Violence on and around public transport

Violence on and around public transport (Amy Burrell, 31 May 2007)
8 Appendices
Table A1: Violence Against the Person Offence Type Murder Attempted Murder Threat or conspiracy to murder Manslaughter Wounding/endanger life Endanger railway passenger Endanger life at sea Other wounding/possess weapons/harassment Home Office Main Classification (HOMC) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 66 125 195 11 109 12 13 14 15 37 104 105 Home Office Offence Classification (HOOC) 1-2 0 1-3 1-4, 6-7 1-2, 4-25 1-4 1-13 1-6, 11, 13-18, 20-31, 33-34, 36-38, 40-41, 43-47, 49-52 9,10,16 9,11,12,58,61,63 94 2-3 1-2, 5-8 0 1-2 1-2 1 1 23,30,31 1-11

Child cruelty Abandoning a child under 2yrs Child Abduction Procuring illegal abortion Concealment of Birth Causing death by aggravated vehicle taking Assault constable Common assault


Violence on and around public transport
Table A2: Sexual Offences Offence Type Buggery Indecent Assault Male Gross indecency b/w males Rape of a female/male Indecent assault Female Sexual activity w/t child U13 Unlawful intercourse girl U16 Incest Exploitation of prostitution Abduction Bigamy Soliciting Sexual activity mental disorder Abuse child through porn or prostitution Trafficking for sexual exploitation Abuse of trust Gross indecency with child Grooming/miscellaneous Home Office Main Classification (HOMC) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 165 70 71 72 8 73 74 88 Home Office Offence Classification (HOOC) 5-6,11-28 11-16 2-6, 7-11 2-4, 7-19 1-6 2-5 2-5 1-3 0, 1-3, 5-7, 10-19 1-5 0 0 1-2 1-24 1-13 1-3 39 1-6 1-2 1-7, 9-11

Table A3: Robbery Offence Type Robbery of Business Property Robbery of Personal Property Home Office Main Classification (HOMC) 34A 34B Home Office Offence Classification (HOOC) 1-2 1-2


Violence on and around public transport
Appendix A4 - Specifications for BTP data Type of offences: for the West Midlands Police Area violent crime has been defined as all offence types which are counted as violent crime under the Home Office Counting Rules (appendix provided). This includes all categories recorded under Violence against the Person, Sex Offences and Robbery. It would beneficial to the analysis to include all offences which, recorded by the BTP, which occur on this list. As extraction of the data may take some time, and very small numbers of some offences are recorded, it is suggested that offence types might be limited to: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) homicide (murder, attempted murder, manslaughter); wounding/endanger life; wounding (most notably GBH, ABH, weapon possession, harassment and public order); assault on a constable; common assault; rape (male and female); indecent assault (male and female); and robbery

Timeframe: 1-Apr-03 to 31-Mar-06 is the timeframe currently under consideration but details of more recent offences would be most welcome too. Stations located within the West Midlands Region
Acocks Green Adderley Park Aston Berkswell Bescot Birmingham International Birmingham New Street Blake Street Bloxwich Bloxwich North Bordesley Bournville Butlers Lane Canley Chester Road Coseley Coventry Cradley Heath Dorridge Duddeston Dudley Port Earlswood Erdington Five Ways Four Oaks Gravelly Hill Hall Green Hampton-In-Arden Hamstead Jewellery Quarter Kings Norton Langley Green Lea Hall Longbridge Lye Marston Green Moor Street Northfield Old Hill Olton Perry Barr Rowley Regis Sandwell and Dudley Selly Oak Shirley Small Heath Smethwick Galton Bridge Smethwick Rolfe Street Snow Hill Solihull Spring Road Stechford Stourbridge Junction Stourbridge Town Sutton Coldfield Tamebridge The Hawthorns Tile Hill Tipton Tyseley University Walsall Whitlocks End Widney Manor Witton Wolverhampton Wylde Green Wythall Yardley Wood

Data columns required for analysis:    type of offence (by Home Office code/BTP equivalent) description of offence (e.g. robbery:personal, rape, common assault) date of offence


Violence on and around public transport
         time offence occurred location description (e.g. on board train, on station platform, in station etc), grid references (x,y co-ordinates) MO description/notes weapon use/details whether the offence was detected or not Weekday (this can be generated using the date field so is not crucial) Street name Postcode

Additional data which could contribute to data analysis (if available):

Appendix A5 - Re-categorising offence types for analysis Categories for Analysis
Homicide and Threat to Kill

West Midlands Police Dataset*
Attempted Murder; Threat to Kill; Manslaughter (2; 3; 4)

BTP Dataset 1
Threat to Kill (3)

BTP Dataset 2


Common Assault; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Common Assault; Assault on a Constable (104; 105; 8/42; 8/41) Wounding/Endanger Life (5) Other Wounding; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Other Wounding (8/1; 8/6; 8/20; 8/21; 8/33; 8/34) Possession of Weapons (8/11; 8/23; 8/24; 8/25; 8/26) Harassment; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Harassment (8/29; 8/30; 8/31; 8/35; 8/36; 8/37; 8/38; 8/43; 125/58; 66; 195/94)

Assault on a Constable; Common Assault (104; 105A; 105B)

Common Assault; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Common Assault

Wounding/Endanger Life Other Wounding

Wounding/Endanger Life; Endanger Railway Passenger (5; 6) Other Wounding; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Other Wounding (8A; 8D) Possession of Weapons (8B)

Wounding/GBH with intent; Wounding/GBH without intent; ABH; Racially or Religiously Aggravated ABH Possess Air Weapon with intent; Possess Firearm on arrest; Firearms other offences Harassment. Alarm or Distress; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Harassment, Alarm or Distress; Racially or Religiously Aggravated fear or provocation of violence; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Harassment Public Order related Robbery; Assault with intent to rob -

Possession of Weapons


Harassment; Racially or Religiously Aggravated Harassment (8C; 8E)

Public Order Robbery Sexual Offences

Public Order (125/9; 125/11; 125/12) Robbery (34) Indecent Assault Male; Indecent Assault Female; Rape Female; Unlawful Sex with Girl under 16; Sexual Activity with a Child; Soliciting (17; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 74; 88; 165) Child Neglect; Child Abduction (11; 13)

Personal Robbery (34B) Indecent Assault Male; Indecent Assault Female; Rape Female; Unlawful Sex with Girl under 16; Sexual Activity with a Child; Soliciting (17; 17A; 19C; 20; 20A; 22; 22B; 27) Child Neglect; Child Abduction (11; 13)


Violent Disorder; Unknown

*numbers refer to Home Office codes


Violence on and around public transport
Appendix A6: situational crime prevention techniques for preventing crime and disorder on public transport (source: Smith & Cornish, 2006:16, adapted from Cornish & Clarke, 2003) Increase the Effort Increase the Risks Reduce the Rewards Reduce Provocations Remove Excuses 1. Target harden 6. Extend guardianship 11. Conceal targets 16. Reduce frustrations and stress 21. Set rules Protective screens Alarms, communications Encourage passenger to Give up-to-date operating Inform public of new rules equipment & AVL systems ‘conceal’ valuables (e.g. information regularly and severe penalties On board safes on buses avoid use of mobile phones ‘Buddy’ system for Give information about Clear explanations of Locomotive ‘pilots’ and when leaving stations) employees service delays and waiting ‘trespass’ and correct use ‘anticlimbers’ Bury trackside signalling & time estimates at level of railway crossings ‘Travel with a friend’ off Graffiti resistant coatings communications equipment crossings peak ‘Yellow card’ warnings of Damage resistant materials Distribute complaint forms prosecution or penalties Avoid deserted areas Special-event train Easy incident reporting reservations 2. Control access to facilities 7. Assist natural surveillance 12. Remove targets 17. Avoid disputes 22. Post instructions Mend & upgrade fencing Improve lighting Exact-fare, no-change, offEasy-to-understand fare Post signs drawing vehicle, electronic payment structure attention to important rules Require & check tickets Remove vegetation & (e.g. no loitering), hazards obstructing columns Remove unsecured rolling Ticket reading machines ‘Cage in’ bridges and correct behaviour stock & vulnerable fixtures Reduce number of Proof-of-age cards Block access (e.g. ends of Explain ticket checking carriages off peak Clear signs to help rapid platforms) ‘Quiet’ carriages procedures exiting Bus stops near open shops Control crowding Bus stops away from pubs 3. Screen exits 8. Reduce anonymity 13. Identify property 18. Reduce emotional arousal 23. Alert conscience Ticket required to exit Databases of graffiti ‘tags’, Security mark ‘hot property’ Train employees to handle Post notices re: transport systems school uniforms & DNA (e.g. mobile phones, confrontations unacceptability of crimes, notebook computers, costs & potential harms Parking ticket required to Enforce wearing of school Train staff to identify and iPods) (e.g. assaults on exit station car park uniforms respond to unusual employees) behaviour Security mark portable Require pupil ID cards transit system property Post messages like ‘Take Don’t challenge youths to Require staff name tags your litter home’ vandalise 4. Deflect offenders 9. Utilise place managers 14. Disrupt markets 19. Neutralise peer pressure 24. Assist compliance Platform doors Install or upgrade CCTV Discourage direct Provide credible, competing Provide alternative venues donations to beggars role models for station loiterers Dedicated school buses Staff management of help points & other public areas Offer alternative help to ‘It’s not cool to tag’ Offer legal opportunities for Separate areas for beggars & homeless message at graffiti sites graffiti writing passengers and non Place wardens on vehicles passengers & at drop off/pick up points Tell passengers how to Place posters and leaflets Build convenient bridges & report shops that sell or subways for track crossing Exit doors placed away Require maintenance unblock stolen mobile from bus drivers contractor to report Aesthetically pleasing phones trackside problems spaces 5. Control tools/weapons 10. Strengthen formal surveillance 15. Deny benefits 20. Discourage imitation 25. Control drugs and alcohol Control sale and display of Increase presence of (& Classical music in stations Persuade media not to Designate public transport spray paint and etching surveillance by) police & publish details of crime settings as ‘alcohol-free’ Rapidly paint out graffiti (or tools security in hotspots incidents and techniques zones put a line through it) used Clear trackside debris Increase aerial patrols of ‘Dry’ trains for football Install ‘suicide pits’ tracks and trackside Rapidly remove graffiti and supporters Secure trackside Slow train speeds at repair damage equipment Use complimentary policing stations Remove public seating