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Scott Foresman Science 4.5
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Unless otherwise acknowledged. write to Permissions Department. Left (L). Motta/Dept. 20 (TL) ©American Museum of Natural History/ DK Images. or transmission in any form by any means. Printed in the United States of America. 3 (CR) ©Prof. and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Your digestive system works to break down the food you eat. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited.. 17 Big Sesh Studios. photocopying. ISBN: 0-328-13872-X Copyright © Pearson Education.Vocabulary immune system infectious disease involuntary muscles neuron pathogens vaccine voluntary muscles What did you learn? 1. (B) ©American Museum of Natural History/DK Images. recording.. 1900 East Lake Avenue. What is the control center of the body? 3.” Rome/Photo Researchers. All Rights Reserved. Right (R). P.” Rome/Photo Researchers. 22 Bettmann/Corbis. Inc. of Anatomy/University “La Sapienza. What are the parts of the respiratory system? What does each part do? 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 . all photographs are the copyright © of Dorling Kindersley. Scott Foresman. a division of Pearson. Illinois 60025. Describe on your own paper how this happens and for what purpose. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Center (C). Motta/Dept. Background (Bkgd). by Barbara Fierman 5. Draw Conclusions What conclusion can you draw about the ways a healthy body’s systems are functioning? Picture Credits Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. storage in a retrieval system. 1 ©Prof. or likewise. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). P. mechanical. 7 (CL) ©Dr. Inc. How does a vaccine help you stay healthy? 4. Bottom (B). of Anatomy/University “La Sapienza. This publication is protected by Copyright. Include details from the book to support your answer. For information regarding permission(s). electronic. Glenview. Inc.
breathe. like every other human body. The different organ systems in your body work together. Each organ in your body has a different job. Your stomach is an organ. Your body uses different organ systems when you run. Different kinds of cells have different jobs. Each part of an organ system is important. Cells that are alike are grouped together to make up tissues. The tissues in the lining of your stomach work together to break down the food you eat. and digest food. Each organ system has its own job. bone cells Tissues work in unison to make up organs. The stomach and small intestine are organs of the digestive system. Organs that work together in a group are an organ system.Systems of Support And Movement Your body. Other kinds of tissue move and control parts of your body. There are many different kinds of cells in your body. Skin tissue covers your body. stomach lining 2 3 . Connective tissue helps support your body. Organ Systems Your body is made up of tiny units known as cells. The organ systems in your body work together. This system breaks down food so nutrients can be carried to your cells. has several organ systems.
or holds up. femur clavicle (collarbone) scapula (shoulder blade) sternum (breastbone) humerus vertebrae (backbone) ribs ulna pelvis (hipbone) carpals (wrist bones) phalanges (ﬁnger bones) Your skeleton supports. A joint is where one bone attaches to another.cranium (skull) The Parts of The Skeletal System Your bones join together to make a frame for your body. This joint allows you to bend your arm. your body. ﬁbula tibia (shinbone) phalanges (toe bones) tarsals (ankle bones) hinge joint 4 5 . Your elbow has a hinge joint. Bones need minerals to stay healthy. The shape of a bone is related to its job. Your shoulder has a ball-and-socket joint. Bones make different kinds of blood cells. Bones come in different sizes and shapes. For example. This joint allows you to swing your arm around. It also helps muscle and nerve tissue to work properly. Others help ball-and-socket joint stop bleeding when you get a cut. Some of these blood cells help prevent sickness. There are 206 bones in an adult skeleton. Your skeleton protects your organs. Calcium is a mineral that helps make new bone tissue and keeps bones strong. the bones in your skull protect your brain. This frame is your skeleton. The bones in your skeleton are made mostly of bone tissue.
You are using voluntary muscles when you turn your head. or reach for something. Smooth muscles in your eyes control how much light can enter. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles. Smooth muscles are found in many places in your body. Your muscles and bones work together to make your body move. Cardiac muscle is found only in your heart. There are two types of involuntary muscle tissue. cardiac muscle 6 7 . One type is cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscles work when you bend over. Your triceps pull your arm straight out again. When one muscle pulls. Muscles that make your bones move are called skeletal muscles. Voluntary muscles work as pairs. because you do not choose when to use them. even when you are not thinking about it. the other one relaxes. Try holding your arm out straight. pumping blood around your body. The other type is smooth muscle. stand up. or muscles that move when you choose. Involuntary muscles control your breathing and your heartbeat. or smile.The Parts of The Muscular System Muscles are attached to bones. Other muscles are called involuntary muscles. Involuntary muscles are working all the time. It works all the time. squeeze your ﬁngers. and then bend it at the elbow. Your biceps pull your arm in. Smooth muscles in your stomach help digest food.
the trachea splits into two parts. Since your lungs do not have muscles. Each branch goes to an air sac in your lung. this old air is pushed up through your nose or mouth.Systems of Respiration And Circulation The respiratory and circulatory systems work together. You need oxygen to stay alive. 9 . trachea How the Respiratory System Works ribs The air you breathe contains a gas called oxygen. Next. Then it moves into a tube known as the trachea (TRAY-kee-uh). The trachea walls are made of tissue called cartilage. This causes them to give off another gas. Then blood brings oxygen to all your cells. At its end. Oxygen in the air sac goes through the walls of the blood vessels. or your windpipe. and it moves your ribs. your ribs move up and out. or your throat. Each air sac is wrapped in tiny blood vessels. The cells in your body use the oxygen. When you breathe out. Hairs in your nose stop dust or dirt in the air from entering your body. They bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells in your body. When you breathe out. When you breathe. 8 bronchial tubes Each bronchial tube splits into many branches inside your lung. Cartilage is a stiff tissue that keeps the tube open. Every living thing needs it. The carbon dioxide moves from your cells to your lungs. your ribs move down and in. Each bronchial tube goes into one of your lungs. you take air into your body through your nose and mouth. carbon dioxide. When you breathe in. A muscle known as the diaphragm (DEYE-uh-fram) is diaphragm located just below your lungs. Then the carbon dioxide leaves your body. they cannot push air in or out on their own. or bronchial tubes. the air travels through your pharynx (FAR-ingks). lung It is shaped like a dome.
the carbon dioxide leaves your body. Blood comes from the lungs. Blood is pumped to the lungs. blood vessels. and blood. Then the circulatory system takes charge. the respiratory system brings oxygen into your lungs. Your heart pumps blood to the rest of your body. The respiratory system works with the circulatory system. oxygen moves into your blood. One pump is on the right side. left pump right pump separating muscle 10 11 . oxygen-rich blood carbondioxide-rich blood Your Heart You can think of your heart as two pumps. When you breathe out. First.Pumps and Passages Work Together You have learned that organ systems work together. The circulatory system is made up of your heart. They also take carbon dioxide away from the cells and out of your body. Blood vessels carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart. That side receives blood from your lungs. The blood is full of carbon dioxide from the body’s cells. Together the respiratory and circulatory systems bring oxygen to the cells in your body. A muscle separates the two sides of your heart. The heart pumps it to the cells all through your body. Blood brings oxygen to your body’s cells. The other pump is on the left side of the heart. That side receives blood from your body and pumps it to your lungs. The blood contains oxygen that your body needs. It prevents the oxygen-rich blood coming into your heart from mixing with carbon-dioxide-rich blood going out of it. From there.
Blood carries nutrients to the body’s cells. All of these foods contain nutrients that your body needs. pasta. After about four hours. the food goes down a tube called the esophagus (ee-SAH-fuh-gus). your teeth and saliva start to break down the food. The mashed food mixes with juices and becomes a liquid. The job of the digestive system is to break down the food you eat so that your body can use it. First. the nutrients move into the blood vessels. Your stomach has smooth muscles that mash the food.Systems of Digestion And Control The digestive system changes food so it can be used by the cells in your body. The Digestive System What are your favorite lunch foods? Maybe you like chicken. More juices are mixed in. Some parts of food are not broken down. But even the smallest piece of food is too big for your body to use. They are turned into solid waste that will leave the body. an orange. This is called digestion. These parts move into the large intestine. The liquid goes into a long tube called the small intestine. After you swallow. These juices break the food into nutrients. Digestion starts when you take your ﬁrst bite. esophagus large intestine stomach small intestine 12 13 . Muscles push the food into your stomach. and milk. The nervous system directs the digestive and other organ systems.
You open the door and see your friend. spinal cord 14 15 . For example. blink. and sneeze without thinking about it. Your central nervous system sends messages so all these actions can happen. skin. These organs include your eyes. One part of this system is called the central nervous system. The brain and spinal cord are important parts of the central nervous system. The central nervous system sends messages from your brain to other parts of your body. You hear the bell and your friend’s voice.brain The Central Nervous System The nervous system works with other systems to control almost everything your body does. For example. Then the system tells your body what to do. The central nervous system also controls activities that you don’t even think about. All of this can happen because your central nervous system sends messages from one part of your body to another. and tongue. You close the door after your friend comes inside. suppose that your friend rings your doorbell. Your sense organs bring messages to your central nervous system. nose. ears. you breathe. It tells your body to do things such as raise your hand or open a door.
and some send messages out of neurons. neuron Every neuron has a cell body and a nucleus. Your spinal cord is made of many bundles of nerves. They take them to other nerve cells. skull The Spinal Cord Your spinal cord links your brain to the rest of your body. and the bones of your skull all protect your brain. It is made up of billions of nerve cells. There are more than 100 billion neurons in this system. A nerve cell is called a neuron. The spinal cord does not ﬁll up the spinal column. Three layers of tissue cover and protect the brain. Many neurons bundled together make up a nerve. The extra space is ﬁlled with layers of tissue. Some branches get messages from other nerve cells. Neurons carry information and send signals to and from the brain. They bring them to the cell body. Neurons The central nervous system is made up of nerve cells. You do not even think about it. Then it transmits those signals so your body can respond.The Brain Your brain is the control center of your body. So some branches take messages into neurons. It is located inside a tube called the spinal column. The space between the layers of tissue is ﬁlled with a liquid. the liquid. spinal cord 16 17 . the layers of tissue cover and protect the spinal cord. Each cell body has branches. The tissue layers. Your spinal cord receives signals from your brain. Other branches get messages from the cell body. Just like the brain.
Some microorganisms live in your body all the time.Systems of Defense Your body has many ways to protect itself. For example. Tears and saliva also protect you. the acids in sweat kill harmful organisms. One way is to keep harmful organisms out of your tissues. however. They are harmless. and organs that work to protect you. are harmful. They are called microorganisms. Their job is to not let these microorganisms harm you. The cut can get infected if organisms that cause disease get into it. Your skin gives you protection. But your body has cells. Microorganisms in Your Body Some microorganisms. Saliva catches organisms in your mouth and washes them away. tears skin saliva 18 19 . They help prevent you from getting sick. Some live on your skin and in your mouth. tissues. Tears wash away harmful organisms from your eyes. Keeping Harm Out What do you do when you get a cut on your skin? First. you clean the cut. Then you might cover it with a bandage to help protect the cut. They can make you sick. Some in your digestive system help you digest food. Most of these organisms are so small that you cannot even see them.
cover your mouth when you cough. and glasses are clean before you use them.Bacteria and Viruses Organisms that make people sick are called pathogens. Clean the counter before and after you put food on it. and throat. you can get an infectious disease. Then you get a cold. make sure that objects such as towels. If you have certain pathogens in your body. dishes. more of them will probably grow. There are many different kinds of pathogens. and cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze. you can try not to spread the microorganisms to other people. Also. Pathogens should not be in your body. If you have a cold. Harmful microorganisms also live on objects in your home and in your school. It can spread from one person to another. Viruses are tiny pathogens. They are much smaller than bacteria. you can get sick. For example. They can cause an infection that will make you sick. 20 21 . Two kinds of pathogens are bacteria and viruses. An infectious disease is caused by pathogens. You can try to keep them from getting into your body by washing your hands before you eat. Staying Healthy Harmful microorganisms move through the air. some attack the cells in your nose. Different viruses attack different cells. When viruses get into your body. If you are sick. It is possible to give it to someone else. If you touch an object that has these microorganisms. Have you ever had strep throat? Strep throat is caused by bacteria that infect your throat. mouth. they use your cells to make more viruses. Then you will send fewer microorganisms through the air that might ﬁnd their way to someone else. If some pathogens get into your body.
Edward Jenner did tests with the material he got from a sore. When a pathogen ﬁrst enters your body. It attacks the pathogen before you get sick. Florence Nightingale was a nurse from England. These white blood cells also produce antibodies. but they need to ﬁt together to do the whole job. Louis Pasteur learned that microorganisms could make people sick. Your body is made of different parts and systems that work together. They each have their own role. white blood cells work to kill it. He also found ways to kill some microorganisms.Your Body Fights Infections People began to study diseases many years ago. A vaccine is a kind of medicine that has a form of a pathogen in it. Alexander Fleming discovered a fungus called penicillin. He experimented and learned that penicillin kills bacteria. This will make your body immune to the disease. They also discovered ways to protect people from getting sick. She insisted that people keep hospitals clean. The pathogen is not strong enough to make you sick. Your body is able to make a different antibody for each kind of pathogen. and rubella. If you get the vaccine for measles. your body will make antibodies against the pathogen. He thought that each pathogen would cause a different infectious disease. Blood cells and other tissues make up your immune system. Then he developed a vaccine against smallpox. Those parts and systems are similar to pieces of a puzzle. They learned more about why people got sick. mumps. The next time the pathogen gets into your body. When a pathogen gets into your body. But when you take it. your body recognizes it. your body makes an antibody to stop it. Robert Koch did experiments with pathogens. The Immune System Attacks the Invaders The immune system helps protect you against pathogens. 22 23 . you will not get these diseases. which your body uses to stop pathogens.
Your digestive system works to break down the food you eat. Center (C). All Rights Reserved.” Rome/Photo Researchers.. and nerves. and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 22 Bettmann/Corbis. Bottom (B). Inc. Right (R). of Anatomy/University “La Sapienza. Draw Conclusions What conclusion can you draw about the ways a healthy body’s systems are functioning? pathogens vaccine 5. Glenview. of Anatomy/University “La Sapienza. P. Picture Credits Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. Describe on your own paper how this happens and for what purpose. 7 (CL) ©Dr. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). ISBN: 0-328-13872-X Copyright © Pearson Education. What are the parts of the respiratory system? What does each part do? 2. 17 Big Sesh Studios. voluntary muscles muscles you can choose to move 1 ©Prof.Vocabulary immune system Glossary infectious disease involuntary muscles neuron system immune the system that protects you against pathogens pathogens vaccine voluntary muscles illness caused by pathogens infectious disease involuntary muscles neuron muscles you cannot choose to move one of the cells forming the brain. P. mechanical. photocopying. spinal cord. Inc. 3 (CR) ©Prof. What is the control center of the body? 3. This publication is protected by Copyright. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Motta/Dept. all photographs are the copyright © of Dorling Kindersley. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 24 . recording. 20 (TL) ©American Museum of Natural History/ DK Images. Background (Bkgd). Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited. Illinois 60025. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). Include details from the book to support your answer. Motta/Dept. or transmission in any form by any means. Left (L). (B) ©American Museum of Natural History/DK Images. How does a vaccine help you stay healthy? 4. Unless otherwise acknowledged. Scott Foresman. Inc.” Rome/Photo Researchers. a division of Pearson. nerve cell organisms that make people sick a kind of medicine that makes you immune to a disease What did you learn? 1. storage in a retrieval system. write to Permissions Department.. or likewise. Printed in the United States of America. 1900 East Lake Avenue.
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