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INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

New Injection Moulding Technologies for Tomorrow's Production

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ch. Hopmann, Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Neu Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) in Industry and the Skilled Crafts at RWTH Aachen University Kunststoffen 2012 Eindhoven, September 27th 2012

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

The Institute of Plastics Processing


Institut fr Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV)
Founded in 1950, supported by a Sponsors' Society Associated with the RWTH Aachen University Sponsors' Society with 237 members (one third foreign companies ) raw material producers machine manufacturers plastics processors research institutes associations

Staff of IKV :

80 scientific employees 50 employees in laboratories, workshops and administration 223 student workers

(As of January 2011)

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

IKV-Locations in Aachen

Pontstrae 49-55 Management and Executive Board Injection Moulding PUR-Technology Training/Skilled Crafts

Seffenter Weg 201 Composites Extrusion and Further Processing Part Design/Materials Technology Centre for Analysis and Testing of Plastics

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Key features of the IKV research programme


THERMOPLASTICS, THERMOSETS, ELASTOMERS, COMPOSITES, SPECIAL MATERIALS INJECTION MOULDING, EXTRUSION, BLOW MOULDING, COMPRESSION MOULDING, SPECIAL PROCESSES production planning, PPS, machine selection SPC, statistic experimental design

material data, material models

CAD, CAE, design rules

CAD, CAE, design rules

PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS

material selection

product layout and design

production layout of analysis of moulds, dies complex and machines interconnected processes mould or die / machine prototype, CAM measuring, controlling, adjusting and optimisation of process values

quality assurance

PRODUCT

material innovations

product prototyp

testing sensor, systems

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, RECYCLING PRODUCTION PLANNING, PLANT ORGANISATION

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Performance Record 2011


More than 700 participants in conferences More the 22.000 participants in crafts trainings More than 190 papers More than 100 student theses 15 doctor degrees 9 awards in scientific excellence

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Injection moulding department


Process Technology
special IM processes process combinations special materials key technologies

Simulation
process simulation inner part properties integrative simulation special IM processes

Mould Technology
temp. control concepts process control special IM processes Rapid Prototyping/Tooling

Company Organisation
benchmarking intercompany comparison technical consulting process analysis

Machine Technology
drive concepts IM of micro parts IM of foamed parts water injection technique

Crosslinking Materials
processing of polyurethane elastomer injection moulding mould/systems engineering

Dipl.-Ing. A. Neu Tel. +49 241 80-93827

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Outline
Introduction trends in injection moulding New injection moulding technologies for increasing process and function integration Surface functionalisation using variothermal injection moulding Lightweight parts for automotive applications
Projectile injection technique Back foaming of metal sheets Hybrid light-weight construction parts

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electronic applications Conclusions and outlook

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Current situation in injection moulding


Current Situation
Increasing demands regarding adding value, performance of materials, lightweight design of assembly groups, integration of functions, efficiency of production processes, saving of resources (e.g. material).

Fact
The standards of parts in terms of design and functionality as well as demands for economical, resource efficient productions often cannot be fulfilled by conventional materials and manufacturing methods. Limits between different material classes and manufacturing methods have been shifted increasingly.

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Trends and current developments in injection moulding


rain sensor door trim panel

Trends and current developments


New technologies for part functionalisation
Production of high-value polymer surfaces, e.g. surface modification using microstructures,

Process integration by combining different manufacturing technologies


production of assembly groups with different components under reduction of the process chain, e.g. multi-component injection moulding, SkinForm,

frontend

Multi-material mixes in one part


combination of different materials to meet all the requirements, e.g. automotive front ends made of plastics/metal and/or plastics/organic sheet combinations,

Material and resource efficiency


dashboard support
fluid-assited injection moulding processes for thermoplastics, new drive concepts for injection moulding machines,

[Innolite, KraussMaffei Technologies GmbH, LANXESS Deutschland GmbH, Ford Motor Company, SPE]

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Outline
Introduction trends in injection moulding New injection moulding technologies for increasing process and function integration Surface functionalisation using variothermal injection moulding Lightweight parts for automotive applications
Projectile injection technique Back foaming of metal sheets Hybrid light-weight construction parts

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electronic applications Conclusions and outlook

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Production of functional, microstructured surfaces using variothermal injection moulding


Current situation Current situation
Functional surfaces are produced in many steps and long process chains

Aim Aim
stretched micro structures to create superhydrophobic surfaces

Hybrid production in order to integrate process steps Further development of dynamic mould heating techniques Replication of functional micro structures (e.g. superhydrophobic surfaces)

Results Approach
Use of variothermal injection moulding
variothermal temperature control by mould integrated diode laser

Development of a laser based mould heating to realise high heat-up rates

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Formation of the frozen outer layer influence of the cavity wall temperature
Injection moulding conventional low cavity wall temperature frozen outer layer polymer melt (fountain flow) Injection moulding variothermal high cavity wall temperature completely filled micro structure

cavity wall temperature

cavity wall

time

time

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Dynamic mould heating using diode laser irradiation


very high power transfer heat-up rates of up to 300 K/s using mould integrated optics pyrometer based control of the laser power no modification of the mould required when an external system is used flexible, specific heating of any geometry simultaneos heating of multiple cavities possible no limitations regarding heatable mould material (steel, copper, aluminium)
focused laser beam beam wave guide transparent mould insert collimated laser beam 23 mm laser scanner laser optics

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Microstructured mould insert immitating the surface of the lotus leaf


direct ablation of hardened tool steel 20 m structuring by means of ultra short pulse laser (pulse length 10 ps) no steel melt at the edge of the structure roughness on the structures 15 m superimposed roughness grinding grooves

x500

50 m

x2000

10 m

x5000

5 m

[Fraunhofer ILT]

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

SEM-Picture and contact angle measurement injection moulding conventional and variothermal (PP)
x100 x750 30 m 200 m

conventional injection moulding incomplete moulding contact angle = 115 (slightly hydrophobic) variothermal injection moulding complete moulding and drawing of the structure contact angle = 166 (superhydrophobic)

x100

200 m

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Schematic illustration of the moulding and demoulding behaviour


conventional process filling of the cavity plastics melt cavity demoulding of the part
moulded part moulded part

variothermal process complete filling of the superimposed nano-structure

direction of demoulding stretched hair

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Potential use of variothermal process control in injection moulding


moulding of functional, micro structured surfaces reduction of visible weld lines

20 m production of high-gloss surfaces in one step thin-wall parts with high flow length

[IKV, Gigaset, Hofmann, Mitsubishi, Samsung, gwk, Zumtobel]

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Outline
Introduction trends in injection moulding New injection moulding technologies for increasing process and function integration Surface functionalisation using variothermal injection moulding Lightweight parts for automotive applications
Projectile injection technique Back foaming of metal sheets Hybrid light-weight construction parts

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electronic applications Conclusions and outlook

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Process development of the projectile injection technique (PIT)


Initial Situation
Process was first-time described in Japanese patents in the middle of the 90s. Sporadically applied until now, first application in Europe in 2006 Prospects and limitations are barely known so far

Sucess factors
Reduced wall thicknesses compared to conventional FIT Reduction of material costs Reduction of cycle time Only constant cross sections are feasible, but increased freedom of design regarding shape and size of cross sections Simplified cheap injector technology is applicable

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Visualization of PIT process in sight vision mould


transparent material: PMMA Plexiglas 7N process variant: full-shot

Observations: stable flow of the projectile characteristic melt flow in front of the projectile residual wall defined by projectile cross section 30 mm

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Comparison of the hollow space formation within the WIT and the W-PIT
material: Ultramid PA6.6 GF30

WIT

W-PIT

30 mm

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Comparison of the hollow space formation within the WIT and the W-PIT
material: Ultramid PA6.6 GF30

WIT

W-PIT

30 mm

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Comparison of the residual wall thickness (RWT) and the hollow space eccentricity for WIT and W-PIT
6 residual wall thickness / eccentricity [mm] 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 measuring position [-] 4
1

WIT average RWT WIT eccentricity W-PIT average RWT W-PIT eccentricity
2

test part

measuring positions

30 mm

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Continuous fiber-reinforced media pipes produced with water assisted projectile injection technique
Context Current situation
The focus on energy saving in the automotive industry leads to engine-downsizing and constantly increasing requirements for media pipes regarding pressure peaks and part weight.

Approach Approach
A new process for the production of continuous fiber-reinforced media pipes using the projectile injection technique (PIT) is developed.

First results Previous results


A newly designed FIT-injection-mould allows the integration of continuous-fiber fabrics and the investigation of different processing strategies. [Contitech]

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Modular designed injection-mould with a fixation device for continuous fiber fabrics
fixed mould half movable mould half

changeable insert

fiber fixation

axial injector

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Process sequence for the production of continuous fiber-reinforced media pipes using the PIT
placement and fixation of the reinforcement fabric fixation continuous fiber melt injection projectile

fluid injection

fluid holding pressure

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Continuous fiber-reinforced media pipes produced with water assisted projectile injection technique
Potential of the new process technology
Economic advantages: + Cycle time < 30 s + 35 % weight reduction compared to WIT parts with identical mechanical properties (e.g. bursting strength) + Adjustable wall thicknesses independent of rheological material properties due to projectile geometry Technical advantages: + All thermoplastics applicable (no FIT modifcation of the materials required) + Alternative matrix materials applicable (PU, LSR, rubber) + Load-oriented alignment of the continuous fibers + Combination of same materials for fiber and matrix possible + Geometric freedom e.g. through integration of connecting parts + No breaking at the cold impact test (-40 C)

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

"Hylight" Novel design of automotive hybridlightweight construction


Initial situation hybrid-frontend
Hybrid parts are popular in automotive industries Suboptimal material utilisation caused by missing data for simulations

Objectives [Ford] project partners


Adhesive bond between metal and plastics using suitable bonding agents 20% weight-reduction through new simulation and process knowledge

Approach
Development of the complete manufacturing chain Investigations on different bonding agents Simulation development

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Hybrid bonding by injection moulding

state of the art bonding technique collar sheet metal rivet

adhesive bonding technique adhesive agent

sheet metal

polymer bonding by form closure

polymer adhesive bonding on the whole surface

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Hylight Process chain

Sheet coating with adhesion agent (Coil Coating)

Deep drawing of coated sheet

Mould insertion

Injection moulding

Integrated part

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Torsion tests of a hybrid test specimen


25 Torsionssteifigkeit torsional rigidity [Nm/] 20 15 10 5 0 PA6-GF30 PA6-GF50 PPA-GF30 PPA-GF50 PP-LGF30

uncoated unbeschichtet coated beschichtet

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

ProFoam New process for foam injection moulding of thermoplastics


Whyfoam foaminjection injection mouldig Why moulding?
Reduction of warpage
airlock
sealing

Reduction of cycle time High weight-specific bending-stiffness Weight reduction

Initialsituation situation Initial


Processing of physical blowing agents requires a complex systems engineering so far.

compact foamed Door lock cover (PBT-GF30) [Ticona]

Solution Approach
Use of a conventional injection moulding machine Dosing of the blowing agent using an airlock between feed hopper and plasticising unit

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

The ProFoam-process
valve gas connector airlock chamber material hopper blowing agent vent blowing agent inlet

accumulator chamber

plasticising cylinder is set under pressure with blowing agent

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Advantages of the ProFoam-process

Simple process set-up of the ProFoam-process as the gas pressure is the only additional parameter Stable, robust foaming process, because the propellant is always dissolved completely Required additional equipment is less complex and thus more flexible in comparison to other foaming processes

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Influence of the blowing agent on the foam structure


(PA6GF35, easy flow at 260 C, 15 % weight reduction)

CO2 30 bar

N2 30 bar

CO2 50 bar

N2 50 bar

material: Lanxess BKV 35 H2.0 EF

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Back foaming of metal sheets with integrated forming

Insert and back-inject the metal sheet integrated forming of the metal sheet in the mould by the melt pressure The melt is loaded a with physical blowing agent using the Profoam-process Mould temperature above 100 C for activation of the adhesive agent and to improve the formability of the metal For foaming the cavity volume is increased using a breathing mould The foam structure is adjustable in a wide range by setting the cavity extension

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Benefits of back foaming of metal sheets

IKV-test part Enhancement of bending stiffness through weight neutral increase of thickness Increase of design freedom, as the gas pressure in the melt avoids sink marks Homogenous foam structure throughout the whole part with breathing mould Metal optic and metal haptic (cool-touch effect) Premium surface quality for injection moulded foam parts

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Outline
Introduction trends in injection moulding New injection moulding technologies for increasing process and function integration Surface functionalisation using variothermal injection moulding Lightweight parts for automotive applications
Projectile injection technique Back foaming of metal sheets Hybrid light-weight construction parts

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electronic applications Conclusions and outlook

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electro- and electronic applications


Current situation Problemstellung
Production of plastic/metal hybrids is characterised by many production steps and limitations in the achievable productivity and complexity of the parts.

Aim Aim
Production of electronic parts through the combination of the primary forming processes injection moulding and die casting Manufacture of a thermoplastic carrier with integrated conductor tracks made of low melting metal alloys on one machine and within one mould

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Demonstrator part heatable sports glasses


Fully automated production cell Advanced mould technology based on multi-component injection moulding Demonstrator heatable sports glasses
Use of ohmic heating of the conductor track to produce heat (resistance heating)

Dissipating heat has an antifogging effect on the lenses Hybrid 3-component-application Complex three dimensional course of the conductor track Directly contacted connector pins Finishing free production

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Mould and machine technique for the hybrid multi-component injection moulding
Development of a metal injection unit which combines elements of metal die casting and micro injection moulding Fully automated production of the heatable sports glasses using a 3-station index plate mould integrated in a complex production cell

Station 1 Production of the optical glasses and moulding around the metal pins Station 2 Injection of the low melting metal alloy and direct contacting of the metal pins Station 3 Manufacture of the frame and demoulding Monitoring of the hybrid multi-component injection moulding process using pressure and temperature sensors

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Outline
Introduction trends in injection moulding New injection moulding technologies for increasing process and function integration Surface functionalisation using variothermal injection moulding Lightweight parts for automotive applications
Projectile injection technique Back foaming of metal sheets Hybrid light-weight construction parts

Hybrid multi-component injection moulding for electronic applications Conclusions and outlook

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

Conclusions and outlook


Global trends in plastics processing as the demand for lightweight design, increasing functional integration and efficiency of the whole production pose a challenge for the injection moulders in Europe. These demands often cannot be fulfilled by conventional materials and manufacturing methods. The presented new injection moulding technologies for part functionalisation, combination of different processes and materials as well as saving material and energy have the potential to overcome some current limitations of state of the art processes. The IKV would be very happy to discuss both our and your ideas for new injection moulding technologies to meet the challenges of tomorrows production.

INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS PROCESSING (IKV) AACHEN, GERMANY

New Injection Moulding Technologies for Tomorrow's Production

Thank you very much for your attention!


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ch. Hopmann, Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Neu Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) in Industry and the Skilled Crafts at RWTH Aachen University