Project Management

Unit 10

Unit 10
Structure: 10.1 10.2

Project Management Process

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6 10.7 10.8

Introduction Learning objectives Project management review process guide for corporate and major information systems Purpose Roles and responsibilities Relationship to other programs Project management review process schedule and timeline Applicable projects Reporting schedule Project management data Project files Review briefings Termination from the review process Review templates General overview Status of action items from prior review Project status Project schedule / decision points Development funding status Estimated total cost Maintenance funding status ROI Exclusions Product status Issues and risks Post-Review activities Issues or concerns requiring attention Status of open items from review CIO reports Summary Terminal Questions Answers to SAQs and TQs Answers to Self Assessment Questions Answers to Terminal Questions

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Project Management

Unit 10

10.1 Introduction
We have learned all the aspects of project management in previous chapters and varied processes related to it. In this unit, these concepts of various processes in project management have been put together to demonstrate how actually a project management document is outlined with respect to a typical Project Management Process. The document has been put forth based upon the experience of several organisations and project managers. This unit explains Project Management Process through a documentation approach, building the concepts covered so far. In this unit, we shall focus on actual documentation done for project management. We will see project management review process guide for Information Systems followed by process schedule and timeline. We will also see review templates and post review activities. As a part of Project Management Process, various sections and subsections of this unit would cover the following key aspects: a) Project Management Review Process Guide for Corporate and Major Information Systems b) Roles and Responsibilities c) Project Management Review Process Schedule and Timeline d) Management of Project Management Data e) Project Documentation f) Guidelines for preparing the briefings g) Project Schedule / Decision Points h) Performance Measures i) Issues and Risks, Planning for Project Surprises – Coping with Risk, Risk Management Planning Learning Objectives By the end of this unit, you should be able to:  Explain the key elements of a typical project management process.  Explain the key process elements within the industry.  Describe various terminologies and concepts applicable to practical business processes.

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1 Purpose The Project Management Review Process for Corporate and Major Information Systems was instituted to review all corporate and major information systems. and issues to management and senior management. Chief Information Officer (CIO). This includes Departmental Information Architecture as well as other significant departmental programs and projects. for example. reporting requirements and tools. resources.Project Management Unit 10   Describe key issues in an organisation and address the same within a comprehensive Process Document. It provides a life-cycle review process from system inception to retirement.2. These reviews serve as a forum to raise issues and concerns that will impact the project and ensure that acceptable actions or corrective plans exist for addressing any significant negative impacts. Explain the way a typical Project Management Process Document is developed from a set of Building Blocks. The Project Management Reviews provide information and insight to the CPIC Governance Group. 182 . 10. This process is in concert with the framework of the Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) process. or production of a product or a service. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and references. Now let us look into each of them in detail: 10. This document describes the Project Management Review Process for the corporate and major information systems with the associated responsibilities. Chief Finance Officer (CFO). plans. but can serve as a forum for discussion and issue resolution. They are not by their nature intended to be decision-making events. operation. the staff responsible for the funding. enhancement. These reviews provide a forum for bringing together key project stakeholders to communicate project status. and a correlation process between the CPIC processes and Enterprise Architecture (EA) processes.2 Project Management Review Process Guide for Corporate and Major Information Systems Project Management Review Process for Corporate and Major Information Systems was instituted to review all major information systems in development.

the CFO. The Project Senior Management Review is designed to enable Program Managers to report status information on multiple projects to one or more senior managers. 183 . and other affected staff. 10. the CIO. other systems in the environment. architectural alignment.2 Roles and Responsibilities The following figure 10. The Project Senior Management Review requires much of the same reporting of information as the Project Management Review with the key difference being the number of projects reviewed. The Project Management Review is designed to collect data on one project. and related deputies. standards compliance. and to the infrastructure. The information and insight is necessary for understanding potential impacts to the project. 10. for example. Fig.1 shows a list of key participants and their responsibilities in the Project Management Review Process.2.Project Management Unit 10 integration and interoperability.1: Project management review –roles and responsibilities Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Senior managers may also participate in the Project Management Review.

conduct project management reviews. present project status and manage resolution of project issues. g) Delivery Manager: Reviews and comments on project deliverables and work products. 10. d) Program Managers: Develop or approve project deliverables. schedules and supports the review meetings.3 Relationship to other Programs There is mutual benefit for Corporate and Major Information Systems project teams and many of the programs as a result of the information exchange generated by the Project Management Reviews. participate in discussion and provide inputs as appropriate. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. quality management and assurance. risk management. information security. manage project funding and authorise work activities. configuration management. prepare project management review and senior management review presentations. ensure project reporting. safety.2. Throughout the project lifecycle. present project statuses. advises the CIO and associate CIOs h) Key Project Stake Holders and other invited participants: Attend the review meeting. and facilitate resolution of project issues. provides support to systems owners and project managers. approve changes to project scope. f) Corporate Management Investment Process Program Staff: Evaluate major information systems which receive CMIP funding and prepare report for the top management. standards. information architecture. monitors project progress. project staff should collaborate and communicate with staff responsible for capital planning. present project status. facilitates resolution of related project issues b) Chief Financial Officers (CFO): Approves investments in corporate/ major information systems projects c) Systems Owners: Develop or approve project deliverables.Project Management Unit 10 a) Chief Information Officers (CIO): Conducts Project Senior Management Reviews. develop project deliverables. e) Project Managers: Perform day to day project management. 184 .

Corporate and major information systems are reviewed from their inception to retirement through the Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) phases. or production of a product or a service. issues. requirements. 185 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10. Fig. approvals and assistance in the areas of project plans.2. requests. scope. infrastructure and operations. enhancement. functional content.Project Management Unit 10 The information exchange may address status. The phases of CPIC are shown in the figure 10.2: Capital planning and investment control phases Self Assessment Questions True or False 1. budgets. Project Management Review Process for Corporate and Major Information Systems was instituted to review all major information systems in development. schedules. staffing. processes.

a) Identification of projects that will participate in the reviews. c) Compilation of standard project management data into a presentation data.3: Project management review steps Sikkim Manipal University Page No. e) Participation in the review meetings with any required follow-up activities.Project Management Unit 10 2. 186 . d) Collection of detailed project files that support the information reported during the Project Management Reviews and which may be requested for inspection during a formal audit. 10. Fig. There is no benefit for Corporate and Major Information Systems project teams and many of the programs as a result of the information exchange generated by the Project Management Reviews 10.3.3 Project Management Review Process Schedule and Timeline The Project Management Review Process includes the following steps. It is also shown in the figure 10. 3. b) Development and adherence to a quarterly reporting schedule. Project Management reviews serve as a forum to raise issues and concerns that will impact the project and ensure that acceptable actions or corrective plans exist for addressing any significant positive impacts.

Several of the current and future corporate and major information systems initiatives have been identified in the Departmental Information Architecture Program guidance series and in the Corporate Systems Information Architecture (CSIA) document. The team ensures that investments in information technology are fully justified and aligned with agency missions and business needs. For example. A table may be prepared to contain the columns. “As of Date” column indicates the last day in which information should be included for each reporting period. 187 . and review process. control. A meeting will be scheduled to introduce and explain the Project Management Review Process and reporting tools. The program and project managers of the information systems that are included in the review portfolio are expected to comply with the process described in this guide.3 Project Management Data Legislative and regulatory mandates ensure that technology initiatives are implemented at acceptable costs within reasonable and expected time frames. 10. Modernisation plans are also sources for identifying corporate and major systems that should be included in the review portfolio or whose system owners should implement and follow this process. Infrastructure projects may be considered candidates for the review process. 10. that all information technology resources undergo a management.1 Applicable Projects Any corporate or major information system at any facility is a candidate for the Project Management Review Process.2 Reporting Schedule The Project Senior Management Reviews are scheduled every three months in conjunction with the fiscal year.Project Management Unit 10 10.3.3. As candidate projects are added to the review portfolio. they will be incorporated into the next review cycle schedule. The program and project managers of information systems that are not being reviewed through the Project Management Review Process should also consider using this guide as mandates. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the “Briefing Due Date” column provides the date that an electronic version of the briefing is due.3. Agency Chief Information Officers (CIOs) have the responsibility to ensure coordination and tracking of investments.

including tracking and reporting. For all projects identified to participate in Project Management Reviews.Project Management Unit 10 Throughout the project life-cycle it is important to apply standard project management best practices. In addition to being useful in responding to routine and ad-hoc requests for information. In addition to the Project Management Review briefing slides. 188 . the standard set of project management reporting requirements fits into the following five categories: a) General Project Overview b) Project Status c) Product Status d) Issues and Risks e) Project Unique Information 10. All work products developed during the project life-cycle should be included in the project file.3. Information about projects in the review portfolio will be made available for addition to the Corporate and Major Information System repository. regardless of size. For smaller projects.4 Project Files A substantial amount of project management information that is useful throughout the information system’s life-cycle should be gathered in a central project file maintained by the project manager. The following list includes some of the documents that should be provided for the projects participating in the review process: a) Set of review charts b) Supporting documents (if any) c) Handouts (if any) Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This repository serves as a database or data warehouse for storing and accessing information. The project manager should verify that all pertinent project information and documentation are placed in the project file on a timely basis. For larger or more complex projects. tracking. the repository is being used to store other information needed for reporting. to all projects. additional project planning. and reporting activity may be appropriate. stages may be combined and deliverables reduced in scope as appropriate. a project file is instrumental in case of internal or external audits.

and preparing federally mandated reports in addition to the program and project managers. The primary difference between the two formats is the general overview of the project that is presented during the First Time Review (FTR). The briefing content is designed to address all of the pertinent information about the project at a level appropriate for management and senior management including the CIO. This information is omitted from the Ongoing Review briefings unless it has changed since the previous review. All subsequent reviews use the Ongoing Review briefing format.Project Management Unit 10 d) Project plan e) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) f) Review meeting notes Access to the repository is restricted to members of the staff responsible for the reviews. 189 .3. It is expected that some of the charts in the First Time Review will need to be included in the first Ongoing Review of the Fiscal year since annual objectives and funding may change at the start of the fiscal year. responding to inquiries. Fig.5 Review Briefings There are two formats for the review briefings. Preparation and electronic submission of each briefing to the CIO is required on a quarterly basis. They are shown in figure 10. 10.4: Review briefings formats The First Time Review is the initial briefing that occurs when a project is first added to the review portfolio.4. 10. A face-to-face briefing may not be required Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

 Participants may attend the meeting in person. 10.6 Termination from the Review Process By mutual agreement between the CIO and the Program Manager. regardless of size. The _____ are scheduled every three months in conjunction with the fiscal year. Now let us go through a Self Assessment Questionnaire before going to next topic: Self Assessment Questions Fill in the blanks: 4. the project may discontinue the review briefings.  Program and project managers are expected to bring their senior management to the quarterly briefings. once a project has been implemented (that is.3. 5. There are some general guidelines for preparing the briefings.  The briefings should focus on the current status and issues associated with the project.. The CIO will notify the system owner/program/project manager to schedule the face-to-face briefings that are required for each reporting period.  The briefing can be given by the project manager. 190 . Throughout the project life-cycle it is important to apply standard project management best practices.  Two hours are allocated for each briefing.  Other project stakeholders or key personnel may be involved in the presentation.Project Management Unit 10 each quarter.  A detailed Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) should be provided with the presentation charts. The full form of CSIA is _______. 6. to all projects. The two formats for the review briefings are _____ and ______. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.  Senior contractor management attendance is considered to be a good indicator of their interest in assuring their staffs are delivering good products. 7. including ______ and reporting. the system is in operation).

project unique information. This is depicted in figure 10. project status. Ongoing Reviews. The templates serve as a means of standardising the reporting requirements and enabling a common set of criteria for evaluating the health and progress of the department’s corporate and major information systems. Fig.5.4 Review Templates Each Project Management Review meeting starts with an introduction of the members along with the agenda and guidelines of the meeting. Electronic templates are used to assist project staff in the preparation of the Project Management Review briefings – First-Time Reviews. 10. The remainder of the review meeting focuses on six categories of information – general overview.5: Project management review categories Sikkim Manipal University Page No. issues and risks. 191 . and Samples. status of action items from prior review.Project Management Unit 10 10. product status. Presenters may choose to develop their own set of slides as long as the requested information is covered.

points. the slides should be included only if any of the information has changed. and provide the status of each item. The project manager is expected to check this list in line with the preparation for the current review. Any significant newly identified/requested user requirements and their impacts on schedule. etc. Issues and action items are listed in the review report that is distributed after the review by the staff. decision. since it documents the objectives by year and is required in Ongoing Reviews. all four slides should be covered. In subsequent reviews. Generally four slides are included in this set.4. include all listed items on the slide. cost.Project Management Unit 10 10. 10. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Have the dates accelerated or slipped dates? iv. What has occurred during the last quarter? ii.4.3 Project Status The project status category focuses on the management approach used for the project. Slide 6 may need to be provided at the first quarter of each fiscal year.2 Status of Action Items from Prior Reviews This slide provides accountability and closure for issues or action items that were raised during the past review. This includes schedule. ROI. 10. What was accomplished including any changes from previously identified project deliverables (the baseline?) iii. 192 .4. if information has changed. It should have the work out details with respect to the following questions: i. b) Various project specific details should be showcased. Dates planned to achieve the project objectives.1 General Overview This category sets the stage for the remainder of the information provided during the review. costs. For the First Time Review. v. a) The project plan should include a logically laid out schedule with dates for significant items and decision points over the current fiscal year as well as the out-years. Information presented in this category should cover the following aspects. Issues and action items that are closed during the period from the prior review to the current review should be reported in addition to any items that are still open. funding status among others.

The CFO uses a website data collection system for tracking and documenting costs.6 Estimated Total Cost The standard requires capitalisation of direct and indirect costs. The out-year breakdown should contain the key/major items and decision points. The program or the project manager is responsible for ensuring that capitalisation costs are captured for the project. Provide the detailed work breakdown structure as background material for each review to handout as part of the presentation and to be posted on the project management review information repository. including employee salaries and benefits for employees who materially participate in the project.Project Management Unit 10 The First Time Review slides for the Project Status section should be reviewed at the start of each fiscal year to determine if project changes warrant their inclusion in the first quarter Ongoing Review. 193 .4. and review items. and less detail for the out-years.5 Development Funding Status If any portion of the project moves into production while modules are still under development. the slide should also include funding status for the development costs. The plans should include expected achievement dates for the item/activity performance metrics (overall project performance metrics). The plan should also include key decision points such as:  when the project exits one stage and enters another  when the contractor(s) comes aboard  when dates will be frozen for a particular phase of installation  when deployment and/or conversion to the new system are to occur  date when the new system becomes the system of record An updated project plan with a work breakdown structure should be maintained that contains the details for the next 12-18 months. 10. They also include identified points where decisions or involvement by the CIO or the project manager’s management is necessary.4. 10.4 Project Schedule/Decision Points The project plan and project schedule should demonstrate the inclusion of plans to address known or likely obstacles.4. Capitalisation should be Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10. requirements.

All such information is captured by Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and team. reduced cost. Communicate issues or concerns raised as quickly as possible. ROI should be re-calculated at every major checkpoint of a project to see if the BEP is still on schedule. and the consequences of under or non-performance.Project Management Unit 10 projected in the business case and then captured and tracked for each year of the project thereafter. 10. speed. time and resources in a project. ROI should reflect actual returns observed through pilot projects and prototypes. If the project is behind schedule or over budget. the likelihood of cost overruns. Where appropriate. the agency’s management capacity. planning and justifying expenditures for maintenance of new systems. increased quality. the information is important for decision-making based on the value of the investment throughout the project life-cycle.4. Maintenance funding needs to be documented.7 Maintenance Funding Status This slide is used to identify the maintenance costs and funding sources for the project. 194 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Record the project maintenance funding by source for the next seven years of the project. ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission performance. Display projected maintenance costs beyond development completion. ROI should reflect such risk factors as the project’s technical complexity.8 ROI Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organisation is projected to receive in return for investing money. The intent of the slide is to help in forecasting. or flexibility. In either case. 10.4. which is the time (point in time) when the investment begins to generate a positive return. Within the context of the review process. if the project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier. the investment would be in an information system development or enhancement project. the BEP may move out in time. based on project spending and accomplishments to date. ROI information is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key checkpoints throughout the project’s life-cycle. and increased customer and employee satisfaction. ROI should be quantified in terms of money and should include a calculation of the break-even point (BEP).

and labour involved in determining the cited benefit. and a summary of the process used to identify and select system enhancements.4. identify the specific site. systems. the ROI slide can be eliminated from the package. In subsequent reviews of the information system. calculation of benefits and costs. c) Elimination of redundant systems.9 Exclusions If the detailed data collection. c) A copy of the memorandum of record for the review repository. 195 . In such a case. b) A bulleted list of the most important points from the memorandum of record. b) Reduction/redirection of labour. For the Project Management Review. d) Ability to effectively upgrade all sites with one standard upgrade package. The memorandum should provide a brief history of the program. it is recommended that a memorandum of record be developed as a substitute for ROI. Some of the major benefits experienced by sites that installed the information system that would be important to include in the memorandum are: a) Decommissioning of mainframe computers.Project Management Unit 10 Any project that has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key project decision point (that is. then it may not be realistic or practical to require the retrofit calculation of ROI once the project is added to the review portfolio. stage exit) or at least yearly. and capitalisation data from which ROI is derived was not required for a particular project. Any internal use software project in the maintenance phase of its Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10. The memorandum will be used as tool for responding to any future audit inquiries on project ROI. a description of the major benefits realised to date with as much quantitative data as possible. Identify any costs or dollar savings that are known or have been estimated. There is one notable exception to this guidance. it is recommended that the project leader replaces the text on the ROI document through: a) A note stating which stage of its-cycle the project is in. In each case above.

and risks and issues. and customer satisfaction measurements. These include defect reporting. project. Product measurements are used in quality assurance processes to project and measure product quality. Performance Measures Performance measurements are used in project management and quality processes to determine and communicate status and accomplishments measured against specific objectives. whether external or internal. function. testing status.Project Management Unit 10 life-cycle that adds a new site or undertakes an enhancement or technology refresh that reaches the cost threshold established by standard will need to satisfy capitalisation requirements. project methodology and processes. It is typically conducted by program or agency management. Performance measures may address:  the type or level of program activities conducted (process)  the direct products and service delivered by a program (outputs)  the results or those products and services (outcomes) A “program” may be any activity. and milestones. or policy that has an identifiable purpose or set of objectives. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. particularly progress towards pre-established goals. If capitalisation data is collected for the project in the future. These measurements extend to include delivery of desired products and services to customers. Program managers are considered to be the source of cost information for internal use software projects. Performance measurement is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of program accomplishments. This includes system architecture. including employee salaries and benefits for both federal and contractor employees who materially participate in the software project. schedules. The standard requires capitalisation of direct and indirect costs. It requires all agencies to capitalise items acquired or developed for internal use if the expected service life is two or more years and its cost meets or exceeds the agency’s threshold for internal use software. 196 . the project would be expected to calculate and track its ROI.10 Product Status The product status section focuses on the technical approach. 10. product quality.4.

10. measures of accomplishments and measures that relate efforts to accomplishments (as depicted in the figure 10. Measurements can be reported at the program and project level and can include:  resource and cost goals  schedule and progress goals  trade-offs and risk outcomes  product quality goals  customer satisfaction goals Basic categories of performance measurements include measures of efforts. Fig. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Project Management Unit 10 Capital Planning and Investment Process must institute performance measures and management processes. material) that are put into a program or process.6: Basic categories of performance management a) Measures of efforts: Efforts are the amount of financial and nonfinancial resources (in terms of money. 197 .6).

or equipment used) per unit of output. 198 . Bring the awareness of those concerns or issues either about the project or the proposed solution that may be resolved. This information is typically identified and raised by the project manager. should be documented and discussed at the project Management review. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. whether resolved or not. Project Unique Information: Highlight any additional project information to be included in the Project Management Review.Project Management Unit 10 b) Measures of accomplishments: Accomplishments measures report what was provided and achieved with the resources used. The status will be reported as Green. They also measure the resources used or cost (for example. using the predefined criteria. Significant issues. All parties present at the review should reach consensus that this slide fairly represents the status of the project. employee-hours. and solutions are shared throughout the department. or Red. This is done for the purpose of lessons-learned so that the same difficulties are not repeated during subsequent enhancements or upgrades or by other corporates or major systems. in rupees. There are two types of measures of accomplishments – outputs and outcomes. internally established goals and objectives.4. Outputs measure the quantity of services provided. Overview of Project Status: Its purpose is to communicate a visuallyoriented “thumbnail” view of the project’s status. 10. as it will be used for (higher) management reporting purposes. The data should be a cumulative representation of the project status. Yellow. outcomes measure the results of providing those outputs. Issues are expected to be resolved during project team meetings or stage exits. c) Measures that relate efforts to accomplishments: These are efficiency measures that relate efforts to outputs of products or services. They provide information about the production of an output at a given level of resource used and demonstrate an entity’s relative efficiency when compared with previous results.11 Issues & Risks The project manager is responsible and accountable for all the external and internal issues of the project. Present the issues or concerns that need to be addressed by management or senior management.

for example. 12. The program / project manager should communicate the status of these items in each quarterly review until the items are resolved / closed. reports to the CIO Council.5. 199 . A “program” may be any activity.5 Post-Review Activities Once the Project Management Review has been conducted. function.Project Management Unit 10 Self Assessment Questions True or False: 8. or policy that has an identifiable manager. 10. 10. The templates serve as a means of standardising the reporting requirements and enabling a common set of criteria for evaluating the health and progress of the departments corporate and major information systems.5. The customer is expected to check this list in preparation for the current review. These items should be communicated whenever they become known. 11. and provide the status of each item. The CIO may also recommend quality assurance analysis be conducted.1 Issues or Concerns Requiring Attention The project manager is responsible for raising issues or concerns that require assistance or guidance to the attention of the CIO. The program/project manager is responsible for ensuring that capitalisation costs are captured for the project. and not held for the next Project Management Review. Each Project Management Review meeting starts with an introduction of the face-to-face and meet-me call participants and an opportunity for general comments. 10. 9. Also check the status of open items from the review and CIO reporting actions. The CIO will assign appropriate OCIO staff available to help resolve open items.2 Status of Open Items from Review Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10. project. include all listed items on the slide. follow up with program/project managers on any issues or concerns requiring attention.

The summary report will be used by the CIO when reporting status to the CIO Council. Self Assessment Questions Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10. 200 .3 CIO Reports The staff supporting the CIO quarterly reviews will prepare a summary report after each Project Management Review.Project Management Unit 10 The program/project manager is responsible for tracking the open items from the review and communicating the status in each quarterly review until the items are closed. 10.6 Summary In this unit you have learnt the key elements of a typical project management process and the key process elements within the industry. You have also learnt about the way a typical Project Management Process Document is developed from a set of building blocks. The company feels the project management reviews provide crucial information and insight to necessary for understanding potential impacts to the project. The scheduling of reviews will coordinate with the program/project manager after the quarterly reviews to help ensure that new items have been captured for tracking and action by the program/project manager.5. The summary report will include the following information: a) Summary Status b) Open Issues/Items c) Status Performance Objectives/Measures d) Status of Schedule/Cost The summary report will be provided to the program/project manager to gain concurrence on the content. A Caselet on the importance of Project Management Reviews Infosys Technologies put a lot of importance on project management reviews. You have learnt about the various terminologies and concepts applicable to practical business processes along with the key Issues in an organisation and address the same within a comprehensive Process Document.

True False False Tracking Corporate System Information Architecture First time. 5.8. 13.8 Answers 10.8 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The staff supporting the CIO Quarterly Reviews will prepare a summary report after each _____________. Explain in detail the project management review process.7 Terminal Questions 1.Project Management Unit 10 Fill in the blanks: 13.8. Ongoing Project Management Review True True False True False Project Manager Project Management Review 10. 14. 201 .2 Answers to Terminal Questions 1.4. What are the various post review activities? 3. 14. ________ is responsible for raising issues for concerns that require assistance or guidance to the attention of the CIO. 3. Refer 10. 12. 10. Refer 10. 9. 11.5 3. Refer 10.1 Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1.3 2. 10. What is the significance of reviewing ROI? 10. 7. 4. 8. 2. 6. 2.

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