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ABSTRACT

Industrial training is a full-time training program that is required for the final semester of Diploma in Geomatic Science (AP121). The main purpose of industrial training was to give a true picture to the students of the actual work experience and how a company or department implemented, manage and develop GIS applications to meet customer requirements and current. This report is study about the The Application of GIS-based in Slope Stability Assessment in Ranau, Sabah. The aim of this report is to study the potential of slope stability specifically in mountain area. Studies to get the ratings for the mapping for slope instability were in the state of Sabah. Study researching the setting undertaken. This study is to obtain a valuation for mapping slope stability in the state. Studies were conducted by Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR) with the cooperation of few sub-contractors through slope data field teams. The findings of this study may help to understand the conditions of the slopes and the roads. This includes the type of soils made off the slope areas. These values of the spatial data attributes are manipulated for mapping in the Sabah state assessment. The first step was to develop a semi-quantitative database through extensive desk, field and laboratory studies, including compilation of secondary data. In addition, data from remote sensing studies, engineering geological mapping, characterization of observed hazard parameters, and soil and rock testings were also included. The next step was to establish criteria for landslide hazard evaluation. Seven parameters were taken into account; i.e. geology, geodynamic features, slope conditions, hydrology/hydrogeology, landuse, engineering characteristics of soils, and engineering characteristics of rocks.

ABSTRAK

Latihan industri merupakan salah satu program latihan sepenuh masa yang diwajibkan kepada para pelajar semester akhir bagi program Diploma Sains Geomatik (AP121). Tujuan utama latihan industri dijalankan adalah untuk memberi gambaran sebenar kepada para pelajar akan pengalaman kerja sebenar dilaksanakan dan bagaimana sesebuah syarikat atau jabatan itu mengguna, mengurus dan membina aplikasi GIS untuk memenuhi kehendak pelanggan dan semasa. Kajian yang dijalankan adalah berkenaan dengan Pengaplikasian GIS Dalam Taksiran Kestabilan Cerun Di Ranau, Sabah. Tujuan report ini adalah untuk mengkaji kestabilan cerun terutamanya di kawasan pergunungan. Kajian ini bagi mendapatkan penilaian untuk pemetaan kestabilan cerun di negeri Sabah. Kajian dipandukan oleh Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR) dengan kerjasama beberapa sub-kontraktor kumpulan pengukuran data cerun. Hasil dapatan dari kajian ini mampu membantu keadaan cerun dan jalan raya. Hal ini merangkumi jenis-jenis tanah di kawasan cerun tersebut. Nilai inilah yang dimanipulasi dalam data attribute dan spatial untuk penilaian pemetaan di negeri Sabah. Langkah pertama adalah untuk membangunkan pangkalan data semi-kuantitatif melalui kajian, bidang dan makmal yang luas, termasuk pengumpulan data sekunder. Di samping itu, data daripada kajian remote sensing, pemetaan geologi kejuruteraan, pencirian parameter hazard diperhatikan, dan tanah dan ujian batu juga telah dilakukan. Langkah seterusnya adalah untuk mewujudkan kriteria untuk penilaian bahaya tanah runtuh. Tujuh parameter diambil kira; seperti geologi, iaitu ciri-ciri geodynamic, keadaan cerun, hidrologi/hidrogeologi, tanah, ciriciri kejuruteraan tanah, dan ciri-ciri kejuruteraan batu.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah the Most Compassionate. The Most Merciful, for it is with His permission, I am able to complete this report for my final semester coursework.

I would also like to thank all the staff at Hikmah Bumi Engineering Sdn. Bhd. (HBE), Kepayan, Penampang, Sabah for supporting and guiding me for this project. My sincere thanks and appreciation to Sir Awang Damit, my supervisor, Sir Jamlan Bin Awang Tangah, Sir Mohd Hisham and Miss Sweney Linsuk who have assisted and guided me throughout the course of my project and providing insight of the details of my report. I am grateful for their helps and guidance. Not to forget my colleagues who ever helped me, Nur Fitrisiah binti Ismail, Rosfinah Nicole Justin and Ruzimie binti Akumin.

My appreciation goes as well to my parents, Encik Razalli bin Muid and Tianin Binti Md Nor for their undying support and prayers for me along 14 weeks my progress in industrial training.

Last but not least, I would like to thank Sir Mohd Khairy Bin Kamarudin, who has been motivating, guiding and inspiring me towards the success completion of this report.

Thank You.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES

i iii iv vii viii

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Introduction Title of Study Introduction of Study Objectives of Study Scopes of Study Significance of Study Methodology

1 2 2 2 3 3 4

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 2.2

Introduction Slope Stability 2.2.1 2.2.2 Introduction Slope Stability in Malaysia

6 6 6 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 iv

2.3 2.4

Soil Formations Type of Mass Wasting 2.4.1 Slope Failure

2.4.2 Slumps 2.4.3 Rock Fall and Debris Fall 2.5 Sediment Flow 2.5.1 2.5.2 Slurry Flow Debris Flow

2.5.3 Mud Flows 2.5.4 Creep

2.5.5 Earth Flows 2.5.6 Solifluction 2.5.7 Granular Flows 2.5.8 Grain Flows 2.6 Triggering of mass waste events 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 Shocks Slope Modification Exceptional Precipitation

12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 24 25 25

2.6.4 Undercutting 2.6.5 2.7 Submarine Slope Failure

Slope Stability Analysis 2.7.1 2.7.2 Introduction Factor Effecting Slope Stability Influence of Ground Water Influence of Vegetation on Slope Stability

2.7.2.1 2.7.2.2 2.8

GIS for Slope Stability 2.8.1 General

2.9 2.10 2.11

Introduction to Geography Information System (GIS) ArcGIS Desktop 10 ArcMap Analyst Toolsets 2.11.1 Extract Toolset

2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15

Join and Relates Buffer Analysis Surface Analysis Hillshade 2.15.1 The Hillshade Parameters 2.15.1.1 Azimuth 2.15.1.2 Altitude

2.16

Graph Toolset

CHAPTER 3:

METHODOLOGY

3.1 3.2 3.3

Introduction General Methodology Detail Methodology 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Pre-Phase Study Area Software Selection Data Acquisition and Collection Data Processing Data Analysis

29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 38 41 43 45

3.4

Study Area 3.4.1 Sabah

3.5

Software Selection 3.5.1 3.5.2 Microsoft Office Excel 2010 ArcGIS

3.6

Data Acquisition and Collection 3.6.1 3.6.2 Coordinate Create Attributes Data with Microsoft Office Excel (Attribute Data)

3.6.3 Spatial Data 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Data Processing Projection and Transformation (Spatial Data) Structured Query Language (SQL) Add XY Coordinates (Spatial Data Management) Method of First Analysis Method of Second Analysis Method of Third Analysis

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CHAPTER 4:

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 4.2

Introduction First Analysis 4.2.1 4.2.2 Introduction Data of Analysis

46 46 46 46 47 48 50 50 50 51 55 55 55 56

4.2.3 Classes of Geology 4.2.4 Result of Analysis 4.3 Second Analysis 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 Introduction Data of Analysis Result of Analysis

Third Analysis 4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Data of Analysis 4.4.3 Result of Analysis

CHAPTER 5:

CONCLUSION

5.1 5.2 5.3

Introduction Result Recommendation

60 60

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

PAGE

Figure 2.0: Landslide in Ranau-Kundasang road Figure 2.1: Landslide features Figure 2.2: Rock Fall and Debris Flow Figure 2.3: Mass flow and its velocity Figure 2.4: Clip Tool Figure 2.5: Step of joining the attribute table Figure 2.6: Join and Related attribute table Figure 2.7: Buffer of point, poliline, and polygon Figure 2.8: Angular direction of the sun Figure 2.9: Angle of the illumination Figure 2.10: Hillshade output example Figure 3.1: General Methodology Figure 3.2: The details of methodology Figure 3.3: Sabah Map Figure 3.4: Microsoft Office Excel 2010 Logo Figure 3.5: ArcGIS Desktop 10 Logo Figure 3.6: Sabah State Map Figure 3.7: Attribute table of slope polygon information in Sabah Figure 3.8: The process of converting the projection from RSO to WGS84 Figure 3.9: Select by attribute Figure 3.10: Export selected area (Ranau) Figure 3.11: Result of district of Ranau Figure 3.12: Data management tool (Add XY data) Figure 3.13: X: Latitude, Y: Longitude Figure 3.14: X, Y coordinate system as WGS 1984 Figure 3.15: Result of Slope in layer Figure 3.16: The combination of polygon (Ranau district) and Slope polygons Figure 3.17: Flow chart of First Analysis Figure 3.18: Flow chart of Second Analysis Figure 4.1: Sabah Geology Map Figure 4.2: Generalised Stratigraphy of Sabah Figure 4.3: Research Area (District of Ranau) viii

9 10 11 12 20 21 21 22 24 25 25 29 31 33 33 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 41 43 47 47 48

Figure 4.4: Geology Map of Ranau after buffer Figure 4.5 (a): Differences between incline heights of slopes Figure 4.5 (b): Differences between shape of slopes Figure 4.5 (c): Differences between pavement condition of slopes Figure 4.6 (a): Orthophoto Map of Section 14 15 Figure 4.6 (b): Orthophoto Map of Section 15 16 Figure 4.6 (c): Hillshade Map of Section 14 15 Figure 4.6 (d): Hillshade Map of Section 15 16 Figure 4.6 (e): Slope Angle Map of Section 14 15 Figure 4.6 (f): Slope Angle Map of Section 15 16 Figure 4.6 (g): Slope Component Map of a Cut type slope Figure 4.6 (h): Slope Component Map of a Cut type slope with failure Figure 5.1: Geology Map of Ranau after buffer Figure 5.2 (a): Differences between incline heights of slopes Figure 5.2 (b): Differences between shape of slopes Figure 5.2 (c): Differences between pavement condition of slopes Figure 5.3 (a): Orthophoto Map of Section 14 15 Figure 5.3 (b): Hillshade Map of Section 14 15 Figure 5.3 (c): Slope Angle Map of Section 14 15 Figure 5.3 (d): Slope Component Map of a Cut type slope

48 51 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 64

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLES

PAGE

Table 1: Classes and Mode of Occurrence Table 2: Types of Graphs Table 3: The lithology type of geology Table 4: Description of Cuts and Natural Slopes Severity Code Table 5: Description of Embankment Slopes Severity Code

8 26 49 54 54