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Scott Foresman Science 5.18
(BL) ©DK Images. But it has also brought some negative effects. 21 (TR) European Space Agency. Inc. 1900 East Lake Avenue.Vocabulary assembly line inventor manufacturing microchip space station technology World Wide Web What did you learn? 1. Right (R). All Rights Reserved. (CR) ©A. What is the advantage of the space station over the space shuttle? 4.. write to: Permissions Department. Include details from the book to support your answer. How did Henry Ford’s assembly line change society? Technology in Our Lives Marcia K. 16 Courtesy IBM Corporation. electronic. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 . Left (L).G. Scott Foresman. Syred/Photo Researchers. 11 ©Peter Hendrie/Getty Images./Baeza/Photo Researchers. ©Clive Streeter/ Courtesy of The Science Museum. 5. all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman. Printed in the United States of America. (CC) ©DK Images. 3 ©M. London/DK Images. Sequence Place the following inventions in the order in which they were developed: passenger train. Technology has had many positive effects on our society. Inc. write to explain how technology has been both good and bad for modern life. or transmission in any form by any means. 17 ©Bill Aron/PhotoEdit. Center (C)./Getty Images. What were the by major problems with early electronic computers? 3. Glenview.. Illinois 60025. Bottom (B). (BR) ©Clive Streeter/Courtesy of The Science Museum-London/DK Images. Background (Bkgd). airplane. 15 (CR) Stephen Oliver/©DK Images. 20 (CL) NASA. (CR) ©DK Images. 22 ©MSFC/NASA. Miller 2. steam engine. Opener: ©Michel Tcherevkoff/Getty Images. 23 NASA ISBN: 0-328-13967-X Copyright © Pearson Education. BCR) ©Hulton Collection/Getty Images. modern bicycle. Inc. mechanical. Photographs: Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). (CR) ©JSC/NASA. 4 ©Bill Ross/Corbis. 9 ©Luis Castaneda Inc. For information regarding permissions. recording. 2 Apple Computer.. 19 (L) ©Richard Pasley/Stock Boston. 7 Foster and Partners-London. storage in a retrieval system. Unless otherwise acknowledged. On your own paper. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. 8 ©Hulton Collection/Getty Images. 10 (CL) National Railway Museum-York/©DK Images. photocopying. Inc. (BL) Mary Evans Picture Library. (CR) ©Hulton Collection/ Getty Images. a division of Pearson Education.I. (BCL. 12 AP/Wide World Photos. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Title Page: NASA. 5 ©DK Images. or likewise. 14 (BL) Robertstock.
Thomas Edison was an inventor who often worked with a team. He found hundreds of uses for peanuts. But technology can also cause problems. For example. or to solve a problem. They must think about the problems their inventions may cause. Scientists and inventors must take the time to look ahead. Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for a purpose. George Washington Carver was one of those inventors. They discover ways to do jobs more quickly and easily. the technology used to build roads and bridges has changed the way we travel. Computer technology has made people’s lives easier. 2 3 . Some famous inventors did their work alone. and the soil. We can now get from place to place more easily than people did in the past.What is technology? People get new information all the time. Many machines and factories pollute the air. Technology can bring us useful inventions. and sweet potatoes by himself. Technology can change the way we do things. Machines and factories often cause air pollution. Some inventors worked with groups of helpers to come up with new ideas. soybeans. Sometimes these changes are for the better. the water. An inventor is a person who uses technology to develop a new device or process. It is now possible to carry goods to people in places far away.
Not all technology in the home is new. Televisions. The CD changed the way we listen to and store music. Cellular phones make it easier to get in touch with other people. Much of the technology in our homes has become very familiar to us.Technology and Our Homes Technology has influenced our home life in many ways. Yurts are round buildings that were once made of animal hides. Refrigerators and freezers allow us to keep foods fresh for long periods of time. We also use technology to entertain ourselves. 4 5 . Dishwashers clean dishes with the push of a button. and CD players are all results of technology. Plastic containers make it possible for us to store foods safely. This helps us stay healthy. DVDs. So is electric light. Not all technology involves the use of computers. video games. radios. Technology has improved how we keep and store food. Technology makes it easier to do many things in the home. Thermostats keep our houses at a comfortable temperature. Some alarm clocks have tiny computers in them that let us preset times. Now they can be made from lightweight plastics. Microwave ovens cook food faster than regular ovens. A pair of scissors is a result of technology.
It has also changed what we call home. People could live and work in the same building.Technology has not just changed what is in our homes. It would have apartments for 60. Japan is a small country. This tower would have been built just offshore. These towers provide living space for many people. Technology lets us build tall towers that reach high into the sky. Tall Dreams Builders are working to make taller and taller towers. It would have been a city by itself. 6 7 . At this time. The tower would be shaped like a cone. There would be a sky center every 30 floors. such as mobile homes. The tower on the next page was planned to be built in Japan. It would be supported by a steel frame. Technology also allows us to build inexpensive homes. It would be a space for public activities. there are no plans to build this tower. The building would have both apartments and offices. Its cities are very crowded.000 people. The tower would have 170 floors. A marina would surround the tower.
These robots are welding steel in precise ways. This is an assembly line in a modern car factory. In an assembly line. Soon. moves through the factory as workers add parts to it. The assembly line is still used today to manufacture many products in less time. In many cases. He set up an assembly line. Robots cannot do all the jobs. It can also cut down on mistakes and accidents. a group of workers would build one car at a time. Henry Ford’s assembly line produced cars quickly and lowered the cost. Cars move slowly down the line. a product. Robots can be programmed to perform the same task over and over. This totally changed how people live in the United States. This new way of building cars made them less costly. Robots and other machines are used in factories today. This worker is welding a spot that robots cannot reach. Manufacturing is the production of goods on a large scale. 8 9 . more people could buy cars. One negative effect is that robots take jobs once done by people. Changes such as these can affect whole societies! Manufacturing is a good example of the way technology has changed how people live. Workers could build cars very quickly using Ford’s assembly line. such as a car. It made cars very expensive. In early car factories. This process was slow and costly. The team stayed with each car until it was done.Technology and Our Jobs Technology has changed how jobs are done. Robots and people build the car. an assembly line of robots costs less than one that uses people. Henry Ford had an idea to solve this problem.
Modern ships use diesel engines to make electricity. electric motors are used on some trains and cars. In 1804 a steam engine powered a train that carried a load of iron and 70 people. ships were powered by steam engines. At first they ran many kinds of machines in factories and in mines. quick way to travel without horses. They use that electricity to run the electric motors that make the ships move. and planes. Monorails move large numbers of people from place to place every day. Magnetic force technology can be used to run very fast trains.How has technology changed transportation? Technology has greatly changed how people get around. New technology has led to trains. It gave people a cheap. Steam engines were developed in the 1700s. 10 11 . The modern bicycle was invented in 1885. Today. Thousands of kilometers of railroads were built all over the world in the 1800s. Later. Gas engines and electric motors brought even more changes to transportation. cars.
They pollute the air. Taxis carry people around busy cities. strong. and flexible bodies for protection in collisions. Cars built today have hard. Science has solved some of these problems.Technology May Bring Problems The gasoline engine helps people in many ways. Their work goes on year after year as they try to improve their designs. Rubber tires are flexible to handle rough roads. safe. But gas-powered engines have caused problems too. taxis. They try to use materials that are both strong and flexible. New technology can often mean new problems. Car crashes produce safety problems. Ambulances. and affordable. Tractors help farmers harvest their crops. Ambulances rush sick people to hospitals. But others remain. Car designers try to make cars useful. This is a problem in many areas. And they work to design cars that have the right size and shape. comfortable. 12 13 . Gasoline engines give off pollution. But modern cars pollute less than older ones. and tractors all run on gasoline.
Computer manufacturers raced to build smaller. They weighed thousands of pounds and filled up entire rooms! They were also very expensive. They followed the same four steps to solve problems that modern computers do.How have computers changed society? Electronic Computers Inventors and scientists tried for a long time to make a machine that could do math. Most people could not afford them or find space for them. UNIVAC took up a space of 943 cubic feet.C. Charles Babbage started building a mechanical computer in the 1820s. a computer built in the United States in 1951. Early computers were very large. It was first used more than three thousand years ago! Modern computer technology began in the 1930s and 1940s. faster. It contains many tiny circuits. He never finished. It was called the microchip. The abacus was first used in 1100 B. processing. This is UNIVAC. 14 15 . and feedback. Microchips allow computers to process data very quickly. and cheaper machines. In 1991 scientists used his notes and drawings to finish the job. The big leap forward came with a very small invention. These steps are input. output. They also have lowered the cost of computers. A microchip is a small piece of a computer. powerful computers. The abacus was one of the earliest attempts. The microchip has led to the development of small. Computers with electrical parts replaced those with mechanical ones.
The World Wide Web has also led to some serious problems. A PDA (personal digital assistant) is a portable device. It can do many of the things a desktop computer does. Unfortunately. A British computer scientist had a great idea. The result of his idea was the World Wide Web. everyone can benefit from this network. The World Wide Web is a huge network of computers. This device can download and play back music from the World Wide Web. 16 17 . He wanted to find an easy way for scientists to share their work over long distances.Computer technology took another leap forward in the 1980s. Thieves can steal people’s personal information and use it to commit crimes. Today. Anybody with a computer and the proper connection can find information on nearly any subject. The World Wide Web can be used to break into other people’s computers. It was first used in 1990. it contains lots of incorrect information.
It helps scientists explore the ocean.000 times their true size. A digital camera uses a microchip to take and store images. powerful supercomputers are needed. Robots can even collect samples on Mars! The scanning electron microscope is a powerful tool. This microscope uses a beam of electrons to scan objects. Microscopes. Computers help to guide this remote-controlled submarine. This is a dust mite. This technology can show objects at 200. For these jobs. Microphones connected to computers let us hear sounds that are too quiet or too low or high to hear normally. Computers have led to amazing growth in many areas.Computers for Science and Business People once spent months doing the work that a modern computer can do in a few seconds! But some tasks even take computers a long time to do. Computercontrolled robots can do jobs that are too dangerous for humans to do. 18 19 . It allows scientists to see objects that are too small to see with regular microscopes. Computers and computerized tools are very exact. It is so tiny that its features can only be seen with the use of a scanning electron microscope. telescopes. and cameras now have tiny computers in them. They can handle large or complicated jobs.
This led to a contest over who could explore space first. The two countries had deep political differences. Milestones in Space 1966—The Soviet Union is the first to successfully land a probe on the Moon’s surface. The Soviet Union no longer exists. are the first people to walk on the Moon. 1969—Two Americans. 1990 2003—China launches a person into space. This competition was known as the Space Race. It shows major space missions that took place during the Space Race. 2004—The first privately owned spaceship reaches space. the huge country was divided into many smaller countries. Much of this progress was due to a disagreement between two countries. The United States and the Soviet Union grew apart after World War II. 1986—Mir is the first permanent space station. 2000—The first crew of one American and two Russians arrives on the International Space Station (ISS). 1961—The Soviet Union’s Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space. 1957—The first satellite orbits Earth. In 1991.What technology is used in space? The Space Race Humans have made many advances in the exploration of space. Look at the time line below. 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1957—A dog named Laika becomes the first animal in space. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. 20 21 . 1981—The space shuttle is the first reusable spaceship.
and new equipment to the ISS. New crews arrive so others can return to Earth. They will supply power to all the systems on the ISS. Space shuttles bring new crew members. Japan. Four separate shuttle flights will deliver the solar arrays. They are working together on the International Space Station. The ISS has an emergency return system. It includes capsules that can bring the crew back to Earth. The first part of the ISS was put into orbit in 1998. fresh supplies. The crews who work on the ISS keep changing. When completed. It will have a mass of almost 453. and the United States decided to build a space station. The sections are called modules. New sections are being built on Earth and added to the ISS. The ISS will eventually have six separate modules. People living in a space station can run experiments for months or years. 22 23 . the ISS will be about the size of a football field. the European Space Agency. Canada. Astronauts will work and do research in these modules. Russia. The completed ISS will have eight solar-array wings.6 metric tons. or ISS. A space station is a place where people can live and work in space for a long time. They will serve as laboratories.Space Station Some space research takes more time than a shuttle trip allows.
. Inc. 23 NASA ISBN: 0-328-13967-X Copyright © Pearson Education. 15 (CR) Stephen Oliver/©DK Images. (CR) ©DK Images. (BR) ©Clive Streeter/Courtesy of The Science Museum-London/DK Images. Center (C). 4 ©Bill Ross/Corbis./Getty Images. 22 ©MSFC/NASA. But it has also brought some negative effects. (CC) ©DK Images.Vocabulary Glossary assembly line assembly line inventor manufacturing inventor a system by which a product. What were the major problems with early electronic computers? 3. 2 Apple Computer. 11 ©Peter Hendrie/Getty Images. For information regarding permissions. airplane. Inc. (CR) ©JSC/NASA. (BCL. (BL) ©DK Images. write to explain how technology has been both good and bad for modern life. photocopying.. London/DK Images. Include details from the book to support your answer. 9 ©Luis Castaneda Inc. 17 ©Bill Aron/PhotoEdit. 21 (TR) European Space Agency. Opener: ©Michel Tcherevkoff/Getty Images. Printed in the United States of America. Glenview. Background (Bkgd). Left (L). Bottom (B). Illinois 60025. mechanical. (CR) ©A. Syred/Photo Researchers.G. all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman./Baeza/Photo Researchers. 3 ©M.. BCR) ©Hulton Collection/Getty Images. Sequence Place the following inventions in the order in which they were developed: passenger train. Title Page: NASA. 20 (CL) NASA. such as a car. Inc. How did Henry Ford’s assembly line change society? 2. Photographs: Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. storage in a retrieval system. What is the advantage of the space station over the space shuttle? 4. 8 ©Hulton Collection/Getty Images. a division of Pearson Education.I. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 24 . steam engine. (CR) ©Hulton Collection/ Getty Images. electronic. Right (R). write to: Permissions Department. or to solve a problem the production of goods on a large scale a small piece of a computer that contains tiny circuits a place where people can live and work in space for a long time the use of scientific knowledge for a purpose a huge network of computers used for sharing information all over the world What did you learn? 1. Unless otherwise acknowledged. 1900 East Lake Avenue. 12 AP/Wide World Photos. or likewise. 10 (CL) National Railway Museum-York/©DK Images. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. modern bicycle. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Technology has had many positive effects on our society. (BL) Mary Evans Picture Library. Inc. ©Clive Streeter/ Courtesy of The Science Museum. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). 19 (L) ©Richard Pasley/Stock Boston. 7 Foster and Partners-London. microchip space station manufacturing technology microchip World Wide Web space station technology World Wide Web 5. 16 Courtesy IBM Corporation. 14 (BL) Robertstock. All Rights Reserved. recording. moves through a factory as workers add parts to it a person who uses technology to develop a new device or process. 5 ©DK Images. or transmission in any form by any means. On your own paper. Scott Foresman.
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