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# BASIC ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS (ASD)

FLEXURE DESIGN
FLEXUREthe available flexural strength, Mn/ must be greater than Required Strength, Ma Ma Mn/ = Safety Factor for given loading type (or limit state) --- b = 1.67 for Bending ELASTIC FLEXURE f = Mc/I = Mmax/S Sreqd = Mmax/f Mn = MCR = SXfy PLASTIC FLEXURE f = M/A Mn = Mp = ZXfy
SLENDERNESS PARAMETERS FLB, = bf/2tf (FLANGE LOCAL BUCKLING) WLB, = h/tw (WEB LOCAL BUCKLING) LTB, = Lb/ry (LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING) Ma = Beam Bending Moment (Maximum Service Load Moment) MCR = Elastic Moment (the second-highest nominal Flexural Strength when = R) = FCRS = 0.7FySx Mn = Nominal Moment Capacity (Nominal Flexural Strength Must be divided by for ASD Capacity) MP = Plastic Moment (the highest possible nominal Flexural Strength for braced & compact members) = FYZ My = Yield Moment = Width-Thickness Ratio (dividing line is P --- if < P, the section is compact and MP can be used) = Deflection L, l = Span I = Moment of Inertia Lb = Unbraced Length (LbLp for a properly braced member) SX = Elastic Section Modulus about the x-axis = I/c Rectangle: S = bd2/6 Solid Round: S = d3/32 Tube: S = [bodo3-bIdI3]/6d ZX = Plastic Section Modulus about the x-axis Rectangle: Z = bd2/4 Solid Round: Z = d3/6 Tube: Z = [do3-dI3]/6 E = Modulus of Elasticity =29,000 ksi for common steels Fy = Yield Stress of Steel (36ksi for A36 Steels) FCR =- Elastic Critical Buckling Stress (determined by equations) IX = Moment of Inertia about x-axis Cb = Lateral-Torsional Buckling Modification Factor

## COMMON ENGINEERING EQUATIONS

Plastic Moment Capacity, MP = FyZx, Elastic Moment Capacity, Mr = FySx, Shear Strength, Vn = 0.6FyAw

## so Mp/ = FyZx/1.67 = 0.6FyZx so Mr/ = FySx/1.67 = 0.6FySx so Vn/ = 0.6FyAw/1.50 = 0.4FyAw

SIMPLE BEAM, UNIFORM LOAD (FROM 13TH EDITION TABLE 3-23) VMAX = wl/2 MMAX = wl2/2 = 5wl4/384EI SIMPLE BEAM, CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER (FROM 13TH EDITION TABLE 323)

VMAX = P/2 MMAX = Pl/4 = Pl3/48EI SIMPLE BEAM, CONCENTRATED LOAD (FROM 13TH EDITION TABLE 3-23)

WELD STRENGTH
ALLOWABLE STRENGTH for ASD, the allowable strength, R n/ must be greater than the Required Strength, Ra Ra Rn/ = Safety Factor for given loading type (or limit state) WELDS The allowable strength of welds shall be the lower value of: 1) Base Material Strength (Rn = FBMABM) 2) Weld Metal Strength (Rn = FWAW) FW = Nominal Strength of the Weld Metal per Unit Area (ksi) = 0.60F EXX FBM = Nominal Strength of the Base Metal per Unit Area (ksi) = 0.60F u AW = Effective Area of the Weld (in2) ABM = Effective Area of the Base Metal (in2) FEXX = ultimate strength of welding electrode,(ksi) = Fu (weld metal) (cos 45)(1/16) Fu = ultimate strength of base metal Using ASD Table J2.5 (16.1-99), for allowable strength of welds in shear (the most conservative case of all weld loading), F BM or FW = 0.60 FEXX Rn/ = 0.60FEXX/2.00 = 0.30FEXX = 0.30 (FyEXX)(sin 45)(1/16) = (0.30)(70ksi) (0.707)(1/16) Note: (sin 45)(1/16) = effective throat for 1/16 leg of weld = WORST CASE

Rn/ =0.928k/in of weld leg for longitudinally loaded fillet (worst case) Rn/ =1.392k/in of weld leg for transversely loaded fillet
(increased loading angle strength = 1+0.5sin1.5) = 1.5 for = 90

BOLT STRENGTH
ALLOWABLE STRENGTH(ASD) - allowable strength, rn/ must be greater than the
Required Strength, Ra

## ra rn/ BOLTS IN SIMPLE BEARING CONNECTIONS

The allowable sheara strength, rn of BOLTS in simple bearing connections is as follows:

## rn = FnvAb* (# of shear planes) with = 2.00

Fnv = Nominal Shear strength of fastener (ASD Table J3.2) = 0.50Fu (threads excluded) = 0.40Fu (threads included) Ab = Area of bolt (unthreaded body area only) Fnv values for common bolts: Using ASD Table J3.2 (16.1-104), A325X bolts (threads excluded) = 60 ksi A325N bolts (threads included) = 48 ksi A307 bolts = 24 ksi A36 Threaded Rod = 14.4 ksi So, for a A325 bolt in simple bearing, threads included, rn = FnvAb = (48 ksi) ( (.375)2) = (48)(0.44178) = 21.21k rn/ = 21.21/2 = 10.6k

rn/ =10.6k/BOLT (A325N)(SINGLE SHEAR) rn/ =13.3k/BOLT (A325X)(SINGLE SHEAR) rn/ =5.30k/BOLT (A307)(SINGLE SHEAR)
(SEE ASD TABLE 7-1)
for a A36 Threaded Rod in double shear, threads included, rn = FnvAb = 0.40FuAb = (0.4)(36 ksi) ( (.375)2) = (14.4)(0.44178) = 6.36k rn/ = 6.36/2 = 3.18k

## rn/ =3.18k/A36 THREADED ROD (SINGLE SHEAR, THREADS INCLUDED)

BOLTS IN SLIP-CRITICAL CONNECTIONS rn = DnhscTbNs with = 1.5 (designed at serviceability limit state) = 1.76 (designed at required strength level)

## rn/ =5.38/BOLT (A325SC, CLASS A)(SINGLE SHEAR SSH, STRENGTH LIMIT)

(SEE ASD TABLE 7-3)

## WEDGE ANCHOR DESIGN

AVAILABLE STRENGTH for ASD, the available strength, Rn/ must be greater than the Required Strength, Ra Ra Rn/ = Safety Factor for given loading type (or limit state) = 4