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Global Positioning System (GPS) using the Garmin eTREX VISTA Quick Start & Reference Guide
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Using the Garmin eTREX VISTA This GPS receiver has a five-way control stick (top left) and a page button (top button on right side) that allow for easy navigation of menus. 1. The page button cycles through the most commonly used pages on the unit (Satellite sky plot, Map Navigation by compass, Altimeter, Trip Computer and Main Menu) 2. At the top of each page Main menu and Page menu icons are present-- to access these options use the control stick and depress it when the appropriate menu is highlighted. 3. Data points may be collected or navigated to by first entering the Main menu then selecting Mark to take a point or Find to navigate to a point. 1. Satellites
the completely shaded circles are the satellites that are determining your position while all being shown on the plot are being tracked. Vertical and USGS) and zooming in on an area of interest will display what data is available by symbol and the location of the monument. To determine the direction that you are pointing the GPS receiver go to the page menu on the Satellite screen and select Track Up. The sky plot shows North as well as location of the satellites. b. the Satellite sky plot screen will be the first screen to be displayed. At the bottom of the satellite screen. Your current position (LAT/LONG) will display on the bottom of the screen once there are enough satellites and a good satellite configuration. This is done by go to the MAIN MENU select SYSTEM make sure that WASS is ENABLED-. In Vermont. Horizontal. On the satellite screen a map of the sky is provided in two concentric circles. Trimble) and the U. a bar graph shows each satellite being tracked as well as the relative signal strengths. On the Satellite sky plot shown in the middle of the screen. This will orient the top of your screen with the direction of travel (bearing).aot.e. Wait for the GPS to locate the correct number of satellites.com/cs.e. Enable the WASS (Wide Area Augmentation System). 2. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Control Points The NGS sets control points as monuments for surveying. After the direction of travel is determined attempt to block out (interrupt the signal) of a specific satellite by placing an object (a thick text book or a corner of a building) in the path between the receiver and the satellite. c. The outside circle represents 0 degrees to the horizon while the inner circle is 45 degrees from the horizon and the point in the center is directly over the GPS unit (90-deg). The satellite signals also bounce off of them creating multipath or mixed signals.cgi When the GPS unit is turned on.calsky. http://vtransmap. .state. This screen displays the number of satellites available and the number of satellites being tracked. Calibrate compass using the instructions from the manufacturer.if not. The WASS system is a satellite + ground stations system that helps correct the GPS signals so positions are more accurate.us/website/geodetic The locations may be found by category on the right side of the map under 'Display Layers' (i. change it. Coast Guard and Homeland Security web sites. An interactive internet program is available for personal use at http://www. The GPS is no longer as accurate as it was in the open.S. Trees and buildings prevent the GPS from receiving a clear path for the satellite signals.vt.. the Vermont Agency of Transportation has an interactive map of geodetic monuments of known location.2010_handbook 5 of 49 Fall 2010 It is important to know what area you will be in as well as what satellites and how many satellites will be available when you plan to use the GPS receiver. a. A prediction of available satellites for any day and time can be downloaded through software available from manufacturer’s of survey-grade GPS receivers (i.
2010_handbook 6 of 49 Fall 2010 Measuring horizontal distance: A reference guide for the techniques of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM). & GPS . Pacing & Taping.
you can determine distance by observing the number of paces it takes to cover the route. . take several measurements using the method described above. The average of these measurements will have a +/. Attach the tension handle to the end of the tape measure. Once you know the average distance of your pace (or stride see figure below).e. Determining your Pace Pace between a known distance (i. Precision is also reported as a function of the change in length divided by the mean of the observations. Holding the plumb bob over the second mark. Two people should pull the tape measure reel to the other point. and the number of ft/pace from an average of all the measurements. Taping on level ground A typical steel tape has gradations of hundredths of a foot (0. the distance can be read on the tape to the nearest hundredth. Observe to the nearest ½ pace?? Determine the number of paces per ft. The procedure is as follows. Keep significant digits. If an estimate of precision is required. One person should hold the “dumb” end of the tape with a plumb bob over the point. 100 ft) four times recording the number of paces each time. and pulled to the appropriate tension to correct for sag in the tape. the tape must be level to the extent possible. (such as by steel tape). The precision of your pace can be calculated by comparing the pace to a distance measured using a more accurate method. and pull the appropriate tension to correct for sag. To measure horizontal distance using a steel tape. Pacing & Taping Pacing Pacing is a method whereby you can measure distance by using a consistent stride.01 feet) it is important when using steel tapes for measuring distance that observations are recorded in the units of the tape.2010_handbook 7 of 49 Fall 2010 1.precision associated with it as a function of the data collected.
The slope may be calculated as the change in vertical distance of the change in horizontal distance. Using the plumb bobs. Laser beams are sent from the total station and reflected from a prism over the point to be measured back to the device where the distance is calculated and digitally displayed. Measuring Slope Distance and Calculating Horizontal Distance Horizontal distance may also be calculated from measurements of slope distance and the angle of the tape. two people with the dumb end of the tape head up the incline. a hand level may be used to estimate when the tape is level. In this case. Using plumb bobs to keep the tape over the points. the horizontal distance to the first chaining pin may be read. Calculate the angle of the slope from the trigonometric relationship: Cos θ = adj/hyp . Starting at the bottom of the incline. Using a hand level stop when the person at the bottom of the hill has the tape at approximately waist level. From the point at the bottom of the slope. we can break the line into shorter segments that can be measured horizontally. measure the slope distance and using the relationship above and the previously calculated angle. The measurement can then be stored or recorded. Simple trigonometry is used with a taped short horizontal distance. Slope(%) = rise( y ) × 100 run ( x ) Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) using the TopCon Total Station In addition to measuring angles. The procedure is as follows. a pole may be used where it is plumbed prior to the . or. the same relationship will be used to calculate the entire horizontal distance. If an estimate of precision is required. calculate the slope distance. The procedure is as follows. take several measurements to confirm the angle and calculate an average of horizontal and slope distances with a corresponding precision. Using a plumb bob over the initial point. It is important that this line best represents the entire slope. The optical plummet should be centered over the point. Once the angle of the slope is known. a total station has been equipped with a laser device to measure distance.2010_handbook 8 of 49 Fall 2010 Measuring Horizontal Distance on a Slope or Incline using Tape Often it is not possible to measure horizontal distance in one step due to excessive slope or incline. This process is repeated as the person with the plumb bob moves up to the next chaining pin until the top of the incline is reached. the unit must be set up on a tripod and leveled. In order to measure horizontal distance using the total station. In order to determine the horizontal distance between two points using a tape. Pull tape from the bottom of the incline up the incline until reaching a point where horizontal distance has previously been measured. Hold the tape on the ground and stick a chaining pin in the ground at a 45 degree angle to mark zero. the slope distance measurement can be read. Level the tape to the extent possible using the hand level. continue by pulling the tape the entire slope distance. The reflecting prism may either be set up on a tripod over a point.
(Looking through the optical plummet) 9. 4. Measure and input HI and prism height into software for your instrument. 12. Screw the tribrac onto the top of the tripod. Focus the prism using the large adjustment on the scope. Moving the two screws both in or both out will level the bubble. 1. 2. but not so that it may fall or be damaged (very important). 1. 3. 6. Focus the cross hairs with the small adjustment on the scope. 3. 4. Setting up a tripod with a TopCon Instrument The procedure for setting up an instrument over a point is as follows and may be used whenever required to setup the instrument over a known point. In order for the laser to be reflected back to the instrument. 8. Looking through the optical plummet. Repeat steps 7 and 8 if it is not. Turning the instrument 120 degrees. 10. Looking through the optical plummet focus the cross hairs or target and focus on the survey point. Rotate the scope to initialize the instrument. . Finally. Place the tripod approximately level and over a point. Make sure the cross hairs are still centered over the point. 2. 5. 8. 4. 11. 5. Turn the power on. The legs should be evenly spaced apart and not set into the ground. Using only two of the legs – adjust them up or down until the level bubble is fairly centered. move two of the legs so that the cross hairs or target is directly over the point.2010_handbook 9 of 49 Fall 2010 measurement when it is set on the point by a team member. 7. Fine tune the bubble over the leveling screws by using the level screws. the prism must be facing the instrument. but gently on the ground surface. Center the cross hairs on the center of the prism. Make sure all of the motions (vertical and horizontal coarse adjustment) are loose. 7. 1. Plant all three legs into the ground 6. Loosen the tribrac and carefully slide it so the cross hairs or target is centered over the point. Check the bubble level by turning it 120 degrees once more. Turn in 120 degrees again and adjust the bubble with the two screws again. Lock the coarse adjustment and use the fine adjustment screws. Measuring Distance Electronically Measuring the distance from point A to point B. Push the instrument button and the horizontal measurement button. This should be done without fully tightening the screw. 10. The instrument will send out a signal and display a reading on the screen. 2. Face the bubble parallel to two screws. 9. Adjust as necessary from step 8. Check the bubble again to make sure it is centered. Once the tripod and tribrac are level you can lock the instrument into the tribrac. 3. level the bubble with the one screw you didn’t use before. fine-tune the leveling on the instrument itself.
. Typically. Distance based tracking can be selected by opening the page menu under the Tracks option and scrolling down to highlight the Distance or Time record method. the points are collected at set time or set distance intervals. Selecting Setup under the Tracks option will allow the user to turn on the Track Log. The Vista unit has a tracks option in the main menu. The Distance interval can be set in terms of miles or feet.2010_handbook 10 of 49 Fall 2010 Measuring Distance using the eTREX Vista GPS unit GPS can be used to measure distance through the tracking functions of the GPS unit. The unit tracks the routes by collecting a series of data points along the traveled way.
2010_handbook 11 of 49 Fall 2010 Measuring horizontal angles: A reference guide for using the TopCon Instrument .
FS. 11. The second angle should be 180 degrees more than the first angle for between the backsight and the foresight. Setup and level the instrument over a point. Set a plumb bob from the tribrac set over the backsight point(BS). The top is the zenith angle. Backsight by placing the cross hairs on the lowest part of the plumb bob string. 4. Always turn right angles.g. 6. Record HA. 10. The middle digital read out is the horizontal angle. but don’t reset zero. It is kind of like using the instrument backwards. 16. 2. Record HA.. Terms/Abbreviations: The following terms and abbreviations apply. Turn the instrument on and initialize it by rotating the scope. 12. 15.Foresight HR – Horizontal Angle to the right VA – Vertical Angle ZA – Zenith Angle . and the turn is repeated. just above the plumb bob. making sure the tripod legs are not in the line-of-sight to any neighboring points. Before continuing to the next point. . a backsight is set to zero and then the scope is turned to a foresight and an angle measurement recorded.2010_handbook 12 of 49 Fall 2010 Measuring Precise Horizontal Angles using Repetition: The following method describes how to measure a horizontal angle using the TopCon total station unit and a common method of repetition. 8. EAB) and record it. 3. subtract 180 degrees from the second recorded angle (Step 15) and calculate the average measurement of the interior angle (e. This completes doubling the angle. 9. BS. 13. 7. Plunge the scope by flipping it 180 degrees so that it points in the reverse position. BS – Backsight FS. 5. Doubling Angles (BS. Record HA 14. In general. FS) 1. Record your Horizontal Angle (HR) (should be 00°00’00” at this point).Instrument 00°00’00” –Angle of Zero Method of Repetition (Doubling Angles): In this method horizontal angles are measured twice and the average of the two measurements is recorded. The scope is then plunged. [If the two measured angles greater than 20 seconds of each other then repeat the double angle measurement until required precision is obtained]. The distance (if taken) would be displayed on the bottom readout. Focus the crosshairs so that they are directly in the center of the plumb bob string at the point. Set 00°00’00” (zero). Turn the scope to the right to BS point. Turn the instrument to the right to FS point. If the difference between the repeated measurements is larger than 20 seconds the whole process should be repeated. Turn the instrument to the right to foresight point (FS).
2010_handbook 13 of 49 Fall 2010 Traversing: Field Measurements & Procedures .
survey tape Terms/Abbreviations: BS – Backsight HD – Horizontal Distance HR – Horizontal Angle to Right HI – Height of Instrument AZ.Instrument BM – Bench Mark 00°00’00” –Angle of Zero Instructions: Note: Always turn right angles and run your traverse counterclockwise.Azimuth Mark . survey tape. There are control points that will give you Northing. There are also alternate control points at Old Mill Wall and Rowell. Sketch each one of your traverse points and its ties and then sketch your entire traverse area. The Kalkin Benchmark could be used as the control point for the Fleming. These traverse points will be used for future setups so they should be sketched and tiedoff accurately so they can be found again. Each station should have 3 ties and these ties should be approximately 90 degrees to each other. prism. set tie-off points for your traverse stations with a steel tape. List of Equipment: 4 to 5 nails. tribrac.Foresight VD-Vertical Distance ZA– Zenith Angle HT – Height of Target Running a Traverse A. tripod. 2. Set four to five traverse points equidistant from each other encompassing your site. Once you have your traverse stations marked with nails. Setting a Traverse 1. Be sure to record the difference in elevation between the control point and your traverse point. 5. total station. and Azimuth for running your traverse. FS. Make sure you can see them from your traverse. The table below has northing and easting coordinates (UVM grid) for four control points near the sites. Transfer control point information to the traverse To transfer the control information to the site you must set up on your first traverse point and backsight the control point and double the angle to another traverse point. 7 control pins. Use the control point that works best for your traverse.2010_handbook 14 of 49 Fall 2010 Traversing A traverse is a field survey of a polygon where an area is delineated from measurements of horizontal angles and distances. (Assume the magnetic declination for Burlington in 2008 is 16° W. If the difference between the repeated angle measurements is larger than 20 seconds the whole process should be repeated (see double angle procedure). Cook and Angell traverses. Elevation. Take a compass bearing on the line from your traverse point to the control. Find realistic sight distances to transfer the information (both horizontal and elevation) from the control points to your traverse. hub stakes.) . Easting. 3. 4.
8. horizontal distance and vertical distance at the same time.459. Using the Compass bearing between the control point and your traverse calculate the Azimuths of your traverse courses.2010_handbook 15 of 49 Fall 2010 Kalkin Rowell Control Benchmark Point N 722. Set 00°00’00” on your backsight. 344. and correcting it.458. Sketches: 1. Instead of taking the measurement more than once you can press the recall button and then the measurement you want the instrument to display. Overall sketch of traverse around building 3. (Recall. If the angles are within 20 seconds of each other then you can turn to your foresight point and repeat the measurements. profiles and depict site topography. 4. Initially start the traverse by setting up on your first traverse point. is to use it to locate topographical and cultural features. utilities. Enough measurements should be taken to accurately draw slope changes. . Topography and Location points when setup on traverse points. 3.315. Record HA. 6. manhole covers.557. parking areas. VD. HD. VD. 9. Double all angles (HA) and record Horizontal Distances as well as Vertical Distances (HD & VD). General Field Calculations: Sum the average angular measurements for each of your interior angles. 7. intersections sidewalks. Run the Traverse 1. Record HA. Adjust your traverse and provide corrected angles and distances for each course by dividing misclosure between all angles rounded to the nearest second. backsight (BS) your last traverse point and turn to the control point and the second traverse point.05 ft Old Mill Wall N 721. utility poles. Turn the instrument to the right to the control point. signs. ft B. This will give you the actual second turned angle. On Doubling Angles: Subtract the doubled Backsight reading from the doubled turned angle reading. trees. Set up on your next traverse point and backsight on your last traverse point. Cultural features may be: major building corners. 2. Continue doubling angles working counter-clockwise around your traverse until you close it out. Average this with the first turned angle. Theoretical sum = (n-2)*180.2847 ft E 1. phones etc.51 ft E 1.023. 5.1253 ft N ft E 1. The instrument calculates slope distance.990. Turn to your control point. n = number of sides of closed polygon. The purpose of establishing a traverse.6220 ft Elev.49 ft Elev.2504 ft N 721. the magnetic declination = 16° W) Calculate the adjusted elevation of each traverse point. Measure the height of instrument (HI) and height of target (HT (BS)) and height of target (HT (FS)). 370. In general.457.6137 ft E ft Elev. hydrants.4823 ft Elev. HD.399.595. Detailed sketch of building footprint. Tie-off sketches – one for each traverse point 2. with measurements of building taken with a steel tape. Topographical features are places where change of slope occurs. Plunge scope and sight BS. 367. Calculate your angular misclosure (the difference between the measured and theoretical).
(You do not need to double the angle on these sideshots. . 2. Record the new height of instrument with each new setup. Set up on as many traverse stations as necessary in order to collect information on your entire site to later draw your site survey map in AutoCAD. VD to the feature using the method of your choice. Turn to a feature and record HA (This is a “sideshot”). Set zero on your backsight (if not already zeroed). Measure and record the HD. Take ground elevations in the area of your traverse anywhere the slope of the ground changes in order to accurately depict site topography and draw profiles. c.) e. b.2010_handbook 16 of 49 Fall 2010 1. Record the station you are set up on. 3. and the station you are backsighting. d. Record height of instrument (HI) and height of prism (HP). To located features while set up on a traverse point: a.
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