Introduction: The global agricultural scenario has been witnessing a sea change for the last two decades. New issues such as global warming and climate change, new pests & diseases, natural resource depletion and degradation, house hold nutritional security, slowly growing farm profitability, food safety, trade competition etc. have arisen. The involvement of private sector in agricultural research, education and training is yet another development which need to be harnessed. Thus, agriculture has become more global in its reach, more complex in trade and exchanges, more technologically grounded and ever more challenged with balancing sustainability, productivity, profitability and inclusiveness. In order to address these issues, a paradigm shift is called for in human resource development, research, technology generation, technology dissemination and commercialization. The (KIA Knowledge Initiative in Agriculture) Board discussed the areas and decided four priority areas (2010), (i) namely, human resource and institutional capacity building, (ii) agriprocessing and marketing, (iii) emerging technologies and (iv) natural resource management. In the short run, they concentrated on the four themes namely, (i) education, learning resources, curriculum development and training, (ii) food processing, use of byproducts, and biofuels, (iii) biotechnology and (iv) water management. Table:1- Four key areas in agriculture A. Human Resources and Institutional C. Emerging Technologies Capacity-Building (Cross cutting areas) h. Biotechnology a. Education, learning i. Nanotechnology resources, curriculum development and training j. Nutraceutical b. R&D, commercialization c. IPR, biosafety, food safety, investment conditions, and policy and regulatory frameworks B. Agri-Processing and Marketing d. Food processing k. Vaccines and diagnostics l. Precision farming m. Bioinformatics and information technology D. Natural Resource Management n. Water management


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M. This scenario leads to the following objectives for agricultural development. fermentation.AGRICULTURE . a large number of post-harvest equipment and technologies have been developed and are being used. Climate change q.000 crores. some of the technologies need refinement and upgradation for large-scale adoption. extrusion. safe and competitively priced processed food material for ensuring desired nutrition to the consumers. This will also result in minimizing the waste and providing high quality. These losses could be minimized to a great extent through appropriate commodity and location specific post-harvest technology preferably in the production catchment. Efforts are being made in India in food processing and value addition and as a result. There are post harvest losses in agricultural produces amounting to about Rs. Air quality r. Use of by products and biofuels f. However.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN.    Development of technology for innovative processed and value added products from plant and livestock produce. the value addition to agro-produce is at a low level of about 7% in comparison to developed and some of the developing countries where 60-70% of farm produce is processed and value added. 50. About 2% of horticultural produce is processed in India and in general. The human resource who will be undertaking these activities will also need to be developed through training. Development of technology for an economic utilization of agricultural byproducts. coldchain/product handling o. exchange of visits. Development of technology for bio-fuels from agricultural biomass. This requires an acceleration in our R&D efforts and commercialization of such technologies Activities related to food processing. membrane separation are needed to be carried out for maximizing the gains to the producers. Page 2 123GO!. high pressure steriliization. traders and consumers. workshops and auditing. value addition and energy management using newer technology such as extraction. Such primary processing will also facilitate employment and income generation. Post-harvest management/value addition g.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP e.O. byproducts utilization and better quality food products. processors. Food Marketing. Waste management Current scenario: India produces about 750 million tonnes of major raw food materials of plant (650 million tons) and animal origin (100 million tons) besides natural fibres and rubber. Soil and management p.

causing the displacement of traditional varieties and breeds: • New health hazards for workers in the agrochemical and food processing industries.O. and of their capacity to absorb water. • Erosion of genetic diversity – the tendency in agriculture to standardize and specialize by focusing on modern varieties.2 per cent in 2000-01 to 21. global warming and atmospheric pollution: • Contamination of food and fodder by residues of pesticides. Reforms focused on liberalisation of export trade mainly due to some surpluses created in rice and wheat.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. methane and the products of burning. But overall in recent year’s economy has seen a decline in the rate of growth of agricultural sector and also its share in GDP. pesticides.9 percent in 123GO!. causing waterlogging and increased salinity. nitrates.AGRICULTURE Page 3 . causing harm to farm workers an public. The rate of growth of the sector has also been fluctuating from 0% in 2000-01 to -5. In late 1980’s the country saw another set of reforms initiated by broad trade liberalisation and depreciation of exchange rate that made the terms of trade in favour of agriculture. which play a role in ozone depletion.fertilisers. disruption of ecosystems and harm to wildlife. • Contamination of water by pesticides. Issues and Challenges Since the first green revolution in 1960’s the food grain production has increased significantly from 82 million tonnes in 1960-61 to 129 million tonnes in 1980-81 and 213 million tonnes in 2003-04. wild habitats.input agriculture • Overuse of natural resources.7 Percent in 2005-06. seeds and irrigation facility. nitrous oxide.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP  Human resource development in critical areas of agro-processing and value addition. disruption of ecosystems and possible health problems in drinking water • Build up of resistance to pesticides in pests and diseases including herbicide resistance in weeds • Damage of farm and natural resources by pesticides. nitrates and antibiotics. • Contamination of the atmosphere by ammonia. and loss of forests.M. At 1999-2000 prices (Table 1) the share of agricultural sector in GDP has declined from 26. soil and livestock water. Adverse effects of modern high. But the impact of green revolution was mostly evident in areas with irrigation facilities. causing harm to wildlife. causing depletion of groundwater. to meet out food security and attain self-sufficiency specially in the production of our stable food rice and wheat. Green revolution introduced use of improved inputs.

Whereas we see area shift towards pulses. that Indian agriculture face are declining productivity.6 per cent in next year. Table:2 Annual growth rate and share of agriculture and allied sector in GDP at 19992000 price Table:3 Growth rate area and production of principal crops in India In this backdrop the various issues and challenges identified.3 per cent in 2003-04. which again dipped to 0. The decline in production is even of a higher tune than the area decline.O.M. distorting markets due to government intervention. wheat.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. This is primarily because of shift in area and declining yields. oilseeds.AGRICULTURE Page 4 . coarse cereals has been declining. Table 2 show that area under rice. declining agricultural research and extension activities. declining public 123GO!. poor irrigation and water management. thus resulting in slow down in production. cotton and other nonfood grains.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2002-03 and as high as 9. and this is due to low yields.

presently. This poses a threat to the economic viability and sustainability of crop production. Productivity Agriculture being constrained by availability of land. sustainability concerns are being expressed that the input levels have to be continuously increased in order to maintain the yield at the old level. in the wake of growing 123GO!. with its share dropping to 75% from the present 83% in the near future.AGRICULTURE Page 5 . marginalizing net returns to farmers. slow development of agroprocessing units. The agricultural sector is going to face grim competition for supplies of fresh water. The soils are. Problems and tentative solutions Sustainable management of natural resources Continued degradation of natural resources under intensive agriculture to attain goals of food sufficiency is one of the reasons for the declining factor productivity and stagnation in food grains production in the country. Limiting nutrients. inefficient supply chain and marketing strategies.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP and private investment. especially in rice-wheat belt of Indo-Gangetic plains and the increased inputs are thus adding to the production cost. not replenished adequately with nutrients removed by crops. Farmers are resorting to addition of more and more fertilizers to obtain yields similar to previous years. A sustainable farming system is a system in which natural resources are managed so that potential yield and the stock of natural resources do not decline over time. operating on a negative nutrient balance of about 10 million tonnes per annum. lower overall fertilizer-use efficiency and crop productivity. generally. poor infrastructure development.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. unorganized agricultural credit and insurance. Long-term food security goal can only be attained if there is sustainable agriculture. The soils are. obviously. The wider fertilizer consumption ratios for many states corroborate nutrient imbalance in soils.O. not allowing full expression of other nutrients. the productivity remains the most crucial factor based on which is the future of India’s food security. particularly micro and secondary nutrients. The health of our soils has been impaired due to emergence of multi-nutrient deficiencies and falling of organic carbon levels.M. At the farmers’ level.

Vermicompost improves physical.AGRICULTURE Page 6 .4 million m3/day) need to be utilized for irrigation after their proper treatment. The micro-irrigation and resource conservation technologies (RCTs). Adoption of costeffective technology to ameliorate the soils on over 25 million ha could contribute additional 25 million tonnes of food grains to the national food basket per annum. Rajasthan. Haryana. About 25 million ha of acidic soils in the country have low productivity of less than 1 tonne/ha due to deficiencies as well as toxicities of certain nutrients. its nutritional quality is better than that of ordinary compost — with higher contents of essential plant nutrients and several growth promoters from secretions of worms and associated microbes. Liming and adequate fertilizer uses have the potential to double productivity of these lands. therefore. Presently. Uttar Pradesh. especially in peri-urban areas. raising their productivity by about 6 tonnes/ha. Over 1 million ha of such lands have been reclaimed in Haryana and Punjab. going to be crucial to sustain agricultural growth in the country. The conjunctive use of water and diversification of ricewheat is required for solving the emerging problem. Haryana and Rajasthan is leading to waterlogging and development of secondary salinity. The excess use of canal water in southwestern Punjab. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. It requires less time for decomposition of wastes as material passing through gut of earthworms undergoes quick enzymatic breakdown. Western Uttar Pradesh. chemical and biological 123GO!. West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. The availability of gypsum has to be ensured with fertilizer dealers at a reasonable price. Further. forcing sharp fall in water table in these areas.O.M.5 million ha of soils affected by alkalinity/salinity in the country have very low productivity and could be reclaimed with gypsum application. Vermicomposting is an environment-friendly and useful method of conversion of rural and urban organic wastes into good quality manure. the groundwater is being overdrawn in Central Punjab. The spread of technology on 5 million ha would provide additional 10 million tonnes of food grains. Nearly 8.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. The technology has to be extended to other salt-affected areas of Gujarat. Cheap-and-effective liming materials are basic slag and lime sludges that are available with steel industries and paper mills respectively. The judicious management of water resources is. economizing on water and nutrients require to be promoted in a big way. Rajasthan. Large volumes of wastewater (18.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP industrial and domestic sectors.

poultry litter (1 million tonne) and city waste (57 million tonness). Enabling policy initiatives and absorption of the improved technologies could very well raise the productivity of these areas by half-a-tonne/ha. especially women and hence. income generation and nutritional security. the avocation provides employment to rural households.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP environment of soils. and also overall crop productivity. These areas still have low productivity and marketable surpluses. The systems are based on recycling of residues of one component for the production of the others. press mud (5 million tonnes). integrated pest management. livestock and fisheries provide ample opportunities of productivity enhancement (3–4 times compared to monoculture). 123GO!. development and introduction of suitable crops (especially hybrids of maize. organic farming. The technological interventions required are: water harvesting and ground water recharging for supplemental irrigation (117 million ha-m of rainwater going waste as runoff). All these interventions need to be viewed within the perspective of participatory Watershed Plus approach for greater transparency. Besides economic returns. adequate and integrated fertilizer use (including secondary and micro-nutrients). microirrigation.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. increased credits. And it is required to be promoted in a big way in rural India.AGRICULTURE Page 7 .O. the rainfed areas were bypassed by the green revolution in the country. vegetable and fruit wastes (5 million tonnes). West Bengal. Bihar. The rainfed areas are characterized by deficient and erratic rainfall. These enterprises providing returns of around Rs 70. Besides these. horticulture. eastern Uttar Pradesh and the North-Eastern Hill States having over 12 million ha of waterlogged lands with very low productivity. employment. In the absence of conducive environment. The rainfed farming practised in over 87 million ha area of the country contributes 40% of food and supports 40% of human and 60% of livestock population. Large quantities of biodegradable waste are available from crop residues (350 million tonnes). 5-6 million tonnes of low-grade rock phosphate are also available for production of enriched vermicompost.M.000/ha/annum need to be promoted particularly in the States of Orissa. rampant land degradation and small and marginal poor farmers. Farming systems combining crops. equity. low premium crop insurance suiting to rainfed farmers and regular trainings to upscale skills and knowledge of farmers on various aspects of agriculture. pulses and oilseeds). fits well in the Common Minimum Programme of the Government.

climate. for which the ICAR has evolved a number of viable and productive options. medicinal and aromatic crops and other cash crops.M. to have higher productivity and profitability and also to reduce the drudgery of farm workers including women. Eighty per cent of farm 123GO!. Crop diversification is becoming essential for maintaining soil health. The KVKs and SAUs may be involved in providing vocational training to farmers in micro-enterprises and refining their skills in rainfed agriculture. oilseeds. Figure:1 Sustainable natural resource management BIOTECHNOLOGY WATER MANAGEMENT HYBRID FARMING POULTRY MANAGEMENT VERMICOMPOSTING LAND MANAGEMENT FARMING TOOLS MANAGEMENT Farm Tools and Equipment Farm Tools and Equipment are needed for timely completion of various agricultural operations and precise application of inputs.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP social security and sustainability. especially in the Indo-Gangetic plain. vegetables. water balance and overall productivity in many parts of the country. availability of water and market potential. This has to be achieved in synchronization with soil.AGRICULTURE Page 8 . Rice-wheat system and monocultures require to be replaced with legumes. fruits. etc.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. There is also a need to have assured market outlet for the produce for achieving required diversification in different agroecological zones of the country.O.

Appropriate post-harvest technologies and equipment. post-harvest management and value-addition using a proper blend of conventional and renewable energy sources to achieve higher income. 8% animal and 6% human. 150 and 400% for soybean to flour.O. sugarcane cutter planter. For example. Use of zero-till drill results in a saving of Rs 2. wheat straw combine and balers. The prominent resource/inputs (seed. and other health-promoting nutrients and phytochemicals. water. zero till drills are being used over an area of about 2 million ha resulting into a saving of about Rs.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 400% for wheat to biscuit. fuel and labour) conserving machines are laser land leveler. fertilizer. 25–400%. Appropriate and selective mechanization is needed for production agriculture. are available to minimize losses and add value. source-wise. value-addition is 25% for wheat to flour. 30% for chickpea to besan. current power use is 65% mechanical. and 400% for potato to potato chips. raised bed former. happy seeder. 35% for paddy to rice. The potential for value-addition to agro-produce including byproducts is immense. rotary power weeder.5 million tonnes of carbon. that are commodity and region specific. snacks. precision planters.5 million ha-m of water. 123GO!. agro-chemicals. post-harvest management could add 5–10% more by reducing losses. For example. The farm produce and the remaining biomass/ crop residues are processed to convert them into edible/ usable products. if processed appropriately into different food products such as dairy analogs.AGRICULTURE Page 9 . could fulfill much needed protein and calorie deficiency at an affordable price (Rs 50/kg protein compared to about Rs 200/kg protein from pulses) to combat protein-calorie malnutrition.M. It is estimated that application of laser land leveler in 2 million ha under rice-wheat system could save 1.2 million tonnes of diesel and reduce GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions equivalent to 0. aeroblast sprayer.000–3. 21% electrical. depending on the commodity and the level of processing. milk and tofu (soypaneer). The need is to expand the area under resource/ inputs conserving technologies and machines to make farming more profitable. oil (20%). zero-till drill. bakery products. While mechanization would augment the agricultural production by 10–15%. etc.000/ha consisting of 70 litres diesel. 500 crore annually. etc. 25. rotavator.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP holdings in India are less than 1 ha and. sub-soiler. soybean which is rich in protein (40%). Today. time and labour. 0.

Points to remember: 1. Similar technological interventions in paddy processing. and technologies are available to make use of soymeal for food in the form of soy-nuggets (soy-bari).AGRICULTURE Page 10 .5 kW/ha during the next 20 years to meet the targets of agricultural production. Energy is a critical input in today’s agriculture. and at the same time the country is importing 1.000 MW quality power for meeting the demands in production catchments. snacks. oil extraction. gasification.M. etc.MINISTRY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP About 4 million tonnes of soymeal. are available for additional output of rice. pyrolysis.500 crore.000/ tonne. which needs to be enhanced to 3. etc. Source: for further detailed study vistar. are a host of technologies that are available today to efficiently convert the available surplus biomass into fuels.htm 123GO!. to provide 2 million tonnes dietary protein equivalent to 8-10 million tonnes of pulses. The usage of liquid fuel in agriculture for production activities would go up to 45 million tonnes oil in the next 20 years. This biomass could generate about 15. renewable.5 kW/ha. soy-fortified biscuits.P VAISHNAV COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. etc.nic. pulse and oil at much lower cost than that from the production system. carbon neutral and has socio-economic benefits. It is estimated that about 150 million tonnes surplus biomass would be available for conversion into fuel. soyflour. the direct power availability is estimated at 1. What is required is to establish pilot plants using these technologies for decentralized power generation and then linking them with the agro-processing and other activities. Briquetting. as it is widely available. Concept of the plan must be clear( agricutural product/ service/ research) 2. The feasibility of the plan must be explained with logical reasoning and in parlance to the current scenario in the country. containing 50% protein is exported at Rs 11.in/document/chapter/3. Therefore. There has been renewed interest in biomass as a source of energy. solid-state fermentation.O. the need is to utilize soymeal protein to substitute pulse import.8 million tonnes of pulses worthi Rs 2. pulse milling. Based on the current usage.

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