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Scientific Article Notes, Question and answers, June 2013 Unit 5, by Stafford Valentine Redden (M.Sc.; M.Ed.; M.A.; Ph.D)
Scientific article for use with Question 7 Naked and ugly: The new face of lab rats 1. In a small room in the lab-animal wing of the University of Illinois at Chicago, biologist Thomas Park peers into a plastic box full of naked mole rats. “You guys are so cute,” he says softly, in a voice usually reserved for babies or puppies. 2. Park is mistaken. Naked mole rats are not cute. They are bald, wrinkled and purply pink, with tiny near-blind eyes and huge yellow teeth. Ranging from the size of a large mouse to that of a small rat, these odd rodents are among the strangest looking mammals on the planet. But don’t judge a naked mole rat by its unfortunate appearance. These bizarre creatures could help us tackle all sorts of human maladies, from cancer and stroke to pain relief and ageing. Paragraph 2 SAQ1. Explain the formation of tumors (cancers). Cancer is caused by gene mutations (in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes: which are responsible for regulation of the cell cycle) which cause uncontrolled cell division. The rate of cell proliferation is greater than the rate of cell death. SAQ2. Explain how stroke may be caused. Atheroma formation and thrombosis in cerebral arteries (or other arteries in the brain) lead to ischaemia (lack of blood flow and oxygen supply) in the brain. This leads to necrosis (death) of neurons in the brain. This is the main cause of stroke. High blood pressure can also cause rupture of arteries in the brain, leading to necrosis of brain cells. SAQ3. State the risk factors for stroke. High blood pressure, high LDL levels, lack of exercise, ageing, gender, smoking, genetic factors and diet. SAQ4. Explain the causal link between ageing and stroke. Ageing makes the arteries less elastic. This increases blood pressure and causes endothelial damage. T cells and monocytes migrate into the smooth muscle layer of arteries and facilitate the deposition of Ca2+ ions, LDL cholesterol and cells debris to form atheroma or plaque. This narrows the lumen of arteries in the brain and increases the risk of stroke. SAQ5. Pain is caused when specific receptors called A δ (delta) receptors and C fiber receptors are stimulated. Using your knowledge about ion movement in a neurone, explain how an action potential will be initiated in these neurons. The stimulus will cause the Na+ ion channels to open. The influx of Na+ ions into the neuron will initiate the formation of an action potential. SAQ6. Suggest mechanisms by which the mole rat may provide relief from pain. They may produce some chemicals (analgesics) which may block pain receptors at the synapses and prevent post synaptic potentials from forming in the neurons that are responsible for the sensation of pain.
Comment [S1]: To look intently or searchingly
Comment [S2]: Mice measure between 3 and 14 inches in length and weigh up to 2 ounces. Rats may be as long as two feet and weigh more than mice. The snout of the rat is more pointed. Comment [S3]: mammals, characterised by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each jaw which must be kept short by gnawing. Comment [S4]: Strikingly unconventional and far-fetched in style or appearance Comment [S5]: To make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation. Comment [S6]: Any undesirable or disordered condition Comment [S7]: Known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth Comment [S8]: A stroke is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply Comment [S9]: the gradual biological impairment of normal function.
3. A dozen species of mole rat exist, all native to sub-Saharan Africa. Naked mole rats stand out, though, not least because they appear completely bald. They are also extremely social, living underground in elaborate networks of tunnels and chambers in groups of up to 300. Here in the lab, Park mimics their burrow system by connecting several dozen plastic boxes with long tubes. The animals spend their days pushing bedding around the tubes and nibbling on bits of sweet potato.
Comment [S10]: living naturally in a particular region Comment [S11]: to be prominent or special Comment [S12]: To copy or imitate closely Comment [S13]: Take small bites
Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks, global academic consultant and Head of Institution, Republic of Maldives.
Books available at http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www.facebook.com/groups/biologywithstafford/
Explain what is meant by differential gene expression. DNA hybridization. The rest of the animals work for a living: soldiers defend the colony against predators and rivals. The gene pools will diverge from each other and may become so different that the populations lose their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. crossing over. SAQ10. especially a search for food and supplies Comment [S24]: The form and structure of an organism or one of its parts Comment [S25]: having a body temperature that varies according to the temperature of the local atmosphere Comment [S26]: the thick sensitive layer of skin or connective tissue beneath the epidermis Comment [S27]: the thin outermost layer of the skin. This could decrease the biodiversity of the population. The genes that are switched on produce specific mRNA. This isolation would prevent gene flow and different selection pressures on each population would cause genetic drift. Explain what is meant by the term Niche. By assisting other members of the colony Queen can produce more offspring. 5. SAQ9. kills. while housekeepers forage for root vegetables and tidy up the tunnels. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Populations of mole rats may have become isolated. Naked mole rats show various adaptations to their particular environment.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Paragraph 4 SAQ12. This could make the population less adaptable and vulnerable to environmental change. with help from between one and three kings.” Akin to bees and ants. while other genes are switched off. Explain how a dozen species may have arisen from a single species of mole rat. such as the lack of an insulating layer and the loosely folded morphological arrangement contribute to poikilothermic responses to changing temperatures of this mammal. 4.” Park tells me. either by geographical barriers or differences in behavior. SAQ11. All the organisms of a single species living in a particular habitat. and eats other animals in order to survive Comment [S21]: group that competes Comment [S22]: somebody who takes care of his or her own house and its residents Comment [S23]: the process of searching for something. This gives rise to several species. reproduction Comment [S17]: breeding female Comment [S18]: to produce something in large quantities quickly Comment [S19]: males that mate with the queen Comment [S20]: a carnivorous animal that hunts. housekeepers. they live in a eusocial society in which a single breeding queen churns out all the offspring. How is genetic variation brought about? Mutations. or. The non-reproductive individuals in eusocial animals do not directly transfer their genes to offspring. SAQ15. Comment [S14]: Of similar character Comment [S15]: living in a cooperative group in which usually one female and several males are reproductively active and the non-breeding individuals care for the young or protect and provide for the group Comment [S16]: the process of bearing offspring. Give an example of (a) a behavioural adaptation.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. “Naked mole rats are a really odd mammal species. This is because all species of mole rats are found in sub-Saharan Africa alone. as there will be less heterozygosity or genetic diversity in the offspring. Specific genes are switched on. Soldier. proteomics or DNA fingerprinting. This increases chances (of the genes they share) being inherited. Potato contains a lot of starch. SAQ19. Republic of Maldives. as commonly occurs in homeotherms. Explain what is meant by a predator. Kings and Queen are anatomically and physiologically different. Books available at http://www. the way an organism utilizes the resources in an environment.amazon. Starch can be digested by the mole rat to produce glucose. rather than the epidermis. This will help to reduce competition for resources and increase the chances of survival of organisms in the colony. ability of neurones to tolerate oxygen deprivation Behavioral – soldiers defending colony against predators and rivals (instead of running away and saving themselves) SAQ13. Suggest the importance of potato in the diet of mole rats. Anatomical Large (incisor) teeth for dealing with tough fibrous plant material and digging Lack of fur and reduced eyes Physiological eg. A predator is an organism that kills and feeds on the flesh of another organisms.facebook. Further evidence for poikilothermy in the naked mole-rat is indicated by the presence of pigment containing cells in the dermis. itself made up of several layers. state one other method that scientists could use to identify different species. These proteins determine the structure and function of cells and the organism. Explain what is meant by a population. In spite of this there must still be a genetic advantage in being eusocial – suggest what this must be. (b) a physiological adaptation. SAQ18. SAQ14. The glucose is a good respiratory substrate. This difference may be due to differential gene expression. Many features of the skin of the naked mole-rat. SAQ8. The mRNA produces specific polypeptides by translation. random assortment of chromosomes and random fusion of genetically variable gametes. Explain why the mole rat populations may be termed as endemic. Non-reproductive naked mole rats share alleles/genes with other members of the colony. SAQ16. that covers and protects the underlying dermis Comment [S28]: an organism whose stable body temperature is generally independent of the temperature of its surrounding environment Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Apart from the inability to interbreed. Suggest the advantage of defending the colony from rivals. Lack of fur is compensated by a thicker epidermal layer and a marked reduction in sweat glands.Page 2 of 16 Paragraph 3 SAQ7. “Their social structure is like that of insects. SAQ17. Suggest one disadvantage of a single female producing all the offspring in the colony. A niche is the role played by an organism in its ecosystem. and (c) an anatomical adaptation exhibited by these animals.
They also maintain excellent health well into their sunset years. However. experimental group (exposed to oxidative stress). global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Any explanation for peer review (e. SAQ21. Comment [S29]: a line or crease between small folds of skin that forms on the face as a result of aging Comment [S30]: a biologist specializing in physiology.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. This protects the nuclei from UV damage and reduces mutations in DNA. Large sample size. In time. lifespan tends to correlate with body size". Paragraph 6 SAQ25. which reduces heat loss. 3. scientists in the same field conduct the experiment to check its validity whether the results are similar) SAQ29. SAQ23.amazon. Books available at http://www. though. then the statement would always be true.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Another study concluded that a larger body size caused a longer lifespan.g.” she says. lifespan tends to correlate with body size. The keratinized closely packed epithelial cells in human skin acts as a physical barrier to pathogens. Naturally. Poikilothermic animals will be less active if environmental temperature falls.Page 3 of 16 Paragraph 5 SAQ20. This triggers the increased production of melanin. Suggest the advantage of stating the credentials of a Rochelle Buffenstein ( physiologist at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio). Paragraph 7 SAQ26. Publish results in scientific journals 2. Peer review 4. control group (not exposed to oxidative stress). SAQ24. State two disorders that could lead to mental decline and state the main cause for each. "In general. Explain how the skin of humans acts as an insulating layer. Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Republic of Maldives.facebook. caused due to lack of serotonin in the limbic system of the brain. “They are incredibly long‑lived creatures. who has been studying naked mole rats for 30 years. making them the longest-lived rodents on Earth. difference in results compared. Comment [S36]: stunning Comment [S37]: the length or duration of life Comment [S38]: Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. their bodies stay fit and they don’t show signs of heart disease or mental decline. Suggest how the conclusions of the investigations conducted could be accepted by the scientific community. scientists are eager to understand the secrets of this small. Correlation does not necessarily mean causation. Paragraph 8 SAQ30. is among those looking for molecular explanations for their astounding longevity. Explain why this may not be a valid conclusion. 8. 6. High exposure to UV radiation stimulates the increased production of Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) and MSH receptor on melanocytes. Advantage – reduced energy consumption. the biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. Explain the environmental influence on the phenotype with reference to melanin production. 7. bald Methuselah. similar-sized naked mole rats live three decades. In general. Melanin is a pigment found in the skin and fur of mammals. Fur. Breeding females continue to produce pups right up to the end and. researchers couldn’t help but notice another intriguing aspects of naked mole rat biology. “For many years. SAQ28. Presence of atherosclerosis/atheroma (in wall of arteries) SAQ27. Their bones remain strong. Disadvantage – metabolic activity will change with change in environmental temperature. In general . one of the leading theories of how the ageing process works. This unusual social arrangement is what first drew scientists to study the wrinkled rodents.if size caused the lifespan to change. 1. Present results at conferences 3. This is to acknowledge the source of information and allows readers to assess the credibility of the source. Buffenstein. Give one advantage and one disadvantage in being poikilothermic in comparison to homeothermy. It has adipose tissue. What evidence would scientists look for when searching for evidence of heart disease in naked Mole Rats? Damage to coronary artery. Sweat glands. live longer than small ones. State the main features for the study to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on ageing. SAQ22.” says Rochelle Buffenstein. Large animals. Parkinson’s disease caused due to lack of dopamine in the frontal cerebral cortex and Depression. most of the studies were on their behaviour. on average. Give two examples of features that help thermoregulation in most mammals that are reduced or absent in Naked Mole rats and explain how each operates to help achieve thermoregulation. naked mole rats don’t even get cancer. a physiologist at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. The melanin is packed into melanosomes and transferred to other epidermal cells. She began by investigating their response to oxidative stress. suitable duration. Comment [S31]: fascinating Comment [S32]: Have a mutual relationship Comment [S33]: 30 years Comment [S34]: Old age Comment [S35]: Methuselah is purported to be the oldest person to ever live (969yrs). Creates insulating layer of trapped air. to top it off. while mice and rats are lucky to survive three years in captivity. Secretion of sweat onto skin removes heat by evaporation. That’s not all. Not enough data may have been collected to prove that the correlation is a causation. State the function of the skin in prevention of infection. 1. 2.
com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Ionic bonds: form between carboxyl [COOH] groups and amino [NH2] groups found in the Residual chains. (extra molecules) affect bonding that maintains the tertiary structure. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Tertiary structure shape is changed. They are stronger than H bonds. oxygen-containing free radicals damage the molecules of the body.amazon. DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chains. The two chains are then coiled into a double helix. The tertiary structure is maintained by Hydrogen bonds. This oxidative damage. which are anti-parallel to each other. is apparent as extra molecules that attach to DNA and proteins “like chewing gum stuck to the bottom of a shoe”. The specific three dimensional shape [secondary. the large number of bonds provide a considerable force to maintain the three dimensional shape. disulphide bridges [covalent bonds] and ionic bonds between the Residual groups of amino acids. Comment [S39]: a highly reactive atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron Comment [S40]: become worse SAQ32. naked mole rats should have lower rates of oxidative damage than more short-lived species. Although these bonds are weak. Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Suggest how extra molecules attaching to proteins might affect their structure and function. SAQ33.Page 4 of 16 9. These bonds are strong and contribute to the strength of structural proteins like collagen. Ref to named bond eg disulphide.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. quaternary structure] of a protein is maintained by three types of chemical bonds between the Residual groups of amino acids Hydrogen bonds: form between some Hydrogen atoms [which bear a slight positive charge] and oxygen and nitrogen atoms [which bear a slight negative charge]. ionic. but can be broken by changes in pH and high temperature Disulphide bonds: Some amino acids. They are also useful in linking the two polypeptide chains of insulin together.dimensional globular shape the polypeptide chain takes when the polypeptide chain twists and folds around itself. Hydrophillic and hydrophobic interactions of the Residual groups also influence the tertiary structure. The tertiary structure of a protein is the complex three . Bonds between R groups are changed/broken. Hydrophobic interactions also help to maintain the shape of globular proteins. Buffenstein says. Books available at http://www. she predicted. tertiary. Disulphide bonds can form between sulphur atoms of amino acids that are close together.facebook. like cysteine and methionine contain sulphur atoms in the Residual groups. If oxidative stress is truly an important mechanism of ageing. According to this theory. Describe the structure of DNA. Paragraph 9 SAQ31. hydrogen. causing them to deteriorate over time until they stop functioning altogether. Describe the tertiary structure of proteins. Republic of Maldives. as it is known. like enzymes and trans-membrane proteins. The chains are held to each other by Hydrogen bond between nitrogenous base pairs.
Allosterism is a process whereby a protein changes its shape when it binds to another molecule. are examples of allosterism.” Paragraph 11 SAQ34. Another possible mechanism being investigated centres on how cells multiply. Paragraph 14 SAQ41.” she says. Name the process by which cells replicate (p14) and describe the events that take place in the main events of this process. “We think [protein stability] is a very important component of their extraordinary longevity. mice. The induced fit hypothesis of enzyme action and carrier proteins changing shape to transmit substances across the membrane. How might the immune system of immune compromised mice differ from normal mice. six months lapsed and there were still no tumours. Paragraph 13 SAQ38. 15. This can cause denaturation of proteins by disrupting Hydrogen and ionic bonds and hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction. SAQ40. Republic of Maldives. it doesn’t matter what stress comes along. the deviant cells are essentially locked away.g fewer T helper cells. if they have the mechanisms to protect themselves. vol 9. SAQ39. Using your knowledge of tertiary structure of proteins. which is critical to their functioning. “Every time one of our animals die. Proteins which have more covalent bonds will be more stable than proteins with more ionic or hydrogen bonds. Suggest the process by which deviant cells may be locked away or prevented from replication. Since oxidative damage is caused by free radicals. Apart from oxidative stress. Differential gene expression. Buffenstein and her colleague Peter Hornsby introduced cancer-causing genes into cells from rats. “If your proteins maintain their integrity. soundness Comment [S43]: an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose Comment [S44]: A region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage Comment [S45]: Cancer of the lymph nodes Comment [S46]: Co-worker Comment [S47]: a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent Comment [S48]: progressive spread of disease from one organ in the body to another Comment [S49]: passed Comment [SVR50]: close watch kept over someone or something Comment [SVR51]: Out of the normal or correct position Comment [SVR52]: Cells which have come to differ from normal cells Books available at http://www. Suggest what processes would be altered by the cancer causing genes.facebook. The immune system of the mice will recognise these cells as nonself and trigger an immune response to destroy these cells. Suggest why the mice that received the genetically modified cells had to be immunocompromised. But naked mole rat proteins can withstand significantly more damage before they lose their shape (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Any named part of the immune system e. unable to replicate and cause tumours (Aging Cell. named vector (eg virus/liposome). we haven’t seen signs of lymphoma. however. p 626). mice and humans developed highly invasive tumours. state three other factors which can influence protein structure. In two to four weeks. fewer plasma cells. 12. the free radicals result in damage to polypeptides by neutralizing charged Residual groups.” Buffenstein says. the mice injected with modified cells from rats. Comment [S41]: traditional Japanese art of paper folding Comment [S42]: The state of being unimpaired. The abnormal cells were still alive but had stopped replicating. vol 106.Page 5 of 16 10. “We think mole rats have better surveillance mechanisms to assess what’s going on in their DNA. Another factor that helps naked mole rats reach an advanced age is their remarkable ability to avoid cancer. SAQ36. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Remarkably. Describe the techniques that would be used to insert the cancer causing genes into the cells of rats. Mouse proteins begin misfolding very quickly after suffering oxidative damage – a kind of anti-origami that causes them to stop working properly. The genes for cell division in these cells are permanently switched off. cells Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Describe what is meant by allosterism and state one process where allosterism plays a role. suggest why some proteins may be more prone to oxidative damage than others. “We haven’t seen a tumour. The glycoprotein and protein molecules (antigens) on human and rat cells will differ from the molecules on the mice cells. Keeping in shape 11. Consequence given eg. “In the case of naked mole rats. we try to figure out what they die of. fewer T helper cells mean less activation of B cells and less antibody production. Mitosis SAQ42.” she says. To understand why. Nearly all mice have cancerous cells lurking in their bodies by the time they die but cancer has never been seen in a naked mole rat. 14. We know they don’t get age-related cancer. we haven’t seen lesions. Apoptosis /programmed cell death 13. To her surprise. pH.” Paragraph 12 SAQ37.” Buffenstein says. Buffenstein found the opposite: more telltale oxidative damage in 6-month-olds than in mice of the same age.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . humans and naked mole rats. temperature and inhibitors. When things go awry.amazon. description of technique of identifying modified cells (eg antibiotic resistance). Use of vector. They then inserted the altered cells into immune-compromised mice. Rate of mitosis. When cultured in a Petri dish. Buffenstein took a closer look at the 3D structure of proteins. the damage had no obvious impact on their well-being. SAQ35. Why is this? To find out.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. p 3059). This is probably just one of several tricks that allow these animals to avoid cancer.
About 5% of cancers are due to an inherited gene. Until Gorbunova and Seluanov’s research. but can also increase the rate of cancer – is highly active in small rodents. so it was thought the mouse could afford the slim cancer risk to benefit from telomerase’s ability to speed healing. Justify this statement. 19. temperature and inhibitors. S. This protein stops the cell cycle by inhibiting the enzymes at the G1/S transition. 20. so an animal living for 70 years has a lot of chances for its cells to mutate into cancer. Cancers is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. halted by a process called contact inhibition. Naked mole rats can live up to 30 years. Over the last three years. To prevent bacteria from destroying the cells and to reduce competition for nutrients between the cells and the bacteria. Telomerase helps cells reproduce. SAQ45. Oxygen SAQ44. Such cells have lost the control of the cell cycle. If tumours are not removed. and cancer is essentially runaway cellular reproduction. Explain why it is necessary to maintain aseptic conditions in cell cultures.amazon. State three physical conditions that must be controlled while culturing cells in a Petri dish to ensure rapid growth. the prevailing wisdom had assumed that an animal that lived as long as we humans do needed to suppress telomerase activity to guard against cancer. In 2006. Gorbunova and Andrei Seluanov. State three factors which can influence the rate of enzyme activity. G2. The progression through the cell cycle (G1. This causes the growth of a tumour. the abnormal cells continue to multiply. pH. however.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . A mouse’s life expectancy is shortened by other factors in nature. they stop dividing. Mutations inactivating these genes mean there is no brake on the cell cycle and control is lost. says Gorbunova. In cancerous tissues. piling up and growing out of control. Paragraph 15 SAQ43. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Republic of Maldives.” says Vera Gorbunova. says Gorbunova. A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Cancer occurs when the rate of cell multiplication is faster than the rate of cell death. 18. Chemicals called radicals are produced by the cell metabolism and can damage DNA. Enzyme concentration. associate professor of biology at the University of Rochester and lead investigator on the discovery. The cell cycle refers to the changes in the cell structure and function during its life span. research professor of biology at the University of Rochester.facebook. or puzzling Comment [SVR55]: a search for something. and it’s a bit of a surprise. cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymphatic systems. Adding to their mystery is the fact that mole rats appear to age very little until the very end of their lives. At that point. Gorbunova discovered that telomerase – an enzyme that can lengthen the lives of cells. This may cause excessive cell division. Cancer is caused by environmental damage to DNA from physical factors such as UV light and asbestos chemical carcinogens such as those in the tar in cigarette smoke viruses may trigger cancer by altering the DNA (They transfer oncogenes from one individual to another). preventing the cell from copying its DNA. Tumour suppressor genes produce suppressor proteins that stop the cycle. SAQ47. substrate concentration. “We think we’ve found the reason these mole rats don’t get cancer. colon. have worked an unusual angle on the quest to understand cancer: Investigating rodents from across the globe to get an idea of the similarities and differences of how varied but closely related species deal with cancer. Comment [SVR56]: existing Comment [SVR57]: accumulated knowledge Comment [SVR58]: limit the effect Comment [SVR53]: acquired Comment [SVR54]: the quality of being strange. Fresh fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants to destroy radicals. such as predation. pH. Paragraph 20 SAQ48. The stages of the cell cycle are described below. This is called metastasis. Nutrients. Loss of tumour suppressor proteins has been linked to skin. which is exceptionally long for a small rodent. Describe the events in the eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle. there has never been a single recorded case of a mole rat contracting cancer. resulting in a tumour. Paragraph 19 SAQ46. Temperature. 16. Explain what is meant by a species. In cancer cells a lack of p53 means the cell cannot stop entry into the S phase. All enzymes are globular soluble proteins with a tertiary structure. 17. Despite large numbers of naked mole-rats under observation. Books available at http://www. Mutations in these genes can lead to the cell cycle being continually active. bladder and breast cancers. One example of a tumour suppressor protein is p53. M) is controlled by: Oncogenes code for the proteins that stimulate the transition from one stage in the cell cycle to the next.Page 6 of 16 from both mice and humans multiply until they form a single dense layer. SAQ49. Describe the structure of an enzyme. but not in large ones. The cause may also be genetic. secret. especially a long or difficult one Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks.
Mutation can be a source of beneficial genetic variation. Describe the relationship between body size and heat loss. At the time she was not able to identify just what the mechanism might be. SAQ52. extremely high telomerase activity can lead to uncontrolled cell division and lead to cancer. Smaller organisms lose heat more rapidly. Paragraph 24 SAQ55. Comment [SVR59]: happening in an unrestrained manner Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Competition and parasitism are two other biotic factors. A random change in a gene or chromosome resulting in a new trait or characteristic that can be inherited. b). M (Mitosis) phase: Nuclear division division (cytokinesis) occurs in four stages .amazon. independent review. they revealed another question: What about small animals like the common grey squirrel that live for 24 years or more? With telomerase fully active over such a long period. Telomerase could beneficial as well as harmful.prophase. and in 2008 confirmed that small-bodied rodents with long lifespans had evolved a previously unknown anti-cancer mechanism that appears to be different from any anticancer mechanisms employed by humans or other large mammals.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. Gorbunova believes she has found the primary reason these small animals are staying cancer free. G2 (Second Gap) phase: During this phase the cell will continue to grow and produce new proteins. 23. So. Explain how transcription factors bring about expression of a gene (p24) Attach to promoter region next to gene. Gorbunova sought to answer that question. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. While the findings were a surprise. multicellular organisms need a circulatory system to supply or remove materials from the cells at a rapid rate. directly from the cell surface membrane. 3. Synthesis (S) phase: DNA replication occurs. saying: “We haven’t come across this anticancer mechanism before because it doesn’t exist in the two species most often used for cancer research: mice and humans. or it can be neutral or harmful in effect. Larger organisms lose heat slowly. Suggest one benefit and one risk of high telomerase activity. G1 (First Gap phase): During this stage there is rapid synthesis of RNA and proteins and rapid cell growth occurs during this phase. Describe the procedures a potential new anti-cancer therapy would have to go through before it could be licenced as a drug. Explain why large bodied animals need a well developed circulatory system. SAQ50. The cell has only one copy of the genome. Books available at http://www. anaphase and telophase. and it appears to be a kind of overcrowding early-warning gene that the naked mole rat expresses in its cells. Republic of Maldives. Now.” Paragraph 23 SAQ53. Explain what is meant by a mutation. SAQ54. e). c). However.1 – The cell cycle showing the relative durations of the stages in chromosome duplication and separation (Mitosis) and cell d). Telomerase speeds up cell division. A biotic factor is a factor involving living organisms. High telomerase activity is beneficial in wound healing. why isn’t cancer rampant in these creatures? 22. Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide. Allow attachment of RNA polymerase. What is meant by a biotic factor? Name two other biotic factors. The quantity of DNA doubles in the cell. long-lived animals. animals are multicellular and have a very low surface area to volume ratio and high diffusion distance from the surface to the body core. But this mechanism appears to exist only in small. Animal testing. Mice are short-lived and humans are large bodied. organelles and cytoplasm into daughter cells. SAQ51. 3 stage clinical trials.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ .Page 7 of 16 a). Predation is a biotic factor. respiratory gases and excretory products from the environment. 24. Energy stores increase in preparation for mitosis.facebook. The cell now has two copies of the genome. Diffusion from the body surface would be too slow to supply or remove materials from the cells at a suitable rate to sustain metabolism in these cells. The single celled organisms exchange food. 21. metaphase. Fig. SAQ56. C (Cytokinesis) phase: Equal distribution of DNA. However. correct description of double blind/placebo/randomisation. Nucleus usually gets larger during this stage.
A gene locus refers to the location of a gene on a chromosome. In some experiments the transcription factors seem to bind in a specific order. State what is meant by totipotent and pluripotent stem cells. Name and Explain a mechanism by which this gene could be delivered into cancerous cells? (Gene therapy) 28. including extra-embryonic cell types. ‘Switching off a gene’ – deactivation Genes are switched off (not able to be transcribed) by the cell protein repressor molecules may attach to the promoter region. “Since cancer is basically runaway cell replication. Totipotent stem cells can differentiate into all cell types. and prevent tumours from forming.” she says. “If this is some kind of extracellular molecule. Gorbunova and her colleagues are now trying to decipher the extracellular signals that prompt early contact inhibition. promoter may not be accessible to the transcription factors or RNA polymerase. “We believe the additional layer of protection conferred by this two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole rat. Like many animals.” says Gorbunova in the PNAS paper. but mole rats have a double barrier that a cell must overcome before it can grow uncontrollably. This finding could be an important step towards new cancer therapies. also cease replication when their populations become too dense. are present. Explain how ‘extracellular signals that prompt early contact inhibition’ operate. In other cases. often in an inactive form. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Apart from the ethical obligation we have to save species from extinction. In theory. If most of these function as transcription factors then about 10% of our genes must code for transcription factors. Other cells. Cancer cells tend to find ways around p27. The cells simply refused to replicate once a certain number of them occupied a space. but the mole rat cells were reaching their limit much earlier than other animals’ cells. Paragraph 29 SAQ61. 29. such a signal might be co-opted to stimulate the process in human cells. earlier defense in gene p16. The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with the size of the genome. signal proteins (Hormones) acting as transcription factors may not be present. How can one gene give rise to more than one protein? (Post-transcriptional modification. Signal proteins may act directly by entering the cell (like steroid hormones) or indirectly through a second messenger (cAMP). may have genes that could help cure human ailments or be beneficial to humans for production of economically useful products by genetic engineering. Every transcription initiation complex has a range of different factors with some acting as activators and others repressing expression. we realized that whatever was doing this was probably the same thing that prevented cancer from ever getting started in the mole rats. they were surprised at how difficult it was to grow the cells in the lab for study.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . 27. However. The gene is ‘switched on’ when all the transcription factors. There are thought to be approximately 2600 proteins in humans that can bind to DNA.amazon. This Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. however insignificant they may appear. especially in a professional or skilled job Comment [SVR66]: decode Books available at http://www. Paragraph 30 SAQ62. Transcription of a gene is initiated by RNA polymerase and transcription factors binding to a promoter region (section of DNA upstream to a gene). but the mole rats use another. but not extra-embryonic cell types. Gorbunova and Seluanov are now planning to delve deeper into the mole rat’s genetics to see if their cancer resistance might be applicable to humans. the mole rats have a gene called p27 that prevents cellular overcrowding. including humans. then we could actually apply it to people as an injection or a drug. such as human cells.facebook. Paragraph 27 SAQ58. Many species. 30. protein repressor molecules can attach to the transcription factors preventing them forming the transcription initiation complex. Every gene occupies a specific locus. SAQ59. with this whole assembled complex then binding to the DNA in a single step. Mutations) SAQ60. Naked mole rats have a gene (P16) which halt cell replication at an earlier stage than in humans. or behavioral problems that is meant to cure or rehabilitate somebody Comment [SVR65]: a person somebody works with. Genes are commonly referred to by their loci. RNA Polymerase + Transcription factors = Transcription Initiation Complex Some transcription factors are always present in all cells (example the transcription factors needed to switch on the genes for respiration or protein synthesis). most of the factors are thought to first assemble with the polymerase. The exact order in which these factors bind is not known with certainty. It also helps to save species from extinction. State what is meant by a gene locus. When Gorbunova and her team began specifically investigating mole rat cells. in their active form. Comment [SVR60]: uncontrolled Comment [SVR61]: to give something such as an honour to someone Comment [SVR62]: layered Comment [SVR63]: Research or make painstaking inquiries into something Comment [SVR64]: treatment of physical. which is later activated by signal proteins or regulator proteins. Conservation involves maintenance of high genetic diversity in populations. mental. Other transcription factors are only synthesised in certain cells at a particular stage of development. Paragraph 25 SAQ57.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into most cell types.” says Gorbunova.Page 8 of 16 25. 26. use the information in line paragraph 29 to suggest another advantage of saving species from extinction. Stem cells can be cultured in a Petri dish. Republic of Maldives. hence blocking the attachment sites for transcription factors.
....... 3. Inject lemon juice or the essence of chilli pepper. like testosterone or oestrogen. 7. called target cells..Adrenaline / Thyroxine (Lipid insoluble........ Steroid hormone binds to specific receptor on target cell and enters the cytoplasm......” Park says. Fig.. they don’t do anything. to result in withdrawing a hand from a hot stove.. The steroid hormone will bind to a transcription factor in the cytoplasm..... Transcription of the gene begins and mRNA is formed. but they are impervious to chemical pain (PLoS Biology... Republic of Maldives. as action potential/ wave of depolarisation/..... Chemically hormones are of three types: Amines: .. ref to salutatory conduction....Page 9 of 16 makes transcription factors the largest group of human proteins. 5...... he says...... so cannot enter the cell)... Hormone binds to specific receptor on the cell membrane...facebook.. Paragraph 31 SAQ63.... so cannot enter the cell).. or unconventional Comment [SVR68]: to find or come across something by chance Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks.. p e13). The transcription factor and the hormone bind to other transcription factors (TF1 to TF6.... The mode of action for peptide hormones and steroid hormones is entirely different... in this case) and complete the formation of the Transcription Initiation Complex. 5. ... Setting out to better understand their sense of touch.. Many hormones activate transcription factors in the target cells..amazon.... Adenyl cyclase enzyme is released from the receptor and diffuses into the cytoplasm... with the same factors occurring in different organisms from humans to simple single-cell organisms. The second messenger initiates a series of reactions in the cell and activates Transcription Factor 7.in this case...Insulin / Glucagon (Lipid insoluble. Fig.. strange. Peptides/Proteins: ............2 – A steroid hormone 1. The rodent’s neurobiology is also of interest....... The general transcription factors have been highly conserved in evolution. “If you do that with naked mole rats.... 3.. in this case) and completes the Transcription Initiation Complex. The activated transcription factor (TF7) now binds to the existing Transcription factors (TF1 to TF6.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ ... cancer and ageing are only the tip of the iceberg as far as the naked mole rat’s peculiar biology is concerned.... Exciting as that research may be.. Explain how impulses would be transmitted from the pain receptors of a rodent to its central nervous system.. 7.... ref to influx of sodium ions into neurone.. global academic consultant and Head of Institution........... Mammalian hormones are chemical messengers carried by the blood from endocrine glands to all parts of the body.1 – A peptide hormone 1.. Adenyl cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP (Second messenger) 4. 2..... The gene is now ‘SWITCHED ON’.... Sensory neurone to relay neurone to motor neurone. he stumbled across something surprising: they lack a receptor that transmits messages about chemical pain. capsaicin...com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www.. 4....Oestrogen / Testosterone (Steroids are lipid soluble and can enter the cell)... Books available at http://www.. This activates RNA polymerase to become active and begin the process of transcription of the gene.. as the membrane is permeable to steroid hormones. ref to local currents allowing propagation... The formation of the Transcription Initiation Complex ensures that the gene is ‘SWITCHED ON’. Comment [SVR67]: unusual. beneath the skin of a mouse’s paw........ “They couldn’t care less..... Through sensory neurone. vol 6...... SAQ64.. 2...... What is the sequence of neurones impulses would pass through...... 31. They affect specific cells.” Naked mole rats do feel acute pain such as cuts and burns.. an d it will shake and lick it like crazy.. Steroids: . as Park is discovering...
” says Park. rape. In most cases. so that the procedure can be completed with a single surgery.5 2. Overstretching must be avoided to prevent damage to the tendon.Page 10 of 16 32. Ice. A slice of the tendon is harvested with a bone block at each end of the tendon. 9. The graft is then placed through the tibia. The biological screws will dissolve in about two years. “It’s OK to have pain sensation to tell you to get your hand off the stove. Otherwise known as the RICE technique. Fig. So physiotherapy will be needed to gently stretch the tendons and regain full movement. this is the ligament tearing. physical abuse or a bad accident. If this does happen. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. introduced into the knee through small incisions (keyholes). especially if you play sports.3 Skin incisions (cuts) are made and the patellar tendon is identified. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event. staples or sutures are used to fix the bone plugs. Keyhole surgery for treatment of cruciate ligament damage Cruciate Ligament Damage ACL injuries are common. Fig. It is very painful and can be injured by hyper-extending the knee or twisting your knee inward. or to stop exercising because your knee is in trouble. The naked mole rats are laying the groundwork for potentially finding new ways to treat the kinds of pain we don’t want. Screws. This is done with a motorized device which is called a shaver.2 Comment [SVR69]: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. Comment [SVR70]: used to indicate that something is stated exactly Comment [SVR71]: basic preparatory tasks that form a foundation for something else The patient is given anaesthesia. 9. those types of pain we could do without. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Fig.6 Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. causing a twist in your knee A rapid stop with a change in direction Slowing down while running Landing from a jump Contact or collision causing extreme knee hyperextension When the ACL becomes injured you may hear and feel a "pop" in your knee. Osteoarthritis – due to wearing-away of cartilage. 1. A small camera and small instruments on the end of long narrow tubes. 9. Fig. Remove all of the existing damaged ACL.amazon. The advantage of using the person’s own tissue is that there will be no tissue rejection. small punctures are made into the knee joint. 9. Republic of Maldives.” Paragraph 32 SAQ65. The tissue is taken from around the knee joint.facebook. 9. This finding is particularly significant because the nerve fibres associated with chemical pain are also involved in post-traumatic pain in people – precisely the type of discomfort researchers would like to eliminate. a hurricane. and elevation.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . This can be caused by: Sudden change of direction. is the most often injured ligament of the 4 ligaments in your knee. Describe the possible treatment that may be available for such ailments.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. Fig. be sure to apply the Rest. or joint pain after a knee injury. such as war. Compression. through the knee joint. State two knee ailments that could result from over-exercise. This slice of tendon is called the graft. “But post-surgical pain.4 Tunnels are drilled into the femur and tibia. Tendons are less elastic than ligaments. Over-training and sports injuries can result in greater wear and tear which may damage the cartilage in the knee joints and lead to osteoarthritis. Books available at http://www. The bone plugs of the graft will fit into these tunnels. and into the femoral drill hole.
and explain how these responses are brought about. As cartilage is not supplied with blood. then the neurons may never Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. he suspected.Page 11 of 16 Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that affects the cartilage. 9. This can lead to more rapid degeneration. The air in their burrows is rank. with low oxygen levels and extremely high levels of carbon dioxide. “It turns out that high levels of CO2 affect the types of nerves that the naked mole rats have disconnected. “They will stay away from 10 per cent CO2. Republic of Maldives. SAQ68. or to make a part of the body work better. however. Fig. more impulses sent from ventilation centre. levels in naked mole rat burrows can easily reach 5 per cent or more – an intensity that would sting our eyes and noses and leave us gasping for air. 9. With reference to the human brain. 9. it is very slow to repair itself when damaged. Repetitive load-bearing can cause damage to the cartilage lining the joint. This means removing all the surfaces of both compartments and replacing them with a metal implant on the lower end of the femur and a plastic surface on the tibia. Ventilation rate would increase. This allows bones under the cartilage to rub together. Rise in CO2/fall in pH detected by receptor. resulting in osteoarthritis. Describe the responses that humans would show if they were breathing air with 5% Carbon dioxide. but they’re perfectly happy to wallow around in 5 per cent. are unaffected.7 Fig. Comment [SVR72]: Arouse the curiosity or interest of Comment [SVR73]: Came from Comment [SVR74]: to lie down and roll around in something Comment [SVR75]: Selection pressure Books available at http://www. Osteoarthritis is common in knee joints because they are the body’s primary weight-bearing joints. the joint may lose its normal shape. A brain deprived of oxygen will lead to a brain deprived of ATP/energy. Though the applications are intriguing. few live in such close quarters and in such large numbers as naked mole rats. This causes more pain and damage. Describe the role of oxygen in the production of ATP. and it absorbs energy from the shock of physical movement. 9. Although many animals live underground. Also. without oxygen Kreb’s cycle and electron transport would cease. explain how the environment may play a role in brain development with regard to critical window periods. Park’s own interests are more basic: why would naked mole rats lack this type of pain? The answer. the protection it gives the joint decreases. stemmed from their unusual habitat.9 33.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . In osteoarthritis.8 Keyhole surgery can be used to remove pieces of bone (bone debris) from the joint. If a child has his or her eyes covered from birth. (by removing H) allows proton gradient/chemiosmosis to continue. the surface layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www.10 Fig.facebook. causing pain. For many years. to diaphragm /intercostal muscles.amazon. Prosthesis A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body. Healthy cartilage covering the ends of the bones allows bones to glide over one another.” Paragraph 33 SAQ66. the most successful treatment for severe arthritis of the knee has been total knee replacement. Development of neurons in the visual cortex of the brain is dependent on stimuli from the environment. swelling and loss of motion of the joint.” Park says. While normal air is about 0. The rodents. Bits of bone or cartilage can break off and float inside the joint space. SAQ67. Sudden twisting and excessive force can cause injury to the cartilage. receptor identified as aortic/carotid body/medulla. Over time. Fig.03 per cent CO2. global academic consultant and Head of Institution.” he says. Final acceptor of hydrogen at end of electron transfer chain. Once the cartilage is damaged. bone spurs – small growths called osteophytes – may grow on the edges of the joint. “I think that’s the evolutionary driving force to disconnect these pain nerves. or this can take place over time with repeated use.
Use of modern scanning techniques has transformed our understanding of the localisation of function in the brain. Name one type of muscle cell that is specially adapted for anaerobic conditions. Have lots of sarcoplasmic reticulum. alleles for withstanding hypoxia increase in the population. Have a high concentration of creatine phosphate which reacts with ADP in a single step to form ATP rapidly for muscle contraction. John Larson. which release plenty of Ca2+ ions for frequent muscle contraction. This isn’t the only effect the naked mole rat’s burrows have on their physiology. Note: Conversion of glycogen to glucose. 38. SAQ70. Fast twitch fibres need a rapid supply of ATP. The findings may yield clues for better treatment of brain injuries associated with heart attack. studied African naked mole rats – small rodents that live about six feet underground in big colonies of up to 300 members. which is a much shorter pathway and can supply ATP rapidly. Without NAD glycolysis and Krebs cycle cannot function and respiration stops. for periods exceeding a half-hour – much longer than brain tissue from other mammals.facebook. The pathway for anaerobic respiration is very short (Glycolysis only) and generates ATP rapidly. Using your knowledge of the respiratory pathways. They tire or cramp up easily due to lactic acid formation. 37.Page 12 of 16 develop to be functional and the child will be permanently blind. It has very little myoglobin and is adapted for anaerobic respiration. allows researchers to identify regions of the brain involved in particular tasks. If myoglobin was present in abundance. Fast twitch fibres are referred to as white muscle and is light pink in colour. and subsequent transfer to the muscles would be too slow to meet the rapid demand for glucose during anaerobic respiration. whereas levels in the burrows can be as low as 12 per cent in captive colonies. such as in the lungs and blood. and are probably much lower in the wild. which occurs in the cytoplasm. Without oxygen. Note: the anaerobic respiration pathway is very short when compared to the aerobic pathway. Low resistance to fatigue. with their brain tissue able to bounce back after 30 minutes without the gas (NeuroReport. in the liver. The low oxygen levels are just as important. This results in complete lack of ATP leading to muscle cramps. The lactic acid reduces the pH within the muscle cells and inhibits respiratory enzymes. Describe how fMRI can be used to study brain function and compare this with early techniques that were used to investigate brain function. It carries oxygen from intermediate compounds in the respiratory pathway to the Electron Transport Chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The aerobic pathway is too long and involves too many reactions to produce ATP. State features of these cells that enable them to be tolerant to anaerobic conditions. anaerobic respiration produces ATP during glycolysis only. which is converted into glucose and used instantly for respiration. This enables ATP to be produced very rapidly for muscle contraction. which result in reduced oxygen supply and anaerobic respiration. Identification of selection pressure is living in a low oxygen environment. Paragraph 36 SAQ71. due to mutation.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. and Thomas Park. SAQ72. Republic of Maldives. Books available at http://www. Explain how populations of Naked Mole rats have evolved to be resistant to hypoxia. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Have few capillaries. Genetic variability in ability to withstand low oxygen exists in mole rats. 34. 35. Have Lots of glycogen. fMRI follows uptake of oxygen in active brain areas. associate professor of physiology in psychiatry. early techniques – study of the effect of injury/ animal experiments eg insertion of electrodes/ study of the effect of drugs. Two University of Illinois at Chicago researchers report that adult naked mole rat brain tissue can withstand extreme hypoxia. the electron transport chain will stop functioning and NAD cannot be regenerated. then the muscle will continue aerobic respiration and the rate of ATP production would be too slow to support rapid contraction.amazon. Paragraph 34 SAQ69. This was also well demonstrated by using kittens and monkeys as models to demonstrate the critical window period in the development of vision. Comment [SVR76]: reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. with the limited air supply low in oxygen. But naked mole rats studied were found to show systemic hypoxia adaptations.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . professor of biological sciences. NADH2 is a hydrogen carrier. or oxygen deprivation. On the other hand. Fresh air contains about 21 per cent oxygen. stroke and accidents where the brain is starved of vital oxygen. vol 20. explain why ATP production decreases when oxygen is low in the tissues. Park has found that naked mole rat brains are incredibly resistant to oxygen deprivation. mole rats that can withstand low oxygen more likely to survive and reproduce (accept converse). Oxygen is used as the final electron carrier and keeps the electron transport chain operating. Have few mitochondria as muscles undergo anaerobic respiration. The living is tight and the breathing even worse. p 1634). brain activity results in increased demand for oxygen so increase in oxyhaemoglobin. as well as neuron adaptations that allow brain cells to function at oxygen and carbon dioxide levels that other mammals cannot tolerate. 36.
there needs to be a Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks.” he said. 39. “We also find it very intriguing that naked mole rat neurons exhibit some electrophysiological properties that suggest that neurons in these animals retain immature characteristics. Hormone therapy (as it's now called) was also thought to have the longterm benefits of preventing heart disease and possibly dementia. Books available at http://www. animals. Suggest why oxytocin can only bind to specific cell in the brain. State two differences is structure of immature and mature neurons. 43. To avoid infection. Medical benefits may even arise from continuing research into naked mole rat behaviour. But naked mole rats. and assume this is under genetic control (Journal of Comparative Neurology. hormone production. Naked mole rats do not experience menopause or osteoporosis. Republic of Maldives. Only cells with oxytocin receptors can bind to oxytocin. Previous studies in voles and other mammals have shown that behaviours such as monogamy and maternal performance can be explained. naked mole rats don’t follow normal circadian rhythms. Traditional prosthetics put pressure on delicate soft tissue causing sores and cell death. 47. an area known as the brain’s pleasure centre. which may suggest ways to avoid permanent human brain damage.” said Larson. and by restricted and repetitive behavior Comment [SVR81]: Hormone replacement therapy — medications containing female hormones to replace the ones the body no longer makes after menopause — used to be a standard treatment for women with hot flashes and other menopause symptoms.” SAQ73. Changes in the oxytocin receptor in humans are associated with certain kinds of autism. SAQ75. vol 518. stroke or drowning. including plants. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. so perhaps they could help researchers develop osteoporosis treatments without the side effects of hormone replacement therapy.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. 46. retain this ability into adulthood. as by surgery. Mature neurons are myelinated and more branched. cell regeneration and other biological activities linked to this daily cycle. and human infants continue to show brain resistance to oxygen deprivation for a brief time into early childhood. Genes used for tolerance to low oxygen environment in the womb get switched off and genes needed for living in an oxygen abundant environment get switched on. naked mole rat neurons maintain function more than six times longer than mouse neurons after the onset of oxygen deprivation. Comment [SVR77]: continuing a long time Comment [SVR78]: Monogamy is a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse during their lifetime or at any one time Comment [SVR79]: Motherly care for the young Comment [SVR80]: Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. in part. Sociable by nature 45. although they can be modulated by external cues such as sunlight and temperature. he adds. The possibilities don’t end there. 40. something of great interest to prosthetics designers. when compared to immature neurons. unlike other mammals. fungi and cyanobacteria. To find out whether naked mole rats’ sociability has a genetic factor.” says Faulkes.amazon. The diagram shows a cell membrane with oxytocin receptors.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Even their incisors are fascinating. so the finding could have direct implications for humans. Chris Faulkes at Queen Mary. In a strict sense. The team found that the naked mole rat has far more of these receptors in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. Comment [SVR83]: capable of being done Comment [SVR84]: The branch of medicine or surgery that deals with the production and application of artificial body parts Comment [SVR85]: to cut off (all or part of a limb or digit of the body). p 1792). “We believe that the extreme resistance to oxygen deprivation is a result of evolutionary adaptations for surviving in a chronically low-oxygen environment. “The trick now will be to learn how naked mole rats have been able to retain infant-like brain protection from low oxygen.Page 13 of 16 ATPase activity is fast. University of London and colleagues compared their brains with those of the solitary cape mole rat. by genetic differences that influence the patterns of certain hormone receptors in the brain. so we can use this information to help people who experience temporary loss of oxygen to the brain in situations like heart attacks. circadian rhythms are endogenously generated. suggest how human infants change their oxygen tolerance as they grow. The receptors have a specific shape and will bind to a specific hormone only. Comment [SVR82]: A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings.facebook. 42. including human beings.” said Park. They were looking for receptors that bind to the “cuddle chemical” oxytocin. 41. “It’s a good example of a change in a gene giving a change in complex behaviour. Studies of their sleep patterns could feasibly help treat disordered sleep in humans. as they spend 24 hours a day in the dark. Circadian rhythms are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals. Using your knowledge of differential gene expression. And. 44. Helps myosin to re-cock rapidly and bring about another round of contraction rapidly. This is how hormone can affect specific target cells. All mammal fetuses live in a low-oxygen environment in the womb. so a team led by Gordon Blunn and Catherine Pendegrass at University College London are testing new prosthetics that are attached directly to the bone of an amputated limb. however. they grow right through the skin of the lips. “In the most extreme cases. Instead of staying put in their mouths. There are clear patterns of brain wave activity. Larson said study of the naked mole rat’s brain may yield clues for learning the mechanisms that allow longer neuronal survival after such accidents or medical emergencies. SAQ74.
The skin is made from 2 layers Outer epidermis layer Inner dermis layer The epidermis provides a physical barrier to invading pathogens. This is where naked mole rats come in. Comment [SVR86]: a proposed explanation for a phenomenon Comment [SVR87]: not capable of movement Fig. This is a clear example of how the phenotype can be influence by the interaction between the environment and the genotype. Sebaceous glands also secrete the enzyme lysozyme. Lysozyme destroys bacterial cell walls. B .4. Describe the role of the skin as a barrier to infection. Why are the new prosthetics being developed at UCL less likely to damage tissues. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. while in non-breeding males testosterone concentrations and sperm numbers are lower.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Understanding the interface between their teeth and skin may help in the development of new coatings or structures that can be applied to the prosthetics. which is an oily secretion with a pH between 3 to 5.amazon.Outer cornified layer.Inner Malpighian layer or basal layer.facebook. not pressing on soft tissues. Books available at http://www. as shown in fig 11. which in turn suppresses the release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary. (new prosthetics) are bonded to bone. or if the queen in a colony dies. Interaction between the queen and the non-breeders (environmental) produces a cascade of hormonal action (genetic) which suppresses ovulation and sperm production (phenotype). This results in a suppression of ovulation in non-breeding females. A . composed of compacted dead dry cells filled with indigestible keratin protein (which also forms nails and hair). such that concentrations of testosterone in the latter are suppressed except around the time of ovulation in the queen. There are 2 layers in the epidermis. SAQ77. This makes the skin acidic. Non‑breeding males and females will rapidly become reproductively active if they are removed from the suppressing influences of their colony and housed singly or in male-female pairs. there is a risk of infection entering body between prosthetic and skin. Sebaceous glands secrete sebum. 48. The compact closely packed cells prevent entry of pathogens.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www.6.Page 14 of 16 permanent seal where the skin meets the metal implant. The skin also has chemical defence mechanisms.16 – Structure of sperm Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Paragraph 47 SAQ76. Discuss the contribution of nature and nurture in the expression of reproductive behavior in the naked mole rat. site of rapid mitosis and keratinisation. If the environment changes and the queen dies or the non-breeders are isolated in male and female pairs then the phenotype changes to fertile individuals. but she also apparently exerts some control over the breeding male(s). SAQ78. and why is there a problem that must be overcome with these prosthetics. Republic of Maldives. Our current hypothesis is that behavioural interactions between the queen and non-breeders are translated into a suppression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus. and in most males sperm are non-motile. State the features of sperms that enable them to carry out their function efficiently. The ineraction between the genes and the environment can influence the phenotype of the organism. Sweat is also acidic. which is a natural antibiotic. the block to reproduction is reversible. inhibiting bacterial growth. SAQ79. Despite these endocrine deficiencies in non-breeders that may persist for many years. Not only does the queen suppress reproductive function in the non-breeders.
despite an evolutionary history of close inbreeding. Discrimination by females appears to be dependent on their reproductive status. which use ATP to propel the sperm forwards A specially modified lysosome in the sperm’s head. detail of electrophoresis – agarose gel/electric field/ ref to small fragments moving faster/. It also assists motility (movement) of sperms.93 to 0. whereas reproductively inactive females do not discriminate. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity.facebook. Although rare.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. Individuals within colonies were genetically almost monomorphic. 3. DNA extracted from cells. Contains lots of mitochondria. Comment [SVR88]: DNA profiling (also called DNA testing. Made from motor proteins and microtubules. which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. social and mate preferences of females were determined. Patterns of genetic structure in naked mole-rat populations were quantified within and among geographically distant populations using DNA fingerprinting. ref to southern blotting. 52. at least some mole rats will have allele combinations that allow survival in changing environment. prevention of inbreeding depression. The chances of survival of the species in a changing environment. physiologically and behaviourally distinct from other colony members. formal application Comment [SVR96]: group of persons descended from a common ancestor Comment [SVR97]: somebody related by blood Comment [SVR98]: Unrelated Comment [SVR99]: closeness and friendliness in a personal relationship Comment [SVR100]: in itself. a dispersive morph exists within naked mole-rat colonies that may occasionally promote outbreeding. ref to use of probe. earnest or respectful request. Cytoplasm SAQ80. DNA typing. form. amplification of microsatellite with PCR. 2. because some sperms may be defective and will not be able to reach or penetrate the ovum. The advantage of this is: 1. Describe the techniques and procedures that would be used to produce a DNA fingerprint from a Naked Mole Rat. Part of Sperm Adapted for… Nucleus Head Midpiece (neck) Tail (Flagellum) Acrosome Contains only one copy of each chromosome (haploid) Contains the nucleus and lysosome (acrosome). use of electrophoresis.93 to 0. They are laden with fat. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Selection for the fittest sperm occurs. or structure through a series of developmental changes. which is called inbreeding depression. Stimulus is behavioural interaction with queen. SAQ83. Compare and contrast the ways in which this kind of communication differs from nervous communication. and it has been shown that most highly inbred small mammals have inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms that promote some degree of outbreeding. Kin recognition and female mate choice using a series of choice tests in which the odour. This indicates that genetic diversity is very low. Females do not discriminate between kin and non-kin suggesting that the criterion for recognition is familiarity. recognition by familiarity may function as a highly efficient kin recognition mechanism in the naked mole-rat. so there is a very high range of genetic variation. This will decrease the chances of survival of the species in a changing environment reduce the ability of the organisms to adapt to various environments. SAQ84. Reproductively active females prefer to associate with unfamiliar males. These findings suggest that. exhibit elevated levels of luteinizing hormone. Hormonal (accept converse for neural if clearly identified) – slower acting. Comment [SVR90]: Inbreeding is reproduction from the mating of parents who are closely related genetically. The acrosome swells and bursts when the sperm comes in contact with the follicle cells and zona pellucida. Books available at http://www. effector is testis.amazon. 49. The queen prevents non-breeders becoming reproductive by altering the hormonal balance in the non-breeders. having coefficients of band sharing estimated from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0. Increases genetic variation. Thus. and only solicit matings with non-colony members. often producing a hybrid of superior quality. The enzymes in the acrosome digest the follicle cells and the zona pellucida to allow the cell membranes of the sperm and ovum to fuse. No two sperms are the same. hormone reaches all cells in body but only affects those with receptors. Also if sperm numbers are high then many sperms will release enzymes into the zona pellucida and increase the chance of penetration. naked mole-rats occupy discrete burrow systems and dispersal and mixing with nonkin is thought to be comparatively rare. Comment [SVR92]: the interbreeding of individuals or stocks that are relatively unrelated. Suggest the possible consequences of having coefficients of band sharing estimates from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0.99. Comment [SVR91]: An individual who results from inbreeding is referred to as inbred.Page 15 of 16 Sperms are produced in large numbers. which means cells are small and therefore can be released in large numbers. Comment [SVR89]: Having one or the same genotype. Many sperms do not reach egg – large numbers will increase chances of reaching the egg. SAQ81.99. These dispersers are morphologically. which make ATP for the sperms to swim. or intrinsically Comment [SVR101]: completely separate and unconnected Comment [SVR102]: to allow or entitle somebody not to do something that others are obliged to do Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. not detection of genetic similarity per se. response can be widespread. In the suppression of breeding by the queen identify (a) the stimulus (b) the effector and (c) the response for the non-breeding males.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . Suggest why out-breeding is likely to increase the long term survival of Naked Mole Rat populations. Very little cytoplasm. In the wild. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population. have a strong urge to disperse. is low. SAQ82. longer duration. Isolation of gene with restriction enzymes. Republic of Maldives. 50. 51. controls long term changes such as growth. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. response is lowered testosterone/ few and non-motile sperm. Comment [SVR93]: any of the different forms of individual found in a polymorphic species Comment [SVR94]: move away from the colony and thereby promotes outbreeding Comment [SVR95]: to seek for (something) by entreaty. naked mole-rats may not be exempt from the effects of inbreeding depression and will attempt to outbreed should the opportunity arise. by itself. ref to technique of visualising DNA. Prolonged inbreeding is usually associated with lowered fitness. A preference by reproductively active females for unfamiliar males is interpreted as inbreeding avoidance.
The behaviour of mole-rats may differ ex-situ (e. from http://www. retrieved 11 November 2011 from: http://webspace.19340495. http://webspace. New Scientist Magazine.gov/pubmed/9226945 Adapted text taken from: ‘Kin discrimination and female mate choice in the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber’. (1432) 1995–2002. the Queen not being present can change behaviour).sciencedaily. 6. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population. Faulkes.1038/380619a0.0877 Adapted text taken from: Skin morphology and its role in thermoregulation in mole-rats. CG. 6. CG (1999). Unlike mice.html Adapted text taken from: University of Illinois at Chicago (November 30 2009).qmul. the naked mole rat hasn’t yet had its genome sequenced yet. but I think it’s definitely worth it. retrieved 11 November 2011. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mole-rats (use your own knowledge.htm Adapted text taken from: ‘Micro.ac.1999. “With naked mole‑rats. MJ. "With naked mole-rats. 3.uk/cgfaulkes/abstract7.1046/j. DH.” Paragraph 53 SAQ86. O’Brien. CG. Jarvis. Mol Ecol vol.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2009/10/091026152812. from http://www. the article and the sentence above)? 1. 193(Pt 4): 495–502. ScienceDaily. 2.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=stafford+valentine+redden++biology+books&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Astafford+valentine+redden++biology+books Free consultancy at https://www. Explain what is meant by inbreeding depression.nih. Kirsten Weir. Daly TJ and Buffenstein R (1998) J Anat. “It’s not very convenient. From one ethical viewpoint discuss whether some of the experiments carried out on Naked Mole Rats can be justified. theories etc.ac. Mole-rats live for a relatively long time. Heterocephalus glaber and Cryptomys hottentotus.Page 16 of 16 SAQ85.facebook. which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. Inbreeding is reproduction from the mating of parents who are closely related genetically.” Gorbunova says. we have to start from scratch with many things. 266. It is expensive and time-consuming to sequence the genome of the mole-rat. (1997). SAQ87. we have to start from scratch with many things". doi: 10. Proc Biol Sci vol.facebook. 53. doi: 10. Clarke.and macrogeographical genetic structure of colonies of naked mole‑rats Heterocephalus glaber’. suffering is restricted to few individuals. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. which is called inbreeding depression.nlm. 4. FM and Faulkes. retrieved 11 November 2011. retrieved 11 November 2011 from PMCID: PMC1467874 Copyright © 1998 Comment [SVR103]: the set of chromosomes and the genes they carry https://www. 23 October 2010. Scientists Discover Gene That ‘Cancer-proofs’ Naked Mole Rat’s Cells. it is no surprise that naked mole rats are becoming more common in labs. mole rats have reduced sensitivity to chemical pain therefore have less capacity to suffer. It can impact the development of new treatments.ncbi. With so much to offer science. ScienceDaily. so may be more unethical to test with (as with mice).1469-7580. Mole-rats are animals with a nervous system. The mole-rats may be more useful in terms of physiology and behaviour than mice.qmul. the living conditions cannot be recreated. O’Riain. Republic of Maldives. Nature 380. and therefore impact the rate of helping other humans. Utilitarianism. ‘Naked mole rats may hold clues to surviving stroke’.uk/cgfaulkes/CGFNMR. (7) 615–628.htm Adapted text taken from: ‘A dispersive morph in the naked mole-rat’. Issue 2783 © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd Adapted text taken from: University of Rochester (October 26 2009). Abbott. 5. 10.com/releases/2009/11/091130141313.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . JUM and Faulkes. so can be studied in the long-term too. 619–621 (18 April 1996). retrieved 11 November 2011. research on mole rats has very large potential benefits to human health.g. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity.1098/rspb.htm Adapted text taken from: ‘A Reproductive Dictatorship: The Life and Times of the African Naked Mole‑Rat’.amazon. Books available at http://www.1998. Acknowledgements Adapted text taken from: ‘Naked and ugly: The new face of lab rats’. from http://www. HP et al.com/groups/biologywithstafford/ Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks.