PRACTICAL HINTS Pre-wetting, effective means of increasing the efficiency of sizing agents by S.M.

Qutab, Textile Consultant Abstract This paper discusses theoretically the influence of the parameters of sizing in the size box on properties of sized yarn in the process of sizing. A mathematical analysis of the process in the size box has been carried out. As a result of the theoretical analysis a system of equations has been derived which explains the behaviour of sizing process in the size box. The article is also intended for the fabric manufacturers to optimise the sizing parameters in order to reduce wastage of sizing materials and to reduce yarn breakages during weaving. Introduction The sizing process is very important for blended and filament yarns. Although there have been a lot of developments in the process of sizing with respect to the techniques, sizing materials and drying systems, there still are possibilities of further improvements in the area. The purpose of sizing is to impart to the yarn a tally of physical and mechanical properties necessary for its processing in weaving, i.e. to reduce the breakages of warp ends during weaving. To achieve the required properties of sized yarns, a film (protective coating) is applied to the yarn. Reducing consumption of sizing agents is a subject for constant concern in the sizing plant for reasons of both cost and efficiency. It is essential that any reduction in the amount of size applied does not have an adverse influence on the effectiveness of the process and it must under no circumstances cause any loss of efficiency in weaving. Initial attempts have been made in early nineties at the ITV Denkendorf to attain this objective of reducing consumption of sizing agents by increasing the affinity between fibres and sizing agents. Research has demonstrated that this object is realistic one. Now, almost all sizing machinery manufacturers are offering pre-wetting equipment which in general consist of: a) Separate Pre-wetting compartment or b) Combined pre-wetting/sizing Pre-wetting - impregnating the warp with hot water while at the same time washing it, has demonstrated its ability to yield better surface sizing of the threads. The adhesion of the size is enhanced, hairiness is reduced, and the breaking strength of the yarn and their abrasion resistance are increased. Pre-wetting on the other hand, clearly reduces the degree of sizing, cutting sizing cost substantially, while on the other hand weaveability can be improved depending on the size pick up. Warp end-breaks are then reduced and weaving efficiency raised. Industrial practice has shown that pre-wetting yields the best results. Intensive wetting and washing enable the hot water to penetrate into the warp thread adequately. The washing action is optimised by two-immersion zones. The first squeezer not only hold back the dirt but also presses this air out of threads, so that they absorb more water at second immersion. High pressure -squeezing up to 100,00 daN are needed for pre-wetting, to ensure that enough water is expressed and the liquor is not diluted in the size box. High water temperature up to 90ºC ensures adequate washing of cotton sheeting for example. A temperature control system with direct steam heating, an adjustable liquor level with latest level metering system, as well as filtered water circulation provides controlable and reproducible pre-wetting. INTAKE - For any sizing process including pre-wetting, the threads tension, when entering the liquor, must be lowered below the unwinding tension from the back beam creel. The lower tension simplifies liquor uptake and reduces stretching. The powered intake enables the thread tension at immersion in the hot water to be selected individually and, that mean, reduced.

Yarn count 100000 picks Ne 12 Ne 20 5-10% No. of Ends Cover factor (%) Warp g/sq. therefore. Ends breaks 5350 6300 63 59 267 187 0.1 .Figure 1 and 2 provide evidence of the absorption of water and consequent lower uptake of size in the size box for identical application of the size. need to be sized at a higher liquor concentration than yarns without pre-treatment.86 1. mt. The pre-treated warp yarn.

Denkendorf ITB . Zell Germany.Reference: ITV.fabric forming. Switzerland Benninger Zell Bulletin.Institute of textile and chemical engineers paper on wetting out. .

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