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MB0043 Human Resource Management Assignment Set- 1

Q1. Explain the role of HR executives in an organisation. Ans1. The role of HR executives in an organization is as follows: 1. Human resource planning: - Estimating the need for resources in order achieves the desired business results. HR plans can be both short term/immediate as well as long term/strategic. The HR team partners with the line managers to understand the business goals and targets for the year and together plan the HR needs in order to meet the goals. 2. Acquisition of Human Resources: - Staffing the organization with the right mix of skills and competencies at the right time. It also includes HR initiatives like promotions and internal job posting to fulfill this requirement for human resources. Staffing teams in organization are usually separate group of specialists who work closely with the line managers to understand the skills and competencies needed for the job and engage together to elect the best talent for the open position. 3. Training and employee development: Focuses in managing training activities to upgrade skills and knowledge as well as soft skills like the ream building and leadership. The training team is again a group of HR specialist who proposes the training program and consults with the line managers to ensure that the program achieves the desired outcomes. 4. Building performance management systems: - Focuses on the right processes to set goals for performance as individual / teams and related measurement methods. This is core HR activity and is supported by the Hr generalist. 5. Rewards systems: - Establishing appropriate compensation systems and reward mechanism that would reward the desired outcome and results in accordance with the cooperate values. The again forms a part of HR generalists tasks. Hoe employees progress in an organization how they are paid w.r.t internal and external market factors, what employee benefits are offered are some aspects that this function redresses. 6. Human resources information systems :- That would that would take care of operational transactions form the time an employee exits, like personal files, compensation administration, payroll, benefits administration and issuing letters and

testimonials. That task is supported by as separate HR operation team who acts as an Hr helpdesk and provides information to the employee/managers. Q2. What are the steps involved in HR planning? Ans2. Planning is very important to our everyday activities. Several definitions have been given by different writers what planning is all about and its importance to achieving our objectives. It is amazing that this important part of HR is mostly ignored in HR in most organizations because those at the top do not know the value of HR planning. Organizations that do not plan for the future have less opportunity to survive the competition ahead. This article will discuss the importance of HR planning; the six steps of HR planning that is : Forecasting; inventory, audit, HR Resource Plan; Actioning of Plan; Monitoring and Control. Definition of HR Planning Quoting Mondy et (1996) they define it as a systematic analysis of HR needs in order to ensure that correct number of employees with the necessary skills are available when they are required. Steps in HR Planning Forecasting HR Planning requires that we gather data on the Organizational goals objectives. One should understand where the Organization wants to go and how it wants to get to that point. The needs of the employees are derived from the corporate objectives of the Organization. They stern from shorter and medium term objectives and their conversion into action budgets (e.g.) establishing a new branch in New Delhi by January 2006 and staff it with a Branch Manager (6,000 USD, Secretary 1,550 USD, and two clerical staff 800 USD per month. Therefore, the HR Plan should have a mechanism to express planned Company strategies into planned results and budgets so that these can be converted in terms of numbers and skills required. Inventory After knowing what human resources are required in the Organization, the next step is to take stock of the current employees in the Organization. The HR inventory should not only relate to data concerning numbers, ages, and locations, but also an analysis of individuals and skills. Skills inventory provides valid information on professional and technical skills and other qualifications provided in the firm. It reveals what skills are immediately available when compared to the forecasted HR requirements.

Audit We do not live in a static World and our HR resources can transform dramatically. HR inventory calls for collection of data; the HR audit requires systematic examination and analysis of this data. The Audit looks at what had occurred in the past and at present in terms of labor turn over, age and sex groupings, training costs and absence. Based on this information, one can then be able to predict what will happen to HR in the future in the Organization. HR Resource Plan Here we look at career Planning and HR plans. People are the greatest asserts in any Organization. The Organization is at liberty to develop its staff at full pace in the way ideally suited to their individual capacities. The main reason is that the Organizations objectives should be aligned as near as possible, or matched, in order to give optimum scope for the developing potential of its employees. Therefore, career planning may also be referred to as HR Planning or succession planning. The questions that should concern us are: a) b) Are we making use of the available talent we have in the Organization, and have we can enough provision for the future? Are employees satisfied with our care of their growth in terms of advancing their career?

Assignment of individuals to planned future posts enables the administration to ensure that these individuals may be suitably prepared in advance. Actioning of Plan There are three fundamentals necessary for this first step. 1) Know where you are going. 2) There must be acceptance and backing from top management for the planning. 3) There must be knowledge of the available resources (i.e.) financial, physical and human (Management and technical). Once in action, the HR Plans become corporate plans. Having been made and concurred with top management, the plans become a part of the companys long -range plan. Failure to achieve the HR Plans due to cost, or lack of knowledge, may be serious constraints on the long-range plan. Below is an illustration of how HR Plan is linked to corporate Plan.

Q3. What are the different types of on-the-job and off-the-job training? Ans3. Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[who?] recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Different between on-the-job and off-the-job training: Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: "training and development". There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services.[2] One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:

On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas A more recent development in job training is the On the Job Training Plan or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of the Interior, a proper OJT plan should include: An overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated.

Q4. What are the benefits of carrying out performance appraisal in organisations? Ans4. Performance appraisal may be defined as an evaluation made by the employer or the top management. The purpose of implementing or carrying out performance appraisal activity is to judge the overall performance of the employees in the business organization. It is by means of this activity that the aspects, whether the employee has essentially required skills, knowledge and attitude to perform the current tasks or the assignments to be given in the future, are to be determined periodically. Moreover, it is through the process the capacity of the employees to grow and develop in course of time is to be assessed. In this way, performance appraisal programmed provides factual information to be used as a basis to make differentiation between efficient and inefficient employees in the business organization. Apropos of what needs to be done and how it should be done to attain the predetermined objectives, a range of some necessary characteristics in the employees is a must at organizational level so that the end results must be as has been planned or intended. The characteristics that, in the main, should exist are, such as, employee must have requisite skills for the job with minimum or required qualification. He must have the right attitude to perform what has been instructed or planned or to do what has been expected of him to do. He is supposed to contribute his part to the total organizational objectives in an effective and efficient manner. Other qualities, that is to say, loyalty to the company and maintaining integrity at all times- integrity in the sense, he mustnt turn away from doing right things, but follow with due diligence even though he is not watched. As such, it should be apparent that the performance appraisal is not to be made only on the basis of good academic accomplishments, but it is, in addition to what an employee has possessed academically, on the basis of overall performance considering his qualification and abilities and other required qualities. For these characteristics to be evaluated in the right perspective, the performance appraisal is very much needed in the business organization. Performance appraisal activity to be carried out smoothly in a business organization, various methods that lead to make inferences and predictions, are adopted that, in turn, would be useful to bring a conclusive evidence to the overall performance of the employees. And the sole purpose of any method is to make observation thoroughly about the performance of the employees and other related factors so as to let them know where they stand and advise them how they need to improve their performance. They are also to be notified for

their weak areas in which they need to put extra efforts to achieve a satisfactory level of performance or for which they are to be trained. The process of performance appraisal also includes determining promotion for those who deserve and the transfer in case it is to benefit both, the employee as well as the organization. It is necessary for a business organization to carry out the activity of performance appraisal periodically as it entails twofold beneficial effect. To a business it does help to grow strengthening total organizational competencies and creating effectiveness and efficiency. To the employees, making them realize their full potential, it becomes a source to motivate them to do their jobs in the best way. Q5. What are the methods of carrying out job analysis? Ans5. Job analysis is often referred to as the cornerstone of HRM and it has become increasingly important for legal questions related to promotion and discrimination. This chapter clarifies the contributions made by job analysis to an organizations HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a job analysis program are highlighted. Finally, the importance of job analysis in the design is discussed.

The Steps in Job Analysis

The job analysis process: Step 1: provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization and process charts are used Step 2: encourages those involved to determine how the job analysis and job design information will be used Step 3: jobs to be analyzed are selected Step 4: job analysis techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job Step 5: develop a job description Step 6: prepare a job specification The reason why job analysis is considered the cornerstone of the HR structure or as I refer to as the backbone of the HR body, lies in the fact that data collected is used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity: Recruitment you need a job description to advertise the duties of the


Selection you need the qualification from a job specification to determine minimum qualifications. Training Performance evaluation Compensation Job design and redesign - job analysis provides the information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to be both productive and satisfied

Q6. Ms.Varuna Agarwal is the HR Manager of Milestones Pvt. Ltd. She wants to ensure that employee discipline is well maintained. What are the important principles that have to be observed in the maintenance of discipline? Ans6. Disciplinary measures have serious implications for employees; they often are based on the principles of being fair, just and acceptable to employees and, where applicable, the union as well. It cannot be enforced or imposed on employees, as history has proved, it never benefits anyone. So one of the most significant transformations that have impacted the workplace in the past few years is the reinstatement of discipline in a positive and employee -supported environment. The way it is practiced in todays organizations is extremely well communicated and adopts a discretionary approach. The most important principles to be observed in the maintenance of discipline have been outlined by Yoder. Heneman, Turn ball and Harold Stone are: a) As far as possible, all the rules should be framed in co-operation and collaboration with the representatives of employees. If the latter have a share in formulating them, will be much more likely to observe them. b) All the rules should be appraised at frequent and regular intervals to ensure that they are, and continue to be, appropriate sensible and useful. c) Rules should vary with changes in the working conditions of employees. Those framed for office employees, for example, may very well be different from those that are formulated for workers in an industrial concern. d) Rules should be uniformly enforced if they are to be effective. They must be applied without exception and without bending them or ignoring them in favour of any one worker.

e) Penalties for any violation of any rule should be clearly stated in advance. Employees have the right to know what to expect in the event of any infringement of a rule or regulation. For this purpose, it is better to publish them in the employees' handbook. f) A disciplinary policy should have as its objective the prevention of any infringement rather than the simple administration of penalties, however just: it should be preventive rather than punitive. g) Extreme caution should be exercised to ensure that infringements are not encouraged. This should be done as a matter of policy. h) If violations of a particular rule are fairly frequent, the circumstances surrounding them should be carefully investigated and studied in order to discover the cause or causes of such violations. i) Recidivism must be expected. Some offenders would almost certainly violate rules more often than others. These cases should be carefully considered so that their causes may be discovered. j) Definite and precise provisions for appeal and review of all disciplinary actions should be expressly mentioned in the employees' handbook for collective agreements Discipline is best defined as the observation of principles, rules or any other laid down procedures, practices, written or otherwise in the organization by the employees or group of employees, to whom these apply, for smooth and effective functioning of the organization. Per Dr. Spriegal, "discipline is the force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective; it is force or fear of force which restrains an individual or a group from doing things which are deemed to be destructive of group objectives. It is also the exercise of restraint or the enforcement of penalties for the violation of group regulations". Brem blett, Earl R says that, "discipline in the broad sense means orderliness-the opposite of confusion... According to Calhoon. Richard. D, "discipline may be considered as a force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization.

MB0043 Human Resource Management Assignment Set- 2

Q1. Explain the elements of a career planning programme. Ans1. Though programs differ, four distinct elements of career planning programs emerge. They include (1) individual assessments of abilities, interests, career needs, and goals; (2) organizational assessments of employee abilities and potential; (3) communication of information concerning career options and opportunities with the organization; and (4) career counseling to set realistic goals and plan for their attainment. Each of these elements is discussed in greater detail below. Individual Assessments Individual assessment of abilities, interests, career needs, and goals is basically a process of self-exploration and analysis. Individuals are frequently guided by selfassessment exercises. The self-assessment process is basically viewed as an individual responsibility; however, organizations can aid in this process by providing the employee with materials and opportunities for self-exploration and analysis. A variety of self-assessment materials are available commercially, but a number of organizations, including IBM, Xerox, General Motors, and General Electric, have developed tailormade workbooks for employee career planning purposes. Individual career planning exercises can be done independently by employees or in workshops sponsored by the organization. Organizational Assessments A key issue in career counseling sessions is whether an employee's goals are realistic in terms of organizational possibilities and organizational assessments of employee abilities and potential. Accurate assessments of employee abilities and potential are important to both the organization and the individual Career Information within an Organization Before realistic goals can be set, employee need information about career options and opportunities. This includes information about possible career directions; possible paths of career advancement; and specific job vacancies. In organizations with informal career planning programs, employees learn about career options and opportunities from their supervisors within the context of developmental performance appraisal interviews. Organizations with more established career planning programs make greater use of workbooks, workshops, and even recruiting materials to communicate career options and opportunities.

Career Counseling It is in counseling sessions, typically with supervisors and managers in developmental performance appraisal interviews, that most employees explore career goals and opportunities in the organization. Supervisors and managers need accurate assessments of employee abilities and potential, as well as information about career options and opportunities in the organization. HR professionals may be involved in some informal career counseling activities, but basically their role is to support career counseling activities of supervisors and managers.

Q2. Explain the application of HRIS in Human resource management. Ans2. A human resource management system (HRMS) or human resource information system (HRIS), refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management (HRM) and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. On the whole, these ERP systems have their origin on software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database. The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietary developed predecessors, which makes this software application both rigid and flexible. The function of human resources (HR) departments is generally administrative and common to all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll processes. Efficient and effective management of "human capital" progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. The HR function consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories, skills, capabilities, accomplishments and salary. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities, organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing specialized human resource management systems. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain an integrated HRMS. Before the clientserver architecture evolved in the late 1980s, many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions. In consequence of the high capital investment necessary to buy or program proprietary software, these internally developed HRMS were limited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. The advent of clientserver, application service provider, and software as a service (SaaS) or human resource management systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control of such systems. Currently human resource management systems encompass

1. Payroll 2. Time and attendance 3. Appraisal performance 4. Benefits administration 5. HR management information system 6. Recruiting/Learning management 7. Performance record 8. Employee self-service 9. Scheduling 10. Absence management Q3. What are the factors that affect recruitment? Ans3. All organizations, whether large or small, do engage in recruiting activity, though not to the same intensity. Few factors that impact the nature of recruitment: i. The size of the organization- the smaller the organization the more the need to carefully scrutinize the candidate for a job and the fitment to the organizational culture. The risk in case of job-candidate mismatch can prove equally expensive for a smaller organization as compared to the larger one. ii. The employment conditions in the country where the organization is locatedcritically impacts the recruiting strategy. The methods for recruiting, the selection tools that are most suited and the legal framework that bear on the employer are some aspects that need to be considered. iii. The affects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization's ability to locate and keep good performing people- constantly reviewing the effectiveness of the recruiting methods and the selection tools used, evaluating the success at-work of the new recruits are some methods used by organizations to ensure that quality hiring practices are in-place. iv. Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization this may influence turnover and necessitate future recruiting; (v) the rate of growth of organization- the phase in the life-cycle of the firm is a measure of the recruiting effort v. The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programmes ensuring that the recruitment numbers come from a well-planned Human Resource Plan is critical to ensure that there is no over-hiring or under-hiring of the required talent to achieve the organizational objectives. vi. Cultural, economic and legal factors these too affect the recruiting and selection methods that are used.

Filling a job opening from within the firm has the advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer / promotion, serves as a key motivator for internal employees who are aspiring for a move, increasing the general level of morale, and provides more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. A job posting has a number of advantages. From the view point of the employee, it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. For the employer, it should result in better matches of employee and job. However, not all jobs are posted by an organization internally. In opening a job for internal aspirants an organization make a conscious decision and then moves forward. It is also possible that organizations might post all job opening internally as well as externally and the internal candidates compete for the job along with other external candidate

Q4. Write a short note on minimum wage, fair wage and living wage. Ans4. Minimum wage: A minimum wage has been defined by the Committee as "the wage which must provide not only for the bare sustenance of life, but for the preservation of the efficiency of the worker. For this purpose, the minimum wage must provide for some measure of education, medical requirements and amenities". In other words, a minimum wage should provide for the sustenance of the worker's family, for his efficiency, for the education of his family members, for their medical care and for some amenities. It is very difficult to determine the minimum wage because conditions vary from place to place, industry to industry and from worker to worker. However, the principles for determining minimum wages were evolved by the Government and have been incorporated in the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, the important principle being that minimum wages should provide not only for the bare sustenance of life but also for the preservation of the efficiency of the workers by way of education, medical care and other amenities. Fair Wage: According to the Committee on Fair Wages, "it is the wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living wage." The lower limit of the fair wage is obviously the minimum wage; the upper limit is set by the "capacity of the industry to pay". Between these two limits, the actual wages should depend on considerations of such factors as: The productivity of labour; The prevailing rates of wages in the same or neighboring localities; The level of the national income and its distribution; and The place of industry in the economy.

Living Wage: This wage was recommended by the Committee as a fair wage and as ultimate goal in a wage policy. It defined a Living Wage as "one which should enable the earner to provide for himself and his family not only the bare essentials of food, clothing and shelter but a measure of frugal comfort, including education for his children, protection against ill-health, requirements of essential social needs and a measure of insurance against the more important misfortunes including old age". In other words, a living wage was to provide for a standard of living that would ensure good health for the worker, and his family as well as a measure of decency, comfort, education for his children, and protection against misfortunes. Generally, ascertaining wages and deciding who to pay what is a activity undertaken in the beginning when a organization is set up. Thereon it is annual reviews to make corrections per the countrys economic and market/industry trends. The management considers the state of the labour market and takes into account of what he can afford to pay and the value of the worker to him. The workers willingness for employment at the rate offered implies that they agree to work at that rate, though they have had no part in fixing it.

Q5. List the advantages and limitation of job evaluation. Ans5. Advantages: 1. Job evaluation is a logical and an objective method of ranking jobs relatively to each other. It may thus help in removing inequities in existing wage structures and in maintaining sound and consistent wage differences in a plant or an industry. 2. The method replaces accidental factors occurring in less systematic procedures of wage bargaining by more impersonal and objective standards, thus establishing a clearer basis for negotiation. 3. The method may lead to greater uniformity in wage rates and simplify the process of wage administration. 4. Information collected in a process of job description and analysis can be used for improvement of selection, training, transfer and promotion, procedures on the basis of the comparative job requirement. Limitations: 1. Though there are many ways of applying job evaluation in a flexible manner, rapid changes in technology and in the supply of and demand for particular skills, create problems of adjustment that may need further study.

2. When job evaluation results in substantial changes in the existing wage structure, the possibility of implementing these changes in a relatively short period may be restricted by the financial limits within which the firm has to operate. 3. When there are a large proportion of incentive employees, it may be difficult to maintain a reasonable and acceptable structure of relative earnings. 4. The process of job rating is, to some extent, inexact because some of the factors and degrees can be measured with accuracy. 5. Job evaluation takes a long time to complete, requires specialized technical personnel and is quite expensive Q6. Mr. Ajit Sakarkar is the HR manager of a BPO. He Feels that the organization must provide flexi timing for the employees as an HR initiative. What are the benefits that you feel Mr. Ajits initiative will bring to organization and to the employees? Ans6. There is a growing body of literature that makes a compelling business case for diversity and inclusion in the workplace. The literature identifies that diversity initiatives often result in a number of benefits to the organization, including: Improved service to clients: Many organizations recognize that a diverse workforce helps the organization understand and respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse client base. Diversity at all levels allows the organization to be responsive to the needs of the community it serves in three areas of customer service: at the strategy level where strategic decisions about organizational direction and service delivery are made; at the design level where service design decisions are made; and at the service level which is the point-of-contract between the organization and its clients. Better management of all employees: Addressing issues of diversity and inclusion will enable an organization to institute or formalize non-discriminatory human resource policies and practices, increase transparency and consistency of its employment practices, and support better management and treatment of employees. Ultimately all employees will benefit from better management of human resources. Reduced human resource costs: Equity initiatives often lead to a healthier working environment for all employees and a reduction in costs associated with unhealthy work environments, including absenteeism, turnover, legal costs and staff time needed to deal with harassment and discrimination complaints. Employees who work in unwelcoming workplaces that are not accepting of diversity are more likely to leave to take other jobs, take extended leaves of absence, and retire early.

Improved productivity: Workplaces, which are unwelcoming of people from diverse groups, can be poisoned and unproductive. Employers that create and support a work environment in which all employees feel valued and safe from harassment, and that treat their employees fairly and with respect are typically rewarded with increased morale, better performance and higher productivity overall. Improved creativity and innovation: Organizations that encourage and support workplace diversity are better able to attract and retain top talent from the diverse groups. In expanding the pool from which they hire and the resulting diversity of perspectives, approaches, knowledge and skills within the organization enables these organizations to boost their creativity and innovation. This gives them considerable advantage in a highly competitive market. Improved corporate image: Employers that are known to have a commitment to diversity and inclusion have a more positive corporate image by the public in general and by prospective employees. A public commitment to diversity helps the organization to become known as a desirable place to work. This then increases the organizations ability to attract and retain high caliber employees from diverse groups. In addition, the organizations corporate image can suffer from discriminatory practices that result in lengthy and public battles in courts and before tribunals. While issues may not go to court or result in formal complaints, unhappy employees may share their experiences with others. The two words diversity and inclusion are often used interchangeably. While they are conceptually distinct, in practice they overlap. Diversity refers to workforce demographics and worker characteristics. Inclusion refers to human resource management practices that increase employee participation and leverage differences. The concept of diversity is used to refer to the observable (gender, race, physical ability, age) and unobservable differences (learning styles, sexual orientation, socio-economic status) among people. This approach tends to focus on the removal of barriers to the hiring and advancement and the representation of the various groups at all levels of the organization. Traditional approaches to diversity management include targeted recruitment, career development, mentoring, and education and training. The goal of diversity efforts is to reflect the diversity of the community in which the organization operates or which it serves. Diversity representation is not an end in itself but a means to inclusiveness. It requires more than just hiring new faces or funding services for newcomers or at-risk communities. Embracing the principles of inclusion means understanding, accepting and respecting diversity. It requires opening minds and doors to new perspectives and worldviews that often dont find a place at the table. Inclusion refers to a sense of belonging: feeling respected and valued for who you are; feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from others so than you can do

your best work. Inclusion reflects a shift in organizational culture whereby diversity is treated as integral to the way business is done. The process of inclusion engages each individual and makes people feeling valued essential to the success of the organization. It includes an organizational approach to eliminating barriers, based on an acknowledgement that society is not homogenous and that many people do not have access to services, jobs and positions of leadership due to societal and system factors rather than personal deficiencies. Inclusive work practices and diversity-related outcomes go hand in hand. Organizations that have both higher numbers of people of color, immigrants, persons with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and LGBTTQ employees, represented at all levels, and that have created an environment that is positive for all people, are defined as highly inclusive and diverse