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Illinois .The Canon of Reason and Virtue Being Lao-tze s Tao Teh King Chinese and English By Paul Carus JUUft The Open Court La 1954 Publishing Co. Salle.
1913 1927 .Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.
207 . PAGE Foreword Introduction 3 13 Lao-tze s Tao-Teh-King in Chinese 23 25 27 English Translation 67 69 Sze-ma Ch ien on Lao-tze The Old Philosopher s Canon o Rea son and Virtue 73 Comments and Alternative Readings .TABLE OF CONTENTS.. Index .. 131 Table of References 189 ..
principle) . This booklet. e. Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King.FOREWORD. C. lived about 136-85 B. who was honored with the posthumous title Poh-Yang.. Prince Positive (representing the male or strong Virtue. but whom his countrymen simply call Lao-tze. * * * Sze-Ma Ch ien. for Confucius is reported to have sought an interview with him. i. C. and has been published for the purpose of making our read ing public more familiar with that grand and imposing figure Li Er. .. Lao-tze was by about the half a century the senior of ConfuciusHe must have attained great fame during his life.. and they parted mutually disappointed. But the two greatest sages of China did not understand each other. the_Ol_d Philosopher. the Herodotus of China. The Canon of Reason and is an extract from the author s larger work. has left a short sketch of Lao-tze s life in his Shi Ki (His torical who Records) which is here prefixed as most ancient and only well-attested ac count to be had of the Old Philosopher. Born in 604 B.
are given to philosophical master The speculation and religious mysticism. The names of Lao-tze s birthplace. the believers in the Tao. Chwang-tze. an older and more elaborate.. Sze-Ma Ch ien (163-85 B. state. report of the meeting between Confucius and the Old Phi losopher.tze. one of Lao-tze who lived about 330 B. two schools are still divided. has preserved another. C.".) is sometimes supposed to have derived his ac count from Chwang . or divine Reason. but Chwang . and have never effected a conciliation of their differences that might be attained on a common higher s disciples. province and the locality of his life s work might be considered as invented purposely because of their strange significance if they were not geographically existent. C. are tinged with their s agnosticism and insist on the rules of propriety as the best methods of education. for the contrast between these two leaders of Chinese thought remains to visit it is the present day. In the first .4 Canon of Reason and Virtue Confucius s doubted. while the Tao Sze. and believe that the historian should have taken his sober sketch from the fantastic tale of a poet-philosopher. The disciples of Confucius.tze s story it bears difficult traces to of legendary elements which can not but be regarded as is fiction. If to Lao . ground. the so-called ".literati.tze has been not historical it certainly is ben trovato.
the meaning being State of Everywhere. the ocean of sunset.". Accordingly Lao-tze s family name Li (plum) seems to be as much innate character. an Apollo.". In the present edition we have pre ferred to translate the word Cheu by ".to and ".". ".the State of Plenty. on account of his name and the several events of his career his final sinking in the west and disappearance on an island in the Atlantic. its original supply everywhere. and The Cheu dynasty was so called be plenty.to use. What splendid material with which to change LaoIt is as good as tze into a mythical figure! the life of Napoleon of whom Perez made a solar hero. and will only add that the word is made up of the characters ". The plum-tree is the symbol of immortal ity. according to Chinese no tions. and was born in Good Man s Bend to describe his in Thistle District of home was situated Bramble Province to indicate the poverty and difficulties with which his life was surrounded. It would be easy to say that the Old Phi losopher was a citizen of Everywhere. cause the emperor s power reached all over the civilized world. that his justified as his proper name Er (ear). to make a circuit all around or everywhere. Nevertheless the historicity of Lao-tze and . and the ear might signify the man who was willing to listen.".mouth".Foreword 5 edition of Lao-tze s Tao Teh King we trans lated Cheu as ".
ca non. Giles. title now commonly ". and in the progress of time his figure has which became more and more fantastic. Christian writings of Lieh-tze. the officer of the frontier. pp. but by so great an must. Chwang-tze. all outward appearances a mere collection of als aphoristic utterances. of Reason and Although Confucian philosophy has become ihe guiding star of the Chinese government Lao-tze has taken a firm hold on the hearts of the people. 574-601. grown in significance into the sta ture of a Christ-like superhuman personality. completing the used. So it happened that later traditions added to Sze-Ma Ch ien s brief report various details . but full of noble mor and deep meditation. as which we translate Virtue.".Canon Tao Teh King.6 Canon of Reason and Virtue the authenticity of his book seem to be suffi ciently well ascertained. We learn that Yin Hi.) Lao-tze s book on Reason and Virtue It was in bore the title Tao Teh. It met the reward which it fully deserved. The historicity of Lao-tze s writing has been doubted only once. having by imperial decree been raised to the dignity of canon ical authority. authority as H. however. hence the name King or ". XI.". A. remember that the greater part of the Tao Teh King is preserved in quotations in the pre- We and Hwai Nan-tze. (For details see the ar ticle in reply to Professor Giles in The first Monist.
and claim that he was the incarnation of the supreme celes tial essence. including the countries Ta Ts in (which seems to have represented the Roman Empire) and Tu K ien. whence it is said he derived his name Lao-tze. The infant at his very birth pointed to the tree shall take my surname Li (plum) saying. and her delivery took place under a tree in Lao-tze s case it was a plum-tree. In China he is reported to have helped Wu Wang. ogy with Buddha for his mother brought forth the divine child from her left side. ". once in the village of the state of Tz u. where he preached his doctrine and converted the people to the truth. traveling in a car drawn by black oxen. He is further re puted to have accompanied his master into the deserts of the west. the founder of the famous Cheu dynasty.C. and his tree. which not only means the Old Philosopher but also the Ancient Child.I His head was white.Foreword was warned beforehand by astrological 7 sci ence of the sage s coming. countenance that of an aged man. Lao-tze s various disciples developed more . Still later legends add to these fables the story of Lao-tze s miraculous conception through the influence of a star. in the from this year 112 B. This latter birth is represented in anal s nativity. He is said to have wan dered to the farthest extremities of the earth.". that he had repeatedly been in carnate.
* Lao-tze s Tao Teh King contains so many surprising analogies with Christian thought and sentiment. Ti and the emperors of the T ang dynasty were staunch believers in the Old Philosopher. regret to say that the Taoism of China is a religion which. powerful though it is. scarcely * less beautiful * than the garden of the Vatican at Rome. Emperor Kao Tsung canonized him he gave him a rank among the gods as the Great Supreme (T aiShang). D. with the title Tai Shang Lao Chiun. one would be inclined to discover in it traces of Christian influence. especially in an elixir of life. the An cient Master. Not only . the Great Exalted One. the practical application of which terminated in a belief in alchemy. and without danger of doing its priests an injustice may be branded as a system of The Emperor Wu We superstitions and superstitious practices. When in the year 666 A.8 Canon of Reason and Virtue and more the mystical elements of Taoism. little accords with the venerable old philos opher. that were its pre-Christian origin not established beyond the shadow of a doubt. D. The Taoist church is governed by a Taoist pope who lives in the splendor of a palace surrounded by extensive parks near Lung Hu Shan. as the Emperor-God of the Dark First Cause. Hiian Tsung honored him in 1013 A.
but it is filled brim with suggestive thoughts. Thus the present little volume being a combination of the larger and edition the smaller editions. meant to be popular and is an enlargement of The Canon of Rea son and Virtue. it incorpo rates the main explanations and the Chinese text which in its revised form we hope is now quite reliable.". is practically a new work. and alternative readings have been proposed in an additional chapter en titled ". of returning to primitive simplicity and purity. He insists on the necessity of becoming like unto a little child. In the second issue of the first edition of Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King attention has been called to misprints in the Chinese text.Emendations and is Comments. It contains a comprehensive introduction and The present . reason) correspond quite closely to the Greek term Logos. but Lao-tze preaches the ethics of requiting hatred with goodness. and promises that the crooked shall be straight. * * Two issues of the author s translation of Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King have appeared and two editions of an extract entitled The Canon of Reason and Virtue. Of the larger edition en titled Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King.Foreword 9 does the term Tao (word. The Tao Teh King to the * is brief. A few variants which are im portant for the sense of the text have been added in footnotes. of nonassertion and non-resistance.
I do not deem it necessary in this popular edition to introduce controversies or to criti cize other translations. and also of the second paragraph of Chapter 49. ideal has been to reproduce the original in a readable form which would be as literal as My the difference of languages permits and as in to English-speaking people as is the original to the educated native Chinese. 26). have been re- .". meaning to pre serve one s dignity (Chap. A number of new interpretations flashed upon him from time to time. such as ". While linguistic obscurities have been removed as much as possible. I must be satisfied with offering the best results of my labors.not to depart from the baggage wagon. the sense has upon the whole telligible not been rendered more definite than the orig inal or the traditional interpretation would warrant. Stock phrases which are easily understood.the ten thousand things. and some of them will final. nor do I want to cor rect all the mistakes and misprints of my own former editions. but expressions which without a commentary would be unintelligible.10 Canon of Reason and Virtue incorporates the results of the translator s latest labors in revising and reconsidering the many difficult passages of the Tao Teh King. such as ". have been left in their original form. be deemed happy and probably be accepted as This certainly is true of the first para graph of Chapter 2.". meaning the whole world or nature collec tively.
placed by the nearest terms that cover their meaning. The versification of the quoted poetry is as literal as possible and as simple as in the No attempt has been made to im original. prove its literary elegance. The translator was satisfied if he could find a rhyme which would introduce either no change at all in the words or such an indifferent change as would not in the least alter their sense. The present edition contains also an intro duction and comments in which my prior ex planations of Lao-tze s thought are restated in a condensed form together with some new observations which in their appropriate places
have been incorporated.
The division into chapters as well as the chapter headings were not made by Lao-tze but are the work of later Chinese editors. I have sought the advice of Mr. Ng Poon Chew, editor of the Chung Sai Yat Po, the Chinese daily paper of San Francisco, for the interpretation of some difficult words, and for doubtful passages I deemed a comparison with the Manchu translation desirable, for which purpose I have availed myself of the assist ance of Dr. Berthold Lauf er of the Field Mu
seum of Chicago.
Prof. Paul Pelliot, of Paris, has recently published in the Toung Pao (1912, pp. 351430) an account of a Sanskrit translation of the Tao Teh King made in the seventh cen-
Canon of Reason and Virtue
of Assam, vassal to the
tury for King
Ciladitya, king of
Unfortunately this version
For further information on Lao-tze the reader is referred to the author s essays Chi nese Philosophy (Religion of Science Library No. 30), Chinese Thought, "The Authenticity of the Tao Teh King" (The Monist, Vol. XI, pp. 574-601), written in reply to Prof. Herbert A. Giles, "Medhurst s New Translation of the
Tao Teh King" (The Open Court, XX, 174), and the former more complete edition of Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King. This our larger book, entitled Lao-Tze s Tao Teh King, which contains a verbatim
translation of the Chinese text, has not be entirely antiquated, but we warn stu dents that it stands in need of a revision on the basis of the present emendated edition.
May this little book fulfil its mission and be a witness to the religious spirit and philo sophical depth of a foreign nation whose hab its, speech, and dress are strange to us. are not alone in the world; there are others who search for the truth and are groping after it. Let us become better acquainted with them, let us greet them as brothers, let us understand them and appreciate their ide
A few comments
understand the drift of his thought. The character tao 1 being composed of and the characters "moving
meaning of the word is same sense as in English, denoting both and "method." same The association of ideas prevails in almost all languages. The Greek 2 is a derivative of hodos 3 word methodos
original in the "way"
(combined with the preposition and so
too originally means or rather "according to a way." In the sense of method the word Tao acquires
the significance of
Canon of Reason and Virtue
then "the right way," or the Urvernunft of German mys tics. Finally Tao comes to possess the meaning of "rational speech" or "word,"
and in this sense it closely resembles the Greek Logos, for in addition to its phil osophical significance the term Tao touches a religious chord in the souls of the Chinese just as did the word Logos among the Platonists and the Greek Christians. The term Tao de in the same notes and also religious sense in which they are used in the New Testament: the former in the first verse of the Fourth Gospel, the beginning was the word"; and the
latter in the saying of Christ,
(John xiv. way, the truth, and the In both passages the word Tao is 6). the right term by which to translate and
of man, fan tao, 4 is the pro cess of ratiocination, and as such it is
an Eternal Reason,
ien tao, Q
". shapes Lao-tze all the world-order which things. the Logos.having Literally. and the burden of i.".virtue. with Reason the 13 one. s message is to let this Heaven s Reason or Eternal Reason prevail. 13 ". chitin. 7 the superior thinker. chiun tze. strange enough.". translates which.identified Reason the one. Legge is made up of ".Introduction 15 en s Reason. ". The man who is guided by the Eternal Rea son the master.8 he is the holy man. Te/z. the eternal Reason of the divine dispensation. or ment. chen Jan. ".. is shan jan. 11 and the man of truth.man. characters meaning 10 11 ". to which man looks up with reverence.attribute. The second word of the title. in other words.9 the man of Reason.". e. and we capitalize the word in order to remind the reader that it is not the reason of the nor the rationality of argu but the universal world-order. 12 We translate Tao by rationalist.". MA . yin tao che w or tung yii tao che. 12 ".Reason.". and Literally.heart".". ".
. He de nounces the vanity of self-display and ". or act without acting". or ".".not.acting with The meaning is clear through the context. denotes man s straight- ness of heart.to act". ($ $&m& ) and we have commonly translated the words by with non". and there is no need of interpreting Lao-tze s words non-assertion. favorite phrase of Lao-tze s eth a key to his mode of thought. reads wei ".act assertion. . either in a mystical or a quietist sense.". and so we believe that wei wu wei is best rendered by ". ".straight. without".". to pose. There are three negatives in Chinese: pu.".to make a show. were it not for the fact that the moral element is uppermost in Lao-tze s mind. The Chinese wei means not only do something. phrase wei wu wei might be translated do without ado".act wu wei. The ics. ing in.to show The egotism.". (viz.16 Canon of Reason and Virtue It ".".to ". non-existent.lack and fei. to parade oneself.to but also ". without posing). to off. which furnishes non-act. ".. the simple negation . wu. as on the stage.". ".
ungoodbut in Chapter 38.non-diplomacy. ". In Chapter 49 pu shan. Though we can not lay a general rule about their distinc tions. Sometimes the meaning of the negated word.". (Chap ".evil.Introduction 17 means. is that statesmanship with which a good ruler will unostentatiously govern the empire.anti-reason".". is not annihilation but denotes absence of concrete particularity or of . i. means pu teh. there are different shades of mean ing according to the context which we ".". (Chapter 53) and pu tao (Chapters 30 and 55) reason.unvirtue.". (tao ko tao) is declared to be no means the eter nal Reason (fei ch ang tao)". e.lack higher mode of of reason". while reason that can be reasoned".un ". ".by no down have tried to bring out in our English version. ".. 57 wu shi. influences the nega tive. ness". which soon ceases. ".".by ".. On the other hand Lao-tze speaks of both fei tao. In Chapter ". or ". ". means that higher virtue which makes no show and does not even assume the name.non-existence". The term wu. or the ironic sense in which it is used.the ter 40).
intended to describe purely formal. 86. the prototypes of things as well as ideals. 134ff. Monist. viz. Cf. while giving shape to things by cutting away certain portions. pp. including purely formal thought. 12-13. 119ff. Significance of Quality. The Phiolsophy of Form. and ". where Goethe is quoted Foundations of Math Compare also on the sig on nothingness. 110..The 375. pp.nought". of Divine Reason.". 36-38. Vol. p.18 Canon of Reason and Virtue It is materiality. 14 as set forth in Chapter 11. to say the least. ren ders them useful. and 14 For the meaning of s ". Materiality makes things real but non-materiality. Lao-tze s reference to trinity as beget ting all things (Chapter 42) is. perhaps profound. in Oriental thought see the author ematics. curious. nificance of non-realities the article ". XVIII. pp. further. . Buddhism and Its Christian Critics. He speaks of oneness 15 as giving character to things that are units (Chapter 39) and unity what we would call the cannot be disintegrated (Chapter 10).Mysti in The Monist. and 218. pp. 15 For the connection of Oneness with Qual ity see the author s Personality. XV. cism". Lao-tze s appreciation of oneness is to be expected of a philosopher of the Tao.
) "..". etc. SS (Literally. ".".Requite hatred with goodness and ". knowable.the form of the formless". ". (Chapter 14) etc. . $.pure form.the formless. Lao-tze s style is characterized by par without ado". are used to describe what Kant calls ". and 17 ".the the of image imageless". 10. ". non-material or forms such as geometrical figures.". ". out (Chapter 63) ".the bodiless. (Chapter 69).act with non-assertion". Undoubtedly the best sayings of Lao18 ".with virtue.(Chapter non-practice.Introduction 19 idea that the Christians will also be interested in the Son of Heaven as the High must bear the sins mankind (Chapter 78).".do translated ".) . tasteless". good with goodness the bad I also meet with tze are : . as in Chapters 2.The I meet (Chapter 63).taste the .marching with marching". and which corresponds to the Buddhist term arupo. in the sense ideal of ".be 3.".practice sick of sickness".". (commonly adox as in Priest of the people of ". Similarly the 16 phrases ".know the un 71). e. ". i.
61. The faithful I meet with the faithless I also meet with (Chapter 49).". 28. ". and ". 45. (2) tsing. 25. Chap. Chap. . for purity (Chapter 45). (4) Chap.rest". 5). ". Chaps. Chap. ". (6) Chap.com Chap. for rest and peace 20 (Chapter 31). for tenderness (Chapters 52. (7) tsih. 26. ".quie tude. 23. fort. faith". (3) ngan.". for silence (Chapters 2. against restrictions and prohi bitions as producing disorder (Chapter is He 20 Lao-tze uses no less than eight synonyms or ". 76. ". (Chapter 61). 26. 43. ". 56). ". 4. t ai. for thrift (Chapter 59).. ".quie for tude and peace.".: (1) t ien tan.calm.rest". 4. 31. Chap.calmly. for weak 36. etc. ". 35. 78). 40) for compassion for lowliness or humility (Chapter 67). 15. p ing. 57).". 35.calm.still. 37. 37.contentment.".20 Canon of Reason and Virtue 19 ---- goodness faith. (8) yen.". 35. 16.". Chap. Other remarkable ideas of Lao-tze are his preference for simplicity (Chapters 17. for spontaneity or lack of effort (Chapter 6). especially the ten derness of water (Chapter 78). ness (Chapters for returning home to the Tao (Chapters 25.quietude". for emptiness (Chapters 3.". (5) tsan. 40).
and the stretching of the bow which brings down the high and raises the low (Chapter 77). 45. to a babe (Chapter 20) and calls him Tao and the mother (Chapter 52) on the other hand the sage looks upon the peo self the child or son of the Tao his . the lowliness of the valley (Chap ters 32.Introduction 21 against ostentation (Chapter 58). 39. and then he speaks of Reason as pre- Compare with this Matt. sought is found (Chapter little 62). v. He believes that the Tao when 57).the arch-father of the ten thousand 21 things. (Chapter 4). . 41.". Lao-tze re fers repeatedly to God. Heaven s impartiality 21 (Chapter 79) which shows no preference to favorites is expected of the sage by Lao-tze who praises the emptiness of heaven (Chap ter 5). first identifying God with Reason as ". 55). against learnedness as unwisdom (Chap ter 81). being an abstract philosophical principle. 66). etc. the Tao. seems to leave Though no room for a belief in God. and he praises the state of a child (Chap He compares himself ters 10. 28. ple as children (Chapter 49).
the world s mother". as a father.22 Canon of Reason and Virtue ceding even ". (Chapter 4).".the Lord".mother". In Chapter 74. but the idea of calling the Tao the father of truth is not contrary to Lao-tze s thought.the father of the doctrine". for he speaks of the Tao twice as the ". the Tao is compared to ". when referring to divine justice cutting short the lives of men. (Chapter 42) may be doubt ful. for mean ".the ances tor of words".the great carpenter who hews. (Chapters 20 and 52) and once as ". which also personifies Reason.the master of deeds". The pas sage where he speaks of ". as an architect (as the Free masons have it).the the commentators explain it to foundation of the doctrine". also allegories? . In Chapter 70 he calls the Tao ". but are not the Christian ideas of God as a Lord. and ". (Chap ter 52).. All these passages are figures of speech.
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.THE OLD PHILOSOPHER S CANON OF REASON AND VIRTUE.
together with their bones. Their words alone are . Confucius. Sir. His proper name was Er (Ear). K u-Hien (Thistle District). his appellation Tan (Longlobed). His family was the Li gentry (Li meaning Plum). Lao-tze said: ". of Ch u (Bramble land). speaking of pro priety.The men of whom you [When speak. Confucius went to Cheu in order to consult Lao-tze on the rules of pro priety. his posthumous title Po-Yang (Prince Positive). In Cheu (the State of Every where) he was in charge of the secret archives as state historian.SZE-MA-CH IEN ON LAO-TZE. Lao-tze was born in the hamlet Ch iiJan (Good Man s Bend). praised the sages of antiquity]. Li Hsiang (Grinding County). have mouldered.
I ing: ". That is what I have to communicate to you. . For the . he addressed his disciples. time he rises. Let go. All this is of no use to you. say know that the birds can fly. I know that the wild animals can run. Sir. Lao-tze].". one could make nets for the flying.I know that the fishes can swim. airs. running. The noble man of perfect virtue assumes an attitude as though he were stupid. your and exaggerated plans. [Unable to understand your proud affectation all. and that is Confucius left. one could make arrows.70 still Canon of Reason and Virtue /I I I If a noble man finds his extant. . your many wishes. Lao-tze practised Reason and virtue. Is dragon?". As to the dragon I cannot know how he can be stride wind and clouds when he heaven ward rises. one could make nooses for the swimming. but if he does not find his time he drifts like a roving-plant and wanders about. Sir. To-day he perhaps like the I saw Lao-tze. I observe that the wise merchant hides his treasures deeply as if he were poor.
life. . Then he departed.". he departed and came to the fron tier. 71 at self-concealment Lao-tze resided in Cheu most of his When he foresaw the decay of Cheu. since request you pleases you to retire. for my sake to write a it book. The custom house : officer Yin-Hi said I ". No one knows where he died. in which he discussed the concepts of Reason and virtue. Thereupon Lao-tze wrote a book o two parts consisting of five thousand and odd words.Canon of Reason and Virtue His doctrine aims and namelessness.Sir.
These two things are the same in Their source but different in name. The Unnamable is of heaven and earth the beginning. he who by desire is bound around. The Reason Therefore 2. that can be reasoned is not the eternal Reason. The Namable becomes of the ten thousand things the mother. The name that can be named is not the eternal Name.THE OLD PHILOSOPHER S CANON OF REASON AND VIRTUE. 1. sameness is called a mystery. REASON S REALIZATION. Sees the mere shell of things 3. .". I. Indeed.He it is said: who desireless is found The But spiritual of the world will sound. ". 1.
Above. For it is sheer badness.". Of all SELF-CULTURE. are mutually coalitioned. it 1. Therefore abides by non-assertion and conveys by silence his When the ten thousand instruction. things arise. if is if Everywhere it is obvious that beauty makes a display of beauty. ". The the easy. 2. are mutually exhibitioned. he refuses them not. sheer ugliness. 2. are tioned. verily. Before and after are mutually posi tioned.To be and not to be are mutually con ditioned. 3. are mutually definitioned. difficult. below. spirituality it is the door.74 it Canon of Reason and Virtue is the mystery of mysteries. in his affairs The holy man . The long. mutually cogni- The sound. It is obvious that goodness makes a display of goodness. the short. the voice.
ambition but strengthens their bones. it 3. SOURCELESS.Canon of Reason and Virtue 75 He quickens but owns not. ing ungoverned. Therefore the holy man when he governs empties the people s hearts but He weakens their fills their stomachs. verily. it 1. but its use is in In its profundity. Always he keeps the people unsophisti He causes cated and without desire. Not boasting of one people s s worth fore stalls envy. Reason is exhaustible. but he does not dwell on it. Not prizing treasures difficult to ob tain keeps people from committing theft. 4. 1. KEEPING THE PEOPLE QUIET. When he acts with non-assertion there is noth sire 3. that the crafty do not dare to act. He acts but claims not. . Not contemplating what kindles de keeps the heart unconfused. Merit he accomplishes. empty. ".". 2.Since It will he does not dwell on never leave him.
But for the holy man s humane dogs. 2. 2.It will blunt its its own sharpness. dogs. A . ".". families are straw hundred the ness. Will tangles adjust It will dim its own radiance And 3. But for heaven and earth s humane ten thousand things are straw the ness. Is not the space between heaven and earth like unto a bellows? It is empty. moves.76 Canon of Reason and Virtue resembleth the arch-father of the ten thousand things.How forth. . It and more comes 3. THE FUNCTION OF EMPTINESS. ". and more [But] soon exhausted is gossip s fulsome talk! And should we not prefer On the middle path to walk?". know Oh. be one with its dust. yet it collapses not. Apparently even the Lord it precedes. ! 5. 1. how calm it seems to remain I not whose son it is.
". 2. benefiteth the ten it quarreleth not. On that account can they endure.". Is called of heaven door.Canon of Reason and Virtue 6. valley spirit not expires. is lasting. 1. 7. Heaven endures and earth can heaven and earth endure and be lasting? Because they do not live for themselves. woman tis called 1. . EASY BY NATURE. Forever and aye it seems to endure And its use is without effort sure. Is it not because he seeks not his own? For that reason he can his own. He surrenders his person and his person is preserved. The water s goodness thousand things. 1.The Mysterious sires. 77 THE COMPLETION OF FORM. accomplish 8. and earth the root. DIMMING RADIANCE. by the to The mysterious woman s boot. Therefore The holy man puts his person behind And why and his person comes to the front. yet Superior goodness resembleth water.
then to withdraw. PRACTISING PLACIDITY. therefore it is near unto the eternal Reason 3. It quarreleth not. senses embraces unity cannot be disin- . In business goodness exhibiteth ability. 10. is 9. The dwelling of goodness is The heart of goodness is in in When giving. WHAT CAN BE DONE? by unending discipline of the Who ". goodness commotion. not rebuked. The movements of Therefore it goodness keep time. 2. To accomplish merit and acquire fame. showeth benevolence. are 1. Grasp to the foiled? ^ i wear long? If hall no one can protect it. lowliness.78 Canon of Reason and Virtue 2. Water dwelleth in the places which the multitudes of men shun. 4. can you and gold jewels fill the full. 1. that is Heaven s Way. In government goodness standeth for order. brings about its own doom. Rich and high but proud. In words. Scheme too you not likely sharply. goodness keepeth faith.
and penetrating the four quarters. By cutting out doors and windows we build a house and on that which is its . Opening and closing the gates of heaven. 79 concentrating his vitality and inducing~teriderness he can become like a little child. by cleansing and profound intuition he can be free from faults. he will be like a mother-bird. He acts but He excels but rules not. He quickens them and feeds them. bright. This is called profound virtue. he will be unsophisticated.Canon of Reason and Virtue tegrated. and white. 2. and on that which is non-existent [on 1. Who loves the people when admin istering the country will practise non- By \ \ assertion. THE FUNCTION OF THE NON EXISTENT. hollowness] depends the vessel s util ity. 11. \ Thirty spokes unite in one nave and on that which is non-existent [on the hole in the nave] depends the wheel s Clay is moulded into a vessel utility. By purifying. claims not. He quickens but owns not.
The [combined] the hu 2. and hunting will human ".". . 2. Treasures high-prized make human conduct bad. Therefore The holy man attends to the inner and j Ino1 not to the outer. man eye will blind.80 Canon of Reason and Virtue non-existent [on the empty space within] depends the house s utility.lt. like trem It is bling. it is bodes disgrace. 1. 3. 12. ABSTAINING FROM DESIRE. Rank bodes like the great heartache.". body.Favor LOATHING SHAME. He abandons the latter id chooses the former. \an&.".Racing hearts turn mad. The five tastes [when they blend] the human mouth offend. ". 13. 1. five colors ". The five notes [in one sound] the hu man ear confound. existence renders actual but non-existence renders useful. Therefore.
name Colorless.Canon of Reason and Virtue 2. name We grope for Reason and do not grasp it.". it is 81 What means ". 1. its listen to is Reason and do not hear Soundless. We it. PRAISING THE MYSTERIOUS. I suffer great heartache because I have a body. What means it is bodes great like the body?". Favor bling. humiliates. Its like trembling?". Forever and aye Reason remains un- . We its look at Reason and do not see is it. Thus they are combined and conceived as a unity which on its surface is not clear and in its depth not obscure. it is trembling. 2.Favor bodes disgrace. When I have no body.Favor bodes disgrace. what heartache remains? 4. 14. These three things cannot further be analyzed. is causes trembling. heartache. 3. its loss acquisition causes trem This meant by like ".Rank ". 3. Therefore who administers the em pire as he takes care of his body call be entrusted with the empire. its name is Bodiless.
How reluc Like men fearing in the four tant! quarters their neighbors. is called the transcendentally abstruse. How elusive They resemble ice when melting. intelligible. spirit On ac ual. Because they can not . is called Reason s clue. 1.be understood. In the rear its end is not seen. Those of yore who have succeeded becoming masters are subtile. THE REVEALERS OF VIRTUE.82 Canon of Reason and Virtue namable. cautious they are! Like men in winter crossing a river. 5. therefore I endeavor to make them 2. How simple! They resemble rough wood. profound. and again and again it returns home to non-existence. This 15. ! . In front its beginning is not seen. 4. and penetrating. How reserved ! How They behave like guests. This is called the form of the form This less. the image of the imageless. By holding fast to the Reason of the ancients. in count of their profundity they can~not be understood. the present is mastered and the origin of the past understood. 6.
It signifies the return according to des tiny. . Return according to destiny means the eternal. its root. therefore he may grow old with out renewal he is complete. and I see them return. Comprehensiveness renders . empty ! obscure! They resemble the valley. quieting can gradually ren waters clear? Who by stir muddy can ring gradually quicken the still? Who by der 4. Knowing the eternal means enlightenment. All the ten thousand things arise. Knowing the eternal renders com prehensive. Now they bloom in bloom but each one homeward re- turneth to 3. He who cherishes this Reason is not anxious to be filled. attaining the height of abstrac gain fulness of rest. By we tion 2. Returning to the root means rest.Canon of Reason and Virtue 83 How How 3. Not knowing the eter nal causes passions to rise. 4. 1. 16. RETURNING TO THE ROOT. and that is evil. They resemble troubled waters. Since he is not filled.
we have filial piety and pa- . 17. verily. great rulers the subjects do not notice the existence. and the hundred families thought: ".". THE PALLIATION OF VULGARITY.We are independent. 2. Reason renders lasting. and we have much hypocrisy. Heaven renders Rea son-like. Prudence and circumspection appear. For it is said: ". and the meanest . you 3. When family relations no longer harmonize.84 broad. Still lesser ones people fear. 18. deeds they per formed. 1. Of ones people despise. we have benevolence and justice. 1. To lesser ones peo ple are attached they praise them. When the great Reason is oblite rated. Canon of Reason and Virtue Breadth renders royal.".If your faith be insufficient. SIMPLICITY IN HABITS. will receive no faith. Royalty renders heavenly. 2. reluctantly they [the great Merit rulers] considered their words! How they accomplished. Thus the decay of the body implies no danger.
pure. put away your prudence and the people will gain a hundredfold! 2. Abandon ". culture said: ".yea. give up greed. These are three things for which is insufficient. the The ". put away your justice. have loyalty and allegiance.Canon of Reason and Virtue ternal devotion. 1. and thieves and robbers will no longer exist.". and the people will return to tion. 4. lessen self with desires DIFFERENT FROM THE VULGAR. Abandon smartness. how little you have compared with do they differ! . 1. . Abandon your saintliness. preserve thee fewer. 85 When the country and the clans decay through disorder. Abandon your benevolence.y es ". and no vexation. learnedness. we 19.". filial piety and paternal devo 3. RETURNING TO SIMPLICITY. And 20.Hold Therefore it is fast to that Show which will endure. thyself simple.
Adrift. so confused. so bright. man whose heart is foolish.86 Canon of Reason and Virtue But the good compared with the bad. 8. Common people are smart. there will be desolation. I alone am dull. so happy. The multitude of men all have I and alone Alas plenty appear empty. I alone remain quiet. so smart. Desolate am I. alas! like the sea. I am like unto a babe that does not yet smile. 7. may 5. 4. differ! If what the people dread cannot be made alas! dreadless. ! I ! I am 6. I alone am confused. Ignorant am I. so ignorant Com a ! mon people are bright. The multitudes of men are happy. Forlorn am I. how much do they 2. They are as though in springtime 3. O so forlorn! It apthat I have no place whither I \ pears return home. alas like one that has not yet received \an omen. . . as though celebrating a great feast. ascending a tower. . and verily. alas! like one who has no place where to stay. there will be no end of it. O.
EMPTYING THE HEART. It harbors the spirit pure.". I alone differ from others. ". 4. All beings including! How deep and how obscure. Is Reason s nature vague and eluding. 87 The multitude I of usefulness. but I prize seeking sustenance from our mother.Vast Follows Reason 2. ".Its name is never vanishing. everything. Whose faith abides for aye From of yore until to-day. ".Canon of Reason and Virtue 9. 21. verily: Through IT. ". Through what do I know that heeds the good of everything".it It heeds the good of 5. 3. ". Whose truth is ever sure.? In this way. virtue s form s 1.And norm.How eluding and vague All types including! How vague and eluding. alone men all possess am awkward and a rustic too. .
EMPTINESS AND NON-EXISTENCE. is it in any way vainly spoken? Verily.88 Canon of Reason and Virtue 22. Since he does not quarrel. . Not self-displaying he is enlightened. crooked shall be straight. The empty find their fill. hurricane does not outlast the morn- . Not self-approving he is distinguished Not self-asserting he acquires merit. Crushed ones recuperate.". 1.The crooked shall be straight. they will be straightened and return home. ". The holy man embraces unity and be comes for all the world a model.". The worn with strength shall thrill Who 2. little And who Therefore have receive. . Not self-seeking he gaineth life. 23. j A To be taciturn is the natural way. 1. have much will grieve. The saying of the ancients: ". no one 3.The HUMILITY S INCREASE. therefore in the world can quarrel with him.
Self-displayers are not enlightened. associate in Rea son. Those who 3. 24. pursue their business in ciate in ill ill luck asso associate luck. Reason makes them glad to find companions. One astride makes no advance. 89 A cloudburst does not outlast the day. ill ". virtue find companions. luck.". Reason. When men in Reason. causes these events but heaven If even heaven and earth cannot be unremitting. When men associate in virtue. 1.If shall your faith is insufficient. i One on tiptoe is not steady.Canon of Reason and Virtue ing. Self-asserters lack distinction. . Who and earth? Those who pursue their business in men of Reason. will not man be much less so? 2. Those who pursue their business in virtue associate in virtue. verily ye receive no faith. in ill makes them glad to When men associate luck makes them glad to find companions. TROUBLE FROM INDULGENCE.
man of reason will 25. and it changeth not. [There are four things . Constrained to give a name. ". 4. self-seekers stunt their lives. 5. The great I call the de and the parting. but its nature Reason. Before Reason this it is like surfeit of food. around it moveth.Reason is heaven great. 1. There is a Being wondrous and com plete. it was. gusted. Alone it standeth. Therefore the not indulge in it. and roy alty also is great. great. Before heaven and earth. I call it the great. is Uke a wen on the body with which people are apt to be dis 3. Its I call beyond. IMAGING THE MYSTERIOUS. The beyond The saying goes: is I call home. name I know not. How calm it is How spiritual 2.90 Canon of Reason and Virtue Self-approvers have no merit. And 2. earth is great. departing I call the 3. yet therefore can it be the world s ! ! mother. and it suffereth not.
26. he calmly sits with liberated mind. Man s is standard is is the earth.Good no trace nor lack. 3. THE VIRTUE OF GRAVITY. and royalty one of them. in logic show no Good counters need no counting rack. Reason standard is intrinsic.] 6. But how is it when the master of the ten thousand chariots in his per sonal conduct is too light for the empire? If he is too light he will lose his vassals. THE FUNCTION OF travelers leave SKILL. motion s master. 1. and 2. Al though he may have magnificent sights. ". s The s earth s standard heaven. track. 27.Canon of Reason and Virtue in the is 91 world that are great. Good speakers. is The heavy rest is of the light the root. If he is too passionate he will lose the throne. . 1. Therefore the holy man in his daily walk does not depart from gravity. Heaven standard Reason.
He is always a good saviour of things. to a child s es . 4.". though his knowledge be greatly confused. Thus the good man does not respect multitudes of men. for there are no out cast things. 2. He will from virtue And home he turneth tate. The bad man re spects the people s wealth. Becomes the empire Is he the empire s river. Who does not esteem multitudes nor is charmed by their wealth.92 Canon of Reason and Virtue lockers bolting bars need not. Therefore the holy man is always a good saviour of men. Yet none their locks can loose. his his 1. Yet none unties their noose. This is called applied en I lightenment. for there are no outcast people. he must be recog nized as profoundly spiritual. RETURNING TO SIMPLICITY.Who And manhood shows womanhood knows s river.Good 3. never deviate. 28. ". ". Good binders need no string nor knot.
and truly. Simplicity. 4. Becomes the empire 3. The empire I see him not is a divine vessel which cannot be made. Of virtue ne er shall he be destitute. ". NON-ASSERTION. when scattered. he the empire s model. a great principle will never do harm. One who makes One who takes it.". mars it. Is he the empire s valley.Who 93 his brightness his blackness And Is shows knows s model. And home he turneth to simplicity. When the empire and make succeed. 1.Who knows his fame And guards his shame Becomes the empire s valley. The holy man. by using it. . becomes the chief leader. 29. For e er his virtue will sufficient be. ". And home he turneth to the absolute. one desires to take in hand it. it.Canon of Reason and Virtue 2. becomes a vessel of usefulness. loses it.
Some are obsequious. resolute but not arrogant. His methods armies are quartered briars Great wars unfail ingly are followed by famines.94 2. excess. others coldly. 3.". reso lute but not haughty. He ventures not to take by force. Canon of Reason and Virtue And it is said of beings: ". 30. Therefore the holy man abandons he abandons extravagance. he abandons indulgence. He who with Reason assists the master of mankind will not with arms strengthen the empire. BE CHARY OF WAR. . 2. 1. others sneak. resolute but not violent. Be resolute but not boastful. A good man acts resolutely and then stops. Some breathe warmly. Where and thorns grow. Some are strong and others weak. Things thrive and then grow old. Some rise proudly. 4. 3. resolute because you cannot avoid it. others move boldly. invite requital.
3. Although its significant. Therefore he who has Reason does not rely on them. The superior man when residing at home honors the left. 4. 32. 1.Canon of Reason and Virtue This is called un-Reason. Even victorious arms are unblest among tools. When using arms. Re joicing at a conquest the slaughter of men. He conquers but rejoices not. 2. in namable. means to enjoy He who enjoys the slaughter of men will most assuredly not obtain his will in the empire. eternal aspect. and people had better shun them. soon ceases. Reason. 95 Un-Reason QUELLING WAR. Peacjs and quietude he holdeth high. is un- 2. THE VIRTUE OF HOLINESS. 31. the dare to suppress simplicity seems in whole world does not it. Only when it is unavoidable he uses them. If princes and kings . he honors the right. Arms are unblest among tools and not the superior man s tools. its 1.
One who knows contentment is rich and one who pushes with vigor has will. One who knows others is is clever. THE VIRTUE OF DISCRIMINATION. dew. Heaven and earth would unite in dripping sweet command them would righteous.96 Canon of Reason and Virtue it. 3. 4. To illustrate Reason s relation to the world we compare it to streams and learns to ing creeks in their course towards rivers and the ocean. one it know when to stop. 4. becomes namable. One who loses not his place endures. but one who knows himself 2. By know when to stop. 3. . one avoids danger. 33. could keep the ten thousand things would of themselves pay homage. One who conquers others is power but one who conquers himself is mighty. ish. ful. Whenever the namable in its turn acquires existence. 5. 1. and the people with no one to of themselves be As soon as Reason creates order. One who may die but will not per has life everlasting. enlightened.
the world will come in quest: For there we never meet with harm.Who Of him There we find shelter. rest. 3. 35. 1. 1. 2. Lov ingly it nourishes the ten thousand things and plays not the lord.Canon of Reason and Virtue 97 34. Ever desireless it can be classed with the small. holdeth fast to the great Form. How all-pervading is the great Rea son! It can be on the left and it can be on the right. comfort. when 2.". The ten thousand things return home to it. Therefore The holy man unto death does not make himself great and can thus accom plish his greatness. . The ten thousand things depend upon it for their life. It plays not the lord. It can be classed with the great. TRUST IN ITS PERFECTION. ". Music with dainties makes the pass ing stranger stop. and it refuses them not. But Reason. THE VIRTUE OF BENEVOLENCE. When its merit is accom plished it assumes not the name.
98 Canon of Reason and Virtue coming from the mouth. When looked at. 36. That which is about to fall has surely been raised. so with the country s sharp tools the people should not become ac quainted. there is not enough to be seen. 3. This is an explanation of the secret that the tender and the weak conquer the hard and the strong. That which is about to be despoiled has surely been endowed. there is not enough to be heard. Reason always practises non-asser and there is nothing that remains 1. . how tasteless is it! It has no flavor. ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERN MENT. undone. when listened to. THE SECRET S EXPLANATION. when used. As the fish should not escape from the deep. 37. it is inex haustible. That which is about to weaken has surely been strengthened. 1. That which is about to contract has surely been expanded. tion. 2. However.
99 and kings could keep Reason. Therefore it has fore no virtue. Superior benevolence acts but makes no pretensions. Superior virtue is non-assertion and without pretension.". the ten thousand creatures would If princes While be be anxious ing reformed they might yet them I restrain to stir. And all the world will thus be blest. Inferior virtue never loses sight of virtue. 3. Is there no lust there will be rest. 1. . Inferior virtue as serts and makes pretensions. 4.The simplicity of the unexpressed Will purify the heart of lust. ". but would by of themselves be reformed. XI. Superior propriety acts and when 2.Canon of Reason and Virtue 2. There it has virtue. Superior justice acts and makes pretensions. 3. the simplicity of the Ineffable. Superior virtue is unvirtue. DISCOURSE ON VIRTUE. 38.
Traditionalism is the flower of Rea son. Minds by oneness souls procure. it stretches its arm and enforces its rules.100 Canon of Reason and Virtue no one responds to it. One loses justice and then propriety appears.Heaven by oneness becometh pure. 7. THE ROOT OF ORDER. 6. but of ignorance the beginning. of old these things have ob From tained oneness: 2. 39. The rules of propriety are the sem blance of loyalty and faith. Earth by oneness can endure. and the be ginning of disorder. Thus one loses Reason and then vir tue appears. Therefore he discards the latter and chooses the former. 8. 1. Valleys by oneness repletion secure. 5. Therefore a great organizer abides by the solid and dwells not in the exter He abides in the fruit and dwells nal. . One loses virtue and then benevolence appears. One loses benev olence and then justice appears. ". not in the flower.
Is this not because they take lowliness moners as their as their root? . and unworthy. 3. And Such kings were by oneness as models installed.".". Thus. Therefore. is the result of oneness. Were minds impotent.Were heaven not pure earth not stable it might be rent.All 101 creatures by oneness to life have been called. ". but on haughti ness bent.Canon of Reason and Virtue ". and the high rest upon the lowly as their foundation. fall. Were Their 4. forsooth. not ensouled they d be valleys not filled they d soon be spent. princes and kings call them selves orphaned. the nobles come from the com root. is imminent. When creatures are lifeless who can their death prevent? Are kings not models. lonely. Were it might be bent.
AVOIDING ACTIVITY. 2. Reason s course. Those who have become a unity are neither anxious to be praised with praise like a gem. .102 Canon of Reason and Virtue 5. The several parts of a carriage are not a carriage. it would as Reason be insufficient. 6. but existence comes from non-existence. an average scholar hears of Reason he will sometimes keep it and sometimes lose it. Were it not thus ridiculed. Heaven and earth and the ten thou sand things come from existence.The Reason-enlightened seem dark and black. ". 1. ". 3. When When Reason he endeavors to practise 2. Therefore the poet says: 5. SAMENESS IN DIFFERENCE.". When an inferior scholar hears of Reason he will greatly ridicule it. a superior scholar hears of it. 40. 4. 1.Homeward is Weakness is Reason s force. 41. nor disdained with disdain like a stone.
form has no shape con crete. ". unity begets duality. 1. shame must fail.". . The purest chastity seems pervert. 42. is Reason so long as it remains latent Yet Reason alone is good for imparting and completing. The greatest square will Tightness desert.Canon of Reason and Virtue 103 The Reason .The - straight slack. Reason begets unity. REASON S MODIFICATIONS. ". - levelled seem rugged and high in virtue resemble a vale. duality begets trinity. The staunchest 7. unnamable.advanced seem going back.The virtue seems to solidest virtue seems not alert. in The purely white quail.The largest vessel is not yet com plete. loudest sound greatest is not speech re plete. The Reason 6. ". The The 9. 8. and trin ity begets the ten thousand things.
and on the other hand. loss implies gain. gain implies loss. 3.104 Canon of Reason and Virtue 2. lonely. s hardest. on the one hand. and the immaterial breath renders them harmonious. Thereby I comprehend of non-asser tion the advantage. Non-existence enters into the im penetrable. but I will obey the doctrine s father. to be orphaned. The ten thousand things are sus tained by Yin [the negative principle] they are encompassed by Yang [the pos . Thus. itive principle]. 5. What others have taught I teach also. 3. kings and princes select as their titles. s The world weakest overcomes the world 2. ITS UNIVERSAL APPLICATION. There are few in the world who obtain of non-assertion the advantage and of silence the lesson. . 4. That which the people find odious. 1. 43. and unworthy. The strong and aggressive do not die a natural death.
Canon of Reason and Virtue 105 44. 3. Forever lasteth his 45.". 1. remaineth. which is more sear? dotage leadeth to squander ing.Name SETTING UP PRECEPTS. tion. GREATEST VIRTUE. ". 1. which is more dear? Gain or 2.Greatest But Its its work ne er waneth. ".Who is content incurs no humilia to stop risks duration. or person.Extreme loss. ". which is more near? Person or fortune. . work unexhausted 2. Hoarded wealth inviteth plundering. ".". is Greatest fulness vacuity. Quietude . 3.". ". Motion conquers cold.Straightest lines resemble curves Greatest skill like a tyro serves. perfection imperfect will be. Greatest eloquence stammers and swerves. Who knows when no vitiation.
106 Canon of Reason and Virtue conquers heat. The further one goes. MODERATION OF DESIRE. 3. . Purity and clearness are the world s standard. When the world is without Rea son. are bred in the race horses are reserved for hauling dung. travel. 46. ".Without The world s course I prognosticate. and yet he defines them.". He does not labor. greater sin than yielding to de greater misery than discon ^ 47. he who knows content s content is always content. and yet he 2. Therefore. passing out of the gate 1. VIEWING THE DISTANT. No sire. greater calamity than greed. He does not see things. The less one knows. Without peeping through the win dow The heavenly Reason I contemplate. 1. Therefore the holy man does not and yet he has knowledge. war horses common. completes. When the world possesses Reason. 2. No No tent.
He who seeks learnedness will daily He who seeks Reason will increase. He will diminish and diminish. faith. 1. the bad I also meet with goodness. 3. meet with goodness. 49. The holy man has not a heart of The hundred families hearts The good I he makes his heart. He universalizes his heart. it is always because he uses no diplomacy. that is virtue s goodness. that he cannot achieve. daily 48. continue to diminish until he arrives at non-assertion. that is virtue s faith. 1. his own. very anxious in his dealings with the world. 2. The holy man dwells in the world anxious. He who uses diplomacy 2. With non-assertion there is When is not fit to take the empire. nothing he takes the empire. TRUST IN VIRTUE.Canon of Reason and Virtue 107 FORGETTING KNOWLEDGE. The faithful I meet with faith the faithless I also meet with . and the hundred families fix upon .
The reason is that he does not belong to the realm of death. 1. There are thirteen avenues of life. home in death. there are thirteen avenues of death. Weapons find no place wherein to thrust their blades. he need not fear arms and weapons. 1. Therefore . NURSING VIRTUE. Reality shapes them.108 Canon of Reason and Virtue their ears him and eyes. The tiger finds no place wherein to put his claws. treats 50. When coming among soldiers. I understand that one whose life is based on goodness. 4. 3. The rhinoceros finds no place wherein to insert its horn. what is the reason? It is be cause they live life s intensity. when traveling on land will not fall a prey to the rhi noceros or the tiger. Yea. all Reason quickens creatures. Vir tue feeds them. them all like children. on thirteen avenues men that live pass unto the realm of death. Abroad in life. The forces complete them. 51. Now. The holy man LIFE. THE ESTIMATION OF 2.
and to the end of life he is not in danger. this is called profound virtue. As one knows his mother. To quicken but not to own. When the world takes its beginning. while virtue feeds them. 1. 52. it is forever spontaneous. rears them. raises them. and shuts his sense-gates. 3. 4. Since the esteem of Reason and the honoring of virtue is by no one com manded. in the end of life he will encounter no trouble. matures them. to make but not to claim. RETURNING TO THE ORIGIN. s Reason becomes the world 2.Canon of Reason and Virtue 109 the ten thousand things there none that does not esteem Reason and honor virtue. Therefore it is said that Reason among is quickens all creatures. so she in turn knows her child. so he in turn keeps to his mother. com pletes them. mother. and protects them. but who opens his mouth and meddles with af- . to raise but not to rule. as she quickens her child. Who closes his mouth. 2. nurtures them.
knowledge. To wear ornaments and gay clothes. end of life he cannot be is saved. this pride of robbers. to carry sharp swords. Who beholds his smallness called uses Rea to its en does not surrender his per lightenment son to perdition. I but expansion that 2. must great Reason is very plain. Surely. to be excessive in drinking and eating. is the . ness is called strong. This is called prac tising the eternal. GAINING INSIGHT. 1. 3. enlightened. but are fond of by-paths. to have a re dundance of costly articles. people 3. son s light and returns Who preserves his tender Who home 53. the fields are very weedy and granaries The very empty. When the palace is very splendid. 4. this is un-Reason. It is fear.110 Canon of Reason and Virtue in the fairs. 5. If I have ever so little I shall walk in the great Reason.
. What s well planted is not uprooted. By one s house one tests houses. his virtue is genuine. cultivates it Who is universal.Canon of Reason and Virtue 111 54. well preserved can not be 1. cultivates in his country. it Who virtue virtue 4. do I know that the world is such? Through IT. THE CULTIVATION OF INTUITION. one one s s How country one tests countries. By sons and grandsons the sacri cultivates ficial 3. his is abundant. Therefore. By one s person one tests persons. ". Who is Reason in his per son. his in the world. world one tests worlds. By one s township one tests town ships.What is looted!". it cultivates is in his township. his virtue lasting. celebrations shall not cease. cultivates it in his house. 2. his Who Who virtue overflowing. By By 5.
Canon of Reason and Virtue
THE SIGNET OF THE MYSTERIOUS.
possesses virtue in all unto a little child.
reptiles do not sting him, do not seize him. Birds of prey do not strike him. His bones are weak, his sinews tender, but his grasp is firm. He does not yet know the re lation between male and female, but his virility is strong. Thus his metal grows to perfection. A whole day he might cry and sob without growing hoarse. This
shows the perfection of his harmony. 3. To know the harmonious is called
called enlightenment. 4. To increase life is called a blessing, and heart - directed vitality is called
strength, but things vigorous are about to grow old and I call this un-Reason.
Un-Reason soon ceases!
THE VIRTUE OF THE MYSTERIOUS.
One who knows does
talks does not
know. Therefore the sage keeps his mouth shut and his sensegates closed.
Canon of Reason and Virtue
will blunt his
His own tangles adjust;
He will dim his own And be one with his
inaccessible to love and
He is in also inaccessible to enmity. accessible to profit and inaccessible to
also inaccessible to favor
and inaccessible to disgrace. becomes world-honored.
SIMPLICITY IN HABITS.
rectitude one governs the with craftiness one leads the army with non-diplomacy one takes the em How do I know that it is so? pire.
restrictions and prohibi tions are in the empire, the poorer grow the people. The more weapons the peo
Through IT. 2. The more
ple have, the more troubled is the state. The more there is cunning and skill, the
startling events will happen.
Canon of Reason and Virtue
more mandates and laws are enacted, the more there will be thieves and robbers.
Therefore the holy man says: I practise non-assertion, and the people of themselves reform. I love quietude, and the people of themselves become right eous. I use no diplomacy, and the peo ple of themselves become rich. I have no desire, and the people of themselves remain simple.
ADAPTATION TO CHANGE. Whose government is unostenta
his people be prosperous, quite prosperous. Whose government is prying, quite pry ing, his people will be needy, quite needy. 2. Misery, alas! rests upon happiness. Happiness, alas! underlies misery. But who foresees the catastrophe? It will not be prevented 3. What is ordinary becomes again is What extraordinary. good becomes This bewilders peo again unpropitious. ple, and it happens constantly since times immemorial.
tious, quite unostentatious,
Canon of Reason and Virtue
4. Therefore the holy man is square but not sharp, strict but not obnoxious, upright but not restraining, bright but not dazzling.
HOLD FAST TO REASON.
consider that thrift
come from early
can accumulate an abundance of virtue. If one accumulates an abundance of vir tue then there is nothing that can not be overcome. 3. When nothing can not be overcome then no one knows his limit. When no one knows his limit one can have pos
session of the commonwealth.
possession of the
5. This is called the possession of deep roots and of a staunch stem. To life,
this is the way.
Thus a great state through lowliness toward small states will conquer the small states. 1. its ghosts will not spook. great state. HOW TO MAINTAIN ONE S PLACE. 61. Therefore some render themselves .116 Canon of Reason and Virtue 60. but its gods will not harm the people. A The wife always through quietude conquers her husband. Since neither will do harm. but neither will its holy men harm the peo ple. becomes the empire s union. 2. and the em pire s wife. 3. Govern a great country as you would fry small fish: [neither gut nor scale them. 4. one that lowly flows. 1. only will its ghosts not spook. and small states through lowliness toward great states will con quer great states. If with Reason the empire is man Not aged. Not only will its gods not harm the people. there fore their virtues will be combined. and by quietude renders herself lowly. THE VIRTUE OF HUMILITY.] 2.
why should he be thrown away? Therefore. an emperor was elected and three ministers ap pointed. but better than holding before one s face the jade table [of the min istry] and riding with four horses. 5. The man of Reason is the ten thou sand creatures refuge. 1. the good man s wealth. 3. the bad man s stay. Why do the ancients prize this Rea son? Is it not. the greater one must stoop. is sitting still and propounding the eternal Reason. With honest conduct one can do still more with the people. say. If a man be bad. it self to the service of the people but that both may obtain their wishes. a small state desires no more than to devote . A great state desires no more than to unite and feed the people. PRACTISE REASON. With beautiful words one can sell. 2. others are lowly and therefore conquer.Canon of Reason and Virtue 117 lowly for the purpose of conquering. 4. because when sought . 62.
it is it is Requite hatred with virtue. undertak while ings necessarily originate easy. Taste the tasteless. Make great Make much 2. s The world most difficult 6. and many 7. and thus to the end encounters no difficulties. Practise non-practice. 63. Therefore. Contemplate a difficulty when easy. 4. and the world s greatest undertakings necessarily originate while small. 1. the holy man regards everything as difficult. Assert non-assertion. . Rash promises surely lack faith.118 Canon of Reason and Virtue obtained and the sinner thereby Therefore it is world- it is can be saved? honored. Therefore the holy man to the end does not venture to play the great. CONSIDER BEGINNINGS. the little. Manage a great thing when small. 5. and thus he can accomplish his greatness. easy things surely involve in many difficulties. 3. the small.
2. therefore he loses not. What is still scant is 64. He that makes mars. What is still feeble is easily broken. and does not prize articles difficult to obtain. The holy man does not make. not to . He that grasps loses. is easily prevented. fore he mars not. careful to the end as in the and beginning you will not fail in your 4. The people when undertaking an enterprise are always near completion. 5.Canon of Reason and Virtue 119 MIND THE INSIGNIFICANT. A thou sand miles journey begins with a foot. 1. Reg ulate things before disorder begins. What is still at rest is easily kept What has not as yet appeared quiet. The stout tree has originated from a tiny rootlet. easily dispersed. there does not grasp. and yet they fail. He learns. Treat things before they exist. He Remain enterprise. 3. Therefore the holy man desires to be desireless. tower of nine stories is raised A by heaping up [bricks of] clay.
. but he does not venture to interfere. To gov ern the country with smartness is the 2. If people are difficult to govern. it is far-reaching. To govern is the coun try without smartness blessing. THE VIRTUE OF SIMPLICITY. to know the model is called pro is found virtue. is also a He who knows model the country s these two things [like the ancients]. and seeks a home where mul titudes of people pass by. profound. they intended thereby to them simple-hearted. 65. 1.120 Canon of Reason and Virtue be learned. is country s curse. in The ancients who were well versed Reason did not thereby enlighten the make people. Verily. Al ways 3. it is to everything reverse. 6. Spiritual virtue. it because they are too smart. Verily. He assists the ten thousand things in their natural development. verily. But then it will procure great recognition.
All in the world call me great. 4. Therefore the world rejoices in ex alting him and does not tire. but I resemble the unlikely. 3. no one in the world will strive with him. Thus they can of the hundred valleys be the kings. He is ahead. PUTTING ONESELF BEHIND. 1. I have three treasures which I . but the people are not burdened. THE THREE TREASURES. Because he strives not. When an xious to lead the people. Did he resemble the likely. but the people suffer no harm. must in his words keep underneath them. indeed. Now a man is great only because he resembles the un likely. Therefore the holy man dwells above. would his mediocrity be! 2.Canon of Reason and Virtue 121 66. when an xious to be above the people. 2. 1. he must with his person keep behind them. how lasting. Therefore the holy man. 67. That rivers and oceans can of the hundred valleys be kings is due to their excelling in lowliness.
COMPLYING WITH HEAVEN. and in defence firm. 5. The first is called compassion. This is called the virtue of not- striving. who 2. 4. they will surely die. The second is called econ omy. Heaven when about to save one will with compassion protect him. if they discard economy and are gen&rous. the economical can be generous. those who dare not come to the front in the world can become perfect as chief ves sels. The compassionate can be brave. Now. Now. 1. The third is called not daring to come to the front in the world. He who excels as a fighter is not wrathful. He who excels as a warrior is not warlike. if they discard mod esty and are ambitious. if people discard compassion and are brave. the compassionate will in at tack be victorious. This is called utilizing men s . 3. excels in employing men is lowly. He who excels in con quering the enemy does not strive.122 Canon of Reason and Virtue cherish and prize. He 68.
charging without hostility. 3. 1. but I with draw a 2. I dare not advance an inch. no one can practise them. My words are very easy to under stand and very easy to practise. THE FUNCTION OF THE MYSTE RIOUS. is called marching without marching. the one who does so in sor row is sure to conquer. 123 This is called complying with heaven 69.Canon of Reason and Virtue ability. 4. . Thus. foot. No greater misfortune than making This light of the enemy! When we make light of the enemy.I 1. DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND. 70. it is almost as though we had lost our treasure [compassion]. seizing with out weapons. A military expert used to say: dare not act as host [who takes the ini tiative] but act as guest [with reserve]. if matched armies encounter one another. but in the world no one can understand. since olden times the highest. ". threatening without arms.".
Let them not deem their lives nar row. 3. therefore he is not sick. THE DISEASE OF KNOWLEDGE. When it is not deemed weari some. Therefore the holy man wears wool. Those who understand me are few. Therefore the holy man knows him He self but does not displav himself. Words have an [viz. . 1. Not to that is sickness. that is know the knowable. If the people do not fear the dread the great dreadful will come. is not sick. To know the unknowable. a master 71. 72. ful. 1.. 2. surely. HOLDING ONESELF DEAR. and thus I am distinguished. we be without The holy man sickness. then it will not be wearisome.124 Canon of Reason and Virtue ancestor Deeds have Reason]. Only by becoming can 3. . Let them not deem their lot weari some. and hides in his bosom his jewels. 2. Because he is sick of sickness. 3. sick of sickness elevating. 2. Since he is not understood. therefore I am not under stood.
Heaven s net is vast. 74. if Courage. but it loses nothing. man also regards it The Heavenly Reason it is it strives not. It summons it not. It wide-meshed. It works pa is tiently. 3. 1. people do not fear death. is sure to respond. leads if not carried to dar Either of these two beneficial. but comes of is itself. to death. ing. 2. It speaks not. so vast. Who has the reason detected?". Thus he discards the latter and chooses the former. 73.Why is sometimes some t is by heaven rejected. DARING TO ACT. carried to daring. If the how can they be frightened by death? If we make people fear death. Therefore the holy as difficult. leads to life. but sure in its designs. but but sure to conquer. OVERCOME DELUSION. 1. 4. and sup- . courage.Canon of Reason and Virtue 125 holds himself dear but does not honor himself. things times harmful. ".
therefore they hunger. he will rarely. The people hunger because their superiors consume too many taxes. He who is not bent on life ier than he who esteems life.126 Canon of Reason and Virtue [still] posing some would bel. capital punish There is always an executioner who kills. 75. When . therefore they make light of death. fail to injure his hand. 1. indeed. 76. during life is tender and deli he dies he is stiff and stark. The people make light of death on account of the inten sity of their clinging to life. The people are difficult to riors are too govern because their supe meddlesome therefore they . 1. HARMED THROUGH GREED. 2. Man cate. Now to take the place of the exe cutioner who kills is taking the place of the great carpenter who hews. 2. If a man takes the place of the great carpenter who hews. if venture to re we seize them for will dare? who ment. are difficult to govern. is worth BEWARE OF STRENGTH.
The tender and the delicate are the companions of life. HEAVEN S REASON. The strong and the great stay below. 5. Therefore he who in arms is strong it is will not conquer.Canon of Reason and Virtue 127 2. 3. He depleteth the deficient in order to serve those who have abundance. Man s Reason is not so. . When a tree has grown strong doomed. Is not is Heaven s Reason. 77. Thus the hard and the strong are the companions of death. It de those who have abundance but pleteth completeth the deficient. Those who have abundance it depleteth. while they live are tender and supple. the grass as well as the trees. those who are deficient it augmenteth. The tender and the delicate stay above. lowly it lifts up. Such 3. Heaven s Reason truly like a bow? The high it brings stretching the down. When they die they are rigid and dry. The ten thousand things. 1. 4. 2.
but no one will practise it.". In the world nothing is tenderer and more delicate than water. Therefore the holy man says: ". As king of the empire 4. we are hailing. and does he ever show any anxiety to display his excellence? 78. Where is he who would have abun who acts dance for serving the world? 5. In the world there is no one who does not know it. True words seem paradoxical.128 Canon of Reason and Virtue 4. it is the holy man but claims not. it.Him who the country s sin makes his. The weak conquer the strong. Him who try s failing. Indeed. the curse bears of the coun We hail as priest at the great sacrifice. In at tacking the hard and the strong noth ing will surpass that herein takes 2. the tender conquer the rigid. 3. 1. merit he acquires but he does not dwell upon it. . There is nothing its place. TRUST IN FAITH.
1. In a small country with few people be aldermen and mayors who are possessed of power over men but would not use it. Those who have virtue at tend to their obligations those who have . 1. 2 Induce people to return to [the old custom of] knotted cords and to use them [in the place of writing]. can this be made good? 2. to de- . naturally some hatred will remain. they should find no occasion to don them.Canon of Reason and Virtue 79. Although they had armours and weapons. a great hatred is When reconciled. How Therefore the sage keeps the obli gations of his contract and exacts not from others. REMAINING IN ISOLATION. Induce people to grieve at death but do not cause them to move let there to a distance. Heaven s Reason shows no prefer ence but always assists the good man. 80. 3. they should find no occa sion to ride in them. no virtue attend to their claims. 129 KEEP YOUR OBLIGATIONS. Although they had ships and carriages.
The wise are not learned. the holy man s Reason is to accomplish but not to strive. pleas ant words are not true. and to rejoice in their customs: then in a neighboring state within sight. 3. The holy man hoards not. 81. the voices of the cocks and dogs would be within hearing. yet the people might grow old and another. Heaven s Reason is to benefit but not to injure. to be proud of their clothes. the more he owns himself. 1. the learned are not wise. the more will he himself lay up an abun dance. The more 2. he does for others. to be content with their homes. True words are not pleasant. the contentious are not good. The good are not contentious. . The more he gives to others. die before they visited one PROPOUNDING THE ESSENTIAL.130 Canon of Reason and Virtue light in their food.
COMMENTS AND ALTERNATIVE
The phrase yiu ming,
(or simply ming, "name") means that which the definition of a name involves, and as such the term represents the ac
tualized types of things. ming, "not name" or "the
corresponds to Plato s conception of the prototype of things before they have been actualized. Lao-tze speaks with reverence of the Unnamable, 1 which
closely corresponds to the of Western mystics.
ently refer to the
two things" appar Unnamable and the
See also Chapters 32 and
Canon of Reason and Virtue
Namable" is in Spinoza s language natura naturata, while "the Unnamable" is natura naturans. In either system the
are one; they are two aspects of one and the same thing which in Laotze s taoism is the Tao and in Spinoza s cosmotheism is God as the eternal sub
The first sentence reads literally, "Un der the heavens [i. e., all over the world, or everywhere] all know [i. e., it is ob
beauty acts beauty The verb
taken in the same sense as
only be used in
a display or
We deem our present rendering an im provement on our former version. According to a notion of the early Christians the devil would like to play
the part of God, as Tertullian says, Satanas affectat sacramenta Dei. On Lao-tze s theory the nature of the devil consists exactly in the attempt of acting the part of God.
The close interrelation of goodness with badness and of beauty with ugli ness suggests the quotation on opposites.
It sets forth
the coexistence of
contrasts, and their mutual dependence is more obvious to the Chinese than to other nations, because in their wordcombinations they use compounds of contrasts to denote what is common in both. Thus a combination of the words and "not to means the strug for or the bread life, question; "the gle and the means low" altitude; high "much and little" means quantity, etc. But what originally seems to have been
the trivial observation of a grammarschool teacher acquires a philosophical
meaning when commented upon by Laotze.
In former editions we have translated the verb shang by its common meaning exalt," but here it is obviously a re
The word fu means
Canon of Reason and Virtue
for according to Chinese ideas the soul has its seat in the stomach.
The idea that the belly is the noblest part of the body where tender senti
ments dwell was quite common among early peoples. Thus, e. g. the Hebrew ra-
khamim, 2 which originally means
used in the sense of "com In Japan that death passion" and was considered most worthy in which
the first attack upon life was made upon the seat of the properly psychic facul ties; therefore the victim of hara-kiri rips open his belly and is then beheaded by his best friend so as to shorten the
pain of death. It is, however, quite prob able that Lao-tze in this connection re
ally means what he literally says, viz., that the holy man, when he governs,
empties the people s hearts of desires, but takes care of their bodily wants, i. e., their stomachs and strength ens their bones." The word kuh might be translated (as
Comments 135 in former editions) ". trans ".pa a Chinese term which means triarch. If that be so. term which means the worry of world". CHAPTER The word tsung? lates 4.". if ch an means the troubles of life. liness.dust.backbone. To make a man strong-boned means to render him steady in character. the Lord on High.bones.".arch-father. or first ancestor.". is a Buddhist The word ch an. we offer the following alternate translation of the verse in which the word occurs: . but in the original it reads ". and it is antedates Buddhism and possible that this usage that the word was current in the same sense in the time of Lao-tze. family.". ". I prefer to trans late the passage literally in all its rough ness and will leave the interpretation of it to the reader.". and is founder of the frequently used with ref erence to Shang Ti. in the sense of God. the travailing of the world.
". We learn from the commentators that . CHAPTER 5. tangles unravel It will dim its own radiance will blunt its its .136 Canon of Reason and Virtue ". to him the hundred fami lies are like straw dogs. In former editions the translator ac cepted the following version: ".It Will own sharpness. The holy man exhibits no benevolence.Heaven and earth exhibit no benevolence. Does that mean that heaven and earth have a mode of procedure of their own that their actions can not be measured by the usual standard of human benevo lence? May we assume that human lives . serve their purpose best if they become sacrifices just as strawdogs are offered on the altars of heaven and earth? This solution can neither be proved nor re futed. And conform to its travail. The same holds good in Chapter where the same verse is quoted 56. but it seems too modern.". to them the ten thousand things are like straw dogs.
but the first sentence may be conditional and then the latter rendering which has been adopted by Harlez would be correct. they and the Tao were endowed with senti ment.". that and also the sage were without benevo to say that ". but I am now inclined to think that he was more of mystic than a philosopher. and he recognized in the dispensation of the world a paternal and loving providence.Comments 137 straw dogs are burned in place of living dogs as sacrifices to heaven and earth.if would treat the people like straw dogs. treats all with an impartial indifference as people sun rise on the evil and makes his God the on good (compare Chapter 79). ".heaven and earth". But Lao-tze might as well have meant the heaven and earth very opposite. . The question is whether Lao-tze did or did not believe that heaven and earth lence. The Chinese text seems to favor the former interpretation. and so the reference to them means treatment without regard or considera It is possible that Lao-tze meant tion. An answer will be difficult if not impossible.
called t ai c/z/. In Chapter 28.. wu chi. or to use 4 ultimate.ten thousand things". of desire. ". The ". owe their characters to dif ferent mixtures of these two elementary is The former principles. represented by earth. the former by the moon. Lao-tze calls this same .". female. the latter by heaven. Compare also page 167 in this book. e. light 4 and active. ".138 Canon of Reason and Virtue The phrase ". (i. the latter by the sun. passive. and the emptiness of heaven is to him an example of the emptiness which man ought to possess.". According to Chinese notions the primordial essence. dark. male.the infinite. all existences in the world). has a deeper meaning to the Chinese than to us. The former is negative.heaven and earth". For further details see Chinese Philosophy. By empti ness Lao-tze understands the absence of personal ambition. 2. pages 24-34. Emptiness is one of the virtues praised by Lao-tze. the lat ter is positive. divided itself into two principles called Yin and Yang (men tioned in Chapter 42).the great Ultimate.
People believed that its source was deep and sprang from the root of heaven and earth.Who nourishes spirituality does not .". verse quoted in this chapter seems the inscription over a fountain be to which it was claimed never ran dry. ". The Manchu version translates the word ku. thus: die.many words.fulsome talk". The Chinese text reads to yen.". valley. i.nourish which makes a very good sense for ing. which acquires a deep and peculiar meaning in the context by comparing ".the doing of the (wei wu wei). Lao-tze concludes the chapter with a homely saying concerning gossip. gossip.". liter not-doing". CHAPTER The 6. to the emptiness of heaven. it is ". e.. ". the first line. ally.Comments his 139 own phrase. as a verb by ". which would explain that its sup In using this inexhaustible. was ply looks Lao-tze upon the spring quotation as an emblem of the mysterious nature of the Tao.
. Dr.Who nourishes the soul will not die.L esprit vivifiant ne meurt pas.mysterious woman".to ku (valley) as a verb. mean feed. to nourish. See his French-Chinese Dictionary. 447.The quickening spirit never dies. = life of the 5 main artery is called the root p. A literal translation would read thus: ". For ever and aye it abides [And] its use is without effort.". to quicken.". ac ing cording to all dictionaries. It is called the The Manchu logical meaning translator finds a physio in this chapter. me Berthold Laufer has kindly furnished with a translation of it as follows: ". mysterious woman. is quite com mon in Chinese.140 Canon of Reason and Virtue of The use ".". This is called the life of the main artery Chinese yiien p in. The mysterious woman s gate Is called of heaven and earth the root. (Kuhen-i ergen The door of the ".). But we might as well interpret ku as an adjective or participle and translate (with Couvreur) 5 : ".
". and we can scarcely be extension. is Dr. The character de picts the side portions of the face.Lasting if.It strange that the Chinese words for heaven and earth* which otherwise are literalfy translated. The word rh is a copula often trans lated ". Laufer adds: are here rendered by the verbal nouns and fusembure. CHAPTER 9. and so it is daily verified again and again in business. used . ".".". mistaken when we translate Literally: ". in politics and in private life. 6 ".". the latter increasing. thus denoting something added or an The sense of the chapter de pends on the grammatical significance of this word.Grasp to preserved like. the former banjibure creating. the whiskers.Comments 141 of procreation and increase. or ". As if pre served for all eternity. This is a truth which few learn.Allzu A German proverb says : scharf macht schartig. or the bristles of an animal.but.and". it is inexhaustible in its practical 6 application. inexhaustible. ".".
". pp. ". CHAPTER The text of the 10.". verbs.". 7 For an explanation of the text see ".". sion an improvement. . and pao ". Ng Poon Chew writes: ". first two sentences is we and deem our present ver difficult. Mr.The first two characters are question as to that. The Manchu version (as Dr. there is no is The word poh commonly understood by the Chinese to be the passive half of the human soul equivalent to yin in nature.to guard. ix-x in the second issue of Lao-Tze s Tao-Teh-King.to examine. will you be able long to guard [your position] The verb means scheme. to defend. to protect. to jui the = ?".142 Canon of Reason and Virtue full. 7 Literally the be ginning seems to read thus: ". to main tain. is it not likely stopped? Scheme to being sharp.Emen dations and Comments. scrutinize.". Laufer informs me) in agreement with a Chi nese quotation of this passage by Huai Nan Tze takes all these sentences as queries.Being in sistent in disciplining the sense soul.
by diminishing the material. but by select ing some parts and omitting others. 12. All the notes a noise. CHAPTER The meaning this chapter enunciated in Chapter 11. says in his Works and Days N^TTtot ovS ".ros. constitutes their worth. as well as the worth of life.Comments 143 CHAPTER 11. The utility of things.Foolish : tcratriv TrAe ov rjfAurv 7rai&. by moderation and by discrete elimination. Things are shaped by carving. while a few of them in . for they That half than the whole know not is much greater. a discrete selec tion will carries of the verses quoted in out the principle make make a picture.less is more. All the colors blind you.". Thus it appears that the part in this case would be greater than the whole. the non-existent. they are. is attained not by having everything in completion and in fulness.". or to state the same truth briefly ".gt. As Hesiod (30) ocra&. Accordingly that which is no longer there. by tak ing away.gt.
". (See also Chapter no In former editions the quotation thus: ". human conduct * * * The phrase and not to the translation ". The The ". ". the . not acts are called in the eye. All the tastes mixed together are offensive.144 Canon of Reason and Virtue proper succession make a melody. but a choice of them is pleasant.". Objects of prize make bad. The outer and the inner Chapter 38 the flower and the fruit. and hunting will human hearts turn mad.The we have translated five colors the human eye human will blind. five tastes human mouth of fend. Such is Lao-tze s method of teaching that the form of things is more impor tant than substance.he outer".acts attends to the inner reads in a literal the stomach.".Racing five notes the the ear will rend.
Comments former being the mere show. understanding that it is a source of ". as . In the ". to body as is based and on an idea trouble anxiety which also plays an important part in his ".Questions of King Milinda". the the true import of life.rank". p. is worthy of the trust. (Milindapanha) the Buddhist saint Nagasena says: ". and the body ought to be treated like a wound which is the source of pain.great heartache. Buddhism in Translations. We attend to it without loving it.".high the a source of great office". So long as man lives in his bodily existence he is subject to anxiety. The comparison of or ". Buddhism. 145 latter CHAPTER The 13. 423). ruler or prime minister who at tends to the government as he attends to own body. (Warren. Buddhist philosophyexplains that the cause of all earthly trouble is due to the body.They who have retired from the world take care of their bodies as though they were wounds with out thereby becoming attached to them".
and It purely relational in all things. The last sentence of this chapter has been omitted because. ac it cordingly is ". the cosmic law. . it cannot be touched. it cannot be heard. the world-order which moulds all things. is one and the same throughout.soundless". with the exception of one word. 14. and the word ". such as is used in China for stringing up coins. here translated denotes the state of a shy horse.". ". it is a literal repetition of the preceding sentence and seems to have slipped into the text by a copyist s mistake. CHAPTER This chapter reasons. character ching.colorless. The ". It is not perceptible to the senses.heartache".". the divine Reason. It is the Unnamable.trembling.146 Canon of Reason and Virtue live in the flesh soon as he ceases to is he no more troubled. cannot be seen.bodiless.". shows a heart with a cord above it. the ". but this supersensible something. is remarkable for several Lao-tze speaks of the Tao and describes it by saying what it is not.
fytt oAAoj? yap ovv TO ye dX^^cs TC Kat irepl aA^detas Aeyovra 8e (SSe.". It is strange that Lao-tze s description of the Tao finds an almost literal parallel in the Phaedrus where Plato speaks of the presence of a being in the over-heaven.lt. without shape and impalpable.Comments Both its beginning and wrapped in obscurity. Lao-tze formless.artcrTos Kat ava^s Oearr) ova-La vaJ* OVTWS ovcra KvfitpvyTrj p. truly existent.. a being not perceptible to the senses and to be apprehended only by the mind.pilot of the soul.pure form". Tov Se VTTtpovpdviov TOTTOV ovrc TIS v/xviycre TTOL7]TY)&..a Trcpt rjv t TO T^ TOTTOV. the ". and as such it is equivalent to the Buddist term arupo. ".rjTeov eiTreTv /cat dcr^(Ty/i. in the supercelestial place.6v&. 147 its end are s expression. 8 without color. yei/os TOVTOV lx T 1 .: ww TtoV TT^Se OVTC 7TO0* VfJLVTJOT^L KttT* dtaV. it means the form which possesses no bodily shape. e. Plato says: i.the form of the corresponds pretty closely to Kant s term ".lt.". TO\p. This presence is described as an essence.
In addition to this surprising similar ity between Lao-tze s very words and the thoughts of a philosopher who lived about 200 years after him in ancient .148 Canon of Reason and Virtue In Jowett s translation this reads: the heaven which is above the ". pag. has absolutely the The same meaning as the Chinese. the color less.". the Greek ". similarity with Lao-tze is obvious. who is the pilot of the soul.".Of heavens. viz. The Latin version of the most impor tant part of the passage reads thus : ".Nam essentia vere existens. the second term. non-material or having no body. sine colore.". the intangible essence visible only to mind. what earthly poet ever did or ever will sing worthily? It is such as I shall describe.sound only or is omitted. sine tactu". for I must dare to speak the truth.". the formless. Phaedrus. less.shapeless.. when truth is my theme. in Chinese ". 247. sine figura.inaudible. while ". There abides the very being with which true knowledge is concerned.
but it is not countenanced by any other sinologist of standing. and there is no see in it a curious need to refute it. Victor von Strauss. we must point out another strange coin cidence.soundless". and ". reverses the statement by saying that in its upper . read in Chinese i. and his theory was accepted by many others who for some reason or other be lieved that there ought to have been a mysterious prehistoric connection be tween the Chinese and the Israelites. * * Liquids generally are clear at the top and sediments settle at the bottom. We * though quite remarkable coincidence. ". a distant country which at that time was in no connection with China.colorless. and the French scholar Abel Remusat saw in this com bination of Chinese characters the cor responding three Hebrew letters.".incorporeal. Heh. using the simile.". The theory has found the support of a German translator of Lao-tze s book.Comments 149 Greece. indicating the name Jehovah. ki. ". a confessed mystic. Vav. Jod. The three words. but here Lao-tze. wei.
The simple mind of a child finds no difficulty in understanding the mean ing of the Tao while a scholar be able to fathom its depth.150 Canon of Reason and Virtue is not clear and in its lower strata it is not obscure. but the superficial appli cations obscure them by complexity. If we had not to deal with an author like Lao-tze portion the Tao who loves to mystify we might assume in the text. alluding to the Chi- . Lao-tze says that the sages of yore behave like guests. but as the statement stands it reminds us of St. CHAPTER 15. some mistake Augustine s when he compares description of Christianity religious truth to an immeasurable ocean in whose waters a lamb may wade. also We may not may say that the deeper problems of philosophy are in their general aspect quite simple. Lao-tze frequently quotes proverbs of the people and sayings of his predeces sors. while an elephant must swim. Of the latter he has a very high opinion which he here expresses.
the ocean river. and the most lowly valley will be come the main stream. of an entire system with many tribu taries. and afterwards may find out that his view is only one aspect and there is more to it. They empty because they make no and show. Further.Comments 151 nese custom for guests to be always re served and modest. without the polish of artful elegance. Like melting ice the old masters have more depth than the surface shows. they are like the valley. think he has fathomed its meaning. .rough wood.". So a search for truth can never be com pleted. which means that their words admit o more than one interpretation and fre quently conceal a deeper meaning. the sages are simple. which are is are Lao-tze s favorite simile to indicate an attitude of lowliness. In the same sense the Tao is called elusive because it has never been grasped in its A philosopher may significance. and thus full they compared to ". The more lowly a river flows the larger and broader will it be. They are elusive as the Tao is elusive (see Chapter 21).
he is ". The last three words read in literal translation ".". and the complete. which may mean that is ". better be translated: difficult ". Happily the passage is not of much consequence.".". Finally the two last words may be synonyms. three may mean. or we may trans is not fashionable and yet per late.Without fect. . as we have trans ity.". natural or artificial means of recuperating his vital But it may mean.".without being renewed and completed.he which would imply that the can sage grow old without standing in need of rejuvenescence. ". sentence of this chapter is and had perhaps being fashionable he is per which would mean he is ". fect". formed.though not in style as he ought to be..without being renewed he is to say. viz. ".not not newly of a modern fashion".without reform he is perfect.152 Canon of Reason and Virtue last The to interpret..not- new-perfected". and there is no great harm if we can not decide which interpreta tion is preferable. or ". lated it in a former edition. "."..
and Laotze s words remind us of Christ s warn ings against the self-righteousness of the Pharisees. Where the Tao obtains there is no need of preaching justice. e. CHAPTER The cian ethics 19. (2) benevolence and justice. parade them in words. for the vitrue of the Tao is spontaneous. with the very words. self. preserve purity. display which obtains in Confu is here condemned.Comments 153 CHAPTER 18. Confucian morality) is insufficient to ac complish these three things. ". Mind simplicity. Lessen diminish .Hold He advises: fast that which endures. Lao-tze wants us to aban don: (1) saintliness and prudence. (3) smartness and greed. and justice. filial piety and loyalty.".. desire. The men whose hearts are bare of these vir tues. He declares that culture (i. This chapter is directed against the Confucianist morality of filial piety. loy Lao-tze is disgusted alty.
". and it behooves women and girls to employ no other Lao-tze form of expressing assent. But there is a difference is and between bad and good. According to Con fucius conventional propriety is a great virtue. and it is very important that people reply according to the properly established modes of speaking. CHAPTER 20.What is the difference between *y ea anc* *y es ? There is none. is modest. There are two forms of affirmation in Chinese : One being pronounced wei. who like the Phar isees of the New Testament insist on external propriety more than on a re generation of the heart.learnedness". straightforward and manly it is proper for men and boys to use. the other. pronounced o. the literati. Lao-tze continues to criticize Confu cianism as represented by the learned ones. would not insist on the significance of such externalities. . in contrast to wisdom means the artificial scholarship of Confucian literati.154 Canon of Reason and Virtue The word ". ". and so he says.
recall : 20) ". This is not the natural state of things and ought to be avoided. and we can not read these lines without feeling com passion for the sage who differed so much from the rest of the world. forlorn among people who only thought of enjoying themselves. losopher makes reference A miah. foxes have holes. and the . the old phi to the preva lence of great disturbances which make Chinese Jere the people restless. In this chapter.Comments 155 In times of disorder lives are con stantly endangered and the people be come indifferent to death. Lao-tze s warning is illus trated in modern history by the French Revolution when the prisoners of the terrorist government actually joked about the guillotine and went to the place of execution with absolute uncon Similar conditions prevailed in cern. as well as further down (Chapters 72 and 74). China in the days of Lao-tze.The Christ s saying (Matt. he burst out into bitter lamentation. The fourth and eighth sections of this chapter viii.
The sense seems to be that the Tao is eternal. either in time or dignity. CHAPTER The in last 21. In this sense we have trans lated the passage in former editions: it ".Its we would pro two readings: hencx* P* name does not pass s all Lo! Here excellence . Literally the eight departs . Therefore it has been in the beginning of creation. is of all the first. Should fu.".".". two lines of the quoted verse Chapter 21 are obscure in the orig inal Chinese. which means words read : is first.It Thence 5 which means.Its name not the name does not depart lo! All things take start/ ". The difficulty lies in the meaning of the word anything that ". Thereby notes all first. however.156 Canon of Reason and Virtue birds of the air have nests. for its name never departs. have to be taken in the sense of excellence pose either of these ".Its fu. but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
". concluding sentence would read: do I know what is good in all things? Through IT. and by ".it It name is never vanishing heeds the good in everything.IT".".". ". Mr.".Hence Dr. CHAPTER 22.". ".". In other words: Reason is the standard of ex cellence.". we translate: ". Laufer translates: all one investigates good things. in chapter comprise a favorite term Lao-tze means of Lao-tze.". ".Whereby we and is good.the that the character fu ning. . means begin last The Manchu version follows the interpretation. The two this last words ". Ng Poon Chew favors the idea ".Reason. ".Its lay stress on the verb ytieh. if 157 we beholds.Comments or.Thereby which seems to mean: learn what in all things the ". Lao-tze here as in many other places quotes a sentiment from the sages of yore.through IT".
from him shall be taken away hath. however. to bewilder. that though Christ s Gospel agrees in spirit so well with Lao-tze s philosophy he states the very opposite to the sentiment of the last two lines. and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not.158 Canon of Reason and Virtue lines These beautiful remind us of ". (Matt. and ".crooked". such as crooked shall be made straight". xl. 4). to embarrass.to blind. 4) and ". It is strange. tively. Compare also the beatitude that those who mourn shall be comforted (Matt.". to even that he hath".The several Biblical sayings. may be taken in the physical sense as ".The bruised reed shall he not break". 12). to un- . xii. saying: ".For whosoever him shall be given. xiii. delude. 20). and also figura denoting those morally awry or wrong-doers.the distorted ones".a ".doubt.crushed". to The ". (Matt. (Is. v. character hwo shows heart". The Chinese words ch ti and ch iien here translated ". and ". the latter being the pho It means netic (hwo).
an excrescence. CHAPTER Mr. Medhurst translates the tence: ". See also Chapter 77. first sen who strad The translator trusts that the style o been greatly improved The first section has been made more terse. Yii shih.What is too little shall receive more. The word chui (a synonym of yii) denotes anything that is redundant.". lines of the quotation be interpreted to mean. ". in former editions translated fal of food. and is better interpreted as a surfeit of food. Further we have in former edi tions translated chui hing as ".Comments settle. what is too much shall be in a state of perplexity.grieve. 159 and we have translated last it by ". 24.excres cence in the system. or a wen.". means ".".of . dles stumbles.too much of food". and in the second this chapter has in this edition.".Who tiptoes totters.". might ". 1-3.". Compare the second section of this The two also chapter with Chapter 24. the sense comes out more clearly.
". but actually meant self-display likely that Lao-tze that the overdoing of too tze is like a wen in the face much and therefore disgusting.". only the negation pu is differently placed so as to produce a contrast. which is character ized by overdoing in politeness and is offensive to the the simple life.160 Canon of Reason and Virtue and hing is a peculiar word which lit or erally means walk. The lines here quoted are parallel to ter 23. may very well be understood in the sense of dying.to ily system. We in might translate chui hing ". The word fan means literally ". the lines in the second section of Chap The same words are used. 25.return.". and mean the of or the bod may way acting. ".to go. man who believes in The new interpretation is supported by the Manchu version.coming back.overdoing behavior. denoting ".". ". or almost anything it is else. and in order . ". CHAPTER The word shi.".". Laomay also think of Confucian super erogatory behavior.departing.
H. At any rate the bracketed portion is too trivial to come from the hand of Lao-tze. translated is a peculiar phrase which literally means ". or ".good". the latter in the double sense (literal and figurative) as used in English. The intermediate idea seems to be ". the great is our home.home.gravity.goodness. ". 26.". as verbs in the sense to consider as good..dignity. A.". ".". Section 5 seems to be a gloss which slipped into the text.". : distant beyond.".".heaviness".baggage wagon. the best translation for ". CHAPTER 27. is Lao-tze says ". CHAPTER The word tsz .".to respect". In Section 4 we have adopted an en tirely new interpretation. we con strue the two characters shan (words 6 and 14) denoting or ".Comments 161 to imitate the terse Chinese text.gravity. In following a suggestion of Prof. In our former edition it was translated ".having come back". and further . ". and translate ".Reason. Giles.
".". 68). to ". a good fighter is not pugnacious (Chap.multitudes.".".".a . to ".162 Canon of Reason and Virtue the characters shi (words 9 and 21) in their not as common meaning as ". which ". ". CHAPTER 28. by brightness and blackness. great principle can not be divided. we had it in former editions it is (though not wrong). Compare also Lao-tze s views about honoring the right in times of war and the left in times of peace (Chapter Manliness is not worth much un 31). and as a noun Lao-tze seems to mean that or a government which upholds great prin ciples and rules according to the maxims of the Tao can never do any harm.norm. and a good warrior is not warlike. In order to understand what Lao-tze means by manhood and womanhood.to regulate. The word chih means carve.educator. as ". by fame and shame. less tempered by womanliness. Professor Giles translates. form. we must bear in mind what has been said above in the explanation of Chapter 5 about the two principles Yin and Yang.law".
is invisible.doing the not-doing". have here a trinity of the negative qualities of the Tao just as in Chapter We 14. but in this .he natural development. noisy. mars". of the world is to ac quire hardness and strength. Lao-tze wants who makes.Comments 163 he interprets to mean. ". There . that it applies Emendations and (See universally. CHAPTER The world is 35. has rightly been compared to the French principle o laissez /a/re. CHAPTER The tendency 36. xxi-xxii. there are dainties to eat there are many distractions.) CHAPTER The doctrine of 29. but inexhaustible in its use. and the passing stranger stops. Compare also Chapter 42. inaudible. is music.. to Comments pp. Lao-Tze s Tao-Teh-King. although the two are not the same. to say here that we therefore should not interfere but let everything take the course of its ". is The Tao is tasteless.
the water. Justice benevolence. from CHAPTER is 38.) Lao-tze regarded acquaintance with weapons as an unnatural condition which would prove fatal to the people. and rather remain tender and weak.164 Canon of Reason and Virtue chapter the sage warns us to beware of these qualities. True or superior virtue is here called it does not make a ". second issue. because different from virtue and .Fishes can not be taken away from the water. (See Emendations and Comments to LaoTze s Tao-Teh-King.unvirtue". It is the nature of justice to act and enforce its pretensions. The people should weapons exist. scarcely know that On the authority of Professor Giles the last section of this chapter should read ". pages xvi-xvii.". just as fish must die when they are removed their natural element. Huai Nan Tze tells a story of a sover eign who lost his throne by transferring the power of punishment to his minister. The instruments of govern ment can not be delegated to others.
165 it does not ". It is but ". it is shoddy. or ".".acts and makes pretensions.) bygone tioned further on in this chapter is a characteristic feature of Confucian eth ". and so It is ob ". this tradition alism is not commendable.".. men which is the knowledge". A is difference between virtue and justice that justice doling out punishments must make a show of its power. . times Traditionalism (ts ien shih.Comments show of virtue .act virtue. Lao-tze says that this re spect for bygone times.premature".".of ics.quickwittedness". meaning thereby that it makes a display or show of virtue. and translated ". but we must bear in mind that we have before us a criticism of Confucian ethics with its rules of propriety based upon a rev erence for the past.early". In former editions I took ts ien in the sense of ". clinging tenaciously to tradition. vious that here the Confucian concep tion of virtue is criticised for the rea son that it is always in evidence and is therefore inferior.the flower of reason.
but it a definite com bination of its parts.". Plato scholars will note that the famous dialogue ".Greatest Ta fang wu square has no corner". and . may fitly be compared with Lao-tze s exposi tion of the nature of oneness.) should be compared with the same sentiment in Chapter 45.greatest straightness seems (literally. Lao-tze. ta chih joh ch ii (". the poet ical portion of which sounds like a phil osophical rhapsody. is also used in the Buddhist book. CHAPTER The 42.Questions of King Miwritten several centuries after linda. CHAPTER 39.Parmenides. The simile that the carriage does not consist of its parts.166 Canon of Reason and Virtue it it parades morality but does not con tain the fruit. ". discussing the problem of the one and the many.". subject of oneness or unity treated in Chapter 39 is here continued. * * * 7. The yii last line in section ". curved".).
viz. and 68. last word. or earth.. $.Comments 167 unity is represented as the product of the Tao or Reason. 138 and compare Giles s Dictionary. the twohood of Yang. occurs three times in our . Oneness pro or ultimate. the ultimate. and Yin. in philosophical systems and in many religions including Christianity. The Chinese idea of trinity is based on the notion that there are two opposed principles. which have originated. Ch i. breath. and from all this trinity of Yang. Between heaven and earth is the air. Yang and Yin. Incidentally we must warn the reader that chi. 2 859. 1 is quite differ ent from ch i. as Lao-tze explains. Yin and Ch i things are derived. the breath of life. The part trinity idea plays an important in human thought almost every where. or heaven. 2 $ Chi is used by Lao-tze in its ordinary sense in Chapter 16. breath. For the philosophical terms t ai chi and wu chi see p. the the absolute. from a primordial oneness. called by Cheu-tze later philosophers Chi. and other duces by differentiation a twohood. Ch i. 1 No.
". The ". The word kwa.vital in Chapter 10.not modest expression in which the speaker refers to himself.insignificant". mean. and the latter ".".little". .a ".". lonely.breath. meaning literally ". which may justly be considered an ade quate equivalent for the Chinese kwa. word is also transcribed k i. (2) translated ". as a kwa. It serves so commonly as an equivalent for the in Sze ma Tsien s text: (1) translated biography of Lao-tze.".your humble servant. the former fatherless son. a Chinese view of politeness is also used ". or as the Germans say.or The words ku kwa. and in this sense the emperor has been called the ".airs". who is solitary. See Giles s Dictionary No.168 Canon of Reason and Virtue ". with in which agreement "..".lonely. The term pu ku is used in the same sense as worthy.lonely". as one who stands aloof. and (3) ". peerless and with out equal. But the original meaning is still prominent in the term and so we may look upon Lao-tze s use of the word as a pun which he uses as a peg upon which to hang a lesson. here translated phaned.". in Chap ter 42.lonely one". in the sense of ". 1064. meine Wenigkeit. and has the meaning of ". ity".
but the literal reading of the last six words runs thus: shall do the doctrine s father. ". and yet he disclaims originality he con stantly quotes his predecessors. pictures a hand authority. and .". It is with a rod and means fatherly or ".".". However the former words ku kwa denote the em peror as a peerless person. ".I The word father.".Comments 169 pronoun o the first person that even the emperor does not scorn it.". teach others have but in Chapter 15 make them intelligible. loving.father. * * * Lao-tze is certainly an original thinker .father". and so he endeavors to also. the man who has no equal. fu.What taught he says that they are too profound to be understood.rule. into their say He I ". the most common word for ".expound the doctrine s foundation. own thoughts says here. but he reads his ings. * * * The chapter concludes with a state ment which tradition explains as mean ing that he will ". the only one of his kind.
". to exemplify in doctrine s father. to exemplify. do. my (i. ".Greatest 45. to do the will of. The word ". the CHAPTER ". Literally the second quotation reads: straightness is like a curve. ".".But rendering father I life the will of the or in a more literal will obey the doctrine s Tao).to wei. and so we explain the passage to mean.". Greatest eloquence ing. I mean obey. to Obviously it means the actual doing. Cf. is like stammer The first line reminds us of modern geometry where the straight line may be regarded as a curve of an infinitely small curvature. e.170 Canon of Reason and Virtue ought to be so translated unless weighty reasons speak against it. . note on Chapter 41.to tualize. to ac ".". which leads to trouble and an unnatural death. not the purely theoretical ex pounding."..While the mass of mankind are violent and self-willed. Greatest skill is like awkwardness. may mean commonly translated live up to.
which means that certain truths can be stated a priori. is a Chi nese term which means the people of a district. viz.one hundred families". we can analyze the sun s light by spectrum analysis. and the contrast requires the sense that the saint has not the heart as other people have. we make an We CHAPTER 49. which means a heart of his own. The word shang means ".Comments 171 CHAPTER 47. etc. In order to know the sun s chemical composition we need not go to the sun.. Whether or not Lao-tze meant it. The ". he here endorses Kant s doctrine of the a priori. It is not the globe trotter who knows man kind. need not stretch a tape line to the moon to measure its distance from the earth.constant. even before actual experience.. common". . usual. but the thinker. ordinary. we can calculate it by the methods o an a priori science (trigonometry).
to and it seemed quite probable that this was the original reading.to See the Emendations and Comments to the second issue of the author s Lao-Tze s TaoTeh-King.". by its homophone.". The change from teh. ".to obtain.virtue. vii. ". makes good sense and might even suggest itself as the most appropriate text emendation.". On the ground of this consideration we obmight prefer the reading teh. could naturally and at an early date have tain.". the mistake could easily have been perpetuated in the text.". Once intro duced. to teh. While pon dering over the meaning of these two characters the translator discovered two versions 9 which replace the word teh. ".". ". 9 . ". obtain. as it is trivial. third sentence reads in the Chinese text as translated in ".172 Canon of Reason and Virtue The second section of this chapter Its contains a difficulty in the text. occurred so frequently. The word teh. teh. our former editions. originated through a careless scribe in a book where the word teh.to ".virtue.virtue.. p.Virtue is good". ob ". but this does not make good sense.
".". e. thus (i.virtue. e. not teh.Comments tain. The Manchu translator had before him a text which read teh. the faithful or the faithless. the meet with goodness.". the also meet with faith. 173 and propose to translate the pas : sage thus ". In other words. He does not admit any utili This tarian argument and lays down the rule follows the Tao. if we want to actual ize the ideal of goodness. tze. obtain goodness tue. for is the obvious meaning of Laohe here expresses his view of the way a man can become truly good and faithful. we must meet not only the good with goodness but the bad also with goodness.) faithless I I actualize vir The faithful I meet with faith. I obtain faith I actualize faith). in order to actualize the ideal of faith. He can be truly good and truly faithful only if he is good and faithful to all. thus I (i.. . whether he has to deal with the good or the notfor a man who good..The bad I also good I meet with goodness. ". and we must meet not only the faithful with faith but the faithless also with faith.
". We must grant.Going forth is life. and further down.174 Canon of Reason and Virtue but he construes teh.he who born must objectionable mainly because trivial for Lao-tze it is too The second paragraph is in this chapter obscure and seems beyond hope of . however. we must virtue s is virtue s ". must return in pretation that is who is death.". The first line of this chapter contains much food for thought. home is death.obtain. that we ". CHAPTER 50. enters life but this inter die. but we improved the diction by translating ".virtue.". ". home death. as a genitive.".".". faith.That ".That goodness. In our first edition we have translated these four words by ". is After some hesitation we have finally adopted the interpretation of the Manchu version.He might translate.".". translate. ". If he is right. ".Abroad cling to the believe we have in in life. We coming still same meaning.
Ng Poon Chew for an explanation and he writes: ". might accord ing to Chinese folklore mean the five senses and the eight apertures which make thirteen avenues of life. s Death i. ". This may mean either ten plus three. its meaning is no clearer to me . ".. There he declares that the sage who keeps these openings closed will to the end of his life remain safe.Comments making good tion reads: ". and his view becomes somewhat probable 52.. when we bear in mind Chapter where Lao-tze speaks of the mouth and the sense-gates as beset with danger.". This interpretation is based on the view of the commentator Lu Tze who may be right.thirteen". I applied to Mr. ". in ten.".thirteen be cor retainers". viz. e. A followers [are] ten have three s followers [are] ten have three In man s life the moving to death places are also ten have three.Life 175 literal transla sense. If the translation rect.three thirteen.The passage is very vague and ob scure. or of ten take three.
There is but one who is above life and death.pursuer.the And we would answer. tenth? Three in ten in ten are anxious to live. we interpret the word fu. The words shi yiu san. follower.176 Canon of Reason and Virtue than to you. In this case ".". they all live life s in tensity. may mean here ".three in ten.ten have three. have chosen the former interpre tation which seems to us the most prob able. and other three in ten walk blindly toward death. . three somehow are doomed to death.".thirteen".". it is man who bases his life on goodness. Three times three in ten make nine. where is the ". We * * * The last section of this chapter finds a striking parallel in Plato s Phaedrus. in the sense of ".". If we translate ".". or ".". but do not claim to have solved the difficulty. I have consulted a few good Chinese scholars and they were all baffled. and this is the man who bases his life on goodness. retainer. ". the reader will naturally ask.three out of ten.footman.
Integer vitae.Comments in the 177 same book and on the same pagina (248) that contains the reference to the supercelestial being which is colorless and shapeless. The passage in Plato reads: ". 10 The same idea is expressed in the famous ode of Horace. * * * ". Are these coincidences between Plato and Lao-tze accidental or are we to look upon them as echoes of a notion which in both the West and East have been in herited from a distant prehistoric past? The latter is certainly not improbable. quoted above in our com ments on Chapter 14. and if attaining always is always un harmed.There is a law of destiny that the soul which attains any vision of truth in company with a god is pre served from harm until the next period. here translates the word 10 Jowett s translation. that a truly good man is miraculously protected in danger is not uncommon in folktales and appears to The belief have been an integral part of primitive religion.Reality". .".
and this is called here profound identifica ". like so many other pas sages.". The character sh ". his dust or the troubles of his bodily life. The sage identifies himself with the mor tal coil he is heir to.178 Canon of Reason and Virtue ". The sage fears to be or to appear or to claim too much. He avoids self* aggrandizement.expansion".the ten thousand things which means the entire world. and commonly occurs in the phrase ".". CHAPTER 54.a tion. is a synonym of wei in the sense o asser tion. CHAPTER The quotation ter 4. with ch an. This chapter. Even in the lowliness of his con- . tze believes that wherever the Tao is Laoob served. is directed against the Confucianists who in their ethics insist on the ritual of ancestral sacrifices. 56.concrete things. is the same as in Chap only here it is attributed to the sage. filial piety and sacrificial cele brations will be spontaneous. wuh. in the former place to the Tao.
CHAPTER When. same chap more general sense as CHAPTER Whatever the chapter first it is 60. but in the ter he uses the term Tao ". oddly expressed. sentence of this may mean. we observe that political disorder produces restlessness among the people and in its wake come start Hamlet says. The ".". The result is that ghosts will spook and the gods will be angry.Comments dition the sage feels his man of the Tao. ". as stated in Chapter 60. as 57. 179 own dignity as a This same idea has produced the con ception of the god-man in Christianity as well as in pagan religions.the time is out of joint. CHAPTER 59.mother of the commonwealth". . is commonly interpreted to be thrift. The people are frightened and superstition dominates their minds.way. It is not impossible that Lao-tze means in the the Tao or Reason. ling events.".
The same idea is expressed in the Eng con lish saying that by stooping one It is also echoed in the quers. means the same gut nor scale them. the traditional explanation in brackets. meddle with their In ancient times ghosts were feared.neither fish. For instance Prussia took the . practice none. See Chapter 57.180 Canon of Reason and Virtue a country as one and we have added One should govern would fry small ". CHAPTER 61. or at least are believed to spook.". leave them alone and do not affairs. This chapter contains more wisdom than it seems to possess at first sight. New Testament where Jesus says that he who wishes to be the master of all should be their servant. which as the rule wei wu wei. do the not-doing. In an empire or confed eracy of states that state takes the lead which renders the greatest service to the others. i. practice.. where crimes keep the minds of the people in a state of fearful and unsettled expectancy. and ghosts begin to spook.
".". In the same way lost ascendency in downfall dates from the time when it ceased to serve the others and began to misuse its power. This policy which has proved successful and has repeatedly saved the Athens gained and Greece . ". .Comments lead in 181 Germany because through its sys tematic administration and well-organ ized army it offered protection and other advantages to the smaller states and so served their interests. CHAPTER 62.Requite hatred with virtue. the word teh. was pronounced by Lao-tze in plain terms two and a half millenniums ago. find. Since the loss of the thirteen American colonies England has adopted the same maxim of serving the interests of her depen dencies. its British empire from dismemberment.virtue. The proposition that ". ".". In the famous passage. reminds one of the New Testament verse.".Seek and ye shall CHAPTER 63. is ".when sought the Tao is obtained.
Love your enemies. commonly We grant that this is the meaning.to by ".likely". but we prefer a literal rendering. and if we take things easy in the beginning without thinking of the consequences we shall soon be involved in complications.". last is word here in translated ". Chinese wei. CHAPTER The ". or The terms literal ". is Likely apparently means what com is mon or usual.in terfere". and the unlikely. but it but it who is more logical and The sentence before the Rash promises are easily less paradoxical. The sentence recalls Christ s injunction. ". treat those means that we should hate us with justice and goodness. what unusual.". It is not so emphatic as the Christian saying.to 64.". last means: made. do". according to the rules of the Tao. act. and of ". . the eternal Reason. translations the are Chinese.goodness.182 Canon of Reason and Virtue translated ".unlikely".
A strictly correct literal translation should it ". but there a deeper sense in and certainly should not be inter preted in the sense of agnosticism. CHAPTER The passage able".know read the not-knowing. ". When as in other chapters the Tao is compared to a ".words have an he per sonifies Reason which makes the con ception of Tao resemble Christian the ism. just Lao-tze says.". ancestor. ".". peatedly personified the Tao in spite of its abstract nature. and ".to 71. but we can not deny that in this atmosphere of abstract thought the ex pressions.mother".father". also 1 and 52). ". which . ". (Chapter 4) and the ". (Chapter 74). know the unknow it is a smooth and quite correct trans is lation. may be regarded as intentional similes.great Nevertheless carpenter".the Lord". a (Chapter 20.Comments 183 CHAPTER 70. the fact remains that Lao-tze has re ".ancestor".master". (Chapters 4 and 42). deeds have a master.
It is and seems to involve what European mystics call intuition and what is char acterized by St.unknowable".be means familiar with that state of mind where knowing (the noetic fac not the medium of our mental an expression of Lao-tze s in which the attitude of heart mysticism is considered superior to comprehension. but as a mental attitude. Paul as the ".hate. trans reads in the Chinese ".reject. We can retain if it understood in this sense.". We do not know the reason why heaven sometimes dooms a hero. lated in the text ". not as anything incomprehensible.". as the feeling of the ineffable. an x in cognition.peace that is passeth understanding.".".doom. the translation ". ulty) is life.184 Canon of Reason and Virtue ". . The connection between the first and second paragraphs consists in the idea that courage is sometimes successful and sometimes it brings harm. The word ".".
great 74. or as theists would undoubtedly say. a full burnt offering. carpenter who hews".Vengeance is Lord. is the Tao. and this is expressed in the quota tion of this chapter which thus bears a remarkable similarity to the Christian doctrine that Christ as the High Priest takes the sins of mankind upon his own . God. Chapter We mine.". and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eter nal. Compare our comment on ". to Shang Ti the Lord on High. 70. saith the CHAPTER The the 75. I will repay.He we xii.Comments 185 CHAPTER The ". read in the Bible. CHAPTER 78. 25) where that loveth his life shall lose it. In China the emperor takes the guilt of the whole nation upon himself when he brings his annual sacrifice.". last sentence finds its parallel in New read: Testament (John ".
which in its original mean means the debit side. ch eh. and right side of the contract table contained the claims. The ing denotes ".". keeps the original reads. The priest according to the primitive custom speaks in the name of the sacrificial animal. may even be accused of reactionary ten dencies. for he is ready to abandon the .The holy man tso.left. enacted. if not more easily than.that ". contract".". is bent on preaching that the Tao can be actualized in primitive conditions as well as. Lao-tze is not in favor of progress. CHAPTER The ". in a highly complicated state of civilization. but the sim He ple life of simple-minded people.186 Canon of Reason and Virtue Here is shoulders. His ideal is not the luxury of wealth and power and learnedness. and the sacrificial animal represents the god himself. another coincidence of the East with the West. 79. left (tso) of ". and then which can be CHAPTER He 80.to go through".
purity. quipu. but even here where he is mis taken. Lao-tze will scarcely find followers for his proposal to revert to primitive con ditions. in favor of the prehistoric mode of keeping memo randa by knotted cords (chieh shing). there is a truth at the bottom of his thought. or as they are now called with an American name. and a pretentious display of piety supplants spect for parents. arrogant. It is the ideal of a sim ple life.Comments 187 advance made by his predecessors up to his own time and give up the practice of writing on bamboo slips. and lux urious. so much preached and so little practised in our days. hon esty and faith. the new generation is filled with desires. Learnedness takes the place of wisdom. In place of the restful contentedness of former ages. People have become reckless. Progress not only brings new inventions but also loosens the old ideals of simplicity. filial spontaneous re . a method of assisting the memory by threads of various dyes knot ted in special ways.
It is the reproduction of a delicate drawing by Shoso Mishima. CONCLUSION. more than five hundred years before the Christian era and one hun dred years before the foundation of Bud dhism.The holy man wears wool and hides his jewels. yet he has anticipated in pithy sayings the best that has been taught by the noblest sages of mankind who came after him.188 Canon of Reason and Virtue OUR FRONTISPIECE. The kind reader who has patiently fin ished this little book will be amazed when he considers the depth of Lao-tze s thought. Socrates and Plato. Bud dha and Christ. Our frontispiece pictures Lao-tze in the traditional style as seated on an ox while about to travel westward. . The inscription is a quotation from Chapter 70 of the Tao Teh King which reads: ".". And this man lived in an age of decay.
16. tion s height". but claims not. 69. 10. (hsiien abyss). for serving. 1. = (wu y/u) 43. (wu hsiang chi hsiang) 14. is strong in. act. Holy man weakens.form in life. Absolute (wu cbi of the of ".] extravagance. 19.". ". = without to be.non-existence. Acts (we/). 31. Archfather.great limit). Who . versed in Reason. All-pervading.image ". (wu wuh). 22. 20. prize Reason. Adrift. 77. formless". 6. Ancients. 2.". 76.TABLE OF REFERENCES. 62. 3. saintli- Abroad ". 14.Non-assertion".not tion. etc. 20. 3. ". 77.mystery". Reason 34.abstrac See footnote on p. is. 14. to chapters of the text. Reason of the. (wu) 2. 63. 65. 50. 11. gained by giving. ". are unblest. 81 See also ". for wu wi r: ". Actual. 11. 41 . ness. Ancestor. 81. Arms. Threatening without. 35.". 40. . Benevolence. Ambition.". Assert non-assertion. Saying of the. Words have an. ". 4. (hii cbi). Abundance.not 14. [The numbers refer Abandon. form or image. 167. with non-asser (accomplishes) but strives not. 29. 38. learnedness. Synonyms are: (wu chwang cbi cbwang) and the imageless". 70. 28. Existence renders.
".little child. or ". Chastity. 23. 19. Greed a. By-paths. 58. Goodness in. Carriage. 18. See also ". Goodness showeth. 25. Wen Bones. 46. 16. The great. in Reason. Beginning. Reason knows her.Child. Breath (ch i).190 Canon of Reason and Virtue Astride makes no advance. 74. . The. 3.". 25. or ". People fond of. 38. Benevolence (/an). 8. 2. Being. A wondrous and complete. (3) ch ih tsz and (4) hai. No occasion to ride in. Heaven s Reason like a.". 28. of ignorance. 2. Body on (sAan). 2. Be and not be. Parts not a. 4. 20. Beings (wuA). Binders. Good. Awkward. . Beyond. 52. Reason is.to 52.". Business. not seen. Calamity. 24.". 14. 21. Like unto a. See also ". ". (2) tsz which is a verb and Child s estate.babe. 20. 80. Carpenter. Babe (ying rh also ". . child: (1) Ying rh. 77. infant child). 42.". 5. Abandon. like. 56. 53. his. Blunt his sharpness. 10. There Child. Reason includes all. Children.infant. 28. Beauty and ugliness. Catastrophe. The.Person. Reason is. Like unto a. 55. The holy man treats all ". 8. when Reason is obliterated. acts. 27. 41. the. 13. Like a little. 38. Decay of the. 49. man respects wealth. 14. need no knots. 27. Calm. are weak. Rank like the. 20. 10. Bellows. I alone am.Vitality.". Strengthens Bow. . 24. 39. 49 and the good. means treat like a child. 49. See Bad. 55 are four Chinese words used by Lao-tze which mean . Bodiless. 20 Badness and goodness.
with their homes. 12. call. through lowliness. Content. 3. Home in. Colors. Bound by. knows. Commonwealth s mother. 46. Colorless. 67. 2. Departing. 44. Crooked shall be straight. 75. of life and death. is rich. 23. Tower raised by heap ing. 76. 10. Hard and strong are companions of. Being. 64. Deficient The. Straightest lines resemble. Who is. Crafty do not dare to act. moulded into a vessel. Realm of. 14. 45. Who Creatures. Reason s.Table of References 191 Clay. ". Compassion. Sin and. Nobles come from. Contentious are not good. No (pu tai). Death. 59. The great I Depth not obscure. Cloudburst does not last. Conquers. 19. 31. 79. not. himself is mighty. 33. 32. Complete. 76. 46. 80. In duce people to grieve at. 39. 27. Deeds have a master. 39. Abstaining from. Who knows. One avoids. 42. 33. 50. The. without renewal. Five. 22. Culture is insufficient. 23. Danger. 1. 14. need no counting rack. 50. 78. See also ". 61. Curves. 77. Crossing a river. 73. Desire. 15. Good. 74. Clue. 81. Acts but.Vitiation. 33 .State. 15. 12.". . 11. and obligations. 70. Who. Counters. Glad to find. Not in. Courage leads to. Die a natural. 52. 14. 73. is content. Curse of the country s failing. People make light of. See also Companions. Clever and enlightened. Make people fear. 16. 77. but rejoices not. Claims. Courage leads to death.". 80. Reason is. 25. What kindles. 3. 25. Commoners.
Masters of yore. Desolation. Disorder. See also ". Who is found. 42. No. Five notes confound the. Dread. People. on merit. 20. Earth. 1. 19.192 Canon of Reason and Virtue Desires fewer. 25. 29. 44. When man clans decay through. 46. Forever lasteth his. Wife of the. death. Desireless. 57. is man s standard. What people. 21. My words are. Eloquence stammers. Holy man desires to be. 20. 78. Model of.Unlikely. 2. 64. with the. Doors and windows. Discontent a misery. 72. 13. Reason s nature is. Ear. . 74. Elusive. 2. 53. out. Compare ". Brings its own. Dust. Eluding. 11. 38. and difficult. 10. Viewing the. Disdain like a stone. does not. Diplomacy. Holy Distant. Makes a. 44. 77. 34.". Display. King of. Doom. 7. to take the. 63. 3. The. Duality. is lasting. Duration. Easy. 48. 28. Drinking. Difficult 63. Discipline of the senses.Outer. 45.". Dwell not in the external. Cutting Dotage leads to squandering. 70. No end of. Reason ever. 47. 20. to understand. Dreadful. 38. 53. Excessive in. Beginning 18. Holy man does not. Holy man. 56. Economy. Too light for the. 72. Empire. 61. Not fit Trusted Empties. 2. of. 15. 48. 26. 12. 9. and easy. 39. Differ from others. a divine vessel. 77. 67. One with its.
38. 32. will be The. Dwells not in the. 21. Bellows pear. 19. Who Enlightenment. Holy man abandons. = not See also ". Making Enlightened. in drinking. and fruit. 38. Extravagance. 40. (pu sz ley. Expanded. 63. abides. renders actual. 193 Granaries are. Holy man abandons. Eye. I must fear. Five colors. Five colors blind the. Practising the. S3.Lasting". Fower. 55. 19. Enemy. 17. 7. Envy forestalled. Excess.Solidity. The faithful I meet with. 60. Father. 53. Fame. 16. lasts). filled. End not seen. 13. 38. To acquire. (chiu 33. 20. Doctrine s. Knowing the. Semblance of. Goodness keepeth. 33. Faith. to. 4. spirit. 11. 29. 36. solid) that which. 42. should not escape from the deep. Foolish (yii = simple minded). 22. Who knows himself is. External. Filial piety. 3. Who knows his. 53. 19. 29. 27. Favor bodes disgrace.". 12. 12. beholds his smallness is. 18. Heaven. Masters of yore. 14. As you fry. 23. 74. 20. comes from non-existence (wu). 8. 69. The. Excels but rules not. 38. i. . 36. To know the harmonious is called the. 55. Existence. Expansion.Table of References Empty. 52. Way to. Executioner who kills. 49. light of the. People will return Fish. Eternal. 15. 16. Knowing the eternal is. 52. when family re lations no longer harmonize. If insufficient receives no faith. and ". (sbuh re liable. 59. Who dies) Val loses not his place. 16. Everlastingness. of Reason. notes and tastes. 28. Has been. I alone ap is. Reason is. Rash promises lack. Endures (ch atng = is eternal). Reason. 10.
79. 18. 63. 20. Multitudes are. I act as. 39. is 81. trating the. 14. 12. 2. and badness.194 Forlorn tue s. quarters. Gate. . 5. Gossip s talk. Reason ob literated.Jewels. Four things are. Gods will not harm. Not daring to come to the. 9. of heaven. Greed. 15. 67. 72. 69. The. and the bad. Royalty. Ghosts will not spook. Sense-. Grasp to the full. Masters of yore behave as. Give up. 76. Gem. 30. Pene 10. wagon". 20.baggage 65. loss. acts resolutely. 17. Good. 16. The greatest. 49. 38. 38. 19. God. 52. rulers. 20. Four. man. reference under ". Form. Happy. Gold and jewels. quarters. Neighbors in the. 26. Gates. arch-father of the ten thousand things. 15. 8. 25.".).augmenteth". things. Gives (yu). 67. translated ". The See same word 4. man does not respect multitudes. Gravity (lit. Govern without smartness. Like a. the small. Happiness and misery. Earth and Fruit and flower. 27. Heaven s Reason assists the. Hard and strong are companions of death. of the formless. All call me. 46. Canon of Reason and Virtue am I.". 56. See also ". the more he lays up. man. Guest. in 77. Heaven. Great. rivers. The more he. 58. 47. 41. 42. Make. Reason. I meet with. 60. 10. Fulness of rest.Tao. 44. 32. are great. ". 9. Out of the. 25. Goodness. Fulsome Gain and talk. Who Former and latter. The good resembleth water. 21. 35. 5. Vast vir holdeth fast to the great. No greater calamity than. Front. 60.
Harmony. not sick. See . Roy down alty renders. 73. in virtue. 34. Holy man (shang /an). 57. 19. to Reason. non-assertion. 81. . (fan). 73 Reason . the. 23 and earth. to Reason. . 6. 58. Rank bodes. Open endures. 77. of his own. embraces unity. Reason. rejected. and earth. 16. 32. Humaneness of. to non-existence. 70. of lust.". 34. hoards not. 26. 63. 21. Crooked will return (fu kwei). Heartache. when reconciled. 16. 14.Who the curse square not sharp. I contemplate. is foolish. 25. 9. 5. 10. 20. does not make himself great. 71. Space between. a saviour of men. (ju place to return (kwei). net. 5. empties people s hearts. to enlightenment. 72. 47 . Reason brings the. Holy man empties. says. 63. and earth. 79. (fu) Seeks a. 3: Holy man has not. 20.". 64. son. 3. also ". 60.". Heavenly. 68 . Returns (fu = kwei). 28. Hold fast. dwells in the world. Complying .Homeward. See also ". Reason of ". 7. 55. No. Heaven s. uses simplicity. 28. bears. acts but claims . Reason. Purifying 12. 25. 37 Racing will turn mad 13. 66. 49. 81.".Table of References 195 Harm. not. cannot be un remitting. 66. 81. 73. Emptying the. knows himself. 52. High. 49. 27 abandons excess. 2. standard is Rea with. Heart. 60. renders Reason-like. 29. Requite. Humaneness of. . Hatred. 5 and earth. 77. 41. 59. Home. wears wool. does not travel. 49. 47. . with virtue.I the. Root of. 79. 7 ing and closing the gates of. 39 and earth. By. The beyond I call. puts his person behind. has not heart of his own. No (fu kwei). Perfection of. way (Tao). attends to the inner. regards as difficult. is earth s standard.Danger. 50. Gods will not. Heaven. but proud. 73. to what will endure. ". 9. abides by non-assertion. desires to less. the. dwells above. treats all like children. 25 . 49. 77. says. will not harm. 64. 12. 22. he turneth coming back) in death. 22. practice 78. 14. be desiredoes not depart from gravity.
is. course. See also ". 40.". 49.Sameness. Reason s to its root. See ". The virtue of. 17. I dare not act as. Incurs no.Without Intuition. 80. Superior man. is. 5. Reason Infinite.Reason).Without Effort. Ineffable (wu mint). 69. Simplicity of. Cultivation of. People.Form. 61. 18. Humility. 64.Assert.". of. Itself (t*x ) Heaven Reason comet of. Traditionalism the beginning of. Reason s standard 25.n self-like). Image of the imageless. . Humaneness. ".Spontaneous.". not himself. 5. Homes. 21.Acts". 54. /an ~ self-like). 10. 4.Natural. 56. See also ".". 72. 75. Remaining in. Inaccessible.196 Canon of Reason and Virtue their. and ".". 38. Inner (stomach). See also ". 14. ". 80. See also ". 31.Absolute. 1. Isolation. Profound. 44. Ignorant am I. Intensity. The.". Ignorance. Hypocrisy when Reason Ice melting. and ". and ".In ".". 7$. Hunger. Hearts 23. 15. s. 50. right. the left and Horses. Holy man abandons. See also ". 12. Hurricane does not last.". Riding with four. Host. 57. 56. 29. Life s. Interfere (we/). It (.Independent.". Heaven and earth Humiliation. Intrinsic (tsz . returneth (fu twel) Honors. Hundred families. Effort.". 4. 62.". Content with Homeward. 54.". 73.Spontaneous".Natural. Indulgence. and ". 46. Independent (tsz trinsic. 17.". Identification. ". is obliterated.Un- Inexhaustible. 20. 35. of clinging to life. 16. 37. namable.One. See also ".
39. 34. as their root. of the empire. 34. Lockers. 18. keep Reason. when the clans decay. flows a great state. 64. Courage leads to. Man s Reason is not like Heaven s Reason. 19. 39. 32. Put away. Laws and mandates. See ". Reason on the. the unknowable. 47. when Reason ob Keep King time. Lowly. fl. 39. Lovingly Reason nourishes all things. literated. Good. Former and. Loves the people. Logic. has. 18. need no bolts. See also ". 75. 48. Manhood shows. 29. Kings.". Called to. 37. is Jewels. 28. 81. as models. Semblance 38. 10.". Likely. 27. . Resemble the. Movements of goodness. The Knowable. Reason means. of the hun dred valleys.Endures. is. Who seeks. employer of men. everlasting. 66. Titles of. Who may die but will not perish Tender and delicate are companions of. 78. Learn not to be. Know. Abroad in. 68. 64. 77. Reason precedes the. Who. Abandon. 57. Loyalty. Knotted cords. Life. of. Reason lifts up the. 80. 8. 77. 16.Table of References Jade table. Justice. 197 Holding the. . Lowliness. Makes mars. 67. 72. 20. The superior man honors the. 50. 42. 66. Left and right. acts. of ocean. 33 Way to. Hides his. Earth 12. Gold and. (cfi/u). Learnedness. Not to know the. 27. 62. 71. 39. Lasting also Latter. 73. One who. Good speakers lack no. Who his. 70. 31. 38. Learned. Lord. less we. 4 Reason plays not the. 34. 61. 7. of a great state. 59.Valley. Who is not bent on. 76 . . 38. 71. 9. The wise are not.
75. Not deem their lives. Superiors are. woman. 1. I . and happiness. See also ". 22.Intrinsic. 27. becomes sand things. 69. 32. 35. Mars. Praising the. 69. 35. . Holy man becomes a.Womanhood. 25. Multitudes of men. Mediocrity. Rest tion s. of mankind. Marching without marching. know not its. 1. Holy Middle path. the mother of ten thou Reason becomes. The. . 30. Moderation of desire. 25. Music. 70. 1 Reason the world s. 67. (chang) If kings are not. Military expert. 12.Spontaneous".". Namable (yiu ming). 39. 52.In ". 5. 28. Merit. dependent. and quietude. Eternal. Minds by cneness souls procure. 72. . 46. 6. Name. . Motion. Five tastes offend the. Accomplish. Holy man does not dwell on. 15. 17. 64. Rest is master of.". Natural (tsz /an). Misery. 29. Who conquers himself is. 65.". Mother-bird. Like a. Mystery of mysteries. Mighty. 33. 10. Mysterious.198 Canon of Reason and Virtue 69. Movements of goodness. 64. (shih) Who knows is. 52 of the commonwealth. 52. Meddlesome. 59 of the ten thousand things. 9. man acquires. Masters of yore. Matched armies. 1 . Seeking sustenance from our. He becomes the empire s. To be taciturn is. See also ". 20. of Reason is never vanishing.With out Effort. 46. Reason when coming from the. and ". Mouth. Discontent a. 14. Mother. 20. Who opens his. 8. 21 or person. 26. 23. Model (shih). 45. Deeds have a. is mo 26. 58. 39. knows her child. Master.". 77. One who makes. Narrow. 2. ". 44.
Some are. 16. Acts with. Oneness obtained by heaven and earth. Organizer. Passions rise. returns 11. The five. is preserved. Practice. 8. Superior virtue is. ". 37. Preference. . of his harmony. Holy man abides by.". 12. Non-diplomacy. 73. 52 Who cultivates reason in his. minds. 43. 39.Sea. keeps behind. 3. Obtained. 7. Obscure. Non-practice. 10.Unity. 43. 66. 44. Net. (wu) Existence comes from. 81. builder of words). 78. Owns. 42. Others have taught. One takes the empire with. As sert. tion. The. . 39. imperfect. See also ". 79. 29. True words seem. 67. crea and valleys. 14. The more he gives the more he. One with its dust. See ". With his. 62. A See also ".". 54. yore. 38. Ocean and rivers. non-practice. 20. Person (sAan).Body. Obligations and claims.Masters of Outer (ear). Reason tures.". Reason practises. Non-existence (wu yiu) enters the impenetrable. 32.". Paradoxical. Goodness standeth for. 38. Reason is deep and. great. Nothing that can not be achieved with. See also Omen. Notes. 63. non-assertion. 55. Reason when sought is. to perdi Surrenders his. 21. 48. Obsequious. Orphaned. title of kings. (wu wub). 11. 32. Non-assertion. creates. 79. Heaven s Reason shows no. Perfect as chief vessels.Table of References 199 Nave of wheel. Reason to. 42. 66. Advantage of. 4. Poet (chien yen Practice. Order. 57. 12. 2. Heaven s. 63. Received no. Perfection. renders useful. Name or. 40. Practise. 63. 10. 41. 56. What. 57. 45. 29.
Punishment. 53. like a stream. 32. the still. Reality shapes all creatures. de- . Justice makes. Proud. I contemplate heavenly. if lost. Man of. Who all-pervading. and motion. 45. Promises. like a bow. all types (wuh). includes pears. 21. 34. 8. Pride of robbers. 42. virtue. 63. 15. Rash promises lack 13. 51. chastity. 31. Purifying can cleanse from faults. is world-honored. is tasteless. 21. Racing will human hearts turn mad. 54. Heaven s. shows no preference. 39. 74. 61. 25. 41 . Holy man does not. 48. A great. eternal. Its nature I call. of their clothes. Pure. 12. Goodness does not. Rash.200 Canon of Reason and Virtue Pretensions. renders lowly. Capital. faith. 15. 62. 40. 81. is empty. 10. in his person. 25. Reason. 41. Heaven becometh. 63. 45. Ancients prize. 38. Profound. 57. is. High and. Man s. is to benefit. 58. then virtue ap cultivates. [Reason] harbors the spirit. is . is eluding (iu). creates order. Propriety. 2. Prying government. Quickens. 47. Rank like the body. 53. and learnedness. he holdeth high. 62. Spiritual virtue 65. 28. Principle. 29. 24. 23. 8. a refuge. 38. Man of. is Heaven s standard. Home ward the course of. 10. 1. Masters of yore are. 9. 46. 51. Heaven s. 35. begets unity. 21 Inferior scholar ridicules. is not seen nor heard. will not indulge. 38. 35. Business in. 62. I shall walk in the great. 22. 4. 53. Quietude. Preserve thee. but owns not. 78. Race horses haul dung. Priest at the great sacrifice. Heaven s. Prohibitions and restrictions. 77. Some are. is very plain. 80. 79. 57. I love. Purity the world s standard. 32. 51. Quarrel. 19. 10.
Fulness of. to enlightenment. Heaven renders. nature is eluding. intrinsic. Renewal. does seeks. 21 . (t a/) There we find shelter. 37. Who obtained. Reverse to everything. of themselves. (ngan) What is at. Risks no vitiation. 8. 34. Refuge.". Resolute. precedes the Lord. Crooked 20. 25.Left will. Tradi namable. 14. Venomous. Man 2. Return home (fu kwti). 62. 35. 46. He becomes the empire s. clue. 38. Restrictions and prohibitions. 14. its root. 15. See Right. His methods invite. We do not see. . People. pre vails. 52. 55. 30. returns to non14. 31. 30. when obliterated. 15. 16. 57. Reason 50. 1 . Be. Rhinoceros. 16. 26. scholar practises. to Reason.Table of References pleteth. See also ". 201 77. Crossing a. Who Who standard is Reform 37. 62. comfort.".Quietude. 48. Ten thousand things. quickens 51. 57. purity). 14. 41 tionalism the flower . Reason-like. existence. ". when is latent. all creatures. has. 4. 37. 41 Water near to the eternal. 15. Superior . 21. 30. of Reason a. Rest (tsing not a ripple. 64. practises non-assertion. 65. 18. is sure. will diminish. 16. 32. No 16. 63. Truth of. of the ancients. if there is no lust. 16. and right. lasting. Reptiles. 81. 28. strives not. Race horses haul dung when. Who world s mother. renders existence (wu wuh). unVirtue s form follows norm of. to will. place to to. is not anxious to be 41. 21. Relativity. Complete without. of the holy man. 73. 44. means lasting. Requital. 22. Name of. 81. when sought assists with. 14. Requite hatred with virtue. is motion s master. that can be reasoned. River. 52. ishes. 21. cher filled. never van ishing. not rely on arms. Reason s. of.
like a tyro. Blunts its own. Great. 32. 27. 22. The country s. i. 71. Shell of things. See also ". Inferior and superior. Returning to. 62. Tree originated from tiny. Sinner can be saved. 2. 79. 54. Seeks not his own. Skill. Thieves ". Self-seeking. 17. 57. Silence (pu yea not speaks). Discipline of the. Lessen. Rustic. Sharpness. Smart. 20. Desolate like the. tools. Les son of. Sameness [of Namable and Unnamable]. 39. 31. 64. 1. 32. 16. . 1. 22. Masters of yore.Thieves. Sick of sickness. 10. Abandon. Senses. 24. 80 Make great the. 19. Sense-gates.Ocean. 36. 4. Slaughter of men. Rootlet. Function of. Smartness.Masters of yore. 56. 19. 28. Simplicity. Sages. 65. Scheme too sharply. I alone am a. . 43. Saintliness. 19. Sin. in habits. 41. 20. country.202 Canon of Reason and Virtue Rivers and the ocean. renders heavenly. . of the un expressed. 17. See also ". 65. Sea. 20. Simple. Who knows [keeps. Great. swords. Royalty. Scholar. is great. and desire. 15.] does not talk. Sharp. 9. and. Rulers. 25 Sacrificial celebrations shall not cease. Pride of. He shuts. Lowliness their. 53. 63. Sage keeps his obligations. Self-displaying. 7. 16. Self. 52. Holy Man is a. 24. 19. Govern without. 17. See also Root. 56. 37 Returning to. 45. 58. . of Reason. 46. Square but not. Common people are. Robbers. 57. 27. 66. How to govern a. Instruction by. e. 53.".".". Show thyself. Abandon. 78. Small. Saviour.
Superior. also 35. 22 levelled Straightest lines resemble curves. Crooked shall be. 44. Greatest eloquence. Straw dogs.Without ef Spook. Good. 21. See also ". 58. . Disdain like a. Spontaneous (tsz /an = self-like).". Great organizer abides by the. Streams and creeks run towards the ocean. Holy man fills. no logic lack. 2. Standard. 1. . do not die natural death. Reason is. Truth (tsiag) of Reason . Purity. Beware of. virtue is profound. fort. 38. Sought is obtained. 15. Thirty.Outer. 41. 27. 78. 61 . and ". Masters of yore are. 57. Stoop to conquer. 52. The greatest. Solid. 1. Solidity of virtue. 50. Strives not. Squandering. 27. Holy man s Reason. 45. 45. 38. 4. Who preserves his tenderness is. Strength. but not sharp. 14. Holy man is. 51. 44. Speakers. 25. Startling events. Heavenly Reason.". 61. 31 virtue. 80.Natural". Door 11. A great. man. of. Ghosts will not. 41.".Inde ". Cf. Dotage leads to. Stone. ". Spirituality. 55. is. Reason when. The loudest. Stammers. Spokes. Sound.". 3. 60. Square. 32. 45. Knowing when to.Table of References Soldiers. 203 Coming among. 39. 29. Straight. 32. 41. Spiritual. 42. of the world. 5.". The weak con quer the. Sure (cban). 76. 76. Strong. The earth man s. 62.Com Stomachs. seem rugged. and voice. See also ". and hard are companions of death. A neighboring. Some are. 73. Soundless. State. monwealth. 81. 65. Sourceless. See also Stop. Pro foundly. pendent. ".Intrinsic.
Ten thousand things. The. Fulsome. 42. Compassion our. 19. and robbers. . 76.". are straw- by water. Too many. while they live. and weak. Thirteen avenues of life and of death. Traditionalism. Treasure. Three. 37. 32. 3. benefited Reason. 59. 81.". 64. Mother of. Trinity. bodiless) form a unity. Tasteless. leave no trace. Theft. 40.". 57. Taste the. 34. the flower of Reason.Mother.". Tao. 8. 14. Holy man refuses of the.". 76. 2. Duality begets. 50. 69. 47. Reason includes all. Taxes. 27. it strong. 12. Holy not.Lord. 4. ". 38. of themselves pay homage. See also ". benevolence. high prized.Way. 62.Silence. 78. 21. Tiger. 24. 78. 23. 12. Holy man does not. 63. 26. is not steady. dogs. Refuge Trinity begets the. 10. Ten thousand chariots. Tenderness. ". Good. Master of. man assists. Keeps from. One on. Inducing. 67. Not prizing. 1. arise. 35. The five.".". The. True words. come from existence. ". smartness) for which culture is insufficient. arc not pleasant. 52. Surfeit of food. Treasures. 64. Taciturn (= speaking little) is natural. will not exist. Talk. 5. Tender. Travelers.Carpenter. Water is. 5. See ". 36.Master. 42. 2. Three. 50. esteem 16.Fa ". Thieves. One who knows does not. 3. things (colorless. Who preserves. ther. Tiptoe. Types (si*ag). 67. treasures. and delicate are companions of life. seem paradoxical. 75. things (saintliness. soundless. Archfather Tastes. ". depend upon Reason.Reason. of. Surface not clear. Thrift an early practice. Travel. 56. ". of themselves be reformed. 19.204 Canon of Reason and Virtue 14. Treat things before they exist. 24. 51. Reason is.".
". Never deviate from. 51. Virility. Unworthy. 15. not complete. (wu teh). 68. 2. Profound. 38. 41. Men Vacuity. 39. Vessels. 39. 67. 205 Unexpressed (wu ming See also Unity. Unsophisticated. Virtue (feA). .Unnamable. 37. = not name). 10. Simplicity becomes a.Oneness. 6.Emptiness. 51. 58. Masters of yore resemble the. feeds them. is. ". Un-Reason (fei fao). beginning . filled by oneness. Three things (color less. of not-striving. 38. 28.no virtue". 11. of usefulness. The largest. 41. Become perfect as chief. spirit. 45. Unknowable. The high in virtue resemble a. 71. is un-virtue.". Empire s. Unvirtue (pu teh) contrasted to ". Simplicity of the. 10. See also ". 55. Empire a divine. 11. 63. 45. 28. This is. 55. 22. Requite hatred with. Superior. Spiritual. 42. (chang teh == eternal virtue). Valley. Fulness is. Vale. Reason begets. title of kings.Unexpressed. 66. 65. Unexhausted. See also 30. Reason 14.Table of References Ugliness and beauty. Those who have become a. Virtue s form.". 20. 28. Rivers and oceans kings 55. 10. Utility of. 65. 41. 28. He will be. 32. 3. Whose government soon ceases. 53. appears when Reason is lost. 28. Usefulness. Vessel of. 1 I resemble is. ". soundless. 29. Unnamable (wu ming). To know the. 38. 42. See also ". of heaven and earth. 21. 14. possess. 67. Utility depends on the non-existent. Valleys of. Holy man keeps the people. Holy man embraces.". bodiless) form a. the. 41. Vessel. Who embraces. Superior. Solidest. 38. Venomous reptiles. Unostentatious. 39. Unlikely. Vast.
10. 78. Masters of.Intrinsic". Some are. 8. True. s. 68. War. and 6. 30. 55. Wise are not learned. Hoarded. 43. 42. is tender. World-honored. his. Wife conquers her husband. 56. 20. Rough. Vitality (ciV). 28. Water. 44. s. 29.206 Canon of Reason and Virtue See ". Heaven Weak. The. Risks no. 18. 81. have an ancestor. Warrior not. IS. Wearisome. 70. Who Wood.". Different from the. Words. 72. strong. The. Vulgarity. 6. are not pleasant. The people s 27. Superior goodness resembleth. horses in the common. 15. The mysterious. Wen on the body. 9. Who can render clear muddy. 78. 40. Reason is. 24. Worn with strength shall Yin. ". 28. dependent. Quel Warlike. to life. The sage is. 59. 70. 15. See Vulgar.". 61. World Weakness is Reason s force. Not deem their lot. See and which convey is. No. 62. Wool. Holy man wears. 46. Without effort (pu ch in) sure. 44. Womanhood knows. Woman. . Yore.Natural". conquer the and. 36. Yang and Yes and yea.". Palliation of. 81. Way (rao). 20. thrill. Vitiation (pu ra/). Valley also tsz spirit jan under the words ". seem paradoxical. Tender Weakest overcomes the hardest. Wealth. ". 31. Be chary ling. ". True. of.Danger. ".In a similar idea.Breath. 22.Spontaneous".
INDEX. piety. Rank Dust (ch an). 182.] [The numbers Abroad. 3. the Introduction and the Com ments (pp. 4. 183. China. Chi. 3-22 and pp. Backbone. 8. 149. Eternal Reason. 19. Arch-father (tsung). fruit. 158. 70. reason. 174. Crooked. 15. 19. Ch i (breath). Ancestor. Combination 133. 135. like. 138. 135. This is an refer to pages of this book. Taoism 4. St. Enemies. Contrasts. of. Dragon. Great. . of. 5.. Eye (the outer). 146. The doc 153. s. 167. Cheu-tze 167. 135. 178. 140. 178. Emptiness explained. 183. 8. 11. 131-188). 144. Arupo. Carpenter. Body. First (/u). 69. of Chiun (Master). Ch an (dust). Words have an. Augustine. 155. 150. Chwang-tze. 156. For passages in the Canon of Reason and Virtue the reader should look up the Table of References. Index to the Foreword. 165. Flower and Formless. French Revolution. 149. 185. Bodiless. Colorless. Baggage wagon. 70. Ccuvreur. Confucius. Cheu dynasty. 146. 135. Father. trine Filial 169. 138. 14. 144. 145.
Master. Literati. . 145. 142. La:ssez fa : . 132. 18. It. Hara-kiri. 168. 5. 8. Huai Nan Tze. Pharisees. 21-22. 143. Heartache. Harlez. 145. 140. Heaven 138. 157. talk. Medhurst. 159. 163. 161. Deeds have Hamlet. Chew. 162. Infinite. Guests. Name explained. 174. 156. 12. 131. 157.re. Nativity. 166. 19. and s earth. 138. Hesiod. God.208 Canon of Reason and Virtue 188. 166. 18. 147. 183. 6. Nought. Heaven Reason. 164. Namable. 142. 151. 147. 11. 16-17. 162. Legge. 149. The. 186. 14. 142. 133. Justice. 174. 177. Fu (first). Three. Gravity. 186. Knotted cords. Jehovah. Plato. 143. 157. Nagasena. Learnedness. 151. 139. 19. 169. 7. 134. Negatives. 144. 15. a. 153. 145. (stomach) 139. 5. Rank like body. Horace. 187. Home. 149. 164. 9. 142. Manchu. Mother. T73. Milindapanha. Laufer. 171. 136. 164. Poh. 141. 154.. 131 The. Napoleon. 146. Giles. 146. 179. Orphaned. Logos. 15. 161. Manhood. Holy man. Frontispiece. 154. A. 17-18 Non-existent. Fulsome Ghosts. Originality. 11. 166. Ineffable. Paradox. Reactionary. Fruit. 160. Lao-tze s names. 11. 137. 186. 131. 145. Left and right. Ng Poon 157. Non-existence (wu). 176. 177. H. Oneness. 175. 183. 180. Flower and. Kant. Incorporeal.
135. Symbol of the Tai Cbi. 142. 132. Sense. 16. 160. Unlikely. 4. Strauss. Unity. Unnamable Unvirtue. Virtue is good. Victor von. Theism. 15-16. 149. 209 183. Yang and Yin. 139. (the inner). Teh explained. 182. 13-15. Soundless. 159.Index Reality. Yea and yes. 142. 180. Surfeit. 154. 170. Tsung 185. Straw dogs. Ten thousand things. left. 132. (soul) 144. 134. Warren. 162. Warrior. 133. Return. 159. 162. explained. Shang Soul Ti. 136-137. (fu). Spook. 71. 180. 131 17. 162. Soul. 175. Right and Thirteen. 163. 186. 135. 167. (arch-father). World. 177-8. Straightness like a curve. 184. 146. 172. 138. Yin-Hi. 160. Unknowable. . 149. 132. Trinity. Sense soul. Wen. Stomach 134. Tcrtullian. Tao explained. 145. the Great Ultimate. (stomach). 165. Warlike. Traditionalism. 167. 148. 8. Spinoza. Szc-Ma Ch Wei wu wei. Womanhood. Taoism of China. ien. 167.
Lao-tzn. The cenon of reason and virtue. 3L 1900 L3 C35 .
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