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“To reduce crime and the fear of crime, tackle youth

crime and violent, sexual and drug-related crime,


anti-social behaviour and disorder, increasing safety in
the home and public spaces.”
Home Office Aim 1

This statement confirms our joint commitment to reduce crime and disorder. The Digest
is published quart e r ly and aims to support crime re d u c t i o n / c o m munity safety practitioners
in police and local authorities working in stat u t o ry partnerships by fa c i l i t ating info rm at i o n
e x ch a n g e. The Digest is a fo rum for your initiat i ves and experi e n c e s. Its success depends on
yo u , the practitioners, c o n t ri buting your art i c l e s. Deadline for copy is given below. A rt i c l e s
MUST be submitted by this date.
So that everyone can benefit from your work and experience, we would ask contributors
to consider both what wo r ked and what didn’t work within their pro j e c t s. P rojects may be
well conceived and still not achieve all their aims; this does not mean they have failed. Please
be brave enough to discuss what aspects did not ach i eve the expected outcomes. Include as
mu ch info rm ation as you can, c ove ring the analysis of the pro blem and how it wa s
i d e n t i fi e d , the response devised and how it was implemented and an assessment of the final
outcomes.

Note:
The inclusion of mat e rial in the Digest or re fe rence to any pro d u c t s / s e rvices does not
signify that they have been tested or eva l u at e d . Nor should inclusion be thought to confer
‘official’ approval.
This publication may not be copied, photocopied, re p roduced, or conve rted to any
electronic form unless for police or local authority use only.
April 2003
College Staff The next Digest will be
with you in July 2003.
Director
Steve Trimmins Administration Unit Training Resource Solutions
All contributions
Mark Ledder Simon Jones
be submitted by
Support Services Ruth Whitaker
May 30th 2003.
Ann Keen Michael Hawtin
Information Service Richard Wales
Richard Cox Jane Carpenter Contributions to:
Adrienne Jowitt-Thrall Editor Jane Jones
Gill Archibald Jane Jones Information Team
Training Team Stuart Charman Design/Production Tel: 01347 825065
David Fernley Jane Jones Michael Hawtin Fax: 01347 825097
Kathleen Noble
June Armstrong Abby Hickman Home Office
Martin Fenlon Crime Reduction College
Pat Varley The Hawkhills, Easingwold,
For Training or General Enquiries:
Christine Morrison York YO61 3EG
Dai Perry Tel: 01347 825060 Tel: 01347 825060
Fax: 01347 825099
E-mail: crc@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

April 2003 1
College News 4
Crime Reduction Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
College’s 40th anniversary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Modular training Pro g ra m m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Passport to Crime Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Active Communities 6
Community Safety Calendar 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Anti-Social Behaviour 7
Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and Anti-Social Behaviour in Scotland:
A study of the use of evictions and ASBOs in Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

B u rg l a ry 8
Burglary to Privately Rented Student Dwellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
The Dorset Itinerant Traders Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Stop, Chain, Check Road Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Business Crime 10
Motorway Service Crime Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

CCTV 12
CCTV: Have they been framed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Designing out Crime 12


Secured by Design Award for Mostyn Police Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Designing Out Crime Through Environmental Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Domestic Violence 14
Doncaster Domestic Violence Working Pa rt y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Sussex Domestic Violence Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Gloucestershire Domestic Violence Support and Advocacy Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

Drugs and Alcohol 16


Drinking, crime and disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Drunk and Disorderly: a qualitative study of binge drinking among 18 - 24 year olds .16
Alcohol, crime and disorder: a study of young adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Reducing alcohol-related violence and disorder: an evaluation of the ‘TASC’ p ro j e c t .17
Alcohol-Related Crime and Disorder: guidance for local partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Drug Use in Vulnerable Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Used Needles Hotline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
The Tower Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

2 Contents April 2003


G e n e ra l 21
Narrowing the Justice Gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Community Safety Partnerships Briefing Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Australian Crime Prevention Conference Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Safer Lancashire Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Tilley Awards 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Your Practical Guide to Crime Prevention - Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Property Crime 24
Alloy Wheel Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Rural Crime 25
Hambleton: A Beacon for Crime Reduction in Rural Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Operation Countryside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Vehicle Crime 26
Vehicle Security Launch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Key Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Operation “Clean Up” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Lancsafe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

Violent Crime and Street Crime 29


The nature of personal robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Youth Crime 30
Burglary Advice for Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Prudential 4 Youth: Community Safety Through Active Citizenship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Communities First Golf Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Each Article in the Digest
‘ St reet Cred’ Personal Safety Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 is highlighted with an
Youth Watch Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 icon which will define
the product described in
that article. They are:

Campaign/
Initiative

Publication

Video

Website/
Electronic
Information

G e n e ra l /
Exchange
of Ideas/
Conferences

April 2003 Contents 3


Crime Reduction Website
The Crime Reduction Website (w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k) has celeb r ated seve r a l
milestones re c e n t ly. Feb ru a ry saw the site re c e i ve 2 million hits in one month for the fi r s t
t i m e. We ’ve also surpassed 25 million hits since the launch back in July 2000, w h i l s t
publishing over 8 million pages to a million visitors.
The design of the site was also recognised in December when it won a ‘ C o m m e n d e d ’
p rize in the 2002 Vi s i o n a ry Design Awards for accessible web s i t e s. The awards re c o g n i s e
a ch i evement in making on-line info rm ation available to the widest possible audience.


The Learning Zone
...2 million hits in one month...
The Learning Zone has continued to expand. A round 250 people a month are using the

Training Needs A n a lysis (TNA) to develop a plan for continuous pro fessional deve l o p m e n t .
The Zone also contains details of courses around the country and a calendar of fo rt h c o m i n g
c o n fe rences and seminars.
Also on the Learning Zone is a guide for new practitioners. The guide lists 10 essential
p u bl i c ations for those re c e n t ly in post. E a ch of the publ i c ations is a primer in one aspect of
c r ime re d u c t i o n . F u rther lists for more experienced
practitioners and in-depth lists for specific topics are planned
for later this ye a r. The guide is part of the Vi rtual Library,
w h i ch also contains publicity resource packs and electro n i c
copies of the Digest and Crime Reduction News.

The eXchange
The eXchange is another major new facility for the site. It contains details of initiat i ve s
that have been tried around the country, detailing:
• the problem
• the approach
• geographical area
• amount of evaluation
• contact details.

Visitors to the eXchange also have the opportunity to comment on the initiat i ves and
send in details of their own initiatives.
To date there are around 80 projects on the eXch a n g e, d r awn mainly from entries to
recent awards such as the British Community Safety Awa r d s ,T i l l ey Awards and the Euro p e a n
Community Safety Awards. We hope that with your help we’ll be able to continue to build the
area into a valued resource for ideas and initiatives.

For more information on the eXchange contact Jane Carpenter at the Crime Reduction College
Tel: 01347 825090 E-mail: jane.carpenter@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

College’s 40th anniversary


May 21st 1963 saw the first course held at the Crime Prevention Centre in Stafford. A lot has
changed in the intervening 40 years and we would like to take this opportunity to thank
everyone who has been involved in shaping the College during the past 40 years.

4 College News April 2003


Modular Training Pro g ra m m e
The College, in conjunction with its • Regional and national perspectives:
training partners Centrex and the Local to be delivered by staff from regions.
G ove rnment A s s o c i at i o n , is making • Selling the crime reduction message.
exciting changes to its modular training • Risk factors in crime.
programme in 2003 - 2004. • W h at ’s out there: good practice review.
The pro g r a m m e, w h i ch has been For those people who attend the
running for two ye a r s , has prov i d e d foundation course and want to extend their
training for practitioners from Crime and skills, there will be two advanced modules:
Disorder Reduction Pa rt n e r s h i p s a problem solving workshop and a two-day
t h roughout England and Wa l e s. F rom July course on project management and
2 0 0 3 , t h ree of the existing modules - eva l u at i o n . These will also be ava i l able
Theories and Models, A Beginners Guide to from July.
M a n aging the Strategy and Developing the These modules concentrate on the core
Team are to be replaced with a three day skills needed for crime reduction wo r k .T h e
foundation course in Crime Reduction. This College and Centrex will continue to offer a
course is aimed at the needs of partnerships range of specialist modules, s u ch as
and provides training on: S i t u ational Crime Prevention and Domestic
• Crime and disorder in context. Vi o l e n c e. The new courses are curre n t ly
• The legal framework. being developed and piloted. Details of
• Crime and disorder reduction h ow to ap p ly for them will be adve rt i s e d
models & theories. on the Crime Reduction Web s i t e
• Partnership issues. www.crimereduction.gov.uk/
• Community issues. learningzone

Passport to Crime Reduction


The College is working on a new distance learning package, Pa s s p o rt to Crime Re d u c t i o n.
This will accompany the Passport to Evaluation in the passport series.
The pack age is being written to be used by eve ryone new to crime re d u c t i o n . M o re
specifically, the book will form part of the new modular course which will be piloted in June
this year.
The passport will be used as pre-course learning material for the new foundation course
and can also be used as a stand-alone training package.
It will contain sections on:
• What is crime reduction?
• A systematic way of managing crime reduction work.
• The ten principles of crime reduction.
• A basic introduction to evaluation.
The passport will be ava i l able from the Crime Reduction Website at the beginning of
June.

For further information please contact Simon Jones at the Crime Reduction College on 01347 825081
E-mail: simon.jones@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

April 2003 College News 5


Community Safety Calendar 2003
Holy Trinity Anti-Crime Project

The Community Safety Calendar initiat i ve The calendars are translated into Hindu
was set up as part of the Crime and and Urdu and distri buted via Vi c t i m
Disorder Reduction Pa rtnership in S u p p o rt , local librari e s , Age Concern and
M i d d l e s b o rough and invo l ved Middles- other community org a n i s ations who
b o rough Po l i c e, Better Gove rnment fo r provide services to the elderly.
Older People and the Holy Trinity A n t i -
Crime Project. For more information contact Pete Thomas,
The partnership works with yo u n g Development Manager, Older Persons
people to explore crime issues and in Partnership Board, Middlesborough Council,
p a rticular the types of crime that occur Civic Centre, Middlesborough, TS1 2XH
against older people. The aim is to engag e Tel: 01642 729252
with youngsters while at the same time E-mail: pete_thomas@middlesbrough.gov.uk
p roviding elderly and vulnerable people or PC Mike Quinnell, Middlesborough Police
with advice on community and personal Crime Reduction Team, Dunning Road,
s a fe t y. Middlesborough TS1 2AR
Young people from local schools we re Tel: 01642 303171
e n c o u r aged to produce posters and slogans E-mail:
reflecting personal safety issues, w h i ch michael.quinnell@cleveland.pnn.police.uk
we re then judged, with the winner
receiving a cert i fi c ate and free tickets to a
local ice rink.

6 Active Communities April 2003


Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and Anti-
Social Behaviour in Scotland: A study of
the use of evictions and ASBOs in Scotland
Chartered Institute of Housing in Scotland and the Scottish Executive

This report is the third annual survey commissioned by the Scottish Executive to monitor the
use of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. The Act introduced the use of Anti-Social Behaviour
Orders (ASBOs) including extending the eviction grounds for this behaviour to allow fo r
eviction of criminal activity in the locality of tenanted properties.
The re p o rt covers the period 1 December 2000 - 30 November 2001, with the fi n d i n g s
drawn from a survey of all local authorities and a cross section of Registered Social Landlords
(RSLs). It looks at the extent to which the new measures have been used in Scotland.
Some of the findings of the report include:
• Local authorities and RSLs were involved in over 111 eviction actions for anti-social
behaviour during the reporting period.
• Local authorities pursued 82 ASBOs against their own tenants, 7 against tenants of RSLs,
9 against owner-occupiers and 2 against private sector tenants, 19 local authorities
pursued at least 1 ASBO.
• Eviction actions for anti-social behaviour continue to be re l at i ve ly low compared to all
eviction actions. Landlords who did not pursue eviction action generally felt that they
did not have a suitable case or they would not have sufficient evidence to pursue a case.
Some were also pursuing other management options and ASBOs.
• In 53% of the cases where an ASBO was reported as being bre a ch e d , a prison sentence
was imposed with 4 local authorities going on to take eviction action against tenants
who had breached an ASBO.

F rom 30 September 2002 all local authority secure tenancies and all RSL secure and
a s s u red tenancies conve rt to the new Scottish Secure Tenancy (SST). This new tenancy has
been introduced by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001. S chedule 2 of the Act sets out the
g rounds for eviction for a SST and with the introduction of the SST the current grounds set
out in the Crime and Disorder Act will be superseded. The 2001 Act also adds harassment to
the basis for recovery and sets out directions for Sheriffs in determining reasonable grounds
for eviction.

Copies of this report, published in December 2002, can be obtained free from the Chartered Institute of
Housing in Scotland, 6 Palmerston Place, Edinburgh EH12 5AA Tel: 0131 225 4544 Fax: 0131 225 4566
E-mail: Scotland@cih.org or visit their Website at: http://www.cihscotland.org

April 2003 Anti-Social Behaviour 7


B u rg l a ry to Privately Rented Student
D we l l i n g s
Strathclyde Police

The aim of this report is to examine the issue of burglary to privately rented student accom-
m o d ation in order to make re c o m m e n d ations for an improved policing response to such
incidents.
Figures published by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) in 1999 suggest that
in excess of 500,000 full time higher education students live in pri vat e ly rented dwe l l i n g s
across the UK. This report aims to:
• Determine the main contributing factors and characteristics of bu rg l a ri e s
• Identify good practice and procedure for reducing burglary
• Examine initiatives developed to reduce burglary in privately rented student dwellings
• Make recommendations to reduce burglary to student accommodation and improve
community safety in relation to student tenants
• Improve the service to student burglary victims from the police.

The results included in the re p o rt focused on the examination of re p o rted theft by


h o u s eb reaking to student accommodation in areas cove red by Strat h c lyde Po l i c e. The main
ch a r a c t e ristics of pri vat e ly rented student dwellings we re also examined to determ i n e
whether these make the properties more vulnerable to burglary.
The report also includes the results of a survey questionnaire sent to 300 student tenants
in pri vat e ly rented accommodation in Glasgow. The 251 responses from this survey prov i d e
the main body of evidence in the re p o rt . Some of the main points are:
• Three quarters of female student tenant victims still experienced fear/trauma as a
result of burglary some considerable time after the event.
• Over half of student victims of burglary were not insured and only one third of
burglaries were reported to an insurance company.
• There was some evidence of repeat victimisation to privately rented student dwellings.
• A controlled door entry system was the security feature most valued by the student
respondents.
• Inadequate home security and the physical characteristics of the buildings were deemed
by student tenant respondents as the factors most likely to influence a burglary to a
p ri vately rented student dwelling.

The report includes a number of recommendations. Some of these are to encourage:


• The police service, higher educational institutions and property landlords to positively
recognise and address the vulnerability of student tenants.
• The police to take a lead role in the development of
burglary reduction strategies for privately rented
student dwellings.
• The need for improved standards of home
security for privately rented student dwellings
and houses in multiple occupation.

Copies of this report, published in November 2002, are


available to download via the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/hoprapubs.htm
For more information on the report contact Sgt Kenneth
Campbell, Strathclyde Police, Stewart Street Police
Office, 50 Stewart Street, Glasgow G4 0HY
Tel: 0141 532 3054

8 Burglary April 2003


The Dorset Itinerant Traders Scheme
Dorset County Council

M a ny itinerant traders, or casual wo r ke r s b a n k s , building societies and post offi c e s


who move around fre q u e n t ly, a re we l l taking part in the sch e m e, who notify the
k n own for carrying out high cost and low Trading Standards Department when
quality wo r k . T h ey prey mainly on the e l d e r ly householders are seen to be
e l d e r ly and vulnerable and are fre q u e n t ly withdrawing large sums of money.
i nvo l ved in or connected with cri m i n a l Age Concern and Dorset Social Services
activities such as bu rg l a ry. T h ey generally h ave distri buted new s l e t t e r s , w h i ch
operate within a network of other itinerant include:
traders to share info rm ation on their • an article on the dangers of employing
victims and re p e at offences against the an itinerant trader
same victim are not uncommon. • a copy of the Trading Standards advice
E a ch ye a r, Trading Standards Serv i c e s leaflet on doorstep selling
and the Police re c e i ve nu m e ro u s • a window card with the wo r d s :‘ We do
complaints regarding the activities of not buy from doorstep sellers’.
itinerant traders. In a bid to disrupt their
activities they have set up the Dorset This is fo l l owed up by a discussion
Itinerant Traders Sch e m e, a mu l t i - ag e n c y session where people are encouraged to
s cheme involving the Po l i c e, Dorset Social talk about their experiences and fears of
S e rv i c e s , Age Concern , The Royal Institute itinerant traders and bogus offi c i a l s.
for the Blind, West Dorset Crime and Utilities companies operate passwo r d
Disorder Joint Enforcement Group and systems to enable householders to establish
various utilities. The scheme aims to: the authenticity of callers.
• Educate the public to the possible The scheme was eva l u ated after six
dangers of itinerant traders. months and concluded that a mu l t i - ag e n c y
• Obtain current intelligence on the ap p ro a ch was the most effe c t i ve way to
activities of these traders from t a ckle crimes of this nat u re. O ver the six-
organisations taking part in the scheme month peri o d , the number of complaints
as well as raising awareness. re c e i ved by Dorset Trading Standards
• Advise the itinerant trader of the regarding itinerant traders fell from 23
legislation in place or prosecute if b e fo re the introduction of the scheme to 6
circumstances dictate. a f t e r. As a re s u l t , it was recommended that
the trial should continue for a further 6
Trading Standards have written short months with a possibility of expansion
s u m m a r ies containing details of their across the county.
l e g i s l ation that the police can insert into
their pocketbooks and use when at t e n d i n g For more information contact Mich Webber,
an incident involving an itinerant trader. Principal Trading Standards Officer, Dorset
The ‘ ri n g m a s t e r ’ computer system is also County Council, Trading Standards Service,
used to disseminate info rm ation to local Colliton Annexe, County Hall, Dorchester DT1 1XJ
g roups if itinerant traders are known to be Tel: 01305 224012 Fax: 01305 224297
o p e r ating in the are a . A message is sent to

“ ...evaluated after six months and concluded


that a multi-agency approach was the most
effective way to tackle crimes of this nature.

April 2003 Burglary 9
Stop, Chain, Check Road Show
Cambridgeshire Constabulary

C a m b ri d g e s h i re Constabu l a ry launched their Distraction Burg l a ry Initiat i ve in May 2002


following an increase in bogus callers and rogue traders to the area.
In partnership with the police and Huntingdonshire Community Safety Te a m , a mu s i c a l
g roup called ‘the Gro a n i n ’ B o n e s ’ got together to produce a road show, w h i ch is taken to
local vulnerable groups of people to highlight the message of Stop, Chain, C h e ck . The show is
based on interactive learning and fe at u res a pantomime entitled ‘Little Red Riding Boot’,
w h i ch is perfo rmed by a local amateur dramatics gro u p. The show aims to get the seri o u s
message across to beware of bogus callers and always Stop, Chain, Check before opening the
door to callers.
The road show has alre a dy been shown to over 1500 people in the area and has been
ve ry well re c e i ve d , giving people the opportunity to talk on a one-to-one basis with local
For more information contact police officers about issues of concern.
Mrs Angie Walters, Community F u t u re plans include taking the message further and targeting those people who fa l l
Contact Officer, St Ives Police within the vulnerable groups but who are unable to attend the road show s. Local Doctor’s
Station, Norris Road, St Ives, s u rg e ries have ag reed to distri bute info rm ation leaflets on bogus callers to all houseb o u n d
Cambridgeshire PE27 5QB patients as well as making the info rm ation available to patients attending surgery. It is hoped
Tel: 01480 422957 or t h at a video will be produced in the future, w h i ch can also then be shown to people unabl e
E-mail: to attend these events.
angie.walters@cambs.pnn. This pro j e c t , w h i ch fo rms part of a wider picture of work being carried out on
police.uk distraction burglary across the sector, will be evaluated in the near future.

Motorway Service Crime Conference


Warwickshire Police and Welcome Break Group

This confe re n c e, w h i ch took place on 10th Topics discussed on the day included:
December 2002 in London, was org a n i s e d • crime pattern analysis
by the Welcome Break Group in association • partnership working
with a number of police forces around the • access control, CCTV and signage
country to highlight the issue of motorway • vehicle crime - both theft of
services crime. and theft from
B e l i eved to be the first of its kind, t h e • car parks
c o n fe rence was attended by police offi c e r s • HGV crime
f rom across the UK who came together to • forecourt drive-offs.
discuss the pro blems and practical
solutions to crime in motorway serv i c e A second seminar is scheduled to take
a re a s. S p e a kers on the day included Pro f place in 18 months time.
N i ck T i l l ey from the Jill Dando Institute of
Crime Science and Jeff Collins from APACS, For more information about the conference
together with re p re s e n t at i ves from the contact David Robinson, National Security
police service. Manager, Welcome Break Group Ltd
Tel: 01908 299700
or PC Wayne Cook, Crime
Prevention/Architectural Liaison Officer,
Northern Area Community Safety Unit,
Atherstone Police Station, Sheepy Road,
Atherstone, Warwickshire CV9 1HP
Tel: 01926 415763

10 Burglary/Business Crime April 2003


Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal
Justice Papers
Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC)

The three latest papers in the AIC re s e a r ch


series cover crime against small business in
Australia and the potential for displacement
of electronic crime.
for e-crime than for other types of cri m e.
One of the major risks identified is that as
l a rge corp o r ations and public sector
agencies continue to improve their
“ Findings
show that
• No 242 Reporting of crime against e l e c t ronic securi t y, o f fenders may targ e t while
small retail businesses - Feb 03 smaller org a n i s ations or individuals with
• No 243 e-crime Solutions and Crime less security in place. O f fenders may also burglary and
Displacement - Jan 03 seek to bribe staff or plant their own agents
• No 244 Implementing Business within org a n i s ations to avoid the need to robbery
Watch: problems and solutions - overcome security and encryption fro m
Dec 02 e x t e r nal methods. Being awa re of the incidents
Papers 242 & 244 are part of a project displacement risks will help to ensure that
i nve s t i g ating crimes against small well-intentioned efforts to reduce crime do were substan-
businesses funded by the Commonwe a l t h not make matters worse.
A t t o rn ey - G e n e r a l ’s Depart m e n t ’s Nat i o n a l Paper 244 re p o rts on a pro c e s s tially more
C rime Prevention Pro g r a m . Paper 242 eva l u ation of a Business Wat c h pro g r a m
fo l l ows earlier papers (221 & 229) which c u rre n t ly underway in the Nort h e rn l i ke ly to be
l o o ked at pat t e rns of victimisation and Te rri t o ry. The eva l u ation was undert a ke n
fi n a n c i a l / p s y chological costs of cri m e. I t due to a lack of evidence of Business Watch reported to
uses data from the Small Business Cri m e as an effe c t i ve crime prevention tool in
S u rvey collated at the end of 1999 via a spite of its ap p a rent populari t y. The pap e r police than
postal questionnaire. shows that dissemination of info rm ation to
Findings show that while bu rg l a ry and participants is a critical issue, with 30 % of other types of
ro bb e ry incidents we re substantially more the survey respondents actually unawa re
l i ke ly to be re p o rted to police than other that a Business Watch program was in place. c ri m e,
types of cri m e, shoplifting and employe e O n ly 66% of members who we re awa re of
theft we re unlike ly to be re p o rt e d . In all the program knew about each component, shoplifting
c rime types, completed crimes we re more with even fewer becoming invo l ve d .
l i ke ly to be re p o rted than at t e m p t e d Reasons for non-invo l vement included and employee
c ri m e s. Reasons for not re p o rting cri m e s belief that a particular component was not
a re complex and va ried but perceive d u s e f u l , an unwillingness or lack of theft were
s e riousness of the cri m e, insurance claim enthusiasm on the part of the part i c i p a n t
re q u i re m e n t , p revious victim history, and the presence of other security systems unlikely to be
attitudes towards the police and time and at their business.
e f fo rt involved in reporting are some of the
major factors.
The findings are import a n t , not only
because they reveal that police records do
Steps can be taken to overcome these
issues and there is still a market fo r
Business Wat ch . F u rther eva l u at i ve studies
a re needed to establish whether pro g r a m s
re p o rt e d .

not accurat e ly reflect the extent of some a re meeting objectives and are wo rt h
types of crime against bu s i n e s s e s , bu t pursuing as a crime prevention strategy fo r
because the potential emphasis on burglary businesses.
and ro bb e ry as the most common cri m e
p ro blems for businesses may mean that Copies of these papers are available to
a l l o c ation of resources and cri m e download from the Australian Institute of
p revention strategies are not dire c t e d Criminology Website at:
effectively. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/
Paper 243 seeks to ap p ly theories of tandi
displacement in the context of electro n i c
c ri m e, as it is diffe rent in many respects to Thanks to the European Crime Prevention
traditional cri m e s. The concern is that Network (EU CPN) for highlighting these
displacement might be more of a pro bl e m publications.

April 2003 Business Crime 11


CCTV: Have they been framed?
South Wales Police

The use of CCTV systems is continuing to c o n t ri bute to expensive and inadequat e


i n c e re a s e. The change from analogue to systems.
digital recording systems is providing faster The Crime Reduction Department in
and more effe c t i ve transmission paths and Cardiff have produced a small and simple
o f fers the potential for internet solutions. bilingual (English/Welsh) booklet, w h i ch
But police officers still occasionally end up is designed to help CCTV end users
with images that are almost wo rthless as understand the most effe c t i ve ways of
evidence of identification. identifying and dealing with pro bl e m s
For further details M a ny of these pro blems occur because re l ating to their systems. The booklet also
and copies of the booklet end users are unclear as to what they need attempts to clarify the principles of the
contact John Tumelty, Crime when the system is being commissioned. ‘Operational Requirement’.
Reduction Department, Po o r ly sighted cameras, u n p rotected and Booklets will be distri buted via sector
Canton Police Station, a c c e s s i bl e, often with fields of view s t ations and Community Beat Officers to
194 Cowbridge Road East, u n s u i t able for the tasks re q u i red and with commercial and retail org a n i s at i o n s
Cardiff CF15 1GW no data storage considerations all c o n s i d e ring installing or upgrading their
Tel: 02920 571501 CCTV systems.

Secured by Design Award for Mostyn


Police Station
North Wales Police

Fo l l owing talks between ACPO and North Wales Po l i c e, an ag reement was re a ched that the
force would, wherever practicable, include the principles of Secured by Design in all its new
building and major refurbishment work. After carrying out an assessment, it was found that
some newer buildings we re alre a dy almost up to the Secured by Design standard and fo r
minimum costs could be modified to achieve full compliance.
Mostyn Police Station is the first North Wales police station to ach i eve the Secured by
Design awa r d , with another six buildings at va rious stages of rev i ew. The force is curre n t ly
negotiating with the Welsh Assembly Government and the National Assembly for Wales with a
view to rewriting the national planning guidance. This would include more explicit re fe re n c e
to crime reducing security measures (including Secured by Design) as a consideration fo r
future planning consent, whilst at the same time ensuring it as a future mainstream element
of the planning process.
S n owdonia National Parks Au t h o ri t y, in partnership with the police, has also ach i eved a
‘ fi r s t ’ amongst National Parks by including Secured by Design in their Crime & Disorder
Policy.

For more information contact Gerry Barlow, Force Architectural Liaison Officer, Community Safety
Section, North Wales Police, Glan Y Don Colwyn Bay, Conwy LL29 8AW
Tel: 01492 511819 Fax: 01492 511908 or E mail: gerald.barlow@nthwales.pnn.police.uk

12 CCTV/Designing Out Crime April 2003


Designing Out Crime Through
Environmental Change
Greater Manchester Police

This initiat i ve, w h i ch is based on a similar project in South A f ri c a , was set up in a bid to
reduce the number of ro bb e ries taking place around cash machines by cre ating a defe n s i bl e
space in front of the machine and there fo re establishing a personal space for the individual.
Cash mach i n e s , or AT M s , re l ate to around 25% of all ro bb e ries on the Oxford Road
c o rridor of Manch e s t e r. Although the ro bb e ry may not take place at the cash point itself, i t
often happens within 150 metres of it. Offenders ‘hustle’ the victim, getting as close to them
as possible in a bid to obtain their PIN number as well as ch e cking how mu ch cash is
withdrawn.
Research carried out for the project identified three crime prevention themes:
• Territoriality - the ability of users of space to take control of and manage their space.
• Surveillance - potential offenders prefer anonymity and avoid surveillance.
• Crowding out Crime - activity increases surveillance and reduces criminal opportunities.

As in the South African project, a square is marked out on the floor, sufficient enough for
one person to feel a ‘ c o m fo rt zone’ whilst stood within it and discouraging others to step
inside, therefore creating an informal control of the environment.
E va l u ation of the scheme will take place by crime pat t e rn analysis after three months.
Feedback received from bank managers suggests that those waiting for the cash machines are
a l re a dy distancing themselves from the user and it is hoped that it will become socially
unacceptable to stand too close in future.

For more information contact Judith Sadler or Tony Holt, Greater Manchester Police,
Greenheys Police Station, Charles Halle Road, Moss Side,
Manchester M15 6NP Tel: 0161 856 4435
Fax: 0161 856 4453

April 2003 Designing Out Crime 13


Doncaster Domestic Violence Working
Pa rt y
Doncaster Community Safety Unit

The Doncaster Domestic Violence Working Pa rt y ( D DVWP) is a mu l t i - agency gro u p


consisting of stat u t o ry and vo l u n t a ry ag e n c i e s. It has ch a ri t able aims and objective s
including:
• establishing and maintaining a system of networking between agencies
• raising awareness and commenting on domestic violence issues
• to be proactive in encouraging policy development and best practice in addressing issues
of domestic violence
• o f fe ring support to agencies working with domestic violence particularly those working
with women and ch i l d re n .
1997 saw the introduction of the first edition of the ‘Workers’ Guidance and Info rm at i o n
M a nu a l ’ , which was updated in October 2000 and is still used today. Posters, pamphlets and
booklets have also been produced displaying the DDVWP logo. Training is offe red in single
and mu l t i - agency fo rm ats and pilot training sessions for Judiciary and Court users have
recently taken place in Doncaster. Additional sessions will be carried out in Sheffield.
R e p re s e n t at i ves from Doncaster Community Safe t y, Doncaster Wo m e n ’s Aid and the co-
o r d i n ator of DDVWP have drafted a Local Au t h o rity Policy on domestic violence, w h i ch has
re c e n t ly gone befo re the Doncaster Cabinet for ap p rova l . Plans have also been submitted fo r
the construction of a purpose built facility. This will provide immediate access to temporary
accommodation for women trying to escape domestic abuse.
Other ongoing initiatives include:
• a pilot intervention project at a local prison for victims and perpetrators of
domestic violence
• the introduction of domestic violence into both the primary and secondary
school curriculum
• establishing an info rm ation sharing protocol between agencies involved in the DDVWP,
supported by ap p ro p ri ate data collection and analysis.

For more information contact Dennis Atkin, DDVWP, Doncaster Community Safety, Unity House,
Carr Lane, Doncaster DN14 5AA Tel: 01302 736943 Fax: 01302 736901
or E-mail: dennis.atkin@doncaster.gov.uk

Sussex Domestic Violence Logo


Sussex Police

Sussex Po l i c e, in partnership with the Pan Sussex Domestic Violence Focus Gro u p, h ave
l a u n ched a domestic violence logo, w h i ch is ava i l able to all ag e n c i e s , o rg a n i s ations and
p rojects in Sussex to use alongside their own crest and logos as a symbol of domestic
violence across the whole of the county.
For further information contact The Pan Sussex Domestic Violence Fo rum is re p resented by va rious bodies who have a
Amanda Knight, Crime wide responsibility for domestic violence. This means a more even distri bution of re s o u r c e s
Reduction Adviser (Domestic and the assurance that victims of domestic abuse receive the same level of service throughout
Violence) Sussex Police, the region.
Community Safety Department, The logo was launched during Sussex’s domestic violence awa reness campaign in
New Town, Uckfield, East N ovember 2002, w h i ch coincided with the Womankind wo r l dwide domestic violence
Sussex TN22 5DL campaign ‘White Ribb o n ’ . Va rious events and initiat i ves we re held across the county,
Tel: 01444 445907 concluding with a seminar that highlighted examples of best practice.
or E-mail: The campaign re c e i ved a positive eva l u ation and guests attending the seminar felt they
amanda.knight@sussex. had obtained a great deal of info rm ation of the service providers and their contacts, together
pnn.police.uk. with a better understanding of the scale of the problem.

14 Domestic Violence April 2003


Gloucestershire Domestic Violence
Support and Advocacy Project
Gloucestershire Domestic Violence Support and Advocacy Project

G l o u c e s t e r s h i re Domestic Violence Support p ro t e c t i o n , and safety issues, together with


and A dvocacy Project (GDVSAP) is the practical help and advice aro u n d
central re fe rral point for domestic violence maintenance and upkeep of the house and
incidents in Gloucestershire and provides a bu d g e t i n g. All tenants are offe re d
f ree and confidential crisis advocacy and p e rmanent accommodation by Gloucester
a dvice service 24 hours a day, s even days City Council after approx i m at e ly two years.
a week. G DVSAP is committed to ensuring a
G DVSAP provides this service as n e t work of self help support groups are
p a rt of “ G l o u c e s t e r s h i re ’s Co-ordinat e d developed throughout Gloucestershire over
C o m munity Response to Domestic the coming ye a r s. The project curre n t ly
Vi o l e n c e ” ( C C R ) , w h i ch is a mu l t i - ag e n c y runs one such gro u p, w h e re women who
ap p ro a ch to tackling domestic violence, h ave either left abu s i ve re l ationships or are
funded by the Home Office and involving a still living with an abu s i ve part n e r, c a n
host of vo l u n t a ry and stat u t o ry ag e n c i e s meet we e k ly to give and re c e i ve support in
a c ross the county. G DVSAP aims to ensure a confidential env i ro n m e n t . It is planned to
t h at clients have accurate info rm ation and use this experience to help local ag e n c i e s
s u p p o rt to enable them to make info rm e d t h roughout the county to develop similar
ch o i c e s , d e t e rmine their own future and g ro u p s. The project also provides a
regain control of their lives. Wo m e n ’s Pro g r a m m e, w h i ch ru n s
The crisis service is ava i l able to all alongside the Men’s Pe rp e t r at o r s ’
victims of domestic violence. Callers are P ro g r a m m e s , run by both the Pro b at i o n
o f fe red advice on immediate safety issues S e rvice and the vo l u n t a ry sector. A we e k ly
s u ch as security of their home, a rr a n g i n g g roup or regular telephone support is
refuge accommodation or liasing with the o f fe red to all women whose (ex)-part n e r s
police. Following this, the client’s needs for attend one of these pro g r a m m e s , w h i ch is
on-going support are explored and GDVSAP essential for ensuring the women’s safety at
re fers them to the ap p ro p ri ate ag e n c y this time of increased risk and fo r
within the CCR’s ‘ A dvocacy Prov i d e r s ’ eva l u ating the effe c t i veness of the
N e t work (APN) which will best meet their programmes.
n e e d s. Amongst members of the CCR,
a nyone making a disclosure of domestic For more information contact Sally Pickering,
violence is asked for their consent to be Services Manager, Gloucestershire Domestic
re fe rred to GDVSAP as the central specialist Violence Support and Advocacy Project,
and independent re fe rral point. 75 - 81 Eastgate Street, Gloucester GL1 1PN
G DVSAP manages 15 units of Tel: 01452 524553
s u p p o rted “second stag e ” a c c o m m o d at i o n E-mail: jill@glosdvsupp.freeserve.co.uk
for women and their ch i l d ren needing or visit their website at:
s u p p o rt when they leave the Gloucester http://www.domesticviolencesupport.
re f u g e. The housing support wo r ke r o rg . u k
d evelops individual support plans with
e a c h tenant, including helping them to
access other ag e n c i e s , mental health, ch i l d

April 2003 Domestic Violence 15


Drinking, crime and disorder
Home Office Research Findings 185

A l c o h o l - re l ated crime is a pro blem in many cities and towns with popular entert a i n m e n t
d i s t ri c t s.
This re p o rt presents the main findings from two Home Office studies (details below )
t h at explored the re l ationship between alcohol consumption and offending among 18-24
year-olds.
The first study examined the 1999/1998 Youth Lifestyles Survey to quantify the
association between binge drinking and offending behaviour (Richardson and Budd, 2003).
The second study involved focus groups with 18 - 24 year olds to explore the social context
of binge drinking (Engineer et al, 2003).

Copies of this report can be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r185.pdf

Drunk and Disorderly: a qualitative study


of binge drinking among 18 - 24 year olds
Home Office Research Study 262

R e l at i ve ly little is known about the social context of young adult binge drinking and
especially the links to criminal and disorderly behaviour.
The research presented in this report uses focus groups to explore this issue, particularly
young adults’ p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e riences of and motivations for binge dri n k i n g. The part i c i-
pants discussed the role of binge drinking within the night-time economy and suggested
ways in which a night out drinking could be made a safer and less threatening experience.

Copies of this report can be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors262.pdf

Alcohol, crime and disorder: a study of


young adults
Home Office Research Study 263

This re p o rt presents the findings from re s e a r ch examining the extent and nat u re of binge
d rinking and explores the links with criminal and disorderly behaviour in the young adult
population.
S t atistical analysis of the 1998/99 Youth Lifestyles Survey allowed the opportunity to
look at drinking and offending alongside other re l ated lifestyle fa c t o r s , p roviding a more
complete picture of alcohol-re l ated behav i o u r. A d d i t i o n a l ly, d ata from in-depth interv i ew s
with young adult binge drinkers provides a more detailed examination of the experiences of
d rinking in busy entertainment are a s , as well as offe ring suggestions to reduce the
prevalence of alcohol-related incidents.

Copies of this report can be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors263.pdf

16 Drugs and Alcohol April 2003


Reducing alcohol-related violence and dis-
order: an evaluation of the ‘TASC’ project
Home Office Research Study 265
Copies of all these research
The Ta ckling A l c o h o l - R e l ated Street Crime (TASC) project was set up with the principal aim studies, published in March
of reducing the level of alcohol-re l ated violence and disorder in Cardiff city centre and the 2003 are available free from
Cardiff bay area. Research, Development and
This police led scheme centred on inter- agency partnership and sought innovat i ve Statistics Directorate,
solutions to specific forms of offending in particular locations. Communications
This re p o rt presents an eva l u ation of the pro j e c t . It provides an ove rv i ew of the aims of Development Unit, Room 201,
the project and describes the process of the evaluation, as well as giving evidence on whether 50 Queen Anne’s Gate,
and to what extent, the TASC project had an impact on the incidence of violence and disorder London SW1H 9AT
across the area. Recommendations and lessons on ‘good practice’ are also explored. Tel: 020 7273 2084
E-mail:
Copies of this report can be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at: publications.rds@homeoffice.
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/hors265.pdf gsi.gov.uk

Alcohol-Related Crime and Disorder:


guidance for local partnerships
Home Office Development & Practice Guide 6 and On-line publication 08/03

Two research reports providing guidance to to auditing when collecting, analysing


local Crime and Disorder Reduction and sharing data
Pa rtnerships (CDRPs) on how best to • emphasise that data collection, a n a ly s i s
g ather and utilise data on alcohol-re l at e d and sharing should not be seen
crime and disorder have been published by exclusively as a three-yearly auditing
the Home Office. process but as at least annual exercises
These re p o rts focus on the collection that help CDRPs to monitor progress
and analysis of alcohol-re l ated crime and against their strategic plans.
disorder data within the context of
conducting audits under the terms of the The re p o rts are based on re s e a r ch
1998 Crime and Disorder Act. conducted at four CDRP sites in England. At
The re p o rt s : each site the availability and quality of data
• highlight the need for CDRPs to take on alcohol-related crime and disorder were
the problem of alcohol-related crime e x a m i n e d . Findings from each site we re
and disorder seriously c o l l ated and work was undert a ken to Copies of the on-line report,
• consider how the term ‘alcohol-related e n s u re that the guidance is re p re s e n t at i ve published in February 2003, are
crime and disorder’ might be of the types of info rm ation potentially available only via the Home
i n t e rp reted for the purposes available to CDRPs throughout England and Office Website at:
of auditing Wales. http://www.homeoffice.
• summarise the types and sources of gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/
data potentially available to CDRPs to Copies of the Development & Practice Guide, rd s o l r 0 8 03 . p d f
measure alcohol-related crime published in February 2003, are available free Application for reproduction of
and disorder from Research, Development and Statistics this report should be made to
• describe different, but Directorate, Communications Development Unit, the Research, Development
complementary, approaches to the Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, and Statistics Directorate,
measurement of alcohol-related crime London SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 Communications Development
and disorder, which address the issue E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk Unit, Room 275, 50 Queen
of linking alcohol consumption to and can also be viewed and downloaded from Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT
crime and disorder the Home Office Website at: Tel: 020 7273 2084
• highlight issues CDRPs and individual http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/ E-mail: publications.rds
organisations must consider to ensure pdfs2/dpr6.pdf @homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
a co-ordinated and informed approach

April 2003 Drugs and Alcohol 17


Drug Use in Vulnerable Groups
Home Office Research Study 258 - Youth homelessness and substance use: repor t
to the drugs and alcohol research unit

Home Office Research Study 260 - One problem among many: drug use among
care leavers in transition to independent living

Home Office Research Study 261 - Substance use by young offenders: the impact
of normalisation of drug use in the early years of the 21st century

The Home Office has published three re p o rts into drug use amongst vulnerable yo u n g
people. Whilst each examines a different vulnerable group, there are similarities between the
three sets of results that can be drawn out.

Key similarities
• Drug use in all groups was high. The homeless group had particularly high levels of
heroin and crack cocaine usage (43% and 38%). Cannabis use was very high among the
other 2 groups, but heroin and crack use lower, at below 20% in each of these groups.
• The quality of help available to each of the groups was perceived to be low and too
general. A greater number of smaller agencies might be able to target smaller groups
more effectively.

Differences in the group of young homeless


• Drug taking was high – particularly the use of re c re ational drugs. In addition, 43% had
taken heroin and 38% crack cocaine. Many were poly-drug users and just over a quarter
had injected drugs.
• Almost all the young people smoked on a daily basis and a considerable number were
also adopting risky drinking habits – with 14% identified as problem drinkers.
• The young people became homeless for a variety of complex reasons – most frequently
conflict and abuse. Substance use was the next most common factor given for
homelessness. Parents often asked young people to leave for re l at i ve ly minor drug or
alcohol use.
• The young people’s accounts suggest that becoming homeless can lead to an escalation
of substance use but can also provide an opportunity to give up or cut down. However,
they also said their substance use was one of the many barriers they faced when trying to
access temporary and permanent accommodation.
• Dedicated and ap p ro p ri ate service provision is required for young homeless people that
addresses substance use within the context of their multiple problems.
• Any substance prevention work with this group needs to overcome resistance from the
young people and lack of expertise in many homelessness services.

Differences in the group of young offenders


• The group was highly delinquent. Most had committed multiple types of offences,
repeatedly. Over 20% reported shoplifting, selling stolen goods, taking a car without
consent and drug dealing at least 20 times in the previous year.
• Substance use was also very high. Over 85% had used cannabis, alcohol and tobacco. But
less than 20% had used heroin or crack cocaine (although this rate is still comparatively
high for such a young group – all but one was under 18 years).
• Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis were more strongly related to offending than were other
d ru g s. The shift towards the use of heroin and/or cocaine and/or drug injection
observed in the 1980s amongst delinquents was not evident.

18 Drugs and Alcohol April 2003


• Some key factors were related to both substance use and offending: life difficulties and
events; disliking and being excluded from school; lack of positive coping mechanisms;
and expecting to get into trouble again. However, growing up with one parent was not
related to offending or drug use.
• The young people felt they had received a lot of help from services (mainly GPs and
social workers) but that the quality of the help had been low. Individual counselling or
small-scale interventions may be more ap p ro p ri ate than generic services to deal with the
diversity of substance use in this group.
• Parents need to be engaged concerning their ch i l d re n ’s substance use and helped to
understand the contemporary prevalence of drug use in this age group.
• The adoption of low or zero tolerance to drugs in school may not be helpful as it
encourages secrecy in drug taking and exclusion only of those caught – who may not be
the greatest users.

Differences in the group in transition from care to independent living


• The group reported higher levels of drug use than the general population – one-third
said they smoked cannabis every day.
• The use of other drugs was also reported – 15% had used ecstasy in the last month, 10%
cocaine. Around a tenth reported taking heroin or crack cocaine at some time in
their lives.
• Steadily lower levels of drug consumption were reported as the young people began to
live independently. However, levels increased during periods of transition to
independent living and when movement to independent living was problematic.
• Practical responsibilities and parenthood encouraged more responsible levels of drug use
and young care leavers appear to grow out of drug use more quickly than the
general population.
• There is a lack of specialist services for young people with drug problems. Assisting
young people in the transition from care to independent living is one of Social Services’
responsibilities and they need to be prepared to deal with drug-related issues.
• Interventions should be part of more general planning to help young care leavers with
housing, employment and training.

Copies of all these research studies, published in February 2003 are available free from
Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development
Unit, Room 201, 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT
Tel: 020 7273 2084
E-mail: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
and can also be viewed and downloaded from the Home Office Website at:
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/horspubs1.html

April 2003 Drugs and Alcohol 19


Used Needles Hotline
Leeds City Council

Po t e n t i a l ly dangero u s , discarded used Contact details are also requested should


needles can now be collected the same day t h e re be pro blems in locating the needles.
if they are re p o rted to a special council The officer then alerts the council’s
hotline. contracting services staff, who aim to
Since A p ril last ye a r, a total of 23,000 collect the needles within the same
abandoned needles have been collected working day.
thanks to Leeds City Council’s used needles The community safety depart m e n t
phone line. Fo l l owing the success of an funds the service and lines are open fro m
initial tri a l , the council’s customer serv i c e s 7.30am until 5pm most days.
d e p a rtment are adve rtising the special
hotline number to members of the publ i c For more information contact Catherine Carlill,
who are able to report needles they suspect Communications Officer, Leeds Community
m ay have been dumped by drugs users. Safety Team, Leeds City Council, Leeming House,
Callers are connected directly to a customer Vicar Lane, Leeds LS2 7JF Tel: 0113 395 0797 or
s e rvices offi c e r, who asks them for the E-mail: catherine.carlill@leeds.gov.uk
l o c ation of the needles and quantity.

The Tower Project


Blackpool Community Safety Partnership

The Tower Project was established by the release scheme also operates. This addresses
B l a ckpool Community Safety Pa rt n e r s h i p, issues such as housing, b e n e fi t s , p ro b at i o n ,
j o i n t ly ch a i red by Blac kpool Boro u g h s u p p o rt and lifestyle skills. The aim is to
Council and Lancashire Constabu l a ry reduce offending of this group by 30%
We s t e r n Division, in Ja nu a ry 2002. T h e over the next two years. Those who are part
project includes a Management Group with of the project but are not cooperating and
re p re s e n t at i ves from the va rious ag e n c i e s c o n t i nue to offend are subject to police
who oversee the development of the surveillance and stop ch e ck s.
s ch e m e. In October last year, 54 individuals had
The Tower Project is aimed at dru g t a ken part in the pro j e c t , with most
re l ated offe n d e r s. The most persistent re p o rting reduced levels of drug abuse and
c r iminals are identified by an ev i d e n c e c ri m i n a l i t y. Since the introduction of the
m at rix and the pro fessional judgement of p ro j e c t , t h e re have been considerabl e
s t a f f, p a rt i c u l a r ly for the key crimes of reductions in overall crime in the are a . I t
house burglary, auto crime has played a significant role in the Safe r
and street ro bb e ry. D ru g S t reets in Lancashire initiat i ve, w h i ch
testing kits and medication commenced in March 2002.
a re used to give persistent
o f fenders the opport u n i t y For more information contact Nick Marnell,
to stop using illicit dru g s Tower Visits Administrator, Western Division HQ
and reduce their offending Bonny Street, Blackpool FY1 5RL
b e h av i o u r. Pa rticipants are Tel: 01253 604245
o f fe red support both
inside and outside of
p ri s o n . A mu l t i - ag e n c y

20 Drugs and Alcohol April 2003


Narrowing the Justice Gap
Home Office

The Gove rn m e n t ’s criminal justice programme of re fo rms will re q u i re police and other
agencies to work together to become more effe c t i ve in tackling cri m e. Police forces alre a dy
demonstrate successful partnership working with agencies such as probation and the Crown
Prosecution Service - a key element of the Narrowing the Justice Gap targets.
The White Paper ‘Justice for Al l’ i d e n t i fied a justice gap between the number of cri m e s
recorded by the police and the number of offenders brought to justice. Currently 80 per cent
of crimes go unpunished, a fi g u re the Gove rnment wants reduced by fi ve percent by 2004
and 17 per cent by 2006. Ta rgeting specific types of offenders (The Persistent Offe n d e r
S ch e m e ) , s p e c i fic types of crime (Street Crime Initiat i ve) and tackling weaknesses in the
c riminal justice system will help to ach i eve this targ e t . The work will be dri ven by Local
C riminal Justice Boards set up in each of the 42 areas and is due to offi c i a l ly start in A p ri l
this year.
‘Project Embra c e’ led by Gre ater Manchester Police is one example of successful
p a rtnership wo r k i n g. The force has wo r ked alongside the local Pro b ation Serv i c e, yo u t h
offending teams and local council to reduce persistent offending over the past two years. The
p roject aims to help persistent offenders address the underlying reasons for their offe n d i n g
and helps them to try and rebuild their live s. Vi ews are sought from the local commu n i t y,
police and pro b at i o n , as to who are the most persistent offenders and both the police and
p ro b ation take on joint responsibility for monitoring them in the commu n i t y. One of the
success stories involves an offender who was arrested 18 times before agreeing to take part in
the pro j e c t . Since part i c i p ating 11 months ag o, he hasn’t committed any further crime and
now runs a local youth football team.
Ten forces in the Midlands are also proving that inter- force co-operation is inva l u abl e
when it comes to fighting cri m e. T h ey are curre n t ly working together to try and combat
distraction bu rg l a ry, both through an intelligence-led ap p ro a ch and by offe ring va l u abl e
c rime prevention advice to those most at ri s k . O p e r ation Liberal was set up to targ e t
t r avelling criminals who are re s p o n s i ble for hundreds of crimes across a wide are a . Fo r c e s
s h a re va l u able intelligence daily via computer and the more info rm ation they can gather on
s p e c i fic offenders the better info rmed the courts will be when it comes to sentencing. T h e
p roject also invo l ves road shows for the elderly and pre s e n t ations to local groups where
a dvice on crime prevention is ava i l abl e. Since the project started in 1998, it has contri bu t e d
to an increased detection of crime in the ten force areas.

For more information on the ‘Narrowing the Justice Gap’ scheme visit the Criminal Justice Service
Website at: h t t p : / / w w w. c j s o n l i n e . o rg / n j g

Community Safety Partnerships Briefing Copies of these briefing papers,


published in January 2003, are
Papers available free from Crime
Crime Concern Concern, Beaver House,
147 - 150 Victoria Road,
Crime Concern has produced a series of briefing papers aimed at community safety partner- Swindon SN1 3UY
ships as part of an ongoing ‘ Pa rtnership Support Programme’ funded by the Home Office. Tel: 01793 863500
The publications focus on the key challenges facing partnerships, with some of the main Fax: 01793 514654
topics from the series including: E-mail:
• Tackling anti-social behaviour info@crimeconcern.org.uk
• Drugs & community safety They can also be viewed and
• Funding community safety downloaded from their website
• Young people in rural Britain: partners in crime prevention at:
• Keeping Section 17 on the agenda http://www.crimeconcern
.org.uk/index1.asp

April 2003 General 21


Australian Crime Prevention Conference
Papers
Australian Institute of Criminology

The Australian Institute of Criminology, in conjunction with the Crime Prevention Branch of
the Commonwealth Government A t t o rn ey General’s department, held a conference on Crime
Prevention in September 2002. They have published many of the papers from the confe re n c e
on the Internet at: http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/crimpre/program.html
The conference aimed to bring together practitioners, re s e a r ch e r s , academics and policy
m a kers from re l evant fields to discuss the types of policies and programs that have been
implemented on a nat i o n a l , regional or local leve l . The emphasis was on inter- ag e n c y
ap p ro a ches to crime preve n t i o n , including measures to reduce opportunities for crime as
well as preventing criminality.
The conference themes included early intervention and developmental crime prevention,
family violence, partnerships, diversion and interventions amongst others.
Abstracts are given for all the papers with full versions ava i l able to download for 40 of
the titles. Although the focus is on Australian crime preve n t i o n , with some emphasis on
indigenous issues, there is much to be learned from Australian experience.
The titles below are examples of some of the diverse papers ava i l able from the
c o n fe rence program (internet address shown ab ove ) . To see the full listing, ch e ck the
C o n fe rence Program.
• The challenge of implementing and evaluating programs for perpetrators of domestic
violence - Dr Lesley Laing, Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse, New
Thanks to the European Crime South Wales.
Prevention Network (EU CPN) • Building site crime prevention project in new residential estates - Ken Lee, City of Casey
for highlighting this Council, Vi c t o ri a .
publication. For more • City of Melbourne’s approaches to addressing safety issues in public toilets - Rebecca
information visit their website Roebuck and Phillipa Dwyer, Melbourne City Council, Vi c t o ri a .
at: h t t p : / / e u ro p a . e u . i n t / • The Commonwealth Gove rn m e n t ’s ap p ro a ch to early childhood strategies and
comm/justice_home/ interventions - Robyn McKay, Commonwealth Department of Family and
eucpn Community Services.

Safer Lancashire Website


Lancashire County Council

The Safer Lancashire Website (w w w. s a f e r l a n c a s h i re . c o. u k) was launched in July 2002 by


the Chief Constable of Lancashire and the Chairman of the Association of Police Au t h o ri t i e s ,
on behalf of strategic and local partnerships.
The site is organised by area and provides a gateway to:
• Generic info rm ation and advice
• I n fo rm ation from all 14 Community Safety Partnerships in Lancashire (each have their
own web page or link)
• I n fo rm ation from other Crime and Disorder Partners or links to relevant parts of their
For further details contact sites eg: Lancashire Constabulary,Youth Offending Teams, Drug Action Teams and Fire
Pamela Smith, Community Rescue Service
Safety Officer, Policy Unit, • Links to other Government sites.
Office of the Chief Executive, The key purpose of the site is to provide info rm ation to the public and interested bodies.
Lancashire County Council, T h e re is a re s t r icted password area for partner agencies to circulate and exch a n g e
PO Box 78, County Hall, i n fo rm ation on funding opportunities as well as general crime reduction info rm at i o n . Local
Preston PR1 8XJ p a rtnerships provide details of their audits and strat e g i e s , local initiat i ve s , c u rrent pre s s
Tel: 01772 263414 releases and contact details.
Fax 01772 263353 or E-mail: To dat e, s t atistics have shown that Crime and Disorder Reduction Pa rtnerships (CDRPs)
pam.smith@css.lancscc.gov.uk and the public are visiting the site at approximately 40,000 hits per month.

22 General April 2003


Tilley Awards 2003
Home Office

The T i l l ey Award was set up by the Home Effective partnerships


O f fice Policing and Reducing Crime Unit This is a new cat e g o ry intended to
( n ow the Crime and Policing Group) in recognise the important role that local
1999 to encourage and recognise good Crime and Disorder Reduction Pa rt n e r s h i p s
practice in implementing pro bl e m - o ri e n t e d can play in reducing crime and disorder.
policing (POP). The Awa r d , funded by the The police must have played an active ro l e
Home Office, will pay for winners to attend in the project and the entry needs to come
the A n nual Intern ational Pro bl e m - O ri e n t e d f rom them but be endorsed by the ch i e f
Policing Confe rence in San Diego, w h i ch o f ficers of three core agencies invo l ve d .
p rovides the opportunity for winners to E n t ries can be about reducing crime and
present their project to other delegates. disorder pro blems and must fulfill the
An additional third award will be made requirements under the crime and disorder
this year recognising the contri bu t i o n reduction category above. A l t e rn at i ve ly they
made to reducing crime by Crime and can be about org a n i s ational aspects of
Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs). p a rtnership working and there fo re mu s t
f u l fil the re q u i rements under the org a n i s a-
Prizes will be awarded for: tional support category. However, the focus
must again be on the effective delivery of a
Crime and Disorder Reduction p ro bl e m - o r iented ap p ro a ch to cri m e
This cat e g o ry remains similar to prev i o u s reduction.
ye a r s. P rojects entered should descri b e All entries should demonstrate that the
work to reduce specific crime and disorder work fo rms part of the local crime and
p ro blems and can cover the full range of disorder strategy and although the police
issues encountered by the police. H oweve r, should lead in pre p a ring the entry, t h ey
the judges will be looking to see how fa r m ay not necessari ly be the lead agency in
the project demonstrates a wider adoption the project. It is important to show that the
of pro blem solving to ensure that it is used p roject is a joint enterp rise and the contri-
on a systematic basis to address police work butions of each agency are reflected.
day to day, rather than one-off problems.
How to enter
Organisational support E n t ries should include a summary of 300-
The focus in 2003 for this cat e g o ry is the 400 words and a detailed description of up
explicit delivery of problem oriented crime to 4000 words for the pro j e c t . The Home
re d u c t i o n . In previous years this cat e g o ry O f fice has compiled some guidance notes,
has included entries where the police have w h i ch may prove helpful befo re putting an
used the ap p ro a ch to deal with any org a n i- e n t ry together. The closing date for entri e s
s ational issue (for example staff sick n e s s , is 30th May 2003.
shift systems), w h i ch may or may not have For more information on the
been aimed at supporting front line staff to The winners awards visit the Crime
work in a pro blem solving fa s h i o n .T h i s The winning projects will be selected fro m Reduction Website at:
year entries will only be eligible if they can a judging panel composed of leading http://www.
d e m o n s t r ate that they have helped to academics, police, practitioners and fo rm e r crimereduction.gov.uk/
i m p rove the delive ry of POP. E x a m p l e s p ri z ew i n n e r s. The prizes will be pre s e n t e d tilleyaward2003.htm
might include: at the UK National Pro blem Ori e n t e d or contact Patricia Perkins,
• change management programmes to Policing Confe rence to be held in Home Office Crime and Policing
introduce problem solving including September 2003 where the winners and Group, Research, Development
training other selected entries will be invited to and Statistics Directorate, 50
• changes to the performance present their projects. Queen Anne’s Gate, London
management process to ensure POP is SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 3511 or
adopted properly E-mail:
• the development of Incident patricia.perkins@homeoffice.
Management Units. gsi.gov.uk

April 2003 General 23


Your Practical Guide to Crime Prevention -
I n t ro d u c t i o n
Home Office

This updated booklet explains how people • Community


can help to reduce the risk of becoming a • Personal Safety
victim of cri m e. It provides simple • Your Family
suggestions on how to protect your home,
your fa m i ly and pro p e rty and how to stay Copies are available free from Prolog UK Tel:
safe. 0870 241 4680 Fax: 0870 241 4786 E-mail:
The contents include: homeoffice@prolog.uk.com or can be viewed
• Household and Pro p e rt y and downloaded from the Crime Reduction
• Business and Retail Website at:
• Vehicles http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/
ypgcp.htm

Alloy Wheel Marking


West Yorkshire Police

H u d d e r s field Division of West Yo r k s h i re Police suffers dispro p o rt i o n at e ly with the theft of


a l l oy wheels. Once wheels are stolen, t h ey are not identifi able and so it is hard to re u n i t e
them with their rightful owners.
After consultation and discussions with a vehicle manu fa c t u re r, West Yo r k s h i re Po l i c e
i n t roduced a marking scheme for alloy wheels, w h i ch uses an electronic engraver to mark
the owners postcode and house number onto the back of the wheel, on the durable ‘boss’ in
the middle. E n g r avers have been issued to va ri o u s
tyre replacement retailers, as well as new car dealers
in the area who carry out this serv i c e. Po s t e r s
a dve rtising the scheme are displayed in the
c o m p a ny ’s windows and an info rm ation card
explaining the concept of the scheme is issued to
e a c h customer. Customers also re c e i ve an
a d h e s i ve window sticker for their car,
informing would-be thieves that the wheels are
marked.
An eva l u ation of the scheme will be
c a r ried out in the fo rm of an analysis of
c rime fi g u res to identify whether there has
been a reduction in this type of cri m e.
R e c ove red wheels will also be examined to
ch e ck whether they have been marke d . O f
the companies taking part in the sch e m e,
the majority feel that it is an excellent idea.
S everal of them maintain a register containing details of the
wheels that have been marked.

For more information contact PC Chris Green, Crime Reduction/Architectural Liaison Officer, Huddersfield
Police Station, Castlegate, Huddersfield HD1 2NJ
Tel: 01484 436639 Fax: 01484 436602 or E-mail: CG30@westyorkshire.pnn.police.uk

Editors Note: Property marking schemes should adhere to the Association of Chief Police Officer
(ACPO)/Home Office principles of property marking. Details of these are published on the Crime
Reduction website: w w w. c r i m e re d u c t i o n . g ov. u k / p ro p e rt y 0 1 . h t m

24 General/Property Crime April 2003


Hambleton: A Beacon for Crime Reduction
in Rural Areas
Hambleton District Council

H a m bleton in North Yo r k s h i re is a mainly rural district and the population has grow n
s t e a d i ly over the past decade. Most people live in small market towns spread across the
d i s t rict with the remainder scat t e red throughout the area in villages and ag ri c u l t u r a l
settlements.
L evels of crime have fallen gradually across the region and work by the Council’s
C o m munity Safety Pa rtnership has done mu ch to reduce the publ i c ’s fear of cri m e. E f fe c t i ve
m o n i t o ring of crime levels and consultation with partners helps to identify emerg i n g
p ro blems and the stru c t u re of the partnership enables a quick re s p o n s e. N ew initiat i ve s
include increased police presence to isolated rural areas and local people are encouraged to
participate through a variety of watch schemes.
Key lessons include:
• Changes to the structure of the partnership in order to get closer to the rural population.
Task groups organised geographically, with the emphasis on project management, which
improves involvement from partners.
• A willingness to continually examine what is being done ensures that the work of the
partnership remains relevant and focused.
• The partnership has a strong, independent Chair who is committed to bringing the
various agencies together.

For more information contact Chris Fields, Community Safety Officer, Hambleton District Council,
Civic Centre, Stone Cross, Northallerton DL6 2UU
Tel: 01609 767211 or E-mail: Christine.fields@hambleton.gov.uk

Operation Countryside
Leicestershire Constabulary

The West A rea Police Community Unit of horse tack advice leaflet, c o u n t ryside gat e
L e i c e s t e r s h i re Constabu l a ry has launch e d signs and signage price list. T h ey also have
O p e ration Country s i d e, a campaign that the opportunity to sign up to re c e i ve
aims to reduce ag ri c u l t u r a l , fa rm and u p d ated local crime info rm ation via phone
equestrian crime. or e-mail.
O ver 77% of all ag r icultural cri m e s S p e c i a l ly designed posters have been
re p o rted in the region over the last few p roduced with the messages ‘Stamping on
months have invo l ved bu rg l a ry or theft, Crime in the Countryside’ and ‘Shutting the
with thieves targeting fa rms and ri d i n g G ate on Crime in the Country s i d e ’ , w h i ch
s chools for equipment such as saddles, are used to advertise the scheme. All victims
bridles and rugs, as well as horse trailers to of countryside crime in the area re c e i ve
be able to transport the stolen pro p e rt y non-members Countryside Wat c h pack s
away. containing crime prevention advice and an
The scheme invo l ves a Country s i d e invitation to join the scheme.
Wat c h incorp o r ating the Ringmaster E va l u ation is ongoing, but will fo c u s
s y s t e m , w h i c h encourages people living on a final analysis of the numbers of
and working in outlying areas to link up to recorded crimes committed on ru r a l
form an early warning system. premises in July this year.
O ver 200 letters containing up-to-dat e
c rime prevention advice and useful contact For more information contact Insp Mark
details have alre a dy been sent to all fa rm s Thompson, Leicestershire Constabulary,
and equestrian centres in the area and more Beaumont Leys Police Station, Community Unit,
than 50 people have signed up to the watch 2 Beaumont Way, Beaumont Leys, Leicester
s ch e m e. Members re c e i ve a handbook, LE4 1DS Tel: 0116 248 3375 Fax: 0116 248 3393

April 2003 Rural Crime 25


Vehicle Security Launch
Norfolk Constabulary

Kings Lynn Po l i c e, as part of the Safer We s t Po l i c e, Council and local bu s i n e s s e s. T h e


N o r folk Steering Gro u p, h ave introduced a units are funded through the Home Offi c e
n ew tool in the fight against theft fro m Safer Communities Initiative, with a total of
vehicles. 10 units purchased so far and placed
Motorists parking their cars in the Boal t h roughout the Kings Lynn and We s t
Q u ay car park will re c e i ve an audibl e Norfolk Borough Council areas.
wa rning reminding them to re m ove all The project will be monitored on
va l u ables from their cars and make sure p u blic opinion and via CCTV to ensure
t h ey are secure ly locke d . The motion vehicles are being left secure. An eva l u at i o n
sensitive units can be placed where there is will be carried out in 12 months to identify
a power supply and in the Boal Quay car whether there has been a reduction in
park the device is located on the ticke t c ri m e.
m a ch i n e. As a motorist ap p ro a ches to
p u r chase their ticke t , t h ey automat i c a l ly For more information contact Sgt Terry Scott
trip the sensor and the security reminder is Community Safety Department, Kings Lynn
activated. Police Station, St James’Road, Kings Lynn,
The scheme was the idea of the Au t o - Norfolk Tel: 01553 665037 Fax: 01553 767816
C r ime Action Gro u p, w h i ch includes the or E-mail: scottt@norfolk.pnn.police.uk

Key Safe
West Yorkshire Police

West Yo r k s h i re Police have set up an initiat i ve, w h i ch aims to combat the theft of car key s
during house bu rg l a ri e s.
They have produced two stickers, one for the car and one for the house, which basically
warn thieves that car keys are kept safe and are not an easy target.
They have also issued leaflets containing the following advice:
• If you have a garage, please park your car in it. This will keep your cars out of the sight
of preying eyes.
• Consider fitting an electric garage door.
• If you have to park your car in the driveway consider fitting substantial gates or
security posts.
• It is a fact that new cars have very sophisticated locks, immobilisers and other security
devices and the only way to start the vehicle is to have the key.
• Thieves are selecting cars they want to steal from outside houses.They will look for any
opportunity to steal keys that are left on show in the house. It is there fo re vital that
householders hide keys from view.
• Don’t leave car keys in an obvious place, make it as hard as possible for the thief.
• Don’t leave doors and windows unlocked.
• Don’t leave car keys in prominent places where a burglar can find them. At night take
your car keys to bed with you.
• Your car insurance could be invalid if you have declared you garage your car overnight
when in fact you don’t!
The scheme has been piloted in Ke i g h l ey and the results so far have been ve ry good.
Fe e d b a ck from the public has shown an increased awa reness and there has been a consid-
erable drop in this type of crime in the area.

For more information contact DI John Birkenshaw, Force Crime Reduction Officer, West Yorkshire Police,
Police HQ, PO Box 9, Wakefield, WF1 3QP
Tel: 01924-292465 or E-mail: jb152@westyorkshire.pnn.police.uk

26 Vehicle Crime April 2003


Operation “Clean Up”
Police Service of Northern Ireland

Between April and June 2002, the police in The re s e a r ch suggests that the pri m a ry
B e l fast seized over 900 unlicensed cars and link between the significant amounts of
d e s t royed almost 800 of them in a volume crime is not the day, date or time of
p a rtnership ap p ro a ch between Dri ver and the cri m e, but the ava i l ability of low - c o s t ,
Vehicle Licensing Nort h e rn Ire l a n d , t h e invisible transport to and from the scene.
N o rt h e rn Ireland Office and the Po l i c e The project also compares with similar
S e rvice of Nort h e r n Ire l a n d . The pro j e c t s chemes such as ‘ O p e r ation Cubit’, w h i ch
was also supported by the Northern Ireland was introduced in Kent in 2001, a n d
F i re Bri g a d e, B e l fast and Lisbu r n City suggests that the re m oval of these
Councils and Castlereagh Borough Council. unlicensed vehicles should be a pri o ri t y.
O p e r ation “Clean Up” i nvo l ved the O p e r ation “Clean Up” is estimated to
re m oval of unlicensed vehicles (including have cost £100,000 or approx i m at e ly £106
p a r ked cars) on public ro a d s. D u ring the per car. It contains considerable elements of
o p e r at i o n , the data from many endemic the ‘ B ro ken Wi n d ow s ’ t h e o ry used to
volume crimes was measured including: explain the reduction in volume crime and
• theft of and from vehicles anti-social incidents by an estimat e d
• d ri ve-offs from filling stations £ 1 . 1 M . It also examines the
• domestic burglary change in attitude engendered in
• assaults and ro bb e ry. m a ny motorists where the leve l
Additional perfo rmance indicat o r s of induced re-licensing increased
measured in the target area for the duration road fund licence reve nue by an
of the operation we re road traffi c estimated £1.9M.
c o l l i s i o n s , car arson, abandoned ve h i c l e s , This was a good example of
motor insurance and road fund license p a rtnership working between an
reve nu e. C o m p a risons we re made against a a d m i n i s t r at i ve agency with the
t a rget area for the preceding quart e r, l e g i s l at i ve authority to enforce ve h i c l e
together with the same quarter for the licensing without the resources and the
p revious ye a r. The results showed a police with the need and resources bu t
reduction of between 19 and 32% on the without the statutory power.
p e r fo rmance indicators. This was supported
by stat i s t i c a l ly significant reductions in For further information and copies of the final
some cat e g o ries during quarter on quart e r evaluation costing £25.00 plus p&p contact
a n a ly s i s. The Motor Insurers Info rm at i o n Constable Norman Gibson, Regional Crime
Centre also examined the insurance history Prevention Officer, Crime Prevention Branch,
of the destroyed vehicles and only PSNI Headquarters, Brooklyn,
identified 11% as being currently insured. 65 Knock Road, Belfast BT5 6LD
Tel: 028 9070 0105
or E-mail: cpobelfastregion@nics.gov.uk

April 2003 Vehicle Crime 27


Lancsafe
Merseyside Police

In November 2000, the Lancsafe Te a m , funded through Merseyside Po l i c e, was fo rmed in


response to an increase in criminal activities along the A580 East Lancashire Road, w h i ch
links Live rpool City Centre to Manchester City Centre. The route attracts a heavy flow of
traffic and this contributes to various crime problems including:
• thefts of and from vehicles parked in the car parks of businesses along the route
• lack of communication between local businesses linked by this road, who suffer similar
crime problems
• movement of class A drugs by offenders from all over the North West region
• movement of stolen vehicles across police boundaries using the road as a fast and direct
route to and from other areas in the region
• travelling criminals expanding their areas of operation across neighbouring force areas
• thefts of petrol - drive-offs.

The Lancsafe Team carry out staff training in crime prevention to businesses along the
A580 and Crime Managers are being introduced in to businesses to focus on specific cri m e
i s s u e s. Liaison is also ongoing with parent companies to cre ate gre ater support and the
involvement of Business Crime Direct has led to funding for local businesses to enable them
to improve their CCTV systems and target-harden pre m i s e s. M a r keting and publ i c i t y
campaigns have also been set up to get key messages across to the public and reduce the
opportunities for crime.
The project also aims to improve links with bordering police forces by arranging cro s s -
border operations. Joint working with other forces has allowed intelligence to be shared and
a number of successful operations to be developed.
During the last 2 years of the project, there has been:
• 15% reduction in crime throughout the 10.8 mile stretch of the road, which
accommodates the majority of businesses
• 41% reduction in the number of drive-offs from petrol stations along the route
• over 750 arrests
• over 1,013,055 stolen vehicles recove re d
• 78% reduction in fatal road crashes in the first year.

The project is supported by the Safer Merseyside Pa rt n e r s h i p, who are hoping to expand
the Lancsafe policing areas within Merseyside and Gre ater Manchester to run the whole
length of the A580 from Live rpool to Manch e s t e r. Business Consortium members have
i nvested in improved security measures at their premises to assist in target hardening and
staff at local businesses have become active ly invo l ved in raising their awa reness in order to
reduce the opportunities.

For further information contact Supt Peter Clarke, Operations, St Helens Police Station, College Street, St
Helens, Merseyside WA10 1TG
Tel: 0151 777 6001 or E-mail: superintendent.operations.d/notes@merseyside.pnn.police.uk

“ Consortium members have invested in improved


security measures at their premises to assist in target
hardening and staff at local businesses have become actively
involved in raising their awareness in order to reduce the

28 Vehicle Crime
opportunities
” April 2003
The nature of personal robbery
Home Office Research Study 254

This report examines the nature of ro bb e ry in to three main sections. Chapter 2 reviews
in England and Wa l e s , based on an the current re s e a r ch into ro bb e ry and
e x a m i n ation of over 2,000 crime re p o rt s d r aws on official data to identify the main
and witness statements across seven police t rends in recorded ro bb e ry in England and
force are a s. The re p o rt focuses specifi c a l ly Wales in recent ye a r s. It also examines its
on personal ro bb e ry, w h i ch accounts fo r c o n c e n t r ation in a small number of metro-
the bulk of recorded ro bb e ry and most of politan forces and within these fo r c e s , a
the increase in these types of offences in small number of BCUs. L i m i t e d
recent years. c o m p a risons are also made with levels of
The key ch a r a c t e ristics of victims and recorded ro bb e ry in other countries.
o f fenders we re recorded from the dat a C h apter 3 of the re p o rt looks at the
c o l l e c t e d , together with details of how d ata collected from the BCUs as well as
ro bb e ry occurred and what pro p e rty wa s d e s c r ibing the main ch a r a c t e r istics of
taken from the victim. The info rm ation was victims and offenders in personal ro bb e ry.
collected from seven basic command units C h apter 4 concentrates on the circum-
(BCUs) and two British Tr a n s p o rt Po l i c e stances by which personal ro bb e ry take s
a reas so as to analyse the diffe rent levels of place and in part i c u l a r, the manner by
recorded ro bb e ry. The sample may not be w h i c h the victims are targeted by their
re p re s e n t at i ve as such , but by focusing on at t a cke r s. The last section summarises the
BCUs in different areas with different levels main findings and includes several re c o m-
of recorded ro bb e ry, the study aims to mendations.
capture the diversity of this pro bl e m .
The re s e a r ch aimed to obtain a suffi- Copies of this research study, published in
c i e n t ly large sample of ro bb e ry cases in January 2003, are available free from Research,
e a ch of the BCUs to gain an impression of Development and Statistics Directorate,
the nat u re and complexity of the ro bb e ry Communications Development Unit, Room 201,
p ro blem in diffe rent areas of England and 50 Queen Anne’s Gate, London SW1H 9AT
Wales. Tel: 020 7273 2084 E-mail:
Of the 2,016 crime re p o rts gat h e re d publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
for ro bb e ry, 1,877 we re for personal and can also be viewed and downloaded from
ro bb e ry. The data collected on these the Home Office Website at:
personal ro bb e ries included 2,065 victims http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/
and 4.251 suspects. Of the 1,877 personal pdfs2/hors254.pdf
ro bb e ries re c o r d e d , s u f ficient detail wa s
available to determine the circumstances of
the ro bb e ry in 1,721 offences. When inter-
p reting the dat a , the fo l l owing points
should be considered:
• The samples varied in size, as did the
time scale over which the data was
collected.
• BCU findings are based on police data
and may not capture the true level of
victimisation. The British Crime Survey
estimates that only 45 per cent of
robberies were recorded by the police
in 2001/2002.
• The data represents a snapshot of
robbery offending in the areas studied.
The remainder of this report is divided

April 2003 Violent Crime and Street Crime 29


B u rg l a ry Advice for Students
Home Office

Students are being targeted with crime reduction advice via a new Home Office Web s i t e
w w w. g o o d 2 b s e c u re . c o. u k. The site contains practical, l ow-cost guidance on how to avo i d
being a victim of crime.
Advice includes:
• Practical tips like taking down the serial numbers of valuable goods like laptops, or IMEI
numbers from mobile phones.
Visit the • Getting the right kind of insurance cover.
website at: • Personal safety advice.
http://www. • An interactive game, ‘Danny Timpson’s Kebabathon’.
good2bsecure. The game and website we re developed in a bid to reduce student victimisation rat e s.
co.uk About a third of students become victims of crime while they are at University. In particular,
For more following the Christmas period, student houses are often filled with valuables and electronic
information goods that can make them easy targets for thieve s. O ver 66% of students own a lap t o p, 8 6 %
contact own a mobile and many have their own stereos and televisions.
Dan Berry, The Keb ab athon game tries to put the serious lessons on the site into a fun framewo r k .
Home Office As student Danny we aves his way home from the pub and loses his key s , p l ayers must help
Website Editor, him past obstacles like the neighbours’ d o g. He then has to climb drainpipes in order to get
50 Queen indoors safe ly and all without losing his precious keb ab! Howeve r, t h e re is a serious cri m e
Anne’s Gate, p revention message behind the game, w h i ch suggests that if Danny can get into a house
London, SW1H 9AT without keys then so can a burglar.
Tel: 020 7273 3551 or The Home Office has worked closely with the National Union of Students in devising the
E-mail: daniel.berry2 site, which they hope will also be useful to parents with children in higher education, as well
@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk as those working in higher education institutions.

Prudential 4 Youth: Community Safety


Through Active Citizenship
Crime Concern and Prudential

C r ime Concern in partnership with the Pru d e n t i a l , has launched Prudential 4 Yo u t h , a


p rogramme that seeks to engage and empower young people as partners in tackling cri m e
and community safety issues through active citizenship.This new initiat i ve, w h i ch is the
result of a ten-year partnership between the Prudential and Crime Concern , e n ables yo u n g
people to take action against issues such as anti-social behaviour, shop theft and vandalism.
P rudential 4 Youth is based on a model introduced in 1993, w h i ch established ‘Youth
Action Groups’ involving young people in tackling local community safety issues. Since then,
For further information contact the scheme has developed and now runs via 15 Prudential owned shopping centres with the
Norman Lloyd aim of educating young people on the impact that crime has on businesses. The scheme will
Tel: 01844 292944 help partners to build on the knowledge and experience gained to sustain work with Yo u t h
E-mail: Action Groups into the wider city and town centre areas.
norman.lloyd@crimeconcern. Some of the benefits of the scheme are:
org.uk • An innovative programme for involving young people in the community safety and
or David Sharpe citizenship agenda
Tel: 01926 411601 • Increased confidence and self-esteem in young people.
E-mail: • C o n t ri butes to the development of crime reduction strategies to improve the physical
dave.sharpe@crimeconcern. security of schools as well as personal safety.
org.uk • Involves and reaches young people who are considered most ‘at risk’.
National Programmes In 2003, fifteen demonstration projects will be set up in va rious locat i o n s. These will
Managers, Crime Concern, m ove beyond issues such as shop theft and examine a wider community safety ag e n d a . A
Beaver House, number of regional ‘action learn i n g ’ events will raise awa reness of Prudential 4 Youth by
147 - 150 Victoria Road, s h owcasing the demonstration projects and highlighting the positive impact that yo u n g
Swindon SN1 3BU people can make in the community.

30 Youth Crime April 2003


Communities First Golf Project
North Wales Police

This project was set up in partnership with preve n t at i ve and diversionary activities. The
the local golf club and North Wales Po l i c e golf club provides the re s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g
and uses a positive reward system by the use of their fa c i l i t i e s , equipment and
o f fe ring incentives to young people who coaching skills.
stay out of trouble in the community. G roups of between 8 and 10 yo u n g
Golf was chosen as the theme for the people considered most at risk of offending
p roject due to the nu m e rous at t a c ks of a re selected by the police on the basis of
vandalism on a club in the area caused by who will benefit the most. T h ey at t e n d
young people on a nearby estat e. Both the we e k ly golf lessons delive red by a pro fe s-
club and the police we re keen to wo r k sional coach and monitored by a dedicat e d
w i t h , r ather than against the youngsters by police officer and the Communities First
including those committing the damage as S u p e rv i s o r. A nyone taking part in the
p a rt of the local golfing community and so s cheme that becomes invo l ved in crime is
p romoting the sport , the club and cre at i n g c o n s i d e red for exclusion depending on the
m o re positive behaviour amongst the circumstances and nature of the offence.
young people. The results of the scheme are
The main aims of the project are to: e n c o u r ag i n g. The young people benefit by
• provide disadvantaged young people l e a r ning a new sporting skill as well as
with opportunities to take part in a i m p roving their social skills and incre a s i n g
new activity their confi d e n c e. As they pro g re s s , t h ey are
• enable local golf clubs to form positive able to attend regular club sessions and be For more information contact
relationships with youths in the area considered for full membership. Louise Davis, Welsh Golfing
• provide disadvantaged young people E va l u ation is carried out by analy s i n g Union Development Officer,
with an incentive to stay out of tro u bl e the reduced levels of vandalism and at t a ck s Conwy County Borough
• ultimately decrease the crime rate in on the golf club. The activities of the young Council, Leisure Services
disadvantaged areas in North Wales. people are also measured over a set peri o d Department, Glan y Don,
E a ch partner has a specific ro l e. T h e of time to determine how often they are Colwyn Bay Tel: 01492 575353
police are able to identify the main found to have been in tro u bl e. or E-mail:
o f fenders and seek to engage them in louise.davis@conwy.gov.uk

April 2003 Youth Crime 31


‘Street Cred’ Personal Safety Project
Lancashire Constabulary

L a n c a s h i re Constabu l a ry has set up the responding to the request for contri bu-
‘ S t reet Cre d ’ Personal Safety Project after t i o n s. A meeting was held at the Lancaster
identifying a lack of high quality Youth T h e at re, fo l l owed by a series of
i n fo rm at i ve material in support of personal wo r k s h o p s , w h i c h provided the
safety for young people between 13 and 18 i n fo rm ation for the script.
years of age. The resulting video tells the story of a
Following consultation with the young number of young people who are affe c t e d
people themselve s , t wo students from St by an assault. The topics are port r ayed in a
M a rtins College in Lancaster put together a way that young people will understand as
video reflecting the issues and concerns of well as providing clear messages to their
young people and the va rious aspects of peers.
personal safety such as: The video, together with leaflets,
For more information and • safe routes p o s t e r s , pens and bookmarks have been
copies of the pack priced £25 • mobile phone theft d i s t ri buted to all local schools and yo u t h
plus P& Pcontact Mrs Jan • telling someone where you are going g roups in the are a . A teaching pack is also
Brown, Crime Prevention • what to do if you are being followed being supplied to Head Te a chers fo r
Officer, Lancaster Police • witnessing a crime inclusion in their Personal and Social
Station, Thurham Street, • the consequences of crime. Health Education (PSHE) programme.
Lancaster LA1 1YB Details for the production of the video An eva l u ation of the project will be
Tel: 01524 596696 we re widely adve rtised in schools acro s s c a rried out from the results of question-
Fax: 01524 596624 the region with over 50 young people naires included in the pack.

Youth Watch Scheme


Avon and Somerset Constabulary

A school in Somerset has set up a schools-based neighbourhood wat ch scheme in the are a .
The sch e m e, w h i ch went live in September last ye a r, is aimed at promoting and deve l o p i n g
good citizenship and is run as a structured club with links to supporting agencies such as the
local Community Safety Partnership and the District Council.
E a ch ye a r, re p re s e n t at i ves are voted for by pupils to become Youth Wat ch Pre fe c t s , w h o
get together once a week to discuss new and ongoing pro j e c t s , as well as any issues of
c o n c e rn . A member from this panel also attends meetings organised by the School Council.
Once in place, re p re s e n t at i ves are able to speak to their year in a way that encourages the
young people to listen and understand, w h at ever the subject topic may be.
The School Youth Wat ch Panel is supported by the police, t e a chers and local adult
Neighbourhood Wat ch Gro u p, w h i ch enables the police to disseminate info rm ation such as
p rotecting pro p e rty against theft, d rugs awa re n e s s , bu l lying and bike securi t y. This is then
passed to the Youth Watch Prefects, together with any relevant literature. Other agencies, such
as the health and youth services, also use the scheme to promote their projects or topics and
obtain feedback on them. The adult Neighbourhood Watch group also benefits by being able
to share community issues and problems and the young people involved in the scheme have
For more information contact a chain of communication in which they can express their concerns and desires for support,
Simon Selby, The Mendip Crime which in turn encourages community involvement and awareness.
Reduction Officer, Wells Police The young people are told not to become invo l ved in enforcement activity and each
Station, 18 Glastonbury Road, child is given a Crimestoppers card. A notice board is placed in the main entrance to the
Wells, Somerset BA5 1TL school and the year representatives display literature and details of forthcoming events, issues
Tel: 01823 363743 l i ke ly to effect the young people and local crime trends.
or E-mail: simon.selby@ After a ye a r ’s service to the sch e m e, the young re p re s e n t at i ves are presented with an
avonandsomerset.pnn. a ch i evement cert i fi c ate and it is hoped that this can be included on their CV to reflect their
police.uk active citizenship and contribution to community working.

32 Youth Crime April 2003