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According to Karachi University Business School (KUBS) Syllabus For affiliated Colleges

Community Development (Sociology)

(For BBA/BS-V Students)
Course Code: BA (H)-531 Credit Hours: 03
By: Mufti Gulab Khan (MBA-Finance)

Research & Publication Department:

Karachi Institute of Management & Sciences (KIMS)

Phase-I, Sector-4, Ahsanabad Gulshan -e- Maymar, Karachi Phone: 36881347 Website:

Course contents
S:No Topic Course contents 1 Book Title 2 Course contents 3 Syllabus 4 Acknowledgement 5 About the Book of Community development (Sociology) 6 Community Development (Sociology) (BS-V) 7 Process of Community Development 8 Aims of Community Development: 9 Definition of Sociology 10 1:00 Scope of Sociology 11 2:00 Sociology and Scientific thoughts: Relationship of Sociology with other social Sciences 12 3:00 Economies 13 3.1 Psychology 15 3.2 Political sciences 16 3.3 History 17 3.4 Social Anthropology 18 3.5 Theoretical perspectives in Sociology 19 4:00 Why different perspectives? 20 4.1 The Functional perspective 21 4.2 The Conflict perspective 22 4.3 The Interactionist perspective 23 4.4 The origin of Society 24 5:00 The emergence of Man 25 5.1 The Symbolic World 26 5.2 Individual, Group and Society- Definition 27 5.3 Community- Definition 28 5.4 (a) Rural Community 29 (b) Urban Community 30 Culture Meaning, Definition and Characteristics of Culture 31 5.5 Functional Role of Culture in Society 32 5.6 Socialization 33 6:00 Definition, Objectives of Socialization 34 6.1 Process of Socialization 35 6.2 Agencies of Socialization 36 6.3 Groups- The basic Social unit 37 6.4 Ethnology- Definition, Meaning and Importance 38 7:00 Social Institutions 39 8:00 Definition and Characteristics 40 8.1 Types of Social Institutions 41 8.2 (a) Family 42 8.2 (b) Economic

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8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.3 9:00 9.1 9.2 10:00 10.1

(c) Educational (d Political (e) Religious Role in Social Institutions personality Definition Personality and Culture Social Change Definition, Meaning and Factors Factors of Social Change Factors of Social Change in Pakistan Social Change in Pakistan Changing in life style in Pakistan Islam and social change Sociology of Islam Differences between common sociology and Islamic sociology Important features of the Scope of Islamic sociology

84 86 87 89 91 91 94 101 101 102 105 106 107 108 109 109 110

Karachi University Business School


University of Karachi
BBA- V (Hons.) Course Title Course Number Credit hours : : : Community Development BA (H) - 531 03

Objective: This course develops the student to observe group relationships and its importance in organizational setup with the distinction between functional and dysfunctional () aspects. Sociology helps to learn and perform to meet the objectives and norms ) (of an organization, and to interact purposefully with the groups for the success of business. This course will help the students of management to learn the recent trend ) ( in sociology. Some of the important topics are culture, sub culture their usefulness and functional importance, roles and status in an organizational setup, Social stratification () etc. The subject tackles( ) some of the challenges of globalization.

Course contents:

1:00 2:00 3:00 Sciences 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Definition of Sociology Scope of Sociology Sociology and Scientific thoughts: Relationship of Sociology with other social Economies Psychology Political sciences History

3.5 4:00 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5:00 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Social Anthropology () Theoretical perspectives( ) in Sociology Why different perspectives? The Functional perspective The Conflict perspective The Interactionist perspective the origin( ) of Society The emergence ( ) of Man The Symbolic World Individual, Group and Society- Definition Community- Definition (a) Rural Community (b) Urban Community

5.5 5.6 6:00 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7:00 8:00 8.1 8.2

Culture Meaning, Definition and Characteristics of Culture Functional Role of Culture in Society Socialization () Definition, Objectives of Socialization Process of Socialization Agencies of Socialization Groups- The basic Social unit Ethnology( ) - Definition, Meaning and Importance Social Institutions Definition and Characteristics Types of Social Institutions (a) Family

(b) Economic (c) Educational (d) Political (e) Religious Role in Social Institutions 9:00 9.1 9.2 personality Definition Personality and Culture

10:00 Social Change 10.1 Definition, Meaning and Factors


I wish to express my sincere thankfulness to the Director of Karachi Institute of Management and Sciences (KIMS) Mr. Imran Husain Quraishi Sahib for providing me an opportunity to do my project work of Community Development on KIMS Office. I also offer my regards to the Principal of Karachi Institute of Management and Sciences (KIMS) Mr. Adnan Jami Sahib for helping and supporting me in many occasions. But, I am heartily thankful to my sincerely friend Mr. Muhammad Ahmad, for guidance and encouragement in carrying out this project work of Community Development. He is the one of the expert teachers of Finance and Accounting at KIMS. Without his encouragement and assistance this project of Community Development would not have completed. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all of our staff members those who supported and helped me in any respect during the completion of this book.

About the Book of Community development (Sociology)


I am happy on the completion of Community development book. It is a subject of Sociology of BS-V according to the syllabus of Karachi University. It covers various topics of social life of American and western people. This book describes that there are some concepts of American and western sociology against of Islam. So, this book introduces in every chapter a lot of basic Islamic concepts versus non-Islamic concepts in a systematic way. Unfortunately and sadly, as I say that Muslims do not know about their religion. They are not able to distinguish between the life of western and the life of Muslim.

Some important characteristics of this book are describing below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It is the study of Sociology under the light of Quran and Sunnah. Complete and concise notes on Sociology. Meanings of difficult words in Urdu and some times in Arabic. According to the syllabus of Karachi University. Differences between Islamic and non- Islamic concepts with good and simple way. Sequentially description of Topics.

If you have any proper and good advices or suggestions about this book, Insha Allah a will accept all your good advices and suggestions. My main aim is to write Islamic Sociology, if you have any proposal about this book, you can share your ideas with me on this below ID. My E-mail address:

Gulab Khan

(Instructor in Social Sciences) At Karachi Institute of Management & Sciences (KIMS

Community Development

Community Development ()

Definition: The group of particular people who are living in a particular territory, and have same social activities and also have uniformly Problems, and psychologically attractive, ( ) and Organization, called a community. This unity based upon territory system not upon religion and race basis. 1. 2. 3. Working under self-help without the help of government. The services take places among backward individuals in slum areas. Sociologists and Social workers play a great role in this field.

"Community development is a structured intervention that gives communities greater control over the conditions that affect their lives. This does not solve all the problems faced by a local community, but it does build up confidence to tackle such problems as effectively as any local action can. Community development works at the level of local groups and organizations rather than with individuals or families. The range of local groups and organizations representing communities at local level constitutes the community sector. Community Development is well placed to involve people equally on these issues which affect all of us. Methods of Community Development: 1. 2. Through Experts: () through local leadership ()

3. through development process of imitation ( )

Steps of Community Development: 1. Problem identification and awareness of individuals

2. Seriousness of problems the first concerns small and easy selection ( ) 3. Planning with scarce resources and human individuals (

4. In Practical steps the gaining of help from government and philanthropists ( ) 5. Efficient set of work ( ) to succeed successfully ( ) Using transparent procedures ( ) help of everyone without any discrimination of Color, race and religion ( )

Process of Community Development: "Community development is a skilled process and part of its approach is the belief that communities cannot be helped unless they themselves agree to this process. This is adopted as a move towards our understanding of Community Development. Community Development is crucially concerned with the issues of powerlessness and disadvantage: it should involve all members of society, and offers a practice that is part of a process of social change. The Community Development process is collective, but the experience of the process enhances the integrity, skills, knowledge and experience, as well as equality of power, for each individual who is involved.

Aims of Community Development: 1. Development of communities 2. Solution of problems 3. Bring awareness 4. Alliance 5. Planning 6. To create Leadership to create 7. To promote the principle of self-help 8. Understanding of problems 9. The spirit of Collaboration and cooperation 10. Movement of Development 11. Public and government relations 12. The end of Antiquated traditions 13. Improving living standards Community Development aims to encourage sharing, and to create structures which give genuine participation and involvement.


Community Development is about developing the power, skills, knowledge and experience of people as individuals and in groups, thus enabling them to undertake initiatives of their own to combat social, economic, political and environmental problems, and enabling them to fully participate in a truly democratic process. Community Development should seek to develop structures which enable the active involvement of people from disadvantaged groups, and in particular people from Black and Minority Ethnic groups. The profession of community development integrates knowledge from many disciplines with community development theory, research, teaching and practice; these important and interdependent functions are vital in both the private and public sectors.

Community development Topic: 1 Definition of Sociology

The word 'Sociology' is derived from the Latin word 'Societus' meaning 'society and the Greek word 'logos' meaning 'study or science'. Thus, the etymological( )meaning of 'Sociology' is the 'science of society'. Sociology is very simply the scientific study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses on social relationships, how those relationships influence peoples behavior and how societies, the sum total of those relationships develop and change. Professor Giddings says, Sociology is attempt to account for the origin, growth, structure, and activities of societies by the operation of physical, vital and physical causes working together in a process of evolution. The definition of Ginsberg seems to be more satisfactory. Moris Ginsberg defines Sociology "as the study of human interactions and interrelations, their condition and consequences."

Some colorless definitions:


1. Sociology is the science of society. 2. The scientific study of society. 3. The science of social phenomena

Benefits: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sociology treats of the phenomena of society from the association of mankind. It includes a body of classified knowledge relating to society. It has the number of principles and laws. It investigates causes and effects, discover social forces. Formulate laws of control or rules of action. It treats the origin of society. It treats of the growth of society.




Theoretical Sociology: Theoretical sociology discuss with social phenomena, ( )principles and concepts. They have the following some kinds. 1. Group 2. Society 3. Social Work 4. Social Interaction () 5. Personality 6. Social Sanction () 7. Social Relationship 8. Crowd 9. Deviation 10. Public Opinion

11. Socialization 12. Propaganda( misinformation) or (half truths)

Applied Sociology: 1. 2. 3. 4. Applied Sociology is the practical shape of Theoretical sociology and Modern Science. Theoretical sociology represents Diagnosis ( )and Applied Sociology provides treatment. Theoretical sociology is a fact and Applied Sociology is the solution of problems. Theoretical sociology defines crime and Applied Sociology provides Solution proposals.

Topic: 2

the scope of sociology

Scope means the subject matter or the areas of study. There are two main schools of thought regarding the scope of Sociology:

First: The Specialist or Formalistic ( )school 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sociology is a specific, pure and independent social science. Sociology studies the various forms of social relationships. Scope of Sociology is very narrow and limited. Sociology deals with specific form of human relationship. Sociology need not study all the events connected with social science.

Second: The Synthetic (artificial or imitation) ( )school 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sociology is a general and systematic social science. Scope of Sociology is very vast. Sociology needs help from other social sciences. It is a synthesis of social science. Sociology is closely related with other social sciences.

Sociology, broadly, is the study of human interactions, their conditions and consequences. Relationship depends upon the nature of individuals in their relations. 1. To one another 2. To the community 3. To the outer environment

General out lines about the scope of sociology 1. The analysis of various institutions and social groups which one the result of social relationships of individuals should the concern of sociology. 2. The links about different parts of society should be studied. 3. Sociology addresses itself to the factors which contribute to social stability and social change. 4. Sociology should also explain the after math of the changes in society.

Family 1. Wife and husband, Love, Divorce, Sacrifice, compassion, harmony) ( ) 2. Benefits: Satisfaction and Stability of Life. Prosperity 3. Problems: Incompatibility, and training of children, guardianship, Joint family, divorce. ( , ) Education 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Basic need Problems of education Less of Interest Incomplete education Less of hard working Cheating in examinations Solution of these problems

Crime 1. Increase in crimes in our society 2. Kinds of crimes: Theft, robbery, hijacker, murder, kidnapping, gang rape, terrorism, grab a bike ( ) 3. Repeat in crime 4. Solution for these factor, why? Industry 1. Problems of Employees

2. 3. 4. 5. Health 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rural Society 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Agriculture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Complict between Employees and Employers Demand of facilities and good salaries Strikes against Employers less yield from Employees Solution: Understanding of conflict between them and co operation with each other

Deprivation of 55% from health facilities Water, Health facilities, Neatness Population Expensive hospital fees. Expensive Doctors fees Solution: Education of Medical Sociology.

Lack of Infrastructure Different problems of rural Society. Population above 60% Hostility and litigation () Lake of Education Solution

Labor forces: 45.05 and 32.20 from ruler areas. 80% of them related with agriculture Less of production per acre. Sociology will help agriculture Solution: Cultural change, new technology for agriculture, Education of Agriculture, Awareness about new technology, Leave of old ways of Agriculture,

Trade and Business 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Our competition environment Propaganda (Sale of products with the help of Propaganda) Advertisement Survey Research Use of Electronic Media, Print media, Visual media (Sign board, Cinema, Stage )


Topic: 3

Sociology and Scientific thoughts:

Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences

Social sciences are related to each other in such a way that at times it is difficult to separate the different disciplines. How is Sociology related to other social sciences? Sociology and other Social Sciences Sociology has a broad perspective. It embraces every social setting. Human behavior cannot be divided neatly into different compartments and each assigned to a specific social science. Virtually, ( )the boundaries between the social sciences are vague and constantly shifting. Almost all the social sciences get outside their own and into somebody elses with great frequency.



It studies production, distribution (of wealth) and exchange and consumption of goods and services in society. Similarities: 1. Many of the problems are common such as population growth, slum ( ) clearance, family welfare and urbanization. 2. The theories of social of socialism, communism, democracy and welfare state are nothing but the theories of social reorganization. 3. Both study industry. 4. The aim of Sociology is social progress and the aim of Economics is provision of basic needs with satisfaction way. 5. Both are working for the welfare and progress of individuals and society. Differences: 1. Sociologists look at the social aspects of economy while economist is mainly concerned with the economic consequences of peoples actions. 2. Sociology is not as quantitative as is economics. 3. The sociological approach is inductive (probability) while economist approach is deductive (100% perfect). 4. Sociology is a science of only recent growth whereas economy has attained ( ) an adequate degree of maturity. 5. Economics works in specific and Sociology work in general. 6. Economics searches for entire rules controlling the structure and activity of Society.



Psychology: ()

It is the study of mental processes, experiences and behavior. Similarities: 1. both the disciplines almost have the same subject matter, e.g. socialization, norms and values. 2. In actual practice of studies such as public opinion, mass movement etc. it is difficult to differentiate the work of sociologists and psychologists. 3. The aim of Psychology and Sociology is the welfare of individuals. 4. Good minded people assist society and bad minded people destroy society. Differences: 1. Sociology focuses on group while psychology gives emphasis on individual behavior alone. 2. Though sociology also adopts the method of experimentation, yet it is not so commonly used in sociology as in psychology. 3. Psychology deals with the mental powers and habits of the individuals. But Sociology deals with group not with individuals. 4. Psychologists try to understand the working of the human mind (thoughts, emotions, principles, experiences) and they affect ones behavior. But Sociology assists( )psychologists in explaining some sociological processes.

3.3 Political science:

It is the systematic study of the state and other organs of power. OR Political Sociology is the study of the relation between political organization and Society. Similarities: 1. both study such same topics such as power, voting, political groups etc. 2. Social institutions are the basics for the political institutions. 3. In civilized societies, the political institutions can remain constant and progressive. 4. Progressive social institutions depend on the stability of political institutions, because these political institutions provide peace and protection from every horrible and bad situation. Differences: 1. Political science is mainly concerned with political institutions. Sociology does not give dominance to any institution. For it, all institutions are equally important. 2. Political science deals with organized community ( )only while sociology studies both organized and unorganized communities.




It is a study of the past, which people have already lived. Similarities: 1. both study society. 2. Both are concerned with human activities and events. 3. History also describes the social life of passed people. 4. Sociology is social science but history provides examples for it. 5. The study of history is very important for the welfare of individuals and society. Differences: 1. History is concrete( ) but Sociology is abstract( ) . 2. History is concerned with the past while society is mainly concerned with present day societies. 3. Sociology is an observational, cooperative and generalizing science. History bases itself on an analysis of documents. 4. History deals with the details of evidence, while Sociology deals with general laws and principles.


Social Anthropology()

It is Sociologys sister discipline( ) . Anthropology is a study of the biological ) ( and socio-cultural ( )) aspects of human beings. Similarities: 1. Most similar in subject matter: The distinction of anthropology and sociology as study of early primitive cultures( ) and contemporary ( )society seem to be no longer valid. () 2. Culture and social organizations are concepts studied in both sociology and social anthropology. 3. Both use research methods such as observation, field work etc. Differences: 1. Anthropology studies simple cultures (Societies) (small & static( ) )while sociology focuses on complex cultures (Societies) (vast & dynamic). (). 2. Sociology is concerned with both social philosophy and social planning whereas anthropology is not concerned with social planning.



Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology

Theoretical Perspectives in SOCIOLOGY

Islamic Concept concept


Islamic Concept: Muslims follow Islam on the basis of Iman. When a Muslim wants to do a work which is related with routine life, so first he sees the teaching of Islam. Islam is a complete religion. ). ( Allah says So a Muslim finds the solution of every problem in his life. Every Muslim should follow the teachings of holy prophet (PBUH). Allah says about his holy prophet (PBUH).

Non-Islamic Concept: Nowadays the non-Muslims follow the non Islamic concept in social life, which is against of Islamic concept. They say our life is related with functional theory or conflict theory or symbol interaction theory. The three Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology functional theory, conflict theory and symbol interaction theory, all are against of Islam.

4. 1:

Why different Perspectives in Sociology? Different perfectives occur in sociology, because sociologists view society in different waves. Society means people who share a culture and territory. There are three kinds of sociologists. They have different ideas about society. Some see the world basically as a stable and on going entity. They are impressed ( )with the endurance ( )of family, organized religion and other social institutions. Other Sociologists see society is a composed of many groups in complicit, competing for scarce resources. Other Sociologists say the social world is the every day routine interaction among individuals. These three views, the one most widely used by sociologist, are the Functionalist, Complicit and intetactionist perspectives. So the views are different, for these purposes the perspectives also different. The job of Sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world. No one perspective is best in all circumstances. The perspective one uses may depend upon the question being asked. If one is exploring bureaucratic organization, then one might like to use a perspective that is concerned with social

order. On the other hand, if one is concerned with social inequality, then perhaps the conflict perspective is more useful. Perhaps the best perspective is one which combines many perspectives.

4. 2:

The Functionalist Perspective


Many of these ideas go back to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), the great French sociologist whose writings form the basis for functionalist theory. Durkheim was himself one of the first sociologists to make use of scientific and statistical techniques in sociological research (1951). Functionalism is the oldest, and still the dominant, theoretical perspective in sociology and many other social sciences. It keeps society stable and orderly. Functionalism focuses on order and stability in society; functionalists view society as a well-integrated system in which most members agree on basic values. Functionalism focuses on (a) a part of society and its relation to other parts and/or (b) a part of the social system and its relationship to the maintenance of the system as a whole.
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

The origins of the functionalist perspective can be traced ( ) to the work of Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim. The problem of maintaining social order is a central problem for understanding society. Understanding society from a functionalist perspective is to visualize society as a system of interrelated parts. All the parts act together even though each part may be doing different things. Institutions, such as family, education, and religion are the parts of the social system and they act to bring about order in society. Integration( )of the various parts is important. When all the "parts" of the system work together, balance is maintained and the over all order of the system is achieved. Social structures in society promote integration, stability, consensus (), and balance.

A System with Parts The parts of society are performing different functions, work together to maintain the stability of the whole social system.


Examples: 1. (Families, Work place, Class rooms, and the community) 2. ( prostitution centers: it satisfies the needs of those who are poor ) What's the Purpose? Functionalists, like Emile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton, are interested in how the parts of the social system contribute to the continuation of the social system. When functionalists encounter the various aspects of society, they may ask "What is its purpose?" A primary purpose of all parts (institutions like police, newspapers, religion) is to encourage consensus. ()

Merton (see Robertson, 1989:12) distinguishes between manifest functions, latent functions, and dysfunctions. 1. Manifest Functions ()

Manifest functions refer to functions that are obvious. Examples: 1. The manifest function of schools is to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic. 2. The manifest function of the military is to defend the nation. 3. The manifest function of criminal justice is to keep the streets safe for a society's citizens. 4. Providing a job for graduate. 5. Bonus for child birth 10,000$. 2. Latent Functions Latent functions are functions that are unrecognized. They may even be important functions, but their consequence is not obvious. They may reflect hidden purposes of an institution.


Example: 1. College students, in the course of pursuing their education, may make good friends. 2. Merton described college as a "mate selection market" where students meet prospective marriage partners. 3. Seeking marriage partner. 4. Hold down un employment


Dysfunctions () A perspective that is highly concerned about order is by definition concerned about what happens when social order breaks down. Merton uses the term dysfunction, which refers to a negative consequence that may disrupt the system. Dysfunction also conjures up the notion that a social phenomenon can be functional in one setting and dysfunctional in another. It may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability or create a threat for security.

Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Over Population Pollution Undesirable homicide () Gang is dysfunctional the smooth operation. High profit for factory owner may be dysfunctional for others. Large families become poor. ( ( ) According to non Muslims) Taxes jump. ()

4. 3:

The Conflict Perspective

The several social theories that emphasize social conflict have roots in the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883), the great German theorist and political activist. The social conflict approach is a frame work for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. Conflict theorists see society less as a cohesive ( ) system and more as an arena ( ) of conflict and power struggles, Instead of people working together to further the goals of the "social system," Conflict theorists argue that conflict over scarce resources (i.e., power, wealth, and prestige) is a fundamental reality of society

Conflict theorists observe that one group can "get ahead" only at the expense of another group Conflict theorists view inequality as undesirable and see it as only useful to some people
1. People are seen achieving their will at the expense of others. 2. People compete against each other for scarce resources. 3. Basic inequalities between various groups are a constant theme of conflict theory. 4. Power, or the lack of it, is also a basic theme ( ) of conflict theory. 5. Since some people benefit at the expense of others, those who benefit use ideology ()

to justify ( )their unequal advantage in social relationships. Marx is a conflict theorist. He argued that the struggle between social classes was the major cause of change in society. Much change, in fact, happens as rich people and poor people compete over scarce resources. Not all conflict theorists are Marxist. Weber is also a conflict theorist, where as Marx focused on class conflict as the "engine" of historic change, others see conflict among groups and individuals as a fact of life in any society. Conflict can occur over many other aspects of society unrelated to class. Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Conflict can occur over water rights (in West Texas and New Mexico). Conflict occurs when two people have a car accident. Conflict occurs between men and women. Conflict occurs between poor and rich. Conflict occurs between white and black. Conflict occurs between employer and employee.

Conflict and Change As a result of tension, hostility (), competition, and disagreements () over goals and values, change is one of the basic features in society. In general, change occurs because of inequality and the battle over scarce resources. Conflict occurs because people want things (power, wealth, and prestige) that are in short supply. One should realize that conflict is not intrinsically ( ) bad. Conflict provides grounds where people unite in order that they may act on their common interests. Conflict is the motor for desirable change.


4. 4:

The Interactionist Perspective

A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people used to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one other. The Interactionist perspective takes the position that it is people who exist and act. All the other "structures" found in society are nothing but human creations. For the Interactionists, society is always in a process of being created, and this occurs through communication and negotiation.
1. Symbolic Interactionists are called micro-sociologists. 2. The scope of investigation for these sociologists is very small. Interactionists prefer to 3.

4. 5.


explore the interaction of individuals or groups of individuals. Interaction is generally face-to-face and addresses "everyday" activities. Society occurs as a result of interaction between individuals and small groups of individuals over long periods of time. They are interested in the way individuals act toward, respond to, and influence one another in society. People negotiate meaning in their lives. Each communication produces new perspectives, expectations, and boundaries that individuals use to assure continual interactions in the future. Micro-sociologists are not interested in institutions (e.g., the economy and government), social class, and nation-states.


1. Society is dynamic. 2. Change occurs as a result of interaction between individuals. 3. Continuous change, not stable patterns, characterizes the real nature of society. This kind

of change is much less deterministic ( ) than change associated with the conflict perspective. Marxists look for change that is determined by characteristics in the social structure. Change from the Interactionist perspective is free-form.


Reference Groups There are many interactions take place in reference groups."
1. Reference groups include professional organizations, friendship groups, doctors and

medical people, education, and the community in which we live.


2. Some are more stable than others, but change is a common feature in all reference

groups. 3. Change occurs as people communicate with one another.


Symbolic Interaction Symbolic interactionism, or interactionism for short, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. This perspective has a long intellectual history, beginning with the German sociologist and economist, Max Weber (1864-1920) and the American philosopher, George H. Mead (1863-1931), both of whom emphasized the subjective meaning of human behavior, the social process, and pragmatism Symbolic interaction is a major sub-category of the Interactionist perspective. Robertson (1989:15) argues that "the interaction that takes place between people occurs through symbols." He calls a symbol "anything that can meaningfully represent something else."() Symbolic interaction defines for us what relationships are. Without symbols we do not have aunt and uncle, employer, teachers or even brothers and sisters. A symbol tells us how you related to others. Symbols not only allow relationships to exist, but they also allow society to exist. Micro sociological level of analysis; focuses on face-to-face interaction. Examines how people use symbols to create and negotiate social life, views language and reality as fluid social constructions. ()



The origin of Society

) (


Islamic Concept Islamic Concept:

Non Islamic concept .


Non Islamic concept: The Darwin theory of Evolution: (The evolution ( )of man from simple life forms through apes ( )to the present day human beings can be studied from various sources. Every one uses his brain only without religion. Man belongs to the Order Primate ( ) having a relatively large brain, grasping hand with nails and stereoscopic eyesight which has been developed at the expense of his sense of smell Other primates include tree shrews, lemurs, monkey and apes (chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas). Biologically, man is related to the apes and came form common ancestral species which, not nearly specialized lived both upon the ground and on trees. The tertiary era witnessed the Alpine ( ) progeny and the emergence of mammals. Apes, on the whole, have become arboreal and vegetarian. By being able to move from one tree to another on higher branches, they have attained security from terrestrial predators, Like tiger lion, leopard and they can also pluck fruits and edible forest products from trees at any height. They are essentially quadrupeds () , generally having prehensile tails. Man having become a biped with an erect posture , has no use for avail. His feet are fully adapted for a brisk walk . His hand with an opposable thumb is a highly controlled organ with a precise grip () . This enabled man to develop and use a variety of tools. The adoption of an erect posture has been accompanied by an enlargement of the brain especially of the frontal lobe which is the seat of function of a higher intellectual level. Lower jaw has become elongated because of the diet consisting mainly of cooked food. Freer and more delicaty

controlled movements of the jaw, face and tongue have enabled man to develop the faculty of speech. The change of habitat from trees to the ground added animal flesh to a diet which was originally vegetarian. The final stage f evolution as a separate species (Homo sapiens) took place mainly during the later Pleistocene period (() . This was also the period of drastic climatic changes () . Ape-man ranged ( ) in the outer regions of the tropics and in sub-tropical latitudes ( ) of Asia, Africa and Europe. This is vindicated by fragments ( ) of skulls and bones which have been found in China, central and Western Europe as well as in Africa. But mans survival instincts ( )enabled him to survive near the equator ( )also, as some of the most significant remains have been recovered in Java. The ability of man to use fire and make tools, which could be used for skinning of animals, enabled him to survive in colder climates. During the inter-glacial periods when climate became milder, the early hominids spread even into higher latitudes, because their remains have been found in regions like Europe and northern China. Similarly, during the glacial periods () , the hominids moved to tropical and subtropical areas. By the time the last of the glacial periods came, man was able to survive in more rigorous ( )climates by retreating into caves and using animal skins and fire. Among the best known of these early species was the Neanderthal man with larger bones and more powerful muscles than the modern man, but having a more primitive skull, massive and protruding jaw () , a receding forehead and a prominent bony ridge above the eyes. The Neanderthal appears to have evolved as a separate species north of the Tertiary mountain belt of Europe and Asia. The remains have been found in northern China as well as in Europe. Mankind, thus, appears to have evolved south of the mountain zone in Eurasia and to have lived in India, Java, western and southern Asia and northern Africa. It seems that Neander thaloids and more modern species lived together in Europe and south-western Asia during the latter part of the last glaciations. Although the more specialized Neanderthals have not survived as a species, some of their physical characteristics have been identified in present day Europeans. Some authorities believe that the Neanderthals of eastern Asia have contributed to the Mongoloid peoples.

THE RACES OF MANKIND Race has been defined as a biological grouping within the human species, distinguished or classified according to genetically ( )transmitted

differences. The race as an expression has been used in different context, viz. culture, tradition, language and nationality. These are not scientific criteria, since they are neither biological nor inherited . There has been some difference of opinion regarding the origin of different races. One school of thought argues that racial differences existed from the very beginning, while another school of thought believes that different races developed from one single ancestral species. The scientific classification of human racial types is based on certain combinations of fixed, inherited, as far as possible measurable and visually identifiable traits, such as head shape, eye shape and color, skin color, stature, blood groups etc. These traits represent morphological, biological and genetically aspects. With the inclusion of more and more traits, the number of combinations increases and the analysis becomes more complex. There is no single way of classifying mankind into biological races. In the past, physical characteristics, such as skin color and hair type, were used to delineate three to five biological races (Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid and later, Austrloid and American Indian). More subtle techniques, taking into account blood types and hereditary diseases well as terrain barriers, result in classifications that may include as many as eight or nine geographical race. Although difference of opinion exists regarding terminology and the exact classification, the following divisions are generally accepted: 1. Caucasoid (European) 2. Negrodi (African) 3. Mongoloid (Asistic or Oriental) 4. Indic (Hindu) 5. Australoid (Australian aboriginals) 6. Polynesians / Melanesians / Micronesian (sometimes, these three are classified as the Oceanic generally speaking, the spatial distribution and concentration of these races is Caucasoid in Europe, Mongoloids in Asia and Negroids in Africa. But these races are not limited, in spatial extent, to these areas only. For instance, the Caucasoid race is also found along the northern belt of Africa, Turkey and from Iran to Baluchistan and India. The Mongoloid race is mainly found in the central, eastern and south-eastern parts of Asia and the western parts of the Americas (Red Indians etc.), Arctic region (Eskimos in Canada, Greenland and Yakuts in Siberia). In other worlds, the Mongoloids are clustering around the Pacific and the Arctic Oceans. The Negroids are mainly concentrated in the south of Sahara desert in Africa, but they are also found in Indonesia (pygmy group,

Papua New Guinea and Melanesia. The Australoids, a mixture of Negroids and Dravidians (south India), are largely concentrated in Australia, especially in the north and west.


1. SKIN COLOUR The Caucasoid (European) have pale reddish white to olive brown skin color. Among the Mongoloids, the skin color ranges between saffron to yellow brown, while some individuals have reddish brown skin color. The Negroids (African) have brown to brown-black or yellow-brown skin color. 2. STATURE The Caucasoid (European)have a medium to tall stature , while the Mongoloids are medium tall to medium short and Negroids (African), tall to very short. 3. HEAD FORM Among the Caucasoid (European), head is generally long to broad and short and medium high to very high. Among the Mongoloids, head is predominantly broad and medium high, while it is predominately long and low to medium high among Negroids (African) 4. FACE It is narrow to medium broad and tends to be high with noprognathism, among the Caucasoid (European). Among the Mongoloids, it is medium broad to very broad and medium high. The face is medium broad to narrow and tends towards medium high with strong pragmatism among Negroids (African). 5. HAIR Among the Caucasoid (European), hair color is light brown to dark brown, texture is fine to medium and the form is straight to wavy. The body hair among

the Caucasoid is moderate to profuse . Among the Mongoloids, the color of hair is brown to brown black, texture is coarse, and form is straight and body hair sparse. among the negroids, hair color is brown black, textures course; form is wooly or frizzy and body hair, spares. 6. EYE The color of eyes, among the Caucasoid (European), is light blue to dark brown while the lateral eye-fold is occasional. Among the mongoloids, the eye color is brown to dark brown and the medial epicanthic fold is very common. Among the Negroids (African), eye color is brown to brown black and vertical eye-fold is common. 7. NOSE Among the Caucasoid (European), the nasal bridge is usually remain high and the form, narrow to medium broad. The nasal bridge, among the mongoloids, is usually low to medium and the form, medium broad. Among the negroids (African), the nasal bridge is usually low and the form, medium broad to very broad.

8. BODY SHAPE Among the Caucasoid (European), it is linear to lateral and slender ( )to rugged. Among the mongoloids, lateral tends to be with some linearity and among the negroids (African); the body shape is lateral and muscular. 9. BLOOD GROUP Among the Caucasoid (European), frequency of A is more than that of B, while the mongoloids have more B than A and the negroids (African) have both A and B.


The symbolic world


The symbolism represents the practice of representing things by symbols. Or it represents the investing of things with a symbolic meaning or character. Or it represents a set or system of symbols. The art or practice of using symbols especially by investing things with a symbolic meaning. Infrahuman: below man on the evolutionary scale. (Lower animals) belonging to a group below humans in evolutionary development. (Belonging to a group below humans in evolutionary development) According to Symbolic Interactions, humans are distinct from infrahuman. "Infrahuman animals" simply respond to their environment (i.e., a stimulus evokes a response) whereas humans have the ability to interrupt that process (i.e., stimulus - cognition - response). () Additionally, infrahuman are unable to conceive of alternative responses to gestures. Humans Thus, symbolic integrationists tend to employ more qualitative rather than quantitative methods in their research. In symbolic interactions thought, there is a difference between infrahuman and human society. In infrahuman life. In other words, it is not a cognitive ( )process; it results from instinct ( )and biological programming rather than conscious thinking. In human society, cooperation is cognitive and conscious. Another distinction drawn between infrahuman and humans is in the types of communication employed. Infrahuman communication is gestural; it takes place immediately, without any interruption of the act for interpretation or assigning meaning. Human communication is meaningful in that gestures are symbolic and do not invoke immediate responses - humans must interpret gestures and assign them meaning. Because human communication involves interpretation and the assignment of meaning, it is only possible when there is consensus in meaning. Meanings for symbols must be shared. The basic assumptions of symbolic interactions, according to Herman and Reynolds (1994), are: 1. humans live in a symbolic world of learned meanings 2. symbols arise in the social process and are shared 3. symbols have motivational significance; meaning and symbols allow individuals to carry out distinctively human action and interaction 4. the mind is a functional, volitional, teleological entity serving the interests of the individual; Humans, unlike the lower animals, are endowed with the capacity for thought; the capacity for thought is shaped by social interaction

5. the self is a social construct; just as individuals are born mindless, so too, are they born selfless; our selves arise in social interaction with others 6. society is a linguistic or symbolic construct arising out of the social process; it consists of individuals interacting 7. Sympathetic introspection is a mandatory mode of inquiry. ( )


Individual, Group and society - Definitions A world consists of societies, a society consists of groups, and a group consists of individuals. People who share common purposes or goals would form a group.

Individual: 1. A single human being, as distinguished from a group. 2. A person: a strange individual. 3. A distinct, indivisible entity; a single thing, being, instance, or item. 4. An individual is a person or a specific object. Individuality (or selfhood) is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs or goals. He is being self expressive, and independent. Group: 1. A group is a number of things or persons being in some relation to one another. 2. (Social groups a description of various human groups. 3. A collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie () , and who work together achieve a common set of goals. 4. Group may be defined as the aggregation of small number of people who work for common goals and develop a shared attitude. 5. A group can be also formed by people who share common characteristics or conditions.

Group Characteristics


. A small group consists of any number of people from about 2 to about 20 who have some need or purpose in common and who can communicate with each other face to face without the need for parliamentary procedure to regulate behavior and group process. A board of directors is a small group. A jury is a small group. Dyads are sometimes considered small groups. Even when dyads have a specific purpose, however, the interaction differs from that in groups of three or more because the presence of other people influences the communication process. Some times an individual has conflict in his groups, which formed by individuals, have conflict in themselves. It is some times called social l conflict. Solidarity of Group: Common purposes or goals create solidarity (). As the forms of solidarity, attraction, loyalty, identification and association exists in a group. What do attraction, loyalty, identification and association mean in the relationships among individuals in a group? 1. Attraction: In general, an attraction draws one object towards another one. Attraction indicates a positive affective attachment to another person. Attraction depends on positive relationships between wife and husband and father and mother. Japanese people work for the company rather than for his family. Attraction has three causes.1.chracteristics 2.Social Status 3.Physical features 2. Loyalty: Loyalty is faithfulness to someone or thing based on the ideas of another. Loyalty refers to attraction to groups as groups in that case; Japanese people might be attracted to the salary rather than company. 3. Identification: 1. The act of identifying. 2. The state of being identified. 3. Proof or evidence of identity. Generally most Japanese people have black hair and eyes. American may mention about his nationality. 4. ASSOCIATION: In general, an association is a group of persons banded together for a specific purpose. The association must have a written document, such as articles of association, showing its creation. At least two persons must sign the document, which must be dated. The definition of an association can vary under state law.

Goal of Association: 1. Group tries to make standard. 2. Group tries to import any Japanese product. 3. The form of family and tribes also included in association. 4. Association is the group of more than two people.

Examples of ASSOCIATION 1. An association of local business leaders 2. They denied having any association with terrorists. 3. They have a long association with the school and have donated millions of dollars to it. Group Roles The key roles are as follows: 1. Leadership. Leadership in a group may be either ascribed or earned. Ascribed leadership results from a persons position or status in the organization, whereas earned leadership occurs when an individual assumes the responsibility for facilitating communication and goal achievement. 2. Task specialist. Persons performing the role of task specialist are goaloriented; their chief concerns are with the facts, nature of the problem, and with ensuring a workable solution by the specified deadline. 3. Human relations specialist. Human relations specialists attempt to resolve conflicts by including participants who might otherwise be left out, offering compromises, supporting the ideas of others, and testing for consensus. 4. Self-serving. Any dysfunctional behaviorbehavior that works to prevent the group from accomplishing its goalis essentially self-serving. Refusing to cooperate by rejecting the ideas of other participants, withdrawing from the discussion, and attempting to monopolize the discussion are typical examples.


Types of Groups

1. Primary & Secondary Groups:A primary group consists of family and close friends and it has intimate, face to face association & co-operation e.g. family, neighborhood groups, friendship groups A secondary group is formal, may not have any interest in the problems & pleasure of others.

2. Membership & Reference Groups: A membership group is one to which an individual really belongs. A reference group is one with which the individual identifies. The attractiveness of the reference group makes the norms of that group more attractive to the individual who aspires for it. 3. Command & Task Groups: A command group is composed of subordinates who report directly to a common supervisor e.g. a production manager & his subordinates in his department. A task group is usually formed to solve a problem. It is comprised of the employees who work together to complete a particular task. 4. In-groups & Out-groups: In-groups are a cluster of individuals that have a dominant place in social functioning. The out-groups are marginal ( ) in the society and referred as minority groups. 5. Formal & Informal groups: Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfill specific needs related to the overall organizational mission: a. Designed by Top management for achieving organizational goals B. concentrates more on the performance of job c. People are placed in hierarchy and their status determined accordingly d. Co-ordination of members are controlled through process, procedures etc The most common formal groups in organizations are the following:


1. Informational: Staff meetings, conferences, and briefings are examples of informational groups. 2. Education-and-training: College classes and in-service seminars and workshops are examples of education-and-training groups. 3. Problem-solving: Any group with a particular task or specific objective is a problem-solving group. Informal Groups are created in the organization because of social and psychological forces operating at the workplace. . Coffee-break gatherings, group lunches, and organizational golf outings and bowling or softball teams are among the most common informal groups in organizations. a. A natural outcome at the work place & not designed and planned b. Organization is coordinated by group norms and not by norms of the formal organization c. Such group associations are not specified in the blue-print of the formal organization. Society: A society, or a human society, is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, ( ) or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory,( ) subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. A fairly a large number of people who live in the same territory are relatively independent of people outside it and participate in a common culture. Types of Societies: Although humans have established many types of societies throughout history, sociologists and anthropologists (experts who study early and tribal cultures) usually refer to some basic types of societies, each defined by its level of technology. 1. Hunting and gathering societies The members of hunting and gathering societies primarily survive by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering plants. But most hunting and gathering societies were nomadic, moving constantly in search of Hunting and gathering societies were also tribal. Members shared an ancestral heritage and a common set of traditions and rituals. They also sacrificed their individuality for the sake of the larger tribal culture.


Pastoral societies Members of pastoral societies, which first emerged 12,000 years ago, pasture ( )animals for food and transportation. Pastoral societies still exist today, primarily in the desert lands of North Africa where horticulture and manufacturing are not possible. Pastoral societies allow certain of its members to engage in no survival activities. Traders, healers, spiritual leaders, craftspeople, and people with other specialty professions appear.


Horticultural societies Unlike pastoral societies that rely on domesticating animals, horticultural societies rely on cultivating fruits, vegetables, and plants. These societies first appeared in different parts of the planet about the same time as pastoral societies. Like hunting and gathering societies, horticultural societies had to be mobile. Horticultural societies occasionally produced a surplus, which permitted storage as well as the emergence of other professions not related to the survival of the society.


Agricultural societies Agricultural societies use technological advances to cultivate crops (especially grains like wheat, rice, corn, and barley) over a large area. Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. This meant a greater surplus, which resulted in towns that became centers of trade supporting various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who did not have to worry about locating nourishment. Women previously had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men. In hunting and gathering societies, women even gathered more food than men. But as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family, they became more subordinate to men... A system of rulers with high social status also appeared. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. In this way, the nobility managed to extract goods from the lesser persons of society.


Feudal societies: () From the 9th to 15th centuries, feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of land. Unlike today's farmers, vassals under feudalism were bound to cultivating their lord's land. In exchange for military protection, the lords exploited the peasants into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services to the owner of the land. The caste system of feudalism was often multigenerational; the families of peasants may have cultivated their lord's land


for generations. The introduction of foreign metals, silks, and spices stimulated great commercial activity in Europe. 6. Industrial societies The Industrial Revolution appeared first in Britain, and then quickly spread to the rest of the world. As productivity increased, means of transportation improved to better facilitate the transfer of products from place to place. Great wealth was attained by the few who owned factories, and the masses ( )found jobs working in the factories. Industrialization brought about changes in almost every aspect of society. As factories became the center of work, home cottages as the usual workplace became less prevalent, ( )as did the family's role in providing vocational training ( ) and education. Public education via schools and eventually the mass media became the norm. People's life expectancy increased as their health improved. Political institutions changed into modern models of governance. Cultural diversity ( ) increased, as did social mobility. () Large cities emerged as places to find jobs in factories. Social power moved into the hands of business elites ( ) and governmental officials, leading to struggles between industrialists and workers. Labor unions and welfare organizations formed in response to these disputes and concerns over workers' welfare, including children who toiled ( ) in factories. Rapid changes in industrial technology also continued, especially the production of larger machines and faster means of transportation. The Industrial Revolution also saw to the development of bureaucratic forms of organization, complete with written rules, job descriptions, impersonal positions, and hierarchical methods of management. 7. Post industrial societies Sociologists note that with the advent of the computer microchip, the world is witnessing a technological revolution. This revolution is creating a post industrial society based on information, knowledge, and the selling of services. That is, rather than being driven by the factory production of goods, society is being shaped by the human mind, aided by computer technology. Although factories will always exist, the key to wealth and power seems to lie in the ability to generate, store, manipulate, and sell information. Sociologists speculate about the characteristics of post industrial society in the near future. They predict increased levels of education and training, consumerism, availability of goods, and social mobility. While they hope for a decline in inequality as technical skills and know-how begins to determine class rather than the ownership of property, sociologists are also concerned about potential

social divisions based on those who have appropriate education and those who do not. Sociologists believe society will become more concerned with the welfare of all members of society. They hope postindustrial society will be less characterized by social conflict, as everyone works together to solve society's problems through science.


Community Definition

Definitions of Community 1. Social groups of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage. () 2. A group of interacting people, living in some proximity (( )i.e., in space, time, or relationship). Community usually refers to a social unit larger than a household that shares common values and has social cohesion. ( 3. A body of people having common rights, privileges, or interests, or living in the same place under the same laws and regulations; as, a community of monks.( ) Hence a number of animals living in a common home or with some apparent ()association of interests. 4. Community means, a group of people living together, sharing common interest, having sense of belongingness. Community life depends upon some kinds of face to face communication/interaction among the members. Elements of Community: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A group of people Specific locality Community sentiments() Natural Likeness Wider ends Particular name No legal status Size


(a) Rural Community: Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described. They have a low population density , and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture and has less pollution. The degree to which areas of wilderness ( )are included in the term varies; very large wilderness areas are not likely to be described by the term in most contexts. Rural Community means a group of rural people, having belongingness, sharing their emotions living in a specific locality within a village. Rural Community is consists of rural people who are generally depends on agriculture. In most parts of the world rural areas have been declining since the 19th century or earlier, both as a proportion of land area, and in terms of the proportion of the population living in them. Characteristics of Rural Community:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Rural Community is mainly depends on agriculture Rural communities are relatively more homogeneous Relationships are not means to end type It have their own culture and tradition There have limited jobs Depends on internal natural resources Rural Community is regulated by village elders. Rural community is a country community Some characteristics of a rural community are; animals, farm, grass A rural community also mostly has less then 1,000 people. Low degree of urbanization. Distance from urban area and large urban centre. Low population in size and density. Lake of transportation. Limited resources to buy health food, medicine, or health insurance. Poorer health status. Restricted opportunity for a better life. Limited funding and inadequate facilities for education. Fever high skilled and high paying jobs. May lake knowledge regarding healthy options and disease prevention. Strong people orientation of culture. Face to face interaction preference. Traditional values tend to be more politically and socially conservative. Connection to the land, hunting, fishing, growing and being outside.

25. Lake health insurance 26. Transportation and public system not convenient. 27. There is higher incidence of some chronic disease such as cancer. 28. Rural residents suffer chronic disease and disabilities at younger ages than their urban. 29. There is a stronger sense of community in rural area.

Objectives of Rural Community: To improve the living standards by providing food, shelter, clothing, employment and education 2. To increase productivity in Rural areas and reduce poverty 3. To involve people in planning and development through decentralization of administration 4. To ensure distributive justice and equalization of opportunities in the society

(b) Urban community: Urbanization encroaches ( ) on rural land, and the mechanization of agriculture has reduced the number of workers needed to work the land, while alternative employment is typically easier to obtain in cities. In parts of the developed world urban sprawl has greatly reduced the areas that can be called rural, and land use planning measures are used to protect the character of rural areas in various ways. Urban Community means a group of people, having belongingness, sharing their emotion, live in a particular area in city

Characteristics of Urban Community:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Large in size High density of population Diversification of occupation It have larger area for interaction Relationships are means to end types Migration of people from rural area Development of Slums areas. Faster growth of population. Urban community is a city community Some characteristics of an urban community are; cars, buildings, businesses etc. The urban community generally has more then 1,000 people.

11. Higher crime rate. 12. Urban is kind of like a busy place in a city or community. 13. Higher health status. 14. Convenient transportation and public services. 15. High degree of urbanization. 16. High skilled and high paying jobs.

Objectives of Urban Community: To improve adequate support service to the slum dwellers. 2. To reduce the ecological breakdown. () 3. To organize family welfare programmers to control population growth 4. To make plans for reduction of chronic diseases ( ) as HIV/AIDS, TB and Leprosy etc.()


Culture Meaning, Definition and characteristics of Culture

Definition of Culture: 1. The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, or group. 2. Culture is defined as a peoples complete way of life. It consists of all the ideas, objects and ways of doing things created by the group. Culture includes beliefs, customs, language and traditions. 3. Culture is the totality, ( ) of leaned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behavior. It includes the ideas, values, and artifacts (( ) DVD, Comic books ( ), birth control devices) of groups of people. Example: 1. patriotic attachment to the flag of the own county, is an aspect of culture. 2. A tribe that cultivates soil by hands has a culture like a people that relies on computer operated machinery. Most human cultures change and expand through the process of innovation and diffusion (). Discovery: DNA molecules, identification of new moon of Saturn ( ) are both acts of discovery.

Invention: the bow ( )and arrow (), the television, the automobile are example of invention. Innovation: It includes both discovery and invention Diffusion: (). It indicates the spread of cultural items from one place to another. People in Asia are begging to drink coffee. People in North America are discovering sushi. () An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE Different cultures throughout the world have these characteristics or qualities. First is that culture is learned, this is the first essential characteristics of culture. Culture is learned by any individual, especially if he/she grows up with that particular culture. He/she can learn behavior patterns including language and many other attributes. We can learn the culture of others especially if we acquaint with them and get influence with their personality and lifestyle. Not all things shared generally by a population are cultural-for it to be considered cultural it must be first learned as well as shared. The second characteristic of culture is that culture is shared by a group of people. We can consider a thought or an action as a culture if it is commonly shared and believed or practiced by a group of people. If it is commonly shared and believed by a group of individuals then it can be considered as their culture. The third characteristic of culture is that culture is cumulative ( ). Different knowledge embodied in culture can be passed from one generation to another generation. More and more knowledge is added in the particular culture as time passes by. Each may work out solutions to problems in life that passes from one generation to another. This cycle remains as the particular culture goes with time. People are able to retain certain features of their culture that are significant. The fourth characteristic of culture is that cultures change. Not all cultures accumulate. there is knowledge; thoughts or traditions that are lost as new cultural traits are added, with that there are possibilities of cultural changes with the particular culture through time. Culture is passed on to succeeding generations primarily through Language/ Communication.

The fifth characteristic of culture is that culture is dynamic () . It was considered that there is no culture remains on the permanent state. Culture is changing constantly as new ideas and new techniques are added in time modifying or changing the old ways. This is the characteristic of culture that stems from the cultures cumulative quality. The sixth characteristic of culture is that culture is ideational. Culture forms ideal pattern of behaviors that followed by individuals expectedly. It serves as guidelines that must be followed by members to gain social acceptance from the people with the same culture. Culture uses ideas and symbols to give meanings to his environment and experiences. Every individual sees and approaches his world according to standpoint of his culture.

The seventh characteristic of culture is that culture is diverse. () It was considered that culture was formed by many separate cultures. It is a system that has several mutually interdependent parts. Although these parts are separate, they are interdependent with one another forming culture as a whole. The eight characteristic of culture is that culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns () . Culture provides us with the norms of appropriate behavioral patterns. It involves how an activity should be conducted, how an individual should appropriately act, as husband, wife, parents, child, and others. It tells us how to dress based on gender, occasions, statue and many more. The nine characteristic of culture is that. Culture gratifies human needs. Human has biological needs such as food, shelter, clothing, protection, love, security and sex.

Elements of Culture The elements of culture include beliefs, values, norms, sanctions, and symbols. Symbols:


A symbol is anything that represents something else. It can be either ( ) a material object (a flag, a cross) or a non-material element (a sound, a gesture). As members of a culture, we are constantly and thoroughly surrounded by symbols: when we stop at the red light, we obey a symbolic command. Symbols carry shared meanings among people and they can be used to produce loyalty or hostility. . The symbolic meaning is obvious and powerful. In other words, the meaning of a symbol may depend on the users. Gesture is the way in which people use their bodies and communicate with one other.

Language: The oldest human institution and the most sophisticated ( ) medium of expression. Human language comprises two basic components: vocabulary (list of all existing words) and grammar (rules of combination). These two components are the basic tools that can then be used by any competent member of society to produce a wide range of expressions. Language is a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another. Without language, there would be no culture. It is through language that we are able to create, share, preserve ( )and transmit cultural meanings such as complex (and uniquely human) patterns of emotion, thought, knowledge and beliefs. In this sense, language gives us a sense of history and contributes to social evolution as each new generation does not have to reinvent the wheel but can count on an already available stock of knowledge and ideas and build on it. Language is essential to give members of society a sense of identity. We commonly think of language as a tool through which we communicate but it is more than that. We value education and dislike ignorance or we value individualism and fear collectivism Beliefs: Beliefs indicate Specific statements that people hold to be true. The belief of an individual or group influence whether that individual or group views a particular social condition as a social problem. Does violence in movies and on television lead to increase aggression ( )in children? Beliefs not only influence how a social condition is interpreted, ( )they also influence the existence of the condition itself.


Values: Values define standards of desirability, goodness, beauty and many other things that serve as broad guidelines ( )for social living. Values are social agreements about what is considered good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable. Frequently, ( )social conditions are viewed as social problems when the conditions are incompatible ( )with or contradict ( )closely held values. For example: poverty and homelessness violates the value of human welfare; crime contradicts the values of honesty, private property, and nonviolence; racism, sexism, and heterosexism violate the values of equality and fairness. Other example: the value of honesty implies ( ) the norm that students should not cheat on exams or plagiarize ( )papers. Doing so would violate the value of honesty that is characteristic of academic life. Norms and Sanctions: Norms are socially defined rules of behavior. Norms serve as guidelines for our behavior and for our expectations of the behavior of others. Norms are Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. The two types of norms are mores and folkways. Examples of Formal Norms: (1) Salary bonus: (2) Testimonial dinner ( 3) Medal: (4) Diploma

Examples of Informal Norms: (1) Smile (2) Compliment ( 3) Cheers

Three types of norms: 1. Folkways refer to the customs and manners of society that are not strictly enforced. In many segments of our society, it is customary (1) To shake hands when being introduced to a new acquaintance, () (2) To say "excuse me" after sneezing, (3) And to give presents to family and friends on their birthdays. Although no laws require us to do these things, we are expected to do them because they are part of the cultural traditions, or folkways, of the society in which we live.

Folkways are norms for routine, casual interaction. Folkways are conventions of everyday life that members of society are expected to follow but whose violation is not considered serious. If someone picks their nose ( )in public, it is considered impolite ( ) and inappropriate behavior but no one gets arrested for this. 2. Laws are norms that are formalized and backed by political authority. A person who eats food out of a public garbage container is violating a folkway; no law prohibits this behavior. However, throwing trash onto a public street is considered littering and is against the law. Other laws can be enacted ( ) to protect people against the negative consequences of outdated mores. In the case of bride burning , the Indian government created a special police branch to deal with such crimes against women and the penalties are heavy for the violators, although traditional mores are so strong that these crimes are rarely reported. 3. Mores have a moral basis and norms that are strictly enforced ( )because they are thought essential to our values. Violations of mores may produce shock, horror (), and moral indignation () . Both littering ( ) and child sexual abuse are violations of law, but child sexual abuse is also a violation of our mores because we view such behavior as immoral . Mores are norms that are widely observed and have a great moral significance. On the other hand, mores are norms which reflect strongly-held values and whose violation involves a strong negative societal reaction, such as incarceration ( ) or even death. For instance, in India, patriarchy (mens social dominance over women) is a common value and it is incarnated in the practice of dowry ( wealth that is offered by the brides family to the grooms family). Sanctions or social consequences indicate for conforming to ( )or violating norms. When we conform to a social norm, we may be rewarded by a positive sanction. These may range from an approving smile to a public ceremony in our honor (). When we violate a social norm, we may be punished by a negative sanction, which may range from a disapproving look to the death penalty or life in prison. Most sanctions are spontaneous ( )expressions of approval or disapproval by groups and individuals--these are referred to as informal sanctions. Sanctions that are carried out according to some recognized or formal procedure are referred to as formal sanctions. Types of sanctions: 1. Positive informal sanctions: Examples: (1) a pat ( )on the back for a good shot at a basketball game is an informal positive sanction.


2. Positive formal sanctions: Examples: (1) Graduation ceremony is a formal positive sanction. 3. Negative informal sanctions: Examples: (1) A time-out given to an unruly child is an informal negative sanction. (2) Frowns (3) Humiliation (4) Belittling

4. Negative formal sanction. Examples: (1) Demotion or downgrading (fall) (2) Firing from job (3) Jail sentence () (4) Expulsion ( (5) Whereas a prison sentence for a crime is a formal negative sectional sanction. . 5.6 1. 2. 3. Functional role of culture Trademark or special feature distinguishes one society from another. Brings together, contains and interprets the values of a society in a more or less systematic manner. Provides one of the most important bases for Social solidarity. Social Solidarity inspires loyalty and devotion. When the nation has common feelings, common objectives it results to common national pride.() Provides a blueprint ( )of, as well as the materials for social structure. The culture of any society is the dominant factor in establishing and molding the social personality. Social stamp is expected despite differences of individuals. Culture of a society provides behavioral pattern. It also provides norm to follow. This explains why student will not come in class wearing her bathing suit. Culture provides individual with the meaning and direction of his existence. The division of labor in society takes the form of the interaction among heterogeneous ( )specialized positions, we call roles.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.


9. Social roles included appropriate and permitted forms of behavior, guided by social norms, which are commonly known and hence determine the expectations for appropriate behavior in these roles. 10. Roles are occupied by individuals, who are called Actor. 11. When individuals approve of a social role (i.e., they consider the role legitimate and constructive) ( ) , they will incur costs to conform to role norms, and will also incur ( ) costs to punish those who violate role norms. 12. Changed conditions can render a social role outdated or illegitimate, ( ) in which case social pressures are likely to lead to role change. 13. The anticipation ( )of rewards and punishments, as well as the satisfaction of behaving pro socially.( ) 14. Cultural values direct our lives. 15. Gives meaning to what we do. 16. Bind people to gather. 17. Thinking functionally helps us that we understand an unfamiliar way of life. 18. Funeral rites. 19. Jokes are another function of culture, releasing social tension. 20. One common functional element is the family which functions every where to control sexual reproduction and to oversee the core children.

Social role posits the following about social behavior: Man is not only a social animal but also a cultured being. Mans social life has been made possible because of culture. Culture is something that has elevated ( )him from the level of animal to the heights of man. Man cannot survive as man without culture. It represents the entire achievements of mankind. Culture has been fulfilling a number of function among which the following may be noted. 1. Culture is the treasury of knowledge Culture provides knowledge which is essential for the physical and intellectual existence of man. With the help of these he has been able to adapt himself with environment or modify it to suit his convenience . Culture has made such an adaptation and modification possible and easier by providing man the necessary skills and knowledge. Culture preserves knowledge and helps its transmission from generation to generation through its means that is


language helps not only the transmission of knowledge but also its preservation, accumulation and diffusion. 2. Culture defines situations Culture defines social situations for us. It not only defines but also conditions and determines what we eat and drink, we wear, when to laugh, weep, sleep, love to like friends with, what work we do, what knowledge we rely upon, what poetry we recite and so on. 3. Culture defines attitudes, values and goods Attitudes refer to the tendency to feel and work out in certain ways. Values are the measure of goodness or desirability. Goods refer to the attainments which our values define as worthy. It is the culture which conditions our attitude towards various issues such as religion, morality, marriage, science, family planning, positions and so on. Our values concerning private etc. are influenced by our culture. Our goals of winning the race, understanding others, attaining salvation , being obedient to elders and teachers, being loyal to husband, being patriotic etc. are all set forth by our culture. We are being socialized on these models. 4. Culture decides our career Whether we should become a politician or a social worker, a doctor, an engineer, a soldier, a farmer, a professor, an industrialist, a religious leader and so on is decided by our culture. What career we are likely to pursue is largely decided by our culture. Culture sets limitations on our choice to select different careers. Individuals may develop, modify or oppose the trends of their culture but they always live within its framework. Only a few can find outlet on the culture: 5. Culture provides behavior pattern Culture directs and confines the behavior of an individual. Culture assigns goals and provides means for achieving them. It rewards noble works and punishes the ignoble ones. It assigns him status. We see dream, aspire , and work, strive to marry () , enjoy according to the cultural expectation. Culture not only contains but also liberates human energy and activities. Man indeed is a prisoner of his culture. 6. Culture provides personality


Culture exercises a great influence on the development of personality. No child can get human qualities in the absence of a cultural environment. Culture prepares man for group life and provides him the design of living. It is the culture that provides opportunities for the development of personality and sets limits on its growth. 7. Culture makes man a human being It is culture that makes the human, a man, regulates his conduct and prepares him for group life. It provides to him a complete design for living. It teaches him what type of food he should take and in what manner, how he should cover himself and behave with his fellows, how he should speak with the people and how he should co-operate or compete with others. An individual abstained from culture is less than human; he is what we call feral ( )man. 8. Culture provides solution for complicated situation Culture provides man with a set of behavior even for complicated situation in the absence of culture he should have been baffled even at the simplest situations. He need not go through painful trial and error learning to know what food can be taken without poisoning himself and fellow. His culture directs and confines his behavior, limits his goals and measures his reward . His culture gets into his mind and shutters vision so that he sees what is supposed to see in dream what he is expected to dream and hunger for what he is trained to hunger. 9. Culture provides traditional interpretations to certain situation. Through culture men gets traditional interpretation for many situations according to which he determines his behavior. If a cat crosses his way he postpones his journey. It may however be noted that these traditional interpretation differ from culture to culture. Among some culture owl is regarded as a symbol of wisdom and not a symbol of idiocy . These both examples of culture are against of Islam. 10. Culture keeps social relationship intact () Culture has importance not only for man but also for the group. Had there been no culture there would have been no group life. Culture is the design and the prescription for guiding values and ideals. Lessen the chances that a man will behave irrationally or irresponsibility. The members of group characterized though they be by consciousness of kind, at once competing. They are held in line by constraints prescribed by culture.

11. Culture broadens the out looks of the individual Culture has given a new vision to individual by providing him a set of rules for co-operation of the individuals. He thinks not only his own self but also of the others. Culture teaches him to think himself a part of the larger whole, it provides him with the concept of family, state, nation and class and make responsible the cooperation and division of labor. 12. Culture creates new needs Culture also creates new needs and new drives, for example, thirst for knowledge and arranges for the satisfaction.

Culture verses Islam One is the culture of Islam the complete way of life set forth ( )in the Quran and Sunnah. On the other opposing end is the Western culture. Both cultures present a complete way of life. However, both ways of life differ drastically. ( ) The difference stems ( )in the two cultures primarily from the source of the cultures. Islamic culture the way of life of a Muslim is defined by the Quran and Sunnah. It is the culture of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). It is that way of life upon which he established the Sahaaba (R.A.) after having turned them away from the culture of jahiliyyah (ignorance). On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, ( )people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature.

Some of the salient features of Islamic society are: 1. No free intermingling between non-mahram (( )those who are not forbidden to marry) males and females. The laws of Hijaab will be observed. 2. Modest dressing. Clothing will truly cover the body (also loose enough to cover the shape) and have no flirtatious intent. ( ) 3. Men and women will fulfill the separate roles that have been apportioned to them the husband as breadwinner and the wife as mother and one who fulfils the household responsibilities, etc. This is the foundation to a stable Islamic family which together with other such families forms a stable Islamic community. Contrary to this, the cornerstone of Western culture is immorality and extravagance (). The live-in culture where a couple live like man and wife but never marry is almost the

norm. While there are numerous aspects that highlight the immorality of Western culture, perhaps the most visible and marked expression of this culture is in its dressing. Shorter, tighter and more revealing is the rule by which the dress code keeps changing. Western clothing, instead of covering and distracting any wrongful glances, is by and large designed for flirting, attracting and arousing. Fashion-slavery is part of western life. If one does not have a branded garment, it is tragic. If the real thing is not available, a fake ( )will also do. If it is not a branded product, it is then only for the have-nots even if it is of a better quality and lesser cost. Note: While the above are some of the serious core differences between Islamic and Western culture, the most important aspect is the difference in the mindset of both cultures. Conversely, the mindset of Western culture is that the purpose of life is worldly enjoyment. Every comfort and luxury ( ) that can be acquired must be attained at all costs. Everything centers on entertainment, chasing fun and chasing more fun. There is no mission in life. No objective. Merely the pursuit of temporal pleasure ( ) permeates every cell of the mind. And yes

No Enculturation in Islamic Culture: The problem is that when people of different cultures live together in the same community, the process of enculturation takes place where people from one culture adopt traits, customs, and habits, and ideas from the other culture. There is no doubt that this enculturation has occurred in our communities. Many Muslims have tragically become greatly Westernized ()in their mindset, in adopting a very extravagant () lifestyle, in their dressing, in making life revolve mainly around chasing money and fun, etc. Deen for such people has become a side-line. Why has this enculturation occurred? The answer is alarming! According to social scientists, people abandon their own culture and borrow from another culture when they regard aspects of the other culture as better (World Book). Encyclopedia Britannica (CD version) highlights this aspect in the following words: To be sure, a culture trait must offer some advantage, some utility or pleasure to be sought and accepted by people. Allah forbids! Due to the weakness of Imaan and ignorance, the Sunnah culture is being abandoned ( ) by Muslims for some Western way which they regard ( )as better or as having more pleasure and advantage than the Islamic culture! This is no different to a child who gives away a priceless diamond in exchange for an insignificant shiny stone. ( ) He has no idea of the value of the gems () he is abandoning and is duped by the shine on the stone.

The followers of non Islamic culture are fools. The media vigorously promoted (( the Western culture. The media message simply is: If you are not following the Western trend, you are old fashioned, backward and maybe dumb (). However, these slogans should not make us lose our priceless gems for worthless stones, rather, poisonous pebbles. Instead we should adopt the stance ( )of Hazrat Huzaifa bin Yamaan (R.A.). While eating in the court of the Persians, a morsel of food fell from his hand onto the floor. In emulation of the Sunnah, he picked it up to eat it. Somebody next to him cautioned him that to pick up a fallen morsel was against the culture of the Persians. He should therefore follow their way and refrain ( )from picking up the morsel. His spontaneous response was: Should I leave the Sunnah (culture) of my beloved Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) for these fools?

Adopting Western culture will bring along its severe negative consequences. Some of them are: 1. A materialistic( ) society with no mission in life 2. Indulgence in drugs and immorality( )for fun 3. Break-down of respect for parents and elders 4. Disintegration of family structures 5. High divorce rate, etc. Every effort must therefore be made to preserve the culture of the Quran and Sunnah. This requires adopting the company of those who are sunnah conscious, learning about the various sunnats and making an effort to bring them alive in ones home, community and the Ummah at large. The only success for us in this world and the Hereafter ( )is in upholding ( )the way of life of the Quran and Sunnah. May Allah Taala keep us steadfast ( ) on His Deen? Aameen.


TOPIC: 6. 1 (a) DEDINITION OF SOCIALIZATION 1. Socialization describes to refer ( ) to the lifelong ( ) process of inheriting ( )and disseminating ( ) norms, customs and ideologies. It may provide the individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society; a society develops a culture through a plurality of shared norms, customs. Values, traditions, social roles, symbols and languages... Socialization is the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained 2. A continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position. 3. Learning the customs, attitudes and values of a social group, community, or culture. Socialization is essential for the development of individuals who can participate and function within their societies as well as for ensuring that s societys culture will be carried on through new generations.

Topic: 6.1 (b) Objectives of Socialization Socialization is the process whereby people learn the attitudes values, and actions appropriate for members of a particular culture. It examined the role of socialization in human development: the lifelong nature of the socialization process: and the important agents of socialization.

1. Socialization affects the overall cultural practices of a society, and it also shapes the images that 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

we hold of ourselves. Heredity and environmental factors interact in influencing the socialization process. Sociobiology is the systematic study of the biological bases of social behavior. We learn who we are by interacting with others. Theory of the self proposed that as people mature ( ;) their selves begin to reflect their concern about reactions from others. Many of our daily activities involve attempts to convey distinct impression of who we are, a process called impression management. Socialization proceeds throughout the life course. Significant events such as marriage and parenthood serve to change a persons status. As the primary agents of socialization parents play a critical role in guiding children into those gender roles deemed appropriate in a society Like the family, schools have an explicit mandate to socialize people and especially children into the norms and values of our culture. Peer groups and the mass media especially television are important agents to socialization for adolescents.


10. We are most fully exposed to occupational roles through

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

observing the work of our parents, of people whom we meet while they are performing their duties and of people portrayed in the media. The state shapes the socialization process by regulating the life course and by influencing our views of appropriate behavior at particular ages. Analyze their personal experiences using the sociological imagination. Apply sociological concepts to the analysis of social issues and problems; Explain the effect that social forces and social institutions have on individual and group behavior Understand structural inequalities based on race class and gender. Evaluate the quantitative methods used in sociological research. Pursue careers in social welfare and social change and or pursue graduate study in the social sciences.

Topic: 6.2 Process of Socialization

The more that we know about the socialization process the more effective we can be in directing our future learning in the ways that will help us most. Having a course on socialization can help us understand which skills are most effective in guiding our socialization toward the goals we most value
1. Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. We learning from

others during the early days of life and most people continue their social learning all through life ( unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process) sometimes the learning is fun as when we learn a new sport art or musical technique from a friend we like. At other times, social learning is painful as when we learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine for speeding. 2. Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore play and discover the social world around them. Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species (and some birds) 3. Planned socialization occurs when others people take action designed to teach or train others from infancy on. Planned socialization is mostly a human phenomenon and all through history people have been making plans for teaching others or training others both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad features; It is wise to learn the best features of both natural and planned socialization and weave them into our to lives Information about both natural and planned socialization can be especially useful.


4. Positive socialization is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting

experiences. We tend to like the people of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting motivation loving care and rewarding opportunities 5. Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms ( )or anger ( )to try to teach us a lesson and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us. A high ratio of negative socialization can make a person unhappy defeated or pessimistic about life {some people will depend negative socialization, since painful training can prepare people to be ready to fight and die in battle, put themselves at great risk in order to save others, and endure torture and hardship this is true: but many people receive far more negative socialization than they need and hopefully fewer people will Need to be trained for battle, torture and hardship}

TOPIC: 6.3: Agencies or Types of socialization The agencies of socialization are the institutions that pass on the people these norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes. Agents of socialization include the mass media, family, the neighborhood, religion, day care, school, peer group, sports, and the work place. Each has its particular influences in socializing us into becoming full fledged (developed) members of society.

The Family: The family is the most important agent of socialization because it is the center of the childs life, as infants are totally dependent on others. Not all socialization intentional (deliberate) ( )it depend on the surrounding. The most profound affect is gender socialization; however the family also shoulders the task of teaching children cultural values and attitudes about themselves and others. Children learn continuously from the environment that adults create .Children also become aware of class at a very early age and assign different values to each class accordingly

Peer Group: A group is a social group whose members have interests, social position and age in common .This is where children can escape supervision and learn to form relationships on their own. The influence of the 59

peer group typically peaks during teenage years (adolescence) however peer groups generally only affect short term interests unlike the family which has long term influence.

Religion and sciences, institutions are the structure and mechanism of social order and corporation government. Mass media forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers and television Education Economic systems Legal system Penal system (the court and prison system) Language

Types of Socialization
1. Primary socialization:

Primary socialization for a child is very important because it sets the work for all future socialization. Primary socialization occurs when a child learns the attitude and actions appropriate to individual as members of a particular culture. It is mainly influenced by the immediate family and friends. For example if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group , then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority group. 2. Secondary socialization: Secondary socialization refers to the processes of learning what would the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the process of learning what would the appropriate behavior as member of a smaller group with in the larger society. Basically, it is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society. Secondary socialization is usually associated with teenagers and adults, and involves smaller changes than those occurring on primary socialization .e.g. entering a new profession, relocating to a new environment or society. Secondary socialization takes place outside the home; it is where children and adults learn how to act in a way that is appropriate for the situations that they are in. Schools require very different behavior from the home. Children act according to new rules .New teachers have to act in a way that is different from pupils and learn the rules from people around them.


3. Developmental socialization:

Developmental socialization is the process of learning behavior in a social institution or developing your social skills. 4. Anticipatory socialization: Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations and social relationships. 5. Re-socialization: Re-socialization refers to the process of throwing away (discarding) former behavior patterns and reflexes accepting new ones as part of a transition (change) in ones life. Resocialization can be an intense (strong and deep) experience, with the individual experiencing a sharp break with their past and needing to learn and be exposed to radically ( ) different norms and values. An example might be the experience of a young or women leaving home to join the military. Other example might be the religious convert internalizing the beliefs and rituals ( ) of a faith. An extreme example would be the process by which a transsexual learns to function socially in d dramatically altered (changed) gender role. 6. Organizational socialization: Organizational socialization is the process where by an employee learning the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his are her organizational role. First: As newcomer becomes socialized, they learn about the organization and its history, values, jargon , culture, and procedures. Second: They also learn about their work group, the specific people they work with on a daily basis , their own role in the organizational the skills needed to do their job, and both formal procedures and informal norms. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.

Topic: 6.4(a)


Below we discuss briefly four forms of groups which are found within a company.

1. A formal group is created within an organization to complete a specific role or task .This may be to oversea a launch of a particular product or service.


Informal groups are established by individual within the organizational that a need to interact with one another and who also believe that these informal groups meet a need that formal groups cannot meet within the firm. 3. .primary groups within an organization a primary group is a small group that gets together and interacts with regularly. Primary group is a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. propels joined in primary relationships spend a great deal of time together, engage in a wide range of activities ,and feel that they know one another well. In short, they show real concern for one another. Examples of primary groups are families, friends, peers, neighbors, classmates, sororities () , fraternities (), and church members. In every society, the family is the most important primary group. Groups based on lasting friendships are also primary groups. First: A team leader with a small team is an example of a primary group. Second: A family also is a primary group. Within the primary group, values, beliefs and culture are all very important. 4. Secondary group: When large number of people gets together, who do not normally get together, these are called secondary groups. Within a secondary group, people dont get to know each other as well as those in a primary group. An example of a secondary relationship is that of a stock broker and her clients, the stockbroker likely related to her clients in terms of business only. Secondary groups, in contrast to primary groups, are large groups involving formal and institutional relationships. Secondary relationships involve weak emotional ties and little personal knowledge of one another. Most secondary groups are short term, beginning and ending without particular significance () . When a secondary group is formed, individuals usually have their own agenda and goals. The relationship they form is not long term and there probably will not be much social interaction within a secondary group.

Some examples of types of groups include the following: 1. peer group A peer group is a group with members o f approximately the same age, social status, and interests. Generally, people are relatively equal in terms of power when they interact with peers. 2. Clique


A group of people that have many of the same interest and commonly found in a high school/ college setting; most of the time they have a name & rules of themselves. 3. Club A club is a group, which usually requires one to apply to become a member. Such clubs may be dedicated to particular activities: sporting clubs, for example. 4. Household Household is defined as all individuals who live in the same home. Anglophone ( ) culture may include various models of household, including the family, blended families , share housing, and group homes. 5. Community () Community is a group of people with a commonality or sometimes a complex net of overlapping commonalties , often-but not- always in proximity with one another with some degree of continuity over time. 6. Franchise Franchise is defined as an organization which runs several instances of a business in many locations. 7. Gang A gang is usually an urban group that gathers in a particular area. It is a group of people that often hang around each other. They can be like some clubs, but much less formal. They are usually known in many countries to cause social unrest and also have negative influence on the members and may be a target for the law enforcers in case of any social vice .
8. Mob

A mob usually is a group of people that has taken the law into their own hands. Mobs are usually groups which gather temporarily for a particular reason.

9. Posse

A pose was originally found in English common law. It is generally obsolete, and survives only in America, Where it is the law enforcement equivalent of summoning ( ) the militia for military purposes. However, it can also refer to a street group.
10. Squad

This is usually a small group of around 3 to 15 people, who work as a team to accomplish their goals.

11. Dyad


This is a social group with two members. Social interaction in a dyad is typically more intense than in larger groups because neither member shares the other, s attention with any one else. 12. Triad This is a social group with three members, which contains three relationships, each uniting two of the three people. Triad is more stable than a dyad because one member can act as a mediator ( )should the relationship between the other two become strained (). 13. Team Team is defined as the similar to a squad, through a team may contain many more members. A team works in a similar way to a squad. 14. IN group It is a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty. It is a group that an
individual identifies in positive direction.
15. Out group

It is a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition. It is a group that an individual identifies in negative direction.

Topic: 6.4 (b) the basic social unit Social unit is a term used in sociology, anthropology, ethnology, and also in animal behavior studies, Zoology and biology to describe a social entity which is part of and participates in a larger social group or society.

Family - The basic social unit Family is the basic social unit ,family represent people living together by ties of marriage, blood or adaption ,thus representing a single household .according to sociology ,the family has the primary function of reproducing society .biologically ,socially ,or both . There are various structure of family based on the relationship shared between the parent and children. The different types of family are patrifocal, where the family consists of a father and his child, Matrifocal, where the family consists of a mother and his child.


Consanguine family is one which consist the mother, the child and the people, mainly belonging to the family of mother. The conjugal family consist of one or more mother and there children, with other people and one or more spouses. The parent child relationship varies due to different cultures. One of the prominent forms is the nuclear family. It consist of the martial par living with there offspring ( )separately The joint family is the extension (addition) of the nuclear family. Joint family occur when children of one sex live at there parents house .in a joint family, the children bring along there spouse to live with them at there parents house after the marriage. A joint family usually consists of an older man and his wife, his sons and unmarried daughters, his sons wives and children .member of a joint family share all the task of trade, food gathering and preparation and child rearing. Children who share one parent but not another are called half brother or half sister. Children who do not share parents but whose parents are married, are called step brother and step sister. Similarly, if a person is married to the parent of a child, but is not the parent of the child theme slaves; they are called step mother and step father. A complex family involves more then two adults. It refers to any extended family or to polygamy of any type. It indicates a joint family also known as complex family. The parents and their children in joint family live together under a single roof. In a joint family setup, womenfolk or often housewives and cook for their entire family. The patriarch of the family is usually the oldest male member, who lays down the rules of the family .the kind of setup is fast eroding in many parts of the world. Almost all unbans families are switching over the nuclear family society. The family is most important unit of the society. This is the fact that everyone must learn. The family is not only the basic societal unit. It is also the basic sexual unit, the basic child rising unit, the basic communication unit, and the basic all-round fun and friend ship unit. It is okay if one is not in a family at this time, but it is important to understand that the family is the basic unit of society. The family unit-principally a man and woman living together in harmony and peace-is will always will be the basic social organization or unit of any society. The relationship provides stability in a sexual, emotional, intellectual and social way as no other can.

When the families are strong, society is strong, as a rule. When families are weak, societies begin to break down. Stated differently, the definition of family is two living in a close personal relationship, close relationship most often exist between family members. But not always by any means .couples may live together for years and not be the close, for example. It occurs in all close relationships, including, of course, with many families. It is slight blending of the aura or energy fields of individuals who live together or even those who just work together or recreate together. However, it is much stronger in those who are in intimate relationship and having sex together. 65

But a man and a woman can blend in a special way. For the same reason, it will not occur in members of all-male or all-female sports team, work teammate. The Muslim world has some good and shining family examples, here the family unit is strong, and in some homes the male dominates but the women are treated so goodly and appreciatelly that they cannot hate their husband and children.

Some social units Alien, stateless person, asylum seeker () , refugee Person Citizen Partnership, marriage Families Household Neighborhood Clan Tribe Community Village, town, city State Nation Society Civilization


Topic: 7:00

Ethnology () Definition, meaning and importance

1. The branch of anthropology ( ) that deals with the origin, distribution, and characteristics of human racial groups. 2. A science that deals with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distribution, relations, and characteristics. 3. Ethnology (from the Greek, ethnos meaning people, nation, and race) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and national division of humanity. 4. The science that analyzes and compares human cultures, as in social structure, language religion, and technology; cultural anthropology. 5. Formerly a branch of anthropology dealing with the origin, distribution, and distinguishing characteristics of the races of humankind. 6. A science that deals with the division of human beings into races and their origin distribution, relations, and characteristics. 7. Ethnology (Social Science / Anthropology & Ethnology) the branch of anthropology that deals with races and peoples, their relations to one another, their origins, and their distinctive characteristics.

Importance of ethnology: Ethnology relies primarily on detailed descriptions of the social life and cultural phenomena of a particular group of people In ethnography, the researcher looks at an entire group more specifically, a group that shares a common culture- in depth. The researcher studies the group in its natural setting for a lengthy period of time, often several months or even years. The focus is on the everyday behaviors of the people in the group, with intent to identify cultural norms, beliefs, social structures, and other cultural patterns. In order to collect valid data, ethnographers engage in participant observation - spending significant amounts of time with the people they study. They use observational methods, interviews with open-ended questions, audio and video recording of behavior, and collect all other data relevant to the culture studied. Ethnographers engage in social events, rituals and customs, in order to understand the point of view of a person of that particular group. The ethnographers goal is to acquire data that are free of the observers own concepts and assumptions. Employing a holistic research method, ethnography is based on the idea

that a systems properties cannot be accurately understood as the sum of its individual elements. Therefore, the ethnographer not only observes every individual aspect of the society, but also strives for complete interest in order to experience the entire social background

The Aims of Ethnology: Boas continues with a discussion of the field of anthropology called Ethnology. Boas defines this field as the study of human history (especially early human history) through the means of such subjects as language, the study of culture, and the study of bodily form. Using these techniques Boas claims the purpose of Ethnology is critical analysis of the characteristics of each people. Calling upon numerous examples of observation, both his and his contemporaries (equals), Boas argues the importance of ethnology when looking at a group of people. For example, he brings up the discovery of the Crib (cheat or copy) language in Brazil to show the importance of language and the effect that this discovery had on how anthropologists looked at that people. He goes on to talk about how ethnology is tied into the history of culture and of their inseparability . In arguing this, he states, In order to under stand and organism it is not sufficient to study it as a stable form, but it must be compared with all its ascendants and descendants () . In summation, this section of Boas book emphasizes the importance of looking at a group of people from multiple perspectives and on the scale of time as opposed (opposite) to looking at them from a perspective of limited understanding at one point in time.

International example of Jews as a human racial group:

1. Origin:

According to the Hebrew Bible ( ), all Israelites were descended ( )from Abraham, who was born in the Sumerian city of Ur, and migrated to Canaan (commonly known as the Land of Israel) with his family. Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide do indeed bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they bear their strongest resemblance to the peoples of the Fertile Crescent , with only minor contribution from their host population.


2. Distinctive characteristics: ( )

The Jewish people is one of the oldest civilizations in the history of humankind, and the first society to introduce monotheism , the idea that there is one God, Creator of the world. One of the defining characteristics of Jewish history has been the development of the idea of one God , and Jews being the chosen people of god , but this idea is not correct because the Jews was disobedient nation of ALLAH. And they have doubtful belief of monotheism, because they say that USAir (A.S) is the son of Allah. Jewish people have also contributed a lot to the advancement of the natural sciences and technology. Jewish culture is very diverse, because the Jewish culture against the true directions of Holy prophet (P.B.U.H). Jewish people are claiming universally for their contributions to the betterment of humankind. But in fact Jews demolishes the betterment of humankind and are the enemy of humankind. The real example of the cruelty of Jews, you can see in philistines. The Jews are the most cunning race of the world. They are very cruel because there is no sympathy for humankind in the beliefs of Jews.

3. Religion:

Jews claim that the Jewish religion one of the most important contributions of the Jewish people to humankind has been the idea of monotheism, or belief in one God, rather than the myriad of different gods worshipped by the pagans of the ancient world. But in fact the monotheism of Jews is incomplete, because they believe that the USAir (A.S) is the son of ALLAH. This fundamental tenet of the Jewish faith is expressed by the words of the Shema Yisrael, form the Torah: The faith of the Jewish people is based upon the eternal covenant of God with the Jewish people through Abraham, represented by the ritual circumcision of all Jewish men in their infancy. The history of Jewish people and its relationship with God is based on this Abraham covenant. Jewish ethics are based on the Torah and the Talmud, which is a written record of rabbinic commentary on the Jewish Scriptures . The Jews claim that the much of the Jewish morality revolves around good behavior, helping others and striving to achieve social justice. But the majority of Jews are cruel, with no morality. Enemy of peace and they don not have social justice in their lives.


4. Distribution:

Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens. Israel was established as an independent democratic and Jewish state on May 14, 1948. Currently, Jews account for 75 % of the Israeli population, or 5.4 million people. The early years of the state of Israel were marked by mass immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jews fleeing Arab lands. This period also saw an increase in immigration to Israel from Western Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, due to economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing ArabIsraeli conflict. Currently, the largest Jewish community in the world is located in the United States, with 5.3 million to 6.4 million Jews by various estimates. In a different places (Elsewhere) in the Americas, there are also large elsewhere populations in Canada, Argentina, and Brazil, and smaller populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile and sever other countries. Western Europes largest Jewish community can be found in France, home to 490,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African Arab countries such as Algeria, morocco, and Tunisia. There are 295,000 Jews in the United Kingdom. In Eastern Europe, there are anywhere from 350,000 to one million Jews living in the former Soviet Union, but exact figures are difficult to establish. The fastest growing Jewish community in the world, outside Israel, is the one in Germany, especially in Berlin, its capital, Tens of thousands of Jews from the former Eastern Bloc have settled in Germany since the fall of Berlin wall. The Arab countries of North Africa and the Middle East were home to around 900,000 Jews in 1945. Fueled by anti-Zionism after the founding of Israel, systematic persecution caused almost all of these Jews to flee to Israel, North America, and Europe in the 1950s today; around 8,000 Jews remain in all Arab nations combined. Iran is home to around 10,800 Jews, down from a population of 100,000 Jews emigrated to Israel or Europe but most of them emigrated (with their non-Jewish Iranian compatriots ( )) to the United States (especially Los Angeles, where the principal community is called Tehrangeles). Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia, there are significant Jewish populations in Australia and South Africa.
5. Relations:

The World Jewish Affairs Division, headed by the Advisor to the foreign Minister on World Jewish Affairs, is responsible for maintaining contact with the Jewish communities throughout the world. This contact is carried out through the Israeli diplomatic missions abroad and in cooperation with bodies outside the Foreign Ministry. The far-reaching changes in the situation

of the Jewish people, the political changes in our region, immigration from the CIS, and changes in the Jewish-Israeli agenda combine to offer a historic opportunity to reevaluate (reconsider) relations between Israel and the Jewish world, including the question of the position of the State of Israel among world Jewry . The areas of responsibility of the World Jewish Affairs Division include: Explaining the political positions of the Israeli government in general and the peace process in particular, to the Jewish communities, and seeking their assistance in achieving these goals. The formulation of a new agenda for Israel-Diaspora relations and involvement in Jewish continuity coordinating the issue of restoration of Jewish property throughout the world in coordination with the non-ministerial bodies dealing with the issue gathering and follow-up of material on manifestations of antiSemitism, incitement and Holocaust denial; issuing directives to the Israeli missions abroad on these matters and assisting in the coordination of visits of Jewish personalities and missions from abroad. The advisor to the Foreign Minister on World Jewish Affairs represents the Foreign Ministry on the Ministerial Committee for Immigration, Absorption and the Diaspora. During 1997, in addition to the above areas, the Division was involved in issues relating to currents in Judaism. The advisor to the Foreign Minister on World Jewish Affairs participated as an observer in the Neeman Committee on Conversion in Israel. The Division also coordinated the meeting of the Ministerial committee on Diaspora Affairs with representatives of American Jewry, initiated and prepared meetings of the Israel-Diaspora Forum, and was also involved in the marking of the 500th anniversary of the expulsion of the Jews from Portugal.

Local example of Pathan as a human racial group: 1. Origin: Different hypotheses have been suggested about the origin of the pathans. Khawaja niamtullah and some other writers describe them as descendants of Jews, connecting them with the lost ten tribes of Israel. Their claim depends upon the basis of pakhtoon physiognomy , and the striking resemblance of facial features between pathans and Jews. They believe in certain customs and superstitions . But these presumptions do not provide a scientific criterion for the ethnology of a race or a section of people. This can equally be said about the Kashmiri and certain other tribes who can hardly be distinguished from Pakhtoons in physique , color and complexion .


Many other writers say against the above idea. Pathans are the descendants of Khalid bin walid (R.A) One such messenger is stated to have been sent to Qais Abudr Rashid, who is claimed to be the ancestor of the Pakhtoons, through Khalid bin Walid. In response to Khalids invitation, Qais hurried to the Holy land and as a result of the sublime teachings of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) embraced Islam in Medina. After his return to Ghore, his whole tribe followed him in the Muslim faith. Similarly a scrutiny of the social institutions of the Arabs of the Middle Ages and present day Pakhtoons would lead one to believe that Pakhtoons are not different from them in their social organization. Similarities of Pathans with Arabs: The position of a tribal Malik who plays an important role in tribal politics is similar to that of an Arabian Sheikh. The qualifications of a tribal Malik, such as seniority in age, qualities of head and heart and character as courage, wisdom and sagacity (wisdom) etc. are not different from an Arab Sheikh. Like a sheikh, a tribal Malik follows the consensus of opinion ( ) . Hospitality is one of the sublime features ( )of the Pakhtoons and pre-Islamic Arabs were also famous for their hospitality and for affording asylum to strangers ( ). If the origin of a race can be determined on the basis of customs and traditions then pakhtoon would be closer to Arabs. The study of Arabian and pakhtoon society presents a remarkable resemblance particularly in their tribal organization and social usages . The spirit of revenge of the Pakhtoons is not different from that of the Arabs. The customs regarding giving protection to weaker neighbors is also common between Arabs and Pakhtoons.

2. Distinctive characteristics: ( Both possess the same virtues and characteristics: For example: hospitality is one of the finest virtues, retribution a sacred duty and bravery an essential pre-requisite for an honorable life . Love of independence, courage, endurance, hospitality and revenge were the supreme virtues of pre-Islamic


Arabs. These very attributes also form the basis of the Pakhtoon code of honor and anyone who repudiates them is looked down by the society. A pakhtoon is nearer to an Arab in his tribal organization. Like an Arab tent, every pashtoons house represents a family; an encampment of Arab tents forms a hay and a cluster of a few houses constitute a village in tribal areas. Members of hay form a clan in Arabia and a Khel (which is an Arabic word meaning association or company) is the basis of the pashtoons tribal organization. A number of kindred (relatives or family) clans grouped together make a Qabila in Arabia and a tribe in the Pakhtoon borderland. The pathans like the Arabs also believe in fire ad sword for all their adversaries. This was the reason that they fought tooth and nail against the no-Muslim rulers of the sub-continent whether Sikhs of Feringi as the Britishers were called. It indicates that even the Pashto script resembles the Arabic script in fundamental nature. The Arabs held in great respect four moral virtues, viz Ziyafa or hospitality hamasah or fortitude, muruah or manliness and courage and rid or honor.

3. Religion:

Pathans are true Muslims. They follow Islam in their every matter of life. Islam has a dominant effect on their traditional norms. Their funeral and wedding system is according to Islam. They hate those people who are not act upon Islam.

Religious beliefs: Islam is an essential and unifying theme (subject) in Pathan life, and it also unites the Pathan with an international community of believers. The overwhelming (great) majority of Pathan is Sunni Muslim of the Hanafi legal school. Some groups, notably in the Kurram and Orakzai agencies of Pakistan, practice Shia Islam.


Religious Practitioners: While Islam has no ordained priesthood, religious leaders are recognized. At the village level this role is played by the mullah, a man who has attained some religious training. Besides tending the mosque and making the call to prayer five times a day, he officiates at the rites passage that mark the stages of life, birth, circumcision, marriage , and death.

Ceremonies: Besides ceremonies at the various rites of passage, the religious calendar includes: two days of celebration at the end of Ramazan, the month of fasting; a day observed by the ritual slaying of sheep in memory of Ibrahim slaying (slaughtering) a sheep in place of his son on ALLAHs order.



The vast majority of Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Oxus River in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and part of Baluchistan. Additional pashtun communities are located in western and northern Afghanistan, the GilgitBaltistan and Kashmir regions and northern Punjab province of Pakistan, as well as in the Khorasan province of Iran. There are also sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are largely Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, excluding Pashtun-dominated regions they are often referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and the Americas, particularly in North America. Important metropolitan centers of Pashtun culture include Kandahar, Quetta, Peshawar, Jalalabad and Lashkar Gah. There are a number of smaller Pashtun dominated towns such as Swat, Khost, Gardez, Farah, Pul-i-Alam, Mingora, Bannu, Parachinar, Swabi, Afgahanistan are home to around 25% Pashtun population while Heart and Mazar-i-Sharif each has at least 10% . With as high as 7 million by some estimates, the city of Karachi in Pakistan has the largest concentration of urban Pashtuns in the world. In addition, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Lahore also have sizeable Pashtun populations.


Topic: 8:00

social institution

8.1(a) Definition of social institutions: 1. The definition of institution is quite changed here in the social sentences. Institution is actually group of people in which the members interact in organized and systematic way. The family, clubs, government or prison etc are some of the example of institutions. Thus, one can say the institution is a set of norms, rules and regulations which are necessary to be followed by its members. For example, family is institutions where all the members are bound follow the norms of families. Father has to play his role, children play their role and as do other members of institution. 2. Social organization or social institution refers to a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role. It can also be defined in a narrower sense as any institution in a society that work to socialize the groups or people in it 3. A set of organized beliefs, rules and practices that establish how a society will attempt to meet basic needs. 4. Groups of persons banded together for common purposes having rights, privileges , liabilities, goals, or objective distinct and independent from those of individual members. 5. MARX: Social institutions are determined by their societys mode of production. Social institutions serve to maintain the power of the dominant class. 6. WEBER: Social institutions are independent but no single institution determines the rest . The causes and consequences of social institutions can not be assumed in advance. 7. Durkheim: Set the stage for later functionalist analyses of institutions by concluding that religion promotes social solidarity and collective conscience. Functionalist theory The social institutions listed in this section (along with other social institutions) fulfill functional prerequisites and are essential. Conflict theory Social institutions tend to reinforce inequalities and uphold the power of dominant groups. It emphasizes divisions and conflicts with in social institutions.


Symbolic interaction It focuses on interactions and other symbolic communications within social institutions. 8.1 (b) Characteristic of social institutions

1. Solution for every problem: Social institutions means society creates some pattern of thoughts and actions that provide solution of all need the society all these behavior is called social institutions. 2. Organized system of idea: Institution is always the organized system of idea and behavior where as the association is organized group of people engaging in the behavior . Example: religion is some organized idea. Masjid is institution where people gather to say prayer. 3. A status group: A social class is essentially a status group. Class is related to status. Different status arises in society as people do different things, engage in different activities and pursue different vocations . Status in the case of class system is achieved and not ascribed (approved). Birth is not the criterion of status. Achievement of individual mostly decides his status. Class is almost universal phenomenon. It occurs in all the modern complex societies of the world. Each social class has its own status in the society. Status is associated with prestige ( . The relative position of the class in the social set up arises from the degree of prestige attached to the status. 4. A stable group: A social class is relatively a stable group. A social class is distinguished from other classes by its customary modes of behavior. 5. Organized system of life styles: This is often referred to as the life of a particular class. It includes mode of dress, kind of living the means of recreation and cultural products one is able to enjoy, the relationship between parent and children. Lifestyle reflects the specialty in preferences, tastes and values of a class. 6. Open social system: Social classes are open groups. They represent an open social system. The basis of social classes is mostly economic but they are not mere economic groups or division. Subjective criteria such as classconsciousness, class, solidarity, class identification on the hand and the objective criteria such wealthy property income, education and occupation on the other hand are equally important in the class system. Class system is associated with class consciousness. It is a sentiment that characterizes the relations of men towards the member of their own and other classes. It consists in the realization of a similarly of attitude and behavior with member of the classes.


7. Social control: The basic objective of the social institutions is to maintain social control in the society. Social institutions provide formation to its members through exemplary character. Through this information it expected from the members that they would be following these models in their normal routine social life. 8. Social transformation: The social institutions protect the social inheritance by transforming it from one generation to another. If this transformation is not done then it will be difficult to sustain the existence of the society. E. g in our daily life we act and behave what ever are taught during to process of socialization. 9. Socialization: Social institutions play vital role in the socialization of the individuals. It is therefore, the members of each society posses particular characteristic which separate them from the other societies. The purposed characteristic of social institutions are also necessary for there own existence. For this purpose the social institution does the socialization of its members. 10. Dependent on customs and traditions: It has definite procedures which are based on customs and traditions . 11. Dependent on collective activities: An institution depends upon the collective activities of man. 12. Fulfillment of primary needs: It is formed for the fulfillment of primary needs.


Types of Social intuitions

8.2 (a)

the family:

A socially defined set of relationship between at least two people related by birth, message, adoption, ( ) or, in some definitions, long-standing ties of intimacy


Family is an important institution which plays a vital role socializing a new born individual of the society. Institutions depend on the collective activities of man and it also fulfils the primary needs of humans. The history of institutions is as older as the history of civilization.

The conformity of norms and socialization of individuals are major functions of the social institutions. 1. Familial functions: The main responsibility of social institutions is to increase the human race. Similarly the social institutions are supposed to bring up the new generation this is done through the family and marriage. 2. Social institutions: Family is a social institution which provides functions of every society. In the short family is an aggregation of parents children and relatives in boarder context it is basic and necessary social intuitions which provide solid foundations to build a structure of a society. 3. Existence of human beings: The most important functions of family are increase of human beings along with bringing up the children. Without this the human generation can not maintain is existence. 4. Love and affection: () Family is the basic source of love and affection in society. Family gives love and affection to its members in any case. 5. Satisfactions of sexual needs: It also satisfies the sexual needs of a person due to love and affection among husband, wife, and children the family and the social life is strengthened. 6. Education functions of family: Family is the first school of the children. The family gives basic information to the children although the schools are major source of education and foremost education comes from family. The family focuses on social and religious education. 7. Recreational (leisure)function of family: The family does take care of recreational needs of its member. It is the family which teaches a person about the limits to fulfill the recreational needs.


8. Religious function: Family is the first source which gives religious identity to the children. We are not born Muslims or Christian it is the family which gives us religious identity. With the initiations of the socialization process the e religious formation is also started. 9. Social protection function of the family: The family provides protection to its members from every kind of social and natural problems. It gives psychological as well as social support to the members.

10. Economic function of family: The parents work hard for the economic empowerment of their children they bring them up and send them for formal education is that they may be able to earn their lively hood. Incase of unemployment it is the family takes care of a person.

Marriage: Marriage is a relation between man and women who are acknowledge by society. Marriage indicates the state of being united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a consensual and contractual ( ) relationship recognized by law. Types of marriage: Monogamy: marriage of one person to another person of the opposite sex. Polygamy: Marriage of man to two or more women. Polyandry: marriage of a woman to two or more men. Exogamy: In this type one can marry one is bond to marry within the cast, class, group, or a religion. Its most popular and acceptable type. Endogamy: In this type one is bond to marry within the cast, class group, or a religion, its most popular and acceptable type.


Kinds of family: A conjugal family includes only the husband, the wife, and unmarried children who are not of age. The most common form of this family is regularly referred to in sociology as a nuclear family. A consanguine (in bred) ( ) family consists of parent and his or her children, and other people. Although it indicates the concept of consanguinity originally referred to relations by blood. A matrilocal family consists of a mother and her children. Generally these children are her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This kind of family is common where women have the resources to rear children by themselves or where men are more mobile (movable) than women.

Kinds of Kinship: Mother: a female parent Father: a male parent Son: a male child of the parent(s) Daughter: a female child of same parent(s) Brother: a male child of the same parents(s) Sister: a female child of the same parent(s) Grandfather: father of the father or mother Grand mother: mother of a mother or father Cousins: two people that share the same grand parents(s) stepbrother or stepsister: for who do not share biological or adoptive parents in common. English speaker use the term stepbrother or stepsister to refer to their new relationship with each other biological parents marries one of the other Childs biological parents. Stepmother or stepfather: any person (other than the biological parents of a child) who marries the parents of that child becomes the stepparent of the child either the stepmother or stepmother. Grand father: a parents father. Grandmother: a parents mother. Grandson: a childs son. Granddaughter: a Childs daughter. 80

Uncle: fathers brother, mothers bother, fathers sisters husband, mothers sisters husband. Aunt: fathers sister, mothers sister, fathers brothers wife, mothers brothers wife. Nephew: sisters son, brothers son, wifes brothers son, wifes sisters son, husbands brothers son, husband, s sisters son. Niece: sisters daughter, brothers daughter, wifes brothers daughter, wifes sisters daughter, husbands brothers daughter, husband, s sisters daughter. Cousin: the most classificatory term ; the children of aunts or uncles. Mother-in- law Father-in- law: The mother and father of ones spouse becomes ones mother in law and father-in-law; the female spouse of ones child becomes ones daughter-in-law and the male spouse of ones child becomes ones son-in-law. The term sister-in-law refers three essentially different relationships, either the wife of ones sibling, or the sister of ones spouse, or, in some uses, the wife of ones spouses siblings. Brother-in-law expresses a similar ambiguity. No special terms exist for the rest of ones spouses family.

Family system in Pakistan Family system of Pakistan is Islamic system. Majority of Pakistanis are Muslims, so they follow Islam in every event. Sacredness of elders is very important in Islam. Here, picture the traditional and cultural family values and they give good respect considering them as spirituality and sacredness In Pakistan, the join family system is quite usually found. Join family usually comprises father, mother, children, grand father and mother, and they live together with their people in the same family unit. Moreover the governing male of the house will play a significant role with respect to the well-being of his family unit. Also, they give a good care and take the responsibility to guard their grandparents. Above all, they respect their folks and grandparents! People in Pakistan dearly follow the joint family system and live their life along with their folks. Conversely in the recent years, urbanization has directed to the change amendments in the existing family system, in larger cities. Moreover, the realism of urbanization will make the social units living together to get less exerted and large unclear group. This method of practice will commonly be practiced and determined in developing countries. As known that Karachi is the biggest city in Pakistan. When the considering the elder people in Pakistan, they usually stick with their offspring grandchildren to get a complete support and care. They rely and depend on their people to get their assistance and support in all aspects such as physical, social and financial happiness. Give physical and emotional support is quite usual in joint family system! It has been declared that 81

Urbanization will dilapidate and crumbles the family care to their elder people. Moreover, urbanization wills drop-off the care of the growing children with their elders. The situations will really troublesome for the elder people living in a nuclear family. Elder people can live without any troubles of risk, when they live in a joint family. Individuals who closely stick in joint family will respect their elders and give them support in all possible ways. Joint family is completely good as living separate without your people will bring quite several difficulties. Urbanization and its growth tend to promote the growth of the nuclear family and moreover it abates the care and support to the elder people in the family. People in Pakistan are greatly respected to elders and most of the people living here are Muslims. They give much respect to their customs and traditions and they closely follow the worth-taking family values. You could see most people living and joint family group along with their people and folks, whereas some other group of people lives as nuclear family. People living nuclear family will take care of their spouse and offspring .

Key Questions 1. How do families vary across different societies, historical periods, classes, and ethic groups? 2. How are authority, resources and work distributed within families? 3. How do parents, particularly mothers, balance the demands of work and families? 4. What are the causes and effects of divorce, domestic violence, and single parenting?

Notes Marx: The family upholds the capitalist economic order by ensuring the reproduction of the working class and by maintaining housewives as a reserve labor force. Functionalist theory: Functions of the family include socializing children, regulating sexual behavior and reproduction, and distributing resources, providing social support.


8.2 (b)

Economic institutions:

1. Sociologists understand the economy as the set of arrangements by which a society produces,

distributes, and consumes goods, services and other resources. 2. Economic institutions are those which directly or indirectly related with economic activity of the country. These institutions deal in production, distribution of wealth and services of goods. It includes banks, factories, agricultural and dairy farms etc. 3. Economic institutions fulfill the economic needs of the society. These needs are provided under the system of production, Distribution of wealth, Expenditure and services.

Characteristic of Economic institutions: 1. Providence of basic needs: Through the economic institutions we can fulfill our economic basic needs. E.g., we can get food and cloths for our family by paying the cost. Economic protection: Economic institutions work to provide to protection to the members of the society. E.g. the institution of pension social security and insurance agencies etc. run a related program. Encourage of the abilities of the persons: Economic institutions give reward to those who utilize their abilities for the benefit of the society of certain organizations .E.g. the people of rewarded of promotion and other benefits upon showing impressing performance. Similarly the economic institutions give financial incentive ( )and jobs to the sports persons and actors etc. Political Stability: Economic institutions also play a vital role in maintaining political stability in the country. If economic institutions deliver accordingly it brings satisfaction of the masses over the current political government. If the economic institutions perform properly they bring about the causes of political stability. Effects on the foreign policy: Economic institutions also affect the foreign policy of the country. If the economy of the country is durable, the country can have supreme policy on contrary economically weak states are not free to formulate their foreign policies.





Key Questions 1. What institutions and relations characterize different economic system (e. g, capitalism, socialism, and feudalism)?



How do consumption and leisure patterns differ among various cultures historical, periods, and social groups? 3. How do the structures of business organizations affect productivity, job satisfaction and inequalities? 4. What are the causes and consequences of contemporary trends such as economic liberalization, declining and increased debt?

NOTES: MARX: Economic organization (the means and relation of production) determines the major features of any society

Functionalist theory: Function of economics institution include: production and distribution of goods, assignment of individuals to different social roles as occupation.

8.2 (c)

Education institutions:

1. Education describes a formal process in which knowledge, skills and values are systematically

transmitted from one individual or group to another. 2. Educational institutions are those organized establishments which mainly provide formal education. It is the education institution which provides objectivity to a certain society. It is very much important for individual and social growth and development.

Functions of education institutions comprehensively as follow:

1. Development of individual's capacities:

It is the responsibility of the educational institutions to provide the students the opportunities and environment where his or her personal qualities and capacities may develop. 2. Awareness of social and national objectives; Every society has specific national objectives which are drawn according to the norms and values of the society. It is the function of these institutions to infuse these objectives in the minds of students.


3. Social and cultural adjustments:

It is the main function of the educational institution to inculcate the students social and cultural values so that they may be able to create better adjustment in prevailing social and culture environment. 4. Construction of human behavior: Educational institutions are building to give proper formation to its members. It is the prime responsibility to reconstruct the character and behavior of the students. The respect for social norms values and objective is promoted among the students through educational institutions 5. Development of creative abilities: From educational institutions it is expected that they will develop creative sense of the students. the educational institutions provides an environment and opportunities where the students can develop their artistic qualities more over students are equipped with the skills which enable them to earn their lively hood.

KEY QUESTIONS 1. How do educational practices vary across different societies and historical periods? 2. How does education affect individuals following activities and achievements? 3. What are the effect of class, race and gender on educational institutions and experiences? 4. What are the causes and consequences of various trends in education, such as grade inflation violence in school and increasing public funding of religious instructions?

NOTES: Marx: Education serves the capitalist by producing skill worker with habits such as punctuality and respect for authority.

Functionalist theory: Functions of education include transmitting shared values and beliefs transmitting specific knowledge and skills sorting individuals based on skill and establishing social control over youths. Conflict theory: Conflict theory describes educational tracking systems other differential treatment of students reinforce social inequalities 85

Symbolic interactions: Face to face interaction in the classroom can have long- rang consequences for students educational achievements () .

8.2 (d)

Political institutions:

1. Political institutions maintain the governance of a society its formal distribution of authority its

use of force and its relationships to other societies and political units the state an important political institution in modern societies is the equipments of governance over a particular territory. 2. The main function of political institution is to deep the human character in organizing form. The further objective of this institution is to maintain social organization. This can be done through the government and related bodies. 3. Political institutions are one of the important social institutions it keeps the society organized and united through the organ of government. To understand the political institution one should try to understand. What is government?

Government as a political institution: Government is a group or institution of people which is responsible for social organization and administration.

Characteristics of government as political institutions

1. law and order and administrative functions:

Law and order and administrative functions describe to maintain social organization and administration. 2. welfare function: To provide welfare services to the masses without any discrimination of class, color and creed. 3. economic function : It is the prime responsibility of the government to maintain economic justice. The government controls over the economic resources and mainly responsible for there equal distribution. 86

4. Mediatory and Judicial Function:

It is also important function of the government to provide mediatory and judicial services. The government maintains the balance among all the classes in the state.\ 5. Protection of Resources: It is the prime function of the government to protect and preserve the natural and human resources of the country.

Key Questions 1. How do political institutions differ across historical periods and societies? 2. How do different social groups participate in political institutions, and with what consequences? 3. How and why do individuals participate in political institutions, and with what consequences? 4. How are political institutions related to other aspects of society, such as the economy and the mass media? Notes Weber: Weber defines the state as an authority that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence. Functional theory: Functions of political institutions include protection from external enemies, resolving group conflicts, defining societal goals, and strengthening group identity and norms. Pluralism, a particularly functional type of political institutions, entails distribution of power among many groups so no one group can gain control. Conflict theory: Pluralism and democracy are illusions that invite the powerless to believe that they a voice in governance, when in fact their control is quite limited.

8.2(e) Religion Institutions:

1. A combined system of beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural and

to norms about the right way to live that is shared by a group of believers. Sociologists treat religion as a social rather than supernatural phenomenon. 2. Religion is an ambition of understanding to un-understandable and encompassing the unlimited phenomenon the Scope of knowledge. 87

Religion is instinctive to man () . Man is the religious being as reason distinguishes him from animals, he can similarly be distinguished through religion.

Characteristics of Religion Institutions

1. Religious function:






The principle aim of the religious intuition is to satisfy the religious or spiritual needs of the society. The religious institution upholds mutual relationship between human being and God. It provides sustain ability and durability to society. Guidance of human character: Religion protects the social values and provides a complete guidance to wards human character. Guidance of human character depends on the teachings of religion. Answer of supernatural concept and power: The religion reduces the human curiosity ( )by giving the answer of supernatural concept and powers. Satisfaction of human desire: The religion provides internal satisfaction to human being it provides them love ,education , the religion facilitates and guides the human being in their personal and social life. The maintenance of social organization: The religion maintains the social organization by promoting the teaching of moral in this way. It promotes the value of good and bad for the necessary social control. Social unity Emile Durkheim suggested that because of its focus on the sacred, religion creates a sense of purpose and unity. Social control: This function of religion was emphasized by Karl Marx when he said that religion is the opium of the people .Religion is powerful force in encouraging conformity. Religion institutions are often the very last to join reform efforts, such as the abolition of slavery .

Key Questions 1. How do the world religions differ? How are they similar? 2. How have religions developed and changed, and why do people engage with them? 3. What are the relationships between religion and other aspects of social life such as stratification, deviance, and conflict? 4. What are the causes and consequences of present-day trends such as secularization, the breaking of religious groups, and shifting church state relationships?


Notes Marx: Religion is the opium of the people. It masks domination and diverts workers from rebelling against exploitation. Weber: He classified religions by their approach to salvation. ( )Ascetic religious require active self-mastery ; mystical religions require passive contemplation . Other- worldly religions require focus on the next life (e.g. heaven). These worldly religions require focus on earthly life.

Durkheim: Religion provides social solidarity and collective conscience; it expresses and celebrates the force of society over the individual. Functionalist theory: Functions of religions include providing meaning for life, reinforcing social norms; strengthen social bonds and marking status changes. (E.g. marriage) dysfunctions, according to some, include justifying persecution.

8.3 Role of social institutions There are a lot of important functions of institutions as every body knows that the society can not work without the help of institutions.
1. The function of institution is to reproduce new members of society with the help of socialization. 2. Institutions provide the sense of purpose and also provide the sense of setting goals 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

and their achievements. Institution transfers the elements of culture from one generation to another. Institution brings uniformity in human behaviors and it also guides the human beings according to the circumstances. Institution gives shape to the actions of man and it also provide social control. Human beings follow the rules and d regulations of society with the help of institutions It is the institution of police which prohibits the people from attempting crimes. Social institution provides role and status to individuals. One can imagine the worst image of society in the absence of social institution. There are several social institutors which are controlling and operating the various societies.


11. Examples. Families, schools, government, religion, media, friends, sports, hotels and restaurants

are some important institution for human societies.

12. Other examples of these social institutions include those that offer information,

advisory services and legal aid to businesses, and the charity funds that accept donations from businesses and individuals for the needy. 13. The functions of almost all social institutions are more or less universal. E.g. in all societies the functions of the family are same such as breeding , raring and caring of the children and education etc. 14. Social institutions strength the human relationships. 15. Since these institutions uphold the balance in human relationships, they dont accept any change in their structure, functions and roles etc easily. In short, social institutions are an abstract which have no visible structure , it can be understood or viewed by observing the roles and functions of its member unconsciously.


Topic = 9:1



2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.


Definitions: Personality has been derived from the Latin word persona which means mask used by the actors to change their appearance. It is the combination of an individual thoughts, characteristics, behaviors, attitude, idea and habits. Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One understands individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other understands how the various parts of a person come together as a whole. () A famous, notable, or prominent person; celebrity. Application or reference to a particular person or particular persons, often in disparagement or hostility. Personality is a dynamic organization of psychological systems that creates the persons characteristics patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings. In society every person has different traits such as skin, color, height and weight. They have different types of personalities because individuals are not alike. Personality refers to the habits, attitudes as well as physical traits of a person which are not same but have vary from group to group and society to society, everyone has personality, which may be good or bad, impressive or unimpressive. It develops during the process of socialization in a culture of a specific group or society. One cannot determine it of an individual exactly because it varies from culture to culture and time to time. For example, a killer is considered criminal in peace time and hero in war. The feeling and actions of an individual during interaction moulds the personality. It is the sum of total behaviors of the individual and covers overt and covert behaviors, interests, mentality and intelligence. It is the sum of physical and mental abilities and capabilities

Meaning of Personality There are five different definitions or explanations of personality. 1. Omnibus: () the aggregate ( ) or sum total of qualities or properties 2. Integral and Configurationally: Stress on personal attitudes () 3. Hierarchical: Different levels of integration or organization of personality 4. Adjustment: Adaptation, survival and evolution of persons to the environment



Distinctiveness: Uniqueness or distinctiveness of Personality

Nature, Characteristics and elements of Personality 1. Uniqueness: Each individual has unique behavior and personality 2. Stability: Relatively Stable 3. Shaping of Personality based on: Inherited ( ) as well as environmental factors 4. Traits: Internal as well as external. Types of Personality Following are the three main types of personality 1. Extrovert Personality This type of personality has the tendency to live mostly outside the like to live with others. Those individuals are highly socialized and have contact with outside people in the society. They want to join other groups who are more in number. These types of people are drivers, excessive drinkers, smokers, robbers , thieves, wicked persons etc. 2. Introvert Personality () Introvert is opposite to extrovert. Those people are always live alone in their rooms and do not want to go outside. They have their own imaginary world . They are teachers, scientists, thinkers and philosophers.

3. Ambivalent Personality () Between extrovert and introvert personalities there is a third one type called ambivalent personality. People belonging to this type enjoy both the groups and attend them. They have middle mind and want to live in both parties. Sometimes they join outside people but sometimes they live in their own rooms.


Following are the formation and development factors of human personality: 1. Biological Factors of Personality: Biological factors of personality are very important for the formation of human personality. Children are born in a family; inherit many traits and features from their parents. Children get physical and psychological characteristics from their parents which becomes a part of their personalities. Some of the inherited traits are courage, coward, intelligence, weakness etc. It separates individuals from one another and their various physical characteristics except identical twins having the same physical qualities. So, biological factors of personality are responsible for the development of personality. 2. Social Factors of Personality: When an individual interact with other persons in his/her group give and take relationship takes place and it affects the personality of an individual social factors of personality are responsible for the formation of personality, when an individual has group experience and contact with others personality of an individual is influenced by others may be bad or good but depends on the association in which he/she keeps. In a society every person plays a specific role and status. For example in our society younger are expected to be respectful for elders. 3. Cultural Factors of Personality: Both material as well as non-material culture affects personality of an individual. An individual living in his/her culture adopts the traits consciously or unconsciously and acts accordingly. Culture of any society determines the behaviors and personality of an individual and he/she is expected to act according to the culture. A person follows all the social norms of a culture which results in the formation of good personality while non-conformity to the cultural rules develops abnormal or bad personality. So, the culture in which an individual seeks satisfaction adjusts him/her and develops personality. 4. Physical Environment: Physical environment also determines the personality of an individual. Environmental factors include land, river, mountains, hills, forests, plain area, atmosphere etc which affect the personality to be good or bad, healthy or weak. All the feelings, emotions, ideas, attitudes, habits and behavior as well as body structure are the result of physical environment of to which an individual belongs. For example, body structure, physique, color and health of the rural people are different from urban people. The people living in cities have facilities and modern ways of life which creates to develop delicate bodies and minds as compare to the rural people who are deprived of these facilities. 5. Situational Factors of Personality: Situational factors of personality also have a complete share in the formation of personality of an individual. Situational factors of personality are charging according to the social situations. Every person face may situations in his life which enables him/her to change his/her behavior.


For example: (1) a teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may not with his/her family. (2) An officer may behave with the subordinates differently as compare to his/her friends.

What is a Personality Disorder? Individuals with a Personality Disorder have certain patterns of inner processes and behavior which differ clearly from the majority of the population. These differences appear in the person's perception, thoughts, emotions and relations to others. The patterns are long-lasting and rigid, and they appear in different situations. They cause them to interpret situations in a different way from other people. It is important to keep in mind that there is no clear line between socially accepted and socially deviant differences. Depending on cultural values, the same behavior can be regarded as normal, extreme or as a disorder. Therefore it is particularly important to distinguish between a personality style and a personality disorder. To every personality disorder belongs a personality style, which characterizes the "extreme" parameter value within a normal human characteristic. A Personality Disorder exists only if the characteristics or symptoms produce personal harm and suffering or if they cause social disturbance, which means that the environment is suffering because of the symptoms (for example antisocial behavior, delinquency ) . A person who despite his/her distinctive or maybe even conspicuous personality style is socially stable, doesn't suffer and if his/her behavior does not have a negative impact on the environment, does not have a Personality Disorder.

Topic: 9.2 Personalities and Culture Culture and personality movement was a core of anthropology in the first half of the 20th century. It attempts to find general traits repeating in a specific culture to lead to a discovery of a national character, model personality types and configurations of personality by seeking the individual characteristics and personalities. The field of personality and culture gives special attention to socialization of children and enculturation. Theorists of culture and personality school argue that socialization creates personality patterns. It helps shape peoples emotions, thoughts, behaviors, cultural values and norms to fit into and function as productive members in the surrounding human society. The study of culture and personality demonstrates that different socialization practices such as childrearing in different societies (cultures) result in different personality types.


The study of culture and personality draws many of its constructs from psychoanalysis (Analysis) ( ) and social development as applied for social and cultural phenomena. () All humans are the same when born, but childrearing in different societies causes deviations in behavior and personalities from each other. The scholars of culture and personality school study distinctive personality types in particular societies and attribute the traits to different child-rearing practices such as feeding, talking and toilet training. Culture-and-personality studies apply the methods of psychology to the field of anthropology, including in-depth interviews, role playing, Rorschach tests, elaborate biographies, studies of family roles, Cultural psychologists have noted that some aspects of personality differ across cultural groups. For example, Americans and Asians have slightly different conceptions of self. American culture promotes a view of the self as independent. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of personal attributes, values, and achievements and they learn to be selfreliant () , to compete with others, and to value their uniqueness. Many Asian cultures, such as those of Japan and China, promote a view of the self as interdependent. Children from these cultures tend to describe themselves in terms of which groups they belong to. They learn to rely on others, to be modest about achievements, and to fit into groups. Researchers believe that culture influences aggressiveness in males. In places where there are plentiful resources and no serious threats to survival, such as Tahiti or Sudest Island near New Guinea, males are not socialized to be aggressive. Culture also influences altruism . Research shows that children tend to offer support or unselfish suggestions more frequently in cultures where they are expected to help with chores such as food preparation and caring for younger siblings. Personality is the key factor in defining individual uniqueness and shaping an individual's course through life. Psychological anthropology focuses on enculturation, the process by which culture is passed from one generation to the next. The study of culture and personality enables us to learn about cross-cultural similarities and differences in human development, as well as their consequences for characteristic styles of psychological adaptation. Through the study of child-rearing practices, anthropologists are better able to understand the relationship between culture and personality. "The first agents of enculturation in all societies are the members of the household into which a person is born. This enculturation process primarily begins with the mother and father. Depending on the society, siblings , grandparents and family members may be brought into the enculturation process, as well as other individuals as the child matures . In the United States professionals are brought in to provide children with form instruction for enculturation, while other societies allow children to learn at their own speed through observation and participation.


Points of Reaction: Culture and personality are interdependent on each other. Culture influences socialization patterns, which in turn shapes some of the variance of personality Because of distinctive socialization practices in different societies; each society has a unique culture and history. Based on this perspective, one should not assume universal laws govern how cultures run.

The five big factors The Big Five factors and their constituent traits ( ) can be summarized as (OCEAN): 1. Openness to experience: (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Openness refers to how open you are to experiencing new things. Do you enjoy learning new ideas and concepts or are you frightened of change? It indicates appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity (), and variety of experience.

2. Conscientiousness () : (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). Conscientiousness refers to how dedicated you are. When you say you are going to do something do you follow through? Do you have a strong work ethic? A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is planning ahead rather than being spontaneous . And a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior. 3. Extraversion : (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Extraversion means Energy, positive emotions, urgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others. Extraversion Extraversion involves going out with friends and being energetic. Extraversion asks how comfortable you are in the company of others. Do you prefer to be by yourself or in a crowd? Do you like to be the life of the party? 4. Agreeableness : (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). Ii indicates tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. Do you try to get along with people or do you go out of your way to be contentious and start a fight?


5. Neuroticism : (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). Neuroticism refers to worrying or being vulnerable . How emotionally stable are you? Do you get upset over the little things, or do they roll off your back? It indicates a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety , depression, or vulnerability .

Examples of Personality Traits 1. Selflessness: in a world where many people don't have the time or the interest in others, selflessness is a quality that seems to be less and less common. People can be selfless in the time they give, the ability to listen, their level of patience and the love that they give. Those who are giving and generous in nature have the power to make others feel loved, appreciated and special. 2. Tolerance: () those people who are tolerant make us feel comfortable with who we are and special as individuals. All of us are different, and many of us have quirks and idiosyncrasies . After all, these differences make the world go round. Having the ability to accept people for whom they are and not expect them to be who we want them to be is important in life, happiness and in the health of our relationships. 3. Genuineness: () having the ability to be real, authentic and honest is unique in a world where we put so much emphasis on the superficial . Feeling comfortable in one's skin and being true to one's self is one of the most beautiful traits one can possess. To have a REAL relationship with someone requires honestyit requires hearing and giving input or feedback that may not always be popularit means having the strength to tell it like it is and to not be afraid to face the consequences for doing soit means loving people for who they really aredeep downand not for what they appear to be. 4. Sensitivity: () so often we are focused on what is important to ourselves that we can forget about those around us. Those who are sensitive are often thoughtful, appreciative and loving, in a way that makes you feel understood, valued and respected. Often, sensitive people are also selfaware, making them mindful of how they impact others with what they do and say. 5. Integrity: especially today integrity is a unique characteristic. In this time people want to do things that are underhanded and make an extra reputation for the famous future. They feel good in the moment without necessarily thinking of the consequences.


6. Humility: whether someone is super-smart, extremely talented or drop-dead gorgeous (), there is something extra special about them if they don't come across as though they know it all the time. Humility in those that possess extraordinary traits makes others feel special too.

Characteristics of personality 1. Achievement: Accomplishment Doing one's best in objective or difficult tasks and achieving recognition 2. Differences: Being agreeable to accepting the leadership of others and avoiding unconventionality (Oddness) () 3. Orderliness: regulation Organizing one's work and habits and planning ahead systematically 4. Exhibition: Presentation Behaving so as to attract attention to one's self by appearance, speech, and manner 5. Autonomy: Self-sufficiency Doing as one chooses independently of others' opinions and avoiding conformity (agreement) 6. Affiliation: Attachment Participating in friendships, sharing things with friends, and forming attachments to them 7. Sensitivity: () Analyzing motives and putting oneself in other people's shoes in order to understand their behavior 8. Neediness: () Seeking encouragement and support from others and appreciating being aided when in need 9. Dominance: Governance Being a leader who supervises or wields influence over others () 10. Abasement: () Feeling oneself blameworthy ( ) and inferior to others ( ) and experiencing timidity ( Shyness) 98

11. Nurturance: () Assisting those less fortunate ( ) and giving moral support to others 12. CHANGE: Participating in new activities and fashions and liking novelty (Newness) in one's life 13. Endurance :( ) Continued existence Remaining with a task until it is completed and being able to work without being distracted (troubled) 14. Heterosexuality: ) Engaging in social activities with the opposite gender and being interested in related matters . He hates from homosexuality. 15. Aggression: Aggression describes the attacking contrary points of view and expressing disagreement or criticism of others openly.

Islamic personality: The Islamic Personality is a clear and distinct personality. Its fabric is the Book of Allah, and its thread is the Sunnah and these two are inseparable from it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Purity and Sincerity of Intention Distinctness Justice and Being Justly Balanced Striving against One's Desires Gentleness Returning to The Truth Responsibility The Muslim Seeks to Make Excuses for Other Muslims The Muslim does not Harbor Envy Following and Applying Divine ( )Guidance The Muslim Has No Free Time The Muslim's Piety and Self Restraint () The Muslim is Honest and Truthful in All his Affairs Knowledge for Knowledge The Believer is a Mirror for His Brother The Muslim's Struggle and His Devil () Remembrance of Allah () The Muslim Does Not Fall Into Backbiting ()


19. The Muslim Does Not Pry into the Matters that do not Concern Him 20. All of His Actions are for Allah 21. The Muslim Repents and Turns Back to Allah 22. The Essential Characteristics of His Personality 23. Honest Jesting 24. A Time for This and a Time for That 25. He Does Not Take Sins Lightly 26. The Muslim does not Commit Oppression 27. He is not a carrier of Malicious Reports 28. He is not attached to This World 29. Disassociation from this World 30. Good Actions 31. The Muslim is Contented and Satisfied 32. Devotion to the Religion of Islam 33. How the Muslim Deals With People 34. Visiting Brothers 35. The Muslim's Character 36. The Muslim Knows His Own Worth 37. He hopes for good for Himself and His Brothers 38. Ordering Good and Forbidding Evil 39. Being Cautious to Avoid Animosity and Dissention 40. The Means to Escape the Trial which Befalls the People


Topic= 10-00

Social changes

Definitions- Meanings and Factors What is Social Change? 1. Social change is a very broad word that is used to define change in a social structure. The change can be anything from the races that are usually around to the type of foods people eat. 2. Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community. 3. Social change is the alternation or modification that takes place in a social structure or function of a society. It is the change in both material and non-material culture. 4. Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and cultural values and norms. By significant alteration, sociologists mean changes yielding profound ( ) social consequences. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces. Examples of significant social changes having long-term effects include the industrial revolution, the abolition of slavery () , and the feminist movement () . It may refer to a model change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Example: An association of people with developmental disabilities working collectively to tackle issues of discrimination by empowering its members to sponsor for themselves and collectively challenging service providers, government agencies and other institutions to ensure equal access and rights for ALL developmentally disabled people. Money alone does not bring about change; nor do individuals. But when people band together and form organizations to focus their collective power, social change can happen. When a large number of organizations work together toward a common goal, that's a movement, Movements make change. But in truth, social change movements flow from careful organizing, massive public education, continued protest , and, at times motivated cooperation across the divides of race, gender and class. These movements are driven by human energy, intelligence, courage -- as well as money.


What is Social Change in Sociology? In sociology the term social change refers to a major change in a society or culture that has lasting effects on that culture. The abolition of slavery is an example of social change. What is An Example of a Physical Change? A physical change means that the substance was altered, but its chemical composition remains the same. An example would be taking a piece of paper and ripping it up into smaller pieces. You can find more information here:

Meaning of Social Change Any alternation or modification that occurs in a situation over a time is called social change. It is the change in human interactions and inter-relations. If comes to change there are sources which are greatly responsible for change. The first source is unsystematic and unique factors day or night, climate, existence of people or groups. The second source is systematic factors like if we need excellence development there must be a stable and flexible government and system as well as different social organization.

Factors of Social changes Physical Environment: Major changes in the physical environment are very compelling when they happen. The desert wastes of North Africa were once green and well populated. Climates change, soil erodes and lakes gradually turn into swamps and finally plains. A culture is greatly affected by such changes although sometimes they come about so slowly that they are largely unnoticed. Human misuse can bring very rapid changes in physical environment which in turn change the social and cultural life of a people. Deforestation brings land erosion and reduces rainfall. Much of the wasteland and desert land of the world is a testament to human ignorance and misuse. Environmental destruction has been at least a contributing factor in the fall of most great civilization. Many human groups throughout history have changed their physical environment through migration. In the primitive societies whose members are very directly dependent upon their physical environment migration to a different environment brings major changes in the culture. Civilization makes it easy to transport a culture and practice it in a new and different environment.


Population changes: A population change is itself a social change but also becomes a casual factor in further social and cultural changes. A stable population may be able to resist change but a rapidly growing population must migrate, improve its productivity or starve have nothing to eat Great historic migrations and conquests of the Huns, Vikings and many others have arisen from the pressure of a growing population upon limited resources. Migration encourages further change for it brings a group into a new environment subjects it to new social contacts and confronts it with new problems. Isolation and Contact: Societies located at world crossroads have always been centers of change. Since most new traits come through diffusion, those societies in closest contact with other societies are likely to change most rapidly. In ancient times of overland transport, the land bridge connecting Asia, Africa and Europe was the centre of civilizing change. War and trade have always brought intercultural contact and today tourism is adding to the contacts between cultures says Greenwood. Conversely isolated areas are centers of stability, conservatism and resistance to change. Social Structure: A highly centralized bureaucracy is very favorable to the promotion and diffusion of change although bureaucracy has sometimes been used in an attempt to suppress change usually with no more than temporary success. When a culture is very highly integrated so that each element is rightly interwoven with all the others in a mutually interdependent system change is difficult and costly. But when the culture is less highly integrated so that work, play, family, religion and other activities are less dependent upon one another change is easier and more frequent. A tightly structured society wherein every person's roles, duties, privileges and obligations are precisely and rigidly defined is less given to changes than a more loosely structured society wherein roles, lines of authority, privileges and obligations are more open to individual rearrangement.


Attitudes and Values: To people in developed nations and societies change is normal. Children there are socialized to anticipate and appreciate change. By contrast the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea had no concept of change and did not even have any words in their language to express or describe change. Societies differ greatly in their general attitude toward change. People who revere the past and preoccupied with traditions and rituals will change slowly and unwillingly. A possible change is unlikely even to be seriously considered. Any change in such a society is likely to be too gradual to be noticed. A rapidly changing society has a different attitude toward change and this attitude is both cause and effect of the changes already taking place. Rapidly changing societies are aware of the social change. They are somewhat skeptical and critical of some parts of their traditional culture and will consider and experiment with innovations. Such attitudes powerfully stimulate the proposal and acceptance of changes by individuals within the society. Different groups within a locality or a society may show differing receptivity to change. Every changing society has its liberals and its conservatives. Literate and educated people tend to accept changes more readily than the illiterate and uneducated. Attitudes and values affect both the amount and the direction of social change. No society has been equally dynamic in all aspects and its values determine in which area-art, music, warfare, technology, philosophy or religion it will be innovative.

Cultural Factor influences the direction and character of technological change Culture not only influences our social relationships, it also influences the direction and character of technological change. It is not only our beliefs and social institutions must correspond to the changes in technology but our beliefs and social institutions determine the use to which the technological inventions will be put. The tools and techniques of technology are indifferent to the use we make of them. For example the atomic energy can be used for the production of deadly war weapons or for the production of economic goods that satisfy the basic needs of man. The factories can produce the armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building warships or tractors. It is a culture that decides the purpose to which a technical invention must be put. Although technology has advanced geometrically in the recent past, technology alone does not cause social change. It does not by itself even cause further advances in technology. Social values play a dominant role here. It is the complex combination of technology and social values which produces conditions that encourage further technological change. For example the belief or the idea that human life must not be sacrificed for wants of medical treatment, contributed to the advancement in medical technology. 104

Cultural factors such as habits, customs, traditions, conservatism, traditional values etc may resist the technological inventions. On the other hand factors such as breakdown in the unity of social values, the diversification of social institutions craving for the new thoughts, values etc may contribute to technological inventions. Men are always moved by ideas, thoughts, values, beliefs, morals and philosophies etc. These are the elements of culture. These sometimes decide or influence the direction in which technology undergoes change. Men are becoming more and more materialistic in their attitude. This change in the attitude and outlook is reflected in the technological field. Thus in order to lead a comfortable life and to minimize the manual labor man started inventing new techniques, machines, instruments and devices.

Technological Factors: The technological factors represent the conditions created by man which have a profound influence on his life. In the attempt to satisfy his wants, fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable man creates civilization. Technology is a byproduct of civilization .When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems in life it becomes technology. Technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. These changes are usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies customs and social institutions. The loss of human freedom and the large-scale destruction of human beings are due to the increasing use of certain types of technology which has begun to threaten the life support systems of the earth as a whole.

Factors of Social Changes in Pakistan

1. Technological and Economic Changes:

(Agriculture advancement, industrialization)

2. Modernization: standardizing as towards modern tools (Life Style, Technology)

3. Urbanization: Moving population from ruler areas to urban (Cities) areas.


4. Bureaucratization: Extreme emphasize on rules and regulation, impersonality .Misuse of Power () , (Despotism)

5. Conflict and Competition: War: due to religion, ethnic tensions, competition for resources. Gender and Women's Movement: equal pay, property: Today; day care, occupational segregation .

6. Political and Legal Power:

Unstable political environment, negligence of rule of law.

7. Ideology: Religious Belief, Political or Regional Conviction.

8. Diffusion:

Affect of Foreign Culture

9. Acculturation: distinctiveness.

the process in which a minority is absorbed into the majority and entirely loses its

10. Education:

Educational uplift is also main cause of social change

11. Media:

Media create awareness due to which people know their rights.

SOCIAL CHANGE in Pakistan: Our development efforts since Independence have gone into building the economy. In the early years this was quite successful: 1. 2. 3. 4. We harnessed ( )the great rivers for power and irrigation. We revolutionized agriculture. We pushed exports up to new levels. For a time economic growth was quite dynamic. Pakistan is producing more food now than at any time in its history, and food production has more than kept pace with population growth. 106

5. Progress in healthful policies. 6. Change and progress in male and female literacy. 7. Family planning programmers try to overcome on the high rate of population. But we were always aware that something was missing. At Independence Pakistan started more or less even with other countries in the region. All our efforts since then have left us lagging behind.

Changing in life style in Pakistan: No department of life be it economic, cultural, religious or recreational has been free from the effect of this great transformation in progress. The old system of classification and stratification of society as a whole is changing gradually and slowly but surely and certainly. We may go for some little changes. For instance, we may change clothing style. We may change our room setting. We may change our eating stuff. We may do whatever makes us happy. Movement is the stuff and essence of life, both for individual and the society. The factors and circumstances responsible for these changes can be enumerated as below; Partition of sub-continent Technological and scientific inventions Growth of urbanization and industrialization Expansion of commercial activities and international trade Changes in the economic structure of the country initiating the industrialization of its economy The spread of literacy resulting in the rise of a secular intelligentsia The effect of the spread of different ideologies of different political parties in the country The impact of the highly developed countries of the world on our society The working and influence of the trade union and co-operative movement The expansion of the area reached by the mass media of communication like radio, press, cinema, television etc. 11. Migration 12. Cultural diffusion
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


Islam and social change: Islam itself does not change but changes others () Islam abolished idol worship ( ) and brought a sense of civilization in the world. Drunkenness, ( ) lewdness, sexual permissiveness was accepted things in non Muslims societies, which Islam ruled ( ) as against the will of Allah and which invite punishment. Thus Islam brought orderliness ( ) and ethics to Arabs and the other surrounding countries. Evils like female child killing, mistreatment of the girl child in the family and the sale of girls like commodities was abolished and women were given a rightful place in society. Strict rules were laid down for all relationships with women pertaining to marriage, divorce, second marriage, sharing of ancestral property ( ) etc. Islam in the Muslim world is believed as a religion of tolerance, peace and enthusiasm () Social change is the process of challenging the ancient dogmas ( )and spiritual traditions.)( )Western societies are at a zigzag ( ) looking eagerly and interestingly at the Muslim world as to how well they respond to the challenge of a fundamental social change in their attitude, mental approach and social actions towards this situation. With all their claims, majority of Muslims in the world have to redefine their approach towards meeting with the requirement of a real social change and preparing themselves for embracing the new realities of life. In fact the true Muslims of the world are still far apart from accepting the wrong idea that the entire world has already changed around them. In fact there is no social change in the religion of Muslims, so there is no need to open their minds, hearts and eyes to the social changed, which is occurred in the changed social environment in the non-Muslim world. The non-Muslim changed every thing, because they dont have any roadmap of complete and stable life. But the religion of Muslims is complete; there is no need for additional addition in Islamic religion. Islam accepts social change in learning science and technology. Islam also accepts social change in mass progress.


Sociology of Islam Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is an abrahamic religion based on prophecy () , prophet hood, and the revealed text () . It began in sixth-century Arabia and spread rapidly to regions outside the Arabian Peninsula . A hundred years after Mohammed had declared it a prophetic religion, Islam had spread to almost all the regions of the known civilized world. In terms of size, the Islamic world constitutes a significant part of humanity and therefore warrants a sociologically informed understanding and analysis of its religious, social, and political trends.

Differences between common sociology and Islamic sociology 1. Common sociology discusses about all societies and Islamic sociology discusses only about those areas, where Muslims are in majority. 2. Common sociology depends on the different theories of sociologists and Islamic sociology depends on the teaching of Quran and Sunnah. 3. Flexibility and changeability is the important characteristic of Common sociology, but there is no flexibility and changeability in Islamic sociology. Because flexibility and changeability indicate ignorance and weakness, and our God Allah is pure from ignorance and weakness. 4. Common sociology changes with the changes of difference areas all over the world but Islamic sociology does not change with the changes of difference areas, because Islamic sociology has Islamic rules and regulations, which are constant and not changeable. 5. Common sociology is the creation of human brain and Islamic sociology is the brilliant and complete gift of God, which provides company law of life till death. 6. Common sociology is the sum of injustice and cruelty, but Islamic sociology presents the society of peace and love. It also provides satisfaction of heart.

Scope of Islamic sociology The scope of Islamic sociology is vast and comprehensive. It studies and solves both the small big problems of society. It solves the all problems of Muslims and nom-Muslims with offering non-bias and good solutions.


There are some important features of the Scope of Islamic sociology: 1. Study of Islamic society: It studies the social life of these people who are living in an Islamic society. Islam discusses about the all aspects of life with complete way.

2. Study of the rights and duties of the individuals: Quran and hadiths described the rights and duties of every individual with complete explanation. Religion and these world affairs both are related with Islamic sociology but common sociology separates between them. Example of rights and duties of the individuals are below: 1. Sponsoring of family 2. rearing and caring of children 3. Parental service() 4. Take for instance neighbors 5. Justice with grace()

3. Study of the Islamic culture: 1. The study of Islamic culture is the subject matter (area under discussion) of sociology. 2. In every Islamic society it is important that the all traditions and norms according to Quran and Sunnah.

4. Study of the social institutions: Social institutions are very important for every society. It studies with detail the five social institutions. They all are interlinking with each other, but the religious institution has dominant affect all over other institutions. They are describing below. 1. The family

2. Educational Institution 110


Economic Institution

4. Political Institution 5. Religious institution

5. Study of the group life: Making a group is a human nature, and the religion of Islam completely according to the nature. The study of those groups is very important in Islamic sociology, So Islamic sociology emphasizes on the study of the people who are living in a society. Fear is the only criterion () Caste, color and race, wealth, lineage, is dangerous for the grouping in Islamic society.

6. Study of other situations and realities: It also studies other existing situations which are found in society. Some of them are describing here below: 1. Social problems 2. Social changes 3. Social disorder 4. Social deviation