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1 FRAGOSO, Suely, WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion.

In: ESS, Charles ; SUDWEEKS, Fay ; HRACHOVEC, Herbert (orgs) ; CATaC 2006 - Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication, 2006, Tartu. Estonia. School of Information Technology - Murdoch University, 2006. v. 1. p. 255-274.

SUELY FRAGOSO Universidade do Vale do Rio do Sinos, Unisios São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil

Abstract: This work attempts to provide some insight into the Brazilian Invasion of Orkut, a Social Networking System. This is an Internet phenomenon which started in 2004 and in 2006 still shows no signs of letting up. To this end. the paper examines some data concerning Internet use in Brazil and then proceeds on to a brief description of the Social Networking Software Orkut. To address the Brazilian Invasion, the paper uses, above all, the records of Orkut itself, which bear witness to a high level of hostility between users from Brazil and from the United States of America. The aggressiveness of the posts, contrary to the image of friendliness and pacifism of that Brazilians have, lead to some of the most violent battles in the clash of cultures set up in Orkut. In an attempt to understand the Brazilian protagonism in on-line aggression, some hypotheses are formulated which indicate that there are issues relating to modern day national identities, in general, and, in particular, the formulation of the Brazilian national identity.

1. Introduction The initial uptake of the Internet in Brazil was rather late, as the Internet has only been legally available for public use since 1995. Ten years later, the number of Brazilians with access to the Internet is still relatively low 1 and they are highly concentrated in the richer urban parts of the country2 The intensity of the
The number of domestic users active in Brazil in December 2005 was estimated by Nielsen/Netratings to be 12.2 million (Ibope/Netratings, 2005), which corresponds to about 6.6% of the approximately 185 million Brazilians that IBGE estimated to exist at the end of the year. This figure doubles when access through terminals located at work, place of study or that are open to general public use. (Saito and Valim, 2005). 2 According to a study by GAID-FGV, in 2003 the two richest regions of Brazil, South and Southeast, had respectively, 13.5% and 10.41% of homes equipped with computers with access to the Internet, compared with 3.68% in the poorer North region (GAID1


2 FRAGOSO, Suely, WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. In: ESS, Charles ; SUDWEEKS, Fay ; HRACHOVEC, Herbert (orgs) ; CATaC 2006 - Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication, 2006, Tartu. Estonia. School of Information Technology - Murdoch University, 2006. v. 1. p. 255-274.

appropriation of the Internet by Brazilian users, on the contrary, has been exceptionally high: in June of 2005 Brazilian users stayed on-line for longer than the users in any other nation included in the study by Nielsen/Netratings, exceeding the averages for the Japanese and the US users by more than one and two hours respectively3. A good part of the on-line time of Brazilians is taken up using applications for one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many computer mediated communication (Leite, 2005, s.p., Ibope/Netratings, 2006a) Instant messengers (MSN Messenger e ICQ), blogs and fotologs, the sites of cellular telephone operators (used to send torpedoes without having to pay the charges for doing so from a cell phone) and chat rooms are particularly popular in Brazil (Magalhães, 2005, s.p.), indicating that Brazilians are much more interested in the potential of the Internet as a relationship tool than as a means of distributing content. The lengthy on-line times and the concentration of users on a few types of sites (particularly synchronous communications systems, blogs, photologs and ,more recently, social networking services - SNSs) favored the occurrence of the Brazilian Internet Phenomena, a specific category of ‘Internet memes’4 in which, for no apparent reason for this happening, the number of Brazilian users of an online service greatly surpasses the number of members of the original nationality of the service. The first record of such an event dates back to June 2003, when the number of Fotolog ( Brazilians users surpassed the U.S. contingent by a few members5. At that time, a cultural clash concerning the ‘correct’ mode of appropriation of Fotolog was already well under way. The majority of U.S. Fotolog users were reported as “high-minded amateur photographers, who publish serious photography”, whilst most Brazilian floggers were said to be teenage girls “posting saucy webcam portraits” of themselves, their friends, their pets and the like (Kahney, 2003, s.p.). The battle reached its apogee when Fotolog started charging its members
FGV, 2003, p. 43). 3 The average connection time for home Internet uses in June 2005 in Brazil was reported to be 16h54min, compared to 15h35min in Japan and 14h46min in the USA. The other countries included in the survey were Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. (Ibope/Netratings, 2006) 4 ‘Internet phenomena’ or ‘Internet memes’ are events in which the popularity of something relatively obscure increases geometrically or exponentially, often suddenly, supported by the propagation of content through the Internet. It has been noticed that Internet memes tend to have a short life spam. 5 In 2004, the number of Brazilians was estimated at around 50% of all Fotolog users (Alerigi, 2004, s.p.)


to join one must register with Google (this requirement has recently been added) and build one’s profile. Herbert (orgs) . a windows shows the picture of the friend who has sent the original invitation. At the top right corner of the personal Orkut page.3 FRAGOSO. Suely. job description and the like) and personal profile (eye color. selecting the option to ‘add as a friend’ triggers an internal invitation which this known Orkut user will find the next time they log in – and accept or not (or 3 . and so on. 2002) and works by collecting and recording connections between users to form a large interconnected database. occupation.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Orkut is an invitation-only system: in order to join Orkut one has to be invited by someone who is already a member of the service. the user gains access to his or hers Orkut page. and most other social networking applications. The Brazilian Invasion of Orkut Orkut (http://www. in fact. best feature etc). as described in Barabasi. 1. the system displays the chain of friends which connect the viewer to that specific person. which started in the services early days and still shows no signs of letting up. most of which were posted by Brazilian users. Social networking software are particularly prone a this type of event and. Orkut profiles are organized on three layers: social profile (composed of features such as relationship status. In: ESS. nationality. gender. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. thumbnails and links to the profiles of friends are available – clicking on them leads to the profiles of those people. languages spoken). School of Information Technology . hair color. HRACHOVEC.orkut. Once the profile is declared completed. v. On the page of any Orkut is an SNS that was launched in January 2004 by Google. Having received an invitation by e-mail to join Orkut. 255-274. When a user encounters the profile of someone they know. age. p. Fay . professional profile (education. 2006. practically just the name under which they registered. CATaC 2006 . Orkut is based upon Milgram’s small-world model (1967. A picture can also be associated to the profile.Murdoch University. which means to say that a user could set up and maintain a profile giving absolutely minimum information. In the ‘his/her friends’ window at the top right corner of one’s Orkut page (Figure 1). SUDWEEKS. whose name is a link anchor to that person’s profile. 2006. Tartu. Charles . for many posting privileges which resulted in the site being flooded with images entitled “fotolog free” or the like. looks. All of the information requested is optional. Estonia. one of the largest and probably one of the best known of the Brazilian Internet Phenomenon events has been the recent Brazilian invasion of Google’s social networking service Orkut. As with its more famous predecessor Friendster.

In: ESS. Orkut does not provide information about recent visitors to a profile. ignore if they so wish). another advantage of Orkut is the possibility of creating Some restrictions can be applied to the public visibility of some specific subsets of information of a profile. 255-274. 2006. 2006. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. Figure 1: Someone’s Orkut profile. The possibility of snooping around other people’s profiles. SUDWEEKS. Perhaps. In contrast to other SNSs.4 FRAGOSO. Each user has also an album. 6 4 . Estonia. p. School of Information Technology . however. 2002).Murdoch University. v.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Tartu. Fay . Herbert (orgs) . albums and scrapbooks unnoticed is certainly an major attraction of Orkut. such as Friendster for example. Suely. CATaC 2006 . which is almost making concrete the links between people. Both the album and the scrapbook are fully visible to all users. Adding to the voyeuristic entertainment value of reading strangers' profiles without being spotted. The network of people that thus becomes visible is nearly always exquisitely diverse and highly interesting. where other Orkut users can leave messages. HRACHOVEC. This means that with a few minutes of hopping from friends to friends of friends one is faced with a representation that makes obvious Milgram’s notion of ‘six degrees of separation’ (Barabasi. Charles . the most fascinating aspect is that which is a basic characteristic of social networking software. Any Orkut profile can be read at any time by any other user6. 1. capable of holding up to 12 pictures. and a scrapbook.

v. This facilitates the identification of users with common interests. p. The existence of demographics has proved to be an important attraction of Orkut: following the changes in the user statistics over time has become a passtime for many users of the service. explains the deterrent to the creation and maintenance of unrealistic profiles. A crisis was thus created.463 members. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. profiles who did not portray realistic pictures. 2004). Despite having been considered quite strict by some of the service’s early users (Hempell. which gives access to two different sections: announcements (the news strictly said. One supposed advantage of SNSs that work by invitation only is the presumed reliability of all the members of the service. was particularly strongly opposed to the socalled Fakesters. In: ESS.aspx?cmm=34264 7 5 . Estonia. profiles named as or using inappropriate words or images to describe themselves or those linked to absurd numbers of other users.orkut. 2006.Murdoch University. Orkut users can ‘flag’ someone else’s profile if they suspect it is false (that is. users of Friendster (Anderson. regardless of the degree of separation between them or between their geographic locations. 1. s. which whilst it is typical of computer mediated communications does not cease to be one of its principal benefits.5 FRAGOSO. SUDWEEKS. trying to bring order back to the system by deleting profiles named as legendary or historical characters. Fay . if the user identifies themselves with a name or image that is not consistent with their off-line identity) or if the user is suspected of having violated the Terms of Service Agreement. which. Tartu. if also the most anarchic. 2006.p. In March of 2004 a community dedicated exclusively to recording and discussing Orkut Statistics8 was created. This feature adds the potencial for knowledge building and knowledge sharing activities to Orkut’s capability as a business networking and dating service. as amongst the Fakesters were some of the most enthusiastic. basically information about changes in the system. thematic communities. CATaC 2006 . a set of bar graphs with the daily statistics of Orkut users (Figure 2).). Herbert (orgs) . creator of Friendster. updates of the regulations and features and so forth) and demographics. Orkut’s managers were always much more easy going with users who create fictional profiles than had been the case with Friendster7. He launched a crusade against them. 2003. 255-274. 8 http://www. School of Information Technology . This factor. Johnatan Adams. Charles . Other interesting features of Orkut include the News page. totaling thousands of posts. combined with the woefully restrictive concept of personal on-line identity that appears to guide Orkut’s design. who were responsible for more than 150 subject threads.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. in January of 2006 was still active and had 1. HRACHOVEC.

s. SUDWEEKS. In mid-April. CATaC 2006 . Estonia.). After these came the users from the United Kingdom and Canada. 50+). p. from top to bottom. 36-40. activity partners. 2006. To the left. open marriage. In the middle of February 2004 more than 60% of the users of Orkut were from the United States. Tartu. The larger graph. Fay . 2004.6 FRAGOSO. committed.Murdoch University. As the number of Orkut users shot up the membership profile started to shift from the an initial US majority to internationalization. In May. Other countries which at first appeared to have strong user bases were the Netherlands. Germany and Sweden. the US share was reduced to less than half of the total number of users. each with a little more than 3%. to the right. Estonia. Herbert (orgs) . Charles . Pakistan. v. 31-35. School of Information Technology . HRACHOVEC.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. 255-274. Portugal. Figure 2: Orkut’s demographics page on 30 of January 2006. business networking. while Japan and Brazil had grown to 7.p.02%) had nearly tripled the percentage 6 . Iran. United States (the link beneath this. dating) and relationship status (no answer. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. the graphs classify the users by the following categories: age (18-25. Orkut has grown to have millions of users at an incredibly fast pace (Figure 3). Suely.4% and 7. single. which reads ‘details’. leads to another graph which classifies the number of users by US State). Japan. 2006. shows the users by percentage by country. In its two years of existence.2% respectively (Hempell. married. 1. United Kingdom. 41-50. In: ESS. 26-30. here for (friends. Brazil. India. Canada. USA users were 43% of the total and the proportion of Brazilian users (15. open relationship).

HRACHOVEC. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. which had decreased to 5.Murdoch University. Japan.7 FRAGOSO. At the bottom. Netherlands. without users from Brazil and the USA. Suely. United Kingdom. Orkut Statistics’s Topic Next change in nations top 10? (607 posts by 02/05/2006. At the top. 1. India. data about the 13 nationalities which have figured amongst the top 10 in that period of time: United States. started at 4/21/2004) was the main source for Figure 4. 255-274. Iran. Fay . 2006. Canada. School of Information Technology . Tartu. Germany.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Charles . From then onwards. Pakistan and Portugal. of the Japanese. At the start of May 2004 members of the Community Orkut Statistics started to record regularly the percentage of users reported in Orkut’s demographics bar graph. p. Spain. In: ESS. Figure 3: Graphical representation of the total percentages of Orkut users by nationality over the period from May 2004 to Jan 20069. Close to the end of the month of June the percentage of Brazilian users overtook those from the United States. 9 7 . Estonia. Herbert (orgs) . the percentages of Brazilian and American Orkut users has evolved as an inverse proportion to one another.66%. Brazil. Estonia. Data available from this community has shown itself to be reliable over a period of several months of observation. SUDWEEKS. v. CATaC 2006 . 2006.

SUDWEEKS. without ceremony.842 members and more than 10.aspx?cmm=240. Estonia. One week later.orkut. Table 1 lists some examples of such communities that were created during 2004 and that were still active in February 2006.8 FRAGOSO. 2006.aspx?cmm=4249. Herbert (orgs) . 2004. Entitled simply ‘Brasil’11. Name United States of Brazil WTF A Crazy Brazilian Invasion Creatio n 04/25/04 05/07/04 Owner Huy Zing Gera Dikarev Language English English Nº Members 4. http://www. In: ESS.696 ‘I go on foot’. 2006.702 members – but only 30 topics – in February of 2006). Tartu. 10 11 8 . 255-274.000 topics in February 2006. Fay . WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. 1. 2004. v. Examples of Communities created during 2004 to discuss the high number of Brazilians in Orkut and which are still in activity in 2006. created soon after the service started (January 23. p.orkut. which was removed in January 2006. Suely. who then set about creating anti-USA communities. probably as a response to the protests of users from the United States about the rapid proliferation of communities in HRACHOVEC.Murdoch University. As the number of Brazilian users increased so too did the number of communities with names and subject topics in Portuguese: the first of which appears to have been ‘Eu ando com meus pés’10.317 2. School of Information Technology . January 30. it was practically impossible to prevent Brazilians from entering communities that were totally in English and. However it is known that the definition of a language for communities was only included in Orkut in June of 200412. which did not go unnoticed by the Brazilians.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. It was not long before some communities acquired a tone of protest against Brazilian Orkuteers. having 9. start sending messages and creating topics in Portuguese. another user created what appears to be the oldest community that defines itself as Brazilian and which is also one of the most active in Orkut with 549. as of February 2006 the community description was “a forum for Brazilians and anyone else with an interest in the country and its culture” and the community is defined as being in Portuguese. 12 Initially there was an option for multilingual communities. Table 1. Charles . While it could be relatively easy to solve the discomfort caused by non-English-speaking communities (the option to search for communities solely in one language appears to be a sufficient solution). The first communities dedicated to discussing the high number of Brazilian users were created in the first few months of Orkut being available. CATaC 2006 .

v. Created in March of 2005 and having 3. 2006). the Plague Eu Odeio os Estados Unidos Why do you hate Brazilians? Brasil Sucks! Brasil Amazon is only Brazilian! Ok? Eu odeio quem odeia o Brasil No Americans. In this the community intends to be “a way to show all the world how big Brazilians are and prove that we Own Orkut!” because “We are patriots and hate everyone who says we are a plague! Let us show our power!” (Pedro Braz!. HRACHOVEC. 2006. criada em 7 December Estonia. J0nkatz /.com/Community. Charles . CATaC 2006 . 13 14 9 . p. Yes Brazilians! Americans & Brazilians Brasileiros: Vergonha do Orkut 05/16/04 06/15/04 06/20/04 06/18/04 07/16/04 07/18/04 07/17/04 08/01/04 08/07/04 08/30/04 09/11/04 11/18/04 12/23/04 John. when the Brazilians set about trying to outnumber the US users.aspx?cmm=6901646.orkut.orkut. Troll July Fernandes Babi Barbara Bruna Peres Justino Diego Romão Elias Chamoun Eric Saraiva English English Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese English English English Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese English Portuguese 1. Fay . In: ESS.407 80 161 118 In the same mold as had happened in the first months of Orkut. The text available in January 2006 is in Portuguese and reads: “Missão: Clicar em Convidar Amigos e convidar todos da sua lista de amigos a entrar aqui!” 15 “Brazil controls Orkut” http://www.174 292 20 2. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. 1.114 6.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. 16 “Brazil leads Orkut” http://www. the second half of 2004 saw a significant push in search of an even more ambitious objective: that of obtaining such an overwhelming majority of Brazilians that Orkut would be ‘taken’ from the Americans. 2006. for example ‘O Brasil dominou o Orkut’15 e ‘O Brasil lidera o Orkut’16.Murdoch University. http://www.959 members in January of 2006. School of Information Technology . Other similar communities were created throughout 2005. SUDWEEKS.orkut. 2005. Huy Zing Giuliano Griffante Marcio Wilheim Victor Brasil Jags R. Herbert (orgs) . criada em 8 October.211 120 65 507 8.422 3. Suely. Tartu. February. Too Many Brazilians in Orkut WTF a Crazy American Implosion? USA Sucks Brazilians. 2005.aspx?cmm=5632216.aspx?cmm=1643152. the community ‘Brazilians Own Orkut’13 calls for the Brazilian users to “Click on Invite Friends and invite all of your friends to enter here!14” so as to bring into the community the greatest possible number of Brazilians.9 FRAGOSO.

255-274. Um milhão de Amigos. 24/05/2004. 16/06/2004 and Fantástico. Eu quero ter um milhão de amigos. p. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. Estonia.p. but it is certainly a very good way of appearing to be so or to be thought of as such.). Fay . Veja. Suely. (Figure 4). 17 10 . This is a workaround strategy to bypass this restriction so as to be able to obtain – at maximum levels – the social prestige implied by characterizing oneself amongst the most important connectors in Orkut’s network17. CATaC 2006 . SUDWEEKS. s. Herbert (orgs) . School of Information Technology . 2006. the ‘generosity’ with which the Brazilians provided invitations to other people for Orkut increased as the competition with the US users grew and this was certainly an essential factor in the green-andyellow invasion. v. As each Orkut profile does not support more than one thousand (and an apparently random few) connections. some users have thousands of friends. From the first signs of proximity between the percentages of Brazilian and US users the Brazilian media has colaborated in boosting Orkut as the latest trend amongst Brazilian internet users (for example Folha de São Paulo. Accumulating as many connections as possible is far from the most efficient way to become a central connector. In addition it became common to encounter Brazilian user profiles with hundreds of friends – in fact. Gincana da popularidade. In: ESS. 2006. III etc. it is not unusual to find Brazilian profiles with names followed by I. Despite there having been records of the sale of invites for Orkut through online auction sites (Badô.Murdoch University. Tartu. II. mailing lists.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Caderno Teen.10 FRAGOSO. Charles . 01/08/2004) . 1. blogs etc. 2004. It was not – and it is still not – uncommon to see requests for and offers of Orkut invites in Portuguese spread across newsgroups. HRACHOVEC.

It is known that LinkedIn. v. just “ask Zé Orkut (zeorkut@yahoo. SNSs are particularly prone to be taken over by users from some types of pre-existing groups. (b) shows a topic named “Quem quiser entra no Orkut” (Whoever wishes to enters Orkut) from an online forum.000 results within 0. collecting hundreds of ‘orkut friends’. Israel and the Netherlands than in the US. So what? The fact that an on-line service that was originally based in a specific country has been taken over by users from a different nationality is not a shocking event.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. 2006.p. 255-274. while Friendster was first taken over by members from the Philippines (Glasner. Tartu. Underneath.Murdoch University. including illegal All examples were found via a Google search carried out on 9th February. 18 11 . (c) shows the access to a form for an automated Orkut invite sender from a site named “I’m in Orkut’.11 FRAGOSO. Suely.). Finland. Figura 4: Examples18 of offers for Orkut invites taken from Brazilian sites in 2006. Estonia. The fact that Orkut was severely abused by a profusion of fake profiles. CATaC 2006 . spamming messages and unauthorized uses of the and your wish will come true”.. HRACHOVEC. SUDWEEKS. 1. 2006. part of Orkut’s original charm was due to its club privé character and the making explicit of the ‘six degrees of distance’ between users . with offers and at the bottom. Fay . (a). s. but I am not” and “Be my friend and let’s explode this closed circle!!!!! Lets break down Orkut’s door”. another post on the same blog comments: “Zé Orkut is a flop. Charles . After all. Certainly the appeal of any web-based service will vary in different regions around the globe according to the cultural specifics of the potential users. The ease with which Brazilians send Orkut invitations and the fact that they accept even unknown people as their “friends” has to be. So much so that independently of and parallel to the Brazilian invasion of Orkut. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. ‘Zé Orkut’ announces that “time of having to beg for an invite to Orkut has come to an end”. another factor that irritates more circumspect users. grew further and faster in Iceland. given that anything that is published online can be accessed by people physically located anywhere where there is an Internet connection. In: ESS. p. School of Information Technology . 2006 (the search terms were <convite orkut>. for example. search was limited to pages from Brazil and returned 186. At the middle. At the top. which has now been ruined by a flood of Brazilians who thought it amusing to invite in almost anyone and to link to everyone else in the service. without doubt. several other similar services which were expected to grow in the United States before expanding overseas have also been flooded with members from other nationalities. Because they favor the desire to accumulate connections (as a demonstration of social prestige).06 sec). 2005. Herbert (orgs) .

p. F. bring some warmth and "real stuff" to this virtual community” Finally. Fay . the reputed beauty of Brazilians has also been included. Even Dr.). was the principle reason for the affinity for on-line relationship tools (Testa in Marques. 82-83 apud Bechar-Israeli. What is really interesting about the invasion of Orkut has been hinted at by the typical responses given to a question that has been asked repeatedly in different places and circumstances: why Brazilians? The overwhelming majority of attempts to answer this question invoked the Brazilian stereotype. v. It is difficult to find an experienced internet user who has never heard of the rape in LambdaMOO (Dibbel. no matter what country” (Silva. 1991.Murdoch University. s. s. such as the Brazilians.). In: ESS. School of Information Technology . as Orkut Media editor G. (UOL. s. is nothing new either: the same is known to have happened before in several other computer mediated communication services. lonely and crippled woman and under this character conned several other users (Stone. published by Orkut News in February 2005. 1.12 FRAGOSO. to interact and exchange experiences with everybody else. HRACHOVEC. a ‘very inquisitive and sociable’ people. p. 1993. 2004. An item called Top ten reasons orkut is popular in Brazil. who provided several factors of distinct natures for the popularity of Orkut in Brazil. s. 2006.).p. the beaches. M. 2005. Talking to Universia Brasil. exercise?” (Tachibana. Coutinho. s. Dr. E. 2005. SUDWEEKS. 1995. activities. N. the sociologist A. Charles . but not always) have also repeatedly linked the flood of Brazilians to 12 . client or friend from being confiscated or frozen by some unfriendly African dictatorial government.p. Is it the sun. s. Estonia. Testa also found that the “Brazilian nature”. CATaC 2006 . a large number of users (most often from Brazil. Herbert (orgs) . “we're a nice and friendly people and we're not afraid. summarizes some of the causes most commonly given for the massive presence of Brazilians in Orkut: “we [Brazilians] know lots of people because we go out more often [than people from other countries]”. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. did not forget to mention that applications for computer mediated communications in general tended to be popular amongst the Latin people. s.) or of the email asking for help to avoid the fortune of an African belated husband. like most other orkut users. giving rise to some of the most widely known legends of the internet culture. p. 2006. Saad Corrêa attributed the phenomenon to the fact that “Brazilians are by nature gregarious” (Alerigi.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. 2005. Across several Orkut communities. .). Tachibana considered that photobooks should be a popular feature amongst Brazilian users because they are more likely to be attractive or beautiful “perhaps someone can write in why Brazilians look so good. 255-274. 2005.p.p. Interviewed by Reuters. . Suely. of the male user who presented himself as an old. In another item available at the same site. Tartu. “we are really a fun and different people” and “we love to .p.p.) Scholars also tended to resort to such stereotypical descriptions when trying to explain why Orkut is so successful in Brazil. as these are more communicative than the Anglo-Saxons.).

Suely. Not that the trans-cultural interactions on Orkut are. 255-274. “the age of globalization is also the age of nationalist resurgence. School of Information Technology . v. however. just one type or the other. and most notably toward the Americans. such descriptions would appear to be. SUDWEEKS. always affirmed against the alien” (Castells. SNSs offer themselves as privileged arenas for the exercise of cultural hybridization as described by García-Canclini (2003) as well as for the enactment of the Clash of Civilizations announced by Huntington (1996). 13 . Estonia. Charles . cheerfulness and a good sense of humor. expressed both in the challenge to established nation-states and in the widespread (re)construction of identity on the basis of nationality. What is significant is that the nationalist tone to the confrontations between Brazilians and Americans on Orkut is a typical event in zones of intercultural contact and. Certainly there are variations that range from effective co-operation to outright conflict that can be found. Many communities. p. at best. In: ESS. 1. Herbert (orgs) . or even could be. sarcastic. p. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. a predictable outcome of the cultural interchanges made possible by SNSs. 1998. Fay . 27). HRACHOVEC. Tartu.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. topics and posts created by a significant sector of the Brazilian Orkut users bear witness to a frightening level of aggressiveness and intransigence toward in the main (but not exclusively) non Brazilians.13 FRAGOSO. Going beyond the confines of Orkut. 2006. Observing the behavior of Brazilian users of Orkut.Murdoch University. (Figure 5). Orkut to positive characteristics such as friendliness. In placing people with distinct cultural backgrounds in contact with one another. 2006. as such. CATaC 2006 .

2006. http://www. the community ‘Eu Odeio os EUA . In: ESS. 255-274. 15. Fay . WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion.Murdoch University.orkut. http://www. 2006. 20 In English.I Hate the USA19’. This is followed by “FOR THOSE WHO SIMPLY HATE THE AMERICAN WAY TO BE!!!!” in English). Suely. SUDWEEKS. Charles . As of February 2006 the official language is Portuguese and there are 8. disrespect and stupidity” This phrase is written in president BUSH’s toilet. Tartu. when the official language is Portuguese. “Arrogance. CATaC 2006 . 2004. Lets send those sons of @#$%”&* to the fifth level of hell”).orkut. At the top right.039 members in February created about a month later on July 16th. the community ‘Eu Odeio os Estados Unidos20’ . 2004. Herbert (orgs) . Figure 5: Examples of anti-USA posts and communities. Estonia. School of Information Technology . A little lower and to the left.536 members.14 FRAGOSO. The description says (in translation from the Portuguese)“For those who simply HATE THE NORTH AMERICAN WAY OF BEING. created on June. I Hate the United States. HRACHOVEC. v.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. The Community has 27. 19 14 . p.aspx?cmm=174663.aspx?cmm=95875. The description says (in translation) “For those who think the same way as me.

/and for their thinking that we live in the middle of a jungle and hunt monkeys to survive. Suely. African slaves and other more recent immigrants of more diverse ethnicity. v. whose native inhabitants were subjugated to the point of completely losing all significance when compared to the colonizing populations.orkut..Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. That the voices of these multi-ethnic. / because their president is a “S of a whore”.. say: 11/10/2004. / because they are racists(not generalizing) / because they are STUPID!!!!!!!!(generalizing). More surprising still is to see 21 http://www. p.. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. New World people are almost exclusively composed today of the descendents of European colonizers. after all. HRACHOVEC. School of Information Technology .com /Community.. paradoxical.. SUDWEEKS. / because they think that they will rule the world !!!! / I Hate the North .aspx?cmm=409912. Both Brazil and the USA are the result of the relatively recent unification of territories in the New World. 1. 6:57 PM ‘Because they are a bunch of rednecks’ (this last Word is in English in the original. CATaC 2006 . The modern Nation-States.. / because they are full of themselves and they are crap. the two more recent posts read 11/7/2005.. 2006. / also I hate them for thinking that they are the best in the world.Murdoch University./ because the only good US presidents were assassinated !!! / because they think that they are the most superior race on the planet .. 25). And below. Below these are examples of posts made in the community “No Americans Yes Brazilians”21 under the topic “O que vcs mais odeiam nos Americanos?” (“What you most hate about the Americans”)..Americans !!!!!! ’ 2/10/2006. Herbert (orgs) . national identity appears to be a particularly fragile point of support.. I hate them because they think that only they make up America. p. Fay .15 FRAGOSO. crucibles should be raised taking their respective national identities as the basic motivation and war cry is. resulted from the relatively recent and often violent processes of the suppression of differences with the intent of constructing an apparently cohesive national community. Estonia.. 4:42 AM ‘The nationality. 15 . at the very least. The first post. Tartu. 255-274. originally in Portuguese. 2005. but not for this any less artificial or agonistic. whilst Russia has much more destructive power than the USA. followed by an explanatory translation in Portuguese in parentheses) Understood as the belonging to a specific Nation State. It is just because of the association between nativity and rulership that the Nation-State has become a fundamental. source of meaning for modern cultural identities. the simple fact of their being Americans’. 9:55 AM ‘I hate them for being retarded!!! / The North-Americans are idiots. Charles . In the case of the confrontations between the Brazilians and the users from the USA on Orkut. (Bauman. In: ESS.. 10:45 PM ‘What you most hate about the Americans? Say what you most hate about this little people who think that they are better than the rest of the world… why then don’t they build a wall around their country and separate themselves from the rest of the world???’ 12/8/2004. 2006.... and to a great degree multi-cultural. nationality is far from being the primary source of identification..

after all.orkut. It is also not hard to find posts that relate the antipathy to the USA to the American interference in Latin America during the Cold War ‘No to Kyoto? Have a Katrina’22 ‘Torture in Iraq. 6:37 AM in Community ‘Eu Odeio os Estados Unidos’ (I Hate the United States). Bush administration. Charles . this quantity represents only around 15% of the world population (estimated at 6. In fact some anti-USA manifestations express relatively direct resentment of the international policies of the G. in fact. 2004. p. 23 ‘Torturas no Iraque. 22 16 .com/Community. thus seen. v. 2005.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. United ‘Não a Quioto? Toma o Katrina’ Community created in September 18.aspx?cmm=5121731. 2004. 2006. http://www. HRACHOVEC. that English is the language most widely used nowadays for intercultural communication. 1999. the Brazilians) are resisting the yoke of a larger and more powerful (the US users) group.orkut. CATaC 2006 .aspx?cmm=39450. http://www. It is almost impossible not to know. The Community was created in April 9. We are dealing with. Herbert (orgs) . 2005. http://www. The national identities appear in the topics and posts in the Orkut communities as the rallying call of a defensive fight. The Community was created in September 2. 1. a people that pride themselves in their friendliness as much as they do in the national culture which boasts a multiplicity of cultural hybridisms which. permeate and constitute the experience of Brazil (from the culinary to the religious. W. including the national language and the racial blending). emerge from the Brazilian side of this some of the most violent xenophobic manifestations in the Orkut communities. Estonia. 12:23 AM in Community ‘Anti-bush & Estadunidenses’ (Anti-bush & US citizens). 59).com/Community. Fay . in which a smaller and weaker group (in this case. 24 ‘Imperialistas filhos da puta!!!’ Tópic created in May. for the aggression of the Brazilians against the Americans on p. This construction draws on a historical consistency that makes it almost inevitable to accept as an explanation. such as the inevitable references to the invasion of Iraq and to the non adherence to the Kyoto Protocol. que vergonha !!’Tópic created in July 28.orkut. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. It is worth remembering though that despite the total number of people capable of communicating in English being estimated at a billion individuals as of the end of the XXth century (Ianni.Murdoch University.5 billion in February 2006. 2006. or even to disagree with the contention. Tartu.aspx?cmm=370032. Suely. In: ESS. 2004. SUDWEEKS. the expression of the resentment cultivated by ‘American Imperialism’ over many decades.16 FRAGOSO. School of Information Technology . 19. 255-274. shame on you!!’23 ‘Imperialist SOBs!!!’24 A more systematic observation of the aggressive manifestations of Brazilians in Orkut allows it to be seen however that in the vast majority of cases the target of the violence is not specifically the USA but is the English language.

For these reasons there are relatively few Brazilians. Herbert (orgs) . 255-274. HRACHOVEC. 2006. even amongst the priveleged elite who have access to the Internet. that cultural contact has instability as its most exciting and most stressful characteristic. After all. without doubt. Brazil is a long way away from any major country where English is the official language (the only relatively close places are Guyana and the Falkland Islands) or is widely spoken. At the end of 2005 the Associação Brasileira de Televisão por Assinatura (ABTA) estimated that only 7. v. even the mediatic culture had no effect on this situation as all of the foreign material shown on Brazilian broadcast television is dubbed into Portuguese. It is known.Murdoch University. principally when they are films for children. 2006. speak and write English. an abstract exercise. films are subtitled and. without some aspect of the person Subscription TV was introduced into Brazil in the 1990s. In: ESS. in the majority. Fay . Basic notions of the English language are normally taught in Brazilian schools and. huge. CATaC 2006 . as the profile of Internet users in Brazil is positively correlated with family income and higher levels of education. School of Information Technology .Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. It is evident that even amongst this 15% there are variations in the understanding of spoken English and in the ability to read.7% of the total households in Brazil have subscriptions to these services (Marini. in the majority of countries in South America).p. at the edge of inadequacy: To be totally or partially “dislocated” in all aspects. SUDWEEKS. Brazilians. for the vast majority of Brazilians.17 FRAGOSO. it is not surprising that the majority of Orkut users would be capable of reading interfaces and messages written in English. p. Tartu. only know very little of English language.) 25 17 . 2006. The distance however from there to being able to express oneself in written English sufficiently fluently to sustain ones arguments against native speakers is. with the exception of Spanish for those that live close to the frontiers) is. however. Learning English (or. are frequently dubbed as well. recent and still incipient25. Europe and Australasia. s. Suely. to not be totally anywhere (that is to say without restrictions or limits. Contrary to how many imagine the situation. in fact any foreign language. are held in Portuguese (with rare exceptions which quickly become polemical even if the language used is Spanish). interaction with or the presence of aliens always implies a position close to the limits of comfort. At least until the. for example. expansion of subscription television. Computer Mediated Communication made the first-person experience of the shrinking of the world and the approach to other cultures possible for a significant number of the Brazilian elite whose perspectives had not included international movement on the large scale. Estonia. Charles . At the cinema. who travel outside of Latin America. Classes in Brazilian universities. English is not widely used in Brazil (nor. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. 2006). States Department of Commerce. 1. possibly. Air travel is proportionately expensive in Brazil and the purchasing power of the Brazilian currency (Real) is significantly lower than the currencies of North America.

255-274. “Identities” float around freely. to negotiate. and we have to be constantly alert to defend the former against the latter. Reduced to invisibility by the impossibility of expressing themselves. School of Information Technology . SUDWEEKS. often in a very aggressive way. or on the contrary. many Brazilian users have probably abandoned various computer networking services. In the majority of cases such appeals are ignored by the Brazilian users(Figure 6).p. Estonia. v. It would be supposed that. There is always something to explain. 2006. There are differences to be reduced or pardoned or. to offer. Fay . In Orkut. s. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. 1. some are of our own choosing but others are inflated and launched by people around us. on the other hand emphasized and made clearer. . p. a Canadian. still only partially. 2004. Tartu. from early on.) in addressing the question of fake profiles in his Top ten reasons orkut is popular in Brazil: "we know this is wrong. of their visibility. the high possibility of encountering other users in the same interest community that were Brazilians. . With the presence of other Brazilians confirmed writing in Portuguese becomes a life buoy that allows for the re-conquest.p. the demographic data and the news concerning the trend indicated." "After that I understood why everyone is complaining about these people. Charles . 2005. Herbert (orgs) . Suely. CATaC 2006 . the number of Portuguese language communities would multiply. . to courageously parade. The attitude is similar to that expressed by Silva (2005.) In 2006.18 FRAGOSO. s. given such a situation. however. In: ESS. The structure of Orkut itself allows for the verification of this type of supposition by following the links to other users in the community of interest. to hide. “overflowing” and being seen as strange by others) can be an uncomfortable experience. there are still available in Orkut various instances where a community ownere appeals to the Brazilians to keep communication in the official language of the community. Under such circumstances the ability to understand what others have to say is far from sufficient. p. replicating subjects that had been only discussed in English. as the urge to express one’s ideas is essential to being acknowledged tangibly by others. 19). (Bauman. Despite this actually happening the creation of Portuguese language communities did not result in the Brazilians abandoning the English language communities or in their stopping posting in Portuguese – or to arguing for.Murdoch University. why they're being called the 'plague of Orkut. for their supposed right to do so: Tammy Soldaat. HRACHOVEC."' she said in a site called "Crazy Brazilian Invasion (Alerigi. 2006. got a sample of Brazilian wrath recently when she posted a message asking whether her community site on body piercing should be exclusive to people who speak English. to trade. to apologize for.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Brazilian Orkut users quickly labeled her a "nazi" and "xenophobe. but why play by the rules if this is a place for fun and entertainment?” 18 .

Figure 6: Just six months after the creation of the Community ‘Alice in Wonderland’ (March 11. 2006.PERHAPS THEY WOULD SHARE THE SAME ACID). Fay . The Community owner (identified as being Dutch) replies very politely requesting that all posts should be in English. p. 5.. For Da Matta the origins of the essential disjunction and conformity to Brazilian reality reflect on the institution of a State apparatus that intended to create a specific type of society as opposed to a State that responded to the requirements In 2006 the Community has the following description and definitions: “Are you also bewondered and bewildered in life? Share your bewilderment here’. Location – Netherlands. SUDWEEKS. http://www. Language .. 255-274.1984. 1.aspx?cmm=27250. In: ESS. 2006. Charles . v.Murdoch University. Alice in Wonderland!!!” The first post reads “What would happen if the Wizard of OZ appeared in front of Alice?”. Soon follows a childish post in Portuguese (Well. CATaC 2006 . 200426. in the permanent need to situate oneself between institutions and values that are in principle incompatible. but to adhere to both and each of them at the same WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. Herbert (orgs) .1985) who identifies. Brazilians often act as if the rules of Orkut do not apply to them. HRACHOVEC.700 members. Estonia.) the first topic in Portuguese appeared: “Wizard of OZ vs.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Suely. Tartu.19 FRAGOSO. Da Matta (1978.English. School of Information Technology . An interesting interpretation of this feature of the Brazilian culture can be found in the work of the Brazilian anthropologist R. 26 19 . the roots of the Brazilian capacity to not only live between the two opposed logics. which kills the thread. A few days later another user (apparently from the US) responds to the original message in English.orkut.

It is the relationship which helps them as a human being and as a meaningful member of society. Estonia. However in the modern individualistic ethos. 182). 2006. 1. on the other hand. added emphasis) The result is an institutional system divorced from the everyday practice. CATaC 2006 . command is given to the authority that governs by law.” (Da Matta. club. the wife and the netweork of relationships and friendships that we have with a person. everything and everyone that is in the space of a Brazilian home is unquestionably beautiful. with loneliness and love being the basic” “and the power to select and choose being one of their most basic rights”. To the contrary. demarks a definitively. which started with the Protestant Reform and the Industrial Revolution. By ‘individual’ De Matta understands an independent and autonomous entity which is ‘capable therefore of wanting freedom and equality. p. family. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. family and society are what are constructed by individuals27. Fay . 2006. creating a double code. which derives from the Northern European egalitarian tradition. “Here who rules is not the father. husband.45. v. p. 1984. p. Tartu. as opposed to being an injustice to be corrected” (Da Matta. the individual immersed in and contingent upon the society”. The notion of person emphasizes the social belonging of the subject. which Da Matta illustrates using an analogy of the space of the home and the street. School of Information Technology . differently to in those societies based on clans or castes – which exclude the notion of the individual – but also to the Western societies . 27) The street. “The notion of person can thus be succinctly characterized as a collective aspect of individuality. 27 20 . of the social structure that supported it. SUDWEEKS. 181-182). Here one does not treat of the parallel equality of all but of ‘the complementarity of each to form a totality that can only be so constituted when all of the parts are there. association etc. HRACHOVEC. it is necessary to be clear about the distinction between the notions of individual and person which the author takes as his starting point. “As an important and diversified moral space. . would encounter an ethos that never ceased to exist in Brazil under which “a person is important because they belong to a family and have colleagues and friends”. 1984. 1978. Instead of the terms of the society being contingent on the individual we have the opposite.30).” (Da Matta. In: ESS. The practice of treating everyone as equal before the law.Murdoch University. the home . In principle. 1978.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. 1984. Charles . which makes the whole world equal in the act of disempowering and even exploiting in an impious way” (Da Matta. good and above criticism. . In Brazil. 255-274. clan. brother. p. In the archetypal Brazilian home there rules a family logic under which everyone has a determined and permanent place and inalienable and perpetual rights. Herbert (orgs) . a mask which is placed on the individual or individualized entity (lineage. is a depersonalized and ‘dog eat dog’ space. (Da Matta.which exclude ‘the person’ – the two categories coexist. Under this construction “society should be at the service of the individual. (Da To follow the thinking of Da Matta.20 FRAGOSO. p. Suely. a friend. p.) which in this way is transformed into a social being.

Herbert (orgs) . As even the Brazilian legal system is populated by irreconcilable internal contradictions. to refuse to open exceptions in the name of relationships (many other users are also Brazilians) or emotions(why can’t I use Portuguese if I want to?) is fair for the Northern European ethos. 255-274.21 FRAGOSO. though. 1984. the law can be forgotten. In: ESS. respect and. so as not to apply in their case28. impersonal.95-96). Charles . 2006. therefore. but appears as violence to many Brazilian users. To make the same rule apply to all. To appeal. relatives and colleagues. How. 1984. The Brazilians who ignore the official language of a community or even the requests to respect this by the owner. Suely. HRACHOVEC. in a nation in which “the formal laws of public life have nothing to do with the good rules everyday morality which govern our honor. functions amongst Brazilians as a euphemism for the negative or as a means of informing the other of their condition of anonymity or inferiority. SUDWEEKS. 87). Ignoring the requirement to write in English in communities defined to be of this language would thus be a typical Brazilian way of obeying an impossible order – express yourself in English – with the desire to remain in Orkut and interact within any of its communities. Fay . WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. the experience of which is framed by the paradox of “laws which should apply to everyone and relationships that evidently only function for those that have them. 190). The result is a social system divided and even balanced between two basic social units: the individual (subject of the universal laws that modernize society) and trhe person (subject of social relationships. They understand. above al. 1. in Brazil “what is always looked for in any situation of conflict or dispute is the ritual of recognition that humanizes and personalizes the formal situations. of the everyday Brazil. and sometimes survive. School of Information Technology . CATaC 2006 . p. 1978. to also explain that Brazilian users also It is worth remembering that. the loyalty that we owe to our friends. The general rule. 28 21 . that as frequently happens in the world “outside of the screen” of their computers. It is not a piece of trivial cynicism by the Brazilian users. p. p. Estonia.” (Da Matta. in such a system. 2006. 104). the Brazilians who have access to the Internet are relatively few and predominantly from the most favored classes. which carry the traditional aspects of the system)” (Da Matta. p. however. but a way of behaving that is learned and practiced in everyday life to live. or at least limited in effect. Matta. despite the penetration and use of the Internet in Brazil obtaining standards that are in the large part surprising. 1985. p. to universal rules – as the owners of Orkut communities do in reminding the Brazilian users of the existence of a defined language for communication in that community – is to refuse to concede the distinction of ‘familiarity’ to which each Brazilian user is accustomed. helping everyone place in a hierarchy the persons implicated in the situation” (Da Matta.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Tartu.Murdoch University. do not necessarily consider this rule to be wrong or inadequate. Both the logic and morals of the home and of the street make up part. v.

new calls to ‘capture Orkut’ which help us to remember that the exclusion of the excludent by the excluded” (Castells. as we have seen. any public location – as is the case with Orkut – is a ‘no-man’s land’ where behavior that would be unthinkable in domestic territories can be. Herbert (orgs) . 2006. Thus there exists amongst Brazilians a predisposition toward aggressiveness in the public space of Orkut.22 FRAGOSO. p. In: ESS. But to say ‘each man for himself’ is to abandon the rigid social control that to some degree guarantees the pacification of spirits and provides order to things. p.Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. Many communities that discussed the Brazilian Invasion are reduced to ruins inhabited by the ‘victorious’ users who have captured them. 1985. 255-274. Closing in. however. coherently. of fighting and misbehavior. 61) In a culture where individualism and equality of rights are seen as negatives. it becomes possible to take with good humor the attempts of the Brazilians to invert what they considered to be the oppressive logic of a dominant social group in Orkut. ‘the street is the location of the undesired individualization.8). by definition. It is characteristic of ‘resistence identities’ that they resort to the construction of “trenches of resistence and survival on the basis of principles different from. on the North Americans. those permeating the institutions of society” (Castells. Fakesters. Suely. (Da Matta. data. potentially provoking still further the moods of the various entities involved. p. in the most part. [as] the relational and hierarchical structure of our value constellation can no longer be used to mold morality. 1998. contrary to the safe and familiar environment of the home. 1. which is accentuated by the emergence of an ethnically based nationalism which. HRACHOVEC. The zone where each has to look out for themselves .9) does not significantly change the order of things. Tartu. . School of Information Technology . v. Whilst the aggression derives from a people whose stereotype refers to transgressions of a carnivalesque type (which. The heroes of the “North American resistance” who keep the light of discord burning in these areas are. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. the Orkuteers of the Middle East (proportionally represented 22 . which is typical of what Brazilians do in Orkut. Fay . it just reinforces the separations and boundaries. flooded the Orkut communities with an uncountable number of violent replies full of bad language? Da Matta associates the negative behavior of Brazilians with respect to the street and the impersonal things found there with the fact that. reflects a sense of alienation and unjust exclusion – or exclusion which is considered unjust – typical of zones of cultural interchange. . do not have consequences in ‘real’ life) and. by number of users. 2006. if not adequate. or opposed to. Estonia. Charles . does not go beyond the borders of the virtual environment of Orkut. There have emerged. CATaC 2006 . acceptable. p. which everything indicates to be Brazilians who are missing the adrenaline rush of the hour of battle.Murdoch University. SUDWEEKS. In February 2006 Orkut really ‘is Brazilian’.

Paulo’s on-line archive at http://www. R.Murdoch University. Rio de [Dec 05] Antunes. Copy of the original report available on-line at http://www. 1993. Da Matta. Da Matta. 1985. XXXVIII. Vol. Disponível at Folha de S. by the Iranians.html [Feb 06] 23 . ‘Brazilians in orkut’. Jorge Zahar. R. which has given way to a large number of Communities. Brasil? Rio de Orkut News. Oxford. Fay . Available on-line at http://jcmc. 2004. Available on-line at http://www. 1(2). Carnavais. WTF a Crazy Brazilian Invasion. Available on-line at http://media. Charles . Rocco. Brazil Internet Craze Angers English Speakers. 1. SFWeekly. The principle theme under discussion has ceased to be the language used for Orkut communication. 255-274. 1998. O que faz o New York. A. Indians and Pakistanese) are preparing for a rerun.html [Jan 06] Badô. CATaC 2006 .Fifth International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication. [acesso restrito] [Jan 06] Barabasi. Available on-line at http://www. A Casa e a Rua. Z. : Village Voice. of the Brazilian Invasion. 1984. Entrevista a Benedeto Vecchi. Topics and Posts discussing questions related to the international situation outside the digital network. L. Wednesday. SUDWEEKS. References Alerigi. 2005. Estonia. December 21. December ‘Attack of the Smartasses’. School of Information Technology . One can only hope that this time Orkut contributes to boost the reciprocal communicability and is not used once more as the ground for a battle between excluded and exclusionary identities the only likely outcome of which would be the reinforcement of its own exclusionary structure. Aug 13. AND IDENTITY ON INTERNET RELAY CHAT’. ‘A Rape in Cyberspace’. Blackwell.ladlass. Guanabara Koogan. ‘FROM <Bonehead> TO <cLoNehEAd>:NICKNAMES. The Power of Identity: The Information Age: Economy. 2006. J. II. In: ESS. 1995. September 1995. in their style. 2002 Bauman. 30 de junho de 2004. 2004.23 FRAGOSO. Suely.folha. Herbert (orgs) . Play & Performance in Computer-Mediated Communication. H. 2006. HRACHOVEC. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication – JCMC.html [Feb 06] Castells.sfweekly. Acknowledgements The English version of this article was revised by Robin Lane. Society and Culture. 2004. Guanabara Koogan. A. A. Linked. 2003.html [Jan 06] Anderson. Rio de Janeiro. p. Rio de Janeiro. Tartu. No. Vol. Malandros e Heróis: para uma sociologia do dilema brasileiro. Da Matta.orkut. 1993. 2004. PLAY. Paulo. F. M. Identidade.luth. R. 2003. Folha de S. 2004. Bechar –Israeli. Dibell. Reuters’ report 17 July. Gazeta Mercantil (Feb 06] UOL 2005. 2005. Culturas Híbridas: estratégias para entrar e sair da modernidade. Garcia-Canclini. história e transculturação’ in J.V.orkut. 2005.anthonyhempell. ‘Letter From the Editor: How Orkut Exploded in Brazil’. IBGE 2006.Murdoch University.FGV/IBRE. SUDWEEKS. C. No. A copy of the chat’s prompt has been published on-line by Ibope/Netratings: Confira a íntegra do chat com Marcelo Coutinho. Internet. GAID-FGV. [Dec 05] Hempell. and C. p.asp?cod=366TVQ002 [Feb 06] Saito. 04/01/2006. 255-274. Fay . P. dos Santos (org. 1. 2005. Estonia. ‘Caderno C’. Valim 2005.fgv. ‘Brazilians in orkut. 2005. Internet. Available on-line at http://media. [Feb 06] Marini. June 09. New York. IBOPE/NetRatings. 01/27/2006.4% durante o ano de 2005’. Available on-line at http://www. Site de relacionamento supera e-mail no país. 15/07/2005. CPS.ibope. Edusp. S. ‘Top Ten Reasons orkut is Popular in Brazil’.br/infoteca/clipping/2005/midia124. Available on-line at http://www. A. Available online at http://www. L. Available on-line at http://www. 2004. 2003. p. ‘Sociedade Global. 2005. February 09. A. 2005.ibope. Available on-line at http://www. Notí [mai 03] and complementary data in CDROM. 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