J Clin Nutr. M. Nutr Res 1984. Dietary fibre. inulin and oligosaccharides. Isolauri E. Kawai. 11. K. Food Technology 1994. www. Sutas Y. Dagay-Abensour L. Cummings JH. 15. Kankaanpaa P. effects on immunity. 9. Gastroenterology 1995. Inc. Roberfroid M.33:103-48 [review]. 10. Healthnotes online. 127: 444-8. Wlliams CM.4:961-6.2001. Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer. K. A review comparing their physiological effects.48(10):61-5.com . et al. Pochart P.meschinohealth.129:113-6.88 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 6. 2000 Healthnotes. Wang X. and Itakura.73(Suppl 2):451S-5S. 8. Crit Rev Good Sci Nutr 1993. Taylor GRJ. Fluorié B. inulin and oligofructose. Durand M. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993. Yamashita. insulin and glucose concentrations in middle-aged men and women. Administration of transgalacto-oligosaccharides increases faecal Bifidobacteria and modifies colonic fermentation metabolism in healthy humans. Bouhmik Y. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide administration dose-dependently increases fecal bifodobacteria in healthy humans. 17.
certain autoimmune diseases and inflammatory bowel conditions such as Chrohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. in particular by control of the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.3. infant atopic dermatitis. Well documented effects include lower frequency and duration of diarrhea associated with antibiotics. as noted above.1.4 The gut microflora (normal bacterial population) is an important constituent in the intestine’s defense barrier. evidence exists to show that probiotic supplementation reduces the entry of pathogens and antigens from reaching the bloodstream.2 It has been shown that lactobacilli inhibit the growth of less desirable organisms in the large intestine through competition for nutrients.” The health effects attributed to the use of Probiotics are numerous. Many of the probiotic effects are mediated via immune regulation. and inflammatory bowel disease. food allergy.5 www. Other health benefits are also related to the use of Probiotics as reviewed below. autoimmune conditions (rheumatoid arthritis. Probiotic supplementation has also been shown to reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (particularly. In one placebo-controlled trial. alteration of pH and oxygen tension to levels less favourable to pathogens (disease-causing organisms). and decrease in unfavourable metabolites in the bowel that are linked to colon cancer development (ammonium and procarcinogenic enzymes).6 One researcher states “these data point to the conclusio n that Probiotics can be used as innovative tools for treating dysfunction of the gut mucosal barrier. the most important of which are lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria. The gut microflora also elicits specific immune responses at a local and systemic level. chemotherapy. rotavirus infection. which alter the microflora (by implantation or colonization) in a compartment of the host and by that exert beneficial health effects in this host. preventing inflammation. patients with pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch-anal anastamosis after colectomy) had fewer episodes of clinical relapse when treated with Probiotics. and inflammatory bowel conditions. In general. tumor necrosis factor alpha) from white blood cells that promote inflammatory responses in conditions such as atopic dermatitis. and production of limiting factors such as antimicrobial factors.89 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Probiotics General Features Probiotics is a term used to describe supplementation with the friendly bacteria of the large intestine. and to a lesser degree traveler’s diarrhea. and providing systemic benefits as well.com . as demonstrated by increased antigen transport across the gut mucosa in the absence of an intestinal microflora. while toning-down (down-regulating) the exaggerated immune reactions that contribute to food allergies and inteolerance. At the same time.1. A healthy composition of microflora has also been shown to tone-down hypersensitivity reactions involving food allergies. and had clinical outcomes as good as those treated with the anti-inflammatory agent mesalamine. juvenile arthritis). stimulation of humoral and cellular immunity. Supplementation with probiotics tends to stimulate and enhance systemic immune function in healthy individuals. atopic dermatitis (eczema). The official definition of the term probiotic (as defined by Havenaar and Huis In’t Veld) is described as “microorganisms in sufficient numbers.meschinohealth. prevention of attachment of pathogens by physically covering attachment sites. including acute gastroenteritis.5. Probiotics stimulate the release of interferon gamma which has positive effects on the gut.
11 www. is effective in shortening the duration of this condition. In general. patients with pouchitis have also experienced benefit from the use of Probiotics. diarrhea and urinary tract infections that can result from antibiotic therapy. studies indicate that the use of probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence of traveler’s diarrhea (from 71% to 43% in one study). Fibrocystic Breast Disease (FBD) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) To improve the excretion of estrogen conjugated with glucuronic acid some practitioners recommend the ingestion of 10-20 billion L. the positive effects upon immune function and the suppression of the inflammatory process are likely the ways in which Probiotics reduce relapse of inflammatory bowel disease and help to effectively manage pouchitis and related inflammatory conditions of intestinal tract. acidophilus can prevent the candida overgrowth.7. estrogen can be re-absorbed back into the bloodstream (entero-hepatic pathway) and over stimulate metabolic processes that exacerbate FBD and PMS.8. mesalamine.6. Traveler’s Diarrhea Acute diarrhea occurs in half of travelers who visit high-risk areas.11 4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Limited evidence exists to support the use of Probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Other studies have shown that probiotic supplementation can reduce risk of diarrhea in children admitted to hospital. A second study involving 116 ulcerative colitis patients revealed similar findings. but not all. Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is the main cause of acute diarrhea.5. acidophilus living organisms per day.meschinohealth.com . L. but the most frequent cause in children is rotavirus. Improving estrogen detoxification and intestinal excretion of estrogen has been shown to improve symptoms of FBD and PMS. Post Antibiotic Therapy During and after antibiotic therapy supplementation with a mixture of bifidobacterium bifidum and L. Although most cases are mild and self-limiting. which in turn deconjugates estrogen from glucuronic acid. comparable results were seen in relapse of the disease in patients receiving probiotic supplementation as compared to those taking the antiinflammatory drug.90 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.11 5. A number of clinical trials have shown that supplementation with Probiotics (especially with Lactobacillus rhamnosus). As noted above. with respect to a reduction in inflammation and pain. there is considerable morbidity. Research exists to support the use of probiotic supplementation during antibiotic administration.10 3. Research supports the view that FBD and PMS are aggravated and possibly caused by a high estrogen to progesterone ratio. particularly in infantile gastroenteritis. acidophilus inhibits the overpopulation of the bacteria that secrete beta-glucorinadase enzyme.3. In this instance. Probiotic supplementation can maintain or re-establish the bacterial flora equilibrium during or after treatment with ampicillin. It is usually due to viral or bacterial pathogens or to parasites. other than to control symptoms of diarrhea in some cases. 1. Some. Evidence is stronger to support the use of probiotic supplementation for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.9 2. In a study of 120 ulcerative colitis patients.
Internet sales. Fibrocystic Breast Disease and Premenstrual Syndrome: 5-10 billion living organisms per day7 3. bifidum are negatively affected by alcohol and antibiotics.9 2. Concurrent or Post Antibiotic Therapy: 15-20 billion living organisms per day8. supplement 2 edition. Unfortunately. or during direct shipment to consumers (e. Prebiotic supplements can have their potency verified through third party analysis. Gastroenteritis.1 www.g. Probiotic supplements should be refrigerated from the time they are encapsulated until the time they are purchased by the end user in order to slow down the division rate (germination rate) of the bacteria.15 Author’s Note on Quality Assurance Unlike other types of supplements that can have their potencies confirmed by third party analytic methods. chloramphenicol palmitate. by the time consumers begin using them.12 Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Amounts exceeding 10 billion living organisms per day may lead to mild gastrointestinal disturbances. In patients with compromised immune status. such as yogurt and other soured dairy products.91 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dosage Range 1. Some probiotic preparations contain the yeast organism Saccharomyces boulardii. Keep in mind that the use of prebiotics may be considered as a substitute for Probiotics. the expiry date should be shortened in the summer and in warm weather areas. producing positive health outcomes. the first method of delivery. A 1990 study showed that most Probiotic supplements purchased in retail outlets contained no living bacteria at the time of purchase. (see the Am J Clin Nutr 2001. volume 73.13 Drug-Nutrient Interactions L. catalog sales. shipped directly to the consumer’s home by mail or courier). acidophilus and B.6. Crohn’s Disease: 10 billion living organism per day.meschinohealth. when purchasing a probiotic supplement it is impossible to know the true potency of the product.14 They may also interfere with the metabolism of sulfasalazine.com . Bacterial germination is also much faster during the summer time and in warmer climates. This is due to the fact that many variables can affect the number of live bacteria that exist within the capsules at any given time. and likely the most effective delivery of Probiotics is through the intake of foods that contain live bacterial cultures. Probiotics are extremely safe with no toxicity reported at the above recommended doses. as bacteria can only multiply a fixed number of times before death of the bacteria occurs. Thus Prebiotic supplementation and soured dairy products may be a preferred method by which to modify the gut micro-flora. most probiotic supplements are not refrigerated during shipping and transportation to distribution centers and on route to retail outlets. especially L. for more details on probiotic quality). as heat is a factor that increases the cell division rate of these bacteria. In otherwise healthy individuals this yeast has been shown to work synergistically with other Probiotics. and then to refrigerate the product within one’s home as soon after the purchase as possible. As a rule of thumb. Finally. this organism has produced severe. Thus. and to purchase only refrigerated products. Ulcerative Colitis. N. (Prevention of Traveler’s Diarrhea). As such. acidophilus. As a rule. it is probably best to use a probiotic within the first three months of its encapsulation. it is thought that a large number of probiotic products sold in the market place contain no live bacterial cultures or a minimal concentration. and phthalylsulfathiazole.B. invasive fungal infections. and do not lose their potency over time in the fashion as do Probiotics (see Prebiotics in this document).
content. Human Intestinal Microflora. Hentges DJ editor. Role of dietary lactobacilli in gastrointestinal microecology.36:125-52. Prophylaxis against ampicillin-induced diarrhea with lactobacillus preparation. The use of different preparations in infants treated with antibiotics. In: Health and Disease. NY: Academic Press.36:754-7. Shahani KM. Am J Hosp Pharm 1979.73(Suppl 2):361S-4S. Majumdar MK. de Vrese M. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. 5. et al. 15. Microbiologic characteristics of Lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina.intermedicine. Deganello A. Intestinal flora ecology after oral use of antibiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 2001. 4. Probiotics : effects on immunity. J Appl Nutr 1984. 6. 14. I. Metabolism of some drugs by intestinal lactobacilli and their toxicological considerations. Oral bacteriotherapy in clinical practice.com: Lactobacillus acidophilus. 1983. Pradhan A. Marteau PR. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. Daikas GK. 10. Schrezenmeir J. Am J Clin Nutr 2001. 11. Protection from gastrointestinal disease with use of probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 2001. Gotz VP.13:146-60.75:789808.92 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 1.73(Suppl 2):444S-50S. 1998. Chemotherapy 1968. Am J Clin Nutr 1980. Hughes VL. 8. 13. 2nd edition. Saccomani F. Saccomani F. Eu J Ped 1982. 7. CA: Prima Publishing. and synbiotics-approaching a definition. New York. Walker WA. Benoni G. Oral bacteriotherapy in clinical practice. et al. Cellier CJ. I. Probiotics.73(Suppl 2):430S-6S. Benoni G.healthnotes. Obstet Gynecol 1990. de Vrese M.com: Lactobacillus acidophilus. Murray M. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1986.139:18-21.75:244-8. www. Pizzorno J. AUTHOR. www. Deganello A. Zoppi G. 12.139:22-4. prebiotics.meschinohealth. 16.33:2448-57. Eur J Ped 1982. Am J Clin Nutr 2001. Romankiewics JA.com . Moss J. Zoppi G. 2. Dietary Supplement Information Bureau. 9. Rocklin. 2001 www. Murray HW.58:11-5. Friend BA. The use of different preparations in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Isolauri E. Shahani KM. Healthnotes Inc. Ayebo AD. 3. Schrezenmeir J. Gannon J. Duggan C.
High Cholesterol Based upon substantial clinical and scientific evidence. 7 In functional cases. 1. 8. but not in cases caused by diseases of the intestinal tract. 10 3. which provide a health-promoting effect on the function of the large bowel. Laxative The laxative properties of Psyllium are due to the ability of the mucilage portion of the seed husk to absorb water. and hydrated. The laxative effect is due to swelling of the husk when it comes into contact with water. and help regulate blood sugar levels in diabetics. which commonly produce diarrhea and thereby further contribute to malnutrition.Psyllium seed husks are high in both mucilage (10 – 30% by weight) and soluble fiber. The seed husks are unique in that they contain a high level of mucilage content and soluble fiber. Psyllium also has fewer side effects than most other laxative medications and offers better stool consistency. provided sufficient water is ingested to allow this to occur.9 This also has important application for HIV patients.93 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Psyllium (Psyllium husk fiber or Psyllium seed) General Features Psyllium is native to Iran and India. reduce high cholesterol levels.6 Studies show that Psyllium is highly effective in relieving lifestyle-related and functional constipation. Psyllium seeds have been used for many years in traditional herbal medicine. Due to the high water content of this gelatinous fecal mass. creating a gelatinous fecal mass that stimulates peristalsis (movement of fecal content through the intestinal tract) and voiding of the bowel (bowel movements). This swelling creates a large gelatinous mass that applies pressure to the bowel wall and thereby. 4. 6 2. standard laxative medications (e. often seen in these patients. weight loss. Psyllium supplementation encourages more rapid movement of fecal contents through the large bowel. stimulates more frequent contractions of the muscles that rhythmically contract to propel fecal matter through the large intestine.2 Principle Active Constituents Mucilage and Soluble Fiber .com . 3 The soluble fiber is responsible for its ability to lower cholesterol and regulate blood sugar. taking Protease Inhibitor drugs. a means proposed to reduce risk of colon and rectal cancers. docusate sodium).g. or at least as effective as.meschinohealth. Psyllium is one of the interventions that is shown to reduce diarrhea in these patients. Diarrhea Psyllium has been used successfully to control diarrhea due to its ability to increase the thickness of stools. the developing fecal matter is softened.5 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1. Psyllium has been shown to be better than. 4 This is primarily attributable to the ability of the soluble fiber fraction of Psyllium seed husk to drag cholesterol and bile acids (bile acids may otherwise be re-absorbed and converted into cholesterol within the liver) through the intestinal www.. and immunosuppression. 3. softens the stool for easier elimination. the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a health claim for Psyllium in regards to its ability to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. and by absorbing water it may help to dilute the effects of bowel carcinogens. It is currently cultivated all over the world and the seed husks are used medicinally. in a similar fashion as a sponge. as a bulkforming laxative. Thus.
reduced their total cholesterol levels on average by 8. 27 4. with no significant effect on HDL-cholesterol levels (good cholesterol). the success rates for lipid-regulating therapies and treatments according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel II (ATP II) were reported to be a 43% reduction in LDL-cholesterol for bile acid sequestrant drugs. helping to prevent a hyperglycemic response following a meal containing carbohydrate foods. although outcomes may vary greatly from patient to patient. showed that both Psyllium and wheat bran supplementation improved stool frequency and consistency in a 6-week trial of thirty IBS patients. 32% for gemfibrozil. relative to the placebo.. 20 As there are few effective interventions in the treatment of IBS. as an adjunct to a low fat diet. involving 384 and 272 subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia receiving Psyllium or cellulose placebo. making it the preferred intervention. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Some studies suggest that Psyllium supplementation may be helpful in the management of IBS. compared with a 12. according to the researchers involved in this trial. 19 6. compared to the placebo group. lovastatin).2 gm per day). 12. Psyllium supplementation has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels to a modest degree in patients with high cholesterol and in patients whose cholesterol levels fall within the normal range. lowering the total cholesterol load on the body. The researchers concluded that Psyllium is well tolerated and safe when used as an adjunct to a low-fat diet in individuals with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia. 40% for statin drugs (e. 1. 28% for Psyllium fiber. 39% for high-dose niacin. 11. producing lower. 16. As well.94 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils tract and eliminate them from the body in the stool. An illuminating study by J. and helped patients remain in remission longer (upon ingesting 20 gm of ground Psyllium seeds.11 It may also stimulate the liver to convert cholesterol to bile acids.1 gm of Psyllium 20-30 minutes prior to breakfast and evening meals for eight weeks. the Psyllium group demonstrated superior outcomes with respect to stool frequency and degree of abdominal distension.13 Through these mechanisms. 15 In the Lipid Assessment Treatment Project (L-TAP).14 Studies involving children have also shown a significant cholesterol lowering effect in subjects with elevated cholesterol levels. However.g. LDL-cholesterol by 7% and the ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B to apo A-1 by 6%. Diabetics and Blood Sugar The soluble portion of Psyllium has been shown to improve blood glucose regulation in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. more controlled blood glucose levels.7% increase in the placebo group.com . compared to the use of the medication mesalamine alone.9% and LDL-cholesterol levels by 13%.17. 12 5. twice daily with water). Challenge studies have shown that Psyllium supplementation can significantly lower the glycemic response to a carbohydrate test meal in these patients. Numerous double-blind studies have shown that Psyllium supplementation can lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol). 25 A meta-analysis conducted to evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of Psyllium fiber (which pooled eight controlled studies. postprandially. their post-lunch glucose levels dropped by 4. and 40% for combination therapies. revealed that Psyllium supplementation (10.18 Soluble fiber is known to slow the absorption of simple sugars (monosaccharides) from the intestinal tract. it is worth noting that well-designed trials support the use of Psyllium supplementation in these cases. the combined effects of mesalamine and Psyllium produced the best overall outcomes in this study. lowered total cholesterol by 4%. Holtz. Ulcerative Colitis A double-blind trial involving patients with ulcerative colitis showed that Psyllium supplementation significantly reduced symptoms such as bleeding. et al. However. 4. 26 A study involving 34 hypercholesterolemic men with type II diabetes showed that men receiving 5.2%. respectively).21 www.meschinohealth.
IBS and Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes and InsulinDependent Diabetes: 5 gm (one teaspoon). Toxicity and Contraindications Psyllium supplementation has been shown to be safe when taken at recommended doses. or 10 gm whole seed.25. rosiglitazone. Their cholesterol levels were also reduced. glimepiride.26.20 2. Diarrhea. two or three times per day. Although this evidence comes mostly from animal studies. 1. tolbutamide. Cholesterol-lowering drugs. or 10 to 30 gm of whole seeds per day. acarbose. 1 Drug-Nutrient Interactions Psyllium supplementation may potentiate the action of the following medications and thereby lower the required dosages of these medications: 1. glyburide. 19 Adverse Side Effects. glipizide. chlorpropamide etc. Follow instructions above. 23.27 3. 21 Allergic skin reactions from Psyllium are primarily limited to people working in factories manufacturing Psyllium products. Ulcerative Colitis: 5 gm (one teaspoon). metformin.g.) 18 2. taken in three evenly divided doses. 1.21 Patients with bowel obstruction and diabetics with extreme blood sugar sensitivities should not use Psyllium.95 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 7. Hypoglycemic Medications (e. twice per day.5. Insulin 18 3. a trial involving sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic patients demonstrated a small reduction in blood pressure in patients receiving 8 gm of Psyllium supplementation each day for four weeks. 1 Some patients with IBS may see a worsening of their condition upon supplementation with Psyllium as has been reported in some cases.11.2..com . twice per day.24 www. three times per day.22 Dosage and Standardized Grade 1.meschinohealth. providing a desirable synergistic effect in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Blood Pressure There is some evidence to suggest that Psyllium supplementation can help reduce high blood pressure by enhancing the fecal excretion of sodium absorbed in the intestinal tract. 1.6. 4. Cholesterol-lowering: 5 gm (one teaspoon). Constipation (from non organic disease). This should be stirred into a large glass of water or fruit juice and ingested as a beverage (before it thickens in the glass). Follow instructions above.
com .com: Psyllium Dietary Supplement Information Bureau. et al.com: Psyllium Seed Leung AY. 13. et al. Burns JH. Dugan LD.92:95-8 Washington N et al. Soluble dietary fiber protects against cholesterol gallstone formation.30(6):908-14 Davidson MH. 10.75(5):834-9 Frati Muari AC.. 2001. 6. Drugs. Long-term effects of consuming foods containing psyllium seed husk on serum lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1999. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. The effect of Metamucil on postprandial blood glucose and plasma gastric inhibitory peptide in insulin-dependent diabetics. Faulkner D. 4. Healthnotes. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid response in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.177(4):307-10 Oson BH. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. J Vet Intern Med Jan2000. Turner J.12(5):491-7 Voderholzer WA. www. Am J Clin Nutr 1996. Murray M. Treatment of chronic idiopathic large-bowel diarrhea in dogs with a highly digestible diet and soluble fiber: a retrospective review of 37 cases. 9. Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. et al. Vuksan V. Acta Med Scand 1982. 3. Prima Publishing 1995. 1997.67(3):367-76 Anderson JW. 3. Management of Protease Inhibitor-associated Diarrhea. Parker T. 16. Arc Med Res Jun1998. Arvidsson-Lenner R. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food. 1998. Becker MP et al. J nutr 1997 1997. in hypercholesterolemic adults:Results of a meta-analysis. Minerals. Murray M. 4.healthnotes. et al. 1. A psyllium-enriched cereal for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children: A controlled. 5. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. Moderation of lactulose-induced diarrhea by psyllium: effects on motility and fermentation. Jorde R. Aligood LD. Am J Clin Nutr May 2002. Aliment Pharmacol Ther May1998. crossover study.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. 8. Vidgen E. double-blind. 7. Inc. Clin Infect Dis Jun2000. Clinical response to dietary fiber treatment of chronic constipation. 15. Reavley NM. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Am J Gastroenterol 1997.70:466-73 Schwesinger WH.14(1):27-32 Sherman DS. Am J Surg Apr1999.intramedicine. et al. Evans and Company Inc. and Herbs. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). www. Fish DN.29(2):137-41 McRorie JW et al. Kendall CW. 2nd ed. Am j Clin Nutr Mar1998. Lowering glycemic index of food by acarbose and Plantago psyllium mucilage. Schatke W. DJ. Foster S.63:96-102 Florholmen J. Anderson SM.67(2):317-21 Leib MS. Boon H and Smith M.96 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation.212:237-9 www. 2.content. 2. but not HDL cholesterol. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial.127:1973-80 Davidson MH. Supplements. Prima Publishing 1998. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. 11. 12. Am J Clin Nutr Feb1998:. Mühldorfer BE. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation. Burhol PG. 14. New York:John Wiley & sons 1996:427-9 Jenkins. and Cosmetics.meschinohealth.g. et al. et al.
Psyllium decreases cholesterol. Goldberg A. Gaw A. Lawrence A. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials.16(12 Pt 2):1959-64 23.94:427-33 20. MA: Integrative Medicine Communication 1998:190-2 22. Fernandez-Banares F. Am J Clin Nutr 1999. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid response in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Allgood LD. Randomized clinical trial of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Effectiveness of plantago seed husks in comparison with wheat brain on stool frequency and manifestations of irritable colon syndrome with constipation. Boston. Alive: Canadian journal of Health & Nutrition 0228586X Feb2000. Atheroscler Suppl 2002Apr.meschinohealth. Guerrero-Romero F. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Sanchez-Lombrana JL. Blumenthal M. Hengehold DA et al. Anderson JW. Lipid. et al. psyllium. Altringer LA. Anderson JW et al.2(4):5-11 26. Busse WR. Jerdack GR. Turner J et al. Med Klin Dec1994. Allgood LD. Am J Gastroenterol 1999. attenuates salt-accelerted hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.70:466-73 19. et al. 27. Rodriguez-Moran M.com . Hotz J et al. J Diabetes Complicaitons 1998.71(6):1433-8 25. Brown L et al.89(12):645-51 21. Dietary fiber. Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to herbal medicines. J Hypertens Dec1998.208 www. A new reality: achieving cholesterol-lowering goals in clinical practice.12:273-8 18. Am J Clin Nutr Jan1999. Am J Clin Nutr Jun2000. (eds). Lazcano-Burciaga G.97 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 17.69(1):30-42 24. Obata K et al.and glucose-lowering efficacy of plantago psyllium in type II diabetes.. Larsen HR. Anderson JW. Hinojosa J.
rectum and brain. such as hay fever.3. in addition to its mild phytoestrogen effects. with 67% of patients experiencing significant improvement in the Quercetin group compared to only 20% of patients reporting improvement in the placebo group.14 Animal studies reveal that Quercetin effectively delays the onset of cataracts in diabetic animals. Anti-Tumor Many flavonoids inhibit tumor formation. protein kinase.20 www. genistein. ornithine decarboxylase). quercitin. It also demonstrates impressive antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. making it an attractive agent in the management of some allergic conditions. Anti-Inflammatory Quercetin inhibits the manufacture and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory mediators. asthma. ovaries. Quercetin supplementation demonstrated improvement in prostatitis.4-12 2. Diabetic Cataracts Quercetin inhibits the aldose reductase enzyme.19.98 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Quercetin General Features Quercetin is a flavonoid that serves as the backbone for many other flavonoids in nature. Sorbitol build up in the lens of the eye (secondary to diabetes and hyperglycemia) is involved in the development of cataracts.g. Under experimental conditions. Thus.1 This water-soluble pigment has been shown to inhibit histamine release at therapeutic doses. Quercetin demonstrates a significant antiproliferative effect in regards to squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated sorbitol may also contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy. which gives Quercetin supplementation application in a variety of inflammatory and allergic reactions (arthritis. including the citrus flavonoids rutin. These derivates differ from Quercetin in that they have sugar molecules attached to their Quercetin backbone. hay fever. In one human trial. but Quercetin has demonstrated a very consistent effect in this regard.3 Clinical Applications and Mechanism of Action 1. This benefit may be due to its phytoestrogen activity and/or its anti-inflammatory properties.e. leukemia.com . lupus). by inhibiting the enzyme that forms sorbitol (aldose reductase) in the lens of the eye. which converts glucose into sorbitol. and hesperidin. Experimental studies also reveal that Quercetin may help to prevent cataracts in diabetics.15-18 It is thought that Quercetin down-regulates enzymes that control the rate of cellular division (i. and cancers of the breast. 13. Experimental studies reveal that many medicinal plants owe much of their biological activity to their high Quercetin content. colon.2. its phytoestrogen effects have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in test tube experiments.14 3. joint inflammation. appears to possess phytoestrogen effects. Quercetin may be beneficial in diabetes management for a number of reasons. diadzein). and like some other flavonoids (e.2. Under experimental conditions. DNA-topoisomerase.meschinohealth.
15. Inhibition of human lens aldose reductase by flavonoids. allergic reactions to Quercetin can occur in humans. Muzuno A. Varma SD. Test tube studies indicate that Quercetin inhibits the enzyme in the liver that is responsible for the breakdown of felodipine. 5. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985. Rocklin. Anton R.2.meschinohealth. www. 9.22. Middleton E. 12. Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids. 320-31. 32: 1995-98 Havsteen B. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984. Agents Action 1991. CA: Prima Publishing.1 Bromelain also enhances the absorption of Quercetin. Studies on the chemopreventative potential of some naturally-occurring biovlavonoids in 7. Anti-Inflammatory/Anti-Allergy: as a single agent. Drzewiedi G. Murray M.17:153-60. Kopp DE. Effect of quercetin and other flavonoids on antigen-induced histamine secretion from rat intestinal mast cells. and indomethacin. III. Biochem Biophys Res Common 1983. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Elangovan V. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984.24 In rare cases. Kinoshita JH.32:1141-8.33:3333-8.73:819-23.32:1995-8. hypertension and Raynaud’s Syndrome. Estradiol (found in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy) Quercetin may slow down the detoxification of estradiol by liver enzymes. 28(6): 709-16 Chaudry PS. Landry Y. 14. There are no human reports of Quercetin potentiating the effects of estradiol through this mechanism at this time.5:334-8. sulindac and indomethacin. Diabetes (neuropathy or cataract protection): consider 200-400 mg (three times per day).23. Flavonoids. Diminished sugar cataractogenesis by quercetin. Flavonoid inhibition of human basophil histamine release stimulated by various agents. Alcaraz MJ. 2. a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency.1 2. J Clin Biochem Nutr 1994. Juliana HR. Bronner C. Exp Eye Res 1979. more potentially dangerous levels of felodipine in the bloodstream. 11. 4. 3.116:612-8. Befus AD. Varma SD. et al. 7. Yamamoto S. Ferrandiz ML. Horie T.3 Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity Animal studies demonstrate that Quercetin is extremely non-toxic and non-carcinogenic. Busse WW. 13. Flavonoids: Potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Inhibition of human lens aldose reductase by flavonoids. Amella M. p. 10. 2. et al. WatanabeKohno S.1 Drug-Nutrient Interactions 1. Pearce F. Trends Pharmaceut Sci 1984. Biochem Pharmacol 1984.25 1. Chaundry PS. This may result in higher. Bienenstock J. Cambera J. 1983. Haag M. Beyer-Meyers A.77:155-7. Biochem Pharmacol 1983. Yoshimoto T.21 The amount of bromelain should be equal to the amount of Quercetin. Flavonoid modulation of human neutrophil function. Briancon F.195:87-9. Planta Medica 1985. Drzewieki G. Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 1983. Felodipine Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.73:801-9. Naturally occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release. Mucoal mast cells. although no human reports of adverse effects have been reported to date. three times per day.32:283-7. 1996. 200-400 mg. Middleton E. Furukawa M. Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids. Combinations of bromelain and Quercetin have been shown to potentiate or enhance each others anti-inflammatory activity. 8. The flavonoids.51:16-20.com . 6. Middleton E.12dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced carcinogens in mouse skin. sulindac.99 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dosage 1. et al. Biochem Pharmacol. Science 1977. Middleton E.
24.9:319-25.110:41-8. 23. Ranelletti FO. Stavric B. Advantages of a combination of proteolytic enzymes. Cancer res 1988.10:63-9. Clin Biochem 1994. Carcinogenicity examination of quercetin and rutin in ACI rats. Gould MN. Johnson JA.48:5754-5758. 21. 19. Absence of initiating activity by quercitin in the rate liver. Cancer Letter 1996.27:245-8. Takanashi H. Healthnotes Inc. Healthnotes online. Perkins E. www.100 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 16. Matsushima T. Giustacchini M.27:1144-9. Growth-inhibitory effect of quercetin and presence of type II estrogen binding sites in primary human transitional cell carcinomas. Hosaka S.13:15–21. et al. Sugimura T et al. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 1985.152:1029-33. 17. Lauressergues H. Maggiano N. Verma AK. Kato K.12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene and N-nitrosomethyl urea induced rat mammary cancer by dietary flavonol quercetin. et al. The effects of the bioflavonoid quercetin on squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck origin. Hirono I. et al. Antiproliferative potency of structurally distinct dietary flavonoids on human colon cancer cells. Tanner MA. Kuo SM. Am J Surg 1989: 351-5 20. Inhibition of 7. Cancer Lett 1981. 22. Kato K. Lack of promotive effect of quercetin on methlazoxy acetate carcinogenesis in rats. 18. Ueno I.com . Larocca LM. Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen. Piantelli M. Tarayre JP.meschinohealth. Arzneim Forsch 1077. Castillo MH. Campbell JH. Alcini E et al. 25. J Urol 1994. J Toxicol Sci 1984. flavonoids and ascorbic acid in comparison with non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents. 2000.
resulting in significant clinical improvement in depression and anxiety.8 A number of excellent clinical trials have demonstrated the value of SAM as a natural biochemical intervention in depression. glutathione. three times per day.meschinohealth.2. the placebo. and for liver detoxification reactions.2. In fact. Thus the synthesis of methionine and SAM are primarily dependant upon an adequate nutritional status of folic acid and vitamin B12.15 At least 21. dopamine and phosphatidylserine. www. SAM supplementation in depressed or anxious patients has resulted in increased levels of serotonin. neurotransmitters (i. is obtained from diet. SAM is required for the synthesis of cartilage components and appears to exert pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties.e. phosphatidylcholine. Anxiety and Dementia As a principle donor of methyl groups (CH3) to various reactions. An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) study demonstrated increased cartilage formation in 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the hands. It improves binding of neurotransmitters to receptor sites.4 The most natural way to optimize endogenous synthesis of S-Adenosylmethionine is to ensure adequate intake of folic acid. given SAM vs. Motrin. The typical dosage is 400 mg.6. SAM is synthesized from methionine and ATP.1. the typical dosage of SAM was 400 mg.9-13 Alzheimer’s disease patients have been shown to have low levels of SAM and may therefore. Advil. that was transferred to vitamin B12 from folic acid originally. SAM is necessary for the synthesis of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine. or produced from homocysteine. kidney or liver. benefit from its administration.7. high doses of methionine do not increase levels of SAM.3 Curiously.3. Unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs SAM is not harmful to the intestinal tract. required for the synthesis of SAM. vitamin B12 and protein.3 2. phosphatidylserine) and neurotransmitters. it is used to support liver detoxification functions in anti-aging and certain diseases.101 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) General Features S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important methyl donor (CH3) in the transmethylation reactions required for the synthesis of DNA bases. but rather are associated with some degree of toxicity. Even when tested against commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. In the body. fibromyalgia and liver disorders. Naproxen) SAM supplementation has provided significant relief of osteoarthritic symptoms and improved joint function and quality of life.3 Of clinical significance is the fact that SAM supplementation on its own has been shown to provide significant results in depression. which accepts a methyl group (CH 3) from vitamin B12. Nuprin.5 Clinical Applications and Mechanism of Action 1. and affects brain cell membrane fluidity.524 patients with osteoarthritis have participated in clinical trials using SAM supplementation.14.com .2. three to four times per day (studies include general depression and post-partum depression). osteoarthritis. creatine.16-24 In the above studies. Depression. Methionine. melatonin). Osteoarthritis SAM has demonstrated impressive results in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Migraine Headaches A long-term study revealed that SAM supplementation may be helpful in reducing the incidence of migraines in sensitive individuals. the results were even more impressive. individuals with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver who took SAM supplementation for two years had a 47% lower rate of death or need for liver transplantation. two times per day (as a preventative intervention). In a double-blind study. two or three times per day 3. In patients with less severe cirrhosis.2 Adverse Side Effects. Other symptoms that may respond to SAM supplementation include morning stiffness and fatigue. which may trigger a manic phase in these individuals.39 5.25. Gilbert’s Syndrome.40 Dosage Range For most conditions the therapeutic dosage range is typically 400 mg. two or three times daily. In liver cirrhosis it has been shown to improve cell membrane function. Osteoarthritis: 400 mg. compared with those receiving the placebo. Liver Disorders: 400 mg. Animal studies provide evidence of protection against liver cancers from SAM supplementation in animals exposed to liver carcinogens. It has been used successfully in cirrhosis.com . Fibromyalgia: 400 mg. Liver Disorders SAM is beneficial for a variety of liver disorders because of its ability to promote bile flow and relieve cholestasis.27 4.meschinohealth. Fibromyalgia Several clinical studies show that SAM can help improve various aspects of fibromyalgia. In Gilbert’s Syndrome SAM at a dosage of 400 mg. three times daily has resulted in a significant decrease in serum bilirubin. damage to the liver prevents the natural formation of SAM from the amino acid methionine. three times per day 5. 2838 In alcoholic cirrhosis. three times per day 2. Depression and Anxiety: 400 mg. possibly the most important liver antioxidant and detoxification agent.5 1. thus. No other significant side effects have been reported with oral SAM supplementation other than occasional nausea and gastrointestinal disturbances.26. some patients may benefit from starting with 200 mg doses and working their way up to 400 mg per individual dose. two times per day 4. painful areas and improvements in mood.5 www. improve bile flow and increase levels of glutathione. Toxicity and Contraindications SAM should not be taken by individuals with bipolar (manic) depression. Migraine Headache: 400 mg. SAM can cause nausea and gastrointestinal disturbances in some people. Its benefits are directly attributable to its role as a major methyl donor in the liver (detoxification process) and its lipotropic activity (transporting fat out of the liver).102 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 3. including a reduction in the number of trigger points. Treatment doses were in the range of 800 mg of SAM per day. and oral contraceptive induced liver damage.
However. Rosenbaum JF. 3. and placebo in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Inc.83:35-42.content. Domljan Z. placebo-controlled study of S-adenosyl-Lmethionine in depressed postmenopausal women.59:34-40. Reynolds E. rigidity. Double-blind multicentre study of the activity of S-adenosylmethionine in hip and knee osteoarthritis. CA: Prima Publishing. agitation. 13. restlessness. low-grade fever. rhabdomyloysis and death. S-adenosylmethionine influences monoamine metabolism.43 1.83:3542. Vetter G. Neuropharmacology of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. 22. MD: Williams & Wilkins.42. Curr Ther Res 1993. Marcolongo R. Todesco S. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine on human articular chondrocyte differentiation.24:189-94.83:66-71.52:478-85.ii:224. Maurizio F. Am J Med 1987. Basic Medical Biochemistry: a Clinical Approach. Methylation and mood. autonomic instability. www.147:591-5. 1996. et al. Muller-Fassbender H. Double-blind comparative clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine and indomethacin in the treatment of osteoarthritis. coma. Bressa GM. Double-blind multicentre study of the activity of Sadenosylmethionine in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Vrhovac B. et al. Curr Ther Res 1992. Cerutti R. vitamin B 12 and choline. Am J Med 1987. et al. Pharmacological aspects of S-adenosylmethionine: Pharmacokinetics and pharamcodynamics. Kagan BL. Am J Med 1987. flushing and rarely. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988. 41 As well. Murray M.103 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Drug-Nutrient Interactions No known drug-nutrient interactions have been reported. Rocklin. Excess serotonin production. Double-blind clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus ibuprofen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. p. Balitmore.5:39-49. 5. shivering. La Greca P.meschinohealth. Am J Med 1987. Salmaggi P. as with folic acid. 17. Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine in depression. Am J Psychiatry 1990. Marks D. hyperreflexia. which may speed up the detoxification of various drugs in the liver. Colombo B. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1989. caution should be exercised when using SAM in conjunction with anti-depressant and antianxiety medications. Vilamitjana J. SAM is a methyl donor. 9. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in depression: a randomized.83:89-94. et al. Rigamonti R. Naproxen. SAM can affect neurotransmitter levels. Am J Med 1987. Double-blind. Strementinoli G. Italian double-blind multicentre study comparing S-adenosylmethionine. 365-73.83:78-80. p.intramedicine. An open-label pilot study of oral S-adenosylmethionine in major depression. Perin M. Healthnotes. diarrhea. nausea. et al. 11. 14. Double-blind controlled clinical trial of oral S-adenosylmethionine versus piroxicam in knee osteoarthritis.healthnotes. A double-blind trial of ademetionine vs Naproxen in activated gonarthrosis.ii:196-9. Giordano M.83:95-103. Bottiglieri T. Le Grazie C.83:48-54.83:81-3.83:89-94. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1985. 21. 15. 19. www. This is true for all natural health products that can either increase the synthesis of serotonin or inhibit its degradation. Coniglio M. Psychological distress during puerperium: A novel therapeutic approach using Sadenosylmethionine. editors. double-blind placebocontrolled trial. 2. Pucar I. Giordano N. Marks A.com: SAMe. diaphoresis. can lead to serotonin syndrome. De Vanna M.com . Rosenlicht N. Curr Ther Res 1985. 18. Glorioso S. Durrigl T. Peitrogrand V. Baldessarini RJ. Lancet 1984. for example. 7. Am J Med 1987. 12. Lancet 1983. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Caruso I. Gerner RH. 2001. A long-term (two years) clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of osteoarthritis. William E. 8. Sichel MP. et al. Martin R. Harmand M-F. Konig B. Nicchia G. confusion. characterized by myoclonus. 10.27:329-33. Marcolongo R. 20. Laundry M. Dietary Supplement Information Bureau. Parmacological aspects of S-adenosylmethionine: pharmacokinetics and parmacodynamics. Maccagno A. Maloche E. Toone B. Carney M. 1996. 4. Am J Med 1987. Colombo B. www.37:82-94. 61421. 16.53:707–16. Am J Med 1987. Mazzi A. Psychother Psychosom 1993. Am J Med 1987. 6. 23. Smith C. Sultzer DL.com: SAMe Strementinoli G.
Effects of methionine and other sulfur compounds on drug conjugations. Gatto G. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1986. Bombardieri G. Mazzanti R. Milani A. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1994. The effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine on intrahepatic cholestasis. Frezza M. 42. www. et al. et al. Neurology 1995.33:185-92.27:508-13.6:15-7. 38. et al.54:459-64.293:234-8. Clinical evaluation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine versus transcutaneous nerve stimulation in primary fibromyalgia. 32. Serotonin syndrome. Aurilio C. S-adenosylmethionine counteracts oral contraceptive hepatotoxicity in women. Caleri D. S-adenosyl-L-methionine in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a randomized placebo-controlled. 34. 28. Pozzato G. Lynch T. Curr Ther Res 1979. Rossi L. Kawata S. Fernández de Paz. Gastroenterolia Japonica 1992. Bennati S. Jacobsen S. Frezza M. et al. 36. Bressa GM. 37. Cámara J. Di Benedetto P. Loguercio C. Pharmac Ther 1998. Mato JM. Padova F. Michelacci S. Analgesizing effect of a methyl donor (S-adenosylmethionine) in migraine: an open clinical trial. Kakimoto H. Hathcock JN. Angelico M. Evaluation of S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia: a double-blind crossover study. Reversal of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in women after high dose s-adenosyl-L-methionine administration. Simile MM. Gastroenterology 1990. placebo-controlled study. Nardi G. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as antidepressant: meta-analysis of clinical studies. Grella A. 33. 25. Padova C. 39. Nowak H. Petrone E.53:222-9. Surrenti C. Reicks M. et al. et al. Manzillo G. Bombardieri S. 26. 43. A new medical approach to the treatment of osteoarthritis: report of an open phase IV study with ademetionine (Gumaral). Hepatol. double-blind. Chemoprevention of rat liver carcinogenesis by S-adenosyl-Lmethionine: a long-term study. Fiaccadori F.25:25-32. Zidarich V.99:211-5. Marras V.79:941-4. Vitali C. Imai Y. Iona LG. Curr Ther Res 1985. Am J Med 1987. Pison G. J Hepatol 1999. Chiesa L. Bernardi L. 27. Changes in lipid composition of erythrocyte membranes with administration of S-adenosyl-Lmethionine in chronic liver disease. et al. Coll S.com . Berger R.37:67-79.45:219-23. Nistri A. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine administration on red blood cell cysteine and glutathione levels in alcoholic patients with and without liver disease. Oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) administration enhances bile salt conjunction with taurine in patient with liver cirrhosis. Tavoni A.20:294-302. Andersen RB. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1994. 35. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in the symptomatic treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis: a double-blind.54:597-604.83:107-10.30:1081-9. Argenzio F. Effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in the treatment of Gilbert’s syndrome. multicentre clinical trial. Caballero AM. Am J Med 1987. Alcohol Alcoholism 1994.meschinohealth. Daino L. 1984. Bodner RA. Lewiss L. et al. Pinna G. 41. Baiocchi L. Adachi Y.37:580-5. Pasero G. Kahn D. di Padova C.83:84-8. Curr Ther Res 1993.104 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 24. 29. Di Padova C. Caballería L. S-adenosyl-L-methionine antagonizes oral contraceptive-induced bile cholesterol supersaturation in healthy women: preliminary report of a controlled randomized trial. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia: double-blind clinical evaluation.4:274-278. Pascale RM. Stramentinoli G. Cancer Res 1992. 31. Jap Arch Int Med 1986. Pozzato G. Gandin C. 40.52:4979-86. Sicuteri F. Danneskiold-Samsoe B. Am J Med Sci 1987. On the antisteatosic effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in various chronic liver diseases: a multicentre study. Frezza M. Bortolini M. Tritapepe R. 30. Am J Gastroenterol 1984. Scand J Rheumatol 1991.154:714. Capocaccia L.
1. but how this translates into the prevention and/or treatment of human cancers is not well understood. sulfur. and breast cancer.8. some individuals promote the idea that ingesting cartilage itself may act in a similar manner as glucosamine. 1 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.meschinohealth. 1.5.14. 10. Osteoarthritis – The use of glucosamine sulfate has been shown to be very effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis.2 2. As glucosamine provides the body with raw material from which if can synthesize certain components of joint cartilage. there is some evidence to support the use of Shark Cartilage as part of the complementary treatment for various cancers.11. 4 A few preliminary studies suggest that individuals with certain cancers may benefit from Shark Cartilage supplementation. However.com . Cancer – Preliminary research in the 1980’s suggested that Shark Cartilage inhibits angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels). Which of these constituents exerts anti-tumor effects is unknown at this time. including lung. are required to provide conclusive evidence that Shark Cartilage is a useful adjunct in cancer treatment. 2 Principle Active Constituents Shark Cartilage is a type of connective tissue comprised of proteoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). calcium. but there are no significant risks attached to using Shark Cartilage supplementation in individual cases at this time. At present.6. and promoting the use of Shark Cartilage based upon the notion that shark’s do not get cancer is false and highly misleading. Shark Cartilage is one of many natural health products that continue to be studied as potential chemopreventive and cancer treatment agents. genistein. however. bovine cartilage.16. green-lippid mussel (all of which contain whole cartilage components).2. as does glucosamine sulfate. Since cancer cells must build new blood vessels to provide themselves with nourishment for growth and replication. and collagen protein. It is unlikely that Shark Cartilage provides as significant an effect on the repair.17 Nevertheless. this effect (anti-angiogenesis) is associated with potentially stopping the spread of cancer. 18.104.22.168. which are currently underway in Canada and the United States. protein substances.15 Double-blind trials. shark’s do get cancer. regeneration and preservation of joint cartilage. in this document) Shark Cartilage also inhibits matrix metalloproteases (MMP’s). Presently. 1. which break down the ground substanc e between cells. although some preliminary studies have been encouraging. and more easily permit the spread of cancer to adjacent tissues.105 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Shark Cartilage General Features Contrary to the popular marketing campaign associated with the use of Shark Cartilage as a dietary supplement. some experimental and animal studies show that a particular Shark Cartilage extract may play role in one aspect of cancer prevention and/or treatment. and as is the case with the use of chondroitin sulfate. well-designed research trials yielded negative results.9 (see also soy isoflavones. sea cucumber.12. prostate. 2 (see glucosamine sulfate in this document) www. there are no studies of any kind to support this contention.
consumerslab. 4. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. 4. 1 Adverse Side Effects.com: Shark Cartilage Lee A. 5. 1. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine.18:4435-41 www..2:146-52 Sheu JR. www. and Herbs. 2. practitioners and patients should be on the look out for any signs or symptoms of calcium toxicity when doses in this range are being used (see calcium in this document. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. although no cases of calcium toxicity have been reported at this level of Shark Cartilage supplementation. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. Murray M. Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis.healthnotes. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. 3. Jourdain C et al.com . Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. 1. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. Tsai ML et al. Reavley NM.com: Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) Natural Product Encyclopedia.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. 2001. This is a very high dose. but later recovered fully after the Shark Cartilage supplement was discontinued. Langer R. a potent shark cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Effect of U-995. Evans and Company Inc. 2. 1998. although there are no reported cases of this occurring to date. Antiangiogenic properties of a novel shark cartilage extract: Potential role in the tratment of psoriasis. on anti-antiogenesis and and anti-tumor activities. Science 1983.2 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. Boon H and Smith M. orally or by enema. 1. Prima Publishing 1998. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins.meschinohealth. Minerals. This is considered the upper limit of safe intake for calcium. Toxicity and Contraindications Shark Cartilage appears to be a safe supplement. Anticancer Res 1889. www.221:1185-7 Dupont E. J Cutan med Surg 1998. 1997.5 gms (2500 mg of calcium) daily. which provides the body with 2 – 2. Savard PE. Inc. Fu CC. 1 Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no well-known drug-nutrient interactions for Shark Cartilage known at this time.2 There is one reported case of a patient who developed liver inflammation after taking Shark Cartilage supplements. Supplements.106 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Dosage and Standardized Grade Cancer Treatment: 60-100 gms per day. Prima Publishing 1995. Healthnotes.g. Murray M. for signs and symptoms of toxicity). 3. Nevertheless. 18 Therapeutic doses of Shark Cartilage may increase the potential for calcium toxicity.
Davis PF.16:3649-55 Ashar B. 16.New Orleans. Alaoui-Jamali M.San Diego CA Horsman MR. Shimamura M et al. Anderson GT. toxicity prevention and survival.(suppl):S14 Riviere M. J Clin Oncol 1998. an inhibitor of angiogenesis: phase I/II cancer clinical trial results.11(suppl):934 Dupont E.meschinohealth.125:780-1 www. Cancer Lett 1990. 13. Falardeau P et al. Extraction and estimation of inhibitory activities toward tumor and embryonic angiogenesis.37:441-5 Miller DR.(suppl):S16 Riviere M. Ashino-Fuse H. Hoie EB et al. Wang T et al Angiostatic and antitumoral activity of AE-941 (Neovastat). Neovastat: an inhibitor of angiogenesis with anti-cancer activity. Cancer invest 1999.221:1185-7 Riviere M. AE-941 (Neovastat).51:181-6 McGuire TR. LA Blaseck J. Presented at: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 38 April 12-16 1997. Antiproliferative activity of shark cartilage with and without tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human umbilical vein endothelium. Riviere M. Falardeau P. The effect of shark cartilage extractrs on the growth and metastatic spread of the SCCVII carcinoma. Phase I/II trial the safety and efficacy of shark cartilage in the treatment of advanced cancer. 15. Stark JJ et al. A novel angiogenic inhibitor derived from Japanes shark cartilage (I). Presented at: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 39 March 28-April 1 1998. an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Ann Intern Med 1996. Alaoui-Jamali M. Langer R. 10. Overgaard J. Science 1983 1983. 11. 8. efficacy. Oral administration of Neovastat inhibits tumor progression in animal models of progressive tumor growth and metastasis. Wang T et al. Acta Oncol 1998. Phase I/II lung cancer clinical trial results with AE-941 (neovastat). Alsner J. in the Lewis lung carcinoma metastatic model. 17. 14.17(suppl1):16-7 Jamali M-A. Latreille J et al.com . Falardeau P et al. a molecular fraction derived from shark cartilage. Vargo E. Pharmacotherapy 1996. Alaoui-Jamali M. an angiogenesis inhibitor. 18. Int J Oncol 1997. Clin Invest Med 1998. Furneaux RH et al. Effect of AE-941 (neovastat). Falardeau P et al. 12. Shark cartilage-induced hepatitis. Inhibition of angiogenesis by oral ingestion of powdered shark cartilage in a rat model. Microvasc Res 1997.107 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 6. Kazakoff PW. 7. Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis. 9.54:178-82 Oikawa T. Clin Invest Med 1998. Latreille J. he Y.16:237-44 Lee A.
108 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Soy and Soy Extract James Meschino DC. Similar data exists for prostate and colon cancer incidence. Human research also suggests a protective role of Soy against cancer. the United States and other western countries. the data is currently insufficient to make formalized recommendations. colon and skin cells. prevention of prostate enlargement and antioxidant function. genistein also inhibits the metastasic activity of both breast and prostate cancer cells independent of the effects on cell growth. and DNA topoisomerase II. the 80 percent lower incidence of prostate cancer in Asia compared to Canada. MAP kinase. including breast. Strong evidence for the prevention of prostate cancer may explain. Together these biological mechanisms account for the ability of genistein to arrest cancer cell growth. isoflavones and protease inhibitors have been studied most thoroughly for their anti-cancer effects. that do not include Soy as a common dietary staple. however. prostate. Principle Active Constituents Some of their more potent bioactive constituents include: Isoflavonoids Saponins Phenolic acids Coumarins Protease inhibitors Phytic acid 1.3. These findings may have important implications.com . Reproductive Cancers Of the above bioactive constituents. prostate and other hormone-dependent cancers. detoxification.4 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.meschinohealth.ND General Features Soybeans contain a variety of biologically active components that are associated with the prevention of certain cancers.2. Soy isoflavones may reduce risk of breast. Soy and Soy isoflavones have been shown to decrease reproductive organ cancers in animal-based studies. as the breast cancer rate in Japan is only about one-quarter of that of the United States. www. Genistein also increases the concentration of transforming growth factor B (TGF-B). There are literally hundreds of in vitro studies showing that genistein (a predominant Soy isoflavone) inhibits the growth of a wide range of both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent cancer cells. in part. In vitro. bone density support. including tyrosine protein kinase. cholesterol lowering and cardiovascular health. Genistein is known to inhibit several enzymes involved in signal transduction. rhibosomal S6 kinase. MS. The low breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries and the putative anti-estrogen effects of isoflavones support this contention.
5 percent lowering of triglycerides and a 2. The 5-alpha reductase enzyme converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Hungary and Italy as a drug for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. at a dosage of 200 mg. formed during phase I detoxification activity. has been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women. Genistein has also been shown to inhibit the 5-alpha reductase enzyme that is strongly linked to prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and prostate cancer metastasis.7. Soy intervention trials have shown a reduction in hot flashes by up to 40 percent in various studies. 10. which may help prevent LDL-cholesterol oxidation in the bloodstream. In turn this helps the body clear LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol from the bloodstream.com .7 percent lowering of LDL-cholesterol. 5 2. DHT build up encourages more rapid prostate cell proliferation leading to prostate enlargement and fuels the proliferation and spread of existing prostate cancer. Cholesterol-Lowering and Cardiovascular Health Soy isoflavones appear to have favourable effects on vascular function and lipid metabolism. Soy isoflavones concentrate in prostate fluid and increased isoflavone intake has been linked to significant apoptosis (programmed cell death) of prostate cancer cells (adenocarcinoma) in a patient taking 160 mg of isoflavone content per day. the growth of new blood vessels that contribute to the spread of cancer.109 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils In vitro.2 4. These enzymes function to detoxify and destroy electrophilic (free radicals) metabolites.8 Soy constituents (especially diadzein and genistein) have been linked to favourable effects on bone density in postmenopausal women and in animal experimental studies. All of these factors help to support the positive influence that Soy has on cardiovascular health. Ipriflavone.9 3. Dailais et al found that early postmenopausal women had a 5 percent increase in bone mineral content compared with baseline values after only 3 months of consuming Soy flour. a semisynthetic compound similar to the Soy isoflavone.2 The meta-analysis of 38 controlled studies demonstrated that an average intake of 47 gm per day of Soy protein was associated with a 9.1 Genistein also inhibits angiogenesis. Detoxification Soy and Soy Extract have been shown to induce phase II detoxification enzymes such as Quinone reductase.6. as well as help to support bone density.1.meschinohealth. often using ovariectomized rats. Menopausal Symptoms and Female Bone Health After menopause Soy isoflavones and other phytoestrogens can provide sufficient estrogenic activity as to reduce hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms. This function may also explain some of Soy’s anti-cancer effects.3 percent lowering of cholesterol.4 percent elevation of HDL-cholesterol. Soy isoflavones.3 www. structurally similar to estrogens. one week before prostate surgery. 12. genistein inhibits the growth of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. interact with estrogen receptors and appear to increase LDL-receptor formation. Glutathione-S transferase and uridine-S-diphosphate glucuronodyl transferase. three times daily.1.10 Genistein also inhibits thrombin formation and platelet activation in vitro and Soy isoflavones act as antioxidants.1 It is approved in Japan. indicating that Soy consumption reduces DHT production in men. Increased Soy intake in men under clinical trial conditions demonstrates a reduction in DHT metabolites in the blood. diadzein.
no reports of bleeding disorders have been documented in patients using Soy products and anti-coagulants.meschinohealth.100 mg of isoflavones per day support the following applications: General health support Menopausal symptom management Bone density support Cholesterol and triglyceride lowering and cardiovascular system support Enhancement of phase II detoxification and liver support 1. in experimental and animal models. which is used to help prevent a recurrence of cancer in women who previously had estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. hormone replacement therapy. women should not take soy isoflavone supplements of any kind to help treat existing reproductive cancer or to help block recurrence of a reproductive cancer. isoflavones demonstrate. As such. cardiovascular disease. Due to the coumarin content of Soy it may potentiate the effects of warfarin. osteoporosis and to help manage menopausal symptoms. 12 however. features suggesting a potential to prevent breast cancer and other reproductive cancers.14. and the use of the drug tamoxifen. Until this is clearly established. in the presence of the body’s own estrogens.11 Dosage and Standardized Grade Soy or Soy Extract intake yielding 50 . 2. Drug-Nutrient Interactions Simultaneous intake of Soy or Soy Extract with estrogen replacement.15 www. Isoflavones are a form of “selective estrogen receptor modulator (modifier). isoflavones tend to slow the proliferation rate of breast cells. Societies demonstrating the best health effects and the early intervention trials from human studies suggest that a Soy intake yielding 50-100 mg per day of Soy isoflavones provides a level of intake associated with the above mentioned benefits according to recent reviews. there is evidence to support the intake of soy and possibly other phytoestrogens in these cases. Toxicity and Contraindications Soy products and cooked soybeans are safe at a wide range of intakes. Although some researchers caution against combining these interventions. and may also be useful in containing or controlling existing cancers in certain cases. 8. 10 Adverse Side Effects. and breast cancer cells. It is best not to take these drugs at the same time as Soy foods or Soy Extract supplements. 13.1. prostate enlargement. Estrogen–containing drugs and Tamoxifen: There is uncertainty at this time as to the interaction of soy phytoestrogens with oral contraceptives. Due to their greater affinity for beta receptors. no human studies have revealed a negative interaction in this regard. Over-stimulation of alpha receptors from estradiol and estrone (two of the body’s natural estrogens that are found in estrogen-containing drugs) tends to result in more rapid cell division and increased risk of breast cancer.110 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Supplementation Studies and Clinical Application Clinical studies are underway to help determine the ideal Soy or Soy Extract intake level that may help prevent cancer. To date. the birth control pill (oral contraceptives) or thyroid hormone may decrease the absorption of these drugs. Intensive investigation is underway at this time to determine if this latter application is valid.com . while having little affinity for alpha estrogen receptors on these tissues (this is similar to the effect of Tamoxifen. which is used to help prevent recurrence of estrogen receptorpositive breast cancer). concurrently. which preferentially activate the beta estrogen receptor on reproductive and other tissues. 7. without the consent of her attending physician. A small percentage of people have allergies to soybeans and thus should avoid Soy products. 6.
3:189-195. Messina M. Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flashes: Effect of soy and wheat.95(suppl 5A):69-74. 8. 3.g. Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake.90:2690-2694.2000: Isoflavones and Menopause.28. Supplements. Messina M. Obstet Gynecol 1998. Jungbauer A.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. Am J Med 1993.11:1253-1254. 13. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1994. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins. Meta-analysis of effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids in humans. Churchill Livingstone. Anderson JW et al. Brandi M. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine.com . 1998.3:270-275 Wei H et al. Healthnotes online. Murkeis AL et al. Murray M. Publisher (2000): 54-6. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2001 Jul.111 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. 11. Vitamin D metabolites and analogs. 9. Fotsis T et al. Proc Soc Exp Med 1995. Medical Post.67-8. Genistein a dietary-derived inhibitor of in vitro angoigenesis. 2. Soy feeding induces Phase II enzymes in rat tissue. 3. To recommend or not to recommend soy foods. 5. 10. Unterrieder I. 4. Evans and Company Inc. 15.L. 1994. J Am Diet Assoc. Maturitas 1995. Nutr Cancer. Prima Publishing 1998. Anderson JW et al. Dornstauder E. Murray M. Healthnotes online.70(suppl):439-450. Oct 3. 2. 1. Kubelka W. strontium. 14. Cassidy A et al. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 1995. and Herbs. Legumes and soybeans: an overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. 4. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy.333:276-282.208:124-129. Prima Publishing 1995..21.2000. Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein. New treatment strategies: Ipriflavone. 12. Am J Clin Nutr 1999. 6. Reavley NM.94. Inc. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. 1997.meschinohealth. Minerals. Appelt LC. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. Jisa E. The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flashes.70(suppl):464-474. Mills S and Bone K. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. Boon H and Smith M.1997. 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement.60:333-340. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. Krenn L. Albertazzi P et al.91:6-11. Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999. 78(1): 67-75 www.
8 www. a vegan vegetarian. which increases platelet aggregation. making it an essential nutrient in these cases. patients with cystic fibrosis and some otherwise normal individuals are unable to synthesize sufficient amounts of taurine.1. Taurine supplementation resulted in objective signs of improvement in 19 of the 24 patients and. the IDDM patients were shown to have significantly lower plasma and platelet levels of taurine than the controls prior to taurine supplementation.5 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.1. Side effects did not occur in the taurine group and the researchers concluded that these results indicate that addition of taurine to conventional therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. Premature infants. This study showed that taurine appears to help reduce the activation of arachidonic acid in the biochemical pathway leading to the formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids such as thromboxane A2. thirteen of fifteen patients who were designated as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV before receiving taurine could be designated as class II after they completed the study.5 Taurine is only found in foods of animal origin and thus.7 2.1 Very large quantities of taurine are found in the retina of many mammals (including humans). Congestive Heart Failure Taurine helps to regulate the contraction and pumping action of the heart muscle. where it helps to protect the photoreceptors in the retina of the eye from ultra-violet light-induced free radical damage. with an inborn defect resulting in impaired taurine synthesis. Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus There is evidence to show that Insulin-dependent diabetics (IDDM) may have low taurine levels. In a double-blind. 39 IDDM patients and 34 control subjects were recruited for a taurine supplementation study using a dose of 1. taurine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure was shown to result in significant improvement in the New York Heart Association functional class. suggesting that taurine was capable of reversing congestive heart disease to a very significant degree in these patients. Initially.2 Besides the retina. sulfur–containing amino acid.com . some dietary taurine appears to be important to ensure adequate taurine status as retarded growth and degeneration of the retina of the eye have been shown in animals fed a taurinedeficient diet. However. Studies indicate that it may be important as a dietary supplement in cases of optic endemic neuritis and other conditions of the retina. placebo-controlled study. may be at higher risk in developing a taurine deficiency state. as compared to pre-supplementation measures. which may be a factor in their increased susceptibility to excessive platelet clotting leading to cardiovascular disease. In a study by F Franconi et al. In the body it can be synthesized from the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. and chest film abnormalities as compared to the placebo. Studies indicate that taurine may support heart muscle function while helping to reverse symptoms of congestive heart failure.500 mg of taurine per day. 24 patients with congestive heart failure were given 2 gms of taurine supplementation per day for four to eight weeks.meschinohealth. After supplementation with taurine the IDDM group realized the same plasma and platelet levels of taurine as the control group and platelet aggregation in this group was reduced. pulmonary crackles. crossover. taurine is concentrated in other organs that have high electrical activity such as the heart and the brain. randomized.112 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Taurine General Features Taurine is a non-essential.6 In a second study by J Azuma et al.
in cases of steatorrhea 4 Liver Support and Protection . Under these test conditions. which involves a state of over excitation. which is otherwise greatly depleted by these toxic compounds.5g/24 hours to 15. 2. Cystic Fibrosis patients secrete normal levels of pancreatic enzymes and thus. They showed a significant reduction in steatorrhea with a reduction of fecal fatty acid excretion dropping from 26.15 www.9. Studies have shown that taurine supplementation can effectively reverse steatorrhea in cystic fibrosis patients.113 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 3. Taurine appears to improve the micellar phase of fat digestion as an essential component of the bile complex. which has now been linked in part to a deficiency of taurine in their bile acids.4 The study by LJ Smith et al. Congestive Heart Failure – 1500 to 2000 mg per day in divided doses 7 Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus . Liver cell damage is also minimized to a significant degree and increased fecal elimination of cadmium has been noted with taurine supplementation in these experimental studies. 3. but further investigation is necessary to establish its efficacy in these cases.com .3. taurine appears to help maintain normal levels of glutathione (in a similar fashion as N-acetyl cysteine. It is the nerve-depressant aspect of taurine that has attracted interest in those who are examining its potential as an agent to treat epilepsy.4g/24 hours. Cystic Fibrosis Children with cystic fibrosis frequently have steatorrhea (high levels of fat in their stools due to impaired fat absorption).500 to 5.1500 mg per day in divided doses 8 Cystic Fibrosis .10. The above noted dose of taurine prevented liver damage in this study and the researchers conclude that taurine supplementation possesses prophylactic and therapeutic effects in acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. as chronic use of the pain killer acetaminophen is a frequent cause of severe liver and kidney damage in humans.14. Some preliminary studies indicate that it may have application for epileptics. used a daily dosage of 30 mg/kg body weight per day.11 In general. their inability to absorb fat stems from some other defect. Liver Protective Effect (Hepatoprotection) and Detoxification Animal studies show that taurine supplementation can reduce the toxic effects of cadmium.30 mg per kg body weight per day.12 Dosage and Standardized Grade 1.4 4.meschinohealth. the anti-dote for acute acetaminophen poisoning).000 mg per day. 4. Bile acids emulsify fats as part of the fat digestion process.5. the dose of taurine commonly used in animal testing is approximately 200 mg/kg of body weight.10 This is an important finding. which is the dose that prevented acetaminophen toxicity in rats injected with 800 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen intraperitoneally − a level that would otherwise severely damage liver cells.13. acetaminophen and carbontetrachloride on the liver and other organs. depending upon exposures to toxic compounds and degree of previous liver damage 5 (see also N-acetyl cysteine in compendium) Adverse Side Effects. in thirteen children with cystic fibrosis. Toxicity and Contraindications Taurine has been shown to have a depressant effect on the central nervous system and may adversely affect shortterm memory.
Wang LC. Amino acids as biochemical markers in epidemic and endemic optic neuropathies. Murray M. although its biological action in reversing congestive heart failure may be similar to that of cardiac glycoside drugs. Institute of Applied Complementary Medicine Inc. the only supplements that are considered safe include standard prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements. 16 Pregnancy and Lactation During pregnancy and lactation. 2. The Doctor’s Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. Therapeutic Effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: a double-blind crossover trial. Therapy of congestive heart failure with orally administered taurine. Prima Publishing 1995. supplementation with taurine may be advisable when taking these drugs.5(4):398-408 8. copyright 2001) 6. Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats.7(2):214-9 4. Evans and Company Inc. Hendler S.50(Suppl):241-4 3. Boon H and Smith M. fluorouracil. Clin Cardiol May 1985. et al. methotrexate and paclitaxel. Lacaille F. and Herbs. magnesium and the treatment of preeclampsia.com .145(12):1401-4 5. Clin Ther 1983.7 It has been established that various chemotherapy drugs. Waters E. 1998. 1. deplete body stores of taurine and.114 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Drug-Nutrient Interactions There are no known instances where taurine supplementation interferes with or potentiates the effects of any drugs. All other supplements or dose alterations may pose a threat to the developing fetus and there is generally insufficient evidence at this time to determine an absolute level of safety for most dietary supplements other than a prenatal supplement. Azuma J. Dietary Suplement Information Bureau. Prima Publishing 1998. 3. Reavley NM. Any supplementation practices beyond a prenatal supplement should involve the cooperation of the attending physician (e. et al. The Healing Power of Herbs (2nd edition). 2. 4. thus.. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects iwith insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation. Am j Dis Child Dec1991.meschinohealth. Thompson GN. 5. Supplements. Rev Cubana med Trop 1998. et al. cisplatin. et al. et al. Health Care Professional Training Program in Complementary Medicine. Hwang DF. Minerals. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Jun2001. Role of taurine in preventing acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in the rat. such as cyclophosphamide. docetaxel. 1997.) References: Pregnancy and Lactation 1. Lepage G.g. Murray M. Azuma J. Simon and Schuster 1990. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr Mar1988. the attending physician should be made aware of the patient’s intent to use taurine supplementation in cases where digitalis is being administered. Smith LJ. Franconi F et al. USA: Taurine (Dietary Supplementation Education Alliance. Taurine decreses fecal faty acid and sterol excretion in cystic fibrosis. such as digitalis and digoxin. Thus. Obregon F. Santiesteban Freixas R. Am J Clin Nutr May1995. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins.8(5):276-82 7. Wang JH.61(5):1115-9 9.6. Excessive fecal taurine loss predisposes to taurine deficiencyin cystic fibrosis.167(3):173-80 10.224-5 Gonzalez-Qevedo A.280(6):G1274-9 www. Redmond HP. A randomized double-blind trial. Toxicology Oct2001.
Am J Clin Nutr 1992. Nakane Y.meschinohealth.17:669-78 15.com 13. Archives of Neurology 1974:30-52 14. Barbeau A. Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation. Yano Y.com . New York. Drugs. et al. et al. Thiols and polyamines in the cytoprotective effect of taurine on carbon tetrachloride-induced heptotoxicity. Maliakkal J.13(2):71-6 12. Clinical trial of taurine in epilepsy. Wu C. Kennedy DO. Desai TK. The neuropharmacology of taurine. Raven Press 1978:p375 16. Life Sciences 1975. Kinzie JL. Barbeau A.115 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils 11. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 1999. Takahashi R. Taurine and Neurological Disorders.55:708-11 www.). et al. In:Barbeau A and Huxtable RJ (eds. taurine and epilepsy. Zinc.
Betaine has been reported to be helpful in some patients whose homocysteine levels did not improve with supplementation with folic acid.12.000 mg.000 mg to 2. which also occurs in the liver. which is primarily a supplement to provide hydrochloric acid to patients with low stomach acidity. Trimethylglycine has been shown to be of benefit in these cases due to its lipotropic properties (donating a methyl group to aid in the transport of fat out of the liver) in both animal and human studies.1. Hyperhomocysteinemia (unresponsive to folic acid.2 As a methyl donor Trimethylglycine is particularly involved in liver function.11. vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.116 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Trimethylglycine (Betaine) General Features Trimethylglycine functions in the body as a methyl donor (as do folic acid.2 In animals Trimethylglycine has been shown to protect against chemical damage to the liver. Liver Disease: 1.16 2. vitamin B 12. it plays a role in carnitine synthesis.15. and therefore.3 Trimethylglycine is closely related to choline (tetramethylglycine) in that as choline donates one of its four methyl groups to another molecule. betaine supplementation should be considered as an adjunctive treatment in patients whose elevated homocysteine levels do not respond adequately to supplementation with B-vitamins alone (see folic acid in this document for a detailed discussion regarding hyperhomocysteinemia). then it becomes dimethylglycine. Betaine or Trimethylglycine supplementation is usually in the form of betaine citrate or betaine aspartate. Hyperhomocysteinemia Trimethylglycine may aid folic acid and vitamin B12 in helping to reduce elevated levels of homocysteine (1.13. as is the use of milk thistle and S-adenosylmethionine. Due to its lipotropic effects.8. three times per day. If Trimethylglycine donates one of its methyl groups. aiding digestion.000 mg. betaine has been shown to produce significant improvement in this condition in several human studies. General Wellness Support: 500-1. the first stage is accumulation of fat in the liver (fatty liver degeneration).com . vitamin B 6 and vitamin B12): 1. including detoxification reactions.000 mg per day.8-16 Betaine should not be confused with Betaine hydrochloride. Italy and France.9 Betaine as a treatment for alcohol-related liver damage is very popular in Germany.10-16 2. it becomes Trimethylglycine (Betaine).000 mg. Dosage Ranges 1.14. two to three times per day. choline and S-adenosylmethionine). Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Disease The first step in liver damage that results from drinking alcohol is the accumulation of fat in the liver. As well.14 Clinical Application and Mechanism of Action 1.17 High levels of homocysteine increases risk of heart disease.meschinohealth.10-16 www.17 3. two or three times daily).10.13.4-7 In alcohol-induced liver damage.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997. Betaine. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. 2. Beckenhauer HC. Betaine is a very non-toxic compound. and compounds similar to betaine are known to enhance the growth of bacteria that cause UTIs. Beckenhauer HC.31:481-8. 19.32:771-4. especially of fatty liver with betaine citrate. www. metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 1983. 4. Betaine aspartate in the hepato-digestive domain. Kim YC. Rahko T. Matti J. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis.15. Ann Rev Nutr 1999. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1998. Cairella M.60:513-34 [in Italian]. Nicrosini F. Barak AJ. Betaine aspartate in the therapy of liver diseases. 8. Barak AJ.11:293-6 [review]. Randall K. 14. AFA 1976. Chambers ST. Tuma DJ. 2001.60:513-34 [in Italian]. Sem Ther 1972. Alcohol 1996.116:2113-24 [in German]. Murakami T. Clin Sci 1995.27(7):322-5 [in German]. Volpari B. Inc. 9. Beckenhauer HC.13:395-8[review]. Tuma DJ. Betaine. Junnila M.com .meschinohealth. 17. Healthnotes.19:217-46.18. 13. www.88(1):25-7. Med Klin 1973. Badakhsh S. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1993.com : Betaine. Kim YC.40:263-6. Barak AJ. 5. Nagamura Y. Sarre B. Lever M. Effects of singly administered betaine on hepatotoxicity of chloroform in mice. 6. ethanol. Clin Ter 1972. Treatment of liver diseases.17:552-5. Vet Hum Toxicol 1998. Clinical results using betaine citrate (Flacar) in fatty livers. 12. Beckenhauer HC. Chambers ST. Med Monatsschr 1973. Hirano K. Homocysteine metabolism. Barak AJ. Peddie BA.61:227-36 [in Italian].68:1109-13 [in German]. 16. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethione and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. 18. 21:1100-2. and the liver: a review. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetracholoride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Barak AJ. 15. Hilt G. 3.5f2:1561-3 [in German]. Ther Ggw 1977. Inhibitors of bacterial growth in urine: what is the role of betaines? Int J Antimicrob Agents 1999. Therapeutic experience with the lipotropic hepatic drug Flacar in the internal medicine practice. Chambers ST.healthnotes. 11. Betaines: their significance for bacteria and the renal tract. Tuma DJ.117 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Adverse Side Effects and Toxicity No side effects have been reported at recommended levels of intake.19 1. Thus. Semmler F. Tuma DJ. Selhub J. Peddie BA. Clin Ter 1972. betaine supplementation should not be used during active urinary tract infects or in concert with antibiotics intended to treat UTIs. Effects of betaines and urine on the antibacterial activity of aminoglycosides. Drug-Nutrient Interactions A Betaine-containing substance in the urine (glycine-betaine) has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections (UTI). Therapeutic activity of betaine aspartate. Food Chem Toxicol 1998. Clinical experience with betain citrate. Pergola F. 7. J Antimicrob Chemother 1993. Kandziora J.44:249-55.36:655-61. 10. Cachin M. Kim SK. Tuzin P. Babucke G.
com .meschinohealth.118 Meschino Health Comprehensive Guide to Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils Accessory Nutrients and Essential Oils www.
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