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“To reduce crime and the fear of crime, tackle youth

crime and violent, sexual and drug-related crime,


anti-social behaviour and disorder, increasing safety in
the home and public spaces.”
Home Office Aim 1

This statement confi rms our joint commitment to reduce crime and disorder. T h e
D i g e s t , w h i ch is published quart e r ly, aims to support crime re d u c t i o n / c o m munity safe t y
practitioners within police and local authori t i e s , working in stat u t o ry partnerships by
facilitating info rm ation exchange. The Digest is a forum for your initiatives and experiences.
Its success depends on you, the practitioners, c o n t ri buting your articles. Deadline for copy is
given below.
In order that eve ryone can benefit from your work and experi e n c e, we would ask
c o n t ri butors to consider both what wo r ked and what didn’t work within their pro j e c t s.
P rojects may be well conceived and still not ach i eve all their aims; this does not mean they
h ave fa i l e d . Please be brave enough to discuss what aspects did not ach i eve the expected
outcomes. Include as much info rm ation as you can, covering the analysis of the problem and
how it was identified, the response devised and how it was implemented, and an assessment
of the final outcomes.

Note:
The inclusion of mat e rial in the Digest or re fe rence to any pro d u c t s / s e rvices does not
signify that they have been tested or evaluated. Nor should inclusion be thought to confer
‘official’ approval.
This publication may not be copied, photocopied, re p roduced, or conve rted to any
electronic form unless for police or local authority use only.
January 2002
College Staff The next Digest will be
with you in April 2002.
Director Administration Unit Training Resource Solutions
Steve Trimmins Mark Ledder David Fernley
All contributions
be submitted by
Support Services Information Service Jane Carpenter
March 8th 2002.
Ann Keen Gill Archibald Simon Jones
Michael Hawtin
Melissa Keeble Stuart Charman Richard Wales Contributions to:
Ruth Whitaker Jane Hopper Jane Hopper
Kathleen Noble Editor Information Team
Training Team Abby Hickman Jane Hopper Tel: 01347 825065
Martin Milburn Design/Production Fax: 01347 825097
Michael Hawtin
June Armstrong Home Office
Martin Fenlon Crime Reduction College
Amanda Scargill The Hawkhills, Easingwold,
For Training or General Enquiries:
Pat Varley York YO61 3EG
(David Fernley) Tel: 01347 825060 Tel: 01347 825060
Fax: 01347 825099
e-mail: crc@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

January 2002 1
College News 4
Digest Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Force Crime Prevention Officers’ Conference 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
New Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Neighbourhood and Street Wardens Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Inside Write award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Crime Prevention in a Europe that is Growing Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Standard Crime Prevention Officers’ Course Pilot Joint Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Au Revoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Crime Reduction Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Active Communities 9
An evaluation of the impact of Crimestoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Re s t o ra t i ve Justice: Ideas, Values, Debates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
An Exploratory Evaluation of Restorative Justice Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
An International Review of Re s t o ra t i ve Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Crime Stories: A guide to communications strategies for community
safety partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Friends or Strangers? Faith Communities and Community Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
New beginnings: a practical guide to setting up a Community Parenting Scheme . . .12
Anti-Social Behaviour /Disorder 13
Anti-Social Behaviour Orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Trouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Arson 14
A Burning Faith? - video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Burglary 14
Burglary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Home Security an introduction to domestic surveying - Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Second-hand Dealers Thumbprint Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
“Stop, Chain Check!” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Business Crime 17
Business Crime Crackdown exhibition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
CCTV 17
CCTV Leaflets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
May the Force Be With You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Aide Memoire for Public Space Surveillance: Human Rights Act and Data
Protection Act 1998 Compliant - Making PLANS for CCTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Designing Out Crime 19
ACPO Crime Prevention Initiatives Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Better Places to Live by design: a companion guide to PPG3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Designing Out Crime Association Annual General Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
International Conference on Safety and Crime Prevention by Urban Design . . . . . . . .21
Drugs and Alcohol 22
New Drug Abstinence Community Sentences Pilots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Lets Get Real: Communicating with the public about drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Drug misuse declared in 2000: key results from the British Crime Survey . . . . . . . . .23
Drug use and offending: summary results from the first year of
the NEW-ADAM research programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Statistics from the Arrest Referral Monitoring Programme from
October 2000 to March 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Rewind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

2 Contents January 2002


G e n e ra l 26
Crime displacement - the misunderstood issue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Community Safety Partnerships Briefing Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Guildford Fear of Crime Survey - fear goes down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
The 2001 British Crime Survey, First Results, England and Wales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Cautions, Court Proceedings and Sentencing England and Wales 2000 . . . . . . . . . . .28
Stay Safe: An easy guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Hate Crime 29
Crime, Policing and Justice: the experience of ethnic minorities. Findings
from the 2000 British Crime Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Neighbourhood Wardens and Neighbourhood Watch 30
Neighbourhood and Street Wardens Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Neighbourhood Watch: Findings from the 2000 British Crime Survey . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Neighbourhood Watch: A guide for Co-ordinators in Sussex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Property Crime 31
High Tech Chips to Track Stolen Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Operation Ringtone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
What's New at Sold Secure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Vehicle crime 33
Car Theft Index 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Bilking Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Victims and Witnesses 34
Key Findings from the Vulnerable Witness Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
The Newham Victim Referral Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
New Victims of Crime procedures and leaflet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Each Article in the Digest
Violence at School and Work 35 is highlighted with an
Violence at Work: causes, patterns and prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 icon which will define
Violent Crime and Street Crime 36 the product described in
Scarred for Life: The effects of street robbery on the community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 that article. They are:
Early Lessons from the Crime Reduction Programme:
Tackling Alcohol Related Street Crime in Cardiff (TASC project) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Campaign/
Youth Crime 37 Initiative
Chat Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Operation Youth Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Publication
The Substance of Young Needs - Review 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
“Up2U on Tour” Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Youth Offender Panel Recruitment Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Video
Bullying Online: Staying Safe in Cyberspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
World of Work Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Website/
Electronic
Information

General/
Exchange
of Ideas/
Conferences

January 2002 Contents 3


Digest Questionnaire
M a ny thanks to the people who took the tim e to fill in the quest ionnaire about the
development of the Digest in the October issue. The winner of the Palm hand-held computer
was A n d rea Pa s h l e y f rom Mold in North Wales and her prize was despat ched in time fo r
Christmas. So congratulations to Andrea!
If there are some of you out there who didn’t respond because you alre a dy have a PDA ,
or because you pre fer a diary like me, then we would still like your views because after all,
you are all readers and you should all have a say. If you didn’t respond because you like the
Digest as it is, then we need to know this too!
Fo rt u n at e ly, initial eva l u ation of responses re c e i ved showed that eve ryone thought the
Digest was a useful publ i c at i o n , s c o ring 6 and ab ove on the scale 1-10, and quite a few
people asked specifi c a l ly that we don’t change the Digest for ch a n g e ’s sake. Some people
made some interesting suggestions and a full review of these will be made in the next issue.
For those of you who raised points that are reader specific, we will contact you directly.
If you have n ’t fi lled in a fo rm - please take a m om ent to have your say - visit;
w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / d i g e s t . h t m and send us an electronic version if you no
longer have the paper copy.
Gill Archibald, Information Team Leader

Force Crime Prevention Officers’


Conference 2001
S a d ly the College took the decision in t h at they we re unable to spend three day s
N ovember to cancel the FCPO confe re n c e, away from their desks.
Reducing Crime in Diverse Communities. The cancellation and the low nu m b e r s
This was because of low numbers able to w h i c h prompted it are in no way a
at tend and considered t he need fo r reflection on the confe rence topic, or the
s u f ficient delegates to make the experi e n c e work put in by those involved in organising
wo rt h w h i l e. Despite extra appeals by the confe re n c e. Reducing Crime in Dive r s e
telephone and letter, few further fi rm C o m munities remains a key issue within
bookings we re made. The main re a s o n the police serv i c e. U n fo rt u n at e ly, t h e
Our thanks to those who had appears to have been extra pre s s u res placed timing of the confe rence could not have
committed their time and on FCPOs after the events of 11 September. fo reseen the impact of such a world eve n t .
energy to organising the high M a ny FCPOs also have Fo r c e C o u n t e r- We will be writing to FCPOs in the New
quality programme. Terrorist crime prevention roles and told us Year about the next confe re n c e.

New Staff
We welcome Martin Fenlon to the Crime Reduction College.
M a rtin joined us in October and works alongside the other
trainers in delivering off-site training to partnerships around
the country. He prev i o u s ly wo r ked for Nat West Bank befo re
taking the opportunity to go to Oxford to read a Diploma in
Social A d m i n i s t r ation fo l l owed by 3 years at Bradfo r d
U n i versity studying Applied Social Studies together with a
c e rt i fi c ate of qualifi c ation in social wo r k . M a rtin then we n t
on to work as a Probation Officer for Middlesex, and later as
a Training Manager for the London Probation Service.

4 College News January 2002


Neighbourhood and Street Wa rd e n s
Pro g ra m m e
At the re quest of th e Dept of Tr a n s p o rt , The College has also produced a guide
Local Government and the Regions (DTLR), to the content of the elements of the basic
t he Coll ege trai ning team is putting the job training and a ch e c klist to assist in
finishing touches to the mat e rial that will choosing training prov i d e r s. Both of these
fo rm the core elem ent of the basic job will be m ade ava i l able once the training
training for wa r d e n s. This includes the goes live. The College’s invo l vement in
l e g i s l at i ve back g ro u n d ; w h at wardens can wardens training will come to an end on
and cannot do; basic pro blem solving and 31 March 2002.
c rime preve n t i o n , along with commu n i-
c ation skills. This core element will be For further information relating to the
piloted during a trainer’s course early in Neighbourhood and Street Wardens Programme
the New Year befo re being delive red by a or details regarding the training outlined, please
team of associate trainers. contact the DTLR on Tel: 020 7944 2535 or 2534
or visit their website at:
www.neighbourhood.dtlr.gov.uk

Inside Write award


The Crime Reduction College has won a Plain English Campaign “Inside W ri t e ” award fo r
The Course Pa s s p o rt; a pack age of pre-course work designed for students attending cri m e
prevention courses at Easingwold.
The “Inside W ri t e ” competition encourages civil servants to write clearly to each other.
E n t ries can be in the fo rm of booklets, m a nu a l s , l e a f l e t s , and memos and are
judged against a range of criteria ranging from sentence length and the use
of eve ry d ay language through to conciseness and grammar.
The Course Pa s s p o rt was introduced by the Crime Reduction College
in September 1999 as pre-course work for students - predominantly police
o f ficers - attending the Standard Crime Prevention Offi c e r s ’ Course at
E a s i n g wo l d . It provides students with essential info rm ation about the
course and imparts a basic level of knowledge about crime reduction and in
p a rticular situational crime preve n t i o n , e n s u ring that students start the
course with broadly the same level of knowledge.
The key section is a self-paced distance learning module, “ I n t ro d u c t i o n
to Crime Prevention” covering the conditions under which a crime can occur,
the role of the crime prevention offi c e r, the principles of crime preve n t i o n ,
and the preve n t i ve process - an ap p ro a c h to managing cr ime re d u c t i o n
p ro j e c t s. It also fe at u res useful info rm ation for students, questions to test their
k n owledge and a case study. It uses map s , d i agrams and photographs as well as
text to get its message across.
Since the launch of The Course Passport around 750 students have used it. It
has the potential to stand on its own as a general introduction to crime prevention fo r
anyone working in crime reduction or community safety and, resources permitting, we have
plans to publish it more widely.

This year’s awards were presented in London on 6 December by Sir Richard Wilson KCB. The College was
represented by David Fernley, Michael Hawtin and Jane Hopper.

January 2002 College News 5


Crime Prevention in a Europe that is
Growing Together
In October, D a ve Fe r n l e y f rom the Cri m e D ay two was made up of wo r k s h o p s
Reduction College, attended a confe re n c e and Dave atte nded one on , “Pre ve n t i ve
on “Cri me Pre vention in a M e a s u res Agai nst Crime.” The gro u p


Eu rope that i s Grow i n g
...outline the To g e t h e r” . The confe re n c e
l o o ked at the ap p ro a ch taken by the Safe
Ci ty Action Programme in the state of
current crime was hosted in Berl in by the
G e rman Federal A c a d e my of
S a x o ny and then discussed the ap p ro a ch to
c rime and disorder in their own countri e s.
situation in P u blic A d m i n i s t r ation and wa s
attended by re p re s e n t at i ve s
Most European states are adopting a
p a rtnership ap p ro a ch . Most part n e r s h i p s
different EU states f rom nine EU member and
candidate states. The aim of the
a re vo l u n t a ry, and no other countries had
the equivalent of the Crime and Disorder
and compare workshop was to outline the
c u rrent cr ime situation in
Act or statutory partnerships.

preventive d i f fe rent EU states and


compare preventive strategies.
D ay three looked at eva l u at i o n , t h e
G e rman Fo r um for Cr im e Preve n t i o n ,


and the Eu ropean Network of Crime
strategies. D ay one l ooked at the Prevention.
c rime situation across Euro p e, The presentation on evaluation stressed
with pre s e n t ations about the cr i m e the importance of eva l u ating initiat i ve s ,
s i t u ation in Germ a ny, France and Swe d e n l o o ked at the conditions re q u i red to make
and a “ C o m p a r at i ve Study on the Scope, this happen and set out some of the
C o n t ro l , and Prevention of Cri me in “Golden Rules.” Although many EU stat e s
E u ro p e.” Some points that emerged fro m a re starting to eva l u ate crime preve n t i o n
the day are given below. s t r at e g i e s , t h e re is room to devel op this
• In France and Germany there is a need a re a . The UK is considered to be quit e
for better crime recording. For example advanced in its ap p ro a ch to evaluation.
in Germany it is estimated that only The presentation on the German Fo ru m
10% of all crime is reported to for Crime Prevention looked at the Fo ru m ’s
European the police.
• In Germany there is a sharp increase in
aims and objectives and some of its
a c t i v i t i e s. The Fo r um acts as a centre of
juvenile crime and disorder, excellence and carries out some re s e a r ch
Network but robbery is decreasing. In France, and pilot projects.
the major increase is in violent crime. The Eu ropean Network of Crime
of Crime • All three countries have massive under
reporting of domestic violence.
Pre ve n t i o n is EU funded. E a ch member
s t ate of the EU has three members of the
• All three countries recognise the need n e t wo r k , and re p resents policy and
Prevention to develop multi-agency re s e a r ch interests in crime preve n t i o n . I t s
partnership working. aim is to share info rm ation and disseminate
• Because different states use different good practice.
recording systems, it is difficult to The confe rence was useful and gave a
establish a unified picture of crime good insight in to how crime prevention is
across Europe, especially tackled in different countries.
cross-border crimes.
• Fear of crime is an important factor. In If you want any further information on the
some countries this is only just being conference, contact Dave Fernley on
recognised. Tel: 01347 825083.
• There is not much info rm ation about
evaluated good practice available to
practitioners. This means the eva l u at i o n
of our Crime Reduction programme is
keenly anticipated.

6 College News January 2002


Standard Crime Prevention Officers’ Course
Pilot Joint Training
Greater Manchester Police and Local Authority Officers - 22 October - 1 November 2001

The Crime Reduction College wo r ked closely with Gre ater Manchester Police to provide the
o p p o rtunity for local authority officers to part i c i p ate in the Standard Crime Preve n t i o n
Officers’ Course. The course was part funded through the Partnership Development Fund and
is being independently evaluated by Geoff Berry of Geoff Berry Associates.
The delegates we re drawn from Manchester City Council, Tr a f ford MBC, Oldham MBC,
Rochdale LA, Safer Homes in New East Manchester, Trafford Park Business Watch and Gre at e r
Manchester Police.
The standard course was slightly altered to reflect the range of
e x p e rience and expertise within the group and the local
i n fo rm ation that needed to be included, however the core learning
outcomes remained the same.
The course was delive red by College and GMP staff who both
ag reed that the breadth of experience and knowledge within the
group brought new perspectives, not just to the course, but partic-
u l a r ly to the syndicate exe r c i s e s. The group fo rmed a deeper
understanding of how each of the agencies operated and an ap p re-
c i ation of the extent and limitations of their individual ro l e s. T h i s
was the fo u n d ation for good working re l ationships that have
extended beyond the classroom into the real world.
Fe e d b a ck suggests that there we re a number of models and
t h e o ries taught on the course that are as useful to the partners as
t h ey are to the police personnel, so far the only recipients of this
type of training.

For more information contact June Armstrong at the Crime Reduction College Tel: 01347 825071.

Au Revoir
C o l l e agues said fa rewe l l M a rg a ret will be we l l
re c e n t ly to H e a t h e r known to people making
Row l a t t the Info rm at i o n course bookings as she
S e rvice Manag e r. H e at h e r a d m i n i s t e red courses (as
left the College in well as doing a bit of
October to move to first aid!). She is
A m e rica where her keeping on her part time
husband has taken up a job a re g i s t e red nu r s e.
n ew job. We wish her We wish her well in her
good luck for the future. (semi) retirement.
We also said fa rewe ll to S h a ro n Christine M orrison has taken up a
Wi l l i a m s , one of our n ew job with the Tim Pa rry / Jo h n athan Ball
t r a i n e r s. S h a ron left in Trust in Wa rri n g t o n . Her new job means
N ovember to m ove on t h at she will spend less t ime away fro m
to a new job with the home but still have the challenge
A m e rican School in of working towards safe r
L o n d o n . We wish her c o m mu n i t i e s , this time thro u g h
the best of luck in her conflict resolution with yo u n g
new career. p e o p l e. Good luck in the new
M a ny of you will remember M a rg a re t job.
B i rd, who re t i red at Christmas after almost
18 years ser vice wit h the Home Offi c e.

January 2002 College News 7


Crime Reduction Website
The Crime Reduction Website has continued to grow over the past three months, both in
terms of the amount and range of material we have online (now over 2500 documents) and
the number of visitors using the site (about one million hits eve ry month). Recent deve l o p-
ments have included an Info rm ation Sharing area of the site, which can be found at:
w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g, and a practical skills topic
(w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / s k i l l s 0 1 . h t m) where visitors can develop a basic under-
standing of tools and theories like the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity framework and
Routine Activity Theory.

Crime Reduction Discussion Forum


One of the most popular and va l u able areas of the site is the Discussion Fo ru m
(w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / d i s c u s _ i n d e x . h t m) . The Fo rum is used by practitioners to
e x change ideas and experience and to ask questions about particular pro blems in their are a .
You’ll need a username and password to get in, obtained by filling-in a simple 4-question
form at the above address.You’ll receive your password within 2 working days.
An example of a recent discussion is included below to give you a flavour of what
to expect. Note that full names and contact details for all contri butors are given on the
live site.
Play/Skate Areas A2. I am a rep on our local skate alliance, how you are getting on and perhaps you
Q. I have been asked to provide some which is mainly run by 15-16 year old young might have some ideas for us. Rob
general advice on the siting of a people. Although we only have a small
skateboard park/area. I am of the view that skate park at the moment, we are always A3. North Devon District Council is
it should be close to natural surveillance, raising cash to improve. We have had some supporting a number of skate parks with
but not so close to dwellings and the like teething problems, which include us in the district. The two areas of concern
to cause a nuisance, the cleft stick having to cut down a hedge to make the have been
syndrome I think its called. Can anyone park more visible and remove a big bank, a) Ensure all graffiti etc is cleaned first in
proffer advice/good practice, examples of which attracted lots of litter. We also had a immediate area and maybe coat close
when it has gone right and on the contrary problem of slightly older, young people, proximity buildings/walls with an anti
horribly wrong! Much appreciated can be drinking and making a real mess of the graffiti substance
contacted via e-mail Dave park. We addressed this by talking to the b) The ramps etc be made of concrete as
group and getting them involved with the opposed to wood/metal as the noise will
A1. I’ve also been looking into this in skate project. We are also in the process of be substantially reduced.
partnership with our LA. The best example getting a young people’s shelter, kind of
we were told about was at Chippenham in like a bus shelter, so that the ramps can be Response from Originator. Thanks to
Wiltshire. A large site has been opened on used and the people watching have a place everyone who has participated in this
our area at Yate, but as yet, touch wood, to go as well. One problem we have is that thread, I will use the info in due course
there have been no crime problems. There the ramps are open backed and rubbish and if anything really useful comes up, I
have also been no complaints, other than gets caught under them, this also offers an will share.
the large numbers using it, which means ideal hiding space for anything or any one!! Diloch yn fawr.
the police officers can’t have a go! Kevin Hope this of some use, please let me know Dave

The positive and open attitude of members to date has made the Fo rum one of the most
useful and successful facilities ava i l able to practitioners online. For those of you who are
a l re a dy members, we tip our hats to yo u . Thanks and keep up the good wo r k . For those of
you who are n ’t . . .W h at are you waiting for?
Other countries have found the website a useful model and a recent visit to Easingwo l d
If any of you have any ideas or by members of the Danish Crime Prevention Council has helped fo rge intern ational links.
comments about the website, Our Danish colleagues came to discuss how the website was set up and what lessons we had
please contact us direct, on l e a rned from the experi e n c e. We have also offe red help and support to the European Cri m e
01347 825064 or fill in a P revention Network (EU CPN) as it starts the process of setting up a European know l e d g e
feedback form on base on its portal website to exchange crime prevention info rm at i o n . EU CPN regards the
www.crimereduction.gov.uk Crime Reduction website as a model of good practice and Jaap de Waard, Secretary of EU CPN
will be visiting us in January.
8 College News January 2002
An evaluation of the impact of
Crimestoppers
Home Office Briefing Paper 10/01

C rimestoppers provides fre e, a n o ny m o u s • In financial terms, Crimestoppers


telephone access to police services acro s s appears to yield benefits at least equal
29 regions of the British Isles. To eva l u at e to and possibly well in excess of
its effe c t i ve n e s s , this study, p u blished in its cost.
N ovember 2001, a n a lyses both n at i o n a l
d ata and i nfo rm at ion from thre e Recommendations for improving
C rimestoppers re g i o n s. It assesses the Crimestoppers
c o n t ri bution of Cr imestoppers t o the • The amount of corroborative research
d e t e c t i o n , i nve s t i g ation and prosecution of undertaken before info rm ation from
c ri m e s , attempts to quantify t he inputs, Crimestoppers calls is passed onto an
outputs, outcomes and cost effectiveness of investigating officer should
the sch e m e, and identifies areas where the be increased.
p e r fo rmance of Crimestoppers might be • There should be more feedback
improved. from investigating officers to the
Crimestoppers units.
Impact of Crimestoppers • E f fo rts should be made to increase the
• The study found that Crimestoppers’ numbers of calls to Crimestoppers that
own figures for effectiveness are answered by an officer.
underestimate their actual wo rt h .
• From the half a million calls received The full briefing paper can be viewed at:
in 2000, at least 17% of the calls on www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/
which action was taken resulted in an brf1001.pdf or obtained from the Home Office
arrest, charge or caution. Research Development and Statistics
• In addition, Crimestoppers was Directorate, Communications Development Unit,
responsible for the recovery of at least Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
£3,773,616 worth of stolen pro p e rt y. London SW1H 9AT. Fax: 020 7222 0211.

Restorative Justice: Ideas, Values, Debates


Gerry Johnstone

R e s t o r at i ve Justice is one of the most talked about developments in the field of crime and
justice. Its proponents argue that punishment, society’s customary response to crime, neither
meets the needs of the victims nor prevents re o f fe n d i n g. In its place should be re s t o r at i ve
j u s t i c e, in which families and communities of offenders encourage them to take
responsibility for the consequences of their actions, e x p ress repentance and
repair the harm they have done. R e s t o r at i ve justice also emphasises the
re i n t e g r ation of offenders into commu n i t i e s , r ather than control thro u g h
strategies of punishment and exclusion.
Despite the attention it has attracted, the phenomenon of re s t o r at i ve justice
is little understood and there is often confusion as to what is meant by it.
The main aim of this book is to meet the need for a clear and accessible
i n t roduction to the ideas and values underlying re s t o r at i ve justice and to the
d eb ates which are taking place around it.
Gerry Johnstone is Senior Lecturer in Law at the University of Hull and Research
Director of the University of Hull Law School.

Copies of the book can be obtained, priced £16.99, from Willan Publishing, Culmott House, Mill
Street, Uffculme, Cullompton, Devon EX15 3AT. Tel: 01844 840337
e-mail: info@willanpublishing.co.uk

January 2002 Active Communities 9


An Exploratory Evaluation of Re s t o ra t i ve
Justice Schemes
Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 9

This report represents the results of a Chapters in the publication cover:


15-month study of the effe c t i ve n e s s • restorative justice: definitions, theory
of re s t o r at i ve j ustice sc h e m e s and practice
conducted between July 1999 and • the seven schemes covered in the
November 2000. research study
The research was commis- • victim and offender impact
sioned unde r the Cr i m e • outcomes
Reduction Pro g r a m m e, • cost effectiveness of the schemes
aimed at discove ring what • conclusion and recommendations.
works in reducing cr i m e
and re-offending. The study produced inte re s t i n g
findings on the impact and cost effe c-
t i veness of re s t o r at i ve justice. It also
p rovides some important pointers for the
next stage of this work.

An International Review of Restorative


Justice
Home Office Crime Reduction Series Paper 10

This rev i ew provides an ove rv i ew of the i n t e rn ational context. Both the detailed
position and use of re s t o r at i ve j ustice accoun ts and the eva l u at i ve summary
p rogrammes in twe l ve European juri s d i c- within this re p o rt will enable readers to
t i o n s , t ogether with summar ises and c o m p a re that provision with their ow n
examples of program mes in Au s t r a l i a , understanding of the theory of re s t o r at i ve
Canada, New Zealand and the United States justice and its practice in England
of A m e ri c a . and Wales.
In each case the rev i ew summaries the
p rovision of re s t o r at i ve justice under fo u r
thematic headings:
• legal base
• scope
• implementation
• evaluation.
The rev i ew compares and contrasts the
p rincipal fe at u res of these themes and in
doing so draws some lessons of good
practice in restorative justice provision.
The re p o rt will be of value to t hose
who wish to seek an understanding of
re s t o r at i ve justice provision in Europe in
p a rt i c u l a r, and more generally in a wider

Copies of these research studies are available from Research Development and Statistics Directorate,
Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT.
Tel: 020 7273 2084 e-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/crimreducpubs1.html

10 Active Communities January 2002


Crime Stories: A guide to communications
strategies for community safety
p a rt n e r s h i p s
NACRO

This guide has been wr itten to help community safety specialists and crime re d u c t i o n
partnerships to understand:
• why communication is important
• what a communications strategy should include
• how to develop and implement a communications strategy.

It aims to help partnerships draw together the commu n i c ations expertise of part n e r
agencies for the maximum advantage of the partnership, and subsequently to implement the
most effective communications strategy possible.

Friends or Strangers? Faith Communities


and Community Safety
NACRO

S t at u t o ry guidance l ays a duty on communi ty safety par tnerships to invo l ve fa i t h


communities in their work. This briefing paper, which has been written both for community
safety professionals and members of faith communities, sets out:
• the advantages to both sides of closer engagement
• the effects of crime on faith communities and how they work to reduce crime
• a strategy for involvement, including ground rules and practical steps.

It explains the practical reasons for partnerships and faith communities to work together
on community safety, some of which include:
• faith communities are both victims of and responders to crime
• faith communities have access to networks and resources that can build
safer communities
• faith communities include people who community safety partnerships may often find it
difficult to reach and contact
• proper preparation and sensitive involvement can bring dividends.

Copies of both of these briefings are available from NACRO Crime and Social Policy Section,
237 Queenstown Road, London SW8 3NP. Tel: 020 7501 0555 fax: 020 7501 0556 or viewed on their
website at: www.nacro. o rg.uk/templates/publications/briefingListing.cfm

January 2002 Active Communities 11


New beginnings: a practical guide to
setting up a Community Parenting Scheme
South Side Family Project/Crime Concern

The South Side Family Pro j e c t is a New Beginnings looks at project needs,
c o m munity-based project which re c ru i t s developing a project plan, fundraising, staff
and trains local parents to offer counselling recruitment, training and appraisal, re fe rr a l
and befriending support to other pare n t s systems for parents in need of support and
who are exper iencing a range of fa m i ly m o n i t o ring and eva l u at i o n . A p p e n d i c e s
p ro blems and diffi c u l t i e s. The pro j e c t ’s include the policies and code of ethics that
D i re c t o r, Penny McKissock, has written this the South Side Fa m i ly Project has in place -
guide for other groups thinking of setting t hese incl ude confi d e n t i a l i t y, ch i l d
up a Com munity Pa renting Scheme in p ro t e c t i o n , c ap ab i l i t y, d i s c i p l i n a ry, h e a l t h
their area. and safe t y, and gri evance policy as well as
The guide looks at some of the key staff contracts.
issues and info rm ation needed to set up a
parenting scheme, including sample letters, Copies of the guide can be obtained from Crime
job descr i p t i o n , c h e cklists and codes of Concern, Beaver House, 147-150 Victoria Road,
p r a c t i c e. It explains the need for pare n t i n g Swindon SN1 3UY. Tel: 01793 863500. An
s u p p o rt , d r awing on previous re s e a r ch and electronic version can also be downloaded from
giving br ief examples of suppor t wo r k the Crime Concern website:
within the South Side Family Project itself. www.crimeconcern.org.uk

12 Active Communities January 2002


Anti-Social Behaviour Orders
The total number of Anti-social Behaviour Orders(ASBOs) issued by the courts has now reached
466 over the period April 1999 to September 2001.
O f ficial statistics on the number of ASBOs granted are based on quart e r ly re t u rns fro m
Magistrates Courts Committees. A review identified an undercount and a reconciliation exercise
undertaken by the Home Office with police, then identified an additional 122 additional ASBOs
to those reported by Magistrates Courts Committees for the period to June 2001. A further 62
Orders were taken out in the most recent quarter from July to September 2001.
The take up of ASBOs varies greatly across police force areas, although 39 of the 43 police
forces in England and Wales have now applied for and been granted Orders. Avon and Somerset,
West Mercia and West Midlands Police force areas have the highest levels of ASBOs, taking into
account their population. A table listing the number of ASBOs granted by police force area has
been published on the Crime Reduction Website at: www.crimereduction.gov.uk/asbos2.htm

A review of the operation and effectiveness of ASBOs is being conducted and its findings are due to be
published early in 2002.

Trouble!
West Midlands Police

Designed by West Midl ands Police and educate children about the effects and
Coventry Support and Advisory Service, this consequences of this crime as early as
p roject aims to tackle the issues of anti- seven years old. With this in mind a
social behaviour and promote good fully illustrated class ‘work mat’ has
citizenship among young people. It has also been designed. It is in comic strip
re c e i ved the support of the Educat i o n fo rm at and includes the same
D e p a r tment and now appears in t he characters as the previous story.
n ational guidelines for schools in However, this time Jez experiences
Citizenship and PSHE (Personal Social t ro u ble of a different kind when he
Health Education). becomes a victim of ro bb e ry - the class
Also known as ‘Tro u b l e !’ the gam e are then invited to take part in active
consists of three elements. discussion exploring the issues of
• The first set of material is a social anti-social behaviour and personal
behaviour game for young children safety in an interesting and
between four and six years old using non-confrontational way.
Big Books in Literacy Hour. The books • The third part of the project is the
aim to promote social skills so that social behaviour game for 9-17 ye a r
children become less impulsive and are o l d s. T h e re are over 120 diffe re n t
able to deal with choices and s c e n a rios cove ring eve ry possibl e
anti-social behaviour in a positive way. s i t u ation in which young people can
• M at e rial aimed at 7-9 year olds is titled find themselve s. S i t u ations cover issues
‘Jez and the Tag’. This is the first in a re l ating to anti-social behaviour or
series of stories for young people, personal safe t y. E a c h situation is
which explore social behaviour issues p resent ed with a c hoice of actions -
and juvenile crime. This particular p o s i t i ve actions are re i n forced by a
story focuses on the issues of graffiti system of point scoring.
and peer pressure, also included in the
t e a ch e r ’s notes is an option of Trouble! is available for schools and police
exploring street ro bb e ry. Although forces across the country, priced £65 plus £14
recent figures show that victims of packaging and post from West Midlands Police.
street ro bb e ry appear to be between the For further information contact Nicky Warner,
ages of 11 and 16 years old, it was felt Education Materials Officer, Tel: 0121 626 5328.
important to raise this issue and

January 2002 Anti-Social Behaviour/Disorder 13


A Burning Faith? - video
Merseyside Fire Service/Merseyside Police/National Churchwatch

L a u n ched nat i o n a l ly in October 2001, A Burning Fa i t h ? is a video aimed at tackling fi re in


all places of wo r s h i p. Whether a fi re is caused accidentally or by arson, the fi n a n c i a l , s o c i a l ,
religious and human cost is high. A fire can quickly destroy a building that may have historic
or architectural importance and statues or relics with no intrinsic value may be priceless
in ter ms of their religious or arc h i val signifi c a n c e. E ven a sm all fi re can inter r upt
religious activities.
The video provides info rm ation on fire, arson, crime prevention in all places of worship,
s p e c i fi c a l ly looking at the effects a fire has on a faith community, risk assessment, models of
good practice and who to turn to for help. It is supported by the booklet, S e c u rity of Places
of Worship which looks at the issues in more depth. Included in the pack are fi re and cri m e
risk assessment sheets to aid the process of risk assessment.
The video is aimed at individual faith leaders re s p o n s i ble for their places of wo r s h i p,
those with estate level responsibility for pro p e rt i e s , c o m munity officers in both fi re and
c o m munity safety re s p o n s i ble for giving training, a dvice and working with young people,
and officers with responsibility for arson and crime prevention.
The full pack age - video, booklet and risk assessment sheets - costs £10 including post
and packaging. Other fo rm ats containing some foreign languages will be available in the near
future - contact those to the left for details.

Burglary
By Rob I Mawby

This book, published by Willan publishing, The second half of the book looks at
g i ves an accessible and systematic account the policy responses to bu rg l a ry and
of bu rg l a ry by analysing and identifying analyses the various approaches to burglary
the particular c h a r a c t e ri s t i c s , and t he re d u c t i o n . The book identifies key case
impact of burglary, as well as drawing upon studies and the lessons that can be draw n
an extensive range of re s e a r ch in both the f rom these, together with how the police
UK and elsew h e re. It wil l be essential and other agencies address the needs of the
reading for students of cr iminology and victims of bu rg l a ry and how effective these
c riminal justice, practitioners in policing h ave been. Additi onal topics cove re d
and crime prevention, and others who have include the ch a r a c t e ristics of commercial
a concer n with bu rg l a ry, it s impact and bu rg l a ry and pat t e rns of detection and
prevention. sentencing.
In the first main section of this book, Rob Maw by is Pro fessor of
t he author, Rob M aw by, focuses on t he C r iminology and Director of the
ways in whic h victims of C o m munity Research Centre, U n i versity of
bu rg l a ry are affected and the P ly m o u t h . He has written at length in the
l ong ter m impacts that t his field of criminology and policing, and is
c rime can have. He then goes i nvo l ved in policy initiat i ves re l ating to
on to consider re p e at victimi- burglary at local, national and international
s ation and why some victims level.
a re more susceptible to re p e at
bu rg l a ry than others. He then Copies of this book can be obtained, priced
c o n t i nues by focusing on the £16.99 from Willan Publishing, Culmcott House,
bu rglars themselves - who they Mill Street, Cullompton, Devon EX15 3AT
a re ; their associates and the Tel: 01884 840337 fax: 01884 840251
p a r t drugs play in the cri m e s e-mail: info@willanpublishing.co.uk.
that they commit, as well as the
targets they choose.

14 Arson/Burglary January 2002


Home Security an introduction to domestic
surveying - Update
What is it?
Home Security - an introduction to domestic surveying is a compre h e n s i ve, easy to use
training pack ag e, w h i ch includes an interactive CD-ROM with a handy sized booklet
contained within a sturdy poly u rethane case. Users learn how to carry out cri m e
prevention surveys on domestic properties.
This pack age has been designed for non-specialists who have no
p revious experience of crime prevention but will also prove useful fo r
everyone, no matter what level of knowledge or experience they have.

How is it going so far?


We have alre a dy re c e i ved over three thousand requests for the pack ag e,
from as far afield as, Lithuania, Australia, Estonia and A m e ri c a . We are still
receiving about twe n t y - fi ve re quests per we e k , and the Housing
C o rp o r ation is distr i buting over two thousand pack ages to al l of its
member associations in the UK.

Who is using ‘Home Security’?


The pack age has been written so that it can be used by any b o dy, no matter what cri m e
prevention experience they have, and requests for copies have been from:
• Police • Housing Associations • Local Authorities • Armed Forces
• I n t e rn ational organisations • Neighbourhood Watch • Voluntary Organisations

The CD can be copied onto the hard disk of a computer or run over an intranet, and we
estimate that there are currently over six thousand people using the package.
The Housing Corp o r ation funds and re g u l ates housing associations (also known as
R e g i s t e red Social Landlords (RSLs)) which now own and manage about one and a half
million homes across England. As part of its aim to continue to improve the quality of life of
the residents and the management provided by the housing associations, the Corporation has
arranged for the package to be sent to all the associations.

What do people think of Home Security?


E ve ry package includes an evaluation sheet. Responses so far have been very good. Comments
include that it is:
• easy to use
• the learning points are clearly explained and illustrated making them easy to understand
• the fo rm at of the package allows users to work through it at a pace which is right
for them.

After completing the package people feel confident that they have the necessary skills to
undertake a domestic survey.

Where can I get Home Security an introduction to domestic surveying?


This training package is available free of charge, however there is a charge of £3.50 (each)* to cover
postage and packing. To get your copy please write to:
Training Resource Solutions, Home Office Crime Reduction College, The Hawkhills,
Easingwold, York YO61 3EG
Tel: 01347 825079 fax: 01347 825096 e-mail: trs@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

Please enclose a cheque made payable to ‘The Accounting Officer, Home Office’ with your order.

*This package can be loaded onto any number of computers or onto a network for multiple users.

January 2002 Burglary 15


Second-hand Dealers Thumbprint Scheme
Norfolk Constabulary

As part of t heir on-going bu rg l a ry vo l u n t a ry and guidelines have been issued


reduct ion init iat i ve “ O p e r ation Eag l e ” , to make those giving their print awa re of
Norfolk Constabulary has introduced a new its use and of their rights.
s ch e m e. Dealers in second-hand pro p e rt y D u ring the first t wo weeks of
a re now being invited to par t i c i p ate in o p e r ation the scheme has identified thre e
c r im e reduction by requesting a offenders. Funding for the scheme has been
t h u m b p rint from anyone selling them found intern a l ly within force until the end
p ro p e rt y. of the ye a r, but it is hoped to be able to
The scheme aims to deter persons from c o n t i nue the scheme by finding altern at i ve
sel ling stolen goods and to assist in t he funding.
i d e n t i fi c ation of stolen pro p e rty if sold on.
Twenty-two local dealers of the twenty-five
in the area have joined the sch e m e ; t h e s e
include paw n b ro ke r s , j ewe l l e r s , a n t i q u e s
dealers and general second hand goods
s h o p s. The provision of the thumbprint is

“Stop, Chain Check!”


Home Office

The Home Office has launched a new national publicity campaign to protect vulnerabl e,
older people from becoming victims of bogus callers. The message of the campaign, w h i ch
features ‘One Foot in the Grave’ star Annette Crosbie, is “Stop, Chain Check!” and involves the
production of a video to emphasise this message.
Bogus callers target older people - the average age of victims is 81 and 60% are women,
with the vast majority living alone. Ty p i c a l ly, bogus callers con people out of cash and
va l u abl e s , and whilst the loss of these items is distre s s i n g, often the stress of such an at t a ck
has the greatest impact. This can lead to a significant blow to the victim’s confidence and may
account for deterioration in their overall health.
In addition to the campaign, Home Office Minister John Denham has launched a Guide
to prevent potential victims from falling prey to doorstep fraudsters, together with a To o l k i t
containing expert advice, videos and useful gadgets designed by the Home Office Distraction
B u rg l a ry Ta s k force t o help people
feel safer in their homes. The To o l k i t
is designed for practitioners, and is
available from the Home Office.

For copies of the Guide and Toolkit


contact the Home Office Distraction
Burglary Taskforce Tel: 020 7271 8390
or 020 7271 8391

16 Burglary January 2002


Business Crime Crackdown exhibition
Warwickshire Police

A decision to offer a small local altern at i ve to regional security exhibitions was endorsed by
the high level of attendance at a North Warwickshire security event.
A round 90 business re p re s e n t at i ves attended the event which gave them access to
s e c u rity products and concepts to help their
bu s i n e s s e s , e s p e c i a l ly those that had suffe red a
crime in the last 3 months. A local hotel gave the
ve nue at no cost and secur ity companies
d o n ated products for a prize draw, as well as
d e m o n s t r ating the value of added securi t y. T h e
Col eshill Business Action Group managed to
boost its membership on the day.
T h e re are plans to re p e at the event in other
a re a s , as businesses seemed pre p a red to spare
some time to attend a local awareness event.

CCTV Leaflets
Metropolitan Police

The Metropolitan Po l i c e p ro c e d u res in line with ACPO guidelines.


h ave re c e n t ly publ i s h e d The leaflet was developed in order to meet
t wo leafl ets in the need to improve the fre q u e n t ly poor
a s s o c i ation with the quality of evidence provided to the police
London Borough of by local pr i vate and commercial CCTV
Ealing on the effe c t i ve systems. The advice is now also being taken
use and operation of in to account by the Licensing Au t h o ri t i e s
CCTV systems. when licensing premises.
The first leaflet The second leaflet CC TV “making a
ent itl ed Pr i vate and d i f f e rence together” is a publ i c
Commer cial CC T V i n fo rm ation le af let , w h i c h has been
Systems in the Lo n d o n p roduced to offer info rm ation and clari fi-
B o rough of Ealing wa s cation on CCTV and what it is used for. The
compil ed to give local leaflet goes on to explain about the right to
bu s i n e s s e s , licensed p ri va c y, and the use an d storage of
p remises and sch o o l s , v i d e o t ap e s , and gives contact s for more
i n fo rm ation on how to i n fo rm at i o n .
m a ke the best use of
their CCTV systems. I t
o f fers advice on
a ch i eving effe c t i ve and
c re d i ble video tap e d
ev i d e n c e, highlights the
recommended minimum
re q u i rements to comply
with the Data Pro t e c t i o n
Act 1998, as well as
good practi ce and

January 2002 Business Crime/CCTV 17


May the Force Be With You
Tynedale Council

The Chairman of the Northumbria Police Authority, Councillor George Gill, has launched a new
community safety initiative in the Tyne Valley, which features the use of a new fibre optic link
p roviding 24 hour monitoring of CCTV cameras in the town of Prudhoe near Ty n e s i d e. A
£45,000 award from the Home Office CCTV Initiative has funded the new link from the seven
camera Prudhoe town centre CCTV scheme to the recently upgraded control room at Hexham
police stat i o n . Round the clock monitoring of the Prudhoe CCTV cameras is now possibl e
instead of the 16 hours per day, which was previously undertaken by frontline front office staff
at Prudhoe police station.
The annual fibre optic costs will be met jointly by Prudhoe Town Council, Tynedale Council
and Northumbria Police Authority and the extra security that will be provided by the cameras
will give an increased peace of mind for town centre premises and residents in the area.

Aide Memoire for Public Space


Surveillance: Human Rights Act and Data
Protection Act 1998 Compliant - Making
PLANS for CCTV
Although the Force Crime Preventi on Officers Confe rence had t o be cancelled, t h e
c o n fe rence core business continu e s. Pa rt of the confe rence schedule was for ACC Graeme
G e rr a r d , the Chair of the ACPO Public Space CCTV Sub Group to launch in partnership with
the Crime Reduction College and his Sub Group, the CCTV aide memoire, ‘Making PLANS for
C C T V ’ . This aide memoire incorp o r ates the Human Rights and Data Protection Acts re q u i re-
ments for legal operation of CCTV within the public domain.
‘Making PLA NS for CC TV’ has been in development for over a ye a r. It combines both
the legislation and procedures required for compliant use of CCTV in public space. It uses the
D ata Protection Act (DPA) and Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998 as source documents. It is
additionally supplemented by other, previously published, support articles concerning public
space surveill ance operat i o n , w h i ch are ava i l able on the crime reduction web sit e
www.crimereduction.gov.uk.
D u ring the past year this aide memoire has been circulated widely for consultat i o n ;
some of the agencies involved in this consultation were:
• Information Commissioner • Local Government Association (LGA)
• Police Scientific Development Branch (PSDB) • Force Crime Prevention Officers (FCPO)

As a re s u l t , the aide memoire has been designed to re p resent all the interests of the
consultees, t h e re fo re enabling it to be clear, logical and easy to comprehend.
ACC Gerrard within his role as Chair of the CCTV Sub Group acknowledges the need for
police officers to take full account of both the Human Rights and Data Protection A c t
l e g i s l at i o n , whilst conducting and gat h e ring evidence from CCTV in public space. He also
appreciates the requirement for consistency of practice and procedure when both advo c at i n g,
and using CCTV. Mr Gerrard stated ‘this aide memoire goes a long way in providing the most
current and consistent advice for police when advising upon CCTV public space use’.
‘Making PLA NS for CC TV’ is suitable for Crime Prevention Officers and A r ch i t e c t u r a l
Liaison Officers and for other relevant users of CCTV (those needing to comply with HRA) in
the crime reduction field.
The aide me moire is A4 size and can be photocopied for distri bu t i o n . It can be
downloaded from the Crime Reduction Website: www.crimereduction.gov.uk/cctv24.htm
Hard copies can be obtained from the Info rm ation Team at Home Office Crime Reduction
College on 01347 825065.
Sharon Williams, Home Office Crime Reduction College

18 CCTV January 2002


ACPO Crime Prevention Initiatives Update
SBD Newsletter - 2nd edition.

ACPO CPI has published the second issue of web site. The newsletter can also be viewe d
the Secured by Design Focus newsletter. and printed from the Secured by Design
This issue includes winners of a student website at: www.securedbydesign.com.
design against crime poster competition, If you have any difficulties in obtaining
m o re local authorities identifying Secure d a copy, you should contact your local A L O
by Design in their planning pro c e s s e s , a n d or ACPO CPI dire c t . The next edition is due
h ow SBD principles have been applied to out in spr ing 2002, and any articles and
railway stations. photos for inclusion should be fo r wa r d e d
S t o cks have been issued to all t o : ACPO CPI, 25 Vi c t o ria Stre e t , L o n d o n
A r chitectural Liaison Officers and SW1H 0EX or via e-mail at :
individual copies have also been sent to acpocpi@acpo.police.uk
those who registered an interest on the SBD Secured Car Parks goes from strength

to strength.
The administration of the Secured Car Parks Key to this new phase of the ve n t u re
p roject has been taken over by the Bri t i s h has been the award of grants by the Home
Parking A s s o c i ation (BPA ) , based at O f fice and the Scottish Exe c u t i ve to assist
H ay wards Heat h , West Sussex. The BPA has with operating costs until April 2002. O ve r
over 500 member car park operators and 900 car parks are re g i s t e red an d t he
re p resents the industry at gove rnment and reductions in car crime ach i eved to dat e
local authority level. Barry Cowing remains f u l ly justify the inclusion of the project in
as manag e r, and the contact telephone the government car crime strategy.
numbers are: Soon to be launched is a dedicat e d
I n t e rnet site www. s e c u re d c a rp a r k s. c o m
Administration BPA This follows agreement with John McGlynn
01444 447314 of Airlink Parking Glasgow, who will ru n
Fax: 01444 454105 the site and fe at u re all member car parks,
Manager Barry Cowing together with details of how to get to each
07786 973100 car park. Details of ‘on screen’ facilities will
North West John Wainscott be announced later when the site goes live.
07786973102
Midlands & Alan Jones Alan McInnes,
South Wales 07786 973103 General Manager, ACPO CPI Ltd
South East Mike Bibby
07786 973104
Scotland Ms Terri Cartey
07786 973106

January 2002 Designing Out Crime 19


Better Places to Live by design: a
companion guide to PPG3
Department for Transport Local Government and the Regions (DTLR)

This guide is available on the DTLR’s The new companion guidance contains
planning website at: re fe rences to case studies and examples of
www.planning.dtlr.gov.uk/betrplac/ housing design, c ove ring context, l ayo u t
index.htm and fo rm , space in and around the home,
It was published in September 2001 as and movement framewo r k s. Of interest to
The published document can guidance to Planning Policy Guidance Note A L O s / C P DAs is the re fe rence to alley way s
be obtained from Thomas 3 ( P P G 3 ) : H o u s i n g, w h i ch covers housing that can “raise serious concerns in terms of
Telford Publishing, o p p o rt unity and ch o i c e, maintaining a safety and security”.
Tel: 020 7665 2462, s u p p ly of housing, c re ating sustainabl e
price £21.95 including P&P. residential env i ronments and monitori n g
ISBN 0727730371. and evaluation.

Designing Out Crime Association Annual


General Meeting
The second annual general meeting of t he Designing Out Crime
A s s o c i a t i o n(DOCA) took place at Nort h a m p t o n s h i re Police Headquarters on the 30th
October 2001. O ver 50 members and invited guests from l ocal authorities within
Northamptonshire attended the meeting.
Professor Gloria Laycock from The Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science gave a talk
on designing out crime and ‘the bigger picture ’ , w h i ch included info rm ation on pro d u c t
design, how the future could be anticipated and ‘The Tipping Point’.
Professor Mi ke Pre s s and Professor Rachel Cooper f rom The Design Council
expanded further on the theme of product design, and the importance of reducing the
o p p o rt unity to commi t cr i m e,
w h i ch turned out to be both an
i n fo rm at i ve and amusing session.
The afternoon was spent with
t wo deb at e s. Dr Paul Coze n s f ro m
the University of Glamorgan led a
workshop on ‘Defensible Space: Fact
or Fiction’ and John Harrington-
Lynn p rovided va l u able details on
building re g u l at i o n s. DOCA wo u l d
l i ke to thank eve ryone who
c o n t ri buted to make it such a
successful day under the skilful
o rg a n i s ation of S h a ron Henley o f
Northamptonshire Police.
DOCA are continuing to expand with over 80 members from all pro fessions connected
to designing out crime. They are also assisting ACPO CPI and the ACPO Technical Committee
with the arrangements for the 2002 ALO/CPDA conference in Blackpool.

20 Designing out Crime January 2002


International Conference on Safety and
Crime Prevention by Urban Design
Metropolitan Police

The Catalonian Police School o rganised and played host to a confe rence on safety and
c rime prevention by urban design on 8 & 9th November last ye a r, w h i ch attracted delegat e s
f rom thirteen countries across the globe. D e l e g ates came from a wide range of associat e d
p ro fessions including police, CPTED researchers, a r ch i t e c t s , urban planners and local admin-
i s t r at o r s. The confe rence was opened by Mr Amadeu Recasens, D i rector of the Police Sch o o l
of Catalonia, and the aim of the two days was to analyse the problems related to safety
and crime prevention in the urban design, and to contrast different working practices
from participating countries.
S p e a kers included Dr Tim Pa s c o e BRE who discussed re s e a r ch into CPTED and
M r Paul van Soomere n DSP who provided details on re s e a r c h done in the
Netherlands and examples of CPTED in practice. Of more interest to police practi-
tioners in the UK we re the pre s e n t ations highlighting the ap p ro a ch to designing out
“ ...the national
burglary rate has
crime in the Netherlands, Italy, G e rm a ny and Chile. seen a drop from
The Netherlands - Insp Theo Hesselman, Netherlands National Police 120,000 offences
Institute
Mr Hesselman gave an update of ‘ Police Label Secured Housing’, the Dutch to its present
e q u i valent of Secured by Design. Since its inception in 1997, the national bu rg l a ry
r ate has seen a drop from 120,000 offences to its present estimated rate of 86,000 e s t i m ated rate of
o f fences in 2000. The cost of these offences was estimated to be in the region of £2
billion Euro per annu m . The risk rate for Police Label Housing has been calculated at 86,000 offences in
0.03% compared to 7% for housing with no extra security measures. The Police Label
has now been extended to refurbishment projects and secure neighbourhoods, a n d 2 0 0 0 . The cost of
results since 1997 have been:
• 220,000 residential certificates awarded these offences was
• 32,000 new build projects awarded certification
• 95% reduction in the risk of burglary in secured dwellings. estimated to be in
Italy - Mr Massimo Bricocoli, Politecnico de Milano the region of £2
The concept of designing out crime had until ve ry re c e n t ly been unheard of
within the city of Milan. In recent times the cities of Milan and Tu rin have seen new billion Euro per
ap p ro a ches to policing and designing out crime. Studies were carried out, and it was
decided that the cities should be divided into re c o g n i s able “ n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ” a n d
t h at “ Vigili di quart i e re ” (neighbourhood police ) should be selected to work as a
“local bobby ” in these are a s. The local police would then become a link between the
residents of the neighbourhoods and then the planners, architects etc. The subsequent
annum.

interaction between the residents and the authorities led to the sharing of info rm ation and
thoughts on how the quality of life could be improved in some of the worst areas of the
cities. The idea of this sharing of knowledge had previously been unheard of.
As a result of this new re l at i o n s h i p, it has been possible to make drastic changes to the
troubled area. A sense of community has been established and there is now a newfound pride
in these places. Many environmental changes adhering to the principles of CPTED have been
made to great effect.

January 2002 Designing Out Crime 21


New Drug Abstinence Community
Sentences Pilots
Home Office

C o u rt s in three areas of Hack n ey, DARs will be one element of a mu l t i - p a rt


Nott ingham and Staf fo r d s h i re have new community sentence.
p owers to help drug users stay off dr u g s The orders can be made for a period of
using two new tools, beginning pilots in six months to three ye a r s , and offe n d e r s
N ovember 2001. Under the sch e m e, t h e s e will be tested twice a week for the first 13
c o u r ts will be able to impose a Dr u g we e k s. H owever testing may be reduced to
Abstinence Order (DAO) which re q u i re s once per week aft er this peri o d . A n
the offender to abstain from misusing i n f ringement of the order will be
h e roin and crack / c o c a i n e, and to underg o c o n s i d e red to have taken place if two tests
regular drug testing supervised by qualified a re failed within any six-week peri o d , a n d
p ro b ation staff. A Dr ug A b s t i n e n c e an offender found in bre a ch of the term s
R e q u i rement (DAR) places the same will be re t u rned to court and can be re -
o bl i g ation upon the offender and will be sentenced for the original offence.
attached to existing community sentences. The new DAOs/DARs will be subject to
These new powers ap p ly to offe n d e r s a full eva l u ation to determine their impact
aged over 18 who have committed ‘ t ri g g e r on the reduction of drug misuse and
o f fe n c e s ’ w h e re the misuse of the drug has a s s o c i ated offe n d i n g, with a v iew to
caused or contributed to the crime - mainly national roll out as widely and as quickly as
o f fences of theft, bu rg l a ry, ro bb e ry and possible.
possession of Class A drugs.
DAOs will be applied where the court
b e l i eves the offender will benefit fro m
continuous monitoring of their drug habit,
but where their offending does not justify
a ny other community order being used.

Lets Get Real: Communicating with the


public about drugs
Drugs Prevention Advisory Service (DPAS)

This re p o r t by the Dr ugs Preve n t i o n and raise awa reness of dr ugs and dr u g
A dv i s o ry Service (DPAS) expl ores how p ro blems in the community.
d rugs issues could be commu n i c ated more Chapters in the report cover:
e f fe c t i ve ly to the publ i c, and will be of • Mixed messages: why we need a
i n t e rest to Gove rnment departments and National Strategy
s t at u t o ry and non-stat u t o ry org a n i s at i o n s • Making it Happen - A ch i eving Effective
seeking to develop their own dr u g s Drugs Commu n i c at i o n s
c o m mu n i c ations in support of nat i o n a l • Making it Happen - Co-ordinating the
drugs strategy objectives. Strategy
The re p o rt seeks to identify common • B a ck g round Papers
g round and evidence-based practice with • Appendices cover young people’s views
c o n t ri but ions from several Gove rn m e n t on drug issues and advantages and
d e p a rt m e n t s , vo l u n t a ry org a n i s at i o n s , disadvantages of using different types
academics and other ag e n c i e s. A of media for drugs communications.
C o m mu n i c ations A dv i s o r y Group wa s
s p e c i fi c a l ly set up to examin e more Copies of the report can be obtained from DPAS
e f fe c t i ve commu n i c ations to the public on distributors Tel: 0870 241 4680 or on the DPAS
the issue of dru g s , to increase know l e d g e website: www.dpas.gov. u k

22 Drugs and Alcohol January 2002


Drug misuse declared in 2000: key results
from the British Crime Survey
Home Office Research Findings 149

The British Crime Survey (BCS) is a larg e - Changes since the 1994 sur vey
scale household survey, m a i n ly of cri m e • The proportion of 16 to 24 year-olds
v i c t i m i s at i o n , re p re s e n t at i ve of the general using any drug in the last year has
p u blic in England and Wa l e s. O n e remained stable at 29% for each of the
component of the survey focuses on self- four sweeps. Similar stability is seen
re p o rted dr u g - t a k i n g. As the same with respect to both cannabis and Class
s e l f - re p o rt process has been used in the A drugs, with 26% and 9% reporting
1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 6 , 1998 and 2000 survey s , t h e use in the last year respectively.
ch anging pat t e rns of illicit drug use by • Divergent trends were
people aged 16 to 59 can be examined. found for the 16
The t argets set in the Gove rn m e n t ’s to 19 year-olds;
a n t i - d rugs strategy are to reduce ‘last ye a r ’ their rate of
and ‘last month’ Class A drug use among overall drug use
young people under 25 by 25% by 2005 has fallen by a fifth
and 50% by 2008. Class A dr ugs are t he from 34% in 1994
most harmful dr ugs which carry t he to 27% in 2000;
s eve rest penalties for offences including cocaine use,
possession and supply. however, has risen
Baseline fi g u res for the strategy we re s i g n i fi c a n t ly from 1%
p rovided by the 1998 survey. The results of in 1994 to 4% in
the 2000 survey can now be used to assess 2000. Similarly, the
init ial pro g ress in re l ation to hero i n , proportion of 16 to 24
cocaine and Class A drug use among young year-olds using cocaine
people. These findings concentrate on those in the last year rose
aged 16 to 24 but the overall picture covers significantly from 1% in
a wider span of age ranges. 1994 t o 5% in 2000.

Key points Copies of the report can be


• While there have been some increases obtained from Research
from 1998 (the baseline) to 2000 in Development and Statistics
h e ro i n , cocaine and all Class A drug use Directorate, Communications Development Unit,
among 16 to 24 year-olds, these were Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
not statistically significant. This London SW1H 9AT. Tel: 020 7273 2084
suggests a broadly stable picture for e-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
use of these drugs by that age group. It can also be viewed and downloaded from the
Home Office Website at:
Drug use reported in the 2000 BCS www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/
• Around half of young people aged 16 r149.pdf
to 24 have tried drugs at some point in The Home Office has also produced a full
their lives. Research Study Paper 224 on the same subject
• More recent use is lower at 29% for the as this Research Finding. Entitled “Drug misuse
last year and 18% for the last month. declared in 2000: results from the British Crime
• Cannabis remains the most widely Survey” it is also available from RDS at the
consumed drug in all age groups. above address or can be viewed and
Around 45% of 16 to 24 year-olds downloaded from the website at:
reported that they had tried cannabis at www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/
some point in their lives. hors224.pdf

January 2002 Drugs and Alcohol 23


Drug use and offending: summary results
from the first year of the NEW- A DA M
research pro g ra m m e
Home Office Research Findings 148

After two developmental phases, N ew English and Welsh A rrestee Drug A buse Monitori n g
(NEW-ADAM) is now a national research programme of interviews and voluntary urine tests
to establish the prevalence of drug use among arrestees (suspected offenders arrested by
the police).
This rolling programm e covers 16 locations in England and Wales and each dat a
collection cycle lasts two ye a r s. Eight sites are visited in Year 1, fo l l owed by the re m a i n i n g
eight sites in Year 2. The first eight sites are revisited in Year 3, and so on. S u m m a ry data are
presented from the eight custody suites visited in the first year (1999-2000). This represents
an interim baseline against which future pro g ress in the Gove rn m e n t ’s anti-drugs strat e g y
will be monitore d . I n t e rv i ewed arrestees are also asked about their offending behav i o u r
(focusing on acquisitive crime) enabling the relationship between drug use and certain types
of criminal activity to be explored. The views expressed reflect Government policy.

Key points
• Urine tests of arrestees revealed that 65% tested positive for one or more illegal drugs
and 30% tested positive for two or more such substances.
• 29% of arrestees tested positive for opiates (including heroin) and/or cocaine
(including crack). A short-term drugs strategy aim is to reduce the proportion of
arrestees testing positive for these drugs by at least three percentage points (to 26% for
these eight sites) by 2001-02.
• A longer-term aim of the anti-drug strategy is to reduce the levels of repeat offending
among drug misusing offenders. 15% of the interviewed arrestees were repeat offenders,
regularly using heroin and/or cocaine/crack. The target is to reduce the size of this
group by 25% in 2005 and by 50% in 2008.
• Average expenditure on drugs, by those who had used them in the last 12 months, was
highest of all for those consuming both heroin and cocaine/crack, at £290 in the last
seven days or £15,000 per year. This compared with £169 per week (around £9,000 per
year) for all interviewed arrestees.
• Users of both heroin and cocaine/crack represented just under a quarter of the arrestees
i n t e rv i ewed, yet were responsible for more than three-fifths of the illegal income
reported. On average their illegal income was around £15,000 per year - a similar
amount to their expenditure on drugs.
• 40% of arrestees who reported using illegal drugs in the last year acknowledged a link
between their drug use and offending. Past year users of heroin and/or cocaine/crack
were nearly twice as likely (78%) to acknowledge a link.

Copies of the report can be obtained from Research Development and Statistics Directorate,
Communications Development Unit, Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT.
Tel: 020 7273 2084 e-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk. It can also be viewed and
downloaded form the Home Office Website at: www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / p d f s / r 1 4 8 . p d f

“ ...rolling programme covers 16 locations in


England and Wales and each data collection
cycle lasts two years.

24 Drugs and Alcohol January 2002
Statistics from the Arrest Re f e r ra l
Monitoring Programme from October 2000
to March 2001
Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate

This re p o rt provides summary info rm ation from the arrest re fe rral national monitori n g
programme from October 2000 to March 2001, and is the second report in the series of data
on arrestees interv i ewed by A rrest Refe rral Wo r kers (ARW ) . It reveals that many of the
p ro bl e m atic drug users seen under the sch e m e, h ave either never been tre at e d , or are not
currently engaged in any treatment for their addiction.
D rug A rrest Refe rral Schemes curre n t ly operate in 41 police forces throughout the
c o u n t ry, with the aim of encouraging pro blem dr ug users who are arre s t e d , t o take
ap p ro p ri ate treatment or other effective programmes of help. They are entirely voluntary and
all arrestees are made aware of the existence of the scheme on entry into custody.
B ri e f ly the report states that:
• more than 21,000 arrestees were interviewed by an arrest referral worker in England and Copies of this report are
Wales between October 2000 and March 2001 available from the Home Office
• 56% of arrestees were referred to a specialist drug treatment service, with more than half Drugs & Alcohol Research Unit,
having never previously entered into drug treatment Room 820,
• early results show that between 20 and 25% of arrestees attended treatment 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London
• heroin was shown to be the most frequently used drug (56%) followed by cannabis SW1H 9AT. Tel: 020 7273 4045
(35%) and crack (22%) fax: 020 7273 4491.
• average weekly expenditure on drugs was £266 with the main sources of income from It can also be viewed and
social security benefits (64%) and/or shoplifting (38%) downloaded from the Drugs
• 84% of arrestees had previous convictions. Offences committed by others on referral Prevention Advisory Service
included shoplifting, drug dealing and burglary (DPAS) website at:
• the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) indicates that for this scheme, www.dpas.gov.uk/arrest_
of every £1 spent, £3 is saved in criminal justice expenditure. referral_statistics.pdf

Rewind
Bushbury & Lowhill Neighbourhood Safety Project

Re w i n d is a local org a n i s ation that wo r k s The drug awa reness courses are aimed
in partnership with Cri me Concern ’s at both ch i l d ren and adults, and prov i d e
B u s h bu ry and Lowhill Neigh bourhood i n fo rm ation and examples of the
S a fety Pro j e c t , w h i ch in turn works with types of drugs that are often
local residents and agencies in helping to available, and the consequences and
reduce crime in the are a . It has been set up e f fect s of becom ing invo l ved in
as a confidential ser vice offe ri n g drug abuse.
c o u n s e l l i n g, d rug awa reness courses and So far over 150 ch i l d ren ag e d
self-help groups to drug addicts and their b e t ween 7 and 13 years of age
families. and 70 adults have taken par t in
The project was offi c i a l ly launched on the courses. It is hoped that
13 November last year by Paul Betts, fat h e r by Feb ru a ry, the courses will
of ecstasy victim Leah Betts, who has be ava i l abl e to the eight
cam paigned for gre at er dru g educat i o n Neighbourh ood Wardens on t he
since the death of his dau ghter. A l s o e s t at e, and another sc hool in
l a u n ched was the pro j e c t ’s 24-hour confi- the area.
dential help line, w h i ch is adve rtised via
posters posted in the area explaining what
R ewind is about and the contact nu m b e r
for help and advice.

January 2002 Drugs and Alcohol 25


Crime displacement - the misunderstood
issue?
West Yorkshire Police

Reduci ng the opportunity for cr i m e p a n d e r ing to “common sense” w h e n


t h rough situational crime prevention has previous research needs to be consulted?
long had its cri t i c s. S i t u at ional cr i m e The rev i ew recognises a sixth fo rm of
prevention aims to change the environment displacement which is often ove r l o o ked -
or setting that criminals operate within, s o t h at of perp e t r ator displacement - and
t h at crime re q u i res more effo rt , m o re ri s k looks at the relationship between social and
and produces lower rewa r d s. This ap p ro a ch s i t u ational crime preve n t i o n , w h i ch have
has been cr iticised because it is said to often been seen in competition.
m e re ly move (displace or deflect) cri m e
through one of five recognised ways. For a copy of the dissertation (17 pages) either
If this we re tr u e, w h at would be the send a stamped addressed envelope to
point in r unning cr im e preve n t i o n Stephen Town, ALO, Bradford Central Police
i n i t i at i ves if they simply moved a pro bl e m Station, The Tyrls, Bradford,
elsewhere? West Yorkshire BD1 1TR, or request via e-mail:
This is the subject of a recent disser- ST138@westyorkshire.pnn.police.uk
t ation whic h aims to challenge what and he will attach a copy by return.
appears to be a widely held view within the Tel: 01274 373195.
police service at least, t h at crime is larg e ly
displaced if crime prevention measures are If you would like to join a discussion on this
t a ke n . It aims to show that re s e a r ch does topic, please see the Discussion Forum on:
not substantiate this claim and that perhaps www.crimereduction.gov.uk or write to the
the presum ption of displacement is a Editor of the Digest. We will provide an update in
c o nvenient excuse to justify inaction, or a the next issue of the Digest in April 2002.

Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Bill


Home Office

On 13 November last ye a r, the Home Secre t a ry published a new Bill aimed at ensuring and
balancing the security and freedoms of UK citizens in the wake of the September 11 terro ri s t
at t a ck s. The Bill contains measures to cut off terro rist access t o funds, e n s u re better
i n fo rm ation sharing between agencies, together with a host of other measures.
The Bill briefly includes measures to:
• Ensure law enforcement agencies have the powers and info rm ation needed to effectively
combat global terro ri s m
• Prevent terrorists from abusing our immigration and asylum procedures
• Prevent people from capitalising on the events of September 11 to cause
disorder and panic
• Cut off terrorists from their funds
• Strengthen current legislation relating to chemical, nuclear and biological weapons and
ensure the protection and security of aviation and civil nuclear sites.

The full draft of the Bill, together with further information can be found on the Regulatory Impact
Assessments Bill pages of the Home office Website at:
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/oicd/antiterrorism/index.htm.
Hard copies of the Bill are available from the Stationery Office price £14.50 ISBN 0215000404
Tel: 020 7276 5210.

26 General January 2002


Community Safety Partnerships Briefing
Papers
Crime Concern

C rime Concern and Nacro have produced a series of bri e fing papers aimed at commu n i t y
safety partnerships as part of an ongoing three year ‘Partnership Support Programme’ backed
by the Home Office.
The range of publications focus on the key challenges facing partnerships, with some of
the main topics from the series including:
• Tackling domestic violence • Reducing neighbourhood crime
• Setting and using targets • Keeping young people safe and out of trouble
• Working with health services to reduce crime and disorder

These briefing papers are available free of charge from Crime Concern Tel: 01793 863500 or alternatively
can be downloaded from the Internet at: www.crimeconcern.org.uk

Guildford Fear of Crime Survey - fear goes


d ow n
Safer Guildford Partnership

The 2001 Fear of Crime Survey, c o m p a re d


to an identical survey carried out in 1998, • Bogus callers initiative - in 1998 only
d e m o n s t r ates reductions in the fear of car 31% of Guildford residents routinely
c rime and house bu rg l a ry. This reflects the checked the identification of callers to
actual reductions that have been made in their homes. A high profile awareness
these crime types. A s t o n i s h i n g ly, w h i l s t campaign addressing this issue was
violent cr ime in Guildford rose by 18% launched and in this year’s fear of
d u ring the previous ye a r, fear of personal crime survey, the number of residents
violence dropped. now checking callers to their homes
The Safer Guildford Pa rt n e r s h i p has risen to 68%
( C D R P ) , w h i ch carr ied out the sur vey, • the three main issues highlighted by
at t ri butes the overall improved feelings of the businesses as a concern were -
safety to the Safer Guildford projects which traffic congestion, parking and
have emerged over the last 3 years: criminal damage/graffiti
• the CCTV programme with 36 cameras • Wipe Out Graffiti - a clean up scheme
has extended beyond the town centre promising 48 hour removal of all
and results in an average of 2 arrests graffiti notified to the scheme
per day • the three main concern of the residents
• 3 new Community Safety Wardens are were highlighted as fears about the
working to foster links between town centre, drinking issues and litter.
agencies and residents, helping to
reduce crime and the fear of crime and In order to find out t he concerns of
improve the physical environment those working in Guildford Boro u g h , S a fe r
• 414 completed questionnaires were G u i l d ford has also just con ducte d a
re t u rn e d , which represents a Business Fear of Crime sur vey. I s s u e s
22% re t u rn - r at e identified were similar to those highlighted
• G R AS P (Guildford Response and by the residents in their survey.
Action for Safer Premises) - the “man F u rther reassurance for the public is
in the van” scheme - improves home planned in the next few months with the
security for vulnerable and elderly i n t roduction of a rapid abandoned ve h i c l e
residents or victims of crime. Of the re m oval policy and the appointm ent of
1300 residents who have benefited high visibility locally dedicated specialist
from this service, not one has been a neighbourhood police officers.
repeat victim since.
January 2002 General 27
The 2001 British Crime Survey, First
Results, England and Wales

“...the
public were
Home Office Statistical Bulletin 18/01

The ninth British Crime Survey (BCS) 2001 has been published, and shows a drop in almost
all types of crime. Fear of crime is also down slightly on the level recorded in the 2000 BCS,
less fearful of h owever due to changes in methodology, these fi g u res are based on a smaller sample size
than normal, and in many cases are not considered to be statistically significant.
crime than a The main findings of the report showed:

year ago...
” •


a 13% drop in the amount of crime experienced by members of the public
a 12% fall in crimes against people living in private households between 1999 and 2000
statistically significant falls in the levels of burglary (17%), all vehicle-related theft
(11%), other household theft (16%) and violent crime (19%)
Hard copies of this report can • small increases in theft from the person (2%) and theft of vehicles (1%) were reported,
be obtained from the Research, but neither of these were considered large enough to be statistically significant
Development and Statistics • the proportion of people who reported being a victim of at least one crime during the
Directorate, Communications year fell from 30% in 1999 to 27% in 2000
Development Unit • for most offences that can be directly compared, the BCS showed more favourable trends
Tel: 020 7273 2084. than the relevant recorded crime fi g u re s
Full details can also be viewed • overall trends for fear of crime showed that the public were less fearful of crime than a
and downloaded from the year ago, but that levels of worry were higher amongst those living in high crime areas
Research, Development and and recent victims.
Statistics pages of the Home
Office website at: O n ly 10,000 interv i ews we re sampl ed for this re p o r t due to the changes in
http://www.homeoffice. methodology, compared to 20,000 in 1999. From the 2001 report onwards, the BCS will be
gov. u k / rd s / based on 40,000 interv i ews over the ye a r. This re p o rt is based only on those interv i ew s
hosbpubs1.html carried out during the first quarter of 2001.

Cautions, Court Proceedings and


Sentencing England and Wales 2000
Home Office Statistical Bulletin 20/01

This bulletin presents fi g u res for cautioning, c o u rt proceedings and sentencing in 2000,
together with equivalent data for the previous five years.
Main points include:
• in 2000 there were 1,911,600 completed proceedings at mag i s t r at e s ’c o u rt s , which is
1% more than in 1999. The increase was due to a sharp rise in summary non-motoring
offences (mainly relating to TV licence evasion)
• 93,300 defendants had proceedings completed at the Crown Court
(2% lower than in 1999)
• Overall, 326,000 offenders were found guilty of indictable offences
• for all offences in 2000 there were 239,000 offenders cautioned,
10 per cent fewer than in 1999
• less use of fines and discharges at magistrates’ courts and more use of custody at both
courts continued in 2000. Community sentences were used more in mag i s t r at e s ’c o u rt s ,
particularly for juveniles

Copies of the report can be obtained from Research Development and Statistics Directorate,
Communications Development Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT.
Tel: 020 7273 2084 e-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
It can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/hosbpubs1.html

28 General January 2002


Stay Safe: An easy guide
Metropolitan Police

The Metropolitan Police have produced an • staying safe in taxis and minicabs
u p d ated version of their long-r u n n i n g • what to do if you become a victim
p u bl i c ation ‘ S t ay Safe : An easy guide’, of crime
w h i ch provides advice for people wit h The guide will be ava i l able to al l
l e a rning difficulties on how to stay safe on C o m munity Safety Units and those
the streets. o rg a n i s ations working in the learn i n g
The bookl et has bee n re - w r itten in difficulties sector.
l a rger print and illustrated in cartoon fo rm
to make it easier for the reader to use, a n d
contains a va riety of info rm ation and
advice for people with learning difficulties.
Subjects covered in the guide include:
• staying safe at home
• staying safe when you go out
• staying safe on buses and trains

Crime, Policing and Justice: the experience


of ethnic minorities. Findings from the
2000 British Crime Survey
Home Office Research Study 223

This re p o rt examines responses given by ethnic minority respondents to the British Cri m e
S u rvey (BCS) 2000, and compares this to levels of re p o rted crime by ethnic minorities ove r
the period 1995 - 1999. The report looks at not only racially motivated crime, but at a range
of crimes.
This study shows that according to the BCS, during the reporting period, the number of
r a c i a l ly motivated crimes fell from 390,000 to 280,000 - a drop of 28%. O ver the same
p e ri o d , the proportion of racially motivated crimes reported to the police rose from 28% to
40%, indicating increased confidence in the reporting of such crimes.
Other findings discussed in the report include:
• black respondents under 30 years of age are more likely to be stopped in a car (39%)
than their white counterparts (25%)
• ethnic minority groups are three times more likely to be victims of street ro bb e ry than
white people, but overall patterns for personal crime were less clear
• ethnic minority groups were more likely to be victims of household offences such as
bu rg l a ry and vehicle theft
• most of the differences could be explained by differences in the socio-economic and
demographic distribution of ethnic minority groups. However after allowing for these
factors, Indians were found to be at higher risk of burglary.

Copies of this report can be obtained from the Home Office Research, Development and Statistics
Directorate, Communications and Development Unit, Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
London SW1H 9AT. Tel: 020 7273 2084 fax: 020 7222 0211.
The document can also be viewed and downloaded from the Research, Development and Statistics
pages of the Home Office website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s / h o r s p u b s 1 . h t m l

January 2002 General/Hate Crime 29


Neighbourhood and Street Wa rd e n s
Schemes
Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions

In April 2001, the Prime Minister identified measures that would improve the quality of life
of people throughout England and Wales. He announced a £50 million street warden scheme
to build upon the success of the Neighbourhood Wardens Programme, which was originally
launched in September 2000 and which now funds 85 schemes in England and Wales.
O ver 700 new wardens will hit the streets in the Spri n g, p roviding a fri e n d ly face in
areas throughout the country, with the primary aim of helping to stamp out neighbourhood
nuisances such as graffi t i , abandoned cars and litter which can seri o u s ly reduce people’s
quality of life.
Ta i l o red to meet the needs of the local commu n i t y, the role of street wardens will va ry
according to local requirements. They are expected to:
• improve the physical appearance of streets and open spaces
• deter anti-social behaviour
• reduce low-level crime and the fear of crime
• encourage communities to work together to improve local environments.
Wardens and warden managers will be trained in partnership with the Home Office and
‘ regional ch a m p i o n s ’ . These are existing neighbourhood warden schemes who will be
charged with sharing their skills and best practice throughout the regions.

A list of new schemes can be found on the Crime Reduction website at:
http://www.crimereduction.gov. u k / w a rd e n s 28 . h t m

Neighbourhood Watch: Findings from the


2000 British Crime Survey
Home Office Findings 150

The Br itish Crime Survey (BCS) 2000 • areas with low burglary rates tended to
questioned people about Neighbourhood have higher membership of
Wat ch Schemes and this re p o rt covers the Neighbourhood Watch Schemes (32%)
results of those interv i ewe d . According to than areas with high bu rg l a ry
these fi n d i n g s , si x mil lion households rates (13%)
identify themselves as members of a • 75% of respondents felt that
Neighbourhood Wat ch Sch e m e. The survey Neighbourhood Watch Schemes were
also found that: effective in preventing crimes such
• an estimated 27% of households were as burglary.
members of a Neighbourhood Watch M o re info rm ation about Neigh-
Scheme in 2000 bourhood Wat c h can be found via their
• membership of these schemes has website at:
increased by 4% since the 1992 BCS, www.neighbourhoodwatch.net
with the most increase between 1996
and 2000 Copies of these findings are available from the
• the National Neighbourhood Watch Home Office Research, Development and
Association estimates that there are Statistics Directorate, Communications
over 155,000 schemes in operation Development Unit, Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s
• of those households who were not Gate, London SW1H 9AT. Tel: 020 7273 2084 fax:
members, 78% said they would join a 020 7222 0211. The document can also be
local scheme viewed and downloaded from the Research,
• most likely to be members of a scheme Development and Statistics pages of the Home
were those households with an annual Office website at:
income of over £30,000 (34%) and http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s /
owner-occupied households (32%) rfpubs1.html
30 Neighbourhood Wardens and Neighbourhood Watch January 2002
Neighbourhood Watch: A guide for
Co-ordinators in Sussex
Sussex Police

Sussex Police in partnership with East and • data protection


West Sussex Fire Brigade and East, West and • data link
B righton and Hove Trading Standards has • trading standards
p roduced a guide for Neighbourhood • fire safety
Watch Co-ordinators in the area. • home insurance scheme
The guide covers info rm ation on:
• how to set up a new scheme
• the role of the
Co-ordinator
• contacting the
police and
reporting
an incident
• ringmaster

High Tech Chips to Track Stolen Goods


Home Office

Bottles of fine wines and spirits, personal care products and high-value jewellery are some of
the latest consumer goods to benefit from a new electronic tagging system designed to
c o m b at the illicit trade in stolen freight as part of a £5.5 million anti-crime initiat i ve
announced last year. Under this innovative hi-tech system, consumer goods most at risk from
theft will carry vital info rm ation on their origin, current location and final retail destination.
Anti-theft tags will be used by companies to disrupt the criminal networks that targ e t
consignments of goods destined for high street shops. This will provide an audit trail of each
s h i p m e n t , a l l owing companies to identify if a product has gone missing, and where in the
chain the theft took place. The scheme will invo l ve goods produced by Allied Domecq,
Unilever and Argos, which will be tagged at the point of manufacture.
The first products to benefit from the tags included mobile phones and new and second-
hand boat s. A further three pilot schemes have been selected to demonstrate how crime in
the goods supply chain can be reduced by using Radio Frequency Identifi c ation (RFID)
Technology as part of the Home Office’s ‘Chipping of Goods Initiative’.
The sch e m e, w h i ch is a collab o r ation between police serv i c e s , HM Customs & Excise,
manufacturers, UK retailers and distributors, will have two key advantages over conventional
methods:

• it will enable commercial companies to track their products effectively, resulting in


better asset management, security and reduced stock losses
• it will reduce theft of personal property by acting as a deterrent to would be thieves, making
it more difficult to sell on stolen goods and help to prevent fraud and counterfeiting.

January 2002 Neighbourhood Wardens and Neighbourhood Watch/Property Crime 31


Operation Ringtone
Leicestershire Constabulary

L e i c e s t e r s h i re Constabu l a ry has launched a use the phone’s secur ity num ber or PIN
campaign aimed at raising awa re n e s s , a n d nu m b e r, and to security mark the bat t e ry
highlighting basic crime preve n t i o n and phone with their postcode using an
measures that can be taken to reduce the ultra-violet pen, as well as re g i s t e ring the
risk of mobile phone theft. Operation phone with the phone’s operat o r. M o by is
Ringtone runs on the West Side of the keen for eve ryone to take care of their
C i t y, and has been set up with the aim mobil e fr iend and to stay aler t to their
of reducing the num bers of mobile surroundings. Advice also suggests avoiding
phones stolen from the person, o r d i s p l aying the phone when in a publ i c
from unattended motor vehicles. place or leaving it unattended at any time.
The project focuses on the use of 20,00 0 phone shaped leaflets and
the *#06# number which , w h e n posters are being distri buted as part of the
keyed into the phone, i d e n t i fies its’ c a m p a i g n , and a young person’s version of
unique 15 digit IMEI number which the leaflet is also being pro d u c e d . This will
in turn helps police trace ownership if e n c o u r age youngste rs to text the seri a l
the phone is stolen. The campaign also number of their phone to a fri e n d , and ask
fe at u res a mascot in t he shape of a them to store the number in the memory of
m obile phone called ‘ M o by ’ w h o s e their phone.
m e s s age is simply “ H u n d reds of
mobile phones are stolen eve ry ye a r,
d o n ’t let yours be one of the m!” A s
well as this, people are encouraged to

What's New at Sold Se c u re ?


The latest development at Sold Se c u re is the testing and cert i fi c ation of Domestic Safes and
Security Cabinets. There are many domestic safes on the market and lots of householders are
buying them to protect their va l u abl e s. H oweve r, although some are good, m a ny offer little
real benefit. Sold Secure has introduced a scheme to tell the good from the not so good. Like
many of their other specifications, the scheme has three ratings; Gold, Silver and Bronze. This
means the buyer can choose the level of security they require for their property.
S e c u rity cabinets are also cove red as part of the same specifi c at i o n , and ag a i n , t h e re are
m a ny of these ava i l able on the market for securing eve rything from computers to saddles. A
large proportion of products for sale offer poor value for money and the poorest of the ones
tested by Sold Secure so far have taken just five seconds to open. However, manufacturers are
taking note and improving their pro d u c t s , w h i ch means that people should have a good
selection to choose from in the future.
Details of the domestic safes and security cabinets curre n t ly on the Sold Secure list can
be found on their website at : w w w. s o l d s e c u re . c o m together with all their other ap p rove d
products.

If you would like to be kept up-to-date on developments at Sold Secure you can e-mail them at:
admin@soldsecure.com and you will receive a copy of their newsletter and approved products list.
Alternatively contact them at 5c Great Central Way, Woodford Halse, Daventry, Northants, NN11 3PZ
Tel: 01327 264687 fax: 01327 264686

“ ...the poorest of the ones tested so far have


taken just five seconds to open.

32 Property Crime January 2002
Car Theft Index 2001
Home Office

The Home Office has published the new Car Theft Index 2001. The Index aims to give car
bu yers the info rm ation they need to make an intelligent choice when bu y i n g, or ch o o s i n g
how to protect, their car.
The Car Theft Index shows the make and models of cars that are most at risk of being
stolen in England, Scotland & Wa l e s , but does not attempt to highlight regional tre n d s. It is
based on 2000 theft data from the Police National Computer and on info rm ation provided by
the Dri ver and Vehicle Licensing agency (DVLA) on the number of cars on the ro a d . Not all
models of car are included in the Index. Only those where there were sufficient numbers on
the road to provide statistically reliable results are shown.
For each year, the models are described as belonging to one of three cat e g o ri e s :
• Red Highest risk more than 20 cars per 1000 on the road stolen
• Amber Medium risk between 3 and 20 cars per 1000 stolen
• G re e n Least risk less than 3 per 1000 stolen.
Newer cars generally appear in the green or amber cat e g o ri e s , due to improved security
m e a s u res being fitted to newer models, w h e reas older cars are generally in the higher ri s k
c at e g o ri e s.

Copies of the Car Theft Index are available from Force Crime Prevention Officers in the first instance.
Additional copies may be obtained from the Home Office Research, Development and Statistics
Directorate, Tel: 020 7273 2894, or download from: w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / c t i 2 0 0 1 . h t m

Bilking Unit
Thames Valley Police

In May 2001 Thames Va l l ey Police launched a new unit in Milton Keynes to combat dri ve r s
who drive off from petrol stations without paying for fuel.
The project has been launched fo l l owing re s e a r ch by the force which showed that the
numbers of bilkings in the area had increased from 160 in 1996 to over 1200 in 2000 at an
estimated cost of £54,600 per annum.
Fo l l owing the appointment of a Bilkings Officer within the fo r c e, va rious initiat i ves are
now being undertaken to tackle the problem:
• 24 garages in the area have signed up to the project and are using the ringmaster system
to receive info rm ation about suspect cars and customers
• incident packs have been prepared and distributed to these garages with advice and
training on how to handle bilking/drive-offs
• new procedures for dealing with bilking have been introduced within the police station
• a marked police vehicle has been used on fo re c o u rts that have experienced high numbers
of drive-offs within the previous two months
• motorists who are unable to pay for petrol after having filled their vehicles are having
their photograph taken on the spot with a polaroid camera.This, together with their
name, address, and car registration, is then kept by the garage for seven days before
being passed to the police. Genuine forgetful motorists are able to return to the garage
within this time and pay for their petrol, their photo and details are then destroyed.
• Further action on non-payment and the info rm ation gathered can then lead to a case of
deception or civil debt.
Initial results from the various initiatives have been very positive. E va l u ation carried out
after the first three months shows a decrease in drive-offs in comparison to a similar period
last year and an increase in identified offenders, also over a similar period for last year.

January 2002 Vehicle crime 33


Key Findings from the Vulnerable Witness
Survey
Home Office Research Findings 147

The Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 included details of measures to improve
the tre atment of vulnerable and i ntim idated witnesses, and enabl e them to give best
ev i d e n c e. The purpose of this survey was to provide a baseline measure of sat i s faction leve l s
found among vulnerable or intimidated witnesses befo re these special measures we re
implemented. The report also examined the kind of support these witnesses currently receive
and their attitudes towards special measures.
Key points are:
• 64% of vulnerable or intimidated witnesses were very, or fairly satisfied with their
overall treatment within the Criminal Justice System
• 30% of witnesses aged under 17 years said their statements were video recorded and
most of them found this helpful
• 20% of witnesses said they were offered an escort either to or from court
• 43% of witnesses under 17 years who gave evidence said they were offered the use of a
live video link
• only 3% reported that screens had been used in court, and 58% thought they would have
been helpful
• only 12% said they had been consulted about the use of special measures
currently available.

Copies of these findings are available from the Home Office Research, Development and Statistics
Directorate, Communications Development Unit, Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT.
Tel: 020 7273 2084 fax: 020 7222 0211. The document can also be viewed and downloaded from the
Research, Development and Statistics pages of the Home Office website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/rfpubs1.html

The Newham Victim Referral Scheme


Metropolitan Police

The Newham Victim Refe rral Scheme wa s violence cri m e s , and the scope of the wo r k
set up in partnership with the police and i nvo l ves re n ewing all exterior doors and
local council in response to the numbers of frames and utilising high quality door
people who were becoming repeat victims, furniture to British Standard specification or
p ri m a ri ly as a consequence of their inability e q u i va l e n t . T h e re are cur re n t ly fo u r
to fund repairs to their property in order to c a rpenters and a fo reman allocat e d
p revent further cri m e. This led to the quest e x c l u s i ve ly to the sch e m e, who have all
for finances to enable the provision been trained by Crime Prevention Offi c e r s
of a compre h e n s i ve, t a rg e t - h a r d e n i n g to ensure that mat e rials are fitted corre c t ly.
p rogramme for the m ost vulnerabl e Community workers have also been trained
residents in the area. in making re fe rrals and completing simple
The scheme has made a total of 630 home security survey s. E l d e r ly or disabl e d
re fe rrals to the Council Housing & Pri vat e owner/occupiers benefit from similar
Sector Housing departments since it began t re atment via a Home Repair A s s i s t a n c e
in 1999. The Crime Prevention Depart m e n t G r a n t , with a recent mailshot resulting in
i d e n t i fies homes with part i c u l a r ly poor over 300 enquiries.
s e c u ri t y, and the council funds the re p a i r s The scheme has proved to be ve ry
free of charge to the owner or tenant of the popular with the residents of Newham and
property. has been effe c t i ve in that there has only
E l i g i ble clients are typically victims of been one further re p e at victim of a client
bu rg l a ry, h o m o p h o b i c, racial or domestic since the inception of the scheme.

34 Victims and Witnesses January 2002


New Victims of Crime procedures and
leaflet
Home Office Circular 44/2001

This Home Office Circul ar, issued in The pro c e d u res make it clear that
October 2001, sets out new arr a n g e m e n t s victims must have a genuine opportunity to
for re fe rring details of victims of crime to s ay if they do not want their details passed The new Victims of Crime leaflet
Victim Support and highlights a rev i s e d on to Victim Support and that police should is available from Home Office
version of the Vict ims of Crime leaflet h ave effe c t i ve mechanisms in place to distributors Prolog,
w h i ch now incor p o r at es these ar r a n g e- s u p p o rt this. Although victims have alway s Tel: 0870 241 4680
ments. had the right to request that their details fax: 0870 4786,
The new pro c e d u res are designed to a re not passed on, t h ey may not have been e-mail:
prevent a decline in the number of re fe rr a l s aware that they could opt out of the re fe rr a l homeoffice@prolog.uk.com
from the police to Victim Support and were p ro c e d u re. The revised leafl et gives fa r and older versions of the leaflet
f u l ly discussed with the Info rm at i o n g re ater prominence to the right to opt out. should be destroyed.
Commissioner to address the need fo r Victims of certain crimes such as domestic The full text of the circular can be
compliance with Data Protection Principles violence or sexual offences still need to viewed at:
and other relevant legislation. g i ve express consent befo re re fe r ral can www.homeoffice.gov.uk/
be made. circulars/2001/hoc44.htm

Violence at Work: causes, patterns and


p re ve n t i o n
Martin Gill, Bonnie Fisher & Vaughan Bowie (editors)

This book, p u blished by Willan Publ i s h i n g, seeks to provide readers with perspectives and
experiences from workplace violence experts from around the world that should be of use to
both practitioner and re s e a r cher alike. C o n t ri butors have been chosen because of the
d i f fe rent perspectives and ap p ro a ches they give, w h i ch should encourage new and rev i s e d
thinking about the causes of, and approaches to different types of violence at work.
Chapters in the book cover:
• definitions of workplace violence with a four-way classification of violence
• research review identifying a range of risk factors for susceptibility to violence
• violence from the viewpoint of human resource managers
• the causes of workplace violence and a framework for understanding patterns of abuse
and violence in business
• violence from the viewpoint of the perpetrator and situational
risk factors
• gender differences in victimisation patterns of violence
• management of violence from an organisation perspective
• management training to control violence and assess risk etc
• practical solutions for different types of violence
(behaviour characteristics and legal implications)
• assaults in healthcare locations and a US volunteer action programme
• supporting victims of workplace violence incidents and a UK
employer care programme.

Copies of this book can be obtained, priced £25.00 from Willan Publishing,
Culmcott House, Mill Street, Uffculme, Cullompton, Devon EX15 3AT.
Tel: 01884 840337 fax: 01884 840251 e-mail: info@willanpublishing.co.uk
ISBN 1-903240-62-X

January 2002 Victims and Witnesses/Violence at School and Work 35


Scarred for Life: The effects of street
robbery on the community
West Midlands Police

S c a r red for Life is a 15-minute video produced by West Midlands Police and Birm i n g h a m
City Council for year 5, 6 and 7 students, w h i ch can be incor p o r ated into
Citizenship Education and PSHE. The video explores the issue of
re p e at victimisation and street ro bb e ry carried out by youths on
the elderly in the commu n i t y, and is introduced by an elderly
victim who has encountered four separate incident s of
ro bb e ry herself. She describes her fe e l i n g s , and how these
robberies have affected her life.
The video also fe at u res the boxer Julius Francis,
once invo l ved in street ro bb e ry. He explains ab o u t
l i fe from the cri m i n a l ’s perspective, and the harsh
reality of prison life.
Fo l l owing the video, students are encouraged to
take part in active discussion with the intention of:
• describing common reactions to the experience of
criminal victimisation and the likely long term or
short term effects
• understanding how crime might effect people
• identifying possible strategies to stay safe
• identifying areas where people may be at risk of becoming
a victim.

Early Lessons from the Crime Reduction


Programme: Tackling Alcohol Related
Street Crime in Cardiff (TASC project)
Home Office Briefing Note 9/01

This bri e fing note descr ibes the early been involved in the implementation of the
e x p e riences of a project aimed at re d u c i n g C rime Reduction Pro g r a m m e. H oweve r, i t
alcohol re l ated street crime in Cardiff. T h e will also be of interest to anyone invo l ve d
p roject is being funded by the Ta rg e t e d in the implementation and eva l u ation of
Policing Initiat i ve, w h i ch fo rms part of the p rojects that aim to reduce cr ime and
G ove rn m e n t ’s Crim e Reduction disorder.
Programme.
The briefing note aims to: Copies of this briefing are available from the
• Describe the project and its origins Home Office Research, Development and
• Provide an ove rv i ew of the nature Statistics Directorate (RDS),
of the interventions Communications Development Unit,
• Present some of the base-line data that Room 275, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
will be used in the eva l u at i o n , and London, SW1H 9AT.
some early and tentative indications of Tel: 020 7273 2084 fax: 020 7222 0211.
possible trends. It can also be viewed and downloaded from the
It is env i s aged that this bri e fing note RDS pages of the Home Office website at:
will be of par ticular interest to t hose http://www.homeoffice.gov. u k / rd s /
practitioners and policy makers who have prgbriefpubs1.html

36 Violent Crime and Street Crime January 2002


Chat Safe
Thames Valley Police

Thames Va l l ey Police and the Royal A i r • Don’t open an attachment or


Force have been invo l ved in a j oint downloaded file unless you know and
initiative to help children and parents avoid trust the person who sent it
i n t e r net ch at room ‘ s t a l ke r s ’ . C h at Safe, • Never respond directly to anything you
s u p p o rted by Carol Vo r d e rm a n , aims to find disturbing - save or print it, log
e n c o u r age ch at room users to take a few off and tell an adult.
sim ple steps to avoid contact with
paedophiles who use the Internet to lure Thames Va l l ey Police are distri bu t i n g
young people in to meeting them. the vide o pac k ages to eve ry Secondary
The initiat i ve includes a video s chool and library
p resented by Caro l , together with lesson wit hin the are a , a s
plans for sch o o l s , and includes interv i ew s well as lesson plans
with teenagers from around the country for teach e r s , p o s t e r s
who fell in to the paedophile trap whilst on and mouse mats fo r
ch at lines but who fo rt u n at e ly did not their computer ro o m s ,
come to any harm due to the interve n t i o n and literat u re to take
by adults. T h roughout the video and lesson home for pare n t s
p l a n s , a six-point plan to help people surf to re a d . Wi t h o u t
the net safe ly is included, and some of the being al arm i s t , t h e
advice is: p a ck age port r ays the
• Don’t give out personal details, photos i n t e r net as a fun,
or any other info rm ation that could be educational, and if used
used to identify you taking basic precautions,
• Don’t take people at face value - they s a fe env i ron ment fo r
may not be what they seem everyone.
• Never arrange to meet someone you’ve
only just met on the Internet without
telling your parents, get their
permission and take an adult with you.
• Always stay in public areas where
people are around

Operation Youth Advantage


Northern Constabulary

Young peopl e from the Highlands and the part n e r s h i p, and together with Social
Islands have been getting a taste of A rmy and Education Departments across each of
Life during a weeklong course organised by the force are a s , young pe ople we re
the Nort h e rn Constabu l a ry, G r a m p i a n i d e n t i fied and invited to part i c i p at e. E q u a l
Police and the Army Careers Team. vacancies we re ava i l able to both re g i o n s ,
O p e r ation Youth A dva n t age was run at and the young people spe nt the we e k
Gordon Barr a ck s , B ridge of Don, A b e r d e e n training i n field combat , c a m o u f l ag e
b e t ween 15 - 19 October 2001, and wa s t e ch n i q u e s , o b s e rvation skills and carry i n g
d eveloped and has been successfully ru n out night manoeuvres. Officers also gave an
for the past two years by t he Nor t h e rn input to the course on drug awa reness and
C o n s t abu l a ry. P rev i o u s ly known as good citizenship.
N o rt h e rn Highlanders, the scheme aims to Out of the 40 places ava i l abl e, 3 1
d i ve rt young people away from dru g s , young people at t e n d e d , and of these, 1 9
alcohol and cri m e, and promote a healthy h ave gone on to have i nter v i ews with a
l i fe s t y l e. This ye a r, Grampian Police joined view to joining the army.

January 2002 Youth Crime 37


The Substance of Young Needs -
Review 2001
Health Advisory Service

This publication represents the first major review of drug-related provision for young people
since the publication of ‘Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain - The Gove rn m e n t ’s 10 year
S t r ategy for Ta ckling Drugs Misuse (1998)’, and updates the changes in policy, c o m m i s-
s i o n i n g, design and delive ry of services to young people. The scope of the rev i ew cove r s
tobacco, alcohol and drugs of potential misuse by young people up to the age of 19 years of
ag e. It will provide Drug Action Te a m s , ch i l d ren service planners and commissioners with
invaluable guidance on:
• integrated local ap p ro a ches to the design, planning and commissioning of effective drug
education, prevention and treatment services for young people
• improving the level and quality of drug service provision through local Young Peoples
Substance Misuse Plans.
The rev i ew also highlights a number of areas for improving services and supports the
Gove rn m e n t ’s approach to achieving the target to reduce young people’s drug use within the
Copies of this document are drug strategy such as:
available from Home Office • early identification and support of young people developing drug-related problems
Publications Tel: 0870 2414680 • the provision of an integrated range of universal and targeted services including drug
or from the Drugs Prevention education, prevention, (including identifi c at i o n , assessment and re fe rral) and
Advisory Service (DPAS) treatment (including after care)
website: www.dpas.gov. u k . • planning and delivery of drug services with other children’s services.

“Up2U on Tour” Initiative


Strathclyde Police

S t r at h c lyde Police has launched a new It was ag reed that initially the targ e t
i n i t i at i ve in partnership with a local bu s audience shoul d be young people ag e d
c o m p a ny, S t ag e c o a ch We s t , to try and between 11 and 16 years of age, which was
combat the problems of vandalism. the group identified as most like ly to
The project named “Up2U on To u r ” commit acts of va n d a l i s m . H oweve r, due to
was implemented as a result of a meeting the nat u re of the cr i m e, and the need to
held between Stag e c o a ch and the Po l i c e re d ress the cultural acceptance of
who both expressed concerns about the va n d a l i s m , it was suggested that a long-
r ising costs of vandalism i n the are a . t e rm strategy should be considere d . As a
C o n s e q u e n t ly, S t ag e c o a ch ag reed to supply re s u l t , contact was made with schools in
and refurbish a single-decked bus in the the are a , and pre s e n t ations are also now
style of a youth club containing a mu s i c available to primary school pupils.
s y s t e m , t e l evi sion and video, t h at could It is env i s aged that the bus will also be
tour the whole of Ay r s h i re and targ e t used as an educat i o n a l / c o m munity safe t y
specific ‘hotspots’ attracting local youths to facility for a va riety of events such as fe t e s ,
use its fa c i l i t i e s. Whilst onboard, t h e re is galas and open day s. At these eve n t s , t h e
the opportunity to promote the concept of police will be able to discuss not only the
the club, and give the young people p ro blems of va n d a l i s m , but also va ri o u s
the chance to discuss current issues initiatives affecting the local community
of concern to them. A Stag e c o a ch
d ri ve r, together with a local police
o f ficer from the Commu n i t y
Policing or Com munity Safe t y
D e p a rt m e n t , staffs the ve h i c l e,
w h i ch can accommodate up to 30
young people.

38 Youth Crime January 2002


Youth Offender Panel Recruitment Drive
Home Office and Youth Justice Board

The Youth Justice Board and the Home g roup monitoring and victim awa re n e s s
O f fice have jointly initiated a campaign to p ro g r a m m e s. Full training and ongoing
re c r uit fi ve thousand volunteers to join s u p p o rt will be ava i l able to the vo l u n t e e r s
youth offender panels across England and throughout.
Wa l e s. F rom A p ril 2002, these panels will Youth Offender Panels have been
m a ke contracts with young fi r s t - t i m e pilote d in six areas around the country
o f fenders and their families t o make a including Black bu rn , C a r d i f f, N o t t i n g h a m ,
schedule of activities and restrictions aimed O x fo r d s h i re, S u f fo l k , Swindon and We s t
at making re p a r ations for the cri m e L o n d o n . The Home Office Researc h ,
committed and to prevent re-offending. Development and Statistics Directorate have
Youth Cour ts will re fer yo u n g p u blished two interim re p o rts on these
o f fenders (aged 10 - 1 7) to a yo u t h p i l o t s , The Introduction of Refe rral Orders
o f fender panel if the offender has pleaded into the Youth Justice System (Ja nu a ry and
guilty and been convicted for the first time September 2001) which are ava i l able fro m
(unless the offence is too ser ious or an RDS, Tel: 020 7273 2084
absolute disch a rge or hospital order has fax: 020 7222 0211 or via their website at:
been made). The panels will consist of two http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/
volunteers and one member of the local adhocpubs1.html
youth offending team.
The panel will meet with the yo u n g For more information log on to
person and t heir fa m i ly, and where www.youth-offender-panels.org.uk
p o s s i bl e, will draw up a contract with the
o f fe n d e r, w h i ch could include a range of
activities and re s t r ictions such as fa m i ly
c o u n s e l l i n g, d r ugs and alcohol re h ab i l i-
t at i o n , e d u c ation and training, o f fe n d e r

Bullying Online: Staying Safe in


Cyberspace
The Bullying Online website at w w w. b u l l y i n g . c o. u k set up in May 2000, has a new section
on staying safe in cyberspace, w h i ch has info rm ation for pupils, p a rents and teachers ab o u t
the dangers related to internet chat rooms.
The site explains about the potential hazards of ch at ro o m s , and gives tips on stay i n g
s a fe, a dvice to pare n t s , and what to do about abu s i ve e-mails and hate web s i t e s. It also
includes info rm ation on a CD-Rom game called ‘Missing’ which is being trialled in a number
of West Yorkshire schools. This internet safety game comprises of a comprehensive workbook
which explains to pupils, parents and teachers that paedophiles are people who look just like
the rest of us, and the game shows how easy it can be for them to lure
children in to their chat rooms.
‘M i s s i n g’ is ava i l able from the website www. l i vew w w i re s.com and
costs £16 for a single copy for parents, and £30 for the classroom version.

Visit the Bullying Online site at: www.bullying.co.uk


or e-mail them at: help@bullying.co.uk

January 2002 Youth Crime 39


World of Work Pack
Crime Concern

You ng people who are most at r isk of The booklet is divided into 12 sections
o f fending will be given a second ch a n c e wit h each one looking at the diffe re n t
with the introduction of a booklet aimed s t ages invo l ved in getting a job, s t a rt i n g
s p e c i fi c a l ly at those with extra obstacles to with how young people begin to look fo r
ove r c o m e. C h i l d ren excluded from sch o o l , e m p l oy m e n t . It continues with what
those with a criminal record and depri ve d h appens in a job interv i ew, the interv i ew
kids will be amongst the people who will p rocess and fi n a l ly what happens when
b e n e fit from the introduction of the Wo r l d a c t u a l ly starting wo r k . T h e re are also
of Work pack . The pack , w h i ch has been examples of how to compile a CV, a sample
p roduced by Crime Concern in associat i o n payslip and budget fo rm .
with Securi c o r, contains step by step Initially the pack will be piloted by one
guidelines on how young people can get of Crime Concern ’s mentor ing plus
the most out of their lives, and aims to: projects in Manchester, with the possibility
• help them make the most of their of a further pilot in London. Eventually it is
strengths and skills hoped that it will be rolled out to all of
• provide them with sound advice C rime Concern ’s ment or ing pro j e c t s , a s
• point them in the right direction for well as through pro b ation offi c e r s ,
getting additional help m ag i s t r at e s , youth offen ding t eams and
• give them a glimpse of what lies ahead young offenders awaiting release.
in their working life.

40 Youth Crime January 2002