CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION
Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods by means of vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroad and it introduced as early as 1853. Rail transport is part of the logistic chain, which facilities the international trading and economic growth in most countries. Rail transport is an energy-efficient and capitalintensive means of mechanized land transport and is a component of logistics, Rails which along with various engineered components are part of permanent way. Railways remained an energy efficient mode of transport ideally suited for long distance travel. The railways had always been ecologically safe much less pollution atmosphere compared to aircrafts and motor vehicles. The railways have provide the twin tasks of providing adequate transport for industrial sustenance and growth and ensuring cheap and reliable transportation for the population. Of 236 countries and dependencies, 143 have rail transport, of which 90 have passenger services. India is the land of diverse culture and Indian railways plays a key role is not only meeting the transport needs of the country, but also in binding together dispersed areas and promoting national integration truly, Indian railways have emerged as the sinews of the Indian economy and have reached out to bring together the great Indian family. India is the seventh largest country in terms of its geographical size. This means there is a need for efficient means for long distance road network is very poorly developed in most parts of India. It brings together people from the farthest corners of the country and makes possible the conduct of business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Indian railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. It has bound the economic life of the country and helped in accelerating the development of industry and agriculture. Indian railways have grown into one of the largest railway network in the world. The network spread and expanded rapidly and has become the principal mode of transport in the country. The railways have modernized in terms of technology, ticketing, computerization and overall management. Indian railways have been the prime movers to the nation and have the distinction of being one of the largest railway systems in the world under a single management. Railways being the more energy efficient mode of transport are ideally
suited for movement of bulk commodities and for a long distance travel. As compared to road transport, the railways have a number of intrinsic advantages. Railways are five to six times more energy efficient, four times more efficient in land use and significantly superior from the standpoints or environments and safety. Indian railways, therefore, rightly occupy pride of place in the growth and development of the nation. Railways, being the prime infrastructural sector of the country, need to expand and develop to keep pace with the growth of Indian economy. The massive investment needed for the development of Indian railway system has not been fully available. The budgetary support to the railways has been increasing, but is far from adequate and has not been keeping pace with the throw-forward. The sector must also adjust to foreign trade expansion, demographic pressures and increasing urbanization, technological change and obsolescence, energy availability and environmental and public safety concerns. The Indian system is managed through zones and operating divisions. There are also six production units engaged in manufacturing rolling stock, wheels and axels and other ancillary components to meet railway requirements. TATKAL SYSTEM Today railways is running in a fast mode. Traveling is been daily increasing and also the usage of railways is growing day by day. For better and comfort traveling reservation schemes were introduced from the past years. There are various reservations schemes followed in railways. In that Tatkal reservation scheme plays a major role. That Tatkal scheme can be booked two days in advance before traveling, Tatkal booking is permitted to all class except first class a/c. Tatkal charge is addition to normal fare, there is no concession for Tatkal scheme. Refund of 25% of total charge on ticket cancellation with in 24 hrs and different Tatkal charges for peak season and non peak season.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The transportation industry today has to gone on the move, constantly in more ways than one. It has to deal with increasing demands of customers and suppliers, while simultaneously trying to optimize the entire business operation at minimum cost. Transportation in India is a large and varied sector of the economy. The
government plays a large regulatory and development role in roadways, civil aviation, railroads etc. The passenger now a days have more options to travel by road, rail, air etc. despite the increasing comfort of road transport, reduced fair of airways, the passenger traveling by train has not reduced but found on the increase. More and more people started traveling by train both for short and long traveling and for that government are also allocating funds for infrastructure development in railways. Hence it will be worth to study the passengers attitude towards the services rendered in Indian railways.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To study the sources provided by railways in Tatkal scheme. To study the awareness of passenger about services offered by railways. To study the pattern of usage of railway services by the passenger. To study the passenger satisfaction towards Tatkal Reservation scheme in railways. To study the problems faced in Tatkal Reservation scheme in railways. To provide suitable suggestions on the basis of the study.
METHODOLOGY USED IN THE STUDY
Methodology is a way to systematically solving the research problems by analyzing the various research techniques along with the logic behind the problem.
1. DATA SOURCES
The primary data are collected from the passengers of railway service with the help of structured questionnaire. The secondary data has been collected by referring to articles, journals, books, various project works and internet links.
2. AREA OF STUDY
Area of the study refers to Coimbatore city which was known as Manchester of south India and also known for foundries, pumps and motor industries. It is also become education and health care hub. The city is also expected to be blessed with more number of software industries in the near future.
3. SAMPLE SIZE
The sample of 100 respondents was chosen for the study.
4. SAMPLING DESIGN
For purpose of the study, convenient sampling method has been administered among the passengers of railway services.
5. TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY
As the study is confined to the respondents of coimbatore district, this research is applicable to coimbatore district. Data have been collected using the questionnaire and therefore study is collected. Time and cost are the factors which have limited the sample to 100. limited to the data
IMPORTANCE THE STUDY:
Indian railways have been exploring innovating ideas in information of a responsive commercial policy and in pricing of freight services to create opportunities both for vibrant industrial sector and railways. In order to meet the challenges of competing modes of transport and with a view to provide rail user optimally competitive freight rates and fares, Railways have introduced several incentives schemes for increasing passenger and freight traffic as well as generating additional revenue for the railways. Tatkal is an innovative scheme introduced by Indian railways for the benefit of passenger who travel on emergency. An attempt has been made by the researcher to study on passenger satisfaction towards Tatkal scheme of Indian railway reservation system.
This research applicable to Coimbatore district only and therefore the findings of this research cannot be extended to other areas. Data have been collected using the questionnaire and there fore the study is limited to the data collected. Time and cost are the factors which have limited the sample to 100.
The project is arranged into the following five chapters. Chapter I: INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, methodology used in the study and limitations.
Chapter III: AN OVERVIEW ON TATKAL SCHEME OF INDIAN RAILWAYS This chapter presents an over view of Tatkal Reservation scheme of Indian railways and their services to passengers. Also it brings out the recommendations and conclusions which have been derived from the results of the study.
. Chapter V: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter brings out the findings based on the tool used in the study. Chapter IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION In this chapter. data are collected from the passengers were analyzed and presented in different tables using statistical tool with suitable interpretation.Chapter II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter deals with review of previous studies conducted in this area or related area to focus on the need of this study.
‘Literature’ covers every thing relevant that is written on a topic: books. in terms of travel times. John spychalski 2 analyzed about progress. Eric 1 in his article about the track on the important in rail networks in Europe. The study revealed that the intra model rail rate competition in car load and train load services have accelerated concentration of the railway industry and reduced the number of alternative rates available to shippers as well as shippers bargaining power. Belgium to Amsterdam. It also discusses the benefits of the Rail team alliance to passengers. etc. The purpose of this study was to scrutinize the principle objectives and features of the past 1975 thrust toward curtailment of commission regulation of railway freight transport in relation to contemporary and prospective cost and demand condition in freight transport markets. Marx. and criteria for judging railway freight transport performance. The study revealed that since 1975. the Netherlands. It cites the advantage of the high-speed line from Brussels. A literature review gives an overview of the field of enquiry. In this chapter.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A literature review is a description of the literature relevant to a particular field or topic. inconsistencies and neglect in the social control of railway freight transport. which will be launched in 2009 with online reservation systems for booking international train fares. It is a summary of previous research on a topic. composed of high speed train operators. government reports. thesis and dissertations. journals articles. new patterns of competition stimulated by the exemption of specific rail freight market from regulations have produced benefits reflected by re-entry of rail service into market where it had all but ceased to be valuable alternative to other department media and expansion of the geographic reach and range of service and price options offered by individual rail carriers. For this purpose previous studies relating to our core area of the research have been reviewed. and identify and evaluate needs and means for the future control of economic behaviors in the railway freight sector. It provides information on the Rail team alliance. a detailed review of literature has been done adequately in order to reveal the significance of this study and to find out the research gap. which will open in 2008. historical records. news paper articles.
avoid a shape increase in noise and vibration to areas adjacent to the line. However the high investment in HST infrastructure could be justified based on its economic development benefits since these are not certain. therefore leading to mode substitution. 8
. The objective of the study were to determine the efficiency of passenger reservation services in the Indian railway system and to examine whether the existing system of railway reservation is really efficient in satisfying the needs of the traveling public. the following definition for HST services was suggested high capacity and frequency railway services achieving an average speed of over 200kph. The purpose of the study was to analyze the impacts of HST (high speed trains) services. Moshe Givoni 5 analyzed about development and impact of the modern high speed train. The main technical challenges in the development of commercial HSTs were to develop a train and track that could maintain ability to stop safety. Efforts by train operating companies to use information technology to make ticketing quicker and attractive to business travels. That’s where passenger knowledge comes in. Slaughter.John Gabriel
and Suresh babu
under took a study about the passenger
reservation system in the Indian Railways. Stanley
in his article about Ahead for ticket less trains on the
“business travel world” reports that looks at the technological developments in the railway industry in Great Britain. advantage of integrating technology into rail bookings. benefits of the online reservation system developed by thetrainline. The study revealed that the modern HST is the best designed to substitute conditional railway services on routes where much higher capacity is required and to reduce travel time. Understanding customer becomes a useful tool in gaining critical competitive advantage in this new paradigm. The study revealed that railway are setting up the computerized reservation centers and have authorized out-agency bookings and hence all these facilities reveal the efficiency of reservation services of the railways and the study also revealed that the railway is the only organization providing maximum passenger reservation services to the traveling public most efficiently and effectively. Finally.T 6 running a successful business boils down to one single thing at the end of the day.. and whether any change or alterations in the existing system could bring about the perceptible improvement of the services.keeping your customers happy. comco. Coltman. further improving rail service also against other modes.
Corporation (DMRC) for their level of commitment and personal efficiency of associates of DMRC and also to find out the relationship between commitment and personal efficiency amongst the associates of DMRC. There is more sense of responsibility amongst the executives and thet are ready to take up different kinds of jobs.T 6Agents discovering the full potential of POLAR online the article published “travel weekly” the article focus on advantages of the POLAR online reservation system to the cruise travel industry. Lesaint .
. They have positive towards extra works and strong belief in their own capabilities.G. Functional futures of the system include passenger information search through member number or phone number and preferred destinations and sailings browsing by cruise data and time. Reservations management technology is rapidly evolving to address these challenges. Jonathan cowie
and geoff Riddington
attempted to measure the efficiency
of European railways. both parties need to check their own policies and availabilities to make sure such an agreement is fair. The final conclusion is that efficiency on the railway is a product primarily of good management. Prior to reaching the agreement. The study examines the methods of assessing rail efficiency. dorre. It adds that the system is easy to use with its built in online trading.Coltman. The result examines the methods of assessing rail efficiency. A reservation is an agreement between the customer and the business on the commitment of business resources to meet customer demand.
The incretion sophistication of today’s
customers poses certain challenges such as responsiveness.D owusu. accuracy. It notes that travel agents can reach HQ.G. Where as the British system is one of the less efficient. reflecting their respective and mutual interests reservations management refers to a bunch of integral activities that normally occur between customer and the business. predictability and the reliability of services appointing to service providers in both private and public sectors. Jasper Dekkers
and Piet Rietveld
in their study about electronic ticketing
in public transport in India the purpose of the study was to describe the innovative aspects and customers expectations of the services offered in electronic ticketing in public transport. The result suggested that the Danish railway is particularly efficient.
and Peit Rietveld
the Noordned mobile ticketing services
M-Ticketing is an example of E-ticketing in India. Thus the over all WTP (Willingness Top Pay) of passengers for M-Ticket service must considered as low. The share using the internet as a meaning to order electronic ticket was about 30%. The study revealed that the consumers were satisfied with the service of M-ticket.
. The users found the M-Ticket service if it costs 25 eurocents per cell. People can order M-tickets through internet or by calling a voice response system and receive their M-ticket on their mobile phone through a short message service (SMS). An ordinary least squares regression analysis of the WTP for real time travel information revealed that increases with income and with the frequency of mobile phone use.
vol.journal of economic issues. Eric travel weekly. John Gabriel and Suresh Babu. 2/11/2008. Vol. 2. Stanley Business Travel World. Jul 2005. M.dorre
. June 1983pp 433-441. Jasper Dekkers and Piet Rietveld – “Electronic Ticketing in public Transport A field study in rural Area” – Journal of intelligent Transportation System. Coltman. 10. Vol 11. 2007 pp 69-78. Nos 5. pp 103-113. 3.26. p21-22.Transport Revives. Sep 2006.“Measuring the efficiency of European Railways” applied Economics. A Review”. Jonathan Cowie and Geoff Riddington. July-Dec 2007. 3p. “why build a customer relationship management capability?” Journal of strategic information systems 16 (2007): 3-27. Slaughter. 7. No. . 4.owusu. The Increction Sophtication of today’s customers“Reservations management and resources ECM interchangeability DOL 10. D. Mark. pp 77-84. p26-28.xvii.2. 2p. Moshe Givoni –“Development and impact of the modern high speed train.2 color.28 pp 1027-1035. Anu Singh Lather and Sangeet Mohan “Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC)” The Journal of Business Prospective Vol. 1 & 2 Jan-Mar. pp 593-611.The journal of institute of public enterprise. 3 maps. 5. No. inconsistencies & Neglect in the social control of Railway Freight Transport”. No. R.2. vol. Apr-Jun-2005. John c Spychalski.“progress.1007-3-540-755-04-3 Springer 2008.T.2 No 3 & 4.Lesaint G . 9. Vol. vol.“Passenger Reservation System in the Indian Railways”. 6.REFERENCES
1.28.67 issue 6. 8.
4 million employees.896 stations. trains in India carry more than 12 million passengers and more than a million tons of freight everyday during the year 20062007. Indian railway compromises two basic customer segments. It is also the world’s largest employer with 1. has been a key component of India’s transport sector for 154 years. Broad gauge although forming 64. Indian railways have been exploring innovating ideas in information of a responsive commercial policy and in pricing of freight services to create opportunities both for vibrant industrial sector and railways. Operating on three gauges – broad gauge (1676 mm) meter gauge (1000 mm) and narrow gauge (762 and 610 mm). 253. bulk traffic accounts for nearly 95 percent. Indian railways run more than 1700 trains daily. Indian Railways has nearly 1. the rest comes from passenger traffic. This carries approximately.186 wagons and 40.699 bridges of which 10799 are major bridges.511 Km covering 6. of which more than 44 percent is contributed by coal. While the freight segment accounts for two third of revenues.579 route kms constituting over 19. Almost all the double/multiple track sections and electrified routes the on broad gauge. 41 percent of the passenger traffic and 52 percent of the freight traffic on Indian Railways. of which about 18 million passengers every day.5 percent of freight output and 89. 14.6 per cent of the passenger output 2006-2007.freight and passenger.56. 1. Within the freight segment. In order to meet the challenges of competing modes of transport and with a view to provide rail user optimally competitive freight rates and fares.
.CHAPTER – III AN OVER VIEW ON TATKAL SCHEME OF INDIAN RAILWAYS
The Indian railways. Railways have introduced several incentives schemes for increasing passenger and freight traffic as well as generating additional revenue for the railways.775 coaching vehicles. Indian Railway network is spread over 81. 384 bridges were rebuilt or rehabilitated and 270 strengthened or re-girder.846 telephone exchange lines.21.5 percent of the total network and 30 per cent of broad gauge network of Indian Railway is electrified. In 2006-2007. The transport effort is sustained through the use of 7429 lo motives. is one of the world’s largest Rail networks.
54. the first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station destined for Hooghly. Indian Railways dates back to the British RAJ – The idea of establishing rail network in India was first mooted by the British authority in consideration of the huge size of the country.780 kms or broad gauge. it carries more than 11 million passengers in a day and transport 40% of the freight. In a short period.730 optical fiber communication route Kms and over 8. strategic and economic expediencies. Since then the Indian railways has not looked back and made impressive strides in shouldering a major share of transportation needs in the country.9 2006-2007 was 4411 million tons. which has a financial commissioner. via the Ministry of Railways rather than a private company. During 2006-2007 the revenue earning freight traffic moved by railways was 420.000 track kilometers. Britain needed a fast and reliable transport system for troop movement (to counter armed rebellion) and for exploitation of the vast resources of India. There are 6853 stations and 15. the Indian Railways has earned the distinction of being the largest railway network in the world. Is a department of the Government. Electrified route kms is 14.613 trunk tele channels Kms distinguishes Indian Railway telecom network. being owned and controlled by the Government of India. mixed with political. It consists of 63.
. 1. Operating on more than 1. It ran over a stretch of 21 miles from Bombay to Thane “amidst the loud applause of a vast multitude and the salute of 21 guns”.18.58 million tons of originating revenue earning traffic which in terms of transport output is 284. 14990 kms of meter gauge and 3. IR operates 11000 trains daily of which 7500 are passenger trains.445 long haul Kms.. Thus the first railways in the sub-continent came into being on 16th April.27 billion NT Kms (net tone kilometers). Shortly after. the Railway Ministry is currently headed by Mamata Banerjee.030 route kms. 1853. comprising of 44.45 lakhs employees. the Union Minister for Railways and assisted by two junior Ministers of State for Railways.
The headquarters of the Indian Railways is in Delhi. Indian Railways is administered by the Railway Board. five members and a chairman.856.260 kms of narrow gauge.07. a distance of 24 miles on 15th August 1854. Indian Railway system has developed a capacity to carry 441. As of 2009.
Chennai Rail Coach Factory. the six production units (PUs) are each headed by a General Manager (GM). Railtel Corporation of India-Telecommunication networks 7. This organization undertakes electrification projects of Indian Railway and monitors the progress of various electrification projects of Indian Railway and monitors the progress of various electrification projects all over the country. CORE is located at Allahabad. accounts. commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets.-Consulting Division of Indian Railways 14
. Metro Railway. Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India 2. Konkan Railway Corporation 4. Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation 3.Each of the sixteen zones. These PSU units are: 1. operating. Kapurthala Rail Wheel Factory. electrical. personnel. as well as the Kolkata Metro. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). Chittaranjan Diesel Locomotive Works. Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation 6. The divisional officers of engineering. In addition to the zones. Apart from these zones and production units. RITES Ltd. The Production Units are: • • • • • • Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. signal & telecommunication. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations administration. Indian Railway Finance Corporation 5. Bangalore In addition to this the Central Organization for Railway Electrification (CORE). a number of public Sector Undertakings (PSU) are under the administrative control of the ministry of railways. is headed by a General Manager (GM) who reports directly to the Railway Board. Patiala Integral Coach Factory. mechanical. who also reports directly to the Railway Board. Varanasi Diesel-Loco Modernization Works. Calcutta and construction organization of NF Railway are also headed by General Manager.
8. Rail Vikas Nigam Limited 10. Container Corporation Limited Centre for Railway Information Systems is an autonomous society under Railway Board.-Construction Division 9. which is responsible for developing the major software required by Indian Railways for its operations. IRCON International Ltd.
Minister of State for Railways.MSR (D)
Minister of Railways Chairman of Railway Board
Director-General Rly Health Service
Admn.ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE – CHART
Ministry of Railways
Minister of State for Railways. Matters
New Zonal Railways GMs/ODSs [
Production Unit General Manager
Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs)
General Manager Central Eastern Northern North Eastern Northeast Frontier Southern
General Managers NF Railway (Construction) Metro Railway Kolkata Central Organization for Railway Electrification Director-General RDSO Railway Staff College CAO (R) Central Organization for Moderation of Workshop IRON RITES CRIS CONCOR IRFC KRC IRCTC RCIL MRVC IRWO
East Central East Coast North Central North Western South Western West Central Rilaspur Zone
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works Diesel Locomotive Works Integral Coach Factory Rail Coach Factory Wheel and Axle Plant CAO (R)
South Central South Eastern Western
instead of end-toend.
TATKAL CHARGES. One must check for 'Tatkal' quota in advance because for some trains/ class/ locations 'Tatkal' quota could not be available. Executive Class of Shatabadi Express trains now come under the purview of Tatkal facility. For example.f 01/08/2009. w.
. 'Tatkal' is an emergency reservation scheme. excluding the date of journey. no concessions are allowed. not even to senior citizens. The 'Tatkal' scheme is applicable to more than 100 trains throughout India.
The Tatkal Charges have been fixed as a percentage of fare at the rate of 10% of basic fare for second class and 30% of basic fare for all other classes subject to minimum and maximum as given in the table below: Maximum Tatkal charges (in Rs) 15 150 150 300 300 300
Classes Second(sitting) Sleeper A/C chair car A/C 3 Tier A/C 2 tier Executive
Minimum Tatkal charge (in Rs) 10 75 200 20 200 200
Things to be kept in mind before going for 'Tatkal Scheme'
'Tatkal' bookings are permitted in all classes except First class A/C. Tatkal Booking will commence at 8 AMon4th.e.TATKAL SCHEME
The introduction of 'Tatkal' Scheme by Indian Railways has been proved beneficial for latecomers. Tatkal tickets will be issued for actual distance of travel. In 'Tatkal' booking. The booking for 'Tatkal' opens at 08:00 hrs IST two days prior to the definite date of journey. Identity proof is not required under 'Tatkal' scheme in any case. for train leaving on 6th. people can book their tickets just 2 days before the actual date of journey. One cannot opt for Ladies and General quota with 'Tatkal' quota. Under this scheme. subject to the distance restriction applicable to the train.
As announced by Hon'ble Minister of Railways while presenting Railway Budget 2009-10 in the parliament on 03-07-2009. if cancelled within 24 hrs of the scheduled departure.00 200. No refund would be granted on the confirmed 'Tatkal' tickets. subject to the distance restriction applicable to the train.
The delivery time for 'Tatkal' tickets remains the same like normal tickets. it has been decided to reduce Tatkal Charges as given below:The Tatkal Charges have been fixed as a percentage of fare at the rate of 10% of Basic fare for second class and 30% of basic fare for all other classes subject to Minimum and maximum as given in the table below
Minimum Tatkal Class of Travel Second (sitting) Sleeper A/C Chair Car A/C 3 Tier A/C 2 Tier Executive
Maximum Tatkal Charges (In Rs.00 150.00
The above charges will be levied uniformly both in peak period & nonpeak periods. The same Tatkal berth/seat may be booked in multiple legs till preparation of charts. so it is recommended to book tickets considering the delivery time. The ticket can be cancelled up to 24 hrs before the scheduled time for the departure of train.00 150. At the time of
Charges (In Rs.00 200.00 300.00 75.
Tatkal tickets will be issued for actual distance of travel.) 10.00 300. Reservation under this scheme would be offered till the time of charts preparation. On cancellation of ticket.) 15.00 300.00 200. Change of name is not allowed on the bookings made under this scheme. instead of end-to-end. one would receive an amount of 25% of total fare charged on non-confirmed ticket (excluding Tatkal Charges).
A flat refund of 25% of total fare charged on the ticket.
Tatkal facility will be introduced in Executive Class of Shatabadi Express
also.e. e. full refund of fare and Tatkal charges will be granted on the tickets booked under Tatkal scheme in the following circumstances:If the train is delayed by more than 3 hours at the journey originating point of the passenger & not the boarding point if the passenger's journey originating point and boarding point are different. the time limit will be the same as applicable for refund of normal tickets. the passenger will be given refund of difference of fare and also the difference of Tatkal charges. If the party has been accommodated in lower class and does not want to travel.e. by earmarking 10% of the accommodation available i.
Tatkal booking opens at 8 AM on Two days in advance actual date of journey excluding date of journey w. which is presented for cancellation upto 24 hours before the scheduled departure of the train. Tatkal Booking will Commence at 8 AM on 4th. In case of non attachment of coach in which Tatkal accommodation has been earmarked and the passenger has not been provided accommodation in the same class . for train leaving on 6th.preparation of charts.
. if any.f. No identity proof is required to be produced by the passenger seeking reservation under Tatkal scheme neither at the time of booking nor during the journey. of 01-08-2009. 5 seats per coach. unutilized portion may be released to the General RAC/Waiting list passengers. excluding Tatkal charge is granted on cancellation of Tatkal ticket. However. In case the party travels in lower class. For the purpose of granting refunds & issuing TDRs for W/L. If the train is to run on a diverted route and passenger is not willing to travel If the train is to run on diverted route and boarding station or the destination or both the stations are not on the diverted route.g. The facility of change of name is not permitted on the bookings made under Tatkal scheme.
It can be concluded that majority(55%) of the respondents belong to the age group of 20 to 40 years. 2% of the respondents belong to the age group less than 20%.CHAPTER. Age Less than 20 Years 20-40 Years 40-60 Years Above 60 Years Total No of Respondents 2 55 23 20 100 Percentage 2 55 23 20 100
INFERENCE: From the above table it is found that 55% of the respondents belong to the age group of 20-40 years.I AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS
S.IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS TABLE. 3.No 1. 23% of the respondents belong to the age group of 40-60 years.
. 2. 20% of the respondents belong to the age group above 60 years. 5.
60% of respondents are Male and 40% of them are Female.
No of respondents 60 40 100
Percentage 60 40 100
.TABLE. It can be concluded that majority (60%) of the respondents are Male. 2.No 1. Male Female Total INFERENCE From the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study.II GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS S.
Educational Qualification No formal education Up to higher secondary Graduate Post Graduate Professional Total No of respondents 0 0 40 40 20 100 Percentage 0 0 40 40 20 100
INFERENCE From the above table it is found that out of the respondents 42% are graduates and 38% a re Post Graduate.No 1. 4.TABLE. 2. It could be observed that majority (40%) of the respondents are Graduate and Post Graduate. 5.
.III EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS S. 20% of the respondents are Professionals. 3.
2. 40% of the respondents are employed. 6.
. Occupational status Agriculture Business Employed Professionals Others Total No of respondents 0 28 40 4 28 100 Percentage 0 28 40 4 28 100
INFERENCE From the above table it is found that out of total respondents taken for the study. 28% of the respondents do Business and other 4% of the respondents are Professional. It could be observed that majority (40%) of the respondents are Employed.TABLE-IV OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS
S. 5. 3.No 1.
TABLE-V MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
S.000.Rs.20000 Rs.30000 above Total No of respondents 3 46 30 21 100 Percentage 3 46 30 21 100
INFERENCE From the above table it is found that out of total respondents taken for the study. and the remaining 3% of the respondents have income below Rs. 21% of the respondents have income above Rs.30000 Rs.30. 2. Monthly Income level Below Rs.20000-Rs. 46% the respondents have income between Rs.10.No 1. It is concluded that majority (46%) of the respondents monthly income range between Rs. 30% of the respondents have income between Rs.10000 – Rs. 3. 4.000.20.10000 Rs.20.20000.000.000.
10000 Rs.10000 – Rs.20000 Rs.30000 above
.EXHIBIT: 1 MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS
50 45 No.30000 Rs.Respondents 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Below Rs.of.20000Rs.
It is concluded that the majority (60%) of the respondents came to know about through Friends and Relatives. and 20% of them through Online & Agents.TABLE-VI SOURCE OF AWARENESS TOWARDS TATKAL SCHEME S.
.No 1 2 3 4 Knowing Level Online Friends & Relatives Agents Media Total No of Respondents 20 60 20 0 100 Percentage 20 60 20 0 100
INRERENCE From the above table. it is clear that out of respondents taken for study. 60% of the respondents came to know about Tatkal system through Friends & Relatives.
EXHIBIT: 2 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TATKAL SCHEME
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Online Friends & Relatives Agents Media
TABLE-VII FREQUENCY OF TRAVEL BY TRAIN
S.No 1. 2. 20% of the respondents travel monthly and the remaining 20% travel rarely. Travel level Weekly Monthly Rarely Occasionally Total No of respondents 0 20 20 60 100 Percentage 0 20 20 60 100
INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that out of total respondents taken for the study. It is concluded that majority (60%) of the respondents travel occasionally by train.
. 60% of the respondents travel occasionally. 3. 4.
EXHIBIT: 3 FREQUENCY OF TRAVEL BY TRAIN
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Weekly Monthly Rarely Occasionally
From the above table it is understood that majority (27%) of the respondents prefer to travel by two tier A/C. 27% of the respondents prefer two tier A/c. 2. Class Three tier A/C Two tier A/C A/C Chair Car Second class Total No of respondents 26 27 23 24 100 Percentage 26 27 23 24 100
INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that out of total respondents taken for the study. 4. 3.
. 26% of the respondents prefer three tier A/C. and the remaining 23% of the respondents prefer A/C chair car. 24% of the respondents prefer to travel in second class.No 1.TABLE-VIII PREFERENCE TOWARDS CLASS OF TRAVEL
EXHIBIT: 4 PREFERENCE TOWARDS CLASS OF TRAVEL
Class To Travel
28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 Three tier A/C Two tier A/C Two tier A/C A/C Chair Car A/C Chair Car Second Class Second Class 26 24 23 27
Three tier A/C
3. 2. 32% of the respondents travel for Business purposes and remaining 4% of the respondents travel for tours.No 1. No of respondents 32 64 4 100 Percentage 32 64 4 100
.TABLE-IX PURPOSE OF TRAVEL
S. 64% of the respondents travel for official purpose. Purpose of travel Business Official Tours Total INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that out of total respondents taken for the study. It can be concluded that majority (64%) of the respondents are traveling for the purpose of Officials.
EXHIBIT: 5 PURPOSE OF TRAVEL BY TRAIN
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Business Official Tours
and the remaining 16% of the respondents travel with No of respondents 16 20 64 100 Percentage 16 20 64 100
. 64% of the respondents travel family. 2. 3.TABLE. 20% of the respondents travel with friends. with official/ team mates.No 1.X PERSONS ACCOMPANYING FOR TRAVEL
S. Persons Family Friends Official/ Team mates Total INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that out of total respondents taken for the study. It can be concluded that majority (64%) of the respondents are accompanied by official/ team mates.
2. Type Planned visit As per the requirements Both Total INFERENCE From the above table. It is clear that out of respondents taken for study. 12% of them make both type of visits. 3. 56% of them make planned visit. No 1.TABLE-XI TYPE OF VISIT
S. It can be concluded that majority (56%) of the respondents Planned Visit. 32% of them make visit as per the requirements. make No of respondents 56 32 12 100 Percentage 56 32 12 100
It is clear that out of respondents taken for study.No 1. It can be concluded that majority (52%) of the respondents prefer to Book in advance. 40% of them book in Tatkal scheme.
. 3. and the remaining 8% of them adopt both type of reservation system.
Type of Reservation Book in advance Book in TATKAL scheme Both Total
No of respondents 52 40 8 100
Percentage 52 40 8 100
INFERENCE From the above table. 52% of them book in advance. 2.TABLE-XII TYPE OF RESERVATION METHOD
EXHIBIT: 6 TYPE OF RESERVATION METHOD
8% of them prefer for fast mode of transport.
. 32% of them prefer for economical purpose. Prefer to travel Status symbol Safety Comforts Economical Fast mode of transport Total Frequency 4 8 48 32 8 100 Percentage 4 8 48 32 8 100
INFERNCE From the above table. 3. 4. 2. 48% of them prefer for comforts. It can be concluded that majority (48%) the respondents prefer due to Comforts in travel by train. and remaining 4% of them prefer for status symbol.No 1.XIII FACTORS INFLUENCING TO TRAVEL BY RAILWAY
S. It is clear that out of respondents taken for study. 8% of them prefer for safety. 5.TABLE.
Frequency 47 40 13 100 Percentage 47 40 13 100
. it is clear that out of respondents taken for study. Reserving Method Online At the Railway station Agency Total INFERENCE From the above table. 3. 2. 13% of respondents through agency. 40% of them make reservation at the railway station.TABLE-XIV RESERVATION OF TATKAL SCHEME S.No 1. It can be concluded that majority (47%) of the respondents prefer to make reservation in online. 47% of them through online.
Respondents Occupational status and purpose of travel.Application of satatistical analysis Chi-Square analysis In this section the Chi-square analysis is between the personal factor of the respondents and the factor relating to consumers attitude in preference of in TATKAL Scheme. Respondents type of reservations and educational qualification. Respondents Class of travel and monthly income. Respondents age and type of reservation. The other factor consider for the analysis regarding the attitude are given below: A passenger satisfaction towards TATKAL scheme of Indian Railway Reservation system
. Respondents Purpose of travel and income level. All the tests applied at 5% level of significance and the results are presented with suitable hypothesis and relevant interpretation The various aspects related to aspects related to TATKAL scheme.
HYPOTHISIS: Occupational status has significant influence on respondents in purpose of travel. Hence the hypothesis is accepted (Significant)
.XVI Purpose of Travel Occupational Status Agriculture Business Employed Professionals Others Total 10 20 2 32 17 19 3 25 64 1 1 1 1 4 0 28 40 4 28 100 Business Official Tours Total
The calculated value of chi square = 21. TABLE .24645 The table value of chi square = 15.5073 As the calculated value of the chi-square is greater tabulated value of chi square at 5% level of significant.
HYPOTHISIS: There is no significant influence between respondents in income level and purpose of travel TABLE. Hence the hypothesis is accepted (Non-significant)
.20000 Rs.10000 Rs.30000 above Total 1 13 12 6 32 1 31 17 15 64 1 2 1 4 3 46 30 21 100 Business Official Tour Total
The calculated value of chi square = 9.20000-Rs.1770 The table value of chi square =12.XVII Purpose of Travel Income Level Below Rs.10000 – Rs.30000 Rs.5916 As the calculated value of the chi-square is less then the tabulated value of chi square at 5% level of significant.
XVIII Types of Reservation Educational Qualification No formal education Up to higher secondary Graduate Post Graduate Professional Total Book in Advance 24 19 9 52 Book in TAKKAL Scheme 14 19 7 40 2 2 4 8 0 0 40 40 20 100 Both Total
The calculated value of chi square = 0. Hence the hypothesis is accepted (Non-significant)
.3808 The table value of chi square = 15.HYPOTHISIS: There is no significant influence between respondents in educational qualification and types of reservation TABLE.5073
As the calculated value of the chi-square is less then the tabulated value of chi square at 5% level of significant.
9190 As the calculated value of the chi-square is less then the tabulated value of chi square at 5% level of significant. Hence the hypothesis is accepted (Non-significant)
.10000 – Rs.30000 Rs.20000-Rs.08126 The table value of chi square =16.30000 above Total Three tier A/C 22 2 2 26 Two tire A/C 1 4 10 12 27 A/C Chair Car 12 6 5 23 Second class 2 8 12 2 24 3 46 30 21 100 Total
The calculated value of chi square = 3.20000 Rs.HYPOTHISIS: There is no significant influence between respondents in monthly income and class of travel TABLE-XIX Class of Travel Monthly Income Below Rs.10000 Rs.
TABLE –XX Type of Reservation Age Less than 20 Years 20-40 Years 40-60 Years Above 60 Years Total Three tier A/C 1 13 2 10 26 Two tire A/C 22 3 2 27 A/C Chair Car 1 12 6 4 23 Second class 8 12 4 24 2 55 23 20 100 Total
The calculated value of chi square = 26.53317 The table value of chi square = 16. Hence the hypothesis is accepted (Significant)
.9190 As the calculated value of the chi-square is Greater then the tabulated value of chi square at 5% level of significant.HYPOTHISIS: There is significant influence between respondents in age and type of reservation.
Majority (60%) of the respondents know Tatkal scheme through friends and relations.20.CHAPTER – V FINDINGS. Graduates.000. and professionals. SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION
Majority of the respondents belong to the age group of 20-40 years.000.
. Majority (64%) of the respondents are accompanied by family members. earning the monthly income between Rs. employed. Majority (48%) of the respondents prefer Railway service for comfort. are male. 10. Majority (40%) of the respondents prefer three tier a/c. Majority (56%) of the respondents prefer planned visit. Majority (52%) of the respondents prefer to book in advance. Majority (60%) of the respondents travels occasionally. Majority (64%) of the respondents prefer railway station for reservations. Majority (64%) of the respondents prefer to travel for official.
this will discourage the customers in booking tickets in Tatkal scheme.
Service at booking centre It is understood from the study that the services and behavioral part of
employees at booking center’s need to be improved. Though it is a place where the tickets are being sold. Hence it is suggested to the railway authorities to consider the above and refund procedures at least to that of other tickets. it is important that the customers need to be treated properly and issue of tickets must be done quickly.
Refund of ticket money It is understood from the customers that refund during cancellation made by
railways is not reasonable particularly when Tatkal ticket is returned.SUGGESSTIONS The recommendations are presented in the following lines based on the results of the study and the opinion given by the respondents in the discussion held with them during the conduct of study. Otherwise.
However it cannot be denied that road transport system also play a significant role in providing services to customers. In fact. Among the various transport modes. that passengers may find alternative traveling mode even through traveling in train is more convenient to them. there is a heavy crowd utilizing train services. Like other business organizations. rail transport is often chosen by customer in view of cost and convenient factors. people use railway services in available routes largely and fully and as a result.
. Yet. If the services are not up to the passenger expectations. in all parts of the state / country. railway has to take necessary steps for accommodating large amount of passengers and provide them better services. This being the case. because it is not merely a service but their business and they also need to earn profit.CONCLUSION
Transport service system has become an integral part of common man’s life. marketing become necessary in railway service too. any change may take place to replace one service with another hence. road facility has been fairly provided but not equally in train services. Indian railways need to work on every aspect of providing services to the entire satisfaction passengers. it is possible. In future. people travel from one place to another place due to personal or official purpose through the mode which is convenient to them.
Electric Traction on Indian Railway changing perspectives and issues.28 (1&2). 2007.in www.8.gov.indianrail. v. vol. MANAS publications 2004. Managing Indian Railways.thehindubusinessline. pp77-84. January. April 2002.indianrailways.29. passenger Reservation system in the Indian railways.wikipedia. Arvind sharma. Agarwal. The Indian journal of public opinion vol xl-vi.M. Jan-Mar. and suresh Babu.gov.BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agarwal.K. The journal of institute of public enterprises vol.com www. April-2003.
ARTICLES AND JOURNALS
John Gabriel S. Govindarajan K. A Profile since Independence. March. no.R.
www. Apr-June-2005.. The journal of Institute of public enterprise. pp3-4.k.com www.Indian Railways. RCF. A.towards faster and safer travel Indian Railways.ory
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Name: 2. How did you came to know about Tatkal scheme a) Online c) Agents 8. 30.10.000 b) Business d) Professionals e) Others b) Upto higher secondary d) Post graduate e) Professional b) Female b) 20-40 d) Above 60
7. Sex: a) Male 4.000 b) Rs. Occupational status: a) Agriculture c) Employed 6.000 -20.A STUDY ON PASSENGER SATISFACATION TOWARDS TATKAL SCHEME OF INDIAN RAILWAY RESERVATION SYSTEM 1. How often you travel by train a) Weekly c) Rarely 9. State the purpose of travel by train a) Business b) Official 50 c) Tours
.000 c) Rs 20.000 d) Above Rs.000-30. Educational qualification a) No formal education c) Graduate 5. Age: a) Less than 20 c) 40-60 3. Monthly income: a) Below Rs 10. In which class do you travel a) Three tier a/c c) A/C Chair car b) Two tier a/c d) Second class b) Monthly d) Occasionally b) Friends & Relations d) Media
NO 1 2 3 4 PARTICULARS Availability of ticket while booking in Tatkal scheme No. of days to book before travel (2 days ) No. Why do you prefer to travel in railway a) Status symbol d) Economical b) Safety c) Comforts
e) Fast mode of transport
15.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTICULARS Tatkal booking permitted to all class except first class a/c Tatkal charge is addition to normal fare Tatkal ticket can be booked only two days in advance No concession for Tatkal scheme Refund of 25% of total charge on ticket cancellation ( with in 24 hrs) Different Tatkal charges for peak season & non peak season AWARE NOT AWARE
17. of seats available in Tatkal quota Cancellation procedures/ formalities in Tatkal scheme S = satisfied NS= Not satisfied HS S NS
Hs = Highly satisfied
. Are you aware of the following aspects related to Tatkal scheme S. How do you reserve the ticket in Tatkal scheme a) Online b) At railway station c) Agency
16. State your level of satisfaction towards Tatkal scheme S.11. What is your type of visit a) Planned visit b) As per the requirements
13. Who are the persons mostly travel along with you a) Family b) Friends c) Official/ Team mates
12. What type of reservation you mostly follow a) Book in advance b) Book in Tatkal scheme c) Both
Downloading problems 2 AT RAILWAY STATION A.NO 1 PARTICULARS ONLINE RESERVATION A. Security in cash payment C. Poor service of staffs 3 AGENTS A. High risk A= Agree DA= Dis Agree 19. Problems faced in booking tickets in Tatkal scheme S. Lack of awareness regarding usage B. Not reliable C. Time consuming B. Your suggestions for improving Tatkal scheme ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A DA
. High commission charged B. Misuse of tickets D. Non availability of tickets C.18.