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illustrations by christopher grubbs graphic design by public

final concept plan presentation

THE VILL AGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER G R A N D C A N YO N , A Z
National Park Service April 7, 2004

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GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK CONTENTS VISITOR EXPERIENCE
PROJECT HISTORY INTERPRETIVE EXPERIENCE Introduction Goals & Objectives INTERPRETIVE SITE EXPERIENCE Introduction Site Program Interpretive Exhibits within Buildings Orientation Film Wayside exhibits on the Site Interpretive Programming/Special Events and Presentations Arts and Crafts Demonstrations Education Programs Guided Interpretive Talks Park Collections/Artifacts Historic Site Exhibits Existing Structures POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER” Introduction Geology Time Elevators/Geoligic Ascent Introduction An Integral Experience Design Influences Influences on Building Design and Site Structures Terraces and Main Public Spaces Program Coordination Offices Amphitheater Powerhouse Maintenance Building Laundry Building (Historic Exhibits) 9 Mule Barn (Theater & Education Center) Summary WORKING & INTERPRETIVE ZONES 34 SHADE STRUCTURES 44 CONNECTION TO THE RIM 32 NATURAL SYSTEMS 31 BUILDING MATERIAL L ANGUAGE Pisé Construction 42 Views and Open Spaces Trees CULTURAL SYSTEMS 30 NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON 19 Pedestrian Bridge Other Site Improvements New Structures Amphitheater and the Terraces Planting and Vegetation SITE MATERIAL L ANGUAGE Rock and Stone Concrete Timber, Lumber & Wood 41 1 2 Rim Orientation Area Trail Overlook Galleries Geology Gallery Ecology Gallery Fresh Water Within the Model- Niches 5 Arriving at the River Bookstore & Powerhouse History ADAPTIVE REUSE IMPACTS 28 Introduction Access to Site Site Program SUSTAINABILIT Y Water Fresh Water Grey Water Drainage and Water Management Planting Planting Concept 36 PROPOSED SITE CONCEPT 26

SITE CONCEPTS
SITE LO CATION 25 WORKING ZONE STRATEGY Blacksmith Shop Livery Stable Mule Corral 35

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CONTENTS

SITE CONCEPTS (CON’T)
VEHICUL AR CIRCUL ATION Bus and Shuttle Access Road Modifications Emergency Access Parking 46

BUILDING CONCEPTS
HISTORY OF THE SITE Introduction 53 Interior Structural Assessment Heating & Cooling 54 LIVERY BUILDING L AUNDRY BUILDING (HISTORIC EXHIBITS) History Building Design Concept Exterior Modifications Interior Modifications Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior Interior Structural Assessment Heating & Cooling BL ACKSMITH BUILDING Introduction Building Design Concept Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Structural Assessment 83 71 History Building Design Concept Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Structural Assessment 81 Structural Assessment Heating & Cooling

DESIGN CONCEPTS

POWERHOUSE PEDESTRIAN CIRCUL ATION Character Pedestrian Bridge Social Trails and Stairs at Bright Angel Wash Greenway Extension/Connection 46 History Building Design Concept Exterior Modifications Interior Modifications Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior Interior AMPHITHEATER LO CATION Experience Preferred Location Alternate Locations 50 Structural Assessment Heating & Cooling

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MULE BARN (ORIENTATION THEATER AND EDUCATION CENTER) 65 51 History Building Design Concept

MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION ) 76 History Building Design Concept Exterior Modifications Interior Modifications Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior Interior

SITE ENERGY STRATEGIES

DEVELOPMENT PHASING PL AN

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Exterior Modifications Interior Modifications Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior

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CONTENTS

APPENDICES
HISTORIC PRESERVATION MATRICES

SITE LEEDS CERTIFICATION MATRIX

ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETIVE EXPERIENCE CONCEPTS

VISITOR EXPERIENCE

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VISITOR EXPERIENCE

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VISITOR EXPERIENCE
PROJECT HISTORY The 1995 General Management Plan for Grand Canyon, in its directives for the South Rim (page 32), called for new
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buildings and programmatic solutions for the site and buildings. These options were refined based on ongoing review with NPS staff and interested parties during the process. The purpose of the resulting Concept Plan, contained in this book, is to articulate the guiding vision for the Village Interpretive Center, which will be the roadmap for development of the various phases of this project over the next 5-8 year period. The Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center (VIC) will serve as the park’s primary Visitor Center, providing visitors with in depth knowledge and understanding about Grand Canyon National Park. After visiting the rim of the canyon, visitors will have the opportunity to visit the village and experience a series of complimentary interpretive venues that will enhance and deepen their understanding of this amazing, one-of-a-kind, resource. The new interpretive experiences at Grand Canyon Village are carefully designed to compliment the existing information and orientation facility at Canyon View Information Plaza and the other interpretive satellite facilities at Yavapai Observation Station and the Tusayan Museum. The goal of the combined interpretive experience is to create a world class, park-wide, learning environment that will inspire a sense of stewardship for Grand Canyon and instill in visitors a lifelong appreciation for this amazing natural wonder.

interpretive facilities to be concentrated in the Powerhouse area of Grand Canyon Village. This was in response to the need to provide expanded interpretive resources to address the increasing volume of people visiting the South Rim and the opportunity these historic buildings offered as park support facilities gradually were moved further away from the rim. Planning work on this area of the village was started in 1998 with preliminary plans for what was then called the “Heritage Education Campus.” The Concept Plan for what is now called the Village Interpretive Center (VIC) seeks to move planning efforts for this area to the next level of consideration. The conclusions summarized in this report are the result of a ten month design
1 Historic aerial view of the site

“As a world heritage site, the Grand Canyon is recognized as a place of universal value, containing superlative natural and cultural features that should be preserved as part of the heritage of all people.” General Management Plan, 1995

process, which sought extensive input during the process from interested parties. This process involved extensive technical, historical and cultural resource analysis on site, and incorporated findings from various condition analysis reports and cultural landscape reports prepared in 2002 and 2004. This process also included brainstorming workshops, interviews with interpretive staff and subject matter research. The team then developed options for specific

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INTERPRETIVE EXPERIENCE Introduction The new Village Interpretive Center will be
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the interpretive hub of Grand Canyon National Park. As the primary interpretive facility within the park, this dynamic site will combine a variety of interpretive experiDuring their experience at the Village Interpretive Center, visitors will: 1 2 Contemplate the rich history of Grand Canyon Experience park themes through Ranger-led programs Understand the importance of balanced use between nature and humans Admire the sculptural beauty of Vishnu Schist and other rocks Be inspired by natural beauty Learn from people working at the canyon Appreciate the diversity of wildlife Ponder the ancient stories told in fossils Value the role of transportation in Grand Canyon's history

ences to celebrate the uniqueness of Grand Canyon. The Village Interpretive Center site and historic buildings will immerse park visitors in a rich interpretive experience that will engage them to learn about Grand Canyon primary themes focused around the following topics: • • • • • • • Geology Ecology Native American History & Perspectives History The Colorado River Preservation & Stewardship Canyon Arts & Inspiration

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10 Experience the canyon and its beauty throughout the seasons

Perhaps most important, visitors to the new Village Interpretive Center will realize they
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play a role in protecting and preserving our nation’s natural and cultural treasures, including Grand Canyon National Park.

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VISITOR EXPERIENCE
Goals & Objectives The following interpretive goal and objectives were developed during this initial phase, using feedback from park staff and
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partners gathered during a brainstorming workshop, and from park documents, including the General Management Plan
During their experience at the Village Interpretive Center, visitors will: 1 2 Enjoy unique performances and presentations Realize the importance of air quality to protect this natural resource Engage with Native American communities to learn about their customs Engage in rim to river activities and learn of the key issues facing Grand Canyon Interact with interpretive exhibits which support park themes Learn about native plants that contribute to a diverse ecosystem Admire historic boats from the park's collection Be immersed in multi-layered interpretive exhibits Journey along an interpretive trail

and the Long-Range Interpretive Plan. Interpretive Goals To enrich the experience of Grand Canyon visitors by facilitating meaningful personal connections with the larger ideas, meanings and values of park resources. • Provide a compelling, immersive interpretive experience structured to accommodate diverse backgrounds, learning styles, interest levels and time constraints. • Inspire visitors to learn more about Grand Canyon resources, both during the remainder of their visit and when they return home. • Help each visitor better understand and appreciate the significance of Grand Canyon National Park and to

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10 Increase quality experiences that illustrate the interconnectedness of park themes

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be inspired to become a lifelong partner in the stewardship and preservation of Grand Canyon, other National Park Service units, and the world around them.

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Goals & Objectives (continued) • Ensure equal access to the immersive interpretive experience offered at the site and its facilities to all visitors,
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accommodating all abilities and cultural backgrounds. •
During their experience at the Village Interpretive Center, visitors will: 1 2 Be immersed in the canyon's unique geology Interact with specimens to better understand park themes Identify Native American cultures associated with the canyon Appreciate the successful reintroduction of endangered species Participate in group activities that engage the senses Attend Ranger-led programs that are fun and educational Go at their own pace during their interpretive experience Have fun while learning about the canyon's unique features Be inspired to ask and answer questions

Preserve and communicate the historic architectural values of the site and its buildings while maximizing opportunities for adaptive interpretive uses.

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Incorporate thematic interpretation into all exhibits on the site, based on the Primary Park Interpretive Themes identified in the Long-Range Interpretive Plan.

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Solicit and incorporate, to the greatest extent possible, the input and guidance of park interpretive and educational staff, the park’s interpretive partners, and park visitors in the planning and design of the visitor experience.

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10 Enjoy the park's collection of precious artifacts and historic documents

Solicit and incorporate, to the greatest extent possible, the input of Native American cultures connected to the park in the planning and design of the visitor experience, specifically regarding the authenticity of interpretive messages.

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Reinforce visitor perception of this being a National Park Service site and National Park Service staffed facilities.

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INTERPRETIVE SITE EXPERIENCE
Introduction Each year, millions of visitors come to admire the geologic grandeur of Grand Canyon. Some visitors venture below the rim, but most only gaze over the edge. The Village Interpretive Center aims to take all visitors below the rim on an
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unforgettable journey that forges both intellectual and emotional connections. This dynamic interpretive experience, both outdoors and indoors, encourages visitors to discover the uniqueness of Grand Canyon on the rim, in the canyon and at the river. Within the Powerhouse building, visitors will embark on a Journey from Rim to River. This immersive experience — alongside a canyon wall scale model — will
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capture the fascination of visitors diverse in age, interest and ability. Multi-layered interpretive exhibits will present park themes and encourage visitors to continue their journey at other interpretive experience on the Village Interpretive Center site. At the site and adjacent historic buildings, visitors will embark on more journeys that continue to highlight the interconnectedness of Grand Canyon themes on the rim, in the canyon and at the river.

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MAIN PL AZA • Gathering/Rest Areas • Plant/Native Landscape Exhibits/History Exhibits • Music Performances • Native American Performances LIVERY STABLE & BL ACKSMITH SHOP • Guided Tours and Talks • Mule Viewing Area with Wayside Exhibits MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION) • Permanent Arts/Crafts Collection • Visiting Temporary Arts/Crafts Collection • Artist Lectures and Demonstrations • Native American Performances

Site Program The new Village Interpretive Center will offer a variety of unique activities, including interpretive exhibits, special events, demonstrations, education programs and interpretive talks featured within historic buildings and on the site. All interpretive experiences will meet the needs of visitors with diverse backgrounds, learning styles and interests so that they linger longer and discover more about Grand Canyon.

MULE BARN (THEATER & EDUCATION CENTER) • Orientation Film • Lecture/Reading/Ranger Talks • Performances by Musicians, Native Americans, Historians • Education Program Classes • History of Historic Buildings Exhibits

L AUNDRY BUILDING (HISTORIC EXHIBITS) • Historic Boats & related Exhibits about exploration, transportation and recreation • Native American Exhibits Related to the River • Early Transportation Exhibits • Cafe/Deli • Centralized Restrooms for Maintenance and Laundry Buildings (located at lower level)

Interpretive exhibits are concentrated in four of the historic buildings on the site: the Powerhouse, Laundry Building, Maintenance Building and Mule Barn. The Powerhouse features the primary interpretive experience where visitors embark on a physical Journey from Rim to River. In the Laundry Building, historic exhibits interpret exploration, transportation and recreation at the canyon. In the Maintenance Building, exhibits celebrate artistic expression inspired by the canyon. And finally, the Mule Barn provides an orientation film, performance space, exhibits and a classroom space for education programs. Throughout the site, low-profile information kiosks and wayside exhibits convey the function of historic structures, in context with the landscape. An amphitheater provides a venue for a variety of performances, while a centralized open space features an informal gathering area with native plants.

POWERHOUSE THE TERRACE • Primary Exhibits for the “Journey from Rim to River” Experience • Galleries with Interpretive Exhibits about Geology, Ecology, Native American History & Perspectives, History, the Colorado River, Preservation & Stewardship, and Canyon Arts & Inspiration • Bookstore and Exhibits about the Powerhouse History • Small Gathering Seating Areas • Outdoor Cafe Seating • Native American Performances and Demonstrations/Talks

AMPHITHEATER • Lectures/Readings/Ranger Talks • Native American Performances • Music Performances

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE • Wayside Exhibits Relating to Bridge Construction at Grand Canyon • Primary Connection to the Rim

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE WITH VISITOR EXPERIENCES DENOTED

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INTERPRETIVE SITE EXPERIENCE
Interpretive Exhibits within Buildings The historic buildings will feature a variety of permanent and temporary exhibits. Permanent exhibits will provide a solid
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Orientation Film An orientation film featuring stunning imagery and compelling narration concisely describes the special qualities that combine to make Grand Canyon a unique destination in the world. The film provides an overview of the park experience, highlighting Geology, Ecology, Native American History & Perspectives, History, the Colorado River, Preservation & Stewardship, and Canyon Arts & Inspiration. The film might also feature a segment on early tourism and how transportation influenced the development of the national park. A primary message of the film is the importance of protecting all natural treasures, including Grand Canyon. Wayside Exhibits on the Site All orientation/wayfinding graphics and interpretive wayside exhibits will be nonview disruptive, and placed sensitively on the site. Low-profile information kiosks will greet visitors at the site’s four entry points and will provide orientation for the site and available activities. The deck of each building might also

specific to each building, while orienting visitors with wayfinding information and site maps. There might be possibilities to further highlight the history of each building with interpretive graphics and a touchable object relating to its historic function. Interpretive wayside exhibits will be clustered on the edge of the site along exterior pathways. Historic imagery will help convey the function of the historic site and the built landscape. Interpretive Programming/Special Events and Presentations Throughout the year, interpretive programming will provide more opportunities for visitors to connect with Grand Canyon. Both large-group and smallgroup special events and presentations will relate to the park’s primary themes, encouraging visitors to discover more about what makes Grand Canyon unique through music, dance performances, lectures, readings and ranger talks. Arts and Crafts Demonstrations Throughout the year, visitors can attend small-group demonstrations, featuring Native American artisans and visiting artists.

interpretive foundation that clearly conveys the park’s themes. A multi-layered interpretive approach will strive to engage visitors with different abilities, interest and time frames. Interpretive graphics, interactive experiences, touchable objects and protected artifacts will create a visually compelling experience that

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illustrates the interconnectedness of the park’s primary themes. Temporary exhibits will ensure the Village Interpretive Center retains its dynamic and exciting energy, continually striving to inspire visitors to connect on various levels with Grand Canyon. Temporary exhibits might feature the park's Museum Collections or travelling exhibits from other venues.

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Earth-embedded Interpretive Plaques Low-profile Wayside Exhibits Orientation & Wayfinding Information

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provide additional orientation information

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Education Programs Visiting school groups will have a unique opportunity to attend education programs and classes on the second floor of the
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and recreation. Artifacts will help convey the rich history of early transportation and tourism associated with Grand Canyon. On display will be historic transportation mechanisms, including conserved historic river boats from the park’s collection. Existing Structures The six historic buildings that will house

Mule Barn. This inviting, well-lit space will help inspire students and educators to discover more about Grand Canyon, as well as the Mule Barn’s history. Guided Interpretive Talks Guided interpretive talks by park staff and partners will highlight park themes and invite visitors to engage personally with the people who contribute to the uniqueness of Grand Canyon. While most Ranger-led programs will be concen-

the Village Interpretive Center were built between 1901 and 1935. They are currently used as support facilities for visitor services at the South Rim. Each building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and as a group with three additional buildings near the new facility, comprise the single largest intact collection of early rustic park architecture remaining in the entire National Park system. The site’s historic background will lend itself to interpretive programs and exhibits about each building’s history and the significance of being designated as a World Heritage Site, while also encouraging the stewardship of this resource represented in preservation efforts and sustainable development strategies of the site.

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trated near the canyon rim, some may begin or end on the site. Park Collections/Artifacts The park’s collection of unique artifacts and documentary items can be incorporated into permanent and temporary interpretive exhibits. Utmost care will be given to artifacts to ensure their protection and archival display. Historic Exhibits The Laundry Building will feature exhibits focusing on exploration, transportation

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Unique Native American artifacts from the park’s collection Ranger-led education programs Inspiring music performances Native American performances and special events

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POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER”
CANYON WALL MODEL

Introduction Visitors to the new Powerhouse interpretive facility will experience an immersive, awe-inspiring journey from the rim of
BEHIND THE MODEL NICHES (HIDDEN)

Grand Canyon to the rapids of the Colorado River. Visitors will embark on a Journey from Rim to River, an interpretive experience that begins on the third floor

TRAIL OVERLO OK

of the Powerhouse and descends along a ramp system — an interpretive trail — to the bottom floor.
GALLERY BEYOND

The Journey from Rim to River experience is designed to provide visitors of all ability levels — who might not otherwise physically visit the river or backcountry areas of
RIVER LEVEL WAYSIDE EXHIBITS

the park — opportunities to make personal connections to the features they only glimpse while standing on the actual South Rim. The primary organizing element, to which all interpretation relates, is a Canyon Wall Model. The model itself reflects the canyon as a whole, while side galleries,

INTERPRETIVE TRAIL PATH

wayside exhibits and niches behind the model focus on the topics of Geology, Ecology, Native American History & Perspective, History, the Colorado River,

TRAIL OVERLO OK AT RIVER LEVEL

Preservation & Stewardship, and Canyon Arts & Inspiration.

ILLUSTRATION OF CANYON WALL MODEL AND INTERPRETIVE TRAIL

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The Canyon Wall Model might be a detailed miniature composite of significant North Rim features or an actual canyon section. Features on the model
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notice their final destination: a river at the base of the model. To reach the river, visitors will descend along an interpretive trail that features a system of ramps, overlooks, galleries and niches that spiral around the Canyon Wall Model, maximizing exhibit square footage by utilizing both the front and back of the model. The topics of Preservation & Stewardship and Canyon Arts & Inspiration are woven throughout the experience. Along their journey, visitors might encounter original Grand Canyon inspired art, such as paintings by Thomas Moran, Louis Akin, Ralph Love and other artists, in addition to Native American artifacts displayed in archival casework. Throughout the Journey from Rim to River experience, visitors will learn how best to enjoy the actual canyon safely. They will also realize the importance of protecting and preserving our nation's natural and cultural heritage, including the unique features of Grand Canyon National Park. Visitors will leave the Powerhouse understanding they too play a significant role in the on-going stewardship of our natural

Exhibit Themes detailed in the Interpretive Exhibit Concept Plan Outline, a supplement document to this book. Geology Time Elevators/Geologic Ascent Entering the Powerhouse building, visitors will be greeted by National Park Service staff stationed at a large information desk in a spacious lobby. Flanking the information desk are the entrance to the Grand Canyon Association bookstore and the hallway to the restrooms. Glass elevators line an adjacent wall of the lobby, beckoning visitors as the portal to the Journey from Rim to River experience. Inside the elevators visitors find themselves at the “Vishnu Schist Level” and at -1,700,000,000 years on a geologic clock. The glass walled elevators reveal interpretive graphics within the elevator shaft. As the elevators ascend three floors to the top floor of the Powerhouse, visitors pass through levels corresponding to Grand Canyon stratigraphy while the geologic clock flashes the decreasing ages. A nearby stairwell will also feature interpretive graphics corresponding to Grand Canyon stratigraphy.

might include the rim, a temple, mesa, side canyon, cliff, cave, plateau and the Inner Gorge. For scale, visitors might be encouraged to imagine themselves as half-inch miniature people, relating to the Canyon Wall Model’s scale.

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Looking out across the sculptured expanse of colorful rock layers and down to the floor of the Powerhouse, visitors

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National Park Service Ranger Diagram showing a Sectional View of Grand Canyon Rock Layers Example of Glass Elevator National Park Service Arrowhead

treasures. The Journey from Rim to River interpretive experience is articulated in over 80

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POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER”
Rim Orientation Area On the third floor, at the “Kaibab Limestone Level” and -245,000,000 years, visitors disembark into an orienta1

tion area. Welcoming exhibits will prepare visitors for the experience, build anticipation for the discoveries to come, and introduce the major park themes that serve as a framework for the interpretive exhibits that follow. Within the orientation area, visitors might interact with a touchable topographic model of Grand Canyon and view graphic panels introducing the experience. The sense of intrigue and arrival is enhanced by ambient, natural canyon sounds — wind, water, wildlife — drawing visitors toward the interpretive trail that leads to the Journey from Rim to River interpretive experience.

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Interior Perspective Sketch of Rim Orientation Area at the Powerhouse Grand Canyon as illustrated by Clarence Edward Dutton Orientation map of Grand Canyon

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Trail Overlook The interpretive trail leads visitors from the Orientation Area, around the southeast corner of the building, where they
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embark on the Journey from Rim to River interpretive experience. An exciting view greets visitors on the first trail overlook. Illuminated by natural light, the impressive Canyon Wall Model ascends thirty feet high and spans ninety feet wide, immersing visitors in the scenery below the canyon’s North Rim. Along the interpretive trail, some exhibits will be interactive — such as “viewing scopes” to see small details of Canyon Wall Model features — while others will use a combination of video, audio, multimedia, text and objects to convey interpretive messages. Exhibits might also incorporate tactile objects, such as tracks of animals that visitors might see during their Grand Canyon visit. Peering through viewing scopes, visitors might see archaeological sites, such as a granary tucked into the canyon wall, or a big-horned sheep grazing along a canyon
1 Interior Perspective Sketch of Trail Overlooks and Canyon Wall Model Canyon Wall Model Animal Example, Bighorned Sheep Exhibit Technique Example (Existing Grand Canyon Viewing Scope) Exhibit Content Example, Nankoweap Granaries

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slope. Ambient nature sounds accompany visitors as they continue their journey down the interpretive trail.

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Galleries Intuitively spiraling down the interpretive trail encircling the model, visitors can choose to take “side loops” into galleries
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and interpretive niches to discover more in-depth interpretive experiences. Supporting the unifying thread of the Journey from Rim to River experience, three galleries provide in-depth interpretation about geology, Native American cultures and ecology. Each gallery uses a combination of interpretive graphics, audiovisual programs, interactive activities and artifacts to convey exhibit themes. Artifacts, specimens and interpretive objects will be displayed in climate-controlled casework, or when appropriate made available for interaction by visitors. Reproductions will also be used to allow more “touchable” experiences by visitors. Seating within each gallery invites visitors to take a break or wait for a companion. Geology Gallery The first gallery along the interpretive trail

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Interior Perspective Sketch of Gallery Space at the Powerhouse Touchable objects enhance the interpretive experience Immersive interpretive environments engage visitors of all ages

focuses on geology. Here, visitors will learn about the canyon’s formation and why Grand Canyon is a unique place in

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the world. Interpretive graphics highlight important stories, including plate tectonics and faults. Audiovisual programs provide more in-depth information, such
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This large gallery can be divided into two sections about Grand Canyon's history: one interpreting Native American cultures and the other interpreting historic events leading up to the designation of the national park. Interpretive graphics feature historic images of the canyon from photographers such as Ansel Adams, the Kolb Brothers, Thomas O’Sullivan, W. Bell and others. Audiovisual programs provide more indepth information, such as historic accounts relating to early tourism at the canyon and the efforts to protect it by designating it a national park. Audiovisual presentations might also include Native American storytelling, inviting visitors to learn more about the nine tribes associated with Grand Canyon and the cultures, traditions and special connections to the canyon. Within the gallery is an opportunity to

as missing records in the canyon’s formation. Significant paleontological specimens from the park’s collection will be displayed in protective casework and might include fucoids, trilobites, brachiopods, ferns and ripple marks. Visitors might touch fossil reproductions or specimens collected for open display, such as touchable slickenside surfaces. Visitors will also have opportunities to see

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how the topic of geology relates to the other themes in the powerhouse, including Arts & Inspiration, Native American culture, history and ecology. Native American Cultures and Grand Canyon History Gallery The second — and largest — gallery along
1 Exhibits feature artifacts from the park's collection in archival displays Stories about Native American history and culture share different perspectives Interactive experiences engage different senses Compelling imagery conveys the ongoing effort to ensure the protection of the river, while providing inspiring recreational opportunities

display in protective casework appropriate Native American artifacts, such as split twig figurines and a variety of ceramic vessels. Visitors might also have the opportunity to view objects from early exploration, settlement and tourism at the canyon, including Major John Wesley Powell’s watch, one of Clement Powell’s

the interpretive trail focuses on Native American cultures and Grand Canyon history. Here, visitors will gain a greater appreciation for Native American cultures who consider the canyon their homeland, and also learn about the people and events that have helped shape Grand Canyon history.

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POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER”
diaries and early hotel objects, such as Fred Harvey promotional and souvenir items. To communicate the duration and inter5 6

Interactive activities might invite visitors to match animals with their habitats or identify species with symbiotic relationships. Carved models and castings of actual specimens offer visitors tactile experiences. Significant specimens from the park’s herbarium collection might be displayed in protective casework, in addition to noncatalogued samples for more interactive viewing. Visitors will also appreciate how ecology relates to other topics, learning about fragile biological soil crusts that slow erosion and retain moisture, and the significance of Life Zones to the larger ecological research community.

connectedness of human history at Grand Canyon, the exhibits might include an extensive timeline that illustrates the various cultures that played a role in shaping life along and in the canyon. Visitors will also appreciate how cultural history relates to geology and ecology, learning about the discoveries of early explorers such as John Wesley Powell, and how the various rock environments create a dynamic and diverse ecosystem.

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Ecology Gallery The final gallery along the interpretive trail focuses on ecology. Here, visitors will connect what they viewed on the Canyon Wall Model with the unique plants and animals at Grand Canyon.
5 Interpretation will highlight the animals and plants that contribute to Grand Canyon's diverse ecosystem Compelling historic imagery adds to a rich interpretive environment Indoor experiences inspire outdoor exploration Beautifully sculpted rock reinforces the power and importance of water

Interpretive graphics provide an in-depth interpretation about a wide range of ecology themes, including plant communities, life zones and unique adaptations. Audiovisual programs provide more indepth information, such as information on endangered species and non-native plants and animals.

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Within the Model-Niches Continuing along their interpretive journey, visitors discover light-protected spaces behind the Canyon Wall Model,
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exhibit niches ideal for rich multimedia and immersive experiences. These multimedia programs encourage visitors to make connections with the key ideas, meanings and values of Grand Canyon’s geological, ecological, cultural and historical resources. The multimedia program might feature one large information database that enables each niche to be focused on one specific topic. Visitors could focus on one theme and also gain access to the larger body of information, enabling them to explore at their own pace. Touch screen videos programs provide indepth interpretation for visitors to learn more about: the four distinct forests within the canyon; historic tourism conflicts; the importance of caves to sustaining a healthy ecosystem and their connection to Native American cultures; and changing viewpoints between different cultures and throughout time.

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Interior Perspective Sketch of Behind the Model Gallery at the Powerhouse Interpretive Niches are ideal for multimedia experiences Multimedia experiences engage visitors with in-depth interpretation

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POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER”
Arriving at the River A dynamic environment awaits visitors arriving at the river where they find themselves immersed in the sounds and sights of the natural river corridor — complete with a scaled-down version of the Colorado River that might feature recirculating water. A large area of floor space in front of the model provides ample opportunity for exhibits that both highlight river-related themes. Visitors will also notice the transition from desert to riparian plants and how native plants, invasive species and water control have all shaped the ribbon of life along the river. A line of dead mesquite trees on the canyon model illustrates the impact of controlling water levels. Along the river, visitors can interact with large-scale objects to learn more about river history, such as a reproduction of John Wesley Powell’s wooden boat. Touchable river sculpted rock with fluting and scalloping conveys the impact of water over time. A final exhibit area presents an overview of the issues facing the Grand Canyon today, their historic roots and future implications. Having concluded their Journey from Rim to River, visitors exit the exhibit space into a wide hallway leading into the bookstore and Powerhouse lobby, or retrace their steps for a journey up the interpretive trail.

MAIN GALLERY AT THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE POWERHOUSE

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POWERHOUSE EXPERIENCE: “JOURNEY FROM RIM TO RIVER”
Bookstore & Powerhouse History Visitors can enrich their understanding and appreciation of the Grand Canyon by purchasing theme-related publications
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and products. The bookstore will feature educational materials about Geology, Ecology, Native American History & Perspectives, History, the Colorado River, Preservation & Stewardship, and Canyon Arts & Inspiration. The bookstore for this building is in an area that houses the generators that previously provided power to the South Rim. These generators will be incorporated into the bookstore environment and will have exhibits that explain the building’s history. The plans for this building can be found in the Building Concepts section of this book.

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Interior Perspective Sketch of Bookstore at the Powerhouse Example of Bookstore Displays Example of Bookstore Displays

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NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON
Introduction Native Americans were the first people to discover, explore and live in the Grand Canyon region. The history of these first
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populations, their experience and how they lived within Grand Canyon is of great value to understanding the resource itself. These early populations developed an intimate relationship with the environment at Grand Canyon and cultivated the resources available to them. Today the decendants of these tribes carry forth

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these traditions and maintain a strong connection to the Grand Canyon as a sacred place. The tribes with past and present ties to Grand Canyon are: • Havasupai • Hualapai

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• Hopi • Kaibab Band of Paiute • Navajo Nation • Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah • Pueblo of Zuni • San Juan Southern Paiute

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Havasu Falls Hopi Artifacts Kaibab Paiute Artifacts Vulcan’s Anvil Navajo Weaving Illustration of Pueblo Dwelling 1995, Members of the Hopi Coochyamptewa Family dancing at Hopi House 1933, Hopi Dancers at the dedication of the Desert View Watchtower

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NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON
L AUNDRY BUILDING (HISTORIC EXHIBITS) • Native American Artifacts and Interpretation about the River POWERHOUSE • Primary Exhibits with galleries displaying Native American artifacts and interpetive information

An Integral Experience The National Park Service and the American Indian tribes represented at Grand Canyon have continued to work together to ensure the on-going preservation of Grand Canyon. Both Native American staff members and tribal representatives have participated in the conceptual planning for the Village Interpretive Center. American Indian tribes have contributed a

AMPHITHEATER • Large, outdoor area for demonstrations, talks and performances of all kinds

great deal to Grand Canyon, including work in the preservation of its history in relationship to their culture, the spiritual meaning and expression derived from the place and the stewardship of the natural environment. Design Influences

MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION) • Permanent Display of Native American Art • Traveling Exhibit Opportunities • Arts and Crafts Demonstrations

The Village Interpretive Center design approach integrates the Native American experience throughout the site. This approach enables the American Indian tribes to use all areas without feeling as though their stories and history are
THE TERRACE • Small Gathering Seating Areas • Native American Performances or Demonstrations/Talks MULE BARN (THEATER & EDUCATION CENTER) • Indoor Evening Events and Performances • Classroom Space for special programs and demonstrations • Gathering Place for School Groups

limited to one place. All buildings and the 7-acre site itself will include Native American interpretation and have been designed with this in mind.

NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAM AT THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER

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NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON
Influences on Building Design and Site Structures: The only new architectural elements on the site are the entry decks and shade
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Terraces and Main Public Space: The primary design parameters for Native American use include: a variety of spaces that are open for interpretation, set in a natural environment and with the use of sustainable materials that are inherent to native culture and its relationship to Grand Canyon. With this in mind, the primary Main Plaza between the buildings at the Village Interpretive Center has been left virtually intact out of respect for the natural environment. This space will be complemented with the addition of some stone seat walls, crushed stone paving, and native plantings and trees. The smaller terraces to the north of the Main Plaza will have a similar material palette. The Main Plaza can be used as a place for presentations and tours about native plant species and their medicinal value while, smaller terraces can be used as more intimate gathering spots. Program Coordination Offices: The offices for the American Indian tribes

structures associated with four of the buildings. In addition to complementing the historic nature of the site and buildings, these elements reflect a design approach inspired by past peoples who adapted to the climatic challenges of Grand Canyon. It was clear that native cultures used materials in two approaches to mitigate the effects of the harsh climate. The first was to build light structures that touched upon the land with respect and allowed wind movement

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through the structure to combat the heat. This was an effective use of materials available at the Grand Canyon. The second was to make use of the thermal mass available in heavier structures that were integrated into the landscape by the use of stone. Thermal mass allowed these heavier structures to remain temperate in a hot or cold environment. These ideas influence the shade structure design and the use of passive cooling
1 2 3 Hualapai Camp, Grand Canyon Anasazi Bridge Nankoweap Graneries

and National Park Service coordination of site events are located in the same space at the ground floor of the icehouse portion of the Powerhouse, which will serve as the primary visitor center.

and heating approaches for the primary occupied buildings on the site.

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NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON
Amphitheater: A large outdoor space seats up to 400 people and is placed in a natural bowl on the site. The backdrop for this space is
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tions from available sources. It will also be used as a place where Native American artists can show their work and hold public interaction forums for small discussions and/or craft demonstrations. Laundry Building (Historic Exhibits): This building will primarily house a collec-

the Bright Angel Wash with additional native plants and trees. This space will accommodate large demonstrations, talks and performances. Powerhouse: This building will host the primary inter-

tion of historic, conserved boats that were once used on the Colorado River. Native American interpretive opportunities at this building will relate primarily to the Colorado River and its impact, history, and meaning to the native cultures. Mule Barn (Theater & Education Center): This building will house a 185 seat indoor, climate controlled theater. The facilities here will serve as an alternate, albeit smaller venue for indoor functions similar to those of the amphitheater. While the Theater may run an orientation film at times when no special presentations are scheduled, it can be reserved for events in the evening hours or during inclement weather. The classrooms upstairs can also be used by the Native American tribes for regularly scheduled classes and events such as craft-making and storytelling.

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pretive experience at the Village Interpretive Center. The coordination offices are located in this building along with interpretive exhibits about Native American History and its relationship to the primary concept, Journey from Rim to River. In addition to a large model of a portion of the Grand Canyon and a ramp system that emulates the trail experience, there will be galleries where additional artifacts and audio/visual technologies will further enhance the understanding of Native Americans and Grand Canyon. Maintenance Building (Canyon Arts & Inspiration):
1 2 3 4 5 6 Native American Slipper Stone Artifacts Stone Carvings Navajo Painter Rock Art Hands Pot Artifact

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This building includes three gallery spaces that will display artifacts from the park's permanent collection, as well as space to accommodate traveling exhibi-

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NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE AT GRAND CANYON
Summary The concept plan outlined in this book is the result of on-going work with the National Park Service and the American Indian tribes at Grand Canyon. Throughout this collaborative process Native American interpretive staff and
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These ideas have led the concept design towards an approach to integrate Native American stories, needs and viewpoints throughout the site and into the overall visitor experience rather than to segregate it in one place. The integration of Native American cultures throughout the exhibits and other site opportunities at the Village Interpretive Center, will provide a better experience for both visitors and the tribes of the region.

tribal representatives have helped to develop a comprehensive plan that reflects the rich cultural heritage of Grand Canyon. Long before the planning efforts detailed in this book, a preliminary idea was explored of having a Native American Cultural Center on the site. This center was to be located at the Livery Stable that currently houses a mule concession operation.

This design approach will help the National Park Service and the American Indian tribes to take pride in a common goal, to share with park visitors the contributions made by American Indian tribes connected with Grand Canyon, and to provide them with a sense of stewardship for this amazing resource.

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While this dedicated space would have allowed the American Indian tribes to share their history, viewpoints, demonstrations and crafts with park visitors, the space would have segregated the experience to one building on the site. During this current planning effort, it was determined that the historic use of the
1 2003, Workshop for the Concept Planning of the Village Interpretive Center American Indian Rodeo Cowboy Association Event Child having fun with a baby lamb

Livery Stable was of value to the site and that the mule operation should be kept at this location.

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SITE CONCEPTS

Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

SITE CONCEPTS

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SITE CONCEPTS
GENERAL OFFICES BUILDING RANGER OPERATIONS BUILDING THE VILL AGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER COMMUNIT Y BUILDING VICTOR/VICTOR ANNEX MASWIK TRANSPORTATION CENTER

SITE LO CATION The site for the Village Interpretive Center is located at the heart of the visitor services area at the South Rim. It is visible from Village Loop Road and its development and rehabilitation will complement existing services currently available at this location. The diagram to the left shows its proximity to lodging, trails, transportation and the rim. The adaptive reuse of this 7-acre site will transform utility and industrial use buildings to an in-depth education and discovery center that will revitalize this area.

OLD SUPERINTENDENT’S HOUSE MASWIK LODGE

TRAIN DEPO T

COLTER HALL

HOPI HOUSE BRIGHT ANGEL LODGE EL TOVAR HISTORIC MASWIK CABINS Restricted access Visitor parking Shuttle bus route Employee access Pedestrian trail Bike and/or pedestrian trail Transit center Plaza/pedestrian area Lodging/visitor services Community services Management support Revegetate KOLB STUDIO OLD VILL AGE BYPASS ROAD VILL AGE LO OP WEST RIM DRIVE LO OKOUT STUDIO

This section of the book will review the following topics: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Proposed Site Concept Adaptive Reuse Site Impacts Cultural Systems Natural Systems Connection to the Rim Working and Interpretive Zones Working Zone Strategy Sustainability Planting Concept Site Material Language Building Material Language Shade Structures Vehicular Circulation Pedestrian Circulation Amphitheater Location Site Energy Strategies Concept Plan Phasing

MODIFIED DIAGRAM OF GRAND CANYON VILLAGE FROM THE 1995 GENERAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

• •

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SITE CONCEPTS
POWERHOUSE • Interpretation • NPS and Native American Coordination Offices • Bookstore • Bike Rental Facility

PROPOSED SITE CONCEPTS Introduction The concept for the visitor experience of the site engages six existing buildings and the areas between and around them. With a thoughtful rehabilitation of the buildings and site this existing service area will be transformed into the premiere interpretive facility for the Grand Canyon experience. Access to the Site The 1995 GMP notes that a Village

L AUNDRY • Boat Museum • Cafe • Centralized Restrooms

PUBLIC SPACE • Central Corridor

AMPHITHEATER • Outdoor Seating and Stage

Interpretive Center would require strong connections to the park-wide systems around it to ensure its success. The primary connection, of the Village with the vitality of the Rim experience, via a bridge over the Bright Angel Wash and train

MULE BARN • Orientation Theater • Education Center

tracks will be clear, direct and safe pedestrian route. Less direct, on-grade alternatives will follow a new accessible path, or two stairways, down the slope before crossing the tracks and Wash. Elsewhere, pedestrian, bicycle and

MAINTENANCE • Gallery • Demonstration Area

LIVERY STABLE • Guided Tours of Historic Working Function • Mule Viewing Area

BL ACKSMITH SHOP • Guided Tours of Historic Working Function

shuttle bus connections into the Village are clarified by adjusting existing paths, circulation routes and drop-off points. Vehicular access to the site will be improved in the near-term (pending

EXISTING AERIAL SITE PHOTOGRAPH WITH ADAPTIVE REUSE PROGRAM

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SITE CONCEPTS
resolution of park wide parking and transit issues), by adding limited amounts of parking in adjacent lots and clarifying connections to the existing parking at the Backcountry Offices. The future light rail system, proposed in the GMP to be located in the Wash area, has been anticipated in the site planning for the Village and can be accommodated with little impact. Site Program Visitor and support facilities will find homes in four under-utilized buildings after significant rehabilitation. As the centerpiece structure, the three-story Powerhouse will anchor the pedestrian bridge connection to the Rim and house the principal interpretive exhibit, the bookstore, offices, and public restrooms. Bicycle rental facilities will occupy the north side of the lower level of the Powerhouse, adjacent to the extended Greenway and visible to visitors approaching from the pedestrian bridge and Village Loop Road. Other visitor facilities include an orientation theater and education center in the Mule Barn; an art gallery in the Maintenance Building; and a café, boat museum, and restrooms in the Laundry

THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER SITE PLAN

Building.

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SITE CONCEPTS
Two buildings, the Livery Stable and the Blacksmith Shop, will continue to function, largely unchanged, as a working mule operation with adjacent staff parking, a reconfigured mule corral, and operational accommodations for guided tours. A new amphitheater, dining terraces, and view corridors will reveal and enhance the natural and cultural riches of the natural environment where activities as varied as musical events, Native American performances, lectures, and demonstrations will welcome visitor participation. In the development of the site program and concept, the preservation of significant site resources was carefully balanced with the need to accommodate new uses on the site. New materials and structures will be compatible with the historic structures and the natural palette of the site.

ADAPTIVE REUSE SITE IMPACTS Pedestrian Bridge The new pedestrian bridge from the rim to the Village Interpretive Center will introduce a new visual feature to the area. The design team proposes that this bridge be

AERIAL VIEW ILLUSTRATION OF THE THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER

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SITE CONCEPTS
L AUNDRY BUILDING (HISTORIC EXHIBITS) MAIN PL AZA POWERHOUSE

constructed of cor-ten steel trusses and be allowed to weather naturally. The bridge design will be in the same character as the bridges built at the bottom of the canyon and be light in form to minimize its visual impact on the Bright Angel Wash and adjacent areas. This approach will complement the historical industrial character of the surrounding buildings and the site. Other Site Improvements A Main Plaza area will replace the paved

and corrugated metal roofs will provide covered shelter in the Main Plaza adjacent to the buildings. These elements have been designed to reference the existing rustic industrial structures of the area, and be freestanding from the buildings to minimize their physical impact. Amphitheater and the Terrace East and west of the Powerhouse, the Amphitheater and Terraces will replace utility, roadway and parking areas with stone walls, boulders and planting that recall the topographic and geologic underpinnings of the site. Carefully following the contours of the site, the ramps and stone steps of the Amphitheater will be located to preserve a small grove of existing trees. The Terraces will be the setting for smaller programs and demonstrations, and will provide an opportunity for an expansion of the outdoor dining area of the Laundry Building. Planting and Vegetation Throughout the site, native droughtresistant trees, shrubs and groundcovers will be planted where appropriate to provide shade and a green cover over the relatively barren, historic utilitarian landscape.

MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION)

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE

AMPHITHEATER

roads and parking that dominate the central space between buildings. Paved in a stabilized crushed stone with a hardened accessible path at its perimeter, the Main Plaza will be an open, pedestrian zone restricting vehicular access to emergencies or limited service requirements. Low rock walls will support new soil for a raised planting island and ramp condition that will provide definition to the Plaza. The new construction will use materials similar in character to the

BL ACKSMITH SHOP

THE TERRACE

LIVERY STABLE

MULE BARN (THEATER & EDUCATION CENTER)

significant existing natural and cultural landscape.

PERSPECTIVE SKETCH OF PROPOSED SITE CONCEPTS

New Structures Shade structures constructed of wood posts, lightweight cor-ten steel trusses

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EXISTING SITE SYSTEMS
CULTURAL SYSTEMS The draft (October 2002) Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) notes that the region has had over 5,000 years of human occupation, dating back to the several prehistoric Native American peoples. At the Village Interpretive Center (VIC) site, the CLR identifies the period of significance for the extant cultural landscape as between 1897 to 1942. This period spans the beginning of the tourist development through the end of the Civilian Conservation Corps work in National Parks when this area was notable as a utility and transportation hub. As prominent natural features, Bright Angel Wash and its terraced rock slopes have equal significance to the cultural landscape. Trees within the Village Interpretive Center site and in groves near the Community Building and Blacksmith Shop are also noted in the CLR as contributing features to the cultural landscape. Very little tree or ground cover remains within the site. With their slow growth in this rocky environment, mature trees with canopies are slow to establish. Particularly notable are a single 50’ pine at the southeast corner of the Powerhouse and a cluster of smaller trees in a natural amphitheater-like slope between the Powerhouse and the Mule Barn. Just off the site to the east and south, significant groves of trees in grassland are reminiscent of the historic forest that once dominated the landscape. Angel Wash reveals the terraced topography and the stone wall that defines this historic transit corridor. Trees

CULTURAL SYSTEMS DIAGRAM

Views and Open Space Retaining and maintaining the existing views and open space in and around the Main Plaza of the VIC are key recommendations noted in the CLR. The view down the long east-west axis of the Main Plaza and the open space character of the Bright Angel Wash are retained virtually intact. The east-west view along Bright

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EXISTING SITE SYSTEMS
NATURAL SYSTEMS The natural systems of the site have indelible patterns that are still legible amidst the roads and buildings. To the careful observer, those patterns of topography, hydrology, geology, tree cover, winds and drainageways reveal the rich natural landscape that shaped the various human interventions over time. Bright Angel Wash and the 20’-30’ tall terraced rock slopes directly north of the wash are the dominant topographic features. These features form a natural barrier that historically separated the utilitarian landscape of the site from the tourist lodging at the South Rim. The wash itself, with its relatively flat, accessible grades was a natural route for the roads and trails that may have preceded the railroad. Very little tree or ground cover remains within the site. With their slow growth in this rocky environment, trees are precious commodities. Particularly notable are a single 30’ pine at the southeast corner of the Powerhouse and a cluster of smaller trees in a natural amphitheater-like slope between the Powerhouse and the Mule Barn. Just off the site to the east and south, significant groves of trees in grassland are reminiscent of the historic forest that once dominated the landscape.

NATURAL SYSTEMS DIAGRAM

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
1 Site Section Showing Pedestrian Bridge Connection to the Rim Composite Images of the View between the Powerhouse and the Rim

CONNECTION TO THE RIM The existing complex of buildings at the village is separated from the Rim area by a large wash that also accommodates the daily arrival of the train from Williams and may handle a light rail drop off point in the

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WALKWAY

GREENWAY

ROAD

TRAIN

ROAD

future. Crossing the wash and train tracks presents a formidable obstacle to visitors at the rim who may wish to visit the site. For this reason, a bridge is provided that makes a strong connection from the rim to the new interpretive village. It is also important that this bridge make a logical connection to the vital pedestrian promenade that exists along the rim. The best opportunity for this connection exists in the space between Bright Angel and Thunderbird Lodges. With a reorgani-

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POWERHOUSE

RIM PEDESTRIAN ROUTE

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
zation of some of the existing parking, removal of several existing smaller trees and the introduction of a new path adjacent to Thunderbird, a direct visual link
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the “Silver Bridge” and “Black Bridge”, the new bridge, made of self weathering cor-ten steel that is easy to maintain, would be the “Brown Bridge”. Adequate guardrails and handrails as well as a solid walking surface will provide safe and comfortable passage for even the faint of heart. In order to adequately clear the train bed, as well as tall trucks on the vehicular access road, the bridge lands at a higher masonry abutment on the powerhouse side and then translates down to the powerhouse entry level by means of a secondary ramp. On the north side of the bridge the abutment flares open toward the road, welcoming pedestrians from several trajectories and providing a secure place to pause away for traffic.

can be created to the new Powerhouse Interpretive Facility. This will allow you to stand on the path at the rim and have a clear view of the Powerhouse Entry. Locating the new bridge along this line of sight will provide you with a clear, simple and obvious path to that point. This path will connect with and pass by an existing shuttle bus stop and shelter, which will provide the same clear visual access to visitors riding the shuttle. The bridge is proposed as a light cor-ten

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steel truss-work bridge that spans between heavy masonry abutments on both end of the bridge. These masonry elements reach out from either side lessening the span of the bridge and visually balancing the lightness of the center span. They also provide pausing, overlook and orientation points on either

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side for visitors, and are to be made from masonry (Kaibab Limestone) that harmonizes with the golden color earth of the
1 Sketch of Pedestrian Bridge over Bright Angel Wash Black Bridge, Grand Canyon Construction Detail of Black Bridge Example of Stone to be used at Pedestrian Bridge Abutments

site. The simple twelve foot wide trusswork span reflects the strait-forward language of the two bridges at the bottom of the canyon. While they are respectively

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
WORKING ZONE
WORKING & INTERPRETIVE ZONES All of the buildings on the site have utilitarian roots and historically provided support for the South Rim’s visitor services. The buildings at the site still serve some support functions to this day and include, warehouse storage, maintenance facilities and mule concession operations. The Powerhouse, Laundry Building and Maintenance Building share the same utilitarian language. Their facades are constructed of a rough masonry base with dark wood detailing and steel winTheir value as actual “working” operations facilities will be a very important cultural resource to the Village Interpretive Center, as well as a valuable interpretive tool. It is intended that both the Blacksmith Shop and Livery Stable would operate pretty much as they currently do, while accommodating limited access to visitors through interpretive tours conducted by the staff. By retaining some of these operational staff and concessionaire functions, the complex would be divided into two zones, the “interpretive zone” and the “working zone”. The “interpretive zone” is open to the public and visitors are free to roam freely through its many exhibits and areas, while access to the ‘working zone’ is restricted to guided tours and observation from the periphery. In fact, the edges between these zones must be carefully considered to prevent undesirable overlap or mixing of uses.

INTERPRETIVE ZONE

dows and doors. Their interiors also share a similar industrial aesthetic with steel truss roof framing. The Mule Barn, Livery Stable and Blacksmith Shop share a “working barn” or more agrarian language. The Mule Barn is currently empty, the Livery Stable houses the mules that are used at Grand Canyon and the functioning Blacksmith Shop is still used to support the mule operations. The development of the site program and interpretive concepts lead the design team to the determination that it would be important to retain the historic uses of the Livery Stable and Blacksmith Shop.

AERIAL VIEW OF THE CENTER FROM THE NORTHEAST

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
WORKING ZONE STRATEGY The two buildings that are included in the “working zone” are the mule barn and livery stable. In addition to general main1

will be developed to prevent mule feeding or human biting (by the respective parties). Special consideration will need to be given to the proper drainage of the mule pens and the frequency and methodology of mule waste clean-up, so as to reasonably reduce olfactory conflicts when possible. The complete and total elimination of mule effluent odors is neither possible nor (arguably) desirable, as this is a real and unavoidable part of a “working” mule facility.

tenance of these historic structures other minimal modifications would need to be made so that they relate better to the new concept plan for the site. Listed below are items that will need to occur. Blacksmith Shop The blacksmith shop will need to have its staff parking area reconfigured near its existing entry. Livery Stable

The general concept for maintenance of the mule corral at the Livery Stables could be performed with retained storm water that would be stored in a metal silotype structure adjacent to the Livery Stable. The retained storm water silo is proposed to be located near the central corridor to offer the opportunity for interpretive exhibits that relate to site sustainability and water management. The mule corral will be reconfigured to include an drainage system under the corral that would collect effluent and release it into the existing sewer system for treatment. The overflow for this system will be connected to Bright Angel Wash. This will allow the system to be flushed during the rainy season at Grand Canyon without impacting or causing overflow to the existing sewer system.

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With a fully functional mule operation at this location the following modifications would be made: • • • •
1 Section showing Mule Pen Barrier and Under Pen Drainage Mule Sketch of Proposed Mule Viewing Area

reconfigured mule corral with viewing area and waste remediation strategy truck access and staff parking moved from the east end to the south new south side hitching area and access to Bright Angel Trail retain access in Main Plaza for delivery of hay

Mule Corral At the edge of the reconfigured Mule corral is a “zoo-like” buffered edge that

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
SUSTAINABILIT Y While recognizing that the National Parks have not yet decided whether to pursue LEED certification (requiring additional
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formal documentation) for this project, it is recognized that the US Green Building Council’s codification of sustainable strategies in the LEED criteria is a good way to target and track sustainable design issues to ensure that sustainability remains on the agenda throughout the design process. LEED (rating system version 2.1) criteria has been used to assess the proposed concept plan’s sustainability potential. The matrix included in appendix illustrates the

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proposed strategies towards achieving specific sustainable goals. The summation of the matrix indicates a strong possibility of achievement of a gold rating under the LEED rating system for the overall project. As individual task orders are issued in relationship to this Concept Plan for specific buildings it is suggested that LEED for Existing Buildings (currently in its pilot phase) criteria be used.

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Drainage Culvert Bio-Swale Bright Angel Wash Drainage at West of Site Rock Erosion Control Bright Angel Wash Drainage Area near Train Station

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
Water The existing Village Interpretive Center Site already has a number of water management programs in place for both clean water collection and for grey water reclamation and re-use. Since the proposed adaptive re-use plan may increase visitation, it is proposed that existing water management strategies be used, added to and enhanced where possible. Fresh Water The current strategy for obtaining fresh, drinkable water for the Village Interpretive Center (outlined in the diagram to the left, provided by the National Park Service) is a great example of utilizing efficient means appropriate to the existing situation. With the increase in potable water demand to the new facilities, the existing water supply would need to be evaluated in more detail with the assistance of the National Park Service. Grey Water Grey water reclamation and reuse strategies are currently employed at other

NORTH/SOUTH RIM FRESH WATER SYSTEM DIAGRAM

projects at Grand Canyon. The concept plan proposes to implement similar strategies as part of each buildings’

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
rehabilitation. Grey water from sinks, employee showers and rainwater run-off from roofs can be collected and retained on-site or directed to tie into the existing water treatment system for greater park reuse. The water retained on-site can then be utilized for initial plant establishment, mule corral maintenance or toilet flushing. To enhance the visibility of this sustainable strategy it is proposed that this water be stored in an aboveground storage tank, incorporated into an educational exhibit. Drainage and Water Management The site generally falls about 22’ diagonally from its highest point at Village Loop Road to the northwest corner of the Laundry Building, with most of the surface runoff draining into Bright Angel Wash. Site rainwater runoff (including parking lot and roadway runoff) will be directed overland via sheet flow to grass ‘bioswales’ to capture particulate pollutants (suspended solids and trace metals), promote infiltration, and reduce the flow velocity of storm water runoff before being directed into the Wash.

SITE GRADING DIAGRAM

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
Drainage of the mule corral area would be collected separately and treated prior to connection to the existing sanitary waste water system. After treatment at the
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wastewater facility the reclaimed water could be re-used as appropriate. Planting Native, low water use, drought tolerant plant species will be used throughout the Village Interpretive Center site. No irrigation will be provided to these species with the exception of selective hand watering for the first one to two years in key areas to promote plant establishment. Consistent with National Park Service

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natural resource management policies, seed stock for new planting will be harvested from within the project watershed, to prevent genome contamination. A precious commodity at the Grand Canyon, trees provide much needed protection from the harsh climate. Because trees have a very slow growth rate at this particular site, they are difficult to replace. Site grading improvements

1 2 3 4 5 6

Example of Canopy and Grass Zone Example of Canopy and Grass Zone Native Vegetation Example of Open Grass Zone Example of Shrub and Rock Zone Native Vegetation

are designed to retain significant existing trees.

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
Planting Concept The VIC planting concept (see diagram on the next page) adopts the existing native plant palette to expand the native vegetative cover and provide visual and ecological connection with the surrounding landscape. The existing landscape was characterized into three distinct typologies which informed the location and extent of the planting concept: Planting Zone A • • Canopy and Grass Zone, which covers the southern and eastern edges of the site is characterized by a closed canopy of Pinyon and Ponderosa Pine trees. The groundcover layer is a diverse mix of grasses, wildflowers and prickly pear cacti, typically without shrubs. Expanding this landscape typology to the adjaShrub and Rock Zone is characteristic of the slopes of the Bright Angel Wash. While the rocky slopes of this zone do not support grasses or trees, they are nearly absent, the shrub layer is quite diverse and notable. The character of this zone will be recalled in the areas of greatest grade change, including the sloped walks and terraces at the South Entrance, the Amphitheater, and the Terraces. wildflowers. There is virtually no tree canopy and the shrub layer is scattered and minimal. This zone will be extended across the western approach to the Laundry and Maintenance Buildings. It will replace existing asphalt pavement with an open native meadow, and enhance the visual connection with the Hermit’s Rest shuttle stop area. Planting Zone C

PLANTING CONCEPT DIAGRAM

cent Amphitheater and Mule Corral will, in time, add shade to key human and animal gathering areas. Planting Zone B • Open Grass Zone, is most evident on the northwestern corner of the site but is also visible along the Bright Angel Wash. The ground plane in this zone is rich with tall grasses and

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
SITE MATERIAL L ANGUAGE The use of local materials that is appropriate to the canyon eco-region is a defining goal for new construction. The availability of these materials within a 500 mile radius outside the National Parklands is a key sustainable objective (per LEED sustainability criteria) that supports the local economy and avoids the environmentally unsound practice of long distance transport. Historically, structures were built of local materials out of necessity. Using this palette for new construction connects them to the history of the site and provides an interpretive opportunity. The local materials palette will be used for primary site features and complemented, as needed, with select new materials solutions that demonstrate resource stewardship and sustainability. Rock and Stone Rocks and boulders are key experiential elements vital to the visitor experience of the Village Interpretive Center. Rock walls and boulder edging will recall the craggy experience of the Canyon edge. Crushed stone, with an organic binder, become cost effective, aesthetically compatible pavement materials. While local rocks and boulders are not allowed to be quarried from within the National Park, our research has shown that suitable, rocks decomposed granite and crushed stone can be obtained from sources within 500 miles of the project, such as the ‘Kaibab-limestone’ quarry in nearby Williams, Arizona. Concrete Site walkways, horizontal patios and paths will be constructed of textured colored concrete for durability and ease of maintenance. Colors for these elements will be chosen to integrate with the natural colors of the site. These exterior concrete elements, and all other concrete and mortar used on site, will incorporate fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants. Fly ash creates a more durable product while reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced in making standard concrete. The benefits of fly ash concrete when compared to conventional concrete include: increased strength, use of a waste by-product, and less energy used and global warming gases created in its manufacture. Timber, Lumber & Wood Site features, including benches and shade structures, will incorporate large “hewn from logs” timber components, which will be allowed to achieve a natural weathered wood finish. These features will be produced with salvaged or recycled material from the secondary wood market or assembled from smaller sustainably harvested dimensional lumber. All other wood site features will be constructed of sustainably harvested wood as appropriate.

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4

1 2 3 4

Trail Edging at Bright Angel Trail Terracing with Rock and Stone NativePlants Pedestrian Path near the Site

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
BUILDING MATERIAL L ANGUAGE The language of the new architectural elements next to the historic structures play a vital role in organizing the visual
1 2

sustainable materials, while at the same time considering long-term maintenance. The basic material elements of this language are as follows: • Masonry: Vertical wall elements, which are part of the shade structures or entries to the various buildings, will be cut masonry or pisé’ (see adjacent page). This finish is intended to be simpler, smoother and less visually active than the existing historic building masonry. The color of these elements should be carefully selected to compliment the existing stone on the buildings. This will allow the most visually significant material of the new elements to quietly compliment the historic structures, without being visually competitive. • Decks: All new raised horizontal surfaces will be colored textured concrete. • Log Columns: Vertical elements of the shade structures will be square timber columns, with “blade and bolt” cor-ten steel base plates and top connectors. • Roof Structure: Will be a combina-

unity of the interpretive village. The commonality of language between these elements serves to draw together the disparate languages of the different historic buildings on the site. These elements also share a language that speaks about human comfort, providing shade, orientation and places of repose for weary visitors. The basic palette of these materials and elements has its roots in the tradition of “park-itecture” in our national parks, as personified in Hull’s design for the Administration Building nearby the site. However, the language employed here
6

3

4

seeks to avoid the application of style, a common pitfall of many historic efforts and instead focus on the simplicity and timelessness of the new elements. This palette addresses itself to the most important aspect of this tradition of American Park architecture, which is its sense of connection and appropriateness to the natural features around it. These elements also speak about stewardship of resources, as they are an expression of the objective to employ appropriate and

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6

1 2 3 4

Administration Building Example of “Park-itecture” Bench Materials Example of Wood Siding and Stonework on Existing Buildings at Grand Canyon Existing Column with Waterproofing Problems Sketch of Proposed Wood Column Details

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
tion of cor-ten steel and wood structural members, creating pattern and texture to the underside of the shade structure roofs.
5 1 2

the Pisé material has a simple rough surface which achieves our objective of complimenting the rough stone surface and texture of the Historic Buildings. It also has an advantage in being cost effective than conventional masonry walls, though availability of qualified providers in proximity to the Canyon will still need to be confirmed. All the caps of these walls will have cut stone tops made of local stone or high flyash concrete, to provide suitable seating surfaces as well as long term protection from water infiltration. As an alternative to Pise, high fly-ash colored concrete may also be used in areas where increased strength and duribility are required.

• •

Roof: The roof is a colored membrane roof over a sloped wood deck. Site Benches: Site benches are large fat planks of wood mill cut directly from full dimension logs, with the log edges left raw. These sit on very simple cor-ten bases.

Pisé Construction
3 4

In keeping with the desire to consider sustainable materials for the project, we are proposing to use Pisé construction rather than built-up masonry walls for the new structures attached to each of the historic structures at the village. Pisé uses local dirt mixed with binders and is
5 6

applied using spray on technology like gunite, so that reusable forms can be used. The use of local dirt (ours will probably need to come from just outside the park), allows the material to more closely match the local environment in color and texture. This methodology is related to the traditional adobe or mud
1 2 3 4 5 6-7 Bus Shelter with Flat Roof Wood Ceiling Structure Cor-ten Steel Bench with Cor-ten Steel Supports Colored Conncrete Wall Pise Wall 7

structures typical of many western desert cultures, and is a more easily implemented version of rammed earth technology. This has an advantage in that

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
SHADE STRUCTURES There are three nodal points where visitors enter the site, one when you come off of the bridge at the Powerhouse, one when you come onto the site from the ramp on the South- East corner at the Mule Barn and another as you enter the site from the west between the Maintenance and Laundry Buildings. Shade structures in these locations serve to provide orientation for visitors, and will contain way-finding displays that will advise them of the resources available at the Village. There is also a shade structure that creates a covered out-door eating area off of the Laundry Building. All these structures serve as indicators of entry points to the various interpretive experiences. The system of these shade structures, their walking surfaces, ramps and stairs, are intended to share a common language which serves to unify the disparate

SHADE STRUCTURES LOCATIONS AT THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER

parts of the Interpretive village. These elements also speak about human comfort, providing shade and places of repose for weary visitors in the hot summer sun. They all share the use of rectangular wood timbers for vertical elements, and a structurally expressive wood and cor-ten steel roof structure above.

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
wood roof deck with waterproof membrane

None of these structures touch the historic buildings, but instead hold slightly away to clearly differentiate themselves from the historic fabric.

the touch. These posts are supported on cor-ten steel hold-offs top and bottom, and support cor-ten primary beams above them. These beams support a system of dimensional wood beams above them, which in turn supports a solid wood roof above. These structures will have appropriate light colored roofing material, be sloped for drainage and be designed to handle static snow loads during the winter. This element and the sloping of the adjacent grade to provide handicap access down to the Laundry Building, creates a natural division of the existing space on the site. Instead of being a long thin undifferentiated space, it becomes zoned into two primary outdoor spaces. One space adjacent to the Mule Barn, Outdoor Amphitheater and entry from the south-east, and the other space bounded by the Arts and inspiration facility, the mule pens and its new planting, and the Laundry Building with its café’ and adjacent outdoor space. It is intended that interpretive opportunities be developed in these outdoor spaces created by the shade structures, as they will add to the opportunities to learn from the historic character and cultural resources of the Interpretive Village Site.

wood beams

To create a similarity between these structures, they all adopt a similar depth of about 25 feet plus overhang, and share the same architectural language.

cor-ten steel primary beams attached to columns with blade fittings

During the concept design process, many options for the roof shapes for these structures were considered. Various sloped roof options and configurations were considered, as well as flat roofed and open trellis options. Sloped roof options needed to slope away from the buildings and tended to block visual access to the historic buildings. Also, because each of the historic structures had different roof pitches, it was difficult for these new sloped roof structures not to “muddle-up” the already complicated mix of roof shape and direction. Trellised options were also eliminated, because they were inappropriate to handle the flash rainfall at the site. Flat roofs were ultimately selected in order to minimize any visual conflict with the differing roof shapes as well as the facades of the historic buildings. They have large rectangular timber posts supporting them that are intended to have a natural wood finish and be pleasant to

rough-hewn wood columns

cor-ten steel blade attachment at column base

pise or high fly-ash colored concrete wall

poured concrete walking surface at all entry decks

AXONOMETRIC DRAWING OF TYPICAL SHADE STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
VEHICUL AR CIRCUL ATION Circulation will favor pedestrian, shuttle and bus transit over private vehicles. Near term vehicular circulation improvements will close redundant roadways, reorganize existing parking lots and enhance bus/shuttle access. Long-term development will ultimately restrict or eliminate private vehicle access and parking. Bus and Shuttle Access The existing bus/shuttle route along Village Loop Road will provide visitor transit access from the Canyon View Information Plaza to the South Rim’s Grand Canyon Village and the Village Interpretive Center. A tour bus stop west of the Maintenance Building, and a shuttle bus stop south of the Mule Barn, will introduce visitors directly into the Main Plaza. An existing bus/shuttle stop south of Bright Angel Lodge will discharge passengers at the northern end of the pedestrian bridge leading to the Powerhouse over the railroad tracks.

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION DIAGRAM

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
Road Modifications Road closures west of the Laundry and through the Main Plaza will favor pedestrian circulation throughout the site.
1 2

will be serviced from the existing parking lot to the west Parking Existing parking strategies at the site are not clearly defined. Currently visitors can park at parking lot D to the east of the Powerhouse, along the north side of the Powerhouse and in the lot between Victor Hall and the West end of the center. These areas will have overall reduced parking when all phases of the project are completed and will complement the transportation strategies outlined in the General Management Plan.

Private visitor vehicles will be directed primarily along Village Loop Road and perimeter roads by improved signage to designated parking lots. Once all phases of the concept plan are complete and the mass transit strategies outlined in the GMP are implemented the roadway (Old Village Bypass Road) north of the Powerhouse will be reduced in width and limited to one way (east) for visitor traffic to the existing parking lot D that is adjacent to the railroad tracks and Bright Angel Wash. This route will also provide service and emergency vehicle access to the Powerhouse and Laundry. Ultimately this roadway may be removed when a light rail transit system is developed that reduces private vehicle use. Emergency Access Fire and emergency access to the Main Plaza will originate from a service area east of the Mule Barn. The Livery Stable

3

4

5

1 2 3 4 5

Parking Lot D Shuttle Bus Stop Parking in the Main Plaza Train Station Sketch of Parking Lot D

will have service access from a small adjacent area to the south. The Maintenance and Community Buildings

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
PEDESTRIAN CIRCUL ATION Pedestrian Circulation at the Village Interpretive Center will have a similar character as existing trails, bridges, constructed paths, and open spaces of the Grand Canyon National Park. Character Retaining the Main Plaza primarily for pedestrian circulation will reintroduce the historical patterns of informal circulation between and around buildings. The Main Plaza will be largely an open area of stabilized crushed stone with concrete pathways to provide accessible connections between the public buildings. The sinuous character of the pathways will recall and reinforce the curvilinear patterns of the site walls and grading. Concrete walks will also be provided near roadways (for safety), at the Community Building (per historic patterns) and at sloped walks, grade changes and building entries. Paths at the Bright Angel Wash, the Amphitheater, the Terraces (between the Laundry Building and Powerhouse), the mule trail (to Hermits Rest shuttle stop), and the Main Entry (between the Mule Barn and the Livery Stable) will have

PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION DIAGRAM

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
similar character to the hiking trails that descend into the canyon. Characteristically these paths include: •
1 2

accessible path and two stairways. The path and stairways, located near existing social trails, will provide convenient ongrade alternatives to the pedestrian bridge. Signage adjacent to these routes will inform visitors of the fragility of the native habitat, the importance of staying on maintained trails, and the location of safe crossing points across the train tracks. Greenway Extension/Connection The Greenway Extension/Connection will provide a key multi-use path connection with the current Greenway segments to the east and west of the Village Interpretive Center. The Extension/Connection will skirt the northern edge of the Village paralleling the railroad tracks, and connect directly with the Amphitheater, the bicycle rental concession in the lower level of the Powerhouse and the restrooms below the Laundry Building. Upon its completion, pedestrians and bicyclists will be able to visually connect with the VIC from the Hermit’s Rest shuttle stop, and also travel from the current Greenway endpoint (near the General Offices building) to the VIC, and westward to the Hermit’s Rest shuttle stop where it will connect to an existing Greenway segment.

rocky edges with natural plantings compacted surfaces for accessibility organic alignments that relate to natural grades

• •

Pedestrian Bridge A new pedestrian bridge will provide an accessible and strong visual link from the site, at the Powerhouse, northward to the rim. Consistent with the GMP, the bridge alignment and approach over the railroad tracks will “...allow visitors direct access
3 4

to canyon panoramas.” The character of the bridge will be similar to that of a train trestle, thin, dark in color and light in appearance, recalling the Kaibab Bridge at the bottom of the Canyon and drawing from utilitarian design precedents in the Village. The thin silhouette will minimize its visual impact on the view corridor along Bright Angel Wash. Its heavier stone abutments will recall the park architecture of Mary Colter.
1 2 3 Social Trails at Bright Angel Wash Path near Community Building Greenway Connection to the East near the General Offices Building Greenway Connection to the West at West Rim Drive/Hermit Road

Social Trails and Stairs at Bright Angel Wash The numerous social trails which have eroded the tall slope north of the Bright Angel Wash will be replaced with an

4

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
AMPHITHEATER LO CATION Experience Sitting outdoors in a gently stepped, rock edged amphitheater to hear music, a ranger talk or Native American performance engages several senses. The event offers education and entertainment, the setting provides a heightened sense of place. There is a direct immersion into the site: the feel of the rock that is the geologic heart of the park, the heat in the air typical of this high mountain climate, the shade of trees that are precious refuges from the sun, and the wind and sounds carried upon it. To provide this heightened experience, three locations were reviewed and considered as potential sites. Preferred Location The preferred location (Alternate 1) is an existing natural landform, gently bowlAlternate 3 is similar in size to the preferred location, but would require the most rehabilitation to be used as an amphitheater. It has no existing tree cover, no visibility from the Rim, and only a moderately sloping landform. This location is currently used as the mule corral and its rehabilitation as an amphitheater would displace the entire mule operations. area. New planting at the northern edge will be required to buffer the activity of the Greenway and railroad. Alternate Locations Alternate 2 was considered for its visibility from the Rim, its centralized location and the natural land formations that lend itself to this use. However, its smaller size and the absence of existing tree cover were significant drawbacks for an amphitheater. The advantages of this area make it well suited as a smaller multipurpose outdoor gathering area (the Terraces) that can accommodate cafe seating, small gatherings, performances and demonstrations. Its adjacency to the Greenway and restrooms at the Laundry Building make this a convenient location for visitors to the VIC.

AMPHITHEATER ALTERNATIVE LOCATIONS DIAGRAM

shaped with an elevation change of approximately five feet. A small group of trees cascades down the western side of this location, providing valuable protection from the sun. Located between the Mule Barn and the Powerhouse, this location is proximate to and clearly visible from the pedestrian bridge connection to the South Rim and from the Rim itself. It can accommodate audiences of three hundred people, smaller groups or the individuals seeking a casual outdoor rest

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
SITE ENERGY STRATEGIES During the design process the possibility of site-wide energy distribution strategies was considered. However, while potential
1

This the design of each of these systems is guided by the following principals: • minimal intervention, in order to have the least effect on the historic fabric of each structure • maximization of natural/passive systems where possible (to meet interior use requirements) • employment of low-tech, low-energy supplemental heating and cooling to temper / condition to agreed level of condition appropriate to adaptive use of each space.

operational economies could have been realized by sharing energy generation and distribution between the various buildings, this strategy was rejected due to the required incremental nature of this project. Instead, the overall strategy for building energy systems for heating, ventilation and cooling is to respond to each building individually in a manner that optimizes the energy conservation potential of that specific building. At their core, these strategies use the thermal mass of the existing structures and natural ventilation to deliver tempered space.

For each building, the nature of intervention, type of natural/passive and supplemental mechanical systems have been developed to meet the design team’s current understanding of the particular demands of each buildings reuse program. The specific heating, cooling and ventilation systems for each building are outlined in more detail in the Building Concepts section of this book. Low-tech minimal intervention systems have been proposed based on NPS’s preliminary direction expressing a willingness to accept tempered spaces (as opposed to fully air-conditioned to ASHRAE Standards.) This design strategy is contingent on NPS final agreement on acceptable internal thermal conditions.

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3

1

Illustration of southeast entry into The Village Interpretive Center Utility Pole Solar Energy

2 3

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SITE DESIGN CONCEPTS
DEVELOPMENT PL AN PHASING The phasing for the concept plan is separated into individual task orders. Each phase will be completed independently of other phases but can run concurrently. Scheduling of phases will be as directed by the National Park

C

Service. Phases are listed below. A Powerhouse Shell and Interior Renovation (excluding Exhibit Environment) B Powerhouse Exhibits/Site Components of Public Space (Central Corridor) adjacent to the

E A B F G B D

Powerhouse and Southeast Entry C Pedestrian Bridge and Path to South Rim D Mule Barn and Amphitheater E Laundry Building, Terraces and Western End of Public Space (Central Corridor) F Maintenance Building and Parking Area adjacent to the West Entry G Livery Stable, Mule Corral and Blacksmith Shop Denotes Existing Substation Removal Phase that will occur prior to implementation of the phases listed above

CONCEPT PLAN PHASING DIAGRAM

Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

BUILDING CONCEPTS

BUILDING CONCEPTS

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
HISTORY OF THE SITE Introduction Historically known as the Utility Zone, the site of the proposed Village Interpretive Center is comprised of utilitarian buildings including the Power House, Mule Barn, Paint/Maintenance Shop, Laundry, Livery Stable and Blacksmith/Saddle Shop. At the center of the Utility Zone is a paved area that has historically been utilized for circulation, parking and as a staging area for the utilitarian buildings that surround it. Historically this area was not paved and during the early part of the twentieth century it was partially shaded beneath juniper, piñon and ponderosa pines. Gradually over the past halfcentury the gravel roads were paved and most of the trees cut down. As part of Grand Canyon Village, the entire Utility Zone falls within the boundaries of World Heritage (listed 1979), National Register (listed 1975, boundaries increased 1995) and National Historic Landmark (1997) districts.

THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
DESIGN CONCEPTS As part of the Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center the paved area in the center of the Utility Zone will be restored. The proposed scheme calls for the removal of non-historic paving and restoration of landscape elements that are in keeping with natural and cultural landscape features of the South Rim. The main public space will be called the Main Plaza and it will serve as the fulcrum around which the Village Interpretive Center is organized, allowing informal connections between the public buildings and serving as the primary pedestrian circulation zone. Elsewhere paths will follow historic pedestrian circulation routes. Private automobiles and service vehicles will be removed from the Central Corridor. on the Bright Angel Wash and adjacent areas. Shade structures consisting of peeled wood posts, lightweight cor-ten trusses and corrugated metal will provide much-needed shade in the Central Corridor. The shade structures have been designed to reference the existing rustic industrial structures in the vicinity and will be freestanding, minimizing physical impacts on historic buildings. At the north side of the Central Corridor, stone terraces and an amphitheater will replace parking lots and paved roadways. They will take advantage of existing contours and vegetation and are designed to reference the geologic strata of the Grand Canyon itself. Throughout the site native drought-resistant trees and shrubs will be planted in an effort to create more shade and greenery, recalling the historic appearance of the area.

VIEW OF THE VILLAGE INTERPRETIVE CENTER FROM THE NORTHWEST

The introduction of the new “Brown Bridge” from the South Rim to the Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center will introduce a new visual feature to the historic Utility Zone. The proposed truss bridge will be made of cor-ten steel which will be allowed to weather naturally, complementing the historical industrial character of the Utility Zone. It will also be light in form to minimize its visual impact

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
POWERHOUSE History The Grand Canyon Power House was
1

installed in the interior of the Power House to provide additional office and storage space in 1964. In 1998 an additional fire exit was constructed on the south wall of the building. Building Design Concept The Power House will be the centerpiece of the Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center, housing exhibits, a bookstore and other functions. The Powerhouse is a contributor to the World Heritage, National Register and National Historic Landmark districts. The building was also individually listed as a National Historic Landmark in 1987. Exterior Modifications The new use of the building will require modification to the existing entry at the east facade that will include new doors, entry deck, shade structure, stairs to the Greenway to the north and connection to the pedestrian bridge. Other exterior modifications include restoration of all existing windows and doors, re-pointing of damaged stone work, repair of wood detailing, implementation of roof ventilators, re-roofing (with insulation/structural upgrade), shading

erected in 1926 by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad (ATSF) to supply power and steam heat to Grand Canyon Village. The building was designed by ATSF engineers in Los Angeles in the Rustic Swiss Chalet style and constructed by James Morris of Flagstaff. Originally the Power House had a 160’ high smokestack visible with the naked eye from the North Rim. In 1935 the Power House was upgraded with two new Fairbanks-Morse diesel engines, which remain within the

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4

building. In 1956 Arizona Public Service brought power lines to Grand Canyon, removing the need for an independent power generating facility at the South Rim. The stack was demolished and the boilers were removed prior to the Fred Harvey Company taking over the building for use as a warehouse. In 1958 the Fred Harvey Company built out the interior, installing offices and refrigeration equipment. In subsequent years the
1 Perspective Sketch of the Powerhouse Entry Area Powerhouse Entry (East Elevation) East Facade of Powerhouse/Icehouse

loading docks were altered and additional openings punched in the walls to accommodate new entrances and ancillary functions. A large mezzanine level was

2 3

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
devices at the south facade and regrading where water damage has been an issue. Interior Modifications A new elevator, restroom facilities and Within the powerhouse existing temporary wood mezzanines will be removed and new steel supported platforms will be introduced into the space describing the different levels of the new interpretive experience. Where possible the steel truss joists from the original floor plates will be reused. A system of steel supported ramps will be created to connect these different levels together. The overlook areas described in the Visitor Experience section of the book will be supported by steel columns that will form a brace for the south exterior The basement of the building will receive modifications to receive mechanical/electrical rooms, a new bicycle rental facility and implementation of a rock storage system (see heating and cooling diagrams). exit stairs will be implemented along with related code requirements for the change in occupancy. the re-roofing strategy required for lateral stability. The primary exhibit space at the south side of the building will also remain and open three-story space.

SECTION SKETCH LOOKING EAST

wall. A three-story atrium space will be preserved over the historic generators and at the south side of the building. The glass
1 Existing Generators to be restored and displayed with Interpretive Information about Powerhouse History

wall that divides the building will be retained and a new glass wall will be constructed adjacent to it to form a plenum at the center of the building. This plenum will be used for natural ventilation of the building via new clerestory roof vents that will be implemented as part of
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BUILDING CONCEPTS

bike rental facility up

elevator machine room elev elev

down up
down

men

women
down

+6854.07' powerhouse basement down

up janitor +6856.52' ice house ground floor

squad room director

up rock storage and mechanical equipment

down

native american office up

+6857.02' powerhouse ground floor landing

ICEHOUSE GROUND FLOOR & POWERHOUSE BASEMENT PLAN

0

2.5'

5'

10'

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BUILDING CONCEPTS

down up

down up

bookstore

generators

elev

elev

down

office

information and cashiers

lobby first aid see basement plan for this area layout down plenum above

down entry deck

up

+6862.02' powerhouse ground floor

down

+6857.02' powerhouse ground floor landing

+6859.11' powerhouse ground floor landing

down

down

POWERHOUSE GROUND FLOOR PLAN

0

2.5'

5'

10'

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
current location of switchgear (may be relocated in the future)

down up line of exhibit gallery above

down up elev elev

see first floor plan for this area layout

bookstore and generators below

exhibit gallery

+6872.02' powerhouse second floor

plenum

down

up

down

down

exhibit gallery

+6864.52' powerhouse second floor landing

exhibit gallery

+6867.02' icehouse second floor

+6869.11' powerhouse second floor landing

+6870.36' powerhouse second floor landing

down

down

ICEHOUSE & POWERHOUSE SECOND FLOOR PLAN

0

2.5'

5'

10'

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BUILDING CONCEPTS

down up bookstore and generators below elev elev

down up

+6877.02' powerhouse third floor gallery

exhibit gallery

orientation area

+6882.02' powerhouse third floor

roof of icehouse below up

plenum

down

down

+6874.52' powerhouse third floor landing exhibit gallery

+6877.02' powerhouse third floor landing

+6879.11' powerhouse third floor landing

+6880.36' powerhouse third floor landing

down

down

POWERHOUSE THIRD FLOOR PLAN

0

2.5'

5'

10'

u

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
bike rental facility up elevator machine room elev elev

Historic Rehabilitation & Effects
down up

sashes replaced with louvers in order to proposed passive heating and cooling system work. The most significant proposed change to the exterior involves the construction of a plenum cap above the roofline. The plenum is part of a proposed passive heating and cooling system that will bring cool or warm air, depending on the season, from the basement through the upper floors, venting through the roof. The construction of this element above the roofline will require care as it will introduce a new element that will be visible from surrounding areas, particularly the Bright Angel Wash and South Rim areas. Interior The interior of the Power House retains much historic machinery and switchgear, particularly in the engine room. Most of the rest of the interior has been compromised through the addition of non-contributing partitions, mezzanines, coolers and shelving installed after 1958. The steel and glass demising wall that separates the engine and boiler rooms is original and the most important characterdefining feature inside the building. Also important are the two Fairbanks-Morse diesel engines, electrical panels, gantry

Exterior
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The proposed Grand Canyon Village
men women
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Interpretive Center scheme seeks to rehabilitate the Power House for use as an exhibit and attraction space. Exterior
entry deck

+6854.07' powerhouse basement down

up janitor +6856.52' ice house ground floor

changes will be minimal, respecting the distinctive cyclopean stone wall finishes and large vertical bands of fenestration. The most notable change to the exterior of the building occurs at the stair landing on the east facade. In the proposed scheme the heavily altered loading dock will be removed and replaced with a more substantial slab sheltered beneath a new

squad room director

up rock storage and mechanical equipment

down

native american office up

+6857.02' powerhouse ground floor landing

POWERHOUSE BASEMENT/ICEHOUSE GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

wood post and steel truss shade structure. The shade structure will be made of peeled log columns, with cor-ten connectors and corrugated metal roof. The original concrete and stone walls and all door and window openings will be
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down up

down up

bookstore

generators

elev

elev

retained and/or restored. When the originals are missing or deteriorated the scheme will install compatible new windows and doors that employ similar materials and fenestration patterns. Some

office

information and cashiers

lobby first aid see basement plan for this area layout down plenum above

down

up

windows on the south wall will have their

+6862.02' powerhouse ground floor

down

+6857.02' powerhouse ground floor landing

+6859.11' powerhouse ground floor landing

important characterdefining features
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crane and switchgear in the engine room.

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original fabric spaces undergoing significant alteration

POWERHOUSE GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
This machinery dates to circa 1935 and
down up down up bookstore and generators below elev elev

designed appropriately. It is crucial that the plenum be distinguished from the historic demising wall to avoid the perception that the plenum is an original construction. Furthermore the plenum should be as transparent as possible in order to allow the demising wall to read as an independent feature. Other major interior changes include the demolition of non-contributing mezzanines, coolers, storage areas and enclosures in the engine and boiler rooms. In addition, several new openings will be punched through the concrete slab on the first floor level in order to install a ramp, an elevator and two fire stairs. While these changes will entail the removal of historic fabric, the materials being removed are not highly significant and the end result will not impair the integrity of the building, especially considering that the project will remove floors and enclosures that currently detract from the historic character of the space. While the proposed scheme will construct new partial floors at the second and third floor levels, they will be constructed of light steel framing in keeping with the existing structural system and major sections of the floor plate will be left open to the

iconographically conveys the original use of the building. The current scheme has no provision for retaining the electrical
+6872.02' powerhouse second floor

exhibit gallery

switchgear at its current location although the engines are to be retained in situ for an interpretive exhibit within the

plenum

down

up

bookstore. The switchgear may be
down

down

exhibit gallery

+6864.52' powerhouse second floor landing

relocated and displayed at a more suitable area. The proposed scheme punches several

exhibit gallery

+6867.02' icehouse second floor

+6869.11' powerhouse second floor landing

+6870.36' powerhouse second floor landing

new openings and infills several others in the steel and glass demising wall between the engine and boiler rooms. It will be critical to the character of both

down

down

POWERHOUSE SECOND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

spaces that the new openings be detailed using compatible materials and proportions. Historic openings should be used as much as possible and if doors are removed in one area they should be

down up bookstore and generators below elev elev

down up

reused in new openings. Another issue affecting the central wall is the construction of the plenum as part of the passive heating and cooling system. Constructed of glass and steel, the plenum could be confused with the demising wall and

+6877.02' powerhouse third floor gallery

exhibit gallery

orientation area

+6882.02' powerhouse third floor

roof of icehouse below up

plenum

mistaken for a historical feature if not
down down +6874.52' powerhouse third floor landing exhibit gallery

+6877.02' powerhouse third floor landing

+6879.11' powerhouse third floor landing

+6880.36' powerhouse third floor landing

important characterdefining features

ceiling.

down

down

original fabric spaces undergoing significant alteration

POWERHOUSE THIRD FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Structural Assessment The following assessment is based on review of and existing seismic/structural report prepared by LZA Technology and
1 2

A certain amount of seismic upgrade will be required to provide a life-safety level of performance in a moderate earthquake. It would be expected that the following items would need to be completed in order for the building to be adapted for its new use: • • • • • addition of new plywood sheathing on the roof addition of new roof clerestories for natural ventilation roof to wall anchors wall to foundation anchors concrete wall strengthening for outof-plane loads

observations from visiting the site. The Powerhouse is a two-story structure of mixed construction with an addition (Icehouse) located on the west side of the building. The building and the addition contain mezzanines that are not tied to the building’s structural system. The roof of the main building consists of steel trusses spanning to perimeter concrete bearing walls and interior steel columns. The roof of the addition consists of steel beams spanning to concrete bearing walls. In both sections of the building, the roof is sheathed with wood members that are laid on edge. The upper floor construction of the main building is a mixture of concrete and steel framing and in the addition it is a mixture of wood and steel framing. The foundation consists of concrete spread footings below the walls and columns. The lateral force resisting system is classified as concrete shear wall.
1 2 3 4 Ceiling Structure Exterior Detail Glass Wall Existing Trusses

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4

Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
MULE BARN History The Mule Barn, the Livery Stable and the
1

Landmark districts. It was nominated to the National Register along with the El Tovar Hotel, the Livery Stable and the Blacksmith/Saddle Shop in 1974. Exterior Modifications The only modifications that will be made to the Mule Barn occur primarily at its west end, where it will receive a new entry deck with related steps, and a shade structure. New entry doors will be inserted at both ends of the building within the existing barn door openings that will be retained in an open position. Other modifications will include repair and restoration of all wood siding, and existing window openings. The building may also require a new roof. Interior Modifications The theater is positioned at the east end of the building because there was less historic fabric within this part of the existing structure. Existing columns will need to be removed from this space. Free-span trusses will be created by adding structural elements to existing room members. The wood board flooring from the loft level above the theater will be removed, thus opening up the vertical space to the roof. The theater will have

Blacksmith/Saddle Shop were built in 1906 by the Fred Harvey Company to provide support services to the 1905 El Tovar Hotel. Based on their historic usage these three buildings were referred to as the Fred Harvey Company “Transportation Department.” Presumably designed by staff of the Fred Harvey Company, all three buildings are designed in a rustic variation of the Craftsman style. The Mule Barn was originally used to house mules used to carry visitors to the bottom of Grand Canyon. In the 1940s the mules were

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3

moved from the Mule Barn to the adjacent Livery Stable to accommodate the growing number of mules. The Mule Barn is presently used as a carpenter shop and storage. Building Design Concept
1 2 3 Perspective Sketch of the Mule Barn Historic Plaque Mule Barn

As part of the Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center the Mule Barn will be converted into a theater, exhibit area and education facility. The Mule Barn is a contributor to the World Heritage, National Register and National Historic

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Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

BUILDING CONCEPTS
light control (with shades) to allow for “black-out” conditions to be accomeducation stair and elevator (191 sf) projection screen over stage area

plished for film media. The inclusion of a simple raised stage in the theater allows use of this space for lectures, music performance during the festival or low-key theatrical productions. Audio/visual

education office (127 sf) women (242 sf) steps down to grade dress (45 sf) educational lobby and exhibits area (717 sf) up

lift

theater/seats 185 ( 2790 sf)

facilities are provided with a projection/ control room on the loft level overlooking the space. The theater space is to be designed for acoustic performance for all these uses and for this reason is oriented

elev

across the building. This allows the high point of the space to be better located to focus sound. Adjacent to the theater a minimal changing room is provided to accommodate theatrical performances or staff needs for other events. Loading for

elev mech

theater lobby and exhibits area (898 sf) up men (242 sf) shade structure above shown dashed

this space can occur using the existing barn doors on the back of the building. To access the theater one enters from under the shade structure into the south side bay of the historic mule barn. Inside there are interpretive exhibits integrated into the historic mule stalls. This allows

theater circulation including stair (579 sf)

existing barn doors held open with infill for egress doors

people waiting or queuing for the theater to experience this interpretive content. A small theater entry lobby is created at the back of this space to accommodate
0 2.5' 5' 10'

MULE BARN GROUND FLOOR PLAN

people moving in and out of the theater, and restrooms are provided adjacent to this space.

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
An Education Center is located on the
circulation space includes lobby, elevator, and stairs (632 sf)

second floor in the former hay loft with an entry lobby on the ground floor, in the northern bay of the mule stalls area. This space provides an orientation and co-

open to below

ordination point for all the interpretive education programs in the village. The development of the loft space preserves the open character of the existing hay loft
open to theater below women (145 sf) elev historic stair

seating lobby mechanical room (142 sf) flexible partition system classroom (445 sf) outline of roof shown dashed storytelling area (233sf)

down

storage room (73 sf)

as much as possible and proposes to use a flexible partition system. The floor plan is configured to allow natural light from the existing hay loading doors. These doors will be secured open with new windows installed inside them. A sink adjacent to the flexible use classroom area is provided for use by the art pro-

classroom (391 sf) down

men (145 sf) a/v control room (73 sf)

grams and bathrooms are also provided on this level. The entry to the Education Center is provided on the main level with an open dedicated stair leading up to the loft. The

open to below exit stair

historic (but not code compliant) stair is also preserved and usable by visitors. Reception/orientation space as well as individual learning environments are integrated into the Mule stalls in this area. An elevator is added to make the loft area ADA accessible and another stair is
0 2.5' 5' 10'

MULE BARN HAY LOFT PLAN

added opposite the other stair for fire exiting. This stair exits into the theater entry area, but is enclosed so that theater visitors will not wander up into the education center.

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Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

BUILDING CONCEPTS
education stair and elevator (191 sf) projection screen over stage area

Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior:

accessible stage. Some interior supports will be removed and the floor of the hay loft above will also be removed. New toilet rooms will be constructed and the theater space itself will be finished with acoustical materials. The former feed room to the east of the stair will either be converted into a dressing room or storage. The western part of the Mule Barn currently retains a much higher degree of integrity than the eastern part and the schematic design reflects this by leaving it nearly unchanged on the lower level. Original stable partitions, feed chutes and an original tack room will be retained and preserved and used for housing exhibits. The hayloft will be altered to a higher degree, with some new openings punched in the floor to provide space for a fire stair and to allow natural light to penetrate to the first floor. Partial-height partition walls, possibly made of hay bales or some other alternative sustainable material, will be used to demarcate offices on the hay loft level. Care should be taken to leave the feed chutes on the upper level intact and visible.

education office (127 sf) women (242 sf) steps down to grade dress (45 sf) educational lobby and exhibits area (717 sf) up

lift

theater/seats 185 ( 2790 sf)

The proposed scheme will rehabilitate the Mule Barn for use as an exhibit area and theater. Exterior changes to the building

1

entry deck

elev

are to be minimal, consisting for the most part of a new deck and shade structure on the west facade and the creation of new pedestrian entries in the existing
men (242 sf)

elev mech

theater lobby and exhibits area (898 sf) up

sliding barn door openings on both the east and west facades. While the deck will be secured to the Mule Barn, the shade structure will be freestanding and will not physically impact the building. The sliding barn doors will be retained and preserved and kept in an open position. The new pedestrian entries will be constructed of glass and will be as

shade structure above shown dashed

theater circulation including stair (579 sf)

existing barn doors held open with infill for egress doors

MULE BARN GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM
circulation space includes lobby, elevator, and stairs (632 sf)

open to below

seating

down lobby

storage room (73 sf) open to theater below women (145 sf)

transparent as possible in order to allow the barn doors to be perceived when they are closed.

2

mechanical room (142 sf) flexible partition system

storytelling area (233sf)

classroom (445 sf) outline of roof shown dashed

elev historic stair

Interior:
classroom (391 sf) down a/v control room (73 sf) men (145 sf)

In the proposed scheme the interior of the Mule Barn will be extensively altered although these changes will be largely confined to the eastern half of the building which has already lost a significant level of integrity. In the proposed scheme the non-contributing partition walls in the eastern half of the building will be removed and replaced with a 185-200seat theater with ADA-compliant

open to below exit stair

MULE BARN HAY LOFT HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

important characterdefining features

original fabric spaces undergoing significant alteration

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Structural Assessment The Old Mule Barn is a one-story structure, with attic loft, of wood frame construction. The roof consists of wood
1 2

The future reuse plan for the building includes a theater in the back half of the building requiring the removal of the interior posts. New trusses installed under the existing beams will be required with new posts embedded in the exterior stud walls to support the ends of the transfer beams. New footings will be required below the new posts.

trusses spanning to perimeter wood stud bearing walls and interior post and beam frames. Both the roof and walls are sheathed with 1x straight sheathing. The foundation appears to be concrete spread footings at the perimeter and isolated spread footings at interior posts. The lateral force resisting system is classified as wood shear wall. In our site visit we were unable to verify the connection between the wood shear wall system and supporting spread footing foundation

3

4

due to straight sheathing applied to the inside face of studs. We would expect the building to perform well in a moderate earthquake, providing a life-safety level of performance with only a minor amount of upgrade. The roof diaphragm has an aspect ratio of almost one to one and there is a generous amount of shear wall in each principle direction. A connection between the roof and the walls does not appear to exist
1 2 3 4 Hay Loft Floor Framing Stalls Exterior Siding Hay Chute and Framing Detail

and the addition of new wood blocking tied into the roof diaphragm and wall double top plates is recommended. In addition, the connection between the walls and foundation should be verified, however, we would expect that additional anchor bolts will be required.

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Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

BUILDING CONCEPTS
stack assisted natural ventilation & passive cooling via clerestory theater supply for heated/cooled air as appropriate to seasonal demand

Heating & Cooling In contrast to minimal intervention of the envelope, the ventilation and conditioning required of an Orientation Theater will require significant ‘tightening’ and increased efficiency of the existing building envelope. The design team feels that the creation of a new ‘theater box’ within the existing building shell could be designed to provide the required infiltration and insulation performance,

natural ventilation through a combination of operable windows and stack effect using the proposed roof clerestory. Passive heating is proposed to be provided using solar hot water heating panels located on the roof coupled with a hot water storage tank and wall mounted radiator panels where appropriate and/or cost effective. Supplemental heating/cooling will be provided via the ‘waste’ heat/cooling from the Orientation Theater mechanical system.

condenser circulation exhaust exhaust fresh air intake

shade structure to protect from solar gain & allow natural ventilation driven passive cooling

compromising only the interior character of the existing building, leaving the exterior heritage character in tact. The ventilation, heating and cooling required of this theater space would then be provided by a high-efficiency, standoperable systems for natural ventilation & passive cooling theater extract

alone air-handling unit located in a mechanical room on the hay loft level. ‘Waste’ heat/cooling from this unit (available through required fresh-air makeup for the theater) is proposed to be utilized as a supplemental heating/cooling source

MULE BARN SECTION HEATING & COOLING DIAGRAM

for adjacent spaces as appropriate. In the Mule Barn-Education Center, in order to respect the historic character of the hay loft space, only minimum modification of the envelope of this portion of the structure is currently proposed. Passive cooling will be provided via

Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
L AUNDRY BUILDING (HISTORIC EXHIBITS)
History
1

Exterior Modifications The existing non-historic abutting structures around this building will be removed, returning the exterior envelope to its original glory and revealing the coarse stone siding of the building. Modifications will include restoration work to the stone and wood facade, clerestory, windows and doors. The east facade will be modified to accommodate new openings from the cafe and historic exhibits area out to the Main Plaza. Interior Modifications At the interior, various non-historic partitions will be removed. This will result in a wide open space that will be used to display conserved river boats. Intermixed with the boats will be interpretive exhibits that relate to and compliment the boats and river related themes. On the southeast corner of the building a small café is introduced, with a glass enclosed interior eating area next to it. This café, called the “River Café”, will serve simple low preparation foods such as snacks, beverages and sandwiches. Adjacent to this, but separate, is a café office.

The Laundry was constructed in 1926 by the Fred Harvey Company to provide commercial laundry services for the El Tovar Hotel. Opened for use in 1927, the Laundry was built roughly the same time as the ATSF Power House to the east. Both buildings were designed in the same Rustic Swiss Chalet architectural vocabulary with cyclopean stone walls, brown-painted wood trim, shallow-pitched gable roofs and steel industrial sash. The east wall of the Laundry was intentionally left unfinished, apparently in anticipation of a future addition. After it ceased to function as a commercial laundry the building was converted into a storage facility. At various points non-contributing additions were constructed around the perimeter of the building. Building Design Concept As part of the Village Interpretive Center the Laundry will be converted into a café and historic exhibit area. The Laundry is a contributor to the World Heritage, National Register and National Historic Landmark districts.
1 Illustration of View from Cafe Seating Area Exterior Detail West Elevation

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3

2 3

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
To connect this eating resource to the outdoor spaces, as well as admit more daylight to the exhibit area, the secondary non-historic façade is opened up with new
stair to lower level restrooms

windows and doors. These doors open onto an outdoor eating area under a new shade structure. An additional outdoor eating area is provided in the landscape terrace outside the covered terrace.
down

At the basement level of this structure the old locker rooms are renovated to provide public bathrooms. These can be accessed
historic boat museum (4032 sf)

by either a handicap ramp at the exterior or a modified stair within the building. The envelope of the building, the existing windows and the clerestory widows in the
outdoor seating

space will be restored. The existing laundry tracks suspended from the ceiling will also be rehabilitated.

cafe (1078 sf)

recycling area prep/kitchen storage office

counter service

LAUNDRY GROUND FLOOR PLAN
0 2.5' 5' 10'

shade structure shown dashed

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior:
storage jan

Interior: The interior of the Laundry is composed of a large central laundry room and associated workrooms on the main floor and a small basement level containing locker rooms and storage. The proposed scheme seeks to maintain the open, airy character of the main laundry room by leaving the roof trusses, machinery and monitor exposed. Non-contributing partitions will be removed in several places. The southwestern corner of the main floor will be divided into a storage room and an office. Other interior alterations include new partition walls to create a café and kitchen in the southeastern corner of the main floor as well as the reversal of the stair in the northwestern corner for life-safety purposes. The basement will be reconfigured to accommodate two new toilet rooms, a janitor’s closet and storage. The new partition walls on the main floor will be kept as transparent as possible by leaving a gap between the tops of the walls and the underside of the roof trusses, thereby

The proposed scheme will remove all non-contributing additions from the
women

men family diaper diaper

south, east and west facades, exposing long-hidden stone clad façades. The scheme will also result in the construction of a new exterior stair near the northeast
0 2.5' 5' 10'

LAUNDRY BASEMENT PLAN

corner of the building as well as a terrace on the east side. Three new openings will be punched through the blank concrete east facade to provide access to the café’s outdoor seating area. Otherwise, historic openings will be retained and restored. In order to restore the north facade to its original appearance, it would be advisable to replicate the original grade as far as possible. This will solve

stair to lower level restrooms

down

apparent drainage issues and re-expose
historic boat museum (4032 sf)

historic wall surfaces.

outdoor seating

cafe (1078 sf)

recycling area prep/kitchen storage office

counter service

important characterdefining features

preserving views of the trusses and overhead tracks.

original fabric
shade structure shown dashed

spaces undergoing significant alteration

LAUNDRY GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

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Th e Vi l l a g e I n t e r p r e t i v e C e n t e r

BUILDING CONCEPTS
Structural Assessment The Laundry Building is a one-story structure, with a partial basement, of mixed construction. The roof consists of
1 2

or a steel horizontal truss below the existing sheathing. In addition, the clerestory roof will require bracing. The new use of the building includes the demolition of the three additions. If the additions remain, additional strengthening of those structures may be required. The future reuse plan of the Laundry Building includes a historic boat museum. Other than the seismic strengthening described above, no major structural modifications are required for the intended purpose.

steel trusses spanning to perimeter concrete bearing walls and interior steel columns. The roof is sheathed with wood framing members that are laid on edge. The west side of the building contains a clerestory roof. The foundation consists of concrete spread footings at the perimeter and isolated spread footings at interior columns. The lateral force resisting system is classified as a concrete shear wall. Additions of wood frame construction are located on the west and

3

4

south sides of the building and a concrete masonry addition is located on the east side of the building. We would expect the building to perform well in a moderate earthquake, providing a life-safety level of performance with some seismic upgrade. There appears to be an adequate amount of shear wall in each principle direction. The existing connection between the concrete walls and the roof will likely require strengthen1 2 3 4 Clerestory Structure Roof Structure Main Interior Space Exterior Detail

ing by the addition of new anchors. The roof diaphragm may require strengthening by the addition of plywood sheathing

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
solar hot water panels

Heating & Cooling To preserve the historic character of the building, once the non-historic additions are removed, minimum modification of the

stack assisted natural ventilation & passive cooling via clerestory ceiling fans to enhance passive cooling operable windows for natural ventilation conventional hot water wall radiators

envelope of this structure is currently
conventional hot water boiler (for supplemental supply)

proposed. (note: if a higher degree of conditioning and control is later deemed required for preservation of displays, more extensive refurbishment of the building envelope may be required.) Passive cooling will be provided via natural ventilation through a combination of operable windows and stack effect using the existing roof clerestory. Passive heating is proposed to be provided using solar hot water heating panels located on the south facing portion of the roof coupled with a hot water storage tank and radiant floor slab distribution. Supplemental cooling will be provided by appropriately located ceiling fans (to enhance the natural stack system. Supplemental heating will be provided by coupling a high efficiency, gas fired condensing boiler for any required ‘top-up’ to the solar hot water storage and distribution loop. Note that potential provision of higher level temperature and humidity control for the historic boat display would require further investigation (with input from the Boat Preservation Consultant on required internal design conditions) and likely further intervention to resolve.

shade structure (beyond) to protect east facade from solar gain & allow for natural ventilation driven passive cooling

hot water storage tank

hot water radiant floor heating

LAUNDRY SECTION HEATING & COOLING DIAGRAM

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION (MAINTENANCE BUILDING) History
1 2

Exterior Modifications The exterior of the building will receive only minor modifications that may include re-pointing of existing stonework, repair of wood detailing, restoration of existing windows and doors, implementation of a new clerestory for ventilation at the roof, re-roofing and insulation and new egress doors as required. The west entry area will also receive a new deck and related stairs and ramps for accessibility and a new shade structure. Interior Modifications While the outside of the building remains almost completely unaltered the inside will transformed into an open and light filled arts and inspiration space. The nonhistoric interior partitions will be removed leaving only the original office space to the right of the current entry and the glass partitions that define the old spray booth area. The paint will be removed from these partitions in order to visually connect this space with the rest of the new gallery space. The resulting open floor plate facilitates curatorial flexibility for the Arts and Inspiration program, which will be enhanced by a system of movable parti-

The Paint/Maintenance Shop was constructed in 1931 by the Fred Harvey Company to provide an enclosed space to paint company vehicles and equipment. Built five years after the Power House and the Laundry, the Paint/Maintenance Shop is designed in a complimentary Rustic Swiss Chalet style. It was later converted to a maintenance shop. Presently it serves as an engineering office for Xanterra, a park concessionaire descended from the Fred

3

4

Harvey Company. A non-contributing addition was built along the south façade of the Paint/Maintenance Shop at some point. Building Concept Design The Village Interpretive Center scheme will rehabilitate the Paint/Maintenance Shop for use as an art gallery showcasing Grand Canyon art. The building is a contributor to the World Heritage,
1 2 3 4 Maintenance Building Exterior Maintenance Building Exterior Entrance Ceiling Structure

National Register and National Historic Landmark Districts.

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
shade structure above

tions for displaying art. It is intended that gallery elements will be integrated into this building as the art produced in relationship to Grand Canyon is an important part of its history. Entry to the primary gallery space will be through the existing entry doors. Access to these doors will be enhanced by the

during arranged times. As these artists may be writers, musicians, sculptors, painters or perhaps even dancers, the layout of this room must be very flexible to accommodate needs of different disciplines. Historic Rehabilitation & Effects Exterior Based on the current rehabilitation scheme, exterior changes to the Paint/Maintenance Shop will be minimal. Beneficial to the reading of the historic building, the exterior rehabilitation will remove the non-contributing concrete block addition on the south facade and replace it with a new deck. A future gallery addition encompassing 1,600 square feet of exhibit space may be constructed along the south facade. An existing metal garage door on the south facade of the Paint/Maintenance Shop would serve as the linkage between both buildings if this addition is built. The only other exterior alterations will consist of a new egress door on the east façade and the construction of a new ADA compliant wheelchair ramp and a shade structure on the west façade. The placement of the ramp at the historic main entry will allow it to continue to serve as the primary

benches presentation gallery (790 sf) moveable partitions for display visiting collections gallery (520 sf)

introduction of the new shade structure that will extend over towards the laundry building, to the North. Natural light and ventilation to the building are enhanced by the addition to the roof of a small clerestory element, similar to that which

down entry deck existing entry

new egress door

already exists on the laundry building. Art storage will be provided on the top of the existing office with the intent of consolidating the permanent collection of

d

work/ dressing room (121 sf) office (71 sf) stor

permanent collection gallery (1048 sf)

Grand Canyon Art, which currently exists in numerous places around the park. Fundraising permitting, a second phase

security

addition is proposed to this structure that will almost double the available gallery space. Along the edge of the space a series of enclosed service spaces are created. These include a shipping/receiv0 2.5' 5' 10'

stairs to storage loft

ing area, a work room, additional art storage and a room for use by the current artist in residence. This room would allow artists in residence to meet with visitors

CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION GROUND FLOOR PLAN

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BUILDING CONCEPTS

new egress door

entrance to the building. The shade
Area: 789.852Sq ft

structure will be freestanding so that it will not physically impact the building. In
Area: 525.340Sq ft new egress door
es presentation gallery (790 sf) moveable partitions for display visiting collections gallery (520 sf)

addition a monitor roof may be built on the roof to provide more natural light. If this feature is built care should be taken to make sure that it does not read as a historical feature like a similar monitor on the roof of the nearby Laundry.
down d existing entry

presentation gallery (790 sf) moveable partitions for display

visiting collections gallery (520 sf)

down entry deck existing entry

entry deck

Interior The scheme for the interior of the Paint/Maintenance Shop will remove all non-contributing partition walls while

Area: 1075.220Sq ft work/ dressing room (135 sf) permanent collection gallery (1048 sf) stairs to storage loft security
work/ dressing room (121 sf) office (71 sf) stor stairs to storage loft security permanent collection gallery (1048 sf)

retaining the original hollow clay tile interior partitions demarcating the paint store room, wash room and toilet. These three rooms are retained in the schematic design and will be converted into a work room, office and storage room, respectively. In addition, the glass and steel demising wall between the former spray room and workroom will be retained and preserved and used to demarcate galleries. Non-contributing details, such as box unit air conditioners, will be removed.

staff toilet (70 sf)

artists' meeting room (195 sf)

important characterdefining features

original fabric
future gallery (1197 sf)

spaces undergoing significant alteration

shipping/ receiving (195 sf)

new egress door

MAINTENANCE GROUND FLOOR PLAN WITH PHASE 2 ADDITION TO THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURE

MAINTENANCE GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Structural Assessment The Maintenance Building (Canyon Arts & Inspiration) is a one-story structure of mixed construction. The roof consists of steel
1 2 3

trusses spanning to perimeter concrete bearing walls and is sheathed with metal deck. The foundation appears to be concrete spread footings around the perimeter. The lateral force resisting system is classified as concrete shear wall. A concrete block addition is located on the south side of the building. We would expect the building to perform well in a moderate earthquake, providing a life-safety level of performance with some seismic upgrade. The roof diaphragm has an aspect ratio of about one to one and a half and there appears to be an adequate amount of shear wall in each principle direction. The existing connection between the concrete walls and the roof will likely require strengthening by the addition of new anchors. The connection between the concrete walls and the foundation should be verified, we do however expect that reinforcing dowels are present. The new use of the building includes the demolition

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1 2 3 4 5

Eave Detail Ceiling Construction Exterior Facade Ceiling Structure Existing Entry

of the building addition. If the addition remains, strengthening may be required. The future reuse plan of the Maintenance Building includes gallery area. Other than the seismic strengthening described above, no major structural modifications are required for the intended purpose.

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
new clerestory for natural ventilation & passive cooling ceiling fans to enhance passive cooling

Heating & Cooling Again, to minimize the impact to the historic building character, modification to the envelope of this structure is limited to the addition of a roof ventilation clerestory. This clerestory would be similar in form to the one on the laundry building, and would be accomplished as a part of the required re-roofing of the structure. This would allow for a similar naturally ventilated cooling strategy as proposed for a number of the other buildings. Passive cooling will be provided using natural ventilation through a combination of operable windows and stack effect using the proposed roof clerestory.

solar hot water panels shade structure (beyond) to protect east facade from solar gain & allow for natural ventilation driven passive cooling conventional hot water boiler (for supplemental supply)

operable windows for natural ventilation

hot water storage tank

hot water radiant floor heating

Passive heating is proposed to be provided using solar hot water heating panels located on the south facing portion of the roof coupled with a hot water storage tank and radiant floor slab distribution where appropriate, and wall

MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CANYON ARTS & INSPIRATION) SECTION HEATING & COOLING DIAGRAM

mounted radiator panels in areas (such as toilets) where radiant slab distribution is less appropriate or cost effective. Supplemental cooling will be provided by appropriately located ceiling fans (to enhance the natural stack system). Supplemental heating will be provided by coupling a high efficiency, gas fired condensing boiler for any required ‘topup’ to the solar hot water storage and distribution loop.

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
LIVERY BUILDING History The Livery Stable was built in 1906 along
1 2 3

with the Mule Barn and the Blacksmith/Saddle Shop to serve the El Tovar Hotel. Collectively known as El Tovar Stables, these three buildings were designed by staff of the Fred Harvey Company in the Craftsman style. The Livery Stable was built to house carriages and horses used to give visitors tours of the South Rim. These tours were eventually discontinued following the growing popularity of automobile tourism. In the 1940s the pack mules used to carry tourists into

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the Canyon were moved from the Mule Barn into the Livery Stable. Building Design Concept The Village Interpretive Center scheme will leave the mules in the Livery Stable, allowing this historical usage to remain visible to visitors. The Livery Stable is a contributor to the World Heritage, National Register and National Historic Landmark Districts.

1 2 3 4 5 5

East Entry North Facade View from Northwest Structural System Interior View Mule Stalls

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Historic Rehabilitation & Effects
tack

footings at interior posts. The lateral force resisting system is classified as wood shear wall. In our site visit we were unable to verify the connection between the wood shear wall system and supporting spread footing foundation due to 1x straight sheathing applied to the inside face of studs. We would expect the building to perform well in a moderate earthquake, providing a life-safety level of performance with only a minor amount of upgrade. The roof diaphragm has an aspect ratio of about two to one and there is a generous amount of shear wall in each principle direction. A connection between the roof and the walls does not appear to exist and the addition of new 2x blocking tied into the roof diaphragm and wall double top plates is recommended. In addition, the connection between the walls and foundation should be verified, however, we would expect that additional anchor bolts will be required.

As part of the “Working Zone” of the
stalls hay chutes (typ.)

proposed Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center, the Livery Stable will
workroom tack tack tack

continue to fulfill its historic function. Aside from resolving structural and aesthetic issues brought on by deferred maintenance, very few changes are
tack office

tack

stalls

proposed for the building, which will continue to house the mules that take visitors into the Grand Canyon. As part of the Grand Canyon Village Interpretive Center, the Livery Stable will be given a more prominent role in the visitor experience. The outdoor corral will be reduced in size slightly and natural landscape and

LIVERY STABLE GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

roof

roof

rock terracing placed between the visitors and the mules in order to prevent errant mule bites and inappropriate food

hay chutes (typ.) open to below

being slipped into the corral. Structural Assessment The Livery Stable is a one-story structure,
down

with attic loft, of wood frame construction. The roof consists of wood trusses
roof roof

spanning to perimeter wood stud bearing walls and interior post and beam frames.
important characterdefining features

LIVERY STABLE HAY LOFT HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

Both the roof and walls are sheathed with straight sheathing. The foundation appears to be concrete spread footings at the perimeter and isolated spread
spaces undergoing significant alteration original fabric

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
BL ACKSMITH BUILDING History The Blacksmith/Saddle Shop was built in
1 2 3

1906 along with the Mule Barn and Livery Stable to serve the El Tovar Hotel. Collectively known as El Tovar Stables, these three buildings were designed by staff of the Fred Harvey Company in the Craftsman style. The Blacksmith/Saddle Shop was constructed to house farrier and saddlemaking operations for the mule operations that continue to take visitors to the Canyon floor. The Blacksmith/Saddle Shop is a contributor to the World Heritage, National Register

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and National Historic Landmark Districts. Building Design Concepts In the scheme for the Village Interpretive Center the Blacksmith/Saddle Shop will retain its historic use. Located in the Working Zone, the building will be accessible to visitors during periodic tours. The building will continue to be used as a workplace for blacksmiths to make shoes and saddlemakers to make saddles.
1 2 3 4 5 Exterior View of Blacksmith Shop Rear of Building Forge Roof Framing Detail

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BUILDING CONCEPTS
Historic Rehabilitation & Effects This use of the building will trigger ADA and life-safety code issues relating to public occupancy, necessitating the repair of all exterior doors to make them operable and the creation of an unobstructed path of travel from the parking lot into the building. In addition, any structural or material-related issues will need to be resolved. Structural Assessment The Blacksmith Shop is a one-story structure of wood frame construction. A portion of the building appears to be an addition. The roof consists of wood trusses spanning to perimeter wood stud bearing walls. Both the roof and walls are sheathed with straight wood sheathing. The foundation appears to be concrete spread footings at the perimeter. The lateral force resisting system is classified as wood shear wall. In our site visit we were unable to verify the connection between the wood shear wall system and supporting spread footing foundation due to the straight sheathing applied to the inside face of studs. We would expect the building to perform well in a moderate earthquake, providing
original fabric spaces undergoing significant alteration important characterdefining features

a life-safety level of performance with only a minor amount of upgrade. The roof diaphragm segments have aspect ratios of about one to one and there is a generous amount of shear wall in each principle direction. A connection between the roof and the walls does not appear to exist and the addition of new wood blocking tied into the roof diaphragm and wall double top plates is recommended. In addition, the connection between the walls and foundation should be verified, however, we would expect that additional anchor bolts will be required. The connection between the original building will most likely require upgrade to tie the structures together.

BLACKSMITH GROUND FLOOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION DIAGRAM

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APPENDICES
APPENDICES