Ethic Reader | Hacker Culture | Privacy

ETHIC READER

A COMPILATION OF BOOK REVIEWS ON THE HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE FORTUNE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID AND CYBERNETHICS

Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC O0A
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Philippines License.

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Table of Contents

THE HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY………………………………………..…….3

THE FORTUNE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID………………………………………….….58

CYBERNETHICS…………………………………………………………………………………………71

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THE HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART I: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS: 1. Foundation of Information Ethics (Luciano Floridi) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Our society is the information society because of the pivotal role played by intellectual, intangible assets (knowledge-based economy), information-intensive services (business and property services, communications, finance, and insurance), and public sectors (education, public administration, health care).”

Learning Expectation: I expect to learn and to understand the “infosphere”, which they say that humanity is and will be flourishing.

Book Review:

“Infosphere is a neologism coined years ago (see, e.g., Floridi (1999b) or Wikipedia) based on Biosphere, a term referring to that limited region on our planet that supports life. It denotes the whole informational environment constituted by all informational entities (thus including informational agents as well), their properties, interactions, processes, and mutual relations. It is an environment comparable to, but different from, cyberspace (which is only one of its subregions, as it were), since it also includes offline and analogue spaces of information.” When I first heard the word “infosphere” I automatically think that it means information cycle. Lucky me, I was right. It was a cycle, a cycle of information. When we were all children, we studied about cycles, life cycles, time cycles, etc. In our Science classes, we often hear the word “sphere”. Information sphere or infosphere for me is like the evolution of information. It explains how information evolves and progress as time goes on. I must admit, I haven’t thought that this cycle or rather the term “infosphere” exists. I used to think that information will just pop out of the blue when somebody discovers something. But I guess I am wrong. Even before, ages ago, we are all under information. It is where our life cycles. We are not just aware of it. But now, as we all know, information plays an important role in our lives. Even in an individual being, in our daily lives, we are all surrounded by information. At any places we go, what we will do, we have information. Information can be developed and eventually evolves. In the world we live in, now a day, we are valuing all the information that we have. Well, for me, every fruit of technology is based on information. If there is no information, we won’t have everything that we need. Let’s just simply explain this. Information is knowledge for everyone. If we know something, we can do something. We can explain and elaborate things that seem unexplainable before. We can do further studies and come up with a better result or better information.

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We live in an information society. The environment where we exist is made up of information that evolves every second in our life. In every corners of the world, we are surrounded by information. We might not be aware at first but when we think about it, we will discover and learn in our own little ways that every here and there, there is information. I believe that every technology that we are experiencing is because of information. For example, we have now, ipods, itouch, iphone, mp3 players, and the like. Have you ever come to think that these are all fruits of technology? And this technology is only made possible by information. Information is a pivotal or the central aspects of our society today. It is the most crucial aspect in our environment.

Citations: Luciano Floridi

Integrative Questions: 1. What is infosphere? 2. What is an information society? 3. What is biosphere? 4. Is humanity will be flourished? 5. Is our society an information society?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART I: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS: 2. Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics (Terrell Ward Bynum) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetics Quote: “The academic field of information ethics was born—unintentionally and almost accidentally—in the middle of the Second World War. At that time, philosopher/ scientist Norbert Wiener was working with a group of scientists and engineers who were involved with him in the invention of digital computers and radar, and the creation of a new kind of antiaircraft cannon that could (1) perceive the presence of an airplane, (2) gather information about its speed and trajectory, (3) predict its future position a fewseconds later, (4) decidewhere to aim andwhen to fire the shell, and (5) carry out that decision.”

Learning Expectation: I expect to learn the history and every milestone of Information and Computer Ethics. I want to learn how it became possible that information played a very vital role in every aspect of life, during the early times.

Book Review:

“Wiener’s cybernetic account of human nature emphasized the physical structure of the human body and the tremendous potential for learning and creative action that human physiology makes possible. To explain that potential, he often compared human physiology to the physiology of less intelligent creatures like insects.” “Cybernetics takes the view that the structure of the machine or of the organism is an index of the performance that may be expected from it. The fact that the mechanical rigidity of the insect is such as to limit its intelligence while the mechanical fluidity of the human being provides for his almost indefinite intellectual expansion is highly relevant to the point of view of this book . Man’s advantage over the rest of nature is that he has the physiological and hence the intellectual equipment to adapt himself to radical changes in his environment. The human species is strong only in so far as it takes advantage of the innate, adaptive, learning faculties that its physiological structure makes possible. (Wiener, 1954, pp. 57– 58, italics in the original).”

What is cybernetic? Have you already heard about it? Well for me, it was my first time to encounter the word “cybernetic”. I was sort of confused because I thought that if we already have information sphere or “infosphere” how come a new term arises. According to Wikipedia, Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory. In comparison, if information sphere is the life cycle of information, cybernetic is the interdisciplinary way of studying the theory of systems.

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Cybernetic is a wide field of study. As I first understand it, cyber means like technology, and the like, while ethics means moral or the righteous. But I guess my very own definition of cybernetics is somewhat true and somewhat false. It is said that it is the interdisciplinary study of systems theory. In the first part of this reading, it is explained there that the academic field of information ethic was born somewhere in the middle of the second war. Clearly, it was ages ago. It also stated that it was unexpected. For me “cybernetic” is like studying a special field. A field of technology and information. But this study involves morality and what is right and wrong.

Citations: Terrell Ward Bynum

Integrative Questions: 1. What is computer history? 2. What are the milestones? 3. What is cybernethics? 4. What kind of study is cybernethic? 5. What is the role played by information in the society?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART I: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS: 3. Moral Methodology and Information Technology (Jeroen van den Hoven) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Computer ethics is a form of applied or practical ethics. It studies the moral questions that are associated with the development, application, and use of computers and computer science. Computer ethics exemplifies, like many other areas of applied and professional ethics, the increasing interest among professionals, public policy makers, and academic philosophers in real-life ethical questions. Posing ethical questions about privacy, software patents, responsibility for software errors, equal access, and autonomous agents is one thing; answering them is another. How should we go about answering them, and how can we justify our answers? How should we think about practical ethical issues involving computers and information technology (IT)?”

Learning Expectation: I expect to learn more about computer ethics.

Book Review:

I must admit that it came with a bit of a shock when I first heard of IT ETHICS and Computer Ethics. I used to think that ethic is a short term for ethical, right manners and proper conducts. These ethical manners are to be observed when you are in fancy restaurants, if you are with your parents, aunts and uncles. I used to study this when I was in grade school during my Christian Living and Values Education. It was the first time I heard about ethics. And then when I have my theology classes in college, I also heard the word ethics or moral conducts. Even in my philosophy class, I studied ethical conducts and manner. So I was surprise and amazed when I encounter the word ETHICS in information technology.

As I read this chapter, I come to think, what is computer ethic? What does ethic got to do with the computer system. And then I read this line: “The properties of IT may require us to revisit traditional conceptualizations and conceptions of privacy, responsibility, property; but they do not require a new way of moral thinking or a radically new moral methodology, which is radically different from other fields of technology and engineering ethics. Neuroscience, nanotechnology, and gene technology will provide us with problems we have not dealt with before, but our moral thinking has revolved in the past, and will revolve in the future, around a familiar and central question: how we ought to make use of technology to benefit mankind, and how to prevent harm to human beings, other living creatures, the environment, and other valuable entities we decide to endow with moral status.” Clearly, it is stated that although IT is like all about technology, which is a part of science, in some way however, there are some factors that we must insert our moral

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obligations. We must still think what can be the best for what we are doing without harming others. Even though Science and IT is as the same, since it studies how to perfect man’s life with technology, Morality issues are still involved. Morality and ethics, for me, can play an essential role in computer or IT systems. Maybe because technology may not be good for us if we don’t feel that it is right for us. If what we have or what we experiencing now hurts other or destroy animal life or the environment, we should still consider thinking about moral values. We can have all what we want without harming others, or by just being ethical.

Citations: Jeroen van den Hoven

Integrative Questions: 1. What is computer ethics? 2. What are the morals? 3. What does computer ethics exemplifies? 4. What is ethics? 5. What are the requirements of the properties of ethics?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART I: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS: 4. Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems (Batya Friedman, Peter H. Kahn Jr., and Alan Borning) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process. It employs an integrative and iterative tripartite methodology, consisting of conceptual, empirical, and technical investigations. We explicate Value Sensitive Design by drawing on three case studies. The first study concerns information and control of web browser cookies, implicating the value of informed consent. The second study concerns using high-definition plasma displays in an office environment to provide a “window” to the outside world, implicating the values of physical and psychological well-being and privacy in public spaces. The third study concerns an integrated land use, transportation, and environmental simulation system to support public deliberation and debate on major land use and transportation decisions, implicating the values of fairness, accountability, and support for the democratic process, as well as a highly diverse range of values that might be held by different stakeholders, such as environmental sustainability, opportunities for business expansion, or walk able neighborhoods. We conclude with direct and practical suggestions for how to engage in Value Sensitive Design.”

Learning Expectation: • I expect to learn and to understand the definition of Value Sensitive Design. I also want to know how to differentiate product design that is value sensitive and not. How do we easily distinguish what its difference features and specifications?

Book Review:

In every product, design is important. It is what the buyers will first notice. Having a good design will surely be an eye-catchy for customers. As a buyer, when I am looking for something to buy, a cellular phone for example, I always ask what does it looks like. If it is the latest brand, the features, and the like. Design is important because it is what you and others will see. But of course, features and specifications are also important. For me, as a regular costumer, if the looks or the design is perfect but the features is not worth the money I’ll spend, I will just easily drop the chance or opportunity of buying the product, but for others, design means a lot. I have a friend who is so gaga about ipod shuffle before. She said it’s handy, cute and besides it apple. But there are also mp3 players that time. It is also handy and cute but design wise ipod shuffle is more fun to see.

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“Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process.” When we say Value, we often think monetary value and the like. We used to think that value and money are synonymous. How we use the term value is like how we use the term money. But as we all know, when we were still at our young age, we do encounter the term value. Have we all had the Christian Living and Values Education when we were in grade one up to our grade six? Surely all of us had an experience talking about Value in a different way. Different in a sense that value is all about moral conducts not in a monetary term. In the reading, a broader framing of values has a long history. Since the time of Plato, for example, the content of valueoriented discourse has ranged widely, emphasizing “the good, the end, the right, obligation, virtue, moral judgment, aesthetic judgment, the beautiful, truth, and validity”

Citations: Batya Friedman, Peter H. Kahn Jr., and Alan Borning

Integrative Questions 1. What is value? 2. What are moral conducts? 3. What is the content of value-oriented? 4. What is value-sensitive? 5. What is a product design?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART II: THEORETICAL ISSUES AFFECTING PROPERTY, PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY 5. Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property (Adam D. Moore) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism Quote: “Intellectual property is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based upon some idea or collection of ideas. Typically, rights do not surround the abstract nonphysical entity, or res, of intellectual property; rather, intellectual property rights surround the control of physical manifestations or expressions. Systems of intellectual property protect rights to ideas by protecting rights to produce and control physical embodiments of those ideas.”

Learning Expectation: I expect to learn and to understand Intellectual Property and Utilitarianism. Book Review:

Intellectual Property, according to Wikipedia, is the legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Apparently, it is the things that we own, technically, or what are beyond our control. In my own words, I can say that intellectual properties are the one that you created or made. It is where you have the complete authority in it. For example, you are the one who invented the oven toaster; surely, you are the one who has the intellectual rights in it. You are the inventor so apparently you are the owner of the ideas. Speaking of Utilitarian, Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its contribution to overall utility: that is, its contribution to happiness or pleasure as summed among all persons. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome: put simply, the ends justify the means. Utility, the good to be maximized, has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain). It may be described as a life stance, with happiness or pleasure being of ultimate importance.

Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism which states that moral actions are those which conform to the rules which lead to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance.

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The main concept of Utilitarian is “The greatest good for the greatest number". I remember, we have this discussion at ITETHIC class about utilitarianism. The root word is utility which simply means object or things. As I recall, happiness is measured with pleasure. What is pleasurable and feels good will make you happy. But come to think of it, what if what makes you happy do not make your neighbors happy? Isn’t that utilitarianism means that happiness must be in the greatest number, or which means, in happiness must be felt by everyone not only you in particular. So as I come to thinking, what if this certain thing makes you happy but do not make others happy, are you willing to risk or ignore your own feelings just to follow this concept?

Citations: Adam D. Moore

Integrative Questions: 1. What is rule-utilitarian? 2. What is utilitarianism? 3. What is intellectual property? 4. What is the main concept of utilitarianism? 5. What is consequentialism?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART II: THEORETICAL ISSUES AFFECTING PROPERTY, PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY 6. Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies (Herman T. Tavani) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “We demand recognition of our right to privacy, we complain when privacy is invaded, yet we encounter difficulties immediately [when] we seek to explain what we mean by privacy, what is the area, the content of privacy, what is outside that area, what constitutes a loss of privacy, a loss to which we have consented, a justified loss, an unjustified loss. —H.J. McCloskey (1985, p. 343).” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn what privacy got to do with information. What are its theories, concepts and controversies?

Book Review:

The book talks about private or privacy in particular. There are different forms or kinds of interest that this book tackles. These are Interest-Based Conceptions and Rights-Based Conceptions of Privacy. “Privacy interest privacy protects the interest individuals have in “sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and organizations.” Privacy does not simply protect ones “spatial interests,” nor does it merely protect ones “reputational interest” from potential harm that might result in a privacy intrusion, it also protects ones interest in being able “to think and plan ones conduct and to lead a rational life.” Other authors suggest that privacy protects a “tangible property interest” that individuals have with respect to their personal information. An interests based conception of privacy have suggested that privacy protection schemes can simply be stipulated (as a procedural matter) as opposed to having to be grounded in the kinds of philosophical and legal theories needed to justify rights. Discussions involving privacy in terms of an explicit right— moral, legal, or otherwise—have often become mired in controversy.” We all need some privacy in our life. But are we all clear about the word privacy? Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude them or information about themselves and thereby reveal them selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm. The book discusses about the Four Distinct kinds of privacy: Physical/ Accessibility, Decisional, Psychological /Mental, and Informational Privacy.

The book also discusses about Control Theory. Control Theory means privacy is directly linked to ones having control over information about oneself. Privacy just not means that you are the only one who knows something and the others are completely unaware of it. In other words,

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when you know something and the others have no idea about that fact, it does not mean that that thing is something private. Some things become private when you have a complete control over it. When you can control and you have the complete charge on it, that’s the time you can call it a complete privacy. Citations: Herman T. Tavani

Integrative Questions: 1. What is the concept of privacy? 2. What are the theories of privacy? 3. What is privacy? 4. What are the controversies in privacy? 5. What are the Four Distinct kinds of privacy?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART II: THEORETICAL ISSUES AFFECTING PROPERTY, PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY 7. Online Anonymity (Kathleen A. Wallace) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anonymity Quote: “The idea of a kind of naturally occurring, “spontaneous anonymity” is embodied in characterizations of someone as a member of an anonymous mass or in expressions such as “the logic of anonymity in modern life.” There are two ideas at work here. One is the thought that anonymity could be the byproduct of sheer size as when one is among a throng of people who don’t know one another. The other is the thought that anonymity could be the byproduct of complex social organization, where society is organized such that one’s social locations are dispersed and not necessarily connected with one another.” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn and understand the definition of Anatomity.

Book Review:

Online Anonymity. When I first saw the title, I got a little confused. What is “anatomity”? Is Anatomy and Anonymity same? Anonymity means: “The term anonymity has been used to denote a number of related things: namelessness, detachment, unidentifiability, lack of recognition, loss of sense of identity or sense of self, and so on. Anonymity can also be brought about in a variety of ways and there are many purposes, both positive and negative, that anonymity could serve, such as, on the positive side, promoting free expression and exchange of ideas, or protecting someone from undesirable publicity or, on the negative, hate speech with no accountability, fraud or other criminal activity. Anonymity and privacy are also considered to be closely related, with anonymity being one means of ensuring privacy.” According to wikipedia, Anonymity is derived from the Greek word which means "without a name" or "namelessness". In conversational use, the term typically refers to a person, and often means that the personal identity or personally identifiable information of that person is not known. A well defined set, the "anonymity set”, "anonymity" of that element refers to the property of that element of not being identifiable within this set. If it is not identifiable, then the element is said to be "anonymous". The term "anonymous message" typically refers to message that does not carry any information about its sender and its intended recipient. It is therefore unclear if multiple such messages have been sent by the same sender or if they have the same intended recipient.

Obviously, anonymity means anonymous. But what is the connection between going online and

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Anonymity? Have you ever experience someone who’s sending you message but you have no clue who is it from? Anonymous sender, now a day is freaky no more. I suppose. We all encounter that thing when somebody sends us quotes and messages but we don’t know where it came from. I believe that the internet is a powerful tool. We can make the impossible, possible. The Internet as a social environment may be of concern in so far as it has the capacity to increase the scope of natural or spontaneous anonymity as a by-product of or endemic to the nature of online communicative relations.

Citations: Kathleen A. Wallace

Integrative Questions: 1. What is online anonymity? 2. What is anonymity? 3. What is the idea of spontaneous anonymity? 4. Is anonymity safe? 5. Is anonymity legal?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART II: THEORETICAL ISSUES AFFECTING PROPERTY, PRIVACY, ANONYMITY AND SECURITY 8. Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterhacking (Kenneth Einar Himma) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081022072100AAzcJGy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hack_(technology_slang) Quote: “There are two problems with this argument. First, assuming that hacking is a species of trespass, it doesn’t follow that all hacking is wrong because not all trespasses are wrong. It is permissible to trespass onto your land if doing so is the only way to capture a murderer fleeing the crime scene; committing a minor trespass is morally justified as the only way to secure the great good of stopping a killer. If hacking is trespass, then hacking necessary to secure some good that significantly outweighs the evil involved in trespass would also be justified. Second, and more importantly, it is not clear that the concept of trespass properly applies to digital intrusions. The term “trespass” has largely been reserved—at least in moral usage—to refer to acts in which one person enters upon physical space owned by another, but a hacker is not in any literal sense entering upon a physical space owned by another person. Perhaps digital intrusion is more like using heat sensors to see what is going on inside a house, which is not usually characterized as “trespass,” than like coming into the house without permission.” Learning Expectation: I expect to learn and really understand the Hacking, Hactivism and Counterhacking. What are the differences and are they illegal or not? Book Review:

I first heard the term hack or “hackers” when I first made my Yahoo Mail. My brother said to me that I should keep my password because somebody might “hack” it. I got a little confused. How come somebody can “hack” my password if the only person who knows it is me? It was so confusing. I thought that “hacking” is synonymous to stealing. But hacking is when you steal something online, like passwords, email address, and the like. But what is hacking? Is it really stealing? Hack or Hacking has several meanings in the technology and computer science fields. It may refer to a clever or quick fix to a computer program problem, or to a clumsy or inelegant solution to a problem. The term is also used to refer to a modification of a program or device to give the user access to features that were otherwise unavailable, such as DIY circuit bending. I read this article about “how to be a hacker” and it says: “The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music — actually; you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them ‘hackers’ too — and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the

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skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term ‘hacker’.” Hactivism, on the other hand simply means “hacking actively” or the combination of the words, hack and activism, while counter hacking means “Defending yourself against hacking does not include counter-hacking though.”

Citations: Kenneth Einar Himma

Integrative Questions: 1. What is Hacktivism? 2. What is hacking? 3. Is hacking legal? 4. What is counterhacktivism? 5. Is this also legal?

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART III: PROFESSIONAL ISSUES AND THE INFORMATION-RELATED PROFESSIONS 9. Information Ethics and the Library Profession (Kay Mathiesen and Don Fallis) Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “Librarianship as a distinct profession, however, is relatively a recent development. With the advent of the printing press, collections of works became larger and more complex, thus creating a greater need for someone devoted to organizing and cataloging such collections.” “We begin this chapter by considering the mission of the librarian as an information provider and the core value that gives this mission its social importance. Of course, librarians face the standard ethical issues that arise in any profession, but our focus here will be on those issues that arise in relation to the role of the librarian as an information provider. In particular, we will be focusing on questions of the selection and organization of information, which bring up issues of bias, neutrality, advocacy, and children’s rights to access information. All these issues bring up important challenges to what is commonly seen as the core value of librarianship—intellectual freedom.” I expect to learn what does librarian got to do with Information Ethics? What does library profession means in a different way? In what way does the librarian is considered as information provider?

Book Review: In any libraries I’ve been to, there is always a librarian. The librarians are the one whom you can ask about where to find a book, what kind of books suits your question, what section you can find children books or novels, etc. In this reading, the introduction part describes the librarian as the information provider. Clearly, they are the ones whom you can ask for guide and assistance inside the library. Surely, they know the where abouts and what abouts inside the library. Librarianship is said to be a different or distinct profession. I have never known a librarian personally. I just meet them when I am inside a library. But I agree on the statement that they are an information provider. It is said that they face the standard in any ethical issues that arise in any professions. I believe that that this statement is also true. Since they are the information provider, their minds are open in all substances and circumstances or in any issue around them. The core value of the librarianship is said to be intellectual freedom. This statement explains that since librarians’ mind are open or always welcoming new thoughts, from the books and all the articles they have read, they are resilient or open minded in any situation that they will face. The way they think is based on many assumptions or many readings that they have.

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who are the information providers? What is the core value of librarianship? What are the issues that a librarian faces? What is said to be a distinct profession? Why greater needs for someone devoted to organizing and cataloging do arise?

What I have learned? • • • I have learned that a librarian jobs is not just any ordinary job or task A librarian is an information provider The core of librarianship is intellectual freedom

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART III: PROFESSIONAL ISSUES AND THE INFORMATION-RELATED PROFESSIONS 10. Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software
(Frances S. Grodzinsky and Marty J. Wolf)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “Both open source and proprietary developers share the professional ethical responsibility to develop solid, well-tested code. However, the influences on open source software developers to maintain this ethic differ substantially. Proprietary software establishes a strong distinction between developers and consumers. An interesting aspect of OSS is that this distinction can be less pronounced, suggesting that ethical models for analyzing that relationship need to be different. Most obviously, when developers and users of OSS neither get nor give payment, Financial self-interest is no longer a major concern. Developers are not “using” consumers to get their money. Users are not trying to negotiate an unfair deal for software. Instead, both developers and consumers in OSS are cooperating freely in the OSS project. The social pressure in the open source community to avoid code forking provides incentives for project leaders to ensure that the code is the best it can be. On the contrary, when an open source developer believes there is too much risk associated with a particular piece of code, he/she can rewrite it and release it. Although there is a reputation risk in doing so, there is the opportunity to publicly demonstrate that the forked product is superior.” I expect to learn what the definition of ethical interest is. What does open source software means? What does ethical interest have to do with free and open source software?

Book Review: Open source software, as I understand it, is free or something that you can use or see without even paying for it. I know that in the Ten Commandments on IT we discussed says that “Thou shall not copy or use proprietary software which you have not paid.” Since open source software means free software, using it is legal. I guess, using it for your own learning is okay but when you start using it for profit, that’s the time it can become illegal. It’s like selling something that you don’t own or you just steal. Proprietary software has a distinct relationship with their consumers. Of course, they are earning money from those people so a proper relationship must be build. Both proprietary and open source software developer have an ethical responsibility. Sure they are both working for other people sake, but it differs. Though they both develop a code, in some way or another, the

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codes being offered by a proprietary software developer from an open source software developer differs. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is an Open Source Software? What is proprietary software? What are the differences between the two? Are the two have the same relationship with their consumers? Financial Interest is not the concern of what software?

What I have learned? • • • I have learned about the difference from open source software from proprietary software. I have learned how does the proprietary software developer deals with consumers I have learned that although the two differs in some ways, it both have an ethical responsibility.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART III: PROFESSIONAL ISSUES AND THE INFORMATION-RELATED PROFESSIONS 11. Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues
(Elizabeth A. Buchanan and Charles Ess)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • • Quote: “Internet research ethics (IRE) is an emerging multi- and interdisciplinary field that systematically studies the ethical implications that arise from the use of the Internet as a space or locale of, and/or tool for, research. No one discipline can claim IRE as its own, as various disciplines since the 1990s have used the Internet for research and, to some extent, grappled with the ethical implications of such research. Indeed, because Internet research is undertaken from a wide range of disciplines, IRE builds on the research ethics traditions developed for medical, humanistic, and social science research; this means in turn that a central challenge for IRE is to develop guidelines for ethical research that aim toward objective, universally recognized norms, while simultaneously incorporating important disciplinary differences in research ethics—a challenge frequently met in IRE through pluralistic approaches that conjoin shared norms alongside such irreducible differences. Indeed, at the heart of IRE is an intertwined convergence as IRE seeks to draw from the insights of applied ethics, research methods, information and computer ethics, and comparative philosophy, especially vis-_a-vis the possibility of developing a global IRE that simultaneously preserves irreducible differences defining diverse cultural traditions while developing a more global IRE for Internet research undertaken by researchers around the world.” I expect to learn what Internet Research Ethics is. What are the emerging issues that arise because of Internet? Is internet safe for minors? Are all the sources that we get in the internet are reliable?

Book Review: Now-a-days, when we want to research something, instead of using books or encyclopedia, we are using the internet. Internet is one of the fruit of technology that we are experiencing. It can make our life easier. When we want to search for something, like stories, articles, you will just type it in a search engine, and just like that, answers will just pop out. One of my professor mentioned that what you see in the internet are not all reliable. Sometimes, different facts from different perspective were posted. We may post something that might be true or false in the internet.

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There are a lot of issues arise when internet became popular. One common example is chatting. Most teen-agers are all into chatting, meeting friends online and stuff. Thru this a lot of crimes happened. Rape and stealing are common examples. Most cases are criminal cases that arise because of internet. Integrative Question: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is IRE? What are the common issues emerge because of internet? Is internet safe for teen-agers? Is internet a reliable source of information? What does IRE builds?

What I have learned? • • • • • I learned that thru internet, life become fast moving. But the internet is not all about good stuffs and the like. Internet is not the most reliable source. Internet isn’t safe for minors. Most cases are reported because of the internet.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART III: PROFESSIONAL ISSUES AND THE INFORMATION-RELATED PROFESSIONS 12. Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty
(Kenneth W. Goodman)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • • Quote: “..as a practical matter, it is often essential for individuals to disclose sensitive, even potentially embarrassing, information to a health care provider to obtain appropriate care. Trust in professional ethics and established health privacy and confidentiality rules encourages individuals to share information they would not want publicly known. In addition, limits on disclosure are designed to protect individuals from tangible and intangible harms due to widespread availability of personal health information. Individual trust in the privacy and confidentiality of their personal health information also promotes public health because individuals with potentially contagious or communicable diseases are not inhibited from seeking treatment. . . In an age in which electronic transactions are increasingly common and security lapses are widely reported, public support for the [National Health Information Network] depends on public confidence and trust that personal health information is protected. Any system of personal health information collection, storage, retrieval, use, and dissemination requires the utmost trust of the public. The health care industry must commit to incorporating privacy and confidentiality protections so that they permeate the entire health records system (National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 2006).” I expect to learn what Health Information Technology is. What are the so called challenges? Does Health Information Technology is accepted around the globe? How popular is Health Information Technology?

Book Review: Health Information Technology. I have leaned about this thru television. I watched a series which tackles this technology. If I am not mistaken, you will just type in your symptoms and what possible sickness you have will just pop out. Its like researching your condition. You will also see what possible medicines might cure your sickness. I think that this thing is totally an advanced technology. I was amazed. But I still don’t take chances. If I am sick, I won’t just type my symptoms and believe what the internet might say. I will definitely go to hospital and ask for medical advice. Maybe it isn’t bad to check yourself thru the internet but it is not safe to depend on the internet about your condition.

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Busy people might be used to this but I still do believe that anything we read and see in the internet are not all hundred percent reliable. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Health Information Technology? Is it safe? Is it reliable? Are most people relying on this now? What are the reasons why most people trust this technology?

What I have learned? • • I have learned what is Health Information Technology I have also learned that most people trust this technology because of private reasons and confidentiality issues.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART III: PROFESSIONAL ISSUES AND THE INFORMATION-RELATED PROFESSIONS 13. Ethical Issues of Information and Business
(Bernd Carsten Stahl)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • Quote: “Moral norms are important for the functioning of an economic system. If people did not honor contracts, pay their dues, give accurate information about products, and generally follow the moral code of society, economic transactions would become difficult to sustain (De George, 1999; Donaldson and Dunfee, 1999; Hausman and McPherson, 1996; Schwartz and Gibb, 1999; Sen, 1987). At the same time, ethics as the theory of morality plays an important role in justifying the economic system and thus allowing economic agents to feel legitimated in acting within the system. One justification of our current economic system is the utilitarian consideration that free trade creates the goods that allow individuals to satisfy their preferences and live a good life according to their own design (Gauthier, 1986; Good paster and Matthews,1982). Other streams of justification of a market-oriented constitution of society would be the natural rights tradition that can be used to ground a right in personal property (Nozick, 1974). Where personal property is accepted, market mechanisms can easily gain a measure of legitimacy.” I expect to learn Business Ethics What are the issues involve in business ethics?

Book Review: We all know the meaning or the definition of ethics. Ethics or ethical manner is the right conduct that we should practice. It is a moral norm that most of us exercise. In business, there is also a norm or proper conduct that business people should follow. The quote above stated that moral norms are important for the functioning of the economic system. If we think about it, if there is no moral norm involve in a business, there might be a lot of thief and misconduct that will circulate in the business industry. If that happens, how can an economy rise? Business is like any other sectors. In school, we also have moral norms that we follow. Because of these moral norms, we are aware if what we do is wrong or right. Any sectors in the society may not function right if there are no moral norms that people follows. This may lead to the downfall of any area or zone in the society. Integrative Questions: 1. Are moral norms important? 2. In what system these moral norms are important?

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3. Does business have its own set of moral norms? 4. What might happen if there is no business ethics? 5. Where do ethics as the theory of morality plays an important role? What I have learned? • I have learned about business ethics. The moral norms involve in any sectors in the society.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART IV: RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT 14. Responsibilities for Information on the Internet
(Anton Vedder)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • Quote: “Interestingly, the typology of essential and significant information is not enough. As we saw, only part of the problems with regard to the assessment of online information are primarily caused by the providers, for example, through the presentation of the information. Often, the initial cause of the problems is the incompetence of users. Therefore, what is necessary is (1) The creation of new credibility-conferring systems, such as certification systems, allowing us to use pedigree criteria with regard to (online) information, when such systems are lacking. (2) Raising the visibility of indicators or markers of reliability of information (according to pedigree criteria). (3) Raising expertise and background knowledge in all users (to enable them to recognize reliability on the basis of pedigree criteria). (4) Raising the awareness of the varying qualities of information.” I expect to learn if the internet is a reliable source of information.

Book Review: Is the information that we read and saw in the internet are reliable? One of my professor said that the internet is the fastest way of getting and receiving information. It is also complete. Usually when we do our research, instead on using the traditional source of information and facts, the books, we tend to use the internet. Internet compared with book, internet is less hassle. Any where, any time, you can search for everything. In books, you need to drag yourself in the library or in a bookstore. You need to do a full time research. A lot of reading is also included. One advantage of the internet is that when you want to search for something, you will just search it in any search engines like Google, yahoo, etc. But is everything that we see in the internet are real and true? We all know that there are about a billion users of internet around the globe. Clearly, any users can simply add information, edit information. These information may be authentic or fraud. According to the quote above, there is a pedigree criteria. These criteria, as I understand it, helps us, internet users, if what we read and saw are really reliable. As I mentioned earlier in this paper, all the information that we read in the internet may be right and may be wrong, so with these pedigree criteria we will become aware if the information that we have are consistent.

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Integrative Question: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a pedigree criteria? What is considered as one of the new credibility system? Is the information in the internet reliable? Why is pedigree criteria developed? Why does there is a need to raise expertise and background knowledge in all users?

What I have learned? • I have learned that there is a criteria that checks whether the information from the internet are reliable.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART IV: RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT 15. Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation
(Philip Brey)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • I expect to learn how high the impact of virtual reality in our generation. What is computer simulation got to do with virtual reality?

Quote: “Virtual reality and computer simulation have not received much attention from ethicists. It is argued in this essay that this relative neglect is unjustified, and that there are important ethical questions that can be raised in relation to these technologies. First of all, these technologies raise important ethical questions about the way in which they represent reality and the misrepresentations, biased representations, and offensive representations that they may contain. In addition, actions in virtual environments can be harmful to others and raise moral issues within all major traditions in ethics, including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Although immersive virtual reality systems are not yet used on a large scale, Non immersive virtual reality is regularly experienced by hundreds of millions of users, in the form of computer games and virtual environments for exploration and social networking. These forms of virtual reality also raise ethical questions regarding their benefits and harms to users and society, and the values and biases contained in them.”

Book Review: Virtual reality, I heard a lot about it thru TV series that involves robots, time machines, outer space. All that seems unrealistic and unbelievable to see are because of virtual reality. I believe that 3D is a part or is a virtual reality. Watching movies with 3D technology is very different with the traditional way. With Virtual reality, we can feel that it is real, though it is really not. Another common example of virtual reality is gaming, which is popular among teenagers. As we all know, Nintendo wii offers a different way of playing computer games. You can play golf or tennis just like you are in real courts. These technologies we have today make our life easier. Our own way of relaxation, like playing computer games, become more interesting because of all these innovations. In the introduction part of the reading says that this topic, virtual reality and computer simulation, have not received much attention. It is said that there are a lot of moral problems that should be raised on this topic. The way the virtual reality presents some scenes maybe immoral or biased. In playing computer games, for example, there are guns and bombs involve in some games. Maybe this thing can lead some children in different way of thinking. I believe that this reason is one of the main problems of virtual reality. Virtual reality may confused a child’s mind about what is the difference of reality from virtual reality.

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Virtual Reality? Is it considered biased? Does virtual reality receive attention from ethicist? Is virtual reality maybe harmful? Does virtual reality represent misinterpretation?

What I have learned: • I have learned about some facts about virtual reality. Virtual reality is one fruit of technology that we have in our generation. For me, it makes our life more colorful. We can see things that feel so real. But there are some ethical issues with virtual reality, like it can be harmful especially with children.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART IV: RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT 16. Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues
(Antonio Marturano)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • I expect to learn genetic information. Epistemology of genetic information. Ethical issues involving genetic information

Quote: “Genetics has utilized many concepts from informatics. These concepts are used in genetics at two different, albeit related levels. At the most basic level, genetics has taken the very notion of information, central to the field of informatics, to explain the mechanisms of life. An example is the famous “Central Dogma of Genetics,” which Crick (1958) describes as follows: The transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid or from nucleic acid to proteins may be possible . . . but transfer from protein to protein or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible. Information means here the precise determination of sequence, either of bases in the nucleic acid and or of amino acid residues in the protein. At a higher level, molecular biologists claim that cells and molecules are machinery similar to computers; this cell-machinery actually contains devices useful to build up unique biological beings starting from the information stored in a DNA.” Book Review: The quote above compares information to nuclei acid. The terms used above are what a biologist studies. They say that computer is similar to molecules and cells. Cells and molecules are said to be machineries and these machineries stored information in a DNA. In this sentence, it explains that a computer is, clearly, machinery which can store information. When we hear the word genetic, the first thing that we think is family hereditary. In the reading the computer machineries is also compared with eggs. I think this chapter tries to explain that computer also has a history or beginning. Like a human life, computer also has birth and evolution. I believe that this statement is somewhat relevant. Since this chapter talks about genetics information, it simply says that computer also have traits that can be studied and compare to humans. Integrative Question:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is genetic Information? Computer machineries are compared with? Genetics utilized many concepts of what? What are these two that is been considered as machineries? Where the cell machinery does stored information?

What I have learned: • I have learned that computer can be compared to human body. There are some similarities between us and the computers.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART IV: RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT 17. The Ethics of Cyber Conflict
(Dorothy E. Denning)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • • I expect to learn The Law of Conflict Management. The Ethics of Cyber Conflict. Some examples of conflicts that can happened online Definition of cyberterrorism

Quote: “If the attacks are designed to be sufficiently destructive as to severely harm and terrorize civilians, they become “cyberterrorism”—the integration of cyber attacks with terrorism. Although cyberterrorism is abhorrent and clearly unethical, hacktivism raises ethical questions. For example: Is it ethical for a group of hackers to take down a Web site that is being used primarily to trade child pornography, traffic in stolen credit card numbers, or support terrorist operations? Can the hacktivists protest the policies or practices of governments or corporations by defacing Web sites or conducting web “sit-ins?” Can they attack vulnerable machines in order to expose security holes with the goal of making the Internet more secure?”

Book review: Even via the internet, there are so-called “cyber terrorism”. It is the combination of cyber attacks and terrorism. They attack civilians, probably the users, and do harm the innocents. I wasn’t aware that there is a term like cyber terrorism before. I thought, terrorism just happens in the war zone where you can kill and harm your opponent and the innocent people. Cyber terrorism is almost the same as terrorism. The only difference is, the damaging part happens in the cyber world. I wasn’t aware of this thing. A good example that I may give is that of people who “hacks” accounts and password of other people. Surely, they steal and do harm to other people. I can say that these people, who steal passwords, accounts, and the like, can be classified as “cyber terrorist”. Another example that I can site is that of people who spread virus online. A friend once told me that viruses in the internet were been done by others who sell anti-virus cd. At first I was shock. How come these people produce viruses and Anti-virus cd at the same time? But then I come to thinking, these people can’t earn money if they do not have any customer. So, they need to produce these things so that people will buy their product.

Integrative Questions:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is cyberterrorism? Cyberterrorism stands for? Is cyberterrorism ethical? Why? Or why not? Do hacktivist agree with cyberterrorism?

What I have learned: • I have learned about cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism is an integration of cyber and terrorist. In short, doing wrong and unjust actions via the internet,

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART IV: RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT 18. A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment — A SoDIS Inspection
(Don Gotterbarn, Tony Clear, and Choon-Tuck Kwan)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • • • Ethical Risk Risk Analysis. General Standards Software as a tool in business Risk Management

Quote: “Informaticians have been evolving and refining techniques to mediate risks of developing software products that meet the needs of their clients. The risks focused on include missed schedule, over budget, and failing to meet the system.s specified requirements (Boehm, 2006; Hall, 1998; Jones, 1994). This focus was later expanded to address software security as the highest risk (Stoneburner et al., 2002). In spite of this attention to risks, a high percentage of software systems are being delivered late, over budget, and not meeting all requirements, leading to software development being characterized as a “software crisis” and a mistrust of software systems.”

Book Review: As the introduction part says, all business needs high end software. Software is a necessary tool in any business structure. For example, how can you be one of the leading companies in the country if you don’t have advanced software? This will tell you that you can’t lead or have unique features for your business. But having an advance or pioneering software does not mean you have it all. You still have to consider some things. Assuming you have it all, a high end software, you will also need to know how to improve it. Of course, in any system, risks are involved. General standards, is said that it is available from almost all professional societies. I think it is the standard or the norms on what way you can approach each risk that may come along. There is thing called Risk Management. In this way, you can manage or maybe avoid risk and find solutions to your problems. In Risk Management, there are several steps you need to understand. In risk analysis, you will need to identify the potential risk that you may encounter. It’s like taking list of all the problems that your system might come across to. It is said that Risk Management is an iterative step. You need to analyze, evaluate and treat all risk. In ethical risk

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part, stakeholders are been identified. The stakeholders are the one who did not directly uses the system but still can be affected if problems occur in the system.

.Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Risk Management? Who are the stakeholders? What is Risk Analysis? What is necessary for business operations? After analyzing risk, next step is?

What I have learned? I have learned that business needs high end software. Software may break or make a business. A risk management is an iterative step in managing all risk that a system may encounter.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART V: REGULATORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 19. Regulation and Governance of the Internet
(John Weckert and Yeslam Al-Saggaf)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • • Internet Governance Effective Regulation The Current Situation Technical Issues

Quote: “Some of these are issues of political morality, while others are issues of prudential rationality: (1) Whether it is legitimate, as a matter of political morality, for use of the Internet to be subject to restrictions; (2) If so, what kinds of restrictions would be morally justified (e.g., would censorship of pornography? Or would limiting use of the web by businesses for commercial purposes, as has been demanded by some hacktivists?); (3) What kinds of enforcement mechanisms for otherwise justified restrictions would be morally permissible (e.g., the usual coercive enforcement mechanisms like threats of incarceration or code-based mechanisms that make the violation of these restrictions technologically impossible); (4) what sorts of enforcement mechanisms are likely to be most effective and hence conduce maximally to these prudential interests; and (5) What sorts of restrictions are prudentially justified as being in everyone’s best interest.”

Book Review: Internet governance is like a law that was been set or enforced by the government. Like any other law, it has the do’s and don’ts that an internet user must follow. There are several questions that were been raised with this issue. First, internet should be subject to restrictions. Well, we are all aware that nowadays, several groups are like anti-porn or anything that can harm the user physically and mentally. In some countries, like the sample in the book, blocks site. In China, Dalai Lama. I’ve never been into China before but I know the fact that some countries do block some sites because of the content. But I know that there are still internet freaks that can still find ways to upload tricky and non sense sites that fools people. As I know, the IP address is unique, so everyone are traceable, but as I said, there are some people who can find ways not to be caught red handed. To what extent this thing can be empowered? I think it can’t. Since there are about billions of internet users around the globe, these set of rules are sort of useless. Internet is a free world. You can say whatever you want to, be whoever you want to, have fun,

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shop online, make reservations, call someone abroad, etc. There are a lot of things that you can do via the net. So I think if there are certain rules that an internet users should follow, these rules will eventually be worthless. Of course, most people will violate it. Thru the net we can have fun, there are no rules, and then suddenly rules are being put upon us. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is internet governance? What is the first question raised upon the internet governance? What is the site that has been blocked in China? What is an IP address? What are some technical issues in this problem?

What I have learned? I have leaned what is internet governance. There are still some questions that are been raised with this issue, it includes technical issues.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART V: REGULATORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 20. Information Overload
(David M. Levy)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • Information Overload Information

Quote: “Information overload: Exposure to or provision of too much information; a problematic situation or state of mental stress arising from this. [OED Online, retrieved (June 11, 2007)]. Information overload . . . refers to the state of having too much information to make a decision or remain informed about a topic. Large amounts of historical information to dig through, a high rate of new information being added, contradictions in available information, a low signal-to-noise ratio make it difficult to identify what information is relevant to the decision. The lack of a method for comparing and processing different kinds of information can also contribute to this effect. Information overload, according to these two definitions, is a condition in which an agent has—or is exposed to, or is provided with—too much information, and suffers negative consequences as a result (experiences distress, finds itself in a “problematic situation,” is unable to make a decision or to stay informed on a topic, etc.).”

Book Review: Information is data that has been arranged systematically form a fact. We are all aware that we need information. Even in our basic living, we need to know the what about’s, the latest thing, etc. These things are called information. Now, the internet is the fastest and the latest source of information. As a student, when researching something, instead of using books, I use the internet. It is easy to use and way faster than books. The things that you researched are even the latest. You don’t need tons of books to find all the stuffs you needed because now there is internet. The internet, as a source of information, encounters some problems. Problems such as information overload. I assume that most of us know that when you type something in the internet, as you click on search, tons of information appears. I know for a fact that this information is not true or real. Sometimes, it is just an opinion from other people. Like what I have said earlier in this book review, some internet resources are fraud. It is because anyone can upload anything in the internet. Sometimes what you see or what you have researched in is more than information. Sometimes it is even a lie about something. Having information overload is said to confused people. I think it confused people in a way that tons of information is available and we

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don’t know what is real and authentic. We tend to think or sometimes chose what we should believe and try to study. These things may really puzzle out our mind. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is information? What is information overload? Are all the things in the internet real and authentic? Are there problems arise because of information overload? Is information overload terrible situation?

What I have learned? I have learned about information overload. It is true that because of internet, research became easy. But we must all be aware of not all the things posted in the internet are real. Sometimes it’s a lie or an opinion. Not a fact. Information overload confuses people.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART V: REGULATORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 21. Email Spam
(Keith W. Miller and James H. Moor)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spam_(electronic) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-mail_spam Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “If an email is a short message, perhaps an invitation to a local event, it is unlikely to be labeled “spam,” especially if it comes from someone the recipient knows. But, if the content of an email includes yet another routine advertisement for improving one’s sexual prowess, it will likely be classified as “spam.” Even worse, if it includes a disguised virus that erases the recipient’s hard drive that email will almost certainly be labeled spam by the enraged recipient. This designation will be made regardless of other characteristics below. Notice, however, that an email message that contains a virus can be sent to a specific individual (not part of a mass email) innocuously, by a friend, without any commercial aspect, and with a valid return address. Sometimes mass emailing itself will be enough to count as spam regardless of content, as happens in attempts to flood servers with messages to overwhelm them (denial of service).” Book Review: Email spam also known as junk email. According to Wikipedia, email spam is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. A spam is the abuse of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, Online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, and file sharing network spam. When I first used yahoo mail, I noticed that there is bulk or spam folder. At first, I ignored it. But on the later I noticed why some of my mails do not directly go to the inbox folder. Some of it goes directly to this spam or bulk folder. I thought that this folder is just a special feature of the yahoo. I am still confused what does this folder got to do with email spam. In this reading, email spam is said to be a junk email. Email that is useless or trash. When we received email, it is usually from someone that we know. Messages are something Email Spam Junk mail

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important or a forwarded quote, and sometimes a e-card or electronic card. A email spam is usually advertisements from random companies. I am quite sure that as internet users, we all encountered this email spam. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is email spam? What is email message? What is the difference between email spam and email message? Does email spam sometimes contain viruses? What is denial of service?

What I have learned? I have learned about email spam. It is really the first time that I read about some email spam contains viruses that can erase or affect the computer’s hard drive. I am aware about email spam but this virus thing is somewhat new to me.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART V: REGULATORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 22. The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If
(John Snapper)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism Learning Expectation: • • • • Quote: “As with most ethical concepts, there is plenty of room for debate over the definition of “plagiarism.” Plagiarism will be treated here very broadly as expression that improperly incorporates existing work either without authorization or without documentation, or both. The emphasis on impropriety is important. There are a wide variety of situations where it seems acceptable to repeat prior expressions while ignoring a possible attribution and making no attempt to seek permission from a putative source. We commonly repeat jokes and report established dates for historical events without citing sources, and we do so without qualms about plagiarism. An expression is only plagiarism if it is unacceptable on some established value. But we should be careful to avoid the error of being overly narrowing identifying any particular value or standard as the basis for condemning an expression as plagiarism.” Plagiarism The definition of plagiarism Some consequences in plagiarizing one’s work Cases about plagiarism

Book Review: I would begin this defining the word “plagiarism”. Plagiarism, as what I have understood, is copying or imitating one’s work. This definition is somewhat still vague. But let me explain to you the concept of plagiarism. Plagiarism is use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one's own original work. Plagiarism is not copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different transgressions. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material protected by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship. The definition above plagiarism and copyright infringement is according to Wikipedia. For me, copying one’s work is not illegal in some instances. For example, most school works or assignments are about definition of terms. Students often browse the web or books and copy what they have researched in. This scenario, for me, is not illegal, since it is used for education. I always site the name of the author whenever I copied something from the internet or books.

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Plagiarism occurs when for example, someone claims that he wrote a book when the truth it he just copied the whole book from another book. When someone claims other’s work as his own and earn money from it, I think this scenario is a certified plagiarism. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is plagiarism? Is plagiarizing one’s work illegal? What is copyright infringement? Do all the scenarios that we copy someone else’s work considered as plagiarism? What are the exemptions in plagiarism?

What I have learned? I have learned about plagiarism. There are also some cases that we can and cannot be tagged as the one who plagiarized.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART V: REGULATORY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 23. Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing
(Richard A. Spinello)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property http://www.ipophil.gov.ph/mainframe_homepage.htm Learning Expectation: • • Quote: “The recording industry in the United States has filed multiple lawsuits against purveyors of file sharing software. It has even initiated lawsuits against individuals who make substantial use of this technology (RIAA v. Verizon, 2003). The industry contends that the unauthorized “sharing” of copyrighted files is actually tantamount to the theft of intellectual property. The industry also contends that those companies that provide this software, such as Grokster and StreamCast, are culpable of secondary or indirect liability for such theft. This assertion is contentious, but recent court cases have tended to support the recording industry.s claims about secondary liability, especially when there is evidence of inducement.” “. . . all the goods of the Information Age—all of the expressions once contained in books or film strips or newsletters—will exist as thought or something very much like thought: voltage conditions darting around the Net at the speed of light, in conditions that one might behold in effect, as glowing pixels or transmitted sounds, but never touch or claim to “own” in the old sense of the word.” Online File Sharing Intellectual Property

Book Review: Online file sharing is simply sharing files via the internet. I don’t think that this is illegal. But the United States claims that this is illegal. Illegal, I think, in a way that most people instead of buying their own software just ask for a friend who already has it to send the software or the installer online. Obviously, this lessen the profit that a company can earned. The unauthorized sharing of copyrighted file is like stealing to intellectual property. Intellectual properties are legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets.

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In the Philippines, the role of IP Philippines is the effective management of the Intellectual Property system is vital to a nation's advancement and international competitiveness. The role of IP Philippines is to ensure that intellectual property is used as a tool for the social, economic and cultural development of our nation and that its benefits accrue to Filipinos.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is Intellectual Property? 2. What is the role of intellectual property in the Philippines? 3. Does US filed lawsuit against online file sharing? 4. Does unauthorized sharing of copyright is tantamount to theft on intellectual property? 5. What are the common types of intellectual property in the Philippines?

What I have learned I have learned that Philippines has also a Intellectual Property Rights organization. Also, I have learned that online file sharing is somewhat considered as theft on intellectual property.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART VI: ACCESS AND EQUITY ISSUES 24. Censorship and Access to Expression and Uncertainty
(Kay Mathiesen)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • Quote: “Censorship limits access to an expression, either by deterring the speaker from speaking or the hearer from receiving such speech. By an “expression” I mean anything that may be composed by one person and communicated to another. This includes such things as speeches, personal communications, books, and articles, compilations of data, artworks, photographs, and music. Given that censorship limits access to expression, it is important to have clearly before us why access to expressions is valuable. Cohen (1993) provides an admirably clear and convincing account of the fundamental human interests that can only be satisfied if there is access to the expressions of others. Cohen links our concern with freedom of speech to three fundamental interests: (1) the interest in expression, (2) the interest in deliberation, and (3) the interest in information” Censorship Access to expression

Book Review:

No one wants to be a censor. The introduction part of the book speaks about the word censor. As the quote above says: censorship limits access to an expression. Have you ever imagined yourself talking about a serious matter and yet no one is listening? Or have you ever experienced listening to some important details and someone is commanding you not to listen? The example given in the quote above explains that censorship is like stopping us to communicate to another person. All means of communication is banned. Books, arts and stuff are also limited. No one in this world can live like this. In my opinion, if I am the one who is been tagged as censored, I think I’ll be like a walking in a noisy room blind folded. You cannot hear other people’s thoughts and you can’t speak up what’s in your mind. As we all know, we live in a democratic country where all of us are free to express our thoughts, vision and mission in life. I think the term censorship would not be successfully launched in the Philippines since most Filipinos are democratic in mind and in heart. Most Filipinos express their thoughts and vision thru artworks and media.

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is censor? What is censorship? What are the different accesses to expression? Does a person who is considered as censor free? What are the limitations of a person that is “censored”?

What I have learned I have learned that censorship and stuff are somewhat irrelevant to what our country is.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART VI: ACCESS AND EQUITY ISSUES 25. The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics
(Alison Adam)

Library Reference: Chapter 1- Ethical Theories- Annette Baier: The Need for more than Justice Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “The idea that gender is a major (possibly even the major) way of classifying and ordering our world has been propounded by a number of authors, mainly, although not exclusively, writing from a feminist position.1 The recognition of continuing differences between men’s and women’s lots, at home, in the workplace, and in education, even in societies that have seen considerable opening up of opportunities for women in the space of a generation or so, has been a major force in developing contemporary feminist writing.2 Coupled with this, we continue to be fascinated by differences between men and women, putative differences in behavior, differences in interests, differences in management style, differences in parenting approach, and so on. This suggests that, in the process of ordering and classifying our world into that which is feminine, that is, belonging to or pertaining to women, and that which is masculine, that is, pertaining to men, we may polarize this binary in a search for, and perhaps even maintenance of, difference.” Gender Agenda Care perspective Feminist Ethics

Book Review: In all aspect, we might often see that men and women are challenging one another. I think it is the thing that women want to prove something. Women want to prove their worth and their capabilities. Men often ignored the fact that women are better in most cases. I have read in our previous book, the contemporary moral problem, about the care perspective. In the book says: Gilligan wants still wants to claim that women are most unlikely to take only the justice perspective, as some men are claimed to, at least until some mid-life crisis jolts them into “bifocal” moral vision. Gilligan in her book did not offer any explanatory theory of why there should be any difference between female and male moral outlook, but she did tend link naturalness to women of the care perspective with their role as the primary caretakers of young children, that is with their parental and specifically maternal role. Most men claimed to be of care perspective. For me, men should be classified as justice perspective. Care perspective, as the quote stated above, for woman, suits a woman. It comes with naturalness, a woman is the one who take care of an infant, raise a child, and discipline a person. There are things with this naturalness that only woman can do.

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I think by not ignoring the fact that men and women can be equal in most cases can result to a brighter future. The debate about who is better and who’s not should be stop since men and women have different strengths and functionalities. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Gender Agenda? What is Care perspective? What is the feminist ethic? Do men claim to be more of care perspective? Does gender is the way that we can classify and order our world?

What I have learned I have learned that male and female have still competitions since men often ignore the capabilities of women.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART VI: ACCESS AND EQUITY ISSUES 26. The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future
(Maria Canellopoulou-Bottis and Kenneth Einar Himma)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • Digital Divide Gap between rich and poor

Quote: “The digital divide is not any one particular gap between rich and poor, local and global, but rather includes a variety of gaps believed to bear on the world’s inequitable distribution of resources. There is, of course, a comparative lack of meaningful access to information communication technologies (ICTs); a gap in having the skills needed to use these resources; a gap between rich and poor in their ability to access information needed to compete in a global economy; and a gap in education that translates into a gap in abilities to process and absorb information. There are, of course, non digital gaps that contribute to the distribution of resources: poor nations have less highly developed infrastructure at every level needed to contribute to productive economic activity. There has also been the unfortunate result of pressure by organizations, such as the IMF, World Bank, and USAID, on poor nations to privatize their most economically prosperous resources, which typically get sold to a wealthy Western nation that profits from the privatization of recipient poor nations while protecting vulnerable markets such as agriculture against the competition of poor nations with subsidies that are (arguably) illegal under the World Trade Agreement.”

Book Review: Whenever I heard the term digital, I always think about innovative gadgets like the latest laptop, cellphone, ipod, and stuff. I think it is normal for me, as a student of a posh school, to be aware about the latest fads about digital stuff since its normal in my society or in my world. But for those who are not blessed to be in a posh society, innovations in the technology may not be one of the important things in their life. The digital divide includes the gaps not only between the rich and the poor but also I think gaps between the world’s resources. In the book, an example about the rich and the poor in US is given: There are gaps in access to information and information communication technologies within nations and between nations. Within the United States, for example, there are such gaps between rich and poor citizens, whites and blacks, and urban dwellers and rural dwellers. The difference between the rich and the poor are obviously serious. There are things that the poor can barely understand. Sometimes, these things are quite important. In the

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Philippines, compared to US, we are outdated. We are one of the poor countries in the world so we have a not so innovative technology and we are always late in technological advancements.

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is digital divide? Is digital divide only described rich and poor? What is gap between the rich and the poor? What can be our perspective for future? What are some gaps given in the example above? (from US example)

What I have learned I have learned that poor people are can’t afford to be well-informed about the innovations in the technological advancements.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Book Review: PART VI: ACCESS AND EQUITY ISSUES 27. Intercultural Information Ethics
(Rafael Capurro)

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_ethics http://www.capurro.de/iie.html

Learning Expectation: • • Intercultural Information ethic Information Ethic

Quote: “Intercultural Information Ethics (IIE) can be defined in a narrow or in a broad sense. In a narrow sense it focuses on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on different cultures as well as on how specific issues are understood from different cultural traditions. In a broad sense IIE deals with intercultural issues raised not only by ICT, but also by other media as well, allowing a large historical comparative view. IIE explores these issues under descriptive and normative perspectives. Such comparative studies can be done either at a concrete or optic level or at the level of ontological or structural presuppositions. The present IIE debate follows the international debate on information ethics that started with the “First International Congress on Ethical, Legal, and Societal Aspects of Digital Information” organized by UNESCO in 1997 in the Principality of Monaco and subsequent meetings, culminating in the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) (Tunisia, 2003, Geneva, 2005). These conferences were aimed particularly at reaching a consensus on ethical principles to be implemented through practical policy, as in the case of the “Declaration of Principles” of the WSIS.”

Book Review: Information Ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle. Information Ethic is said somewhat related to computer ethic. For me, information ethic is about the morals on how you should react and response about IT. I have read in the internet about Intercultural Information Ethic. The word intercultural explains that in different cultures, we might have different perspective about information ethic. What is ethical for Filipinos may not be ethical to Chinese.

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According to what I have read: Cultural reflection on information technology, with particular emphasis on the Internet, has already a history. Charles Ess and Fay Sudweeks have been organizing biennial conferences on cultural attitudes towards technology and communication. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is information ethic? What is intercultural information ethic? Do we all have the same information ethic? What is IIE? What is ICT?

What I have learned I have learned that from different cultures, different information ethic arises.

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THE FORTUNE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • I expect to learn the meaning and the definition of the Bottom of the Pyramid. What are the classifications of a Market to be considered as a part of the bottom of the pyramid? In our country today, are there a lot of Markets at the bottom of the pyramid? How the company does approach the Markets at the bottom of the pyramid?

• •

Quote: “All of us are prisoners of our own socialization. The lenses through which we perceive the world are colored by our own ideology, experiences, and established management practices. Each one of the groups that is focusing on poverty alleviation- the World Bank, rich countries providing aid, charitable organizations, national governments and the private sector- is conditioned by its own dominant logic. Let us, for example, examine the dominant logic of each group as it approaches the task of eradicating poverty. ”

Book Review: Bottom of the Pyramid, as I understand it, are those people who are in the lower middle class and lower class of life. To simply explain or elaborate the definition the meaning of the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid, an example popularly common to us is that of cellular phone’s sim card. We know that Sim cards, nine years ago, its regular selling price is about Php 1000.00 and above. No one in the lower middle class can afford to spend a thousand bucks for just a piece of a sim card. The monetary value of sim card deprecates as time goes by. It became as low as Php 30.00. Now all of us, in any sectors or classes of all life, have our own sim cards. When know that the pyramid is shape as a triangle. The upper part of the triangle has the smallest size. The upper part of the pyramid is the people in the upper class of life and the lowest or the bottom part of the pyramid are the people who are in the lower class. If we compare the population, sure we know that most of the people are classified as middle class and lower middle class and lower class. So if any business can accommodate those people, people who are at the bottom, the bigger the population they can have, and the larger the money they can get. For example, sim cards are about Php 1000.00 and the ones who can afford it are those who are at

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the top of the pyramid. Now it became Php 30.00, people at the bottom of the pyramid can also now afford it.

Integrative Questions: 1. Is there a fortune at the bottom of the pyramid? 2. What kinds of people belong to the bottom of the pyramid? 3. What are the benefits that company can get if they start to work at the bottom of the pyramid? 4. Is starting at the bottom of the pyramid is worth it? 5. How can a company start to work at the bottom if the pyramid? What I Have learned? • • • I learned about the definition of the bottom of the pyramid I learned about the market development I have learned about the three A’s o Affordability o Access o Availability

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- Products and Services for the BOP Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “The BOP, as a market, will challenge the dominant logic of MNC managers. For example, the basic economics of the BOP market are based on small unit packages, low margin per unit, high volume, and high return in capital employed. This is different from large unit packs, high margin per unit, high volume, and reasonable return on capital employed. This shift in business economics is the first surprise to most managers.” “Involvement in BOP markets will challenge assumptions that managers in MNCs have developed over a long period of time. A new philosophy of product development and innovation that reflects the realities of BOP markets will be needed. This philosophy must represent a different perspective from those that we have grown accustomed to in serving Western markets.” I expect to learn the products being offered to those people at the bottom of the pyramid What are the services being offered to them? Are there any difference between the product and services offered to the markets at the bottom of the pyramid and those who are at the top of the pyramid?

Book Review: There are twelve principle taken together to best describe what the markets at the bottom of the pyramid needed. These will explain and define us the code or standards of the products and services that company should offer to the bottom of the pyramid markets. The first principle of the Innovation for the BOP markets talk about products and services being offered to the BOP markets. It is said that the products and services being offered to them is not just about lower prices. Hybrid Solutions are also been mentioned in the principle of the Innovation for the BOP markets. But first, what is Hybrid? Hybrid is a combination of two existing product. Like any other consumers, BOP markets want also something new. Old products can’t solve their problems. There are standards that company should follow when rendering products and services to BOP markets. We should remember that prices, though a factor, style and features are also important.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is BOP?

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2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Hybrid Solution? Does old technology helps solve the BOP markets problem? Is Hybrid Solution is what really the BOP markets needed? Is low price is the most important factor for the BOP market?

What I have learned? • • I have learned about the standards of a product and services that should be offered to the BOP markets. I have learned the Philosophy for developing products and services for the BOP.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- BOP: A Global Opportunity Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: 1. Some BOP markets are large and attractive as stand- alone entities 2. Many local innovations can be leveraged across other BOP markets, creating global opportunity for local innovations. 3. Some innovations from the BOP markets will find applications in developed markets. 4. Lessons from the BOP markets can influence the management practices of global firms. I expect to learn the Global Opportunity from BOP. What is the international opportunity? What is the local opportunity?

Book Review:

BOP stands for Bottom of the Pyramid. In the book, it is said that there are a lot of local growth opportunities. It is also said that the local BOP markets are very large. I do believe that most of the consumer classified themselves as BOP market. In innovation of product, it must be “value-oriented” from the consumer’s perspective. BOP is said to be focusing on objective and subjective perspective of the product and services. For me, in my own opinion, BOP markets are the one who can sustain and develop a company’s life. Since most of the markets group themselves as BOP or majority of the people or consumer belongs to bottom of the pyramid, making products and services that suits them can help your company.

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the two ways in engaging the BOP? What are the local growth opportunities? What does Capital Intensity means? BOP stands for? What are the standards of innovation for BOP?

What I have learned? • • • I have learned about value-oriented innovation I have learned about the pros of being the BOP market I have also learned the opportunities of in BOP

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • • • Quote: “A market-based ecosystem is a framework that allows private sector and social actors, often with different traditions and motivations, and of different sizes and areas of influence, to act together and create wealth in a symbiotic relationship. Such ecosystem consists of a wide variety of institutions coexisting and complementing each other.” “Historically the evolution of the large firm was a symptom of a maturing economy focused on system efficiencies through scale and scope.” I expect to learn what ecosystem got to do with wealth creation? What is market oriented Ecosystem? How to build governance capabilities among the poor.

Book Review:

Ecosystem, according to wikipedia, is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical factors of the environment. In the book, ecosystem is defined as a system which consists of a wide variety of institutions coexisting and completing each other. As we all know, ecosystem is like a chain, in every aspect or part of life has a duty to do to make the system works. The idea of ecosystem has been used to describe the market-oriented ecosystem. As the quote above says, a market-based ecosystem is a framework that allows private sector and social actors. In market-based ecosystem, these two acts together to create wealth and relationship, just like in ecosystem, which in all paths of life, everything has a part to play.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is ecosystem? 2. What is a market-based ecosystem?

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3. What are the two sectors that a market-based ecosystem allows? 4. What kind of relationship does the market-based ecosystem creates? 5. Ecosystem in market-based consists of? What I have learned? • • I have learned about market-oriented or market-based ecosystem I have learned and understand how they used the concept of ecosystem to define and explain the market.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • I expect to learn and understand what the ways are so that we can reduce the Corruption in our society today. Are the poor really poor?

• Quote:

What are the needs of the poor?

“Are the Poor Poor? Some basic assumptions have been at the core of the thinking on poverty reduction and developmental assistance during the past 30 years. • • • • First, poor countries are poor because they lack resources. Aid was, therefore seen as a substitute for locally generated resources. Second, aid from rich countries to the governments of the poor countries for specific projects (typically infrastructure) would reduce poverty. Third, investments in education and health care might have the large multipliers per dollar of investment in economic development. Therefore, aid must be skewed to three sectors. The record of aid and loans from the various donor countries and the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other institutions is at best mixed. More recently, the development community is paying attention to the role of the private sector in building markets”

Book Review: Are the poor really poor? That is the question that I am eager to find out. We believe that we, the Filipinos, are poor. There is no job or work here, most of the people lives in squatter areas, out of school children are everywhere, and the like. We see this as signs that Philippines is one of the poorest countries around the globe. I do believe that we are poor in financial aspect since most of the leaders in our country are corrupt. They steal what was ought for us. But in terms of natural resources, we all must admit that the Philippines is one of the most gifted country. We have first class beaches, breath taking landmarks, etc. We have it all. We just don’t know how to make use of what we have.

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Most of the things or technology that we have are donated or have been done because of other powerful country’s help. For example, the US has been helping the Philippines ever since. We have this Fil-Am friendship day. The US, being one of the richest and powerful countries, has given us the guide and support that we needed. But I do believe that Philippines can stand alone. It’s just that we are scared to and we are always under the wrong leader and manager. The poor isn’t totally poor. Poor maybe in a sense of one particular aspect, lack of knowledge is the most appropriate word to describe the country like ours. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are the poor poor? Is lack of resource can explain why the country is poor? How can poverty be reduced? Where country can the poor country asks for help? In what sectors does aid must be skewed?

What I have learned: • • I have learned that poor country does not necessarily means that the country is not doing well in the financial aspect but lack of resource is the main reason. Financially, our country does not do well, but in terms of natural resources, we are rich.

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Book Review: Chapter 1- Development as Social Transformation Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Learning Expectation: • I expect to learn and understand what the ways are so that we can reduce the Corruption in our society today. Are the poor really poor?

• Quote:

What are the needs of the poor?

“First, we demonstrated that the BOP—the poor—can be a market. Second, once we accept the BOP as a market, the only way to serve the market is to innovate. The BOP demands a range of innovations in products and services, business models and management processes. Third, these innovations must be accompanied by increased TGC, making the government accountable to the citizens and making it accessible and transparent. Market-based ecosystems can also facilitate the process of making transparency, access, and respect for commercial contracts a way of life.”

Book Review: The poor can be a market. Absolutely, poor people do also have needs and wants. They also have demands. Like any other people, BOP markets also wants to have something that is useful and something that can make them feel and look good. For example, the flip flops havaianas market are poor well of people. Price ranges from 700 to 1000 Pesos. Poor people can’t spend a thousand bucks for just a pair of slipper. So a new brand of flip flops was introduced. Havana, cheaper but the design is almost the same as havaianas. But Havana can’t be seen in Rustan’s department stores, it can be seen in markets, regular department store. The price is way to cheaper than Havaianas. From about 50-100 Pesos, you can have a nice looking pair of flip flops. In the book said, BOP demands for innovation of products and services. Have you noticed that if you compare the price of foot spa in classy salon to a street salon, prices are way too different? But the services are almost the same. Poor people or BOP needs also something that well off people experiences. That’s why almost all products and services that has been offered to the upper market has a substitute product and service for the lower market.

Integrative Question: 1. Can the BOP be a market? 2. Does innovation needed in the BOP market?

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3. What does market-based ecosystem facilitates? 4. What does the BOP market demands for their product and services? 5. Who are the BOP markets? What I have learned? • • I have learned that BOP can be a market. I have also learned that the products and services that we should offer in BOP market should be innovative.

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CYBERN CYBERNETHICS

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Ethics and the Information Revolution Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Computing Technology is the most powerful and most flexible technology ever devised. For this reason, computing is changing everything- where and how we work, when and how we learn, shop, eat, vote, receive medical care, spend free time, make war, make friends, make love.”

Learning Expectation: • • I expect to learn Information Revolution. Computer ethics

Book Review:

Information Revolution, every time I hear the word information, technology always follows, Information are data which are useful, readable and understandable. Revolution, from the root word itself evolution means progress, According to James Moor, a computer is a universal tool because it is logically malleable. If we think about it, it is true. In all sectors, computer is one of the basic tools. It is now a necessity in one’s life. It is malleable because of its flexibility. In any field, like accounting, education, business, and even sports, computer has no boundary. Because of computers, millions of tasks can be performed simultaneously.

Information Revolution, in regards with human values, I think that computer fast phase development has advantages and also disadvantages. At times we only see its advantages but we must also consider looking at the flaws. Computer is said affects us in a good way and in the bad way. It can affect our community life, human relationship, family life, education, freedom, democracy, etc. In computer ethics, we will learn some philosophies about computers. Some theories like utilitarianism and Aristotle’s virtue ethics involves computer and networks. Computer ethics also refers to a kind of professional ethics in which computer professionals apply their code of ethics like for example the IEEE code of ethics. In other words, computer ethics are the baseline or the norms of computer professionals.

As a student, I consider Information Revolution as a good thing. With the use of the latest technology, all works or tasks became easy. For example, we don’t need the traditional books because now we have the e-books. These simple things make a student’s life easier. But also, I consider the bad effects that computers and technology can bring in a student’s life, like being so

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carefree or worry free for example. Even in other field in the society, I believe that thru computers, works also became simple.

Integrative Questions: 1. What is Information Revolution? 2. What is logically malleable? 3. Is computer flexible? 4. Do computers can affect us in a bad way? 5. What is Information?

What I Have Leaned? • • Information revolution Computer ethics

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Ethics On-line Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “On-line communication has been evolving and growing at an unprecedented pace, and there is every indication that the demand for it will continue. Its evolution, however, has not been without problems and the most disturbing of these problems involves human behavior. Disturbing and disruptive behavior ranges from unauthorized access, theft of electronic property, launching of destructive worms and viruses, racism, defamation, harassment, to a recent incident involving a from or rape on-line.”

Learning Expectation: • • • • On-line harassment Anonymity Reproducibility Ethics On-line

Book Review: As the quote above stated, online communication nowadays can be disturbing because of the harassments and stuff that are happening via the internet. We are all aware this fact. Weekly we may see news about online harassment. As more people become aware about it, online harassment become grew more. I have read in the news paper because of online chat, teenage girls often become a victim of gang rape. The rape itself does not happen via the internet, of course, they just use “chat” as a tool of communication. These scenarios happen because most of us don’t have enough knowledge on how to properly acquaint ourselves online. We must admit that most Filipinos can use the internet but most of them are not capable of understanding some basic rules. These basic rules are not a law-type-of-rule but the rules that each one of us should know so that we know how should be react of we encounter problems online like for example if someone harass us. We know that because of “chat” or yahoo messenger and stuff, we become closer with one another. You can now talk to your friends and relative abroad thru chatting. It has advantages but these advantages come with disadvantages.

Anonymity is where individuals can communicate without identity. From the root word anonymous means like invincible. Anonymity is said to create a lot of troubles and problems online, problems that involves integrity. For example, when somebody posted an article online with an anonymous name or without a name, anyone can attribute themselves to that article. Imagine, if that article is good and really striking, and no one claims that he is the one who made that, surely a lot of people who wanted to be popular would like to claim that they are the original author of that article.

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Reproducibility means information can be reproduced online without the loss of value in a way where the creator would not notice. I don’t fully understand this term but as what I have read from the reading, for example. The common means of reproducing is photocopying machines and cameras while in the electronic world, you can copy someone else’s work but still the owner cannot accuse you of copying his work.

Integrative Questions:

1. What is Anonymity? 2. What is the problem with anonymity? 3. What is reproducibility? 4. Is online communication brings trouble in the society today? 5. What is Ethic On-Line?

What I have learned? • • • Online communication Anonymity Reproducibility

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “We are entering a generation marked by globalization and ubiquitous computing. The second generation of computer ethics, therefore, must be an era of “global information ethics.” The stakes are much higher, and consequently considerations and applications of Information Ethics must be broader, more profound and above all effective in helping to realize a democratic and empowering technology rather than an enslaving or debilitating one.”

Learning Expectation: • • • • I expect to learn what is the generation marked by globalization Responsibility in Computer Ethics Relativity Reason

Book Review:

Computers is said to be logically malleable. This certain feature makes the computer revolutionary. It is innovative, and produces or makes something new. We are aware that because of the computer, our works become easy and simple. For example, if a company does not have any computer system, the company will use a manual way in making transactions like purchasing, selling etc. But because of technology, systems like transaction processing, an automated way of transacting business is introduced. A computer literally makes each business transaction efficient and innovative.

When I first heard the term computer ethic, I thought the meaning is all about the morals in using computer. But I was wrong. It was more than that. Computer ethic will guide us on how should we react morally or ethically in the technology innovation, and its impact or the impact of technology to us socially. The impact and the effect of computer technology on us are very obvious. I can say that even those people who are not aware what the meaning of computer ethic is know the benefits that we gained because of technology innovation.

Computer is created for a purpose. And I believe that purpose is for the common good. Like what I have said earlier, because of computer technology we become aware that things can be done easily. The responsibility thing happens in the application of the common moral

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knowledge that we have. If we learned about the basic in computer ethic, we should know how and when to apply it, the application stage is more important than just knowing and learning it. We know that computer also comes with a lot of temptation. We are tempted to do things like stealing and stuff, these things that are considered unethical must be bring to an end.

Integrative Questions:

1. What is computer ethics? 2. What are the responsibilities? 3. What are the reasons? 4. What is the relativity? 5. Is computer logically malleable?

What I have learned

• •

Malleability of computer Computer ethic

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Disclosive Computer Ethics Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The standard model of applied ethics is adopted in most of the literature in computer ethics. In mainstream computer ethics, a typical study begins by identifying a morally controversial practice, like software theft, hacking, electronic monitoring, or Internet pornography. Next, the practice is described and analyzed in descriptive terms, and finally moral principles and judgments are applied to it and moral deliberation takes place, resulting in a moral evaluation, and optionally, a set of policy recommendations.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Standard model Literature in computer ethics Morally controversial practice

Book Review:

Morally controversial practice defines the illegal things that can or might happen in the internet. These are software theft, hacking, Internet pornography, etc. These things are considered immoral are really possible in the internet. When I first heard about stealing in the internet, I have no idea what does it mean. How can a person steal from someone in the internet when he cannot see and hold other person? I thought it literally mean stealing or something that you steal from someone in a physical way. Disclosive computer ethics is name proposed for a family of recent approaches in computer ethic. Disclosive computer ethics is concerned in the uncovering of moral features in computing and its focus tends to be in the design features of computer technology. When I first read the word disclosive, I have no idea what it means. I searched for its meaning and what I got is the meaning of disclosure, discloses, etc. We are aware that computer ethic is simply how we should react morally or ethically in the technology innovation, and its impact or the impact of technology to us socially. But when computer ethic becomes disclosive computer ethic it is the one that introduces us to the description of computer technology and related practices. Disclosive computer ethic is said that it should not be theory driven but rather multi-level and interdisciplinary. It should focus on justice, economy, privacy and democracy. It should not be

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theory driven because as we all know the traditional or applied ethics is the one who are concerns about the theories and philosophies. Disclosive computer ethic focuses on much broader sense that the traditional applied ethics do not cover. Integrative Questions: 1. What is disclosive computer ethics? 2. What is the traditional ethic? 3. What is computer ethic? 4. What are the four main focus of disclosive ethic? 5. Is disclosive ethic based on theories?

What I have learned • • • Disclosive ethic Theories Multilevel and interdisciplinary

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Gender and Computer ethics Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The topic of gender has been somewhat neglected in computer ethics writing to date. Nevertheless there is a small body of work which takes seriously the point of view that gender has some bearing on computer ethics problem.” “The other strand of research and computer ethics focuses on concerns more central to computer ethics as a whole, namely the questions of whether there are detectable differences between men’s and women’s ethical decision making in relation to computer ethics.”

Learning Expectation: • • Gender’s relationship with computer ethics Who is better?

Book Review:

I am aware about some gender discrimination. In any field, women often get ignored and neglected. Maybe because some still believes that men can do better than women. I may sound bias but I believe that what men can do women can also do, in fact women can do a lot better. Philippine economy is a good example. We are governed by men but now, we are under a female government. Our president is a women and she did a lot better than the previous male president. It may seem annoying to most men but it is reality. Men often look at things in big pictures while women go for every detail. In work, women are less prioritized. It is common that most company prefer to hire men than women. But if you think about it, women have more patience and perseverance than men. I remember one theory that I read from Contemporary moral problems. It is about care perspective. It says that men often connect themselves with care perspective. The argument is this: Women are more of care perspective than men; a women is the one who carries a child in 9 months, head of household; discipline her child; men can be connected in some way with care perspective but truly, a woman attitude suits that theory.

Gender is said to be often neglected when computer ethic is involved. Maybe because when talking about computer ethic most men are more engaged, more men are into IT industry than women. But now, I believe that women are also engaging themselves into the computer world. When it comes with decision making, women tend to use their feelings. A woman uses her mind but on top of it she uses what she feels and sometimes what others may feel. A woman’s decision basically comes from her feelings towards that thing and it is for the greater good. Men just uses his brain, decision does not necessarily comes with attitude. A man decides on a certain thing thinking if this may be good but not acknowledging the fact of his own feelings.

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Integrative Questions:

1. What is care perspective? 2. How a woman decides? 3. How a man decides? 4. Is gender neglected in computer ethics? 5. Is gender is still an issue today?

What I have learned • • Gender issues Computer ethics in connection with the women and men

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Is Global Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The global information infrastructure is often claimed to be a democratic technology. It is said to create electronic democracy, to facilitate or enhance democratic processes.” “The claim that technology is value-neutral rested in part on the alliance between science and technology, with several ideas about science shaping ideas about technology. The presumption about science was that it is objective and that it progresses in a natural sequence or evolution. The unfolding of our knowledge was thought to be dictated by nature, not by society. New discoveries were thought to proceed and progress in a natural order. The same would be said about technology.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Global Infrastructure Technology Nature

Book Review:

Let me begin this by defining democracy. Democracy comes from the Greek word which means popular government. According to Wikipedia, Democracy is a form of government in which power is held directly or indirectly by citizens under a free electoral system. Democracy simply means that anything, a decision, is based on the hands of many. It is not the leader who will decide but rather the people that the leader governs. An example of this is the Philippine government. Whoever becomes the president is based on what the people elected. We are living in a world that is democratic. We have sets of freedom like freedom of speech, freedom to form association and stuff.

GII or Global Information Infrastructure is democratic if technology has a value that is embedded in it. A Global Information Infrastructure is predictable; it is going to evolve from the present technology that we have. Networks included by the GII will be different, something innovative and new. Democracy becomes a value when someone makes claims about the internet or the GII being democratic. It is said in the reading that the expressive meaning of embedded value means that the values in technology can be only understand by understanding the social context of technology.

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I have no idea that this thing or this matter existed in the society. Maybe it is because I assume that problems about values and democracy got nothing to do with GII or IT.

Integrative Questions:

1. GII stands for? 2. What is Global Information Infrastructure? 3. What is democracy? 4. What is embedded technology? 5. Are there problems encounter with GII?

What I have learned • • Global Information Infrastructure Democracy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Applying Ethical and Moral concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some key problems and challenges. Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “If we want to apply ethical and moral concepts and theories to IT contexts, three conditions are to be met: (i) we must know what kind of questions such concepts and theories can be applied, and to what they cannot, (ii) we must know the limitations of specific concepts and theories (and we may explore how to improve them in order to overcome these limitations), and (iii) we must have sufficiently detailed knowledge of the domain to which we want to apply them.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Applying ethics in IT Challenges Problems

Book Review: The application of the traditional concepts and theories of ethics to computer technology is still confusing. We learned about the theories like utilitarianism, moral isolationism, hedonism, categorical imperative, etc. When we read, understand and learned these theories, you can somewhat say that these is not relevant with computer technology. These theories are often about human attitude or how each man should react in his society. Ethics are somewhat about the norms in the society, how people will respond on his surroundings in a moral or in a right way. When you try to convince yourself that in some way this may be apply in computer as well. The thing is, now it is not all about human interaction and reaction with others and his surroundings but how human will respond to the innovations that he is encountering. For example, before the birth of the internet, human life is complicated yet simple. In work, school and any other places, things to be done are difficult and take a lot of time. Because of the innovation of technology, computer was born; human life became easy but faces a lot of questions, problems and challenges. We are challenged on how we should act in accordance with ethics. If for example, because of online chat, where we know that all things are possible, we are tempted to do things that may harm others or things that only for our sake, we are dared how we should take action in order to apply what we know about what is right and wrong.

All theories are not applicable with computer technology. There are only some of these theories that we can say and defend that these might be a concept wherein computer has got to do with. We should have enough knowledge and strength in order for us to follow and do things right. Concepts and theories, though some are applicable, have also certain limitations. These theories are based on human attitude and human as a whole not on human and the technological

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things. The application is based on us, how we perceive each theory and how we can show and follow it. Integrative Questions:

1. Are all theories applicable? 2. Are theories have certain limitations? 3. Can we apply what theory we want in computer technology? 4. Is this irrelevant at all? 5. What are the challenges?

What I have learned • • • • Theories Problems encountering Challenges Proper Application

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Just consequentialism and computing Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=594585 Quote: “The malleability of computers allows them to be used in novel and unexpected ways, ways for which we frequently do not have formulated policies for controlling their use. Advancing computer technology produces policy vacuums in its wake. And even when relevant policies do exist, they are often ambiguous or inadequate as they were designed for times with a less versatile technology than computing. A basic job of computer ethics is to identify these policy needs, clarify related conceptual confusions, formulate appropriate new policies, and ethical justify them.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Just Consequentialism Computing Relation on the theory on Computer ethics

Book Review:

When I googled the term Just Consequentialism, I found a site that talks about Just Consequentialism and Computing. It says that: Computer and information ethics, as well as other fields of applied ethics, need ethical theories which coherently unify deontological and consequentialist aspects of ethical analysis. The proposed theory of just consequentialism emphasizes consequences of policies within the constraints of justice. This makes just consequentialism a practical and theoretically sound approach to ethical problems of computer and information ethics. It is the same with the introduction part of the book. The word consequentialism, according to Wikipedia, refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. I have learned about consequentialism from our previous reading. The word consequentialism is somewhat derived from the word consequences. We know that the word consequences are the result or the output of what you have done. We are familiar with the term and we must all agree that this word is common to our everyday life. I think that just consequentialism is being related to computing because we know that computer ethics is new and from the previous reading we learned that no particular theory as a whole can define computer ethics. Just consequentialism emphasizes consequences of policies within the constraints of justice.

The quotation above stated that computers are logically malleable. We have read the term malleable from the previous chapters. We also know the meaning of malleability. Computers are logically malleable because we can mold or shaped them based on what we input.

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Integrative Questions:

1. What is just consequentialism? 2. What is consequentialism? 3. Why is computer said to be malleable? 4. What kind of malleable? 5. Is a just consequentialism suit computing?

What I have learned

• • •

Just Consequentialism Consequentialism Malleability of computer

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Internet as a Public Space: Concepts, Issues and Implications in Public Policy Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The internet has long been identified as an informational agora (Branscomb, 1994). The role of the Internet as a public space for every citizen) as opposed to the purely for professionals, for example) is being shaped by two seemingly contradictory characteristics: The internet is both ubiquitous and personal. Cyberspace, unlike the traditional media types (broadcast, common carrier, publishing, distribution) and traditional public spaces in the physical world (Boston Common, Logan Airport, the city library, the train station, etc.) enables the citezenry to find new ways to interact economically, politically, and socially.”

Learning Expectation: • • • • Issues Concepts Implications Internet

Book Review:

The internet, for me is one of the greatest gifts of technology ever. Through internet we can do, learn, interact anything and everything. For example, as a student, because of internet, research works became easy. Unlike before, you really need to research using tons of books. But now research is simply one click away. Internet has a lot of advantages with my life, as a student. I can communicate with my friends abroad through internet. Works made easy and fun. Internet has a lot to offer. It is said in the book that the internet is more than multi media. It is my hobby to watch television series from different countries and because of the internet it became possible. I can download any TV series that I want through internet. Chatting with friends through different social networking site is also possible. We all do have our facebook and friendster accounts. This two are just a thing that the internet offers.

Internet as a public space, for me it means that now-a-days, internet can be used by anyone, anytime. Unlike before when only those who are in the office or those who have computer related works can use the internet, and also those people who can afford to have computer sets and laptops at the comfort of their own homes. Now, anyone can use the internet. There are many internet shops scattered around the Philippines, and anyone, whether teenagers or professionals, can surf the net. When the Internet becomes public and so a lot of issues arise.

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We are aware that because of the internet crime occurs. Though half of the crime does not happen via the internet, the internet is considered as the one who trigger the crime. Integrative Questions:

1. Is internet safe? 2. Does having internet is an advantage? 3. How can we say that the internet is public? 4. What are the issues with internet? 5. Does these issues for real?

What I have learned

• • •

Internet Issues Internet become public

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Laws of Cyberspace Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “This is the age of the cyber-libertarian. It is a time when certain hype about cyberspace has caught on. The hype goes like this: Cyberspace is unavoidable, and yet cyberspace is unregulable. No nation can live without it, yet no nation will be able to control behavior in it. Cyberspace is that place where individuals are, inherently, free from the control of real space sovereigns. It is, in the words of James Boyles, the great techno-“gotcha” nations of the world, you can’t live without it, but nations of the world, when you’ve got it, you won’t long live with it.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Book Review: Cyberspace Cyber-libertarian Laws

From the quotation above: Cyberspace is that place where individuals are, inherently, free from the control of real space sovereigns. Simply, we can be anyone we want in cyberspace. A very common example that I can site is through online chatting. It is usual when people chat to sometimes pretend to be someone that they are not really is; I had heard some of my friends’ experiences. People tend to pretend as a way to exercise their cyberspace freedom. You can be who you wanted to be because no one can know. We know when you are chatting online; no one can see you or hear you unless you are using webcam and microphone. You are simply typing and sending it to other person. Because of cyberspace, people become open, open in a way that there is a lot of information that they become aware of. I can say that sometimes this information are not useful and sometime can harm others, most especially the minors. When we are signing up in any social networking site, it is common that it asks for our complete birth date. We must be 18 and above before we sign up. But as I have said earlier, in cyberspace we can be anyone that we want. Kids or children that are not suitable to join can simply fake their birthdates. It is so easy and simple and most kids are aware about this.

The book talks about harmful sites to children like porn sites. When you are signing up to join to these adult sites you should state or input your birth date. Like what I have said, anyone can simply just input fake birthdates just to have an account. Children are well

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aware about this. Most teenage kids can access adult sites because the law that is being prohibited online is not really applicable and not completely realistic.

Integrative Questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is cyberspace? Is cyberspace harmful? Is cyberspace unavoidable? What is Cyber-libertarian? Are the laws on cyberspace realistic?

What I have learned

• •

Cyberspace Unrealistic laws on cyberspace

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law making in Cyberspace. Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “There is, within the (rapidly growing) community of people who spend their time thinking about law and policy in cyberspace, a rather interesting debate taking place. Though it is not always characterized in these terms, it reflects a conflict between competing visions of “order” and “disorder” in social systems. This is by no means a “new” shape in the rather special conditions of cyberspace-”

Learning Expectation: • • • • • • Book Review: Cyberspace Black Holes Decentralized Law making Laws Laws’ authenticity Laws’ practicality

I believe that internet rules and law are somewhat unpractical or unrealistic at all. Let us face it, rules or laws that are being applied in the cyberspace cannot really threat all people who use the internet. I can say that these set of rules are somewhat irrelevant to what is happening in the internet world or in the cyberspace. Like what I have said earlier, some laws cannot be practically applied. People are aware of these rules and laws and people can find ways to simply just break these set of rules. From my example in the previous chapter, I said that children who are often governed by these rules are certainly well aware about all these stuffs that are happening. For example, in an adult site, children are restricted to join but the site’s policy is not applicable. If a child pretends to be older, no law can sue and jailed him. The laws and rules are simply just a show off for the public. If these laws are really practical and applicable, how come some teenagers and minors can access adult sites?

Rules cannot really be applied in internet. Now-a-days, thieves in the internet cannot be traced. People who have enough knowledge about IP addresses and stuff cannot be scared and tricked with these so-called laws. They say that if they tracked your IP address, it means that they can track you. But people can also change IP address. It is easy and possible.

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And people with knowledge about these things cannot be fooled by laws about IP address and cyberspace. Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are these laws practical? Are laws authentic? Are all laws applicable? Can it scare people? Can it make each people follow?

What I have learned • • Impracticality of cyberspace’s laws Laws are just a show off to public

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahrenheit_451 Quote: “The scenario is, for now, theoretical- but inevitable. It is clear that any scheme that allows access to unrated speech will fall afoul the government-coerced push for a family friendly internet. We are moving inexorably toward a system that blocks speech simply because it is unrated and makes criminals of those who mis-rate.”

Learning Expectation: • • • Fahrenheit 451.2 Cyberspace Family Friendly internet

Book Review:

According to Wikipedia, Fahrenheit 451 is the novel presents a future American society in which the masses are hedonistic, and critical thought through reading is outlawed. The central character, Guy Montag, is employed as a "fireman" (which, in this future, means "book burner"). The number "451" refers to the temperature (in Fahrenheit) at which the books burn when the "firemen" burn them "for the good of humanity". Written in the early years of the Cold War, the novel is a critique of what Bradbury saw as an increasingly dysfunctional American society.

I have no idea about this chapter even if I had read it twice already. Some terms are still not clear with me. First, I cannot understand why they say that the “cyberspace” is burning because all I know cyberspace is something intangible. I read that Fahrenheit is a novel that presents the future of Americans. I also read that before people censor the printed world by burning books. But now, the cyberspace is virtual, it cannot be physically burned.

The government is concerned in pushing a family friendly internet. For me, internet can be friendly to kids, parents; it just depends on how you use it. There are many family friendly sites that I have seen. But most of the sites are still not suitable to minors. I am confused with the government pushing to have a family friendly internet if anything is possible in the internet. A lot of criminal cases involve the use of internet. Though the crime itself does not happen inside the internet, internet is considered as the main tool or device that can trigger a crime.

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Integrative Questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Can the government push a family friendly internet? What is Fahrenheit 451.2? What this is all about? How do people censor speech before? Are they capable of censoring the virtual world?

What I have learned • • • Fahrenheit 451.2 Censorship Cyberspace and virtual world

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Filtering or blocking software can be taken to be a mechanism used to • Restrict access to Internet content based in an internal database maintained of the product, or Restrict access to Internet content through database maintained external to the product itself, or Restrict access to internet content to certain ratings assigned to host sites by a third party, or Restrict access to the internet content by scanning content, based on a keyword, phrase, or text string, or Restrict access to internet content based on the source of information. ”

Learning Expectation:

• • Book Review:

Filtration Process

When we say filtering, it means that you are going to sort something out. For example, we know the water filtration where water is cleansed. Filtering is the same as cleansing. The title of this chapter is filtering the internet. Is it possible? We are aware that because there are about millions of active site in the internet, some of these are really harmful to children and to us. Because of these problems, filtration or blocking of these harmful sites is enforced. Some sites that are considered harmful to USA may not be considered harmful to other countries. We must all encounter sites that are blocked in our country, but these sites may not be blocked in other countries. How can they filter information that flows in the internet? Is it really possible? Based on what I know, maybe this might be possible. Anything is possible in the internet. But do remember that some people can still find ways to squeeze in some malicious and harmful content. The restrictions of these harmful sites are very helpful to those who are affected and confused. It can calm parents that their children will not be aware about malicious contents and harmful sites. But if free speech is denied, is it still possible? In the Philippines where we practice

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democracy, where we are showered with different freedom, I think it is not possible and impossible in some terms. If for example, news about the government that informed people about the latest in our country is being banned, this must not be blocked. But if the information can cause harm to the greatest number, I think it must be blocked. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is filtering? Is speech denied? Will it be legal and acceptable in the Philippines? Is filtration possible? Can it affect the internet?

What I have learned

• •

Filtration Free Speech

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A

Quote:

“When the law speaks universally, then, and a case arises in it which is not covered by the universal statement, then it is right, where the legislator fails us and has erred by over-simplicity, to correct the omission- to say what the legislator himself would have said he had been present, and would have put into his law if he had known.

Aristotl e”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Child pornography Internet Censorship

Book Review:

The law about child pornography is clearly stated from the book but most people are not aware about it. I cannot imagine a child is in a sexual and malicious film. Most people find this interesting and pleasurable and these people are not aware about the legal matters involved in child pornography. I have read the laws and these laws are perfect and just but let us admit that these laws are not really applied. Though there are already a law about child pornography, some people still produces and are fan of these stuffs. Lack of knowledge maybe is the main problem, but in reality, these people are clearly not frightened by the consequences that they are up to or they can face. The internet is the one that can trigger the crime. Most pornographic materials are passed on or created in because of the internet. I have watched some news about child pornography. It was really heart breaking especially when the child involved has no idea what he or she is up to. A child has a clear conscience. The person behind the film is the one who is the head and the one who earns a lot of money because of a malicious works. We are aware that in the Philippines, child pornography is out of control. Anywhere there are reported cases about this crime. I think it is because Filipinos are mostly resilient; they often follow or patterned

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what they see in the internet. Most Filipinos are unknowledgeable about the laws and rules that governed internet. These are some reasons why child pornography in the Philippines is rampant. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is child pornography rampant? Why? Can it be stopped? Is the law on child pornography suitable and clear? Are most people aware about it?

What I have learned • Child pornography

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics

Book Review: PICS: Internet Access Controls without Censorship Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Censorship

Quote:

“On the Internet, we can do still better, with richer labels that reflect diverse view points, and more flexible selection criteria. PICS, the platform for internet content selection, establishes internet conventions for label formats and distribution methods while dictating neither a labeling vocabulary nor who should pay attention to which labels. It is analogous to specifying where on a package a label should appear, and in what font it should be printed, without specifying what is should say.” Learning Expectation: • • • • PICS Censorship Internet Affects of censorship

Book Review:

According to Wikipedia, censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable, harmful or sensitive, as determined by a censor. When we saw the word censor in any films, we know that it has malicious content or content that are not suitable to minors, and sometimes to us. Internet is said should have censorship. Most internet sites are full of information that is harmful and malicious. These sites can affect us, obviously in a negative way. But is internet sites can really be censored? I guess not. I have already said from the previous chapters that anything is possible in the internet. Some sites can be censored, those who have contents that are destructive and harmful, but not all. People can still find ways to somewhat squeeze in harsh and malicious sites. Censorship can really help in lessening the numbers of unwanted, irrelevant and harmful sites. But I think, though censorship is one way, it cannot really be stopped. There are others out there who are so unusual that distributes sites that can affect us in a negative way.

PICS or Platform for Internet Content Selection is the one that censors a harmful site. It is the one who polishes everything we will see in the internet. PICS can be helpful but I

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must say they still lack efforts. If they are doing their job perfectly, how come there are still others out there who can freely make dull and damaging sites? But I can say that because of PICS these sites are somewhat lessened. Integrative Questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is censorship? PICS stands for? What is PICS? Is PICS really helpful? Do harmful sites still exist?

What I have learned • • PICS Censorship

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Internet Service Providers include companies such as Prodigy, America Online, CompuServe and many others who provide their customers with access to the Internet for a monthly fee or for an hourly rate. Although not formally classified as ISP’s, there are also many commercial and non commercial hosts such as universities and corporations with dedicated Internet links. They typically provide students, faculty, and employees with Internet access free of charge. These hosts would also face the same liability issues of commercial ISP’s.”

Learning Expectation: • • • • ISP Internet Liability Defamation

Book Review

An internet service provider is the one that provide us internet access. In the Philippines, we have DSL, etc. These are the ISP or the Internet Service Providers in our country. We also have internet cards. I believe that these are also considered as ISP or Internet Service Providers since it connects us and provides us internet access. ISP faces legal matters regarding defamation. Defamation, according to Wikipedia, is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government or nation a negative image. It is often, but not always, it is also a requirement that this claim be false, and, or alternatively, that the publication is made to someone other than the person defamed. Basically, defamation is concerned with the publication of lie and a defamatory statement is one which lowers the person in the judgment of right thinking members of society. Liability, on the other hand means a legal liability is a situation in which a person is financially and legally responsible, such in situations of tort concerning property or reputation and, therefore, must pay compensation for any damage incurred; liability may be civil or criminal. Liability for a defamatory statement may be complete to a foundation under the principles of explicit liability because, in providing online access facilities, the institution is directly liable as a publisher of a liable content. A person is liable if he is the one who publishes an article that has harmful and malicious content. He is liable as well as the person who write the article.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ISP stands for? What is defamatory? What is liability? What is Internet Service Provider? Is ISP facing some defamatory cases?

What I have learned

• • •

ISP or Internet Service Provider Defamation Liability

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Digital Millennium Copyright Act Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “(D) The librarian shall publish any class of copyrighted works for which the Librarian has determined, pursuant to the rulemaking conducted under subparagraph ( C ), that non-infringing uses by persons who are users of a copyrighted work are, or are likely to be, adversely affected, and the prohibition contained in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to such users with respect to such class of works for the ensuing 3-year period.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Millennium Copyright Copyright Act

Book Review:

The book covers all the law under the copyright acts. I think most of it is about the Copyright protection and Management system. When we say copyright it means the owner has a legal claim on his work. If it is been publish without his consent, he can sue the one who published the original work. I can site one popular and common example. The author of the popular novel/book, twilight, Stephanie Meyer, encountered problems with this. Her book, I think it was the fourth or fifth sequel, has been published in the internet as a PDF file. Basically she can’t sue someone since the book is not copyrighted yet. If anyone who got the copy copyrighted it, that person has the power or the authority to be the claimant of the book. So, basically, copyright is the proof to your power or authority over your works whether it is a book or something that you invented.

The chapter in the book clearly stated each laws and regulations about the copyright law. These laws are basically being supervised and followed in the United States. I can say that the 10 commandments in IT is somewhat related with the laws being described in the book chapter. One commandment is that thou shall not use or copy propriety software which you have not paid. In our country, pirated software is everywhere. From OS or Operating System from Adobe photoshops CD, you can buy it lesser than the original price. If you have bought these software or CDs, basically you are breaking the law. This is similar to stealing. Remember the advertisement that piracy is a crime, and it is stealing? Pirating the original works is under the law and the commandments in IT.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What are the laws? Are the laws clearly stated? The chapter is all about what? Is piracy a crime? What kind of crime?

What I have learned

• • •

Laws 10 commandments in IT Piracy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Note on the DeCSS trial Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The DeCSS trial, which concluded in mid-August 2000, has tested the scope and constitutionality of the anti-circumvention provision included in Section 1201 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The questions triggered by this case go to the heart of the debate about intellectual property protection on the Internet. Is DeCSS no more than a piracy tool that enables widespread copying of DVD files? Or does it merely enable “fair use” of DVD media by allowing DVD formatted movies to be played on computers with unsupported operating systems such as Linux.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Piracy Crime Fair use

Book Review:

When I first saw the title of the chapter, I read CSS and I thought it was all about the CSS, colors and background stuffs. But I was wrong. When I read the introduction part, there are two cases that was been introduced. First about the website Napster and Gnutella, these two websites allows users to swap MP3 files. The second case was about decryption, it is called DeCSS. I was confused with the first case, swapping of MP3 files. Of course, the music industry is not favorable for it. More profit will be loss if music can be downloadable via the internet. Even now, download engines like Limewire still exists. By using limewire, you can download songs in the comfort of your own Personal Computers and laptops for free. You can download as many as you want. Some people before use this thing for profit. When I was in High school, CD burning is popular. For Php 100.00 you can have an audio CD with eighteen songs. It was cheap compared when you will buy an original CD which will cost you around Php 450.00. The second case was about DVD piracy. It is common and it is also everywhere. Though piracy is considered as a crime, more people support it. I think maybe it is because it is way to cheaper and the release of the latest movies are faster than the original version of DVD.

The chapter also talks about fair use. I have heard about the word “fair use”. Basically you can consider something as fair use when you don’t use something for profit. For example, most college schools, materials are photocopied books and readings, these materials

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are from books. If these materials are available for sale, then it is not considered as fair use. But if these materials are being offered for education, it is considered as fair use because the primary use of the photocopied material is for education.

Integrative Question

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What are the two websites that encounters problem with swapping of MP3? Which industry is affected by these two websites? What is fair use? What is DeCSS? How can you classify a fair use?

What I have learned

• • •

Fair use DeCSS Piracy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net? Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/

Quote: “This article argues that we need a politics, or perhaps a political economy, of intellectual property. Using the controversy over copyright on the Net as a case study and the history of the environmental movement as a comparison, it offers a couple of modest proposals about what such a politics might look like – what theoretical ideas it might draw upon what constituencies it might unite.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Politics Intellectual Property Code is Code

Book Review:

Let me start this by citing definitions of Intellectual Property from two different websites. According to Wikipedia, Intellectual Property is legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets. According to Wipo, Intellectual Property refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. Intellectual property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs.

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Both definitions are the same but somewhat differs on the broadness on how it defines Intellectual Property. Copyright is under Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property simply means that it is an authority over something that you created or invented. It can be applied also in the internet if there are politics. Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IP stands for? What is Intellectual property? What are the two kinds of IP? Is copyright under IP? Do we need politics in internet?

What I have learned

Copyright

Intellectual Property

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_property Quote: “Intellectual property has always been closely tied to technology. Technology arises from intellectual property in the form of new inventions. But technology also supports intellectual property by providing new, more powerful and more efficient ways of creating and disseminating writing, musical composition, visual art, and so on. In fact it was the technology of the printing press that originally gave rise to Intellectual property as a legal and moral issue. Before, when it tool almost as much of effort to reproduce a document as it took to create it, there was a little need to impose limits on copying.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • Book Review:

Intellectual Property Information Common Good

We have learned from the previous chapter what Intellectual property is. Intellectual property is legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. When we say intellectual property, it is simply our rights and our claim over something that we’ve done or created, whether it is a novel, something musical or books, or even our scientific invention. It should be under our power and authority. There are five cases or conflicts under intellectual property. These are plagiarism, software piracy, repacking data and databases, reverse engineering and copying transmission. Plagiarism is the most common case. Plagiarism occurs when you directly copy something and presented it as your own work. I think this can be only applied in copying text files. For example, when writing an essay or novel, you decided to copy other’s work and then you present it as your own sentence or paragraph. I think if you cite the author’s name and you cited that the paragraph is quoted, you are not plagiarizing the work. Second most common case is software piracy. Piracy is everywhere and everything can be pirated. Piracy is somewhat connected to stealing. As I’ve said in the previous chapters, we are all familiar with the advertisements that are being showed in the movie houses every now and then that inform us about piracy as a crime. I think one basic reason that piracy becomes so popular is that it is way too cheaper than the original and it is available anywhere unlike with the

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original software. The other three cases are also common but piracy and software piracy is the most rampant cases I am aware of.

Integrative Question

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Intellectual Property? What is Plagiarism? What is Software Piracy? How can you say if one person plagiarized? Why software piracy is rampant?

What I have learned

• • •

Intellectual property Plagiarism Software piracy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Is Copyright Ethical? Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright Quote: “Copyright, in as much as it attempts to balance the interests of creators and society, could be considered based on ethics. However, while such ethical considerations might have been present in the minds of those who crafted copyright law, they were never stated either in the Constitution or in the law. This discussion becomes more complex when applied to factual works. Copyright has never protected facts or ideas. It only protects expression. Therefore a scholar who has labored for years to research a subject such as Lincoln’s death may find his work utilized without credit and have no recourse under law.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • •

Copyright Ethical theories Copyright Laws Fact Labor

Book Review

According to Wikipedia, Copyright is a form of intellectual property which gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation; after which time the work is said to enter the public domain. Copyright applies to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. Some jurisdictions also recognize "moral rights" of the creator of a work, such as the right to be credited for the work. The chapter of the book questions: is copyright ethical? From the quote above, an example was stated. It says there that if a scholar labored himself for years to research Lincoln’s death as a subject, his work or his findings may not be given credit at all. Another line that I read is that copyright does not protect facts and labor. I don’t understand it. If copyright does not protect facts and labor, why is it still under intellectual property? Copyright supposed to give an author the exclusive rights or authority and power over his works. If research is considered as labor and fact, then the researcher cannot get any credit from his works. The question is, is it ethical? Is copyright ethical? If copyrights governed all the rights that it can give to the original owner I think it can be ethical. It is because ethics is the norms and the morals that we should know and follow. Having the exclusive rights from our work

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and having the authority over it is considered ethical since it is really ours and it is the norm or should I say it is normal. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Copyright? Is copyright under IP? Is copyright ethical? In what way? What are the two things that copyright do not support and protect?

What I have learned

• • • •

Copyright Laws Rules Protections

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: On the Web, Plagiarism matters more than Copyright piracy Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “They are confused because the most common examples that separate them. It would be th plagiarism but not piracy for me to take the works of an obscure 19 century poet and try to pass them off as my own. Since the copyright will have expired in such works, this is not piracy. But it remains plagiarism of the sort that could be grounds for dismissal from a journalist post. It would be piracy but not plagiarism if I were to edit a volume of modern poetry and forget to get copyright permission for one of item in the volume.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • •

Piracy Plagiarism Copyright Differences Similarities

Book Review:

The quote above stated the difference between plagiarism and copyright piracy. We are aware of the definition of the two words. But sometimes we get a little confused on some similarities that they have. When we say plagiarism, it is copying one’s work and makes it as your own. For example, if a person copy a paragraph from a novel, write it on his paper, and did not credit the author of the original work, and then submitted it as his original work, the act may be classified as plagiarism. Also, from the quote above, the copyright piracy is also been stated. An example is also given. We know that copyright means that giving a person the exclusive right on his work, whether it is a novel, movie or a musical work. It means that when you have copyright, you have the power and authority over your work. And if someone claims that they own it, use the work, you can have legal claims and stuff. The example given above is that if a modern poetry is being edited, even a volume of it, and you forgot to get copyright permission, the act is considered as copyright piracy. Whether the act is innocent or really something that is meant to, it is the same. We should be aware on the legal matters and stuff around us. Copyright piracy or simply piracy has a simple definition and I can cite a simple example which we are all familiar with. We know that in our country, movie piracy is rampant or out of control. Movies do also have

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copyright. If for example, someone published it or pirated it, it is considered also as copyright piracy. Even pirating a audio CD is considered as Copyright Piracy. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is plagiarism? What are the acts in plagiarism? What is piracy? What is copyright piracy? What are the acts in piracy?

What I have learned

• •

Copyright Piracy Plagiarism

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: An Ethical Evaluation of Website Linking Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Given the potential for harm cited in these cases, what should be done about deep linking? To some extent, the resolution of this normative question depends upon whether or not a web site can be classified as private property and, if so, what specific rights should belong to the property owner. When authors create websites and put them on the World Wide Web, do those sites in effect become part of the internet commons and does this give others an implied license to link to those sites in any way they choose? Or are they still the intellectual property of their owners despite their quasi-public and social nature? Before we explicitly consider this question, it is instructive to review the prominent theories of intellectual property that have been invoked to justify property rights.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

World Wide Web Intellectual Property Website Linking

Book Review

The definition of Intellectual property has been defined in two previous chapters. When we say Intellectual property, it is legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets. From the book chapter, I quoted a paragraph that says Web sites as intellectual property. A web site is an internet “site” like www.facebook.com, etc. These are usually the words that you see or type in the address bar. Basically it is an address of the site. It is said that it is under intellectual property and by linking another web site in your “site” maybe considered as like breaking the Intellectual property law. Intellectual property is simply, anything that you own, created, make, such as novels, movies, music, these are your so-called intangible assets. Having intellectual property over it is having the exclusive rights, meaning if there is someone who use or copy it, you can have legal claims from it. Web sites as intellectual property are somewhat vague in many aspects. If it is an intellectual property, then most people can be sued. It is very common, especially in forums, that a web site linking is a must especially when

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recommending the best sites and stuff. I think if there are no web sites linking; a site cannot be popular and well-known by many. I think web site linking is like advertising the web sites. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

WWW stands for? What is IP? Is website linking illegal? Is website linking and advertising somewhat the same? Do you consider website linking an issue at all?

What I have learned

• • •

IP WWW Website Linking

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Cathedral and the Bazaar Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://hikaru011.wordpress.com/category/the-cathedral-and-the-bazaar/ Quote: “Linux is subversive. Who would have thought even five years ago (1991) that a world class operating system could coalesce as if by magic out of a part-time hacking by several thousand developers scattered all-over the planet, connected only by the tenuous strands of the Internet? ”

Learning Expectation: • Book Review Linux

I have already read this and already blogged about the cathedral and the bazaar. To make my life easier, ill just post whatever I have written last term☺

Linux, according to Wikipedia, is a generic term that commonly refers to Unix-like computer operating systems that use the Linux kernel. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed by anyone. Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers, although it is installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices and mobile phones to supercomputers, and its popularity as a desktop/laptop operating system is growing due to the rise of net books and the Ubuntu distribution of the operating system. In the chapter, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Linux is said to be subversive. It is a world class operating system. All the hackers in the world are been united by the internet. At first, I can’t see any connection with Linux and the title of the chapter. But as I read the contents of this chapter, it explains why it was named the cathedral and the bazaar. The cathedral is done in a crafty and careful way, so as the operating system, Linux. It is compared to a bazaar because the way different things are marketed to it just to be perfect. The author of the book tries to explain what Linux and open source environment is all about. From the part: Mail must get through: 1. Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. We can never be contended. This saying is true about man, about us. Every person who already has something will definitely strive hard just to replace that something with a better one. Every good work or good product is because the maker or the developer strives harder just to make his product more convenient. For example, we already have cellular phones in

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the early 90’s but through man’s undying quest for perfection, different features are been developed for cell phones. 2. Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite (and reuse) In the book Getting Real, it is said that a good programmer knows how to write. If he can’t write what he has done, who can appreciate his product? Technically, he should also know how to rewrite. When you are the one who made the product, there is no reason at all that you can’t perfect what you had done. 3. “Plan to throw one away; you will, anyhow.” (Fred Brooks, the Mythical Man-Month, Chapter 11) If you encounter problem, it does not mean that you should solve it right away. It will definitely rises up sometimes when you’re ready to face and solve it. 4. If you have the right attitude, interesting problems will find you. Good products come with difficult problems. I believe that the right attitude that is define here means that if you, as a person, is really dedicated to the work that you are doing, the interesting problems that will rise up are the one that can make your work more complete and perfect. 5. When you lose interest in a program, your last duty to it is to hand it off to a competent successor. Every time you pass on something to someone, you will surely want somebody who knows and who can handle the product well. It is the least that you can do for the company and for the product.

Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Linux? Good software is said to be started from where? Great programmers know how to what? Good programmers know how to what? Interesting problems will find you of you will what?

What I have learned

• •

Linux How to be a good programmer

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Towards to theory of privacy for the information age Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy Quote: “From the point of view of ethical theory, privacy is a curious value. On the one hand, it seems to be something of very great importance and something vital to defend, and on the other hand privacy seems to be a matter of individual preference, culturally relative, and difficult to justify in general. Is privacy a primary value? How can we justify or ground the importance of privacy?”

“Almost everyone would agree that privacy has instrumental value. This is its most common justification. Privacy offers us protection against harm. For example, in some cases if a person’s medical condition were publicly known, then that person would risk discrimination.” Learning Expectation:

• • •

Privacy Necessity for privacy Information Age

Book Review:

Privacy, according to Wikipedia, is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm. When something is private to a person, it usually means there is something within them that is considered inherently special or personally sensitive. The degree to which private information is exposed therefore depends on how the public will receive this information, which differs between places and over time. Privacy can be seen as an aspect of security — one in which trade-offs between the interests of one group and another can become particularly clear. I already heard the term that Piracy is a privilege. It is something that we cannot just grab and chose to live with. Having a private life, for me, is like having freedom and opportunity to choose what path in life I chose to walk in. It is something that I consider fragile no one has the right and opportunity to have it. An example from the quote above says that if a person is sick and chose not to make known to public what are the causes of his sickness, he is choosing to be private or the term can be secretive. From the definition from Wikipedia, it is said privacy can be also related or as the same with the word anonymity. From the word itself anonymous, anonymity is secrecy of one’s identity. It is like an anonymous writer of a

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striking quote or whatsoever. It is where the person chooses to be private or make him unknown to everyone. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is privacy? Are there rules in privacy? Is privacy a privilege? Why? What is anonymity?

What I have learned

• • •

Privacy Privilege Anonymity

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Structure of Rights in Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and the Free Movement of Such Data.

Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “But even if a processing is legitimate, it is not necessarily permitted if the data is of a sensitive in nature. Personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious beliefs, tradeunion membership, and the processing of data concerning health or sex life are singled out as particularly sensitive. These special categories of data are sensitive in the sense that the dissemination of such data can be particularly harmful to the data subject’s interests.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • • Book Review:

Privacy Data Structures Laws Process

The quote stated above says: Personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious beliefs, trade-union membership, and the processing of data concerning health or sex life are singled out as particularly sensitive. These special categories of data are sensitive in the sense that the dissemination of such data can be particularly harmful to the data subject’s interests. I used to think that personal data only includes the basic information about that person. Like his name, birth date, birth parents and stuffs, But in the quotation, a personal data is defined in a different sense. Data is said to be sensitive in nature. If in the quotation above, it said personal data, therefore all of us have our own personal data. Data or information that is inside our personal data is somewhat needed to be private. It is sensitive and therefore is should be concealed and confidential. Like from the previous chapter’s example, if a person is sick and he chooses not to speak in regards to his sickness and the causes of it, he chooses to be private. It is not necessarily illegal for me to keep quiet or to be private if it is for my personal good, and this good can do no harm to others. Like what I have also said, privacy is a privilege and no one can just choose to be private. In keeping one’s personal data a private

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matter, I think it is important that you are in control of what you have. You should have power and authority over it and over other persons. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is data? Data is said to be what in nature? Is personal data needs to be private? What is the basic information that can be found in personal data? Is your personal data can be published without your consent?

What I have learned

• • • •

Data Sensitivity Personal Data Privacy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “A fundamental problem about defining the concept of privacy in terms of individual control of information is that it greatly reduces what can be private. We control so little. As a practical matter we cannot possibly control vast amounts of information about us that circulates through myriads of computer networks and databases. The current globalization of these information processes exacerbates the problem. If privacy depends, by definition, on our individual control, we simply don’t have significant privacy and never will in computerized world.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • Book Review:

Privacy protection Information Control Technologies

We have talked about privacy from the previous chapters and we know that when we say privacy it means that ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. As I have said from the previous chapters, privacy is a privilege. Privacy is not something you can actually have and get because it is considered as an opportunity. A new subject is been open in this chapter. The flow of information or control of information, it is actually the subject of the privacy we are covering up here. Sometimes because of the flow of information, what needed to be private is being neglected. I can say that because now, information is every here and then and most of it comes as a bulk or tons all in one. What needed to be keep in secret or what is needed to be concealed becomes less prioritize since we tend to focus on the information and the excess that comes along.

It is not clear to me what are the technologies used to keep something in private. But I can say that because of technology, some things that needed to be private become not so confidential at all. For example, a most common example, because of different social networking site we become open and the things that we tend to keep in private become a public spot. Like

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your cellular numbers. Most social networking site allows you to post your numbers. But these things still depends on the users. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Privacy? What is flow of information What is control? What are the technologies? Are technologies has also disadvantages?

What I have learned

• • • •

Privacy Control Information Flow

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/main_bio.html Quote: “Many influential approaches to privacy emphasize the role of privacy in safe guarding a personal or intimate realm where people may escape the prying and interference of others. This private realm, which is contrasted with a public realm, is defined in various ways. It is deliminated by physical boundaries, such as the home; by personal relationships, such as family, friends and intimates; and by selected fields of information, such as personal, sensitive, or embarrassing information. Privacy is worthy of safeguarding, these approaches argue, because intimacy is important; privacy is worth protecting because we value the sanctity of a personal realm.”

Learning Expectation: • • • • Privacy Public Challenges Information Technology

Book Review

The author of this chapter is Helen Nissenbaum. I already heard, and probably read some of this author’s writing. According to the site that I saw, Helen Nissenbaum’s areas of expertise span social, ethical, and political implications of information technology and digital media. Nissenbaum’s research publications have appeared in journals of philosophy, politics, law, media studies, information studies, and computer science. She has written and edited three books and a fourth, Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life, is due out in 2009, with Stanford University Press.

The chapter talks about privacy going on public or the approach in privacy in public. The sentence or the title is clear. It talks about the approaches that can make a private thing acceptable in public. The challenges in information technology are also being covered. I think, if something that was not acceptable to the public will basically faces challenges, and these challenges include IT. In our world today, where we are showered with different innovations because of Information technology, I think in every step we talk, Information Technology will be affected. And if Information Technology will face challenges, we will also become affected. In any

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aspect of life and in our surrounding, something that cannot be acceptable and suitable to the majority will automatically have troubles in the beginning maybe up to the end. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who is Helen Nissenbaum? What is Privacy? What is Public? What are the challenges in IT? What is Information Technology?

What I have learned

• • • •

Helen Nissenbaum Private Public Challenges

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness Library Reference: INFORES Handout Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database Quote: “Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) has been described as the nontrival extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data. The KDD process is usually divided into three phases: the data warehousing phase, the data mining phase and the interpretation phase.” “Personal data is often considered to be the exclusive kind of data eligible for protection by privacy law and privacy norms. Personal data is commonly defined as data and information relating to an identified or identifiable person.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

KDD Privacy Individuality Fairness

Book Review

It is the first time that I heard about the word KDD or Knowledge Discover Database. According to the quote above, KDD or Knowledge Discover Database has been described as the nontrival extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data. It is divided into three phases. I already heard about these three phases from my other subject. The data warehouse is a large database that stores data that have been extracted from the various operational, external, and other databases of an organization. A data mining is analyzing the data in a data warehouse to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity. The interpretation phase is self explanatory. I also read about data mart which is a database that holds subsets of data from a data warehouse that focus on specific aspects of a company, such as a department or a business process. We know that data base is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system. The structure is achieved by organizing the data according to a database model.

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The second quote above talks about personal data. From the previous chapter, I already covered personal data with regards to privacy. Personal data is simply defined as information of a person. For example, a person’s name, birth date, birth parents, birth place. These are the data or raw facts that are all about one person.

Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

KDD stands for? What is KDD? What is Data Mining? What is Data Warehouse? What is personal data?

What I have learned

• • • • •

KDD Personal Data Data Warehouse Data Mining Interpretation Phase

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_mining#The_process_of_data_mining Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Traditional information retrieval from databases returns database records – or turples derived from fields of records - in response to a query. Hence what is returned is explicit in the database. Knowledge discovery using data mining techniques differs from ordinary information retrieval in that what is sought and extracted- mined from the data is not explicit in the database. Rather, objects that typically will not exist a priori, patterns which are implicit data and can be used for either descriptive or predictive purposes, are discovered.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Data Mining Privacy Knowledge Discovery Retrieval of data

Book Review

From the reading, data mining is the process of discovering such patterns, when considered apart from the necessary concomitant parts of the knowledge discovery process. From the previous reading, data mining is analyzing the data in a data warehouse to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity. Mining is also been tagged as extracted. I believe it means that it is because data are being dug out or simply “mined”. Data Mining is simply just the process of extracting the patterns that are hidden from the large amount of data. Considered it as mining for gold, where the miners are going inside a cave searching for some buried and hiding treasures. The cave serves as a large amount of data while the gold serves as the data that are going to be extracted or mined. From Wikipedia, I read that data mining has four main tasks. These are classification, clustering, regression and association rule learning. In the classification stage, it is where data are being arranged according to type or group. The clustering stage is somewhat similar with the classification stage. The regression stage is attempting to find a function which modes the data with the latest error. And for the last stage, the association rule learning, it is searching for the relationship between variables. I find data mining a complicated task because it has also four stages involves. I used to think that retrieving data from the data base is an easy and simple task, but then I realized, if the data become so large and complicated, stages and phases will also become difficult.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is data mining? What is the first task in data mining? What is the second task? What is the third task What is the fourth or the final task?

What I have learned

• • • • •

Data Mining Classification Clustering Regression Association Rule learning

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Surveillance has become a central issue in our late modern society. The surveillance of public spaces by closed circuit television, the surveillance of consumers through consumer surveys and point of sale technology, and workplace surveillance, to name but a few. As surveillance increases, more and more questions are being raised about its legitimacy.” “From the individual perspective, that there are no such things as neutral or objective judgments. Every judgment implies interests. Once data is recorded, it can in principle become incorporated into a judgment process that may not serve the individual’s interests. It would therefore seem reasonable that the self-interested individual would try to limit all forms of capturing data about themselves and their activities. ”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Surveillance Workplace Privacy Distributive Justice

Book Review

If I hear the word surveillance, I always think about surveillance camera. I always saw this on TV, in some stealing cases from convenient store. A convenient store like ministop and 711 always have surveillance camera. These cameras or surveillance camera can help them track who are the thieves that came in their store. The surveillance camera, for me, is really helpful and can lessen the doubts and worries we have for ourselves. The issue with this chapter is surveillance in your workplace. I think for example in the comfort of your own office there will be a surveillance camera. Well, most people will not be comfortable with that. But for me, I think it is normal and should not encounter any problems at all. Having a surveillance camera with your workstation or workplace may be not at ease at all but I think it is also for safety reasons and purposes. When the privacy issue with surveillance is being discussed, well I think there is no privacy at all having surveillance. More questions are been raised as surveillance become well known, or when the number or surveillance increases. Surely, having surveillance may affect the privacy issues and matters but I think that surveillance is just for the common good. Think about the safety reasons, you will surely understand what surveillance can do. Though privacy is also

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an issue, I think in a workplace, having surveillance won’t affect your standard as a worker. All I know is surveillance can be a great help in a company. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is surveillance? What is privacy? Can surveillance affect privacy? What are the issues with surveillance? Are there questions raised about surveillance?

What I have learned

• •

Surveillance Privacy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Privacy and Varieties of Moral Wrongdoing Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The privacy issue lies at the heart of an ongoing debate in nearly all Western democracies between liberalists and communitarians over the question how balance individual rights and collective goods. The privacy issue is concerned more specifically with the question of how information in order to protect individuals and the claims of those who want to make information about individuals available in order to benefit the community. This essential tension emerges in many privacy discussions, e.g. undercover actions by the police on the internet, use of Close Circuit Televisions in public places, making medical files available for health insurance purposes…”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Privacy Varieties Wrong Doings

Book Review

I have already talked about privacy from previous chapters several times. Again, when we say privacy, it is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. Privacy is a privilege. From the quote above, it says that the privacy issue is concerned more specifically with the question of how information in order to protect individuals and the claims of those who want to make information about individuals available in order to benefit the community.

I have read from the book about the information based harm. It is said there that criminals often get the information of their victims through the computer. When signing up in any sites or social networking sites, for example, the site often requires us to input our valid email address, name, contact numbers, address, and other personal information in order to have an account. This is seen as a reason that some criminals use this personal information to get to the victims. The information inequality is also discussed in the book. In information inequality, it is said there that people often exchange what their personal information to have an access on

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Information Technology. It is the same as the example I cited for information based harm. In exchange to have an account, people do not tend to recognize the inequality that they get when signing up their personal data. Thus, this may lead to information based harm.

Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is privacy? What are the varieties? What are the moral wrongdoings? What is information based harm? What is information inequality?

What I Have learned

• • •

Information based harm Information Inequality Privacy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Arguments for having a category of computer crime can be advanced from at least three different perspectives: legal, moral, and informational or descriptive. We consider arguments for each, beginning with a look at computer crime as a separate legal category. From a legal perspective, computer crime might be viewed as a useful category for prosecuting certain kinds of crime.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • •

Computer Crime Piracy Cyberspace Sabotage Break-ins

Book Review

I have read that computer crimes have different legal and moral claims. What is a computer crime? Computer Crime, according to Wikipedia, generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime. These categories are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or more. I have read that computer crime covers hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, etc. I already discussed about some of computer crimes like copyright piracy and child pornography from the previous chapters. I think computer crime is similar to the crimes that we usually encounter in our daily lives. We already talk about one computer crime from the previous chapter, child pornography. Child pornography is rampant and out of control. Child pornography means involving minors in sexual related activities and then making a video. In our country child pornography cases is really out of control. News from different network stations mostly covers this issue of computer crime. As we all know, we live in the country where the term survival of the fittest really applies. People who are in no hope in getting a decent job often engage in illegal acts like child pornography. Another issue or computer crime that I’ve talked about from the previous chapter is copyright piracy. It can be classified as computer crime, I suppose. Some software that is out in the market is usually copied from the original one. It is called piracy. Piracy, as same with

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child pornography, is rampant and out of control. It is because buyers often prioritize these things than the original software because it is way to cheaper and really affordable.

Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is computer crime? What are the classifications of computer crime? What are the common examples of computer crime? What is child pornography? What is copyright piracy?

What I have learned

• • •

Computer Crime Child Pornography Copyright Piracy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_civil_disobedience http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacktivism

Quote: “Hacktivism is defined as the (sometimes) clandestine use of computer hacking to help advance political causes. Hacktivist groups such as Electronic disturbance theater, the cult of the dead cow, and the Hong Kong blondes have used electronic civil disobedience to help advance the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico, protest nuclear testing at India’s Bhabba Atomic Research Center, attack Indonesian Government Websites over the occupation of East Timor, as well as protest and anti-democracy crackdowns in China.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Hacktivism Ethical Terrorism Civil Disobedience

Book Review:

Hacktivism is somewhat related to electronic civil disobedience. According to Wikipedia, Hacktivism is "the nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends. These tools include web site defacements, redirects, denial-of-service attacks, information theft, web site parodies, virtual sit-ins, virtual sabotage, and software development." It is often understood as the writing of code to promote political ideology - promoting expressive politics, free speech, human rights, or information ethics. Acts of hacktivism are carried out in the belief that proper use of code will have leveraged effects similar to regular activism or civil disobedience. Fewer people can write code, but code affects more people. Electronic Civil Disobedience can refer to any type of civil disobedience in which the participants use information technology to carry out their actions. Electronic civil disobedience often involves the computers and/or the Internet and may also be known as hacktivism.

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Electronic Civil Disobedience and Hacktivism may bring harm to Information Technology. I used to think that hacking is simply when someone hacks your password in yahoo mail, or in any other social networking site. Clearly I was wrong and Hacktivism is more than that. Hacktivism is also being related to political matters and issues. I guess ECD or Electronic Civil Disobedience and Hacktivism can really bring harm to Information Technology and also the society. Hacktivism is not just stealing passwords and account from other people, maybe it is the easiest way or the mean but it is really more than just that.

Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Hacktivism? ECD stands for? What is ECD? Are they both illegal? What are the effects of the two?

What I have learned

• •

ECD Hacktivism

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Browsing the Web gives one the heady feeling of walking without footprints in cyberspace. Yet data surveillance can be both ubiquitous and transparent to the user. Can those who browse the Web protect their privacy? And does it matter if they cannot? I offer answers to these questions from the American legal tradition. The American Legal Tradition focuses on a right to privacy, rather than a need for data protection. Yet illuminating Web privacy from this particular perspective throws a broader light in how the fundamental rights of speech, assembly and freedom of religious inquiry may depend upon electronic privacy in the information age.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

American Perspective Web Security Privacy

Book Review

I must admit that every time I read something that talk about the American perspective, I always find it as cliché. It is common that it is always the Americans that invents research and produces something new. Other than that, issues involving the Americans and the America are always a big deal in any country. I admired the American for the knowledge that they share to others but it is not always America. Filipinos or sometimes Indians can even make an outstanding research or inventions. I can’t blame those people who support American inventions and research. America, as far as I know, is the most popular country in the world. Most people are dying to be in America. If we look at how they handle things, whether it is research, the law, and their people, you can see that they really have the balance and the harmony. From the quote above it stated there that the American Legal Tradition focuses on a right to privacy, rather than a need for data protection. Different rights in America is clearly stated and followed. I think the quote simply explains that the law in America favors the privacy of a person rather than the protection of the data. These data maybe something important in the politics, and stuff, but the law there favors the person not just the thing.

We have different perspective on Web securities but yet, most of the time, the American’s perspective is always the popular one. The American perspective is always followed

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and imitated simply because rules and regulations in America are clearly stated and it is really doable by the people. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the American Perspective? Is American perspective always popular? Why? Do you think Americans are always pioneering? Why?

What I have learned

• •

American Rules American Perspective

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Meaning of Anonymity in Information Age Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The natural meaning of anonymity, as may be reflected in ordinary usage of a dictionary definition, is of remaining nameless, that is to say, conduction oneself without revealing one’s name. A poem or pamphlet is anonymous when unattributable to a named person; a donation is anonymous when the name of the donor is withheld; the people strolling through a foreign city are anonymous because no one knows who they are. Extending this understanding into the electronics sphere, one might suppose that conducting one’s affairs, communicating, or engaging in transactions anonymously in the electronic sphere is to do without one’s name being known.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Anonymity Privacy Information Age Relationship

Book Review

I have already talked about anonymity from the previous chapter. Anonymity is under privacy. When we say privacy, it is a privilege. Anonymity is being anonymous. Anonymous means invincible and unnoticeable to the other people. If the person decides to become unknown and unnoticeable, he is also choosing to be anonymous. The term anonymous is no longer new to us. Even in our daily lives, the simple transaction that happens around us, anonymous or the term anonymous already exists. From the quotation above, a simple example is given. In donating something, we are aware the some people do not want themselves to be known to public so they avoid writing their names or sometimes put the word anonymous besides their donation. In relating anonymity from the information age, I think one common example is sending email anonymously. There are cases that someone receives email from an anonymous sender. This is possible or anything is possible with all the technologies that we have today. The second example given in the book is participating in chat rooms or online chat or forums without a name or with the name anonymous tagged. I think being anonymous is somewhat similar with using a fake name. It is because if you are anonymous or if you are using a fake name your real identity will not be shown to the public. I think the main reason for some people why they choose to be anonymous is that they want to keep their identity private and being private is not really a bad thing at all.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is anonymity? What is privacy? What is the first example given? What is the second example? Is anonymity related to privacy?

What I have learned

• •

Anonymity Privacy

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Double Encryption of Anonymized Electronic Data Interchange Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “To keep the GP as a sender of anonymized data also anonymous, we have to solve two main problems: 1. As soon as data are sent electronically, the senders identification is automatically added to the message. To anonymized the sender, an automatic process of replacing this identification must be implemented. To decrypt an encrypted message, one must know the decryption key of the sender. However when the sender is anonymized, it is impossible to select the right key. An automatic process of key handling and decryption must be encrypted.”

2.

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Anonymized Encryption Decryption

Book Review

This chapter basically talks about encryption and decryption. It also talks about examples, the steps and stages. I have heard about the encryption and decryption. I remember the example was that of email message. Same as the example given above, you need a decryption key in order to get the message. The example above says if the sender is anonymous, you cannot just guess for the decryption key at all. It is impossible and at the same time difficult. To be anonymous, is like being unknown and unnoticeable. I am familiar with the word anonymous. From the examples I stated from the previous chapters, it is like donating something but choosing to keep your identity private. As I have said earlier, anonymity is just keeping your real identity private. For the term anonymized, it is really the same with anonymity but it is like making the thing anonymous. As I have understood it, the word anonymized is the process or the result or the process itself. It is the end product of what is been made anonymous. From the reading, the samples are basically all from the Information Technology world. It includes computers and email. I think the term anonymized is already applicable in Information technology. And as what we have seen from the quote above, the word encryption and decryption is somewhat been tagged with anonymized. Basically when I heard these terms, encrypt and

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decrypt, I the basic thing or example that I always think about is email message. Maybe because it is the most common example and it is only the example I am familiar with. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is anonymized? GP stands for? What is encryption? What is decryption? What is anonymous?

What I have learned

• • •

Anonymized Encryption Decryption

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics Quote: “In one of the few significant Dutch studies on legal aspects of biometrics, for instance, Van Kraligen et al.(1997) make a distinction between determination of identity and verification of identity. Whereas determination of identity or “real” identification refers to a process involving investigation into a range of personal data, a right reserved to just a few agencies like the police and public services, verification is said to involve merely the comparison of two data, in order to determine whether they belong to the same person.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Biometrics Identity Verification Determination

Book Review

When I heard the term biometrics, I always thought about biology and kinetics. I don’t know if biometrics is the combination of the two scientific studies. We know when we talk about biology; we are talking about the human body. From our origin up to the different system, like digestive, respiratory, that composed the human body. When we say kinetics, I think talks about movement or body in motion. Biometric, according to Wikipedia, refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. I was confused when I first saw this chapter in the book, how come an Information technology book discusses a biology subject matter. I am not aware the human body can be really related to Information Technology, in any other sense, maybe in medical issues and stuff. But when I saw the definition from Wikipedia, I learned that biometrics is used for people under surveillance. We already discussed the term surveillance from the previous chapter. Biometrics helps people like the cops in observing those people who are under surveillance. When I described the word surveillance from the previous chapter, I used the most common and popular example of surveillance, the surveillance camera. We know that in any convenient store that is running 24

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hours, they are using this surveillance camera so that if anything unusual happens, they will have a backup or something like evidence. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is biometrics? Is biometrics also known as biology? Is biometrics can be kinetics? Is biometrics helpful? In what way?

What I have learned

• •

Biometrics Surveillance

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Ethics is the study of morality; the study of what we do. Morality could exist without ethics (if no one investigated how morality is done) but there cannot be ethics without morality (we cannot study morality unless there is morality)…. Morality is like eating; it is an inevitable part of everyone’s life. Ethics, on the other hand, is like nutrition. It is crucial to living a good life but it is not an inevitable part of living or an activity engaged in by all.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Ethics Information Process Considerations

Book Review

According to the quote above, Morality could exist without ethics, but ethics could not exist without morality. When we talk about ethics, we also talk about morals and principles, even theories sometimes. When we talk about morality, we talk about the norms and what is ought to be right. It is the first time really that I heard that ethics is only somewhat a part of morality. When I define morality, it is like saying what is ought to be good, can’t bring harm to others, and all the works and acts that can bring good to the greatest number. If I define ethics, I always thought that it is the study of morality. Surely, from the quote above it stated that ethics cannot exist without morality. I can say that if there is no such thing as morality, ethics will not be around, anyone won’t know, understand the definition and true meaning of ethics and also Morality. These two, though I thought is strongly related is somewhat dependable with each other in some ways.

The book also discusses three major realms of ethics, these are descriptive, normative and metaethics. Descriptive ethics tends to focus on the existing situation. The normative ethics focuses on what is ought to be. And lastly, metaethics focuses on the logical analysis of the language. The word descriptive is like describing things, while normative is the

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norm. What is ought to be or what is expected to be is called the norms, these are the normal situation that the society can accept and will accept. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is ethics? What is morality? What is descriptive ethic? What is normative ethics? What is metaethics?

What I have learned

• • • • •

Morality Ethics Descriptive Normative Metaethics

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Software Engineering Code of Ethics Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Ethical tensions can best be addressed by thoughtful consideration of fundamental principles, rather than blind reliance on detailed regulations. These principles should influence software engineers to consider broadly who is affected by their work; to examine if they and their colleagues are treating other human beings with due respect; to analyze how the least empowered will be affected by their decisions; and to consider whether their acts would be judged worthy of the ideal professional working as a software engineer.”

Learning Expectation:

• • •

Ethical Tensions Code of Ethics Software Engineers

Book Review

I have already read some code of ethics of IT companies. I have read the code of ethics of IEEE and ACM code of ethics. Well, basically, these codes of ethics are all about the company’s ethical mission, how they must respond to their clients, the people and to themselves in an ethical or in a moral way. From the book, it is said that code of ethics often start from preamble. A preamble is like the executive summary or the introductory part, in the preamble, you will read what the company does, and what they want to offer. So basically, the preamble is the starting point or the starting base of any code of ethic. The preamble is also seen in any other documents like in the law. I have read some articles that have a preamble. In other words, the preamble is used in any formal document or article and it serves as an introduction or preface of the work.

The chapter talks about code of ethics. Well, most pages in the chapter are like samples of code of ethics. I can say that it is clearly stated and well explained. The short version and the long version is also been presented in the chapter. In regards with the length of a code of ethics version, well maybe at first you may think that the longer one is more complete and well explained but for me, even if an article or document is short, if it is straight forward, it is much better. I like reading straight forward article than reading long and useless ones. I think what is important is the content and the message, not the length at all.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is code of ethics? What are the two companies that are mentioned from the introduction part? What is a preamble? Is preamble a summary? Do length matters in code of ethics?

What I have learned

• • • •

Preamble Code of Ethics Short Version Long Version

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: No, Papa: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethic Are Worse Than None at All Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Codes should make it clear what their area of competence is (thus a code of computer ethics may make it clear that it will not cover questions of how income generated by using computers should be distributed) but in doing so, it must also make it clear that moral issues outside its area of competence are still moral issues, and ones that may be of greater importance than any covered in the code. It is no surprise that Kluge points out that “there is no guarantee that the fair information principles themselves are complete” precisely because of the question of the boundary of the applicability.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • • •

Codes of ethics Completeness Incompleteness Effects Problems

Book Review

The title of the chapter is eye catchy to me: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethic Are Worse than None at All. It is good as saying it is better to have nothing at all than to have something incomplete. I always believe that thought what you have is short or you have a small amount of information or code, it is better than not having at all. In the book, it is explained well why it is better having nothing at all than having incomplete. An incomplete code of ethic may bring confusions and problems. Maybe problems that might occur are, for example, the code does not clearly state the reasons and purposes. These may really lead to the confusions. People may get puzzled and confused. If the codes are not clear they might end up ignoring and not acknowledging the fact that you have some set of codes. The codes, according to the book should be clear and should state the area of their competence. Codes can be abused. I have no particular example for this line. All I know is when you are presenting an article or document that is not accurate, clear and complete, people tend to ignore it. No one will ever dare to read and fully understand it. It is incomplete and not related so no one will reach out. In writing a code, of

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course accuracy is important, and so as the content. Each statement from the quote should answer the question or should I say be particular and really explain broadly its essence. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Code? What is code of ethics? Which is better: having an incomplete code or having no code at all? Why? What are the effects in incomplete code?

What I have learned

• • • •

Code of ethics Completeness Accuracy Clear Statement

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Subsumption Ethics Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “The difference between computers and simple machines is the extent to which computer systems subsume design and development decisions over which users have little or no control. Normally, such decisions are all but forgotten after implementation. Subsumption ethics describes this process.” “Subsumption ethics is the process by which decisions become incorporated into the operation of the information technology (IT) systems, and subsequently forgotten. IT systems, by nature, repeat the operations over and over. If those operations have unethical impacts, the system will nevertheless continue to execute them anyway.”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Subsumption Ethics Information Technology Subsume

Book Review

It is the first time that I heard the word subsume. From the quote above: Subsumption ethics is the process by which decisions become incorporated into the operation of the information technology (IT) systems, and subsequently forgotten. IT systems, by nature, repeat the operations over and over. If those operations have unethical impacts, the system will nevertheless continue to execute them anyway. Subsuming means including, the definition of subsumption ethic is clearly explained in the book. It is said that the process which the decisions made become related into the function of the Information Technology systems and then all of a sudden it will be forgotten and ignored. If this is an ethical process, I cannot see any reason why it become ethical. Is says that it is a process including or subsuming then afterwards, it’ll become ignored. I don’t know if it is really unethical. When we say ethical, it is like the norms or the common standards on how we should react and respond in our society. The decisions made in order to run a process is often forgotten at the implementation stage. The process is called subsumption ethics. Clearly, subsumption ethics is just a phase where any process undergoes. It may not be really part of the end solution, or what the end users may actually see and use, but it

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is the one process that helps in leading to another process. It is really ignored afterwards, maybe because what will the user will experience is more important than the process itself. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is subsuming? What is subsumtion ethics? Is this ignored afterwards? Why? Is this a process?

What I have learned

• •

Subsume Subsumption Ethics

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: Ethical Issues in Business Computing Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: N/A Quote: “Analysis and discussion of computer systems use within business has been limited, typically focusing on the advantages provided by specific systems in individual cases. With the arguable exception of hacking, however, broader issues have been given little or no attention, and in consequence some essential aspects of business computer use have remained virtually unexplored. For example, it is not unusual for companies in different countries or even in different locations within the same country to consider totally dissimilar models of computer related behavior appropriate. ”

Learning Expectation:

• • • •

Ethics Issues Business Computing

Book Review

I thought business computing is the same as accounting. Well maybe business computing and accounting has similarities but business computing is not all about money. Business computing in a company may run under an Information Technology team or the IT team in the business. From the quote above: Analysis and discussion of computer systems use within business has been limited, typically focusing on the advantages provided by specific systems in individual cases. I think computer systems are really for business. Businesses will really benefit if they have a system within. For example, a transaction processing system for a business will be of great benefit for the business. It will lessen the transaction process or it will automate the present transaction process of the business. A system can be an advantage of the business. If a business is innovative or pioneering, more people will engage and support the business. The levels of business on what kind of system or team that they must have is also been tackled in the book. The levels are from level one up to level four. The first level or level is one is a small business that probably do not need any information technology team or any system at all. An example is a mini store. The second level is a business not small enough. This business can assign an employee to look out for the system of the company. The only problem is this employee will have two duties at the same time. The third level is that the business can afford to have an employee

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that will handle a system. And the fourth level is that the business is large enough that it can afford to have an Information technology team in the business. Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is business computing? What is level one? What is level two? What is level three? What is level four?

What I Have learned

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Business Computing Level One Level Two Level Three Level Four

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Otsuka Hikaru ITETHIC Book: Cybernethics Book Review: The Practitioner From Within: Revisiting the Virtues Library Reference: N/A Internet Reference: http://www.philosophyblog.com.au/ethics-vs-morality-the-distinctionbetween-ethics-and-morals/

Quote: “Traditionally computer ethics texts and courses involve taking students who are not philosophically trained, exposing them to action-guiding theories, presenting them with the codes of ethics of several companies and professional organizations, and asking them to make ethical decisions in scenario based cases. This approach is deliberately action based and focuses on doing.”

Learning Expectation:

Ethics Morality Action Guiding Theories Character forming

Book Review

This is the last chapter of the book. Basically it talks about the center subject of all the chapters from the book. It is ethics and morality. From the previous chapter, we already learned the differences and similarities of ethics and morality. Morality may exist without ethics but ethics cannot exist without morality. When we say morality, we often think about the social norms, what is ought to be. The acts that the society will accept and not condemn are what we called the social norms. Morality, from the root word moral, is a proper actions and what we call descent. Ethics on the other hand is somewhat how we look at morality. As I have defined it from the previous chapter, ethics is like the study of morality, or maybe the subset of morality. From a blog that I have read it says there that: Ethics is the philosophical study of morality. The word is also commonly used interchangeably with 'morality' to mean the subject matter of this study; and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual. The action guiding theories and the character forming are also been discussed in the book. We are familiar with some ethical theories like utilitarianism, categorical imperative and virtue ethics. Every time I hear the word ethics, I always think of all the theories that I am aware of. From our previous reading, Contemporary Moral Problems, ethical theories have been discussed and also have been explained well and clearly. These theories are somewhat become the guide of some people in living a moral and ethical life.

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Integrative Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is ethics? What is morality? Is ethics under morality? Why? What is action building theory?

What I have learned

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Ethics Morality Action Building Theory

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