UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES

PUBLISHERS. VOL." IN TWO VOLUMES. H U C. II. .A JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. FRANKLIN SgUARK. NEW YORK: HARPER & BROTHERS. BY M. AUTHOR OF RECOLLECTIONS OF A JOURNEY THROUGH TARTARY AND THIBET.

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707 CONTENTS THE SECOND VOLUME. CHAPTER I. 44 portation of Tartar Agitators CHAPTER Arrival at Han-tchouan III. Dangerous Illness Mandarins' Prescriptions Visit of the Doctor Theory of the Pulse Apothecaries in China Trade in Medicine Increase of the Malady Acupuncture The Supernatural Treasure of Red Pills Experimental Medicine Origin and History of the Cholera in China Free Practice of Medicine Good Effects of Red Pills Cure Terrible Law of Responsibility Tragic Story Kind Attention of the Prefect of Kuen-kiang-hien Fondness of the Chinese for Coffins Journey of a Sick Man by the Side of his Bier Calmness and Tranquillity of the Chinese at the Moment of DeathVisit to our Coffin Departure from Kuen-kiang-hien 7 CHAPTER Visit of the II. Cop. a. Mandarins of Tien-men Their Attention to us Fame of Tien-men for the Number and Beauty of its Water-melons Extensive Use of the Water-melon Seed Caustic Humor of a young MiliThe Inhabitants of Sse-tchouen treated as Strangers tary Mandarin in the Province of Hou-pe Prejudices of Europeans with regard to Chinese The Manner in which most Works on China are composed True View of the supposed Immobility of the Orientals Revolutions in the Chinese Empire Socialist School in the Eleventh Century Account of their System Long and severe Struggle TransCauses of the Barbarian Invasions. disgraced Mandarin Liberty enjoyed by the Chinese Association against Gamblers Society of the Old Bull Liberty of the Press Public Lectures European Prejudice concerning the Despotism of Asiatic Governments Carelessness of Magistrates Remembrance of the Sufferings of the venerable Perboyre Navigation of a Lake Floating Islands Custom of presenting a Pair of Boots to a Placards and Advertisements Privileges and .

CHAPTER VI. Governor of the Province We force the Guard of his The Governor of Hou-pe' Conversation with this exalted Personage Good Result of the Visit Moving Courtesy of a Cook Adieus of Master Ting.." Chief of the new Escort Palace Fine Arts Religion Chinese Architecture Towers Pagodas Doctrine of the Literary Class Great Honors rendered to Confucius Doctors of Reason Life and Opinions of the Philosopher Lao-tze Buddhism Legend of Buddha Dogmas and Moral Precepts Buddhists persecuted by the Brahmins Causes of these Persecutions Dispersion of the Buddhists through the various Countries of 148 Asia . 109 CHAPTER Attempt to see the V. All Religions condemned by the Chinese Government Formulas of Skepticism Condition of the Bonzes of China Buddhist Monasteries Religious Architecture Temple of Pou-Tou Library of the Monastery Visit to the Superior of the Bonzes Profound Respect of the Chinese for Writing Convent of Bonzesses Ceremonies to Death of a recall the Souls of the Dying when they are escaping young Bachelor Mourning of the Chinese Singular Mode of lamenting the Dead Interments Worship of Ancestors Chinese Classification of various Ages of Life Marriage in China Servitude of Women Discord in Domestic Life Examples Sect of ISO Abstinent Women . .iv CONTENTS. Population of China ing Some yang We Its Causes :uni Dangers Cormorant PishDetails of Chinese Manners Bad Reception at Hanfollow a wrong Course Passage of the Yang-tse-kiang . . or the " Weeping Willow. and the Sse-tchouen Escort The Mandarin Lieou.... Arrival at Ou-tchang-fou 74 CHAPTER Bad Lodging IV... Pecuniary Immense Commercial Mart in the Centre of the Empire Societies System of Canals Aptitude of the Chinese for Commerce Monetary System Influence of the Sapeck Infinitesimal Trade. Capital of Hou-Pe Limits of the Chinese Empire Mountains Rivers Lakes Climate Principal Productions Chinese Industry Causes of its Decline Former Exhibitions of the Productions of Arts Relations of the Chinese with Foreigners Present State of their Commerce with Europeans Internal Trade of China Interest of Money System of Chinese Economists upon Interest of Thirty per cent. in a Little Pagoda Ou-tchang-fou.. ..

or Chinese Bandit Mode of administering Justice Code of Laws General Considerations upon Chinese Legislation Penal and materialistic Character of the Code Defect of Precision in certain Laws Principle of Solidarity Laws relating to Officers of Government Organization of the Family Repression of Crime Ritual Laws Taxes and Territorial Property 229 CHAPTER VIII.CONTENTS. Storm Government Couriers Departure from Kouang-tsi-hien Mode of Epistolary Correspondence Grand Festival at Hoang-meihien Fire-works Chinese Music Idea we ought to have of the Music of the Ancient Chinese Imperial Road to Pekin The Roads in China Halt upon the Borders of Lake Pou-yang Embarkation Kakkeiiacs on board the Junk Glance over the Province of Hou-pe' Details conAgriculture in China Imperial Festival of Labor cerning Agriculture Agricultural Productions The Bamboo The Water Lily Imperial Rice Observant Character of the Chinese Classification of Corn What becomes of the Swallows during Winter Manner of making a Cat tell the Time Method of hindering Asses from Braying 268 CHAPTER Navigation of the Pou-yang IX. Details of a Trial The Kouankouen. v CHAPTER VII. or FoundEdict against Infanticide Work of the Society of the ling Hospital Wine. Uncultivated Tracts in the Province of Kiang-si ter-melons Arrival self in the Palace of Literary Composition The Guard-house The Mandarin and his Steed Theft of Waat Nan-tchang-fou Mode of installing one's Solemn Public Supper . Departure from the Capital of Hou-pe Farewell Visit to the Governor of the Town Burial of the two Martyrs State of Christianity in Hou-pe Disagreeable Incidents on the Road No Provisions in a Town of the third Order Visit to the Palace of the Town Prefect Treatment of Criminals Horrible. Causes of Pauperism Infanticide Its Causes Truth and Exaggeration concerning Infanticide in China Yu-j'ng-tang. and Corn Brandy Holy Infancy 307 CHAPTER The Vinegar Polypus X. Pauperism in China tuitous Coffins of Junks Desert Tracts Bands of Mendicants Society for Gra- Great Number The King of the Beggars The Hens' Feathers Inn Gaming Various Chinese Games Mode of studying the Law against Gamblers Drunkenness The Vine.

Disappointment of the Spectators Visit of the Prefect of the A Mongol Mandarin His geographical Knowledge Labors of the Protestant Methodists in China Chinese Astronomers Aspect of the Capital of Kiang-si Manufacture of Porcelain Chinese Antiquaries Origin of the God of Porcelain Pisciculture in Kiangsi New traveling Arrangements 342 Town CHAPTER XL Mandarin Junk Comfort and Departure from Nan-tchang-fou Luxut j of Water-carriage Vehicles and Hotels Fiacre and CabriChinese Light Literature Collections of Maxolet stands at Pekin ims and Proverbs Passage of the Mountain Mei-ling Nan-hioung.. .. A . the Frontier Town Chinese Rope-dancers Little Feet of the Women Origin of this Custom Navigation of the Tigris Recollections of our Entry into China in 1840 View of the Port of Canton European Vessels First Night in Canton Our Martyrdom in Tartary Savings on the Road bestowed upon our Servant Wei-chan Stay at Macao Death of M.. Gabet Departure for Pekin Arri369 val at Marseilles in 1852..%. CONTENTS.

A JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHIIESE EMPIRE. distant lands. health is not merely a good it is a quite inestimable treasure for it is a mournful and bitter thing to be attacked by illness in a foreign country. IT is common to ing possessed joyments of this all by man life say that health is the greatest blesshere below. for the traveler. and in fact the enare so fragile and fugitive. Dangerous Illness Mandarins' Prescriptions Visit of the Doctor Theory of the Pulse Apothecaries in China Trade in Medicine Increase of the Malady Acupuncture The Supernatural Treasure of Red Pills Experimental Medicine Origin and History of the Cholera in China Free Practice of Medicine Good Effects of Red Pills Cure Terrible Law of Responsibility Tragic Story -Kind Attention of the Prefect of Kuen-kiang-hien Fondness of the Chinese for Coffins Journey of a Sick Man by the Side of his Bier Calmness and Tranquillity of the Chinese at the Moment of Death Visit to our Coffin Departure from Kuen-kiang-hien. or even with aversion. that vanish at the approach of the slightest infirmthey But for the exile. CHAPTER I. wandering in ity. What a frightful and desperate situation would it be for . and surrounded by persons to whom you are a source of annoyance. and who only regard you with indifference. far from relations or friends.

it only remained to see him standing quietly at our bed-foot. a single step would often have been sufficient to plunge us from the top of a mountain into a frightful abyss. one who counted only on the help of man. executioners had displayed before us the instruments of their atrocious tortures . finally. from head to foot . In Tartary and Thibet we had been threatened with being starved or frozen to death. The doctor was On sent for. Our long journey kind so full of vicissitudes of every had hitherto been at least free from this trial. the most renowned doctor. we were suddenly seized with violent vomitings. a in had us the waters. and we were forced to go to bed. of the whole country. murdered by robbers.8 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and had the misfortune of not knowing how to find in God his support and consolation. and cure with the greatest ease all sorts of incurable maladies. ready to take possession in the most ordinary forms of a prey that had so often escaped him. devoured by wild beasts. a man accustomed to perform prodigies. In China. and while we were receiving the visit of the principal magistrates of the town. and for two whole days it pleased God to leave before our eyes lace . the Mandarins of our escort. were composition going on in our frame. While waiting the arrival of this marvelous doctor. in whom we were far from feeling the most absolute confidence. After tempest nearly engulphed so often had death under various forms so near having us. had this melancholy vision. it was said. accompanied by most acute pains It seemed really as if a general dein the stomach. discoursed with much learning and . and those of Kuen-kiang-hien. an angry popurisen in insurrection around us arid. or crushed by the fall of avalanches. the very evening of our arrival at Kuen-kiang/iien.

therefore it was necessary to favor the return of moisture into all the members. a certain quantity was therefore to be put . had been kindled in the sublime organization of our body. essentially actors and cooks we may add . also that they are something of doctors. In this manner health would be immediately reand we might resume our journey . pains ings. hoAvever. and that. We have said that the Chinese were. Every body knew that green peas are of an extremely cold nature . in virtue of their temperament. and which produced such violent contortions. Every one of the company delivered his opinion of our condition in the most technical terms.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Consequently also the aqueous elements had been dried up to such a degree that there no longer remained to the members and organs the humidity necessary to the performance of their natural functions thence proceeded those vomit. and the means to employed for its cure." The igneous principle. being. and it was settled Tby the obliging members of this impromptu consultation that our "noble and illustrious malady proceeded from a disturbance in the equilibrium of the vital spirits. very careful not to permit the igneous principle to develope itself to the point of absorbing the aqueous principle. they thought. In order to re-establish the said equilibrium there needed only to be introduced into the body a certain quantity of cold. There was a very simple method of bringing back into the body this beautiful harmony. a fire. established. so to speak. conse- quently. in and that generally disthose the stomach. ordered state which it was easy to perceive in our face. and to lower the extravagant temperature of this igneous principle . too long fed by the ex- cessive heat. had ended by exceeding beyond all measure the proper bounds assigned to it. sang-froid on the cause of our l)e 9 illness.

this marked that our temperament was incomparably warmIt was also decided that for purpose of restoring the humidity necessary for the harmonious action of the organs. as he had refor fear of er than that of a Chinese. without any danger. It was finally therefore agreed unanimously. and by that means the fire would be put out. he gave utterance to some aphorisms that did not seem to us altogether worthless." said he. "that the illustrious pain the countries of the west. those of the north do not resemble those of the south . to set us on our feet again. take twice the ordinary dose of it. gave him quite a finished medical air. on to boil. and enable us to pursue our journey . manner was a little roundabout man with a pleasing countenance. i A Mandarin of Kuen-kiang-hien suggested that nevertheless we must use this liquor with great moderation occasioning too great a chill . every nation has some that are peculiar to it. and water-melons. boiled cucumbers. the doctor arrived. color tied "I have tient was born learned. A small gray beard and mustaches. saying that we might. . and tied behind his ears with a silk cord. and hair of the same little behind in a pig-tail. and of a redundant plumpness calculated to afford the most advantageous ideas of his hygeienic principles : and a pair of great spectacles seated on a very rudimentary kind of nose. yet perfectly easy in which he presented himself. that nothing more was necessary than green peas.10 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but Master Ting interposed. we were to drink the liquor. pointed him out He as a man who passed his time in paying visits. As he approached our bed. and in the mean time The ceremonious. there was nothing better than boiled cucumbers and water-melons. afforded additional evidence of long experience in the art of healing. It is writ- ten in the books that maladies vaiy according to the country .

with the igneous principle. laid it are different pulses corresponding to the heart. in order to understand the true character of maladies and prescribe suitable medicaments . and pronounced the sentence: "By some means or other. adapted to the ordinary infirmities of its inhabitants. then at length the doctor majestically raised his head. he drew toward him a bamboo arm-chair and seated himself by the down He then asked for our right arm. The skillful physician ought to distinguish different temperaments. Avhich must necessarily manifest itself by vomitings and convulsions . stroked his beard and mustaches two or three times. and a small cushion he began to feel the on having pulse by playing on it with all his fingers as if he were The Chinese consider that there playing the pianoforte. During this operation. but kept his head bent down. and sometimes several together. in many of the organs." After having these principles." . must take good care not to treat the men of the Western Seas in the same man- We ner as the laid men of the Central Nation. in order to understand their several relations. the doctor appeared plunged in profound meditation he did not speak one word. it is in this that his science consists. 11 and every country produces particular remedies. and the other principal organs. side of our bed. well you must feel them all one after the other. the right arm had had its turn. his shoes.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. with very striking inflexions of voice. the livTo feel the pulse er. and abundance of gesticulation. and has put itself in opposition. thence arises the struggle. the left was and the same ceremonies performed with it and . we must therefore combat the evil with warm substances. When taken. and his eyes fixed on the points of . which lasted a very long while. shaking his head. "the cold air has penetrated into the interior." said he.

pared. "it is evident there a struggle between the cold and the heat ." This opinion did not appear to us an extremely hazardous one. for the violent headache with We which we were tormented hindered us from following . and then came to us and communicated its contents. did not ion of the physician. read it again attentively in a low voice. take every hour a dose of the medicine I As he spoke little am going to prescribe. lie pointed to the characters he a full much had just written. is fail to said precisely agree entirely with the opin- " That's the thing. and gave us by degrees did not understand explanation of them. ters of the pulse. then extending toward it the first finger of his right hand." said Ting. This is my opinion on the subject after having studied the various characsoon ." he rose. who a minute before had the contrary.12 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. it is quite possible that it. The inated by a nail of frightful Jength. and that the danger may increase.may resist." The physician then went on: "The nature malady is of this noble such that it may yield with facil- ity to the virtue of the medicines. and began to trace the prescription on a large sheet of paper. ing." continued the doctor. He placed the prescription under our eyes. The Mandarins. or likely in any case to compromise seriously the person rest who delivered it. "You must "and have and quiet. these two principles are not in harmony. and went to seat himself at a where writing materials had been prelearned man then dipped in a cup of tea the end of a little stick of Indian ink. and what is wanted is to make them agree that's just what we were think. of what he said. and disappear very and. he took his paper. termtable. also. and when he had finished. which he rubbed on a dish of black stone. He wrote a large page. then seized a pencil.

the patient is made to swallow it as hot as posof baked clay and. . The Mandarins of Kuen-kiang-hien went also. he departed. When the Chinese M. promising to come back the next morning. boil the drugs together in a vase the water has. which turn your very heart. had fulfilled his mission with respect to our "noble and illustrious malady. and the aggregate of their . if one can get over the unpleasant look of them. It is customary to .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. act a to on particular organ.D. these medicines are seldom very difficult to take . and in very sorrowful mood. 13 the thread of his learned dissertation on the properties and virtues of the numerous ingredients that went to compose the medicine besides. leaves.of that prodigious nail. yellowish color nature. were to enter Each kind of drug was specially into its composition. in order to bring charged about the desired result. sufficiently assimilated their medicinal properties. We made out. and are never so abominably nauseous as some of the compositions of our European pharmacists. tahoang a variety of powders. remedy was rhubarb and and Jcapi . and roots. orange-peel. characters. when Chinese medicine is almost always of an oily this very and of a very dark. however. uninviting appearance proceeds from a certain fatty black substance that the physicians have the good taste to introduce into all their prescriptions ." and made a number of profound bows to the company. the little attention of which we were capable was entirely absorbed by the that went wandering over sight. for the physician had said posi- . howmass of Chinese the of the that the basis ever. besides these articles. by a long ebullition. they have mostly an insipid sweetish taste. and make your whole inner man rise in violent rebellion. operations to effect the prompt re-establishment of our health. sible.

pleasure therefore grant to these to the great Master has pleased to bestow on In the Holy Scriptures we are told to honor physicians in case of necessity . and scrupulously "Yes. prepared as he has ordered. Let us therefore. fact a better ? To whom could ? we apply Only for help in these melancholy circumstances of life and death. insignificant as they a special virtue. In China. that we had no great confidence either in the drugs or the doctor. there are and in themselves by no means incompatible. even if we were not obliged to take up our final abode at the foot of one of tively that their mountains. the phy- A same time apothecaries. Some abuses may easily enter into . who had just made up the prescription. All these considerations could not but anxiety. but where were we to find The scription. certainly. that we should recover our health. Master Ting asked us whether it was necessary to follow the doctor's pre- cause them much When all and prepare the medicine he had ordered. and our condition also seemed bad enough to make it probable that we should have to make a pretty long stay. of human infirmities . thought." we replied to Masobey his orders. but although these two professions are intimately connected with one sicians are at the another. whom it plants certain marvelous properties. the strangers were gone. honor the Chinese doctor. if it should be his good might be. we needed repose. " the medicine must be ter we Ting's question . and we could have no better opportunity for that than the present. by which they contribute to the solace." servant of the communal palace was sent to get the ingredients to the house of the doctor himself. and sell to their patients the remedies they prescribe . some objections to their being exercised by the same individual. was.H JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. He might drugs.

and that whether you absorb a little more or less of their black little difference. generally ends by abating something of the price of his merchandise.. too. for instance. quite in accordance with Chinese manners. They always hope. and they examine the prescription. the great recommendation of Chinese end. but they will put up with that. after having haggled for a long time. into physician and the patient usually enter an earnest discussion concerning the value and The price of the medicines ordered. human frailty considered. the family too take part in this The odd other members of . that one prescription is about as good as another. and run the risk. for the simple reason that if he did not. the patient would go to another shop. the pletely physician may yield to the temptation of prescribing costly remedies. Possibly the effect of the medicine may be thereby rendered slow or doubtful. 15 the exercise of functions that support each other so comas. . and that it will be pretty much the same in the In fact. strike out such as are too expensive. and we would not venture to say that the circumstance is not to be accounted for from the fact we have mentioned of their being prescribed and sold by the same person. sort of bargaining they ask the doctor to prescribe common cheap and drugs. brewages will probably make very The physician. practice is. The fear of being fleeced by the doctor has given rise to a curious custom. Very surprising and very Chinese scenes. or even sometimes of prolonging the malady for the purpose of procuring more considerable profits for his friend the apothecary. however. JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The prodigious quantity of drugs that enter into the composition of Chinese medicines has indeed always appeared to us rather surpris- ing . that the alteration will not be of much consequence.

and decide that be much better to reserve the buy a fine coffin. we had no. Fortunately for us. We were even assured before- hand that they would have the politeness to place us in one of superior quality and being thus made perfectly easy in our minds on this important point. Such sitting being prolonged are the thoughts and cares that occupy the mind of a one must die sooner or Chinese in the presence of death. and declared positively that to obtain the cure it is indis- pensably necessary to make use of this or that remedy. Never had a doctor of Kuen-kiang-hien a better patient. culated what it will cost to buy these possibly useless medicines. in case of need. actually in the presence of the which the question of life or death is and coolly put. When the physician-apothecary has said his last word.16 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. prospect they send away the doctor. frequently arguments brought forward to show that. since it was the business of the Mandarins to provide us with medicines. or the hopeless nature of the malady. since later. sometimes occur with reference to these cases. it is not uncommon money to for the sick it man will himself to take the initiative. however. and the send for the undertaker. a family council sick person. considering the advanced age of the patient. it may be better not to incur a useless expense. by no means corresponded with our generosity of behavior. without The efficacy of the medicine. but quietly to allow After having closely calthings to take their course. we can not say whether it did good or harm. or. and it is well worth while to give perhaps a short remnant of life in order to have a handsome funeral. With this sweet and consoling in view. thing to do but quietly to swallow to us. we had no occasion to enter into these intricate calculations. all the drugs offered even asking what they cost. in is held. or maintained a . with a coffin.

To find himself engaged in a battle with the astonishing organization of a devil of the western seas to vanquish such an . that would assuredly be a feat that could not fail to cover the doctor with glory. cusable. In the evening. in which France. but under the circumstances. unreasonable. our understanding became clear of all that . it may us a full conbe deemed experhaps left This operation of acupuncture was invented in China in a period of the remotest antiquity. were blended and mingled into an inextricable entanglement was absurd and monstrous persons the most incongruous. : worthy man's pride was now concerned. however. a con- suming fever. Then also more illness . China. drew back and seeing that the disease scarcely sciousness of our actions. and Thibet. and fierce pains in the bowels The doctor never left us. and made to hold all sorts of impossible conversations. were brought together by the wild extravagances of our delirious imagination.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. enough to make out that the physician was speaking of the operation of acujyimcture. prudent neutrality. and afterward . Tartary. atrocious kind of malady. whereupon we clinched our fist. the like of which had never been seen among the inhabit- ants of the Celestial Empire. obstinate. a distracting headache. for the principal symptoms. all that we know is. This manner of explaining our opinion of the matter was not. that he " in a fright. and left 17 thought proper ing morning . the following day we did not know much of what was passing in the room we occupied in the communal On Our brains became a chaos palace of Kuen-kiang-hien. and looked at him in such fierce wrath. too. us to get well or not as we that on the follow- we were came more medicines. we must own. and in a very dangerous state. quite in accordance with the rites. a dry and burnsuch were the ing skin.

MM. tries.18 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Morand. . this mode of proceeding has found both detractors and enthusiastic admirers. for use in both coun- the cure of many diseases. and is performed introducing into the body long metallic needles. the whole science of the operator consisting in the choice of the places where lie will poke them in. some small works have been printed. and in the by knowledge of the depth to which they may penetrate. J. Some have seen in it a sort of panacea of marvelous efficacy . Cloquet. It is in frequent passed into Japan. at different periods. wrote on the subject in 1825: "Acupuncture has from the remotest antiquity formed one of the principal curative methods of Chinese and Japanese medicine. capable of throwing light on this interesting point of therapeutics and physiology. at that time repeated experiments in acuIn studying the manner in which the needles . and the direction they ought to follow. it has also been practiced in Europe for several years." Several celebrated physicians and natural philosophers among others. Very wonderful cures are said to have been performed by this method. Like every thing new and singular. and articles in periodicals. sides in and as the opportunities for observation of it Europe could not be very frequent or numerous. and Pouillet made puncture. but one must really be born in Japan or China to submit to have one's body made into a pin-cushion. much the This is what M. Acupuncture has been. and for these few months much extolled in France. In some cases the needles are made red hot. others an unmeaning operation. reference has been usually so much made to the experience of Asiatics. that might sometimes Facts have been cited on both be highly dangerous. Inde- pendently of academical essays. disdained in matters of science. Abel Remusat fashion in Europe.

excited it It constantly coexisted with the oxydation was demonstrated that it was never by a needle of platina. like that produced by a very feeble voltaic pile. 10 act on a living body. that this action took place in the same manner with ani- when acupuncture was mals. in this hypothesis. is with introduction a slight shock was felt. It was even thought that on touching the needle about ten minutes after its phenomena that take place when a electricity. or silver. relief he the felt. but only by those made of oxydable metals. they had been induced to think that the cause of pain was the accumulation of the electric fluid in the part that is the seat of it. led natu- rally to the comparison of this physiological action with surface. the pain. It had been subsequently ascertained from the experiments of M. or the cause of it took place equally practiced on a part that was not It had been stated the seat of any neuralgic affection. for there is never any oxydation of metal without a development of electricity. and the The immediate. and the curative effect produced by the simple subtraction of the fluid. Pouillet. and that of the metal.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. at the same time. and that the introduction of the needle might favor its discharge. needle. charged put in relation with other bodies by means of a metallic conductor. gold. indeed instantaneous. that electric action did really take place on the introduction of a needle into a muscle affected with rheumatism but that this action was not due to the affection as consisting in fluid . since pain. the cause of the an accumulation of the electric on a' nervous branch. was a real lightning conductor introduced into the body of the patient . Thus an attempt was made to explain. and it is nearly certain . It is therefore allowable to conclude that the physical phenomenon observed is the result of chemical action between the metal of the needle and the parts with which it is brought into contact .

preserving its natural color but it soon sinks again. inde- pendently of the relief afforded. if care is previously taken to distend the skin. Some surgeons have asserted that the extreme fineness of the needle was a sufficient guarantee against consequences of this kind . the lungs. of no effect in the relief felt by the As to the physiological effects of acupuncture. fear There might be. and which can scarcely be taken place it attributed to the pain of the puncture. it has been found possible to pierce with them the stomach. since they have when the painful sensation has ceased. or has shifted its place. is that this current sufferer. cause to serious wounds and fatal consequences if the needle should traverse the great nervous trunks. . only a few drops. its extraction is more painful than little its intro- blood from the puncThe skin rises round ture at most. there issues very . perhaps. is the only accident ever known to result from acupuncture. more or less complete. instead of being driven straight forward. it is. and there is formed a red circle round it. duction . the instrument. time there have come faintings. especially in cases of rheumatism and neuralgia. . The the part sick person then feels shootings directed toward muscular contractions take place . and if the needle is turned. or at all events become diminished. numbness. they have mostly been observed to be the following. but although in experiments made on animals. without any bad result. appears. . following the course of the great trunks of the nerves . Toward this . and feverish shiverings. This. It is not uncommon to see a sweat break out over the part corresponding with the seat of pain and in that case it has ceased. which has been remarked. nevertheless.20 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. or the organs essential to life. and even the heart. and more or less durable. The introduction of the needle is not very painful. In general.

must often meet with fatal accidents acupuncture is not practiced among them without rule and method. in the turn the point to prescribed. and the student is required to place his needle without hesitation upon the spot made. performing operation. "But what can all these precautions avail. they have fabricated small copper figures. the surface of the figure is then covered with paper pasted on. Abel Remusat. It is. The Chinese and Japanese doctors." says M. which may be traced both in the where the opening is general and particular precepts that the Japanese author has here collected. or the still more absurd theories of a fantastic physiology. being ignorant of anatomy.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. nor entirely according to the caprice of the . They set out on the principle that the arteries always proceed from above to below. certain that such attempts 21 might occasion an irreparable misfortune. of the needle upward when it is wished to go counter to . "in the profound ignorance of the practitioner as to the situation and connection of the various organs ? They regulate their practice solely on the principles of a blind routine. on which very small holes are made in tion in ternal parts. the proper places . therefore. and on which he would be to required operate according to the affection he is examined upon. and having only the most vague and erroneous ideas on the subject of the organization of the hu- man but frame. in speaking of a Japanese book on Acupuncture. practitioners. They have determined on the surface of the human body three hundred and sixty-seven points to which they have given particular names. according to the relawhich they suppose them to stand with the inand in order to obtain practice without compromising human health. the veins always from below to above.

to a depth of one line. they seem to have been guided by long practice. " I will not take upon me. book are worthy of the sagacity of this. it has been supposed that the Japanese physician opinion. and the rules found in it do not agree with those of the Japanese. but that. What may be said in praise of the physicians of both countries is. if they should be taken up at random from our libraries and sent off to China as a In the King's Library in Paris there is a specimen. from a small unauthorized work. they are probably only acting at random. There are works on medicine and surgery among us which would not give a very favorable idea of our progress in these sciences. or in the 'middle of the In front of the arm. my others. that in the application both of the needle and the moxa. In a syncope following a severe fall. ture is to be corrected you desire to awkward punc- by making punctures on other half the prescriptions in the and corresponding points. is sought to act by derivation. opposite the larynx. the upper part of the throat. in to do them too much honor. would not receive the approval of their really skillful medical men. on the suggestions of an ignorant and credulous empiri- many cism. tured. and downward An unseasonable or proceed with it. to pronounce a decided judgment upo*i Japanese medical doctrines. little treatise on Acupuncture in Chinese. if any such are to be found in Japan. anthese are one from how distant parts considering other. in dry coughs. by attributing to them so In this instance.22 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. if the course of the blood. is to be punctured to a depth of eight In pains in the loins. nevertheless. as in so clear an idea of revulsion. perhaps. the hams are to be punclines. and that the points assigned for the operation . or at the base of the little finger. the external and hinder part of the arm. whose contents.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

23

are not always as ill chosen as those above mentioned. They seem also to have been enlightened by experience

as to the danger of introducing the needles above the arterial trunks and the principal nerves of the great vital organs ; but it is probable that their experience

on these points has cost the

lives of a great

number of
on
this
it

patients." entertained precisely the same opinion matter as M. Abel E-emusat, at the moment

We

when
;

was proposed

to stick needles into our

operations of this kind that

own body the we had witnessed by no

means tended to reassure us sufficiently, although they had been what is called successful; and we felt no desire to contribute at our own expense to the progress of The the art of acupuncture in the Chinese Empire. doctor comprehended immediately the figurative language by which we had expressed our aversion to the

introduction of the needles

;

and he did not

insist

on

it,

as Master Ting, wjth extreme sagacity, suggested that, as Europeans were not organized at all in the same

manner as the Chinese, he might run the risk of stick"What rashness! "he ing them in the wrong place.
these Europeans are made ? what they have in their bodies ? How do you know, doctor, what you would be sticking your
cried
;

"do we know how
tell

Who

can

The doctor admitted, or feigned to into ?" admit, the cogency of Master Ting's reasoning ; and it was settled that we should go back to our black broth,
needle

with certain modifications. The night was a good deal better than the day had been and in the morning the physician reappeared, and found us, he said, extremely well prepared to take a
;

most decisive remedy, the good effect of which was certain. The cure would be immediate and radical, and
assuredly

we

could not require more.

The

preparation

24

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

trouble

of this miraculous medicine required very little time or the doctor having asked for half a cup of tea, ; threw into il a dozen of minute red pills, scarcely the
size of a pin's head,

real

homoaopathic globules.
this tea,

Ax

soon as

we had swallowed

which by the addi-

had acquired a strong odor of musk, every body was ordered out of the room, that we might be left in perfect quiet and though we certainly
tion of these globules
;

can not affirm that this mode of treatment contributed to our relief or our cure, it is certain that we soon afterfelt much better, and that the improvement went on during all the rest of the day. In the evening we took six more red globules, and the next day we were decidedly convalescent, though still excessively' weak ; the malady had disappeared, there were no more convulsions, or headaches, or pains in the stomach ; and who so proud as our doctor ? He harangued the company with the most perfect confidence on all imaginable subjects, and they vied with

ward

his mouth.

each other in applauding every word that came out of Especially he did not fail to dwell on the
red medicine,

infallible efficacy of this

when adminis-

and according to the rules of prudence and wisdom two virtues which Heaven had been pleased to confer upon him in the most supreme
tered in due season,
degree.

These red pills, to which every one attributed our were not for us an unknown medicine, for they enjoy a prodigious celebrity in China, and we had heard them every where extolled. The pompous and emphatic
cure,

name that they bear is equal to their reputation. They are called ling-pao-you-y-tan, that is to say, " Supernatural treasure for all desires." It is said to be a true
universal panacea, curing all kinds of maladies without any exception: the great difficulty consists in varying

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

25

Adthe dose, and combining it with a suitable liquid. ministered in an improper manner, this remedy may, it
is said,

become dangerous, and cause
of
it

terrible infirmities.

a secret, in possession of a it has been faithfully single family in Pekin, in which transmitted from generation to generation ; it is, therefore, impossible to mention the ingredients; its smell
is

The composition

of musk, though very powerful, need not be considered any thing characteristic, since in China, not only the medicines, but also every other object, the people, the
as
land, the
air, all

are

more or

less

impregnated with this
smells of
to

particular odor.

The whole Chinese Empire

musk, and the merchandise imported thence
retains the smell for a long time.

Europe

This supernatural treasure, although manufactured by the one family in Pekin, is known all over the Empire, and can usually be bought at a moderate price ;
only
but
it is

necessary to be careful to get

it

unadulterated,

no very easy thing. At Pekin the it is the same as that of price has never varied pure One day we ourselves went to buy some in one silver. of the principal shops, and we had only to place in one scale a small ingot of silver, and the merchant put in the other an equal weight of red pills. The supernatural treasure is perhaps the most active sudorific existing but it acts in a quite peculiar manA single one of these little red globules reduced ner. to powder, and put up the nose like snuff, occasions a long succession of sneezing, until the whole body breaks out into violent perspiration. This powder is sometimes used to ascertain if a sick person is near the point
\vhich in

China

is

:

;

of death.

If a pinch can not make him sneeze, the Chinese say he will certainly die in a day; if he sneezes once, he will at all events not die till the morrow, and the hope
increases in the precise ratio of the

number of

sneezings.

VOL.

II.

B

26

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
Chinese medicine

is remarkable for the extreme whimmodes of procedure, and the collection of books in which it may be studied is very considerable but they contain for the most part few recipes but such as are already more or less known. Europeans would of course find in them nothing interesting in a scientific point of view ; but it would be a mistake to treat them with perfect contempt. The Chinese are endowed with

sicality of its

;

!

they have much penand often notice many small, but sagacity, not unimportant, circumstances, to which minds superior The anto theirs might be apt to pay no attention. tiquity of their civilization, too, and their habit of collecting and preserving in writing the most important discoveries, must have put them in possession of an immense mass of useful facts. We have never had the honor to study medicine ourselves but we have often heard it maintained by learned and skillful physicians, that the art of curing human maladies was less a matter of science than of experience and observation. Sickness and infirmity is the mournful inheritance of humanity in all countries, and
prodigious powers of observation
etration
;

and

;

at

all

epochs

;

is

it

God has always
to discover the

placed

not reasonable to suppose that it within the power of man
relieving his sufferings,

means of

and

The most uncivilized nations, preserving his health? have often been found in possession of savages even, certain remedies, which science not only could never
have invented, but of which
the effects.
it

could not even explain

There are in China at
are elsewhere
er
;

least as
is

many maladies

as there

yet mortality

not proportionably great-

than inot her countries. Its immense and exuberant population may be considered to afford a proof that, on the whole, Chinese doctors are not in practice much more

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

27

awkward and unskillful than their brethren in Europe. Neither the one nor the other has yet been able to compound a good elixir of immortality, although both had the weakness to labor to discover such a one for many
centuries
:

the Chinese find means, however, to live as

long as we do, and octogenarians are as numerous among them as among us. are, indeed, far from envying

We

the Chinese their system of medicine, which it must be owned borders closely on quackery ; we would only assert the probability of their possessing curative meth-

have even ods proportioned to their necessities. seen instances of their treating, with great success, diseases that would be considered very formidable by our
medical faculty.
apostolic career

We

There

may

is no missionary who in his not have witnessed facts of this

When

kind, capable of exciting his surprise and admiration. a physician has succeeded in curing promptly and

malady presenting the most grave and dangerous symptoms, it is to little purpose to pass a learned condemnation on the methods he has employed, and enradically a

deavor to prove their inefficiency. The sick man has been healed he is again in the enjoyment of perfect that is the essential point. health There are few peowould not saved in the most irregwho ple prefer being
ular

and stupid manner to being killed according most approved and scientific methods.
It is indisputable, for instance, that there

to the

exist in

China medical men who know how to treat the most decided cases of hydrophobia ; and it matters little that
during their treatment of this frightful malady, they
expressly forbid any object containing hemp to be shown to the patient, under the idea that that would
neutralize the effect of the remedies.

For several years we had

for

one of our catechists a

man who had

the precious gift of being able to set frac"

28

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

have seen him operate upon and cure with extraordinary facility more than fifty unfortunate men, whose bones were broken and even crushed.
tured limbs.

We

The

tients

operation always succeeded so well that the paused to come themselves to thank him, to the chamber that he occupied beside ours, and in the pres-

ence of such results, we never felt inclined to laugh, because the plaster he employed to promote the junction of the bones was made of wood lice, white pepper,

and a fowl pounded In 1840, we had

to death. in our seminary at

Macao a young

Chinese, who was about to be sent back to his family, on account of the complete deafness by which he had

been for some months affected, and which did not permit him to continue his studies. Several medical authorities, Chinese, Portuguese, English, and French

had been consulted

in vain concerning this infirmity.

doctors explained in technical language the mechanism of hearing ; they said wonderful things about it

The

did honor to the profundity of their knowledge but their treatment remained ineffectual, and the deafthat
;

ness was declared incurable.

Fortunately we had in our house a Christian recently arrived from our mission in the neighborhood of Pekin. He was neither a doctor nor a man of learning ; nor did

He was simply a very he possess any literary degree. but he recollected pof jpeasant ; having noticed that the ped^e of his country employed a certain plant with
success in^he cure of deafness. After diligent searchin the of environs he had the good fortune Macao, ing to find some of this salutary herb, and he expressed the
juice of some of the leaves into the ears of the sick man, from which an immense quantity of humor was immediately discharged, and in two days the cure was

complete.

The young Chinese was enabled

to continue

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
his studies,

20

and is at present a missionary in one of the southern provinces.* The Chinese have some maladies peculiar to them-

and not known elsewhere as there exist several which make great ravages in Europe, and are in China unknown. Some are common to both the east and the west, and the method of curing them is no better understood in the one quarter of the world than the other.
selves,
;

Phthisis, for example,

is

considered incurable

by

the

Chinese physicians, and also the cholera. This terrible malady manifested itself first in China, then spread to the other countries of Asia, and afterward reached EuIt was under the following circumstances this rope.
formidable scourge, formerly unknown, made its first have the account from a great numappearance. ber of the inhabitants of the province of Chan-tong,

We

who were
>

In the

first

eye-witnesses of what they related. year of the reign of the deceased

Emperor

that is to say in the year 1820 a mass of reddish vapor was noticed one day upon the surface of the Yel-

low Sea. This singular phenomenon was observed by the Chinese of the province of Chan-tong, which forms its coast. These vapors were at first light, but gradubecame condensed, rose little by little increased, ally above the surface of the water, and at last formed an immense red cloud, which remained for several hours The Chinese were seized wit? terfloating in the air.
5
"

ror, as

they mostly are in the presence of

all

wxat nat-

ural phenomena, and sought in certain * Aperstitious practices of the Bonzes the means of averting the threat-

ened calamity. They burnt vast quantities of magic paper, which
* "We could mention on the subject of. Chinese medicine a number of remarkable facts but we abstain, because Le vrai peut quelquefois
;

n'etrepas vraisemblable.

80

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

they threw

processions in

Dragon; omens to the anger of that fabulous personage. At last they had recourse to an extreme measure only adopted in desperate cases they executed a tremendous charivari all along the sea coast. Men, women, and children went striking redoubled blows upon all the instruments most capable of producing a loud and sonorous noise, tam-tams, kitchen utensils, and metal implements of all kinds and the wild and savage outcries of a countless
:

They formed long flaming into the sea. which they bore the image of the Great for they of course attributed these sinister
all

;

multitude of people increased the horror of this infernal were ourselves once witnesses of a similar uproar.

We

manifestation in one of the great towns of the south, where all the inhabitants without exception, shut up in
their houses, struck as in frenzy every metallic article within reach, uttering at the same time the most frantic

and

incredible vociferations.

One can hardly imagine
this
city.

any thing more frightful than arising in the bosom of a great
itants of

monstrous tumult

While the inhab-

Chan-tong were seeking to conjure away this unknown misfortune, which yet every one foresaw, a

wind suddenly began to blow, and, dividing the cloud into various columns, drove them on toward the These red vapors spread in a winding course land.
violent

and valleys, and swept over the towns and wherever they passed men found themvillages, selves suddenly attacked by a frightful disease, which in a moment deranged the entire organization, and changed
along the
hills

and

In vain did the a living man into a hideous corpse. doctors anxiously turn over their books ; nowhere could they find any hint of this new, strange, and terrible enemy, that struck like a thunderbolt, sometimes on one on poor and rich, young side, sometimes on the other

and

old,

but always apparently in the most capricious

implacable scourge went raging on its fearful . Thus. It is of in his opinion that the deep and lively interest every one takes own health is a sufficient guarantee that confi- dence will not be given to a doctor who is unworthy of it. ravages. and that. At Pekin its victims were promalady first the portionally more numerous than elsewhere. just ten years after from the bosom of the Yellow Sea. It is probable that it followed the route of the caravans as far as the Russian station of Khiaktha. and learned the nomenclature of medicaments. whoever has read a few receipt books. without reckon- China swarming with . but entirely without numberless experiments made and the success. doctors. off the lors. or killing them. afterward passing through Siberia. then turned ravaged northward to Pekin. it invaded Russia and Poland.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 31 manner without following any fixed rule in the midst of Numberless remedies were tried. Thence cholera crossed the Great Wall. the government does not in any way interfere with him. is found to be an exliterary bache- numerous who and is grees. may plunge boldly into the noble art of healing his fellow-creatures. and. as well as education. plunging whole populations into terror and mourning. It the province of Chan-tong. Medicine. and the Chinese say that it faded away in the Land of Grass. cellect conduit to carry. striking always in its march the most populous towns. it had issued In China every one is at full liberty to take up the profession of medicine whenever he pleases . whence it made a bound to France after the revolution of 1830. all it According to terrible that the Chinese have told us of this was incontestably the cholera. with unabated fury. are never likely to rise to the superior deThus attain the honors of the Mandarinate.

the magistrate shall convoke other men of the profession to examine the nature of the remedy that they shall have administered. there is also very little to be gained by it. in a manner contrary to established rules and practice. the bamboo. whence enue. and that they shall thereby contribute to cause the death of the patient. for. any regard for his life or his sapecks. ing the amateurs. The relations then. if the doctor have may happen when. is to take flight. Visits are not usually paid for at all : medicines are sold cheap. besides that medicine there is no great honor in exercising a profession that is within the reach of every one. : without understanding them. to avoid imprisonment. commence a lawsuit against him. having promised to cure a pahe has been so awkward as to allow him to die.32 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for the following passage occurs in the " When those who penal code of China. It would seem that the legislature favors these severe proceedings . since. and always on credit it . Their position is indeed far less desirable than in Europe. which happens pretty often. If it should appear that the physician or . and even this is not the worst of the poor doctor's case. section 297 shall exercise the professions of medicine or surgery. who are almost innumerable as we have said. without hesitation. or the wound they shall have made. and which has been followed by the death of the patient. This tient. reasonably be inferred that the doctor can not count on more than a third of his nominal rev- may It is also very much the custom not to pay for medicines that have not produced a good effect. and the safest way. He is not unfrequently obliged to hide himself or fly the country. fines. and shall administer drugs or operate with a piercing or cutting instrument. every Chinese knows more or less of there is no village so small as not to contain several professors of the healing art. or even worse punishment.

we are . in They fasten their lips cupping-glasses. he may. doctors for . but the physician or surgeon shall be compelled forever This last provision appears to us very sagacious.: they live their brethren the schoolmasters in privation ITrom what we have said. after God. and never witnessed a more revolting spectacle. obtain remission of the punishment inflicted on a homicide. bers.others limbs. and cause the blood and humors to gush into their mouths. the speciality of the Chinese doctors. but we would not excite any needless prejudice against for it is very possible that to . Chinese doctors are very fond of a speciality. however. are called " suckers of blood. the reader will some of the southWhatever may be from day to day as they best can. it it. and such as might be imitated with to quit the profession. they very rarely become rich by the exercise of their art. and doctors who fact. for old men." There are some and who are. The cure of the eyes. the and on humors abscesses of invalids. in the manner established for cases of killing by accident . have formed no very favorable idea of Chinese medicine. indebted for our lives. by drawing in their breath. and the feet is usually left to the bar- who enjoy also the privilege in ern provinces of fishing for frogs. women. devote themselves to such Some as proceed from cold. and ocj cupy themselves exclusively with the treatment of cer tain maladies. by a certain payment. There are also doctors for infants. make a vacuum. and commonly rival and poverty. It was our business to relate frankly and freely what we knew.JOURNEY THEOUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. We have seen these vampires at work. and without any injurious intention. Some devote their time to broken practice acupuncture . hermetically living and. the ears. others to those caused by heat." advantage in other places. 33 surgeon has only acted in error.

whom perhaps he has never seen nor heard of. and when once they have pre- sided over the burial all is over. . As soon barrassment. the owner of the soil is bound to give notice and afford the necessary explanations. to perform the funeral. to be considered valid. the civil and miliMandarins of Kuen-kiang-hien hastened to pay us tary a visit in grand state. the relations are answerable. But until then the unfortunate proprietor of the land remains responsible for the life of a man. Whether it be in a wood. They could not but be excessively uneasy while we were threatening to die under their jurisdiction not. and congratulate us on the favors that heaven and earth had just granted to us. They expressed to us in the most lively manner how happy they were to see us out of danger. must be accepted by the In that case they undertake relations of the deceased. of course. for our recovery released them from a terrible responsibility.54 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and no one has any right to raise doubts But if he or suspicions concerning the causes of death. In these circumstances . of the Mandarins were entirely sincere. and the true expression of their feelings. When an individual dies in his family there is no trouble . matters not. and on the point of recovering possession of our precious and brilliant This time we were persuaded that the words health. in the middle of a field. terrible things sometimes happen incredible suits are commenced in which the Mandarins and the relations of the dead resort . There are some special difficulties connected with the presence of a dead body in China. which. the proprietor of the place on which the body is found becomes responsible. that they cared whether we lived or died but they could not doubt that our death would have occasioned them great em. on a piece of waste land. lose his life out of doors. as our cure was complete.

Draconian laws have been found necessary to restrain within the limits of duty these materialist populations living without a God. their fellow-creatures. where there exists no religious principle capable of restraining evil instincts. it is certain that this law tends to stifle every sentiment of compassion toward the unfortunate. without religion. and ruin their victim. but it is easy to see the crying abuses to which it has given rise. have the courage to receive into his house suffering Who would any poor Who wayfarer whose life might be in danger ? would venture to bestow care upon a dying man. or the ditch that bordered it? Such an act of mercy might chance to be rewarded by total ruin. or even to allow him to die in peace in his field. law of responsibility.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. can not say whether this law has produced any of the good results hoped for from it . They have been known to keep an unfortunate and perfectly innocent shut up in a dungeon. or even by capital punishment. 35 to every device of trickery and wickedness to satiate their cupidity. with the terrors of death suspended over his head. Thus the sick and unfortunate are driven . assassinations would take place every moment. It may be conceived that in a country like China. and consequently without a conIn order to teach them to respect the lives of science. With- We out speaking of iniquitous lawsuits of the persecutions carried on by the Mandarins against innocent persons. was doubtless considered in the mind of the legislator in the light of spoiling man him This terrible a safeguard of human life. a salutary barrier to the outbreaks of passion. until they have succeeded in deof all his goods. a dead body has been made to them an object of excessive dread. although often in practice a source of monstrous iniquities. if the blood of a man were made of small account.

one of the little towns in the environs *became the scene of a horrible crime of this nature. is not going on well. " Steward of the to cash-box. is to deposit by stealth a dead body upon his ground. saying politely it was for a cup of tea. and had the charity to go further off and yield his last breath in the middle of the else street. and every body is poor nowadays. with the utmost effrontery. A vagabond went into the warehouse of a great commercial establishment. they are obliged to remain stretched on the high road.SO JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. or to be dragged under certain sheds. I want money and I have none . "but times are bad. being the property of the government. and. from every dwelling. The beggar demanded." you?" said the menditwo ounces of cant. One day we ourselves saw an honest tradesman endeavoring. addressing himself directly to the principal. said. then. to persuade a poor fellow \vho had fainted on the threshold of his shop to go and die somewhere and the unfortunate creature got up with the . he offered him two ounces of silver. I know that your Comis rich. "keep your silver. you are poor too. " It is business not much." said the merchant. I'm not "What. He is certain by that means to entail on his foe a long series of miseries and calamities. which. One of the greatest acts of vengeance that a Chinese can practice toward an enemy. help of a passer-by. I have come beg you to lend me some . do not compromise any one. When AVC were at our mission in the valley of the Black Waters.'' pany The sinister looks and audacious tone of the fellow intimidated the merchant. and. with tears and supplications. are . not daring to turn him out. whether he thought a man like him would be satisfied with two ounces of silver.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. we thought it better to leave O-iVj^ _ <W . casting on the merchant a look like that of a wild beast. and the consequence was the total ruin of the house . and that there would consequently come a long series of inquiries. ha. and called " Steward of the cash steward of the cash !" out. the principal partners of which long lan- The merchant recognized " guished in the public prisons. you thought better of it. ! the man. We took good care not to undeceive them. have you ?" "No. laughhave Ah. tends to produce it. and that they might have to suffer loss and damage in various ways. and annoyances of every kind. holding a child in his arms. The next day he presented himself again in the street before the door. flung it all bleeding into the warehouse. and then rushed away and hid himself in the labyrinth of streets. "on the contrary. to trouble itself about us . I have not. perplexities. and have ing. and would government call their Emperor to account for it. but there is question ing crime. and cried. and to tell them that our government had something else to do than the Chinese law . It is probable that a case so atrocious as this does not often happen ." said the ruffian. I have come to make you a present. here is something to make your business get on better . 37 going to starve you. See. The child belonged to a family known to be at enmity with this one." and lie went out. come to fetch your two ounces of silver. no doubt that the law in and instead of prevent- kiang-hien on our account had certainly not been such as to make them dread any of these terrible outrages of but they had imagined that the French concern itself about our death. that the malevolent might accuse them of negligence. The fears entertained by the Mandarins of Kuen- quite fails ih its object." and with these words he plunged a knife into the heart of the child.

What a piece of good fortune it was for him that he should have been at Kuen-kianghien when we arrived. in order to convince us of the sincerity of these charming expressions. After resting days at joyful news to the prefect of the town.38 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. calm weather. And. or not have a magistrate who would fulfilled his duty toward us have as had he done. and know probably that neither our sickness nor our death to occasion would be them the smallest uneasiness. and devo- Macao ! tion. at the first maker's in Kuen-kiang-hien. . with solicitude. it was impossible for him to restrain the transports of his de- made light. in this salutary fear salutary not only for us. and a propitious 'current on the river . a sky of cloudless blue. he forgot nothing that could render our journey happy and agreeable. we began to think When we announced this of continuing our journey. and affection. as he had had the happiness of doing. given us his whole heart. a favorable wind. in short. cool and umbrageous places of repose. who would not have understood. four likely Kuen-kiang-hien. He wished us nay he promised till us for every day of our journey -a we should reach smooth and fine road. have surrounded us every day. but for any missionaries who might have to do with their tribunals. not. our strength being sufficiently restored. them it any thing did not These Mandarins that the judicial assassination of several French missionaries had formed no obstacle to the exchange of the most touching assurances of esteem and affection between the two governments. he assured us that he had carried his cares so far as to choose for us a magnificent coffin. although he the most polite efforts to appear concerned. be observed. poetical His language under its influence became quite and flowery. and just at the time of our illWe might have met with a careless selfish magness istrate.

them displayed in the shops with all sorts of tasteful decorations. who have money to spare for their pleasures. People are mostly shy of mentioning the lugubrious objects destined to contain the mortal remains of a relation or friend. in order to But it is spare the feelings of the mourning family. scarcely ever fail to provide themselves beforehand with a coffin to their own taste. but as one that can not fail to be consoling and pleasant to the eye in a nicely-furnished apartment. People in easy circumstances. and fancy to the living. and which they consider an and of luxury In the great towns you see becoming in it. the coffin is got in in secrecy and silence. there a coffin is simply article of the first necessity to the dead. If one is not sufficiently favored by fortune to be able to afford the purchase of a coffin in advance. and come in state to moment when they least expect such an agreeable surprise. not as an article of imme- diate necessity. could men be heard exchanging compliments on the subject of a coffin. it . and Avhen death does enter the house. perhaps. For well-brought-up children it is a favorite method of expressing the fervor of their filial piety toward the authors of their being.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. painted and varnished. Could there possibly be a more a coffin it 39 polite we quite ready for us in case could not fail to thank him with made man ? To have we should want warmth for this most tender and delicate attention. quite otherwise in China. and give them the fancy to buy themselves one. In no other country than China. and polished and trimmed up to attract the eyes of passengers. is and. until the moment arrives for lying down kept in the house. a sweet and tender consolation for the heart of a coffin for son to be able to purchase a beautiful an aged father or mother. care is always taken that before " sapresent the gift at the .

a sick person shall at least have the satisfaction of casting a glance at his last abode . they never fail to and place it by the side of his bed. using a word of one or the other as we found occasion. and especially the cost wood is brought.40 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CIIINKSi. and the workmen set about their task in the yard close to the chamber of the dying person. coffin. not forgetting to observe to him that it must be made a little longer than would seem necessary. short time after our arrival at the mission in the north.MIMKK. A . buy him a . and without the slightest emotion. we saw coming toward us a rather numerous crowd. in a mixture of Latin and Chinese." as the Chinese say. concerning the length and the breadth. and if he is surrounded by at all affectionate relations. while death is at work within him. It might have been called a procession. K. and it has always been one of the things that most surprised us in the manners of this extraordinary country. who way si takes measure of the sick person. In the country are not this is not always so easy for coffins kept quite ready. preparing him to occupy the snug abode when it is . luting the world. ready. we were walking one day in the country with a Chinese seminarist. who had the patience to reply to all our long and tedious questions about the men and things of the Celestial Empire. While we were keeping up the dialogue as well as we could. who advanced in an orderly manner along a narrow path. who is entertained with the music of the saw and the other tools. peasants have The only not such luxurious habits as townspeople. besides. and. We have ourselves witnessed such scenes more than once. of the is for the then to send carpenter place. because one always stretches A bargain is then made out a little when one's dead. All this is done with the most perfect coolness. real or affected.

bringing to die home to his family. wrapped and his expiring eyes were fixed upon the coffin that When every one had passed. reassured us. and we saw then that we had come into a new world into the midst of a people whose ideas and feel- men These ings differed widely from those of Europeans. They seem to have made every thing ready for his funeral. was composed of a great number of villagers. 41 Our first impulse was safe corner to turn aside. After them came a litter. and then an- other litter. and whom they are is in blankets. hill. upon which lay extended a dying man His face was haggard and livid. "who has been taken ill in a neighboring village. we hastpreceded him. and had the appearance of being uncommonly pleased. The Chinese do not like away from their own house. "It some sick man. and we stood aside to let it pass. on which was borne an empty coffin. ened to ask the meaning of this strange procession. behind a large Our seminapossibly even condemned and strangled. all ." These words threw us into the most profound astonishment. I remarked by linen that they mean the side of the coffin a piece of white to use for the mourning. and get into some not having as yet much experience in the manners and customs of the Chinese." said the seminarist. The crowd had now come up with It us. who probably has not many days to live. for fear of being recognized and thrown into prison irist. but what is the coffin for?" man. however. we had some hesitation in producing ourselves. who looked at us with smiling faces. doubtless with the purpose of doing what was agreeable to him. about to for the funeral of quietly setting prepare a still living friend and relation . and declared that we might continue our walk without any fear. this coffin placed purposely under the eyes of the dying man." "That is very "For the sick natural.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for.

this reverie. and that there was no time to lose. when they came to summon us to This was a formula to administer the last sacraments. They expire with the most incomparable tranquillity. plunged us into a strange . and beautifully varnished. the agitations. not smoke any more. to their soft and lymphatic temperament. the agonies that usually render the moment of death so terrific. stained of a violet color. and the bitterness of separation. trunks of trees. yet prefer being seated in our palanquin. Superb. We where we had been on but before we set off we the coffin that had been out of four enormous quitted at last this town of Kuen-kiang-hien. can not exist for those who have never loved any one much. It appears to us that this peaceable death of the Chinese is to be attributed." we must own we "but we said. without any of the emotions. ligious feeling.42 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the point of stopping forever. Their oil. tojtheir entire want of reThe apprehensions connected with a future life. first. secondly.silence. and. and at bottom this death is really the most lamentable that can be imagined. had the curiosity to go and see It was made prepared for us. and who have passed their lives without thinking of God or their souls. They die indeed calmly. " Master Ting asked us how we liked it." the Chinese Christians were accustomed to say. well planed. but irrational animals have the same advantage." . and the walk was continued in The moment see the approach of death does not fail astonishing calmness with which the Chinese when the last arrives. indicate that the danger was pressing. life goes out gently like a lamp certain sign by which to live is when that lias no more The most you may know when they have not long "The sick man does they no longer ask for their pipe.

43 resumed our journey. that the next day. We when we felt entered the communal palace of Tien-men. The doctor had recommended it when he gave us his parting advice.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. by torch and lantern light. conformably to the new programme. we quite fresh and well. . and the night traveling so completely restored our strength and appetite.

their fears were at an end. what mattered more to them. THE Mandarins They knew easy to see through this great politeness take at it . When they saw us. and though they had been informed that our health was improving.CHAPTER Visit of the II. and we should die Tien-men! It may be imagined how formidable these ideas were to men who dread expense and trouble above every thing. if Full of hope. In order to procure for us invigorating repose. portation of Tartar Agitators town of Tien-men made haste that a serious illness had detained us four days at Kuen-kiang-hien. however. they set a guardian of the communal palace to drive out with a horse-hair fly-flapper any mosquitoes . expressed our inten-. of the to visit us. tion of pursuing our journey at nightfall. and. render exerted themselves to our they departure easy and agreeable. Mandarins of Tien-men Their Attention to us Fame of Tien-men for the Number and Beauty of its Water-melons ExtenCaustic Humor of a young Milisive Use of the Water-melon Seed tary Mandarin The Inhabitants of Sse-tchouen treated as Strangers in the Province of Hou-pe Prejudices of Europeans with regard to Chinese The Manner in which most Works on China are composed True View of the supposed Immobility of the Orientals Revolutions in the Chinese Empire Socialist School in the Eleventh Century Account of their System Long and severe Struggle TransCauses of the Barbarian Invasions. for we were looking pretty well. What a relapse should take place. they feared no doubt that being yet scarcely convalescent we might into our heads to rest awhile in their town. they It was desired to convince themselves of it in person.

mosquitoes. and some yellow. we had remarked in all the they could desire. we slept tranquilly Hearing that we had more than once shown a preaqueous fruits. some were scarlet. 45 pertinent that might be in our rooms. when the harvest is abundant. were lavished on us with astonishing prodigality. and they also relieve themselves of the . yielding to the depravity of their " natures. and who seemed to have come into the world for no other purpose than to chew melon-seed. for The water-melon seeds for the proprietor. The and desired result was obtained to our hearts' content. some white. In some places. on condition that they shall put aside the count of its seeds. By this interested generosity they have the glory of refreshing the weary during the hot season. the palanquin-bearers. The soldiers'. Sometimes the fruit is carried in to some quantities frequented highway. Though it was very early when we entered the town. It this fruit.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. fearing that these iminsects. the servants. very important in China on acwhich the Chinese have a perfect The reader may perhaps remember the old passion. who had been fastened upon us in the capital of Sse-tchouen. in particular. and only preserved for the sake of the seed. Mandarin of honor. the is latter being generally the most delicate. the fruit is valueless. the authorities of Tien-men had the kindness to put an abundant supply of them at our disposal water-melons. all had as much as dilection for : was the height of the season for produced at Tien-men of unusual size and superior flavor. they fumigated all the approaches with certain aromatic herbs whose odor is said to be unendurable to . and given away to travelers. might return to trouble our slumbers. and. which is streets long stalls covered with a profusion of magnificent slices of water-melons .

These water-melon seeds are indeed a treasure of cheap amusement for the three hundred million inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. while children or workmen have a few sapecks to dispose it is of. all times and in all If a few friends assemble to drink tea or riceis wine. and one worthy to attract the attention of our great compilers of statistical tables to fix the daily. the hard shell to oboff with which rapidity they strip tain the tiny kernel must be seen to be appreciated. for if there is in the world a disappointing dish. . It would be a curious . tive Therefore the Chinese use them at places. it is surely this. trouble of working these mines to extract the precious deposit within. in the wildest and most ill-provisioned district you need never fear to be without melon-seeds.46 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. on the high-roads and the by-roads . They are an object of and daily consumption throughout the eighteen provinces. there melon-seeds. eaten while traveling. You sometimes see junks on the rivers entirely loaded with this precious cargo truly you might imagine yourself in a nation of rodentia. always an obligato accompaniment of V pursuing business this dainty . The consumption of them throughout the Empire is something incredible. something beyond the limits of the wildest imagination. it is amusing to see these extraordinary people their meals to test the con- Their long and appetite. for what is artificial and decepof the Chinese pensity We had inspired them with this frantic passion for water-melon seeds . They are when . a fantastic kind of food. The skill and pointed nails are then extremely useful. inquiry. a troop of squirrels or apes could not manoeuvre more munching these seeds before dition of their stomach and always thought that the natural prodexterously. they run to expend them on in the towns and sold every where the villages.

as well as of having studied the manners and customs of foreign fitted to appreciate and judge on the face of the earth. manners. he discussed every thing that came into his head with decision and authority. As he spoke not only with ease but with elegance. he began to tease the Mandarins of our escort most pitilessly. lively face. he had more brains than most of the men of letters. pale. and appearance. and no one was more convinced of this than himself. sarcasm in it. His little. where we passed a pleasant day. a mere He asked them whether civilization had savage region.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. " You are not to into the mountains yet. with a touch of . our Sse-tchouenites had found themselves sadly out of their element since they had left their . and of being thus those of Hou-pe. and of some small displays of prowess against the English. definitively every subject When we halted for our mid-day meal. he boasted of a long residence at Canton." said he. that you live very near a race of savages. or yearly consumption of this article in a country counting three hundred million inhabitants. "it is easy to perceive in your accent. 47 monthly. Above all. excited interest and curiosity although a soldier. there was appointed to accompany us as escort to the following stage a young military Mandarin." and he went on to point out to them many contrasts between their customs and nations. Every thing surprises you that is always the way with people who never stir from the place they are born in . To tell the truth. He talked of Sse-tchouen as of a foreign country. he was not backward in the use of his tongue. On leaving Tien-men. whose manners and gossip amused us much. interlarding his long harangues with pleasantries and witticisms not wanting in smartness. and this is certainly the first time you have traveled. begun creep from the Thibet frontier.

but the malicious clerk came and demanded. They had not gone far however when some officious shop-keepers ran to tell them. some soldiers of the escort had seated themselves for a few minutes When before a shop. saying. laughed loudly. to be nothing " ignorant of the commonest customs ! very strange!" cried the and. two sapecka his The soldiers* rested before door. i The neighbors These scenes were of daily occurrence while we were traveling through Hou-pe. to excuse themselves. ashamed they could sit down for nothing. "That is his neighbors around. fleeced.48 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. It is spoken of as an empire of remarkable and imposing unity. paid the two sapecks. attacked in their tenderest point the pocket ventured to say that they did not under- The poor stand the demand. Very false ideas are entertained in . of the at. that they were very silly to let themselves be taken in so easily. in- sulted. as a perfectly homo- to traveling. they rose to depart. and marveled at people who were simple enough to imagine The soldiers. demand can possibly be objected travelers. with much apiece for looked at held out his hand with the air of a suspicion that his man who has no to. having him in amazement . clerk . I wonder. above all. that such was not the custom in Sse-tchouen. and indeed we natives of the West found ourselves more at home throughout China than the inhabitants of other provinces who were unused Europe concerning China and the Chinese. country They were ignorant of the manners we were traversing they were laughed . and. One day. a clerk of the establishment gravity. " Look here men fancy they can sit before shop for Where can they come from. of being taken for uncivilized creatures. these ! summoning my ! exclaimed. province. as a consolation. for example.

is strange country. to attribute to this colossal empire. and which the functionaries are forced to respect . the ideas. that it is easy to tell whether you are dealing with tL e-jagnJjiLihe. in the imposition of taxes. which constitute the Chinese type. language. the dress alters in form so much that you can distinguish a citizen of Canton from one of Pekin by it alone. so that to know one Chinese is to know all and after passing some time in a Chinese are town. Each province has customs peculiarly its own. where every one is struck with the peculiarity of his face. there reign every where rights of established custom which destroy that civil and administrative unity that Europeans have been pleased . them . you become aware of these modifications . II. the nature of contracts. the language changes by degrees till it is no longer intelligible . and certain national prejudices but they are distinguished by such varieties of shade. 49 geneous nation. VOL. and ruled by distinct legislation. .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.. and the construction of houses. you capable of describing life tliroughout this This is far from being the case. and are unknown There is nothing surprising in this when it considered that the Chinese empire is composed of a ' number of kingdoms. another. C . the manners. no doubt there are certain characteristics to be found throughout. the language. These characteristics are remarkable in the face. In passing from one province to south. or west. even in important matters. amidst a people to him. There exist also particular privileges and laws which the government dare not abolish. As much difference might be pointed out between the eighteen provinces as between the various states of Europe : a Chinese who passes from one to the other finds himself in a whose habits manners. east. such well-defined differences. though vast country. often separated under the dominion of various princes. north.

wishing to become acquainted with that mysterious Europe whose products he has so often admired. Let us suppose that a citizen of the Celestial Empire. someor other. who has resided many years in the bosom of a Christian community. therefore. he adorns him with the know . when reading their books you never doubt thefr good faith for a moment there is only one thing wanting that they should have seen the country and the nation of which they speak. Hence tories of it follows that a sojourn in Macao or the facto Canton does not render a man competent judge of the Chinese nation. These nations. Even a missionary. a little Chinese . will no doubt be perfectly acquainted with the district that has been the theatre of his zealous labors . makes up his mind to visit the extraordinary people of whom he has no knowledge beyond a vague notion of their geo. and is obliged to call some porter who has picked up. though more than once have never combined so closely but that an observing eye could detect the different elements composing the vast whole.60 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. after traversing graphical position. and. and It may be immisleads the public opinion of Europe. He embarks. and believes that the ways of the converts around him are those of the whole empire. how difficult it is to form a just estimate of the Chinese character and country from the writings of travelers who have paid a passing visit to These writers are unthose ports open to Europeans. iinited. and with intellect doubtedly gifted their sentences with choose their and turn they language. he deceives himself. agined. the ocean till he is sick of seeing nothing but sea and sky. but if he undertakes to extend his observations. he reaches the port of Havre. a fertile imagination . an enviable skill . Unfortunately he does not to his assistance how a word of French.

: Of the aid of his guide. He always has a long series of questions ready for him. Furnished with this guide. sometimes at the own suggestive imagination. he traverses the streets of Havre from morning till night. eking out his words with abundance of pantomimic gestures. nothing to therefore. paying. title 51 of interpreter or toun-sse. tell them after his long journey ? He writes. After a few months past thus in Havre. it is absolutely necessary to acquire a ing mass of information.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. course our Chinese is a philosopher and a moral* and therefore takes a great many notes he devotes the evening to this important labor. and buys the most extraordinary things. and enlighten China on the condition of Europe. of course. sometimes according to the information of a porter whom he does not understand. No doubt this Chinese will have seen many things . in order that he may have the pleasure of regaling his fellow-country men with his wonderful adventures on his return home. What would people say if he had turned. our traveler returns to his native country. because there is an understanding between his interpreter and the shopman to get as much as possible out of the bar- barian. disposed to make an astonishing discovery at every step. He enters every shop. nor understand very clearly the answers re- Nevertheless. but is a little embarrassed because he can neither make his own questions quite intelligible. and gets on with him as best he can. after making the effort of comthe to West. well disposed to yield to the entreaties of his friends not to deprive the public of dictation of his the useful and precious information he has collected con- cerning an unknown country. two or three times what they are worth. to which he calls in ist. is enraptured with all he sees.

of the regularity of their habits. and setting aside it is ing them difficult to the great mistake regarding the unity of the Chinese empire. and disturb the tran- . he did not expect . will contain a mass of errors. May I venture to brave the general conviction. science. which is supposed to be illustrated so well by their present state. and commerce." as he will no doubt call his book." says M. among other advantages. he the Pekin Gazette. is. there are many others which we will venture to point out. tion. manners. The immutability of the East has passed ink) a cient doctrines. the form of its government. we must suspect that his narrative. and after perus- imagine China such as she The China described is a work of imaginareally is. proverb.62 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. arts. and the unchangeable nature of their laws. one recognized fact. not to speak of the various kingdoms of Europe. one notion indisputably settled. takes up his too ready pen to compose a dissertation on France. can not fail to convey to his countrymen very false ideas regarding the nations of the West. The immutability of the Asiatics is one of those es- tablished ideas in regard to them which is founded on an " If there Utter ignorance of their history. industry. "in the whole range of European ideas. it is that of the subjection of Eastern nations to their an- and customs. its magistracy and army. Many works on China written in the published in Europe have been manner I have described. which he will liken to France. a country which has no existence. and if he be at all well informed. the character of its senate and legislature. might prepare a very interesting article on Havre for But if. Abel Re'musat. however picturesque and well written. not content with that. His " Travels in Europe. possesses that of rendering superfluous all inquiry after their ancient condition. and this opinion.

and subject to the same influences. five. whose inhabitants. Polynesia. may be described en masse. what* intimate connection is there between those nations called Orientals.* Are the Malays an Asiatic race ? Are the Muscovites a European nation ? Are there many points of resemblance between an Armenian and a Tartar. Celebes. with the harmonious names of Australia. 53 quillity of public opinion on this topic. and substituted a division of three. including the isles of Sunda. by representing the (Mentals as people who from time to time have followed new doctrines. in the first place. and traced an imaginary boundary on the side nearest us ? Even those ancient names that were formerly in use are becoming superseded by more elegant appellations. and Philippines.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. adopted various forms of govern- ment. the Moluccas. formed on the same model. will think that in asserting this I intend to extol the Asiatics. and Nothasia. Borneo. who are so of personal adornments ? fond of change in these things. and include them all in one comprehensive estimate ? It would apthat somewhere or other there is an immense counpear try called the East. since our geographers have proscribed the whole four quarters of the world. Yet what have these nations in common beyond their Asiatic And what is Asia but a portion of the great birth ? continent which the sea only surrounds on three sides. and to which we have assigned fictitious limits. because I try to establish a conviction of their inconstancy. TRAMS. and it is hard to say exactly what is Asia. that we should class them under one general head. A . Oceanica. and bowed to the sway of fashion in the matter The Europeans. "But. and comprehended in one view. an Indian and a Japanese ? There is * name sometimes applied by French geographers to a portion of the Indian Archipelago. or six. and I fear being taken for an enthusiastic eulogist of these people.

resembling nowe call it an Asiatic or Orithing that really exists ental. and care little to understand before pronouncing judg- ment. to speak more plainly. which we confound so ignorantly. natural productions. We confound and moral developments. and private life. knowing no more about it. and which do not in Asia present the painful monotony that has been fancied . nor of dress. and law are not settled by rain and sunshine. generic terms are indeed useful to people are not particular about having correct ideas. religion and laws. at the prodigious differences to be traced between nations which we class together so carelessly. and from this confusion produce an imaginary being. " But if you would consider this subject more nearly. revolutions in which produce such great changes in publargely. Petersburg. . or in other words. to distinguish them. more difference between them than between a Londoner and a Parisian. be surprised at the multitude of things unwould you known to you. nor to language. nor of race as exhibited in the countenance. p. for. just as we are embarrassed to detect a difference of features in those negro faces which at random who who . although that is great enough to cause one people to treat as a monster what Nor do I point to is elsewhere prodigiously admired.54 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. literary taste ."* * religion Melanges Asiatiques. a citizen of Madrid or of St. which necessarily follow those variations. praise or blame intellectual traits . 224. which influence social habits so though it acts powerfully on I confine myself especially to two points. or. I do not mean varieties of climate. Yet we class them all together. because we do not know how on casual observation appear identical. in spite of what a great writer has said. two points of the highest importance. these two points do not lic depend entirely on climate. and.

and that it is used for brevity's sake to avoid long and useless defor nominations. But these blind prejudices and this dogged obstinacy separate them one from another as much as from us. and has one revolution given them a taste The history of Asia answers all these for others ? if a false solution of them is offered to the and questions. perhaps discover something of that uniform civilization. 55 nations. being only incorrect when used carelessly and unthinkingly. " But in the annals of the shall we recalling past. public. would be an object of almost as much astonishment and ridicule as a European. whose chief attribute is held to be immutability? Different as they now are. or an Egyptian in the streets of Nankin. The characteristics mon to these nations are their which are comobstinacy in what con- cerns themselves. the reason is that it costs some trouble to study the history itself. and that the greater part of those who speak of for truth. it find it easier to create fiction than to search* " Religion and government are among the things which . and their prejudice against foreigners. may the Easterns only have become so in the course of time? Did they indeed resemble one another at a far distant epoch ? Have they become changeable in consequence of change. common. or Asiatics. political. but it must be understood that the name is all they have in common. for the sun certainly lights them before us . and religious character. that one primitive type. After passing briefly in review the principal Asiatic and showing that they have little or nothing in that each has a separate moral. and a Japanese at Teheran.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. which in modern maps are considered the line of demarkation between Europe and Asia. they live east of the Oural mountains. this learned and discerning writer continues thus : "All these races may be called Easterns.

and many minor sects of which little is known. which would not cost us a tear or a penny. and men who allow themselves to be lightly influenced on other subjects But might adhere firmly to their opinion on these. without to satisfy the first any other guide. all vying with each other in senseless dogmas and strange customs. mere list of the various faiths that have in turn prevailed in the East saddens good sense and alarms the imag- \r The idolatry of the Sabamns. the worship of the heavenly bodies and ancestors. men are men in Asia as elsewhere. and we may say. laws. therefore find in the annals of that part of the world such abundant material for the history of folly and error. fire lates thus ? it a single nation in Asia that has been subject to these fluctuations : all the nations. the worship of and the elements. all the races. that of the Buddhists and followers of the Grand Lama. Islamism. it may also be said thnt there are few extrav- The agances that have not been held in honor there. what deplorable diversity may be there observed of the manner in which human reason. should only be changed on necessity. "Asia is the domain of fable. have brought their contribution to swell the general "JSTor is . that we must be rich indeed in such experience on our own account to be able to neglect so many We useful lessons. has endeavored want of society religion. " If there are few truths that have not been taught in Asia. do not these present variety enough on a most important point? And how can morals. of aimless reveries and fantastic imagery . and inconstancy in serious matters has ever been a malady of the human race. what astonishing varieties.BG JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and customs be unchangeable when the very basis of all law and morality vacilination. of spirits and demons. the polytheism of the Brahmins.

in which the Chinese c* ." less lively charms and less attract at first only intelligent minds. has since been added to the two first. and to see the eager- ness with which they are adopted in nations which have not given them birth. This was the commencement of that to relapse into religious indifference. without troubling themselves to reconcile them one with the other. with among Asiatic races for their inconstancy in religion. already during the lifetime of Confucius. mass of follies 57 very like our own . But it would be difficult that of . A third i Buddhism. people who could adopt all these various faiths and philosophic systems. at various epochs of Chinese hisbut tory. elsewhere than in China. find. in so much that a new system is always welcome. Long and tragic are the accounts of the divisions and quarrels which. for reasonable ideas rapid success. if it be but in opposition to common sense . however. have The to whom we ought here particularly have not been the least remarkable occupy ourselves. Chinese. they and it is often but slowly that they gain ground with the multitude. these religious questions have given rise to it is to be remarked that while the cultivated classes have been always attached to the principles of Confucius. contrary to ordinary opinion. China preserved herself from one evil by the aid of another she avoided idolatry by . China was divided by two principal religious sects. and the three have held possessio* of an r empire which counts one third of the human race. faith. the multitude have inclined to the superstitious practices of Buddhism. all teaching contradictory doctrines. ophy. In the ages of antiquity. and five or six systems of philoslapsing into indifference . the desire for change among these men overcomes even the force of custom and national prejudice.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. one would say that.

neverthe- . every the infancy of society. plunged. and confided to his several ministers the business of lighting. even at the present eclipses. and which was more than once reproduced by the effect of the same causes which first gave it birth. countries terrestrial events rudely dissipated these brillWar. rebellion. there was one to represent the sun. the sovereign called himself God. fertilizing the universe. The name of heaven was given to the Empire. Monarchy. in China. etc. and the harmony of this fine order of things was only disturbed by comets and which were supposed to announce to the world a deviation of the heavenly bodies from their accustomed path.58 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. of air. they appear to be blended toIn the Eastern regions of Asia they were gether. Religion and politics are and as we retrace our steps to where connected. another of rivers. statesman. but in both iant fictions. which lasted about seven or eight centuries. Nor have governments and institutions varied less are now Here again is the than religion throughout Asia. forests. and the dresses they wore. there was a superintendent of mountains. and so on for the other planets . A supernatural authority was attributed to these functionaries. warming. fancied constancy wanting. corresponded to their noble functions . one and the same thing. and The titles of these ministers. and division led to the establishment of the feudal system. conquest. nearly the period during which it held sway in Europe. and the government of forty centuries ago did not in the least resemble those of the present day. after so long suffering themselves to be blown about by every wind of doctrine. one for the moon. and whose apparition. if we may judge from formerly tradition . day is A a rude shock to the popularity of a reigned in Persia in remote very similar system appears to have antiquity.

and it is now 1200 years since the system of competition and examinations for literary deaim of which is to subject the unlearned to the yoke of the learned. less. and the States of the North been united in one vast kingdom.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. in more the seventh became century. ruled by one sovereign. has practically placed the government in the hands of educated men. stitutions. but has always resumed its sway. No doubt the reasons alleged are changed very learned and well imagined. and having the same inprevailed generally. Those learned men Avho have made such erudite researches to prove how the pended the rule of sooner or later it Chinese government has been enabled to remain unfor 4000 years. have neglected one thing which is rather important. The irruptions of Tartars. and pedantry to violence. acquired strength regularly organized. tried divers political combinations. Italy. Spain. had the dreams of those who aspired to universal empire been realized. altered their form of government. complete and decisive triumph . have sometimes susgrees. though the one does not always banish the other. but the fact to be accounted for is simply not true. and France. 59 and ended by obtaining a so that China really experienced what would have been seen in Europe. and. a race who trouble themselves very little about literature. though there are some experiments of which they have not bethought themselves. Germany. for the Chinese appear to prefer the dominion of the pen to that of the sword. . the this philosophical oligarchy. The counterpoise very weak one) was to the Imperial power (at first a It the philosophy of Confucius. a misfortune which has happened before now to philosophical explanations. The Chinese have adopted various maxims. their history presents nearly the same phases as that of most other nations.

their changes the score of her revolutions. and when the Mantchou Tartars established themselves in Pekin. 1224 went through fifteen changes of dy- wars. and civil Avars. all frightful civil most all If we studied could imagine tKaTtlienistory of ChinawasataTl among us. we might fancy that our fellow-counto trymen had resolved copy them . It is a curious fact that the greater part of those social theories which have lately thrown the public mind of France into a ferment. which were quietly effected by time and circumstances. and alaccompanied by the extermination of the dethroned bloody by In the same space of time France only saw families. so renowned for its immobility. we have done our best to emulate them. During this time of years. when Louis XIV. this nation so attached to ancient laws and customs. these so-called peaceful Chinese. they have done it already to admiration on several points . without any effusion of blood. It is true that since then we have made great progress. and that since we have made acquaintance with the Chinese.60 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and which are represented as the . Compare France and China within a given period of the entrance of the Franks time. say from the year 420 into Gaul to the year 1644. are two leading traits of Chinese character. and a profound indifference on religious topics. two changes of dynasty. ascended the throne of France. our most famous European revolutionists were told that they are but children and say. a feverish taste for political change. their history is one series of ety ? catastrophes which have at various times shaken the if What would empire to its foundation. China has certainly no need to envy other countries but she might excite jealousy in some on . nasty. they scholars beside the Chinese in the art of upsetting sociYet this is true . the tragic overthrow of dynasties.

and split into political economy filled class of Those people who at society. were abandoned for polemical agitation. then flung themselves passionately into the discussion of systems which aimed at an immense social revolution. every parties The other times have seemed so indifferent to the proceedings of their government. and even agriculture. was the famous Wang-ngan-che. or chief of the Socialist party. inflammaof all kinds were tory writings daily flung profusely to the multitude. that the ordinary business of life was neglected . the Chinese nation. who all classes of the empire in excitement during the Chinese historians say that reign of several emperors. and France especially. libels. 61 sublime results of the progress of human reason. aTman of remarkabletalent. The nation was divided into two furious parties pamphlets. Our readers may judge of this from the extracts we shall make from the History of China. In youth he studied with ardor and application. since we influence. are but exploded Chinese Utopias which agitated the Celestial Empire centuries ago. and great and knotty questions of social all minds.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and his efforts were crowned with success . handicrafts. Placards also played a prominent part. manifested a certain aptitude for this mode of it must be confessed we are far behind the Chinese. Matters had come to such a point. In the llth century of our era. commerce. of late years. who devoured them with avidity. and though not long . which was brought to perfection by careful culture. under the dynasty of Song. on account of their lengthy details. he was distinguished by honorable mention among those who received the . he had received from nature a mind far above mediocrity. presented a spectacle nearly analogous to that seen in Europe. The kept reformer. but which we must condense.

This was to make ample commentaries on all the sacred and classical writings. because he had only general views on the subject. to replace them with new ones of his own invention. and even repulsive task. the ancient order of things was soon . who. own merits. charmed with the brilliant qualities of the reformer. and he knew how to give an air of importance to trifling things private life . self-willed hand. into which he insinuated his own and to compose a universal dictionary. having the art of giving weight to all he said. seizing the favorable moment to real- ize his schemes. once advanced . The popularity of Wang-ngan-che fluctuated greatly at various periods during the time that he bent all his efforts to reorganize. gave him his entire confidence. and desirous of uprooting and utterly destroying the old institutions of his country. and would have to obstinacy when he had . and all his external conduct resuch were his good qualities. in opinions which he gave to certain words an arbitrary meaning Historians add that he according to his own interest. he did not apply to the right time and circumstance. when his interest required it. and. and as a man who thought any means lawful to gain his ends. or rather to revolutionize the em- His power was almost unlimited beneath the Emperor Chen-tsoung. he is to support an opinion he had and filled with an idea of his haughty. was incompetent to conduct affairs of state. His was spectable regular. esteeming only what agreed with his own opinions and views of politics.2 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. rank of doctor at the same time. his creatures. governed according to maxims which. difficult. On the other represented as ambitious. The executive and the tribunals were soon filled with pire. To accomplish his enterprise he did not hesitate to undertake a long. He spoke with eloquence and grace. though good in themselves.

Sse-ma-kouang showed himself. one of the most celebrated historians of China. 63 enthusiastically His innovations and reforms were greeted by his partisans. the example of and the ancients. and ready to brave all for their maintenance. and the lessons of history. among whom Sse-ma-kouang could not This new phase of his political life was be overlooked. the adversaries were gifted with equal talents. " Wang-ngan-che was the reformer to whom chance had Sse-ma-kouang.institution. in the path to their plans of reform. no less stormy than the previous one. and attacked with en- venomed eagerness by his enemies. overthrown. called to his aid the remembrance of the past. Placed in opposition to one of those audacious spirits who. one employed the resources of his imagination. what he had ever been. desired to surround himself with all the enlightened men of the country. and the spirit of reform that makes them tremble. Abel Remusat has written a biographical him. Stimulated by contrary principles. the activity of his mind. a religious observer of the customs of antiquity. The most formidable adversary encountered by Wangngan-che was a statesman named Sse-ma-kouang. which he had studied with care. as if to summon to an equal opposed combat the guardian genius that watches over the preservation of empires. * Nouveaux Melanges Asiatiques. . to change to regenerate: the other. the same who described his garden so charmingly in poem we have already quoted. to stem this torrent. fear no obstacle and respect no ancient .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and the firmness of his character. in the little notice of which occurs the following account of Wangngan-che and his opponents. on ascending the throne. M.* "The Emperor Chen-tsoung.

"when they have near their persons men who propound such theories . did not suffer this " Monarchs are indeed to speech to pass uncombated. have settled and unvarying causes . droughts. and would give themselves up and those subjects who are really attachto any excess ed to them would no longer be able to excite their better . and inundations have no connection with the Do you hope to change the ordinary actions of man. be pitied. or abuses in his government to reform . The reforming old prejudice. According to custom. they would dethe fear of heaven. earthquakes. who was present." cried he. While reading the history of this famous epoch in the dynasty of Song." According to Wang-ngan-che. found a ngan-che In the year 1069 several supporter in his antagonist. the carrying put of his scheme was to procure infallible happiness to the people in the development of the greatest possible material enjoyments for every one. they dare sti-oy any thing with impunity. and that Nature should alter her laws* for you?'" Sse-ma-kouang.64 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. course of things. provinces had been visited in succession by a number of terrible disasters: epidemic maladies. ' minister disapproved of this homage to 'These calamities. the censors seized the occasion to invite the Emperor to examine if there were faults in his conduct to amend. and the Emperor testified his sorrow by abstaining from certain pleasures. in our own .' said he to the Em- peror. " Even the prejudices of the nation to which Wangwas proud to show himself superior. one is forcibly struck with the resemblance of the writings and harangues of Wang-ngan-che to those which. and what other restraint can check their disorders ? Masters of all around. feelings. music and fetes in the palace. and a drought which Destroyed nearly all the harvest. earthquakes.

in each district the tribunals were to assign the land annually to the farmers. man by man. time. According to Wang-ngan-che the State was to become the only proprietor of the soil . The sum thus collected was to be reserved in the coffers of the State. "is to love the people and to procure them the real advantages of life." According to these new regulations tribunals were to be established throughout the Empire. on condition that the loan was repaid either in grain or other provisions after the harvest was gathered. and become the sole master and flexible laws. . and of to whoever should be judged to stand most in need it.plenty and pleasure. the state should explain the manner of following these precepts. I accomplish this object it every one with the unvarying as all might not observe but of rectitude. to be distributed to aged paupers. and distribute among them the seed necessary to sow it." said the Chinese socialist. we liave seen propounded in the newspapers the senate. and hands. own by which were to fix the price of provisions and merchandise. The State should take the entire manageagriculture into its ment of commerce. 65 and " The first and most essential duty of a government. principles them. employer. which are . and enforce obedience by wise and in- To would suffice to inspire In order to prevent the oppression of the state should take possession of all the resources of the Empire. to workmen out of employ. and in order that all the land should be profitably cultivated. For a certain number of years taxes were to be imposed to be paid by the rich from which the poolThe tribunals were to decide who should be exempt. industry.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. was rich and who poor. with the view of succoring the working classes and preventing their being ground to the dust the rich.

for the Chinese are much more daring than they are reputed to be. and this was precisely the aim of Wang-ngan-che and his followers. and the social revolution began. and will never take interest. persuaded by the arguments of Wang-ngan-che. This bold scheme did not. at last to the exactions of these enemies of the people ? Does not justice require that they should be forced to The State will be the restitute their ill-gotten gains ? As she will only creditor. being the only speculator. The Emperor Chen-tsoung. stop short at theory. as with us. of life will always be sold at a moderate price. the the harvest. Sse-ma-kouang." This radical reform entailed of course the destruction of large fortunes and the reduction of all classes to a more uniform condition. the officers of the tribunals should fix what kind of crop was to be grown.66 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. " It is evident. informed by the provincial tribunals of the various harvests of the Empire. will easily restore the equilibrium by causing the the of fertile provinces to be transported into superfluity Thus the necessaries those which are a prey to want. and supply the seed for it. "that by these means abundance and happiness will The only people who can reign throughout the land. suffer by this state of things are the usurers and monopolists." said the partisans of the new scheme. and the State. watch over agriculture and fix the current price of provisions. to be applied to works of public utility. who had struggled long and fruitlessly against the reformer. there will always be a supply proportionate to In case of famine in any one spot. will realize enormous profits annually. there will no longer be any classes in want. who never fail to profit by famine and all public calamities. great agricultural tribunal of Pekin. to enrich themselves and ruin the working But what great harm will it be to put an end classes. placed entire authority in his hands. .

and eagerly received by the people (though on this point I have much doubt) do they really make the use of it for which it is destined ? AVhoever believes this must have very little and experience. and they begin sell or exchange it for some- N thing which they imagine they need more than any thing Corn has been given them . What can be more advantageous to the people ? By this means all lands will be cultivated. or in the beginning of spring. and regarded as their own propgrew . and very few indeed trouble their heads about . We will suppose the grain distributed. At the end of winter. and become idle. and they are called upon to repay what was as it lent them. and sary. gratuitously. the time of gathering the crop arrives. part they intrusted to them. in practice nothing more injurious to the country. " In theory nothing can be more attractive and beneficial. the greater part never look beyond the day. judges far too favorably of the common order of men. by consuming else. But supposing all this does not happen: the grain is sown. " The seed. abundance will reign throughout the provinces of the Empire. 67 determined to make a last effort. and addressed to the Emperor a remarkable petition. The harvest which they have watched and ripened. "It is proposed to advance to the people the seed with which they are to sow the ground. then.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the officers will supply each man with the quantity they judge neces- Immediately after the gathering of the same harvest. all the necessary labors of cultivation are properly performed. The interest of the moment is what concerns them most . quantity and no more will be demanded back. the future. they leave off work- ing. is . from which we shall quote the passage relative to the advancing of seed-corn to the tiller of the land.

manifest. whether renowned for wit. vol. at whose expense would they be maintained? At the the or the farmers of the ? Government. the well-earned fruit of their labors. . experience. expense Whichever it may be. we shall be answered. divided. or rank. and who all added their prayers and entreaties to his then. I am a native of Chen-si . on the contrary. nation. judgment. it appears. after all. I passed the first part of my life there I have been an eye-witness to the miseries of the people . p. of the evils under which they suffer. and beneath the pretext of demanding what what extortion. since they have made no request for its repeal. and I can affirm that. or sometimes. what robbery and violence will due."* The chronicles of the time add that on the side of Sse-ma-kouang were seen all the most distinguished men of the Empire. changing their . the whole crop. that the people find it desirI able. How many reasons will erty. have but one reply to make to this. will dispatcli payment of what is clue. tered into.68 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMI'IRK. be alleged for refusing to do so How many real and in necessities will stand the way of the restiimaginary ! tution ! " The tribunals. 48. talents. and the true state of things will be made . who will derive advantage from Doubtless is . they attribute two-thirds to this practice. in bad seasons. against which Let candid inquiry be enthey murmur unceasingly. * M^moircs sur la Chine. x. . must now be Part must be yielded up. be committed! I do not mention the enormous cost which such establishments would entail but. which are their satellites to enforce the established expressly for this department. it? It may be alleged that this practice of advancing the seed has long been in use in the province of Chen-si. and that none of these evil results have taken place .

well. and so of respectful representations. He read the declamations and satires which they presented to the Emperor under the against name tions. and Be firm. Beginnings are always difficult. When his adversaries. his social revolution was to Chinese historians. Litquit the common routine and adopt new customs. he put all his plans in Acexecution. and all will go Mandarins have all risen I am not surprised at it . tle by little they will grow used to these innovations. and appeared not to be supplica- moved by them in the slightest degree. persuaded by the arguments of was on the point of yielding and restor- ing the form of government to the old footing. and overturned the country at his ease. nobles. and it is only after overcoming many obstacles that a man can hope result of the to reap the fruit of his labor. the nation became more deeply plunged But that which excited the public in misery than ever." by applauding what they now so Wang-ngan-che' maintained his ascendency throughout the reign of Chen-tsoung . cording not successful . the reformer remained ever calm and imperturbable. humble forth. they can not against me. Ministers. tone. opinion most deeply against this bold reformer was his .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. But amidst the violent attacks and clamor that rose him on all sides. and they will end eager to decry. their natural aversion will die away of its own are accord. in this till matter? Wait be hasty experience has shown Why you the for the benefit of measures which we have adopted your realm and the happiness of your subjects. Possessed of the confidence of the sovereign. the Emperor. 69 they accused Wang-ngan-che of disturbing the public tranquillity. he smiled at the vain efforts of his enemies to ruin him. Wang" should you ngan-che would calmly say to him.

While witnessing the honors paid to the memory of this great man. Wang-ngan-che was immediately deposed . but he caused his own commentaries on the sacred books to be adopted as the correct explanation. on Sse-ma-kouang. Minister. to the Europeans. in retirement. and the official epitaph adorns his memory with all the virtues of a wise man. who had been living of the named him governor . the people went his death. the Chinese have passion . not kneel beside his prostrated themselves before his portrait in the interior of their houses. His first step in this important post was to efface every trace of the government of Wang-ngan-che. probably. who died not long after nor did Sse-ma-kouang long The memory of these two men has been survive him. an excellent citizen. it its way to the native place of The to experience eleven years of partisans Wang-ngan-chc having con- was destined . again. of sorrow accompanied the funeral wherever These signs it appeared. resemblance strong shown a The reigning Empress caused the body of Sse-ma- kouang to be interred with great magnificence. and an accomplished minister . amination for the grades of literary rank. the death of the Emperor. innovation it was. but his highest praise was the public grief at The shops were closed . by turns execrated with and in all the virulence of political this.70 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and ordered that the signification of the characters should be referred to the great This last dictionary which he had himself composed. the reigning Empress sent for On She and Prime young Emperor. Sse-ma-kouang. which drew upon him the implacable hatred of the great number of his enemies. into mourning . attempt to remodel literature. and the women and children who could coffin. it would not have been easy to foresee the reverse later. and subject it to his desNot only did he change the form of expotic system.

again titles and honors The socialist party were perseloaded with execration. we were honored by an interview with one of those rare men who. This coincidence is worthy of note. and seems to us to bear out a profound observation of a statesman gifted both with a great intellect and a noble heart. found means to cajole the young SseEmperor.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. all his posthumous titles. : those steppes of Tartary which were soon to pour forth as conquerors their numberless hordes of barbarians. Three years had scarcely elapsed before the memory of Sse-ma-kouang was once more adorned with all his and the name of the reformer. erected. we might well imagine it was written of some European nation. and his political system pursued with redoubIn reading the history of these sudden led ardor. the memory of Wang-ngan-ch6 was restored to honor. were speakthose Asia of civilized races of ancient whose hising We . time. and was of stripped ma-kouang a measure which declared the enemy of his country made a great impression on the minds of the Chinese. have preserved the esteem and consideration of all parties. Shortly before beginning this work on China. amidst all our civil discord. the terrible Tchinggis Khan was rising into power in . had it depended on these en- raged persecutors. mean changes of public opinion. his writings were burnt . and. While China thus cast forth these bold innovators. and forced to fly the country this was in the year 1129. cuted in their turn. bearing the enumeration of his pretended crimes. His tomb was destroyed. who was now of age and sole master. 71 trived to return to the posts from which Sse-ma-kouang had displaced them. and the marble monument Another was bearing his epitaph flung to the ground. one of the finest specimens of Chinese In the literature would have been entirely destroyed.

"I have often " that the invathought. tory is so little known in Europe. Since then we have more careevents which took place remarkable studied the fully in high Asia during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries of our era. leading a vagabond * We rowed his idea to place hope that M. and wandered into the deserts of Tartary. They passed the Great Wall in large troops. which at various times have over- whelmed Europe. sions of barbarians. made an impression upon us. and where their attempts at disorganization were rechd's system. like ourselves. great social crises. you of Asia. may probably have resulted from some great social movement in the populous countries These great centres of civilization have no doubt been the theatre of terrible struggles." said the illustrious speaker.* Wang-ngannumerous partisans were forced to quit the country which they had hoped to make their prey. and the ferocious bands whose irruptions are recorded in our history might be those enemies of public peace whom This is only an a priori society had forcibly expelled." This remark. We were struck by the connection which we there perceived between the Chinese crisis under the dynasty of Song. his After the final defeat and annihilation of membered with detestation by all good citizens. idea.72 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. might perhaps find it in the chronicles of the Chinese Empire. Here. and the formidable agitation manifested soon afterward in Tartary. . and suffered from mighty revolutions. and the a priori idea of the Minister for Foreign Affairs has become for us an historical fact. which stands in need of historical proof. proffered with the reserve which distinguishes superior minds. and which have no doubt experienced. Drouyn de Lhuys will pardon our having borit on these pages in such unworthy company.

life. It may. then remarkable and savage disposition. organize He gathered together the wild and terrible hordes of those regions. they sought for other countries to overturn. readily be imagined what a monstrous combination was produced by the union of these people with the refuse of The whole of Tartary was soon and these vigorous nations. VOL. could no longer be reChinese civilization . crushing and overwhelming all that came in his way. 73 love of change to the for a fierce they soon communicated their unquiet spirit and Mongol tribes. II. inoculated with the passion of revolution. plunder. and Tchinggis Khan appeared. These ferocious No- mads. were then so far from regarding the slaughter of an animal or the crushing of an insect as a crime. D a world to ravage. that rapine. . The result of these tremendous invasions is well known. and led them in immense battalions even into Europe.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. ! in a ferment strained within their own boundaries . and assassination were their pastimes. who had not yet been humanized by Buddhism. and inundate with blood Nothing was wanted but a man to and command.

After several stages. to enter the appeared. they took them more in good part. procession was a military Mandarin of advanced age. Arrival at Ou-tchang-fou. a number of idlers were standing about outside the ramparts. a brilliant procession.CHAPTER Arrival at Han-tchouan III. a town of the second class. THE sarcasms and pleasantries of the young military Mandarin of Hou-pe were received with a bad grace by our escort. and who moment when we were about . we arrived at Han-tchouan. !. The sun had just risen. t Custom of presenting a Pair of Boots to a Advertisements Privileges and disgraced Mandarin Placards and Association against Gamblers Liberty enjoyed by the Chinese the Press Public LecturesSociety of the Old Bull Liberty of European Prejudice concerning the Despotism of Asiatic Governments Carelessness of Magistrates Remembrance of the Sufferings of the venerable Perboyre Navigation of a Lake Floating Islands Population of China Its Causes and Dangers Cormorant Fishing Some Details of Chinese Manners Bad Reception at Hanyang We follow a wrong Course Passage of the Yang-tse-kiang . that they were indeed in a strange country." in which there occurred nothing worthy of mention. but we were never more mistaken. and we were obliged to The* principal person of the stop to let it pass. We had the At the city. there fatuity to imagine that they were assembled to see us pass. by many mishaps. Master Ting especially. which immediately had the effect of quieting the malice of their witty companion. followed by an immense crowd. and near the principal gate the groups were more numerous. but convinced at last. coming out.

were thronged with people. in consequence of calumnious reports spread against him at Pekin . nevertheless. magnificently dressed. also set in motion. had resolved to protest against this injustice by a solemn manifestation. . and sent to a less im- portant post. that they hardly deigned to cast a glance on the two Devils of the West. an important grade in He rode a richly caparisoned horse. that he had been degraded a step in military rank. followed by a large crowd. and . We stript of his appointment. the Chinese army. close to where our palanquins were placed. respectfully pulled off his boots. but so much preoccupied were they by the ceremony which had just taken place. During this cere- Two mony the people all prostrated themselves two young men then took the boots which had been drawn off. who had had no fault to find with his government of Han-tchouan. they each ing knelt down. approached the tou-sse. and the crowd pressed forward eagerly. making the air resound with cheers. we hastened to inquire of the guardian the meaning of what we had learned that the military Mandarin had been seen. The streets When we reached the communal palace. and we entered Han-tchouan. hung them on the arch of the town gate and the procession moved on. as a mark of sympathy. and was surrounded by officers of inferior rank. The people. and replaced them with those they carried. the Boots of Honor were presented to him. and those which he had worn were retained to hang over the town gate as a precious souvenir of his good administration. . noble old men. uttering Our palanquins were cries of grief and lamentations. Directly the procession had passed the gate it stopped. According to custom.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and carrya satin boot. 75 bore the insignia of the tou-sse.

us the real explanation. it is the means which the Chinese and adopt to protest against the injustice of Government Mandarin who has really shown himself " the Father and Mother of the People. satirical. to call a Man- darin to order. cutting. the placards are lively.China the principal gate is testify their gratitude to the ornamented with a large assortment of old boots. They are on the doors of posted in all the streets. but we scarcely believed it. and show him that the people are discontented with him." In almost every town of . nor was it till we had seen many town gates thus adorned that we were convinced they had not been practicing on our credulity. submissive as they are to authority. and especially the tribunal where the Mandarin lives who is to be held . always find means of expressing their opinion. of a of is a boots offering pair certainly very original way of showing esteem and sympathy . since it was evidently much too high to be a A Christian who accompanied us gave cobbler's stall./6 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE E. This singular custom is of most ancient date and universal practice. They one of its most precious are the glory of the town monuments. and tumbling to pieces with rottenness and age.Ul'IKE. time that we remarked this singular ap- pendage to the gate of a town. A very powerful organ of public opinion is the placard.taxed our powers of imagination in vain to guess what they could possibly do there. and full of sharp and witty sallies . and of The bestowing praise or blame on their Mandarins. the Eoman pasquinade was not to be compared to them. The Chinese. we . and this is every where made use of with the dexterity of long practice. "When it is desired to criticise a Government. dusty. but they do not confine themselves to this. for rins the country has The first they point out how many good Mandabeen fortunate enough to possess.

JOURXEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and their placards are much better in much happier than in eulogy. Then satire is replaced by pompous eulogy. however. amidst shouts of laughter. Crowds assemble round them. and wearing a very unaccustomed aspect. and the idol of the people is likened to all the most famous holy personages of antiquity. The Chinese. they are read aloud. The Chinese are not in the habit of bowing beneath the rod of their master so unresistingly as is imagined. and that the people had suffered much from his injustice and extortion. succeed blame than in praise. and not to send them . and bend it to their will. : We was as follows A Mandarin iiad been named governor of the town of whom the inhabitants did not approve. more pitiless and severe than the text. it becomes a sort of national reward to those Mandarins who have made themselves popular. Sometimes. deputation of the chief citizens set off for the capital of the province. are poured forth on all sides. they sometimes rise up with irresistible energy. or merely fraudulent. and it is to their credit. which shoAved itself at first most violent satirical placards. The news of his nomination to Ping-fang therefore learned that the cause . It may indeed be said. While traversing one of the western provinces. that they are in general submissive to authority. instead of the vehicle of opposition. insi^. 77 up to public malediction. in a declamatory: tone. but when it becomes too tyrannical. named jPingfang. we one day reached a town of the third class. in the excited general indignation. where we found the whole population in commotion. It was known that in the district he had just left his administration had been arbitrary and tyrannical. A to present to the viceroy a humble petition to have pity on the poor people of Ping-fang. while a thousand comments.

but did not confine itself to idle lamenta- The principal people assembled.78 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. therefore. a tiger. he found himself. before he had had time even to drink a cup of tea. . It was decided that the new governor should not be permitted to install himself. to request that he would set off directly to return whence he came. accomtions." The spokesman all but vain. " only a paper tiger. to him. He was convinced. The prefect. to which all the most influential citizens were invited. Scarcely had he entered the tribunal. that his fears of a bad reception were chimerical. The Mandarin arrived at the expected time. endeavored first to soothe. instead of a father and mother to take care of them. as the Chinese say. and held a grand council. for they would have none of him. Every one knelt at his approach. with exquisite politeness and infinite grace. and the Mandarin ordered to set off to take possession of his post on the following day. that they came in the name of the town. and. it was announced to him that the chief citizens of the town rePie hastened to grant it. bringing this their fellow-citizens. who would cat them up. under the quested an audience. one of them stepping forward. The petition was refused. and then in to intimidate. impression that they came to offer their on his safe arrival. however. and that all would go well. before their new then. according to the rites. thus rudely disenchanted. he encountered not the smallest sign of opposition on his way. and paid homage to his dignity. panied by a numerous suite. sad news to into con- The town was plunged sternation. The deputies returned. contrary to expectation. the rebellious citizens. announced prefect . and that he should be civilly ejected from the town. The deputation congratulations prostrated them- selves.

therefore. as for this one. still accompanied by the chief men of the town. besides providing a brilliant escort to conduct him It more any one out endeavored to raise politely. and humbly supplicate you to send them another . ties that their . read it attentively. he added that a palanquin waited before . prefect a crowd had the but round objections great gathered a far cries of from or house. and his willingness to comply with their demands. real intentions. they will not have him at any price. and then told the depu- arguments were advanced on reasonable and should be attended to that they might grounds. The cavalcade immediately set off. containing a petition signed with the names of all the most important people of Ping-fang. The viceroy. The chief representative of Pingthe prefect to the viceroy. they went straight to the viceroy's palace." Speak- ing thus. with some appearance of dissatisfaction. and in. would have been impossible to turn The still . to his destiny. uttering reassuring flattering nature. took the roll. and he saw that it would be imprudent further safely to the capital of the province. and they discuss the matter had made up their minds that he should not sleep in the In order to leave him in no doubt as to their town. He yielded. On reaching their destination. saying : fang presented " The citizens of Ping-fang restore to you this magistrate. . to resist. Behold the humble petition of your children. he handed to the viceroy a long roll of red paper. return home quietly. requested to step where a handsome palanquin was in waiting. the door. and that the town would pay his traveling expenses. 79 very calmly told him that they had not come there to that the thing was settled. and announce to their fellow-citizens that they should soon have a prefect to suit them. signified With much respect and ceremony he was shown to the door.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

As regards traveling. No one interferes with the traveler. or none at all. deed. undisturbed by any public functionary.80 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and force the Government to yield to public opinion. who is sure . become an artisan. in short.-.mrnily believed. It has been written. that no one can change his place of abode without the permission of the Mandarins . Such incidents are not unfrequent in the Chinese When we Empire. bearing intelligence of the perfect success of their bold measure. without having need of a license or permission of any kind. repulsive to the \1 do next know what has feelings of the European. to ter. that the Chinese are forced to follow the trade of their fathers. throughout the empire each that suits We man him best. and cor. that they are subject to a host of restrictions. for it is rise to these very certain that given prejudices. doctor. each citizen may wander about among the eighteen provinces. the peo- ple enjoy beneath it much more liberty than is generally and many possess supposed. agriculturist. in Eu- rope. moderated. inings. reached Ping-fang the deputies had just returned. It often happens that energetic and persever- administraing popular demonstrations oppose the evil tion of the Mandarins. schoolmas- or tradesman. follows the profession without the Governis ment interfering in the least. and quailing under a despotic power. Every man free to please himself. and settle where he pleases. nowhere can there exist greater freedom and independence of motion . It is a great mistake to fancy the Chinese hemmed in by arbitrary laws. by the influence of the educated classes. which rules their actions and dictates all their proceedThough an absolute monarchy. privileges which we might vainly seek in some countries boasting a liberal consti- tution.

They would be unable to their a step without false passports. and Spanish colonies. acquiring bad habits. and the Chinese have a There are sociremarkable aptitude for forming them. unite to watch over the observance of the laws in places where the authorities are too weak or too negligent to . The liberty to traverse the various parts of the country unobstructed is almost indispensable to these peoas they are engaged in commercial operple. and aiming which are pursued with the utmost severity by Government. easily obtain by bribery . stir There is a law existing which enjoins the Chinese to remain within the limits of the Empire. at the overthrow of the Mantchou dynasty. as well as to California.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. all societies are allowed. Dutch. robbers and beggars eties for all trades and professions even have their associations nobody stands alone in It sometimes happens that the citizens his sphere. If the Chinese Government should imhappily take into heads one fine day to adopt the ingenious invention of passports. which they might. no doubt. Of course the least impediment to free motion would check the great system of commerce which is the life and soul of this vast empire. but this would be sorely against their consciences. . continually ations. and destroying the fruit of their good education but . prove that this regulation It is is not very strictly enforced. 81 never to encounter a gendarme demanding his passport. poor missionaries would find themselves in a very lamentable condition. and they possess it as With the exception of the secret societies completely. like many others equally disregarded. D* . and not to go vagabondizing among foreigners. The freedom of association is as necessary to the Chinese as that of locomotion. the numerous emigrations of Chinese to the English. written in the Statute Book.

. to be pun- upon all ished according to the rigor of the law. association. We have ourselves witnessed efforts of this kind which were attended with very satisfactory Gaming carried sion. and not made up erable family. maintain order. his mind to reform the village. .82 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and can testify to the efficacy of this measure in correcting the So prevailing vice of the village. and toward the end of the repast he rose to address his guests. in which they bound themselves not only to abstain from playing. was celebrated for its One day. who should be immediately carried before the tribunal. The but proposal was finally. is prohibited in China. was adopted. who had not taken flie three most determined gam- surprised with the manifesto in earnest. The existence of the society was made known in the village. was the success of the indeed. We staid some time in this part of the country. results. striking. with the warning that it was resolved and ready for action. made some observations on the evil consequences of gaming. where they were severely beaten and heavily fined. Some days afterward. but to watch the other inhabitants. the chief of a considprofessional gamblers. and proposed to them to form an association for the extirpation of this vice from their it village. after at first received with astonishment a serious consultation. They were bound and carried before the tribunal of the nearest town. blers. but it is nevertheless on every where with an almost unequaled pas- One far large village. He*therefore invited the principal inhabitants to a banquet. were cards in their hands. and seize act gamblers taken in the fact. An was drawn up and signed by all the associates. who himself was in the habit of playing. from the Great Wall. situated near to our mission.

and villages scattered among them have not been considered of sufficient importance by Government to be confided to the care of Mandarins. The population partially Chinese. valleys. but none of them in a conflict with this army of But " Since simple villager undertook and accomplished. that 83 many others were organized in the neighborhood with the same object. both laged flocks and They pilnight. life. habited by a is Mongol. let houis. crops. and steppes. or societies of the Chi- . partially intersected by mountains. town been petitioned had dared to engage banditti. Springing spontaneously to influence. that which the Mandarins dared not attempt. a "we must us form a fioui.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. this wild region had become the resort of many bands of robbers and miscreants. Deprived of the restraint of authority. but it was always necessary to assemble in great numbers and go well We armed. sent a truly formidable aspect. who exercised their trade with impunity throughout the neighborhood. Many times had the Mandarins of the nearest for assistance. the Mandarins either can not or will not come to our assistance." said he. and often put them to death they went so far as to attack a village and lay it waste. pitilessly stripped them of all sometimes their property." The protect ourselves. there arose a much more reThis part of the country is indoubtable association. lay in wait for travelers in the . ourselves have often been obliged to traverse this dreadful district to visit our converts. unaided by any pre- government these societies sometimes and exercise their authority with an energy and audacity which the proudest Mandarins might envy. Not far from the place where the anti-gambling society had flourished. by day and \ defiles of the mountains.

84

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

nese, are always inaugurated with a feast. Regardless of expense, the villagers killed an old bullock, and sent

Every and the society was entitled " jMO-niou-houi, or Society of the Old Bull," in remembrance of the inauguration feast. The regulations were brief and simple.
body approved the
idea,

letters of invitation to the villages all around.

The members were
sible

to enroll as

many

people as pos-

to be always ready to aid each other in the capture of any

in their ranks.

They bound themselves

robber, great or small. Every robber or receiver of stolen goods was to have his head cut off immediately upon arrest, all form of
trial

being dispensed with, and the value of the object As it was easy to stolen not being taken into account. foresee that these proceedings would entail disputes with the tribunals, the whole society was responsible for each

member, and took upon
all

itself collectively to answer for heads cut off. This formidable society immediately commenced operations with unexampled energy and unity of purpose ; heads of robbers, both great and small, fell with amaz-

ing and awful rapidity, and one night the Associates assembled silently in great numbers to take a tsey-ouo or
Jtobbers Nest.
1

This was a notorious village lying at the bottom of a mountain gorge; the Society of the Old Bull surrounded it on all sides, set fire to the houses, and all
the inhabitants, men, women, and children, were burnt or massacred. Two days after this frightful expedition, AVC ourselves beheld the yet smoking ruins of the Robbers' Nest.
It was not long before all the brigands of the country' were exterminated or intimidated, and property was j'ectcd to such a point that the people would pas.s

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

85

even a lost thing lying in the road without venturing to
touch
it.

These rapid and sanguinary executions began

to

make

The relations of the a noise in the neighboring towns. victims besieged the tribunals with their complaints, and loudly demanded the death of the assassins, as they
called the Associates.

Faithful to their oath, the society

presented themselves in a body to answer all accusations, and contest the actions brought against them.

They were by no means dismayed, having foreseen this probable termination to their efforts from the beginning. The trial was carried to the Criminal Court of Pekin,
which approved the proceedings of the
ished a

number
all

of the functionaries
It

had caused

the disturbance.

society, and banwhose negligence was thought desir-

able, nevertheless, to bring the society

under the author-

ity of the Mandarins, and legalize its existence: the regulations were modified, and each member was required to wear a badge, delivered by the Mandarin of

by

The name of Lao-niou-houi was replaced that of Tai-ping-che or "Agency for the Public Peace," and this was the title which the society bore
the district.

when we left the country on our way to Thibet. From what we have just narrated, it may be seen that the Chinese make great use of their freedom of association,

and are not such slaves

to their

Mandarins as

is

believed in Europe. Liberty of the press is another ancient institution of China, which we Europeans fancy we have invented, though in France we do not seem
able to

make it take root in the soil. Sometimes people seem enthusiastic in defense of this liberty it is a fever, a delirium and then, again, they no longer care for it, and seem, on the contrary, charmed at being deprived of the power of writing and printing their thoughts. The Chinese say that the barbarians of the Western
:

;

86

JOURNEY THROUGH
;

TIIK

CHINESE EMPIRE.

seas are too hot-blooded
ly,

and do not in the

least
of.

they can not take things coolunderstand the just medium

that Confucius speaks

Chinese," they say, "print whatever we like; books, pamphlets, circulars, and placards, without any interference from Government. may even print for

"We

We

ourselves at discretion, provided

we do

not find

it

too

troublesome, and have money enough to get the types carved. do not abuse this liberty ; we print what instruct the public, without prejudice to amuse or may

We

the rive cardinal virtues and the three social relations.

We

do not meddle much in public affairs, because we are persuaded that the Empire would not be well governed if 300,000,000 of individuals attempted each to

make

it

go his

own way.

It does

sometimes happen,

indeed, that books are printed which might trouble the

public peace and throw disrespect on authority, and on such occasions the Mandarins seek out the author of the

But this is no reason crime and punish him severely. to prevent others from expressing their thoughts and composing books ; the misdemeanor of a bad citizen
It

should not entail the punishment of the whole nation. seems that this is not the way in the countries beseas ; and it is not surprising, for that different nations have different tastes and

yond the Western

we know

It is the disposition of the Western people dispositions. to be excited to anger, sometimes in one direction, sometimes in another ; it is their taste to think their govern-

ments good one day and bad the next it is evident that if such people were suffered to have as much liberty as we enjoy, there would be no end to confusion and disturbance. It may be good sometimes to change
:

governments, but such alterations should not be rapid or frequent. One of our wisest philosophers has said, the nation which is badly governed but yet Unhappy
' ;

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
more unhappy the nation which, having a " ernment, is not wise enough to keep it.'

87

tolerable gov-

Although, when once plunged into rebellion, the Chinese yield to every excess of hatred, anger, and revenge, it is yet true that they do not ordinarily meddle in
politics or public affairs.

Were

it

not

so,

a nation of

300,000,000 persons could scarcely have a moment's repose, with such elements of discord and insurrection among them as the freedom of association and the liberty of the press.

The Chinese have another institution, which, though good and praiseworthy in itself, might become a powerful agent for the excitement and fomentation of popular passions in the hands of turbulent spirits ; we speak of the chouo-chou-ti, or Public Readers. This is a numerous class of men, who travel about to all the towns and
villages, reading to the people interesting portions of their history, accompanied always by their own com-

ments and

reflections.

These lecturers are commonly

good speakers, with a copious flow of words, and are often very eloquent. The Chinese love to listen to them ; they gather
round them in all sorts of public places, at the street corners, and in the entrances of tribunals and pagodas

and
faces,

it is

how

easy to perceive, merely at the sight of their lively an interest they take in these historic
rest,

narratives.

Now

and then the reader stops to

and he takes

advantage of these pauses to make a collection ; for he has no other revenue than the contributions of his

and they are generally liberal enough. It is thus that in China, the land of despotism and tyranny, clubs are constantly held in the open air, though it is think greatly to be doubted whether certain nations who
auditors,

themselves far advanced in liberal ideas would not be

88

JOUliNEY

THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
custom introduced among

much alarmed
them.

to see such a

Europe to regard Asia as the classic of despotism and slavery, yet nothing is more ground do not think the* reader will to the truth.
It is general in

opposed

We

iind the following passage too long, from the pen of M. Abel Remusat, whose authority is great in such matters,

because he regards the East with the just and impartial eye of a man who can rise above common prejudices, and rest his opinion only on the truths of history. "Amidst all the changes of Oriental governments, there is one striking and unvarying feature, the absence
of that odious tyranny and debasing servitude which have been represented as casting their dark shadow over I except the Mussulman states, the whole of Asia. which claim a separate study. ** Every where else the sovereign power, though surrounded by imposing state, is subject to severe I had

almost said to the only effectual

restrictions.

Asiatic

monarchs have been regarded as despots, because they are addressed kneeling, and approached only with the humblest prostrations and those who have looked no Yet religion, customs, further judge from appearances. and prejudices oppose invincible obstacles to the free ex;

ercise of their will.

"A

king in India, according to the divine lawgiver,
;

Manou, is like the sun he dazzles all eyes, lie is fire and air, sun and moon; no human creature dare contemplate him. But this superior being can not lay a tax on a Brahmin, if he should be dying of want, nor make
a laborer into a merchant, nor infringe, in the slightest degree, the injunctions of a code which is looked upon as revelation, and which regulates civil interests as well
as religious doctrines. " The Emperor of China
is

the

Son of Heaven, and when

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

89

a subject approaches his throne he strikes the ground nine times with his forehead ; but he can only choose a
sub-prefect out of the
list

of candidates presented to
if

him

by the Mandarins
.

;

and

during an eclipse he should

neglect to fast and to acknowledge publicly the faults of his ministry, a hundred thousand pamphlets, authorrecall

ized by the law, would

him

observance of ancient customs.

We

to his duty in the

should never think

of erecting such boundaries to regal power ; but in the East many such institutions set limits to the caprices of

tyranny; and a power thus retrained can scarcely be

and this modern and Euroseem word may misapplied when speaking of a pean
half-civilized nation,

called despotic. " I have said institutions,

who

are ignorant alike of budgets,

It does not comptes rendus, and bills of indemnity. signify here an act issued all at once by a legislative assembly to iufcrm a nation that, after a certain day,

they will have to adopt new customs and follow new principles, allowing always a reasonable time for change In this sense I confess that a of habits and opinions. has Asia no of institutions. Those laws and great part
principles which guide the actions of the strong, and protect to a certain extent the rights of the weak 1 are merely the results of national character ; they are founded on

the prejudices of the people, on their social disposition and intellectual necessities. It is evident how deeply

these are graven in their hearts, since no one has thought
it

necessaiy to print them. China is an exception in this case ; she is in advance of other Asiatic nations, and has

a right to European esteem, for she has long been in possession of a written constitution, and is in the habit
of altering
cations.
for,
it

It

from time to time, and introducing modifieven descends to details neglected by us ;

besides the functions of the supreme courts and the

90
i

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

'administrative hierarchy, which are there determined, there are in it particular statutes to regulate the calendar, weights and measures, the division of the provinces,

and, moreover, music, which has always been an object of importance in the government of the Empire.

meant an absolute master, and life of his subjects, a boundless and power, I can see none using abusing such in Asia every where ancient manners and customs, and ideas received, even though erroneous, offer to the
If,

"

then,

by despot

is

disposing at will of the property

;

power restrictionsAiore embarrassing than written and which a tyrant can only defy by exI see only a few places himself to destruction. posing where nothing is respected, where moderation is unknown, and might only is right and this is where the weakness or imprudence of the natives has suffered the
regal
regulations,
;

men establishment of foreigners from distant lands whose sole object is to make a fortune as rapidly as possible, and then to return and enjoy it in their native
country. They have no pity for men of another race, no sympathy with the aborigines, whose language they can not understand, in whose tastes, habits, and prejudices they do not share. Harmony, founded on reason and justice, can not exist between interests so diametrically opposed.

Force alone can maintain this state of

things ; absolute despotism is necessary to support a handful of rulers eager to seize on every thing, amidst a

multitude

who deny

their right to

any

thing.

This

is

the state of things in the European colonies of Asia. " They are a singular race, these Europeans, and their

proceedings would

make a strange impression on an impartial judge, if such a one could be found on the earth. Intoxicated by their own progress in modern times, especially by their superiority in the art of war, they look upon all other families of the human race

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

91

with supreme disdain, as though all were born to admire and serve them, and that of them it was written God
'
:

and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall le his servant.' All must think like them and work for them they walk abroad upon the earth exhibiting to the humbled nations their
shall enlarge Japket,
;

faces as the type of beauty, their ideas as the standard of intelligence, their arguments as the very basis of all

reason

;

every thing
other,

and who contests the " To each
ence.

be measured by their scale justice of this arrangement ? indeed, they still show some deferis to
;

they

their quarrels among their various countries observe certain principles, and murder one another

In

But it is only within the according to fixed rules. limits of Europe that this holds good, and it is thought
superfluous to observe the law of nations toward uncivilized people. Though confident of the skill of their

and the excellence of their arms, the Europeans a cautious policy. pursue Inglorious conquerors and attack the Orientals as if they victors, they ungenerous
soldiers

had nothing

to fear,

and

treat

them when subdued

as

formidable enemies.

"Achieving by diplomacy what they have failed to do in battle, they victimize the natives alike in peace and war; binding them to pernicious alliances, imposing conditions on their trade, occupying their ports, annexing their provinces, and treating as rebels the tribes who It is true that they can not submit to such a yoke. moderate their proceedings toward those states which yet boast some vigor, and they show a degree of consideration for Canton and Nangasaki, which would be
absurd in regard to Palambeng or Colombo.*
* This was written in 1829. M. Abel Re'musat would probably have omitted this sentence had he written in 1840, after the English war with China.

a perversion of ideas. more strange perhaps than the abuse of power. for they have embraced Methodism. Nogay the nomadic life of their fathers. shall import it. paying taxes to them a murmur. made of Tartars have late great progress years . blame the Asiatics for pre- "By cautions rendered prudent and natural by our own conduct. they are to be encouraged for their possible consequences.clad in a red coat and waistcoat . however grotesque and useless. without The and customs. that the Europeans may be supplied with cotton. when the Esquimaux . however imperfect and awkward these imita- tions may be. as far as ject the benefits of civilization. thus furnishing a new market for the manufactures of Somerset and Gloucester. and spice. The time -may come when the Hindoos will use our muslins instead of weaving their own. appears to mean cultivating the ground industriously. instead of exporting silk. they are concerned. and it was only to be regretted that the heat of the climate prevented his completing the costume. and when they decline the disinterested advances of our merchants.shall shiver in calico shirts. or the inhabitants of the Torrid Zone melt under our felt hats and woolen garments. silk. and changing. cry out that they reCivilization. their laws regularly. our writers take part with our disappointed adventurers. " But. have abandoned they and the tax-gatherer knows where to find them when tribute is due. and exclaim against their want of hospitality. in spite of tradition and climate. are The ancient subjects of Queen Obcira much improved since the days of Captaia Cook.92 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. when China. are indignant at their being suspicious of such dan- We gerous neighbors. ice Travelers have lately remarked with pleasure a prince of the Sandwich Isles holding his court. . and attend divine servin black cloth coats.

and permitted to take rank at a great distance behind the privileged peomissive in all things. and which sometimes exhibit themselves in such a cu- rious guise. to comprehend. and learn to think. let them renounce their ideas. and These remarks may be thought a little severe by but whoever has traversed Asia and general readers visited the European colonies will be forced to confess that the conquered race is almost every where treated harshly and insolently. all in short that composes their national individuality. that he always administered justice in person and in public. by men who pique themselves on their civilization. ple. to instruct. their language. tractable and suband they may be allowed to have made some steps toward civilization. whether * Melanges Asiatiques. and literature. for things are fallen into such decay in that unhappy country. devoted to the interests of our merchants. We have happy Mandarin strayed very far from Han-tchouan and the to whom the town solemnly presented The a pair of boots at the moment of his departure. 93 "Let in favor of these people give up their own manufactures European trade . ity. purchasing these useful lessons at the price of their territory and independence . the race par excellence to whom it is given to possess. feel. Among the Chinese magistracy this is now a rare merit . reader has doubtless forgotten that it was d propos of this manifestation of popular feeling that we were led to speak of the elements of liberty that exist in China. and sometimes on their Christian."* to govern. The Han-tchouan on of greatest panegyric pronounced by the people their favorite magistrate was. that the greater part of the Mandarins. and speak like us.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. . let them be complaisant to our academicians.

from time to time to report progress. self. however. it to incurring the responsibility of a Regretting. who takes the trouble to is and interrogate the disputants himas an extraordinary man. the Mandarins of Hantchouan preferred wreck. This method has become . saying that the perils of wreck were much more imminent in the land journey than the river transit. as he lies on a comfortable divan. much more busied with his pipe and cup of tea than with the life or fortune of the hapless The judge is not even troubled to pronounce litigant. and our repeated grounding on the bank. according to their own ideas. hoping that the wind would not be strong enough to tear our palanquins off the shoulders of the bearers. from idleness or from reluctance to display their inabilthemselves. so prevalent that a magistrate preside in person. Nobody thought of embarking on the Blue River. worthy of regarded public admiration. to the unworthy judge. were obliged to stop at Han-tchouan for two whole days. to lose the advantage of this little storm. for we had not forgotten the disastrous wreck of the Secretary of Song-tche-hien. They sit in ity. it is sentence brought to him ready drawn up. we ourselves proposed to our guides to continue our journey by land. could not understand this until he further informed us that in leav- We ing Han-tchouan it would be impossible to avoid water- . never administer justice a private cabinet.04 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. generally separated from the tribunal by a retire partition only. and he has only to put his seal to it. We Although little desirous of retaining the charge of our precious and illustrious persons. The complainants discuss their affairs in presence of the scribes and functionaries. But Master Ting objected. who . which refreshed the air delightfully. during which the wind blew with incessant violence.

slightly a light breeze. now winding among hills of red earth. glittered in the sun as if covered with innumerable diamonds. As we traveled along the route from Han-tchouan. but the tears shed over the memory of a martyr are more those of pleasure than of . For two hours we followed narrow tortuous paths. yet in the eyes of the true faith his progress a triumphal march. who accompanied him was gle. We were free. as the river lay on one side and a great lake on the other one of the two we must necessarily cross. was loaded with chains. and followed by the admiration of the whole Catholic world. Five years before. 95 carriage. filling us with sweet emcK tion our eyes were wet. now running through valleys between verdant plantations of rice. arose once more in our minds. we resumed our journey by land. he. a French missionary had followed the same route. ruffled whose blue surface. . surrounded by homage.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. he perished gloriously with the palm of martyrdom in his grasp. and wait patiently. and assailed with ceaseless insults by the pitiless wretches . pain. Soon we caught sight of the lake Ping-kou. and traveling in comfort . where cotton and indigo grew in abundance. on the contrary. but under very different circumstances. As soon as the wind abated. sanctified by the sufferings of the venerable Perboyre. Three boats were lying by . for he was going full of strength and courage ta engage in a sainted strug- After enduring long and frightful torments with unalterable constancy in the capital of Hou-pe. The boats with which the lake was navigated were so frail and ill-built that it was impossible they could resist the force of the storm we were therefore obliged to resign ourselves to our fate. the details of that long martyrdom which we ourselves had had the consolation of narrating to our friends in Europe. also escorted by Mandarins and their satellites.

distinguished by the black nets hung on the mast. after gathering a crop of grain from the surface of the lake. The wind numbers being insufficient. the aquatic birds hovover the lake and diving suddenly after their prey. the vague in- murmur floating around. which no other peo- We These floating ple seemed ever to have thought of. the as- water for a long time. the raft is laid a tolerably and. Many birds. its place was supplied by of rowers . and often. thanks to the patient labors of a few families of aquatic agriculturists. as well as fields and plantations of every sort. thick bed of vegetable Upon soil tonished traveler beholds a whole colony lying on the surface of the water pretty houses with their gardens. and folded like fans. passengers ing smacks. which is at the same time a pastime and a source of profit . carrying as well as numerous fishand merchandise. During the leisure time which is not occupied by the culture of their rice-fields they employ themselves in fishing. they cast their nets and bring up a harvest of fish from its depths . We encountered boats of every size and shape. ering all this presented a most charming and animated picture definite to the eye. islands are enormous rafts. and we pushed off. particularly swallows and . were quickly hoisted. toward noon. and carried us rapidly over a magnificent lake. the breeze strengthened. however. those curious productions of Chinese ingenuity. passed several floating islands. The various vessels passing and repassing with their yellow sails and striped flags. ready for us at the bank . long sails made of bamboo. JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.X. which resist the decomposing influence of the . our party was soon embarked. The inhabitants of these floating farms appear to enjoy peace and abundance. for these waters teem with creatures fit for the use of man. generally constructed of bamboos.

up a fresh position. and children. and large sails were attached to the houses as well as to each corner of the island: the inhabitants. more fortunate than these latter. Their migrations are often without any apparent motive. and which has sought a resting-place on the surface of the waters. they have constructed for themselves a little solitude in the midst of civilization. whose numbers increase year by year with frightful rapidity. while it is impossible not to admire the ingenious industry of these Chinese. Like the Mongols in their vast prairies. reflecting on its countless myriads of inhabitants. consider the cause of their construction. and the mind endeavors vainly to penetrate the future of a race so numerous that the land will no longer hold it. the labor and patience necessary for their creation. Ibuild their nests in these floating isles. 07 and en- Toward the middle these islands on its of the lake to take we encountered one of way moved very slowly. proceedings. men. lent their strength to aid its' progress. pigeons. but. floating islands are to be found on all the great lakes of China. The traveler in the Celestial Empire. But when you so singular in all their. the smiling picture assumes a darker tint.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. life to the advantages of a sedentary abode. at whatever pace they may go. liven the peaceful and poetic solitude. and at first sight present an enchanting These picture of happiness and plenty. and unite the charms of a nomadic . as they are sure of sleeping on land. these peculiar mariners do not probably trouble themselves much about delay. by people unable to find a corner of the solid earth on which to establish themselves. E . However. they wander at will. is almost VOL. "by working at large oars but their efforts did not seem materially to increase the speed at which they moved. It though there was a good deal of wind. women. II.

kept the heads of families are required to inscribe their numcoming to exact conclusions.552 333.000. The villages are few and far considerable that you might between. nevertheless.265. according to Father Arniot " Father Hallerstein In 1761. " Lord Macartney In 1794.98 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESK EMPIRE. bers in registers kept for the purpose. We have not the information necessary to examine this calculation and decide with certainty. according to the route by which you traverse it.214. who had no means of The Chinese statistics care and in each province with . numerous classes of non-ratepaying individuals have been omitted from the census. you would be led to believe the country much less populous than it really is.000. tempted to wish that China should experience one of those exterminating scourges by which Providence arrests from time to time the rapid increase of too fertile races. and hence results the difference in the calculation of the Chinese population presented to us at different times. but we do not doubt the correctness of the estimate in spite of the enormous number registered. The debate population of China has been the subject of much among European authors. It is easy to form perfectly opposite ideas of the population of China. the waste lands so at times fancy yourself in .000 In 1743.000. The three following accounts appear to be equally authentic. are. for example.000. in the central provinces you travel along the roads. though the largest number surpasses the smallest by 183.475 198. If. and the total numbers are collected and published.000: 150. The method of registration has varied much even in modern times. The most recent census taken under the Mantchou dynasty raises the total number to 361.

" or heaven. can find means of subsistence. increasing or reducing them A man according to its views for the whole Empire. "The events. while smaller towns and great villages follow each other in almost uninterrupted succession.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. nasties is calculating their ultimate experience of past dylost to the present generation . the shame attached to dying with- . the alternate increase and diminution of the population of the Empire. and great revolutions. must be very little of a philosopher not to see that war. from the impossibility of foreseeing their causes. and the estimate of three hundred and sixty-one millions would seem rather under than over the truth. and the aspect of the country is Often you pass huge cities. ik respect the caution of the Chinese moralseems to us. containentirely changed. or effects on the population. But traverse the same province by the canals or rivers. "which cause the increase and diminution of mankind are so various and so closely connected. famine. It is difficult to conceive where these numberless multitudes. pest. ing not less than two or three millions of inhabitants. that several secondary causes might be assigned for the prodigious population such as the general eagerness of parents to of China . so slow and so efficacious. whose mere habitations seem to cover the whole surface of the land." may become destructive ist." he says. that policy and A mart must foresight are powerless to oppose them. 99 the deserts of Tartaiy. A celebrated Chinese moralist. arresting their ravages. the very meas- The ures successful in one century in the next. refers to "tien. confound every system. Te-siou. be very ignorant of our history to see only a chain of natural causes in the hidden manoeuvres of heaven with the generations of mankind. Though we marry their children. nevertheless.

out descendants. diving into the water. having recourse to floating islands on the surface of the lakes. Just as our pleasant journey on the Ping-hou was approaching its termination. perthe rapid increase of the Chinese population. and destroys the vain prejudice of mesalliances. the population will be frightfully reduced. Instead of nets. they carried a great number of cormorants. As the engaged and always coming up Chinese fear the vigorous appetite of their feathered associates. the retention of property in the direct line from the incapacity of girls to inherit. which. the immutability of taxes. At the present moment this peace exists no longer an insurrection which broke out three years ago threatens a general movement throughout the country. and the Chinese Avho survive the carnage will be able to find abodes without. by distinguishing men and not families. . with its horrible train of massacres and incendiarism should continue much longer. the details of which in the History of China it is impossible to read without shuddering if civil war. prevents their rank becoming hereditary. but it is doubtless referable above all to the profound frugal peace which the Empire has enjoyed *for the last two hundred years. perched on the edges of the boats. the way of life of all classes all these causes. they fasten . resemble those which have preceded it. fall indirectly on the merchant and artisan. as now. the wise policy of conferring nobility only on employments.100 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the marriage of soldiers and sailors. with a fish in their beak. favor haps. always imposed on the land only. which. and the If this revolution should fall o the Tartar dynasty. It is a curious spectacle to see these creatures in fishing. the frequent adoptions which perpetuate families. we encountered a long file of fishing boats which were rowing back to their ports. .

keepers were already lighting their lanterns. hideous after it has passed the day in fishing. Having passed Lake Ping-hou. a The shoplarge town on the banks of the Blue River. Its wet Ping-hou. it has a short neck and long beak. while at the street corners were spectators gathered round jugglers and public readers. and it hunches itself up till nothing is to be seen but a frightful shapeless lump. 101 round their necks an iron ring. he is permitted to too long under water. we re-entered our palanquins and arrived toward night at Han-yang. it is perfectly end. and their instinct teaches them to range themselves of their own accord in nearly equal numbers on each side. slightly hooked at the Never very elegant in appearance. we saw them thus ranged of fishing smacks on throughout the little fleet Lake is larger than the domestic duck. after the fatigues of a . and the poor diver patiently resumes In passing from one fishing his laborious occupation. and numerous groups of artisans who had finished their daily labor were on their way to the theatre. when. singing and they went. call him to duty. and wasting the time destined for work. Every thing wore the lively. a cord is attached to the ring and to one claw of the cor- by which he is pulled up when inclined to stay When tired. a few strokes of a bamboo remorant. perch side by side on ground the edge of the boat. rest for a few minutes. The cormorant and tumbled plumage stands on end all over its meagre body.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but too small to admit the passage of the fish they seize: to prevent their straying about in the water. the to cormorants another. animated air of frolicking as a densely-populated city. but if he abuses this indulgence. large enough to allow of their breathing. and forgets his business. so as not to disturb the equilib- rium of the frail vessel .

it. but a handful of curly hair on each cheek. It is one of the most amusing of sights for them. they regard us eccentric. When they hear that we consider it a refreshment and amusement. like chimney-pots the and making a frame around sucli grotesque faces.102 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. They squat in rows along the sides of the quays. They try in vain to adapted to cut off the ears. no beard or mustache. The shape of the dress-coat puzzles them above every thing. Europeans who China are apt to consider the inhabitants of the Empire very odd and supremely ridiculous. and because impossible there is nothing in front to correspond to the tails be- account for . contemplating the Avhile with a satirical and contemptuous eye the English and Americans who promenade up and down from one end to the other. It is very amusing to hear their sarcastic remarks on the appearance of the go to Celestial their tight-fitting garments. that we should find pleasure in walking for its own sake. calling it a half garment. amusement. devils of the west. unknown its to the its charms or Those who have some notion of Eu- ropean manners think it very singular. and prodigious round shirt-collars hats. because it is to make it meet over the breast. or entirely devoid of common-sense. smoking their pipes and fanning themselves. as very The Chinese of the interior whom business takes to Canton or Macao. the necessity of a little rest and The public promenade is a thing Chinese. keeping time with admirable precision. all feel day of toil. and the provincial Chinese at Canton and Macao pay baek this sentiment with interest. their utter astonishment at sight of their wonderful trowsers. if not utterly absurd. who can not perceive cither wholesomeness. with long noses and blue eyes. always go the first thing to look at the Europeans on the promenade.

arc the tumultuous. and little shaven crowns and magnificent pigAdd to all these almost to their heels. New Year's Day and certain On these occasions they do family festivals exccpted. much handsomer they think themselves with their narrow. they ask if it is not more conformable to civilized ideas to sit down quietly to smoke and drink tea when you have nothing else to do. covered with red fringe. At those hours which. still better. the cities of most noisy and China enjoy the most profound tranquillity. all " the shops are closed . and black satin boots. the boatmen. All the Chinese. high cheek bones. not allow themselves a moment's repose. or.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. perhaps. even of the highest class. to go to bed at once. hind. go to bed in time to get up at sunrise. round noses. in the great cities of Europe. the public readers. When they see Europeans spend hours in walking for the mere sake of the exercise. Every one has retired into his family . black eyes. except. They are like our worthy ancestors before they hit upon the plan of prolonging the day till midnight and the night till noon. oblique. in a . with a white sole of immense thickness. But it is in their way of life that they hold themselves most particularly superior to us. The idea of meeting to spend the greater part of the night in amusements and gayety has not yet presented itself to them. and it must be evident to that a European can not com- ^1 pare in appearance with a Chinese. tails their ' an ample tunic with large sleeves. they follow the course of the heavenly bodies in their arrangement of day and night. the mountebanks. hanging natural graces a conical hat. have finished their sittings. In general. and no- thing like business is to be seen. 103 They admire the judgment and exquisite taste of putting buttons as big as sapecks behind the back How where they never have any thing to button.

without even looking entire day passed in a boat or in a palanquin gave us. the only fur- which consisted in a feAV dislocated arm-chairs. an establishment des- tined for a variety of uses. in a sort of house which we It was not a communal not how to describe. we were told. sat himself old Chinese filled his pipe. and its whole illumination in a large red candle made of some vegetable fat. few theatres. as it was very late. who introduced us into a spacious saloon. It was. and disappeared. who have only the night at their disposal. which depend mostly on the favor of the working-classes.104 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.to promenade the room. the right to stretch our legs a little. palace. our conductors Mandarin smoked . know pagoda. nor a tribunal. At last they deposited us at the extremity of a suburb. lighted it at the down at the end of a bench. We very coldly by an old Chinese. We streets of took more than an hour to traverse the long Han-yang. nor a prison. Our Chinese always maintained the same attitude withhis pipe. whiqfc. in which to enjoy the favorite amusement of see- ing a play. some refreshments would have been by no means superfluous. had honored us with his presence. found the position rather unpleasant. an nor nor a inn. and at us. As the behavior of this individual was little to our taste. but began. which gave out. a little retired Mandarin. a dull and lugubrlom light. though. since no Mandarin of Han-yang'. at the risk of being considered barbarians. niture of The candle. and no one had even had the politeness to order us a cup of tea. An began to smoke. the authorities of the were received place had prepared for our reception. we thought. and while the retired old had silently We remained for a long time thus. While we promenaded. together with much smoke. we took no notice of him. either great or small.

We E* . and he replied. to spare himself the expense and trouble of He knew very well. very much surprised at seeing so many people suddenly invade the establishment of which he was the guardian. and we on our side affected not to pay any attention to him. better than we did. and what was to come of it. at so late an hour. that no one had given him any orders about us. and consequently he had not made any preparation to receive us. and we asked him what all this meant. prefect." This meant that the prefect had played us a trick a la CAinoise. but saw by his surprise that he understood the situation no better than we did ourselves. was not worth while to be angry about this. giving us an official reception." going go and give orders to have you taken care of in the House of Guests. and scarcely looking at us. on the oppobank of the river. where we came we were going to that he was himself . that it was not possible for us to go in one day from Han-tchoAn to Ou-tchang-fou. whither they have conducted you. At length Master Ting appeared. Our reception was polite enough. After he had thus expressed his thoughts very phlegmatically. his pipe for about the tenth time. but extremely cold. that he did not from. He filling who was then began to question the old Chinese. However. and began to smoke again.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 105 out iroubling himself about us in the smallest degree. It was evidently to enter into negotiation with a person of this impossible so we determined upon paying a visit to the stamp. and that we must thought it necessarily pass the night at Han-yang. without disturbing hiwiself. it must end somehow. The prefect said he thought we should have gone that same evening to the capital of the province. or where know who we were. " Since you are " I will he not to site added. he replaced his pipe in his mouth. Ou-tchang-fou to-night.

and make him understand his visage lengthened piteously .106 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. snuffing it very dexterously by giving Master Ting. imagining that AVC were very easily satisfied. and threatened to eat up the poor servant who had brought the basket. that it was not offense of the fair to impute to this poor man the bacon and saWNish . afore- said red candle. with the prospect of finding our imperturbable Chinese still in the same place smoking his pipe. had already taken his place on one side of the table. for. that we completely departed from the line of conduct we had marked out for . The Prefect of Han-yang seemed inclined to abuse the privilege he thought he possessed^of treating us accordMaster Ting was foaming ing to his will and pleasure. and without speaking a little sharply to him . we We found still seated on hi* bench. however. a fillip to the wick. guardian seeing him. but our vanity was so mortified at the proceeding. placed between two little plates. which contained a slender supper. and upon it the table. committed a great fault in taking We leave of the prefect. one containing some morsels of salt fish. with rage. rice boiled in water. but when he saw the nature A great bowl of of the banquet sent us by the prefect. of the House of Guests the rose. We had to exert all our influence to restrain him. and the red candle. and went into a neighboring apartment to fetch a which he placed against the wall. so politely. and the other some slices of bacon this was the supper. and we returned quietly to the above-mentioned House of Guests. presented himself. who was hungry. bearing a basket divided into several On compartments. had. sure enough. its great wick surrounded by a little flame and a great deal One of the prefect's servants soon of thick smoke. was still alight. lie did not fail to take advantage of it. whom. returned to our Chinese. though burnt down to a small end.

for after that we had incredible trouble to recover our . ourselves in our relations 107 with the Mandarins. since our own expense at Han-yang. in a moment of road. underafter all. have been to have ordered an entertainment of the first We We and have made the prefect pay for it. that it had succeeded perfectly all along the But we had been foolish enough.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. We quitted Han-yang with lively feelings tion. of satisfac- without even regretting that ancient guardian of the House of Guests. to abandon it. and. master. . and that we had But our selfgot most majestically out of the scrape. had forgotten that we were in China. were acting with incomparable dignity. and thank him for his obliging generosity. we meant to live at The rice prefect's and the major-domo carried away the bowl of accessories. former position. and AVC had to suffer for our folly anger. conceit blinded us. at the expense of two It appeared to us at the time that we ounces of silver. stood this the next day. after a night's rest had enabled us to take a more tranquil view of our position. and after that to have remained one or two days at Han-yang. we had done a very stupid thing. with the same grace and amiability that he had exhibited in our reception. and soon afterward we were to the doing the honors of a magnificent supper that we gave Mandarins of our escort. class. and that Mandarins were by no means the men who could have any feeling What we ought to have done would of honor piqued. and hindered us from seeing that. and at the same time we begged Master Ting to go and order us a proper yielding to a puerile emotion of pride. who dismissed us. servant to cany back the viands to his we told the supper at the nearest tavern. This strange system was so well adapted to the Chinese character.

of Hou-pe. a side wind but it and as the passage-boats we . we arrived without accident in the port of Ou-tchang-fou. only separated from which in this place resembles a Multitudes of enormous junks sea. which was favorable Han-yang by the great arm of the river.108 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. as we only wanted was extremely for violent. The example. where we were detained more than two hours opening a passage for ourselves through the prodigious mass of junks in the After that we had a real journey to go anchorage. though not long. not far from the Governor's Palace. we entered a boat. enough for us. . that her squall sails for a moment touched the water. having reassured us. When we were near the middle of the river. we hesitated a little before embarking in them. fectly-defined outline of an immense town. At length." as the Chinese call it. through the streets of this vast city . of many other travelers. was not. it was said. We had only to cross the Blue River and when we went to the shore we could see the vague and imper. after a passage of three quarters of an hour. which soon carried us away with almost terrific rapidity. this was Ou-tchany-fou. however. we met with a that sent our boat so much on her side. and it was after- noon by the time we were installed in our lodgings. altogether without danger. The journey we were to make that day. found stationed at the shore appeared much too slight stormy weather in these impetuous waters. was blowing from the south. almost entirely enveloped in fog. the capi tal of the province were moving rapidly down or slowly up this " River The wind Child of the Sea. who made no difficulty.

All the Mandarins we saw promised to attend immedibut probably no ately to our request to be removed one of them thought any more about it. for we were still . and the heat in it was suffocating. to which air and light only penetrated by a single sky-light. we were very good sort of people.CHAPTER Bad Lodging IV. and easy In vain did Master Ting protest the contrary no one believed him. who had been charged to take us across the Blue River to Ou-tchangfou had. We had at our disposal but one narrow chamber. We were suffering the consequences of the diplomatic blunders now we had made at Han-yang. Pecuniary Immense Commercial Mart in the Centre of the Empire Societies System of Canals Aptitude of the Chinese for Commerce Monetary System Influence of the Sapeck Infinitesimal Trade. place where we had been was a located since our ar- rival at Ou-tchang-fou pagoda quite lately and of which the Bonzes had not yet taken possession. They knew that when the sent to us the supper by prefect of Han-yang did not . doubtless. in a Little Pagoda Ou-tchang-fou. little left pitilessly in this hot-house. It was clean. but far from commodious. Capital of Hou-Pe Limits of the Chinese Empire Mountains Rivers Lakes Climate Principal Productions Chinese Industry Causes of its Decline Former Exhibitions of the Productions of Arts Relations of the Chinese with Foreigners Present State of their Commerce with Europeans Internal Trade of China Interest of Money System of Chinese Economists upon Interest of Thirty per cent. The little Mandarin of that town. not failed to compromise us by say- ing that to cheat. THE built. it was opposite a high wall.

being harassed in various ways. in being obstinate and refractory with the Mandarins. . he had had to undergo several judicial where Capital. they replied that we ought to consider ourselves very fortunate that we were neither imprisoned nor put in irons.110 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. whose patience and resignation greatly exceeded ours. after and examinations. to endeavor to combat these views. however. if content. not only for our own sakes. and Avithout making any from the complaint. we should always did not kill us. and only for waited a favorable moment putting it in execution. that was our duty. We ought to be full of gratitude for not having our it throats cut. town a Spanish missionary had been discovered and He had been brought to the arrested in the province. This good Spanish priest. We understood now how completely in the right we had been hitherto. conformably to the treaties concluded between the various European to powers. If we complained. There was also. We formed our plan therefore. had allowed the inhabitants of Ou-tchang-fou to assume a tone and deportment of which we now became the victims. and detained long in the public prisons. but for those of the missionaries who should come after us. We considered. another cause for the illwill manifested toward us by the authorities of OuSome months before our arrival in this tchang-fou. ordered another at our own expense for them to Thus there was no necessity restaurateur. we found. at the conclusion of the war with the English. please us. be quite give themselves any trouble . who are always disposed to become the tyrants and persecutors of those who do not know how make them tremble. only they Such were the consequences of a moment of weakness. he was taken to Macao (with a chain round his neck). we had very quietly.

" is still nearer to it. it raphy and seems desirable to cast a glance at the geogstatistics of this vast and powerful Asiatic Empire. town. for in the year of our abode in China we had had occasion to town. standing in a triangle. and only a form kind the of from which river. We have seen that Han- opposite to Ou-tchang-fou . without exit was attention. we determined to take some walks in the town. our yellow caps provisionally first move more Ou-tchang-fou was already well known to us. the most ancient. another immense " Mouth of called Han-keou. But. provinces by the Blue River. and they are so closely connected by the perpetual going and coming of a multiall They tude of vessels. indispensable to lay aside citing public and red girdles. which we hope may not be found without interest. are calculated to contain together nearly eight millions of inhabitants. almost under the walls of the These three towns. that is. before entering upon some details connected with the subject. Commerce. in company with our dear Master Ting. one of the chief commercial places and communicating with all the other visit this great in the Empire. situated at the confluence of a being yang is river that throws itself into the Yang-tse-kiang. that they one. with the barbarians of Hou-pe but in order to be able freely through the streets. in sight of one another. and the most . Ill As our hot narrow cell was an extremely disagreeable place to stop in. may almost be said to form This is would wish the spot that must be visited by those who to have an idea of the internal trade of China. separated by the prodigious commercial activity of China circulates to capital. who ince of Sse-tchouen. the richest. to was longing exceedingly to see again his beloved provand to have nothing more to do .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. heart. parts of the Empire.

between the two the country of the Khalkas and leaving then stretches to the southeast as far as the Mongolia .112 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and extends from west to east across the peninsula of Corea. or of which history has preserved any recollection. goes on again this place the till it joins the wooden palisade of Leao-tong following . a little way then proceeds northward to of the Russian to the north of the mouth of the it commencement Amour. It is bounded to the south the eastern and central parts of and east by the Pacific the Ocean. properly so called. . is a great continental country. populous existing on the face of the earth. the point that marks the frontier. three provinces were taken from the the southwest country formerly known under the names of Leao-tong. and were added to China. to the mouth of the Ya-lou : from this point the frontier line leaves the coast of the gulf. one of the gates of the Great Wall. as far as the sea of Japan. or Black River. At Chinese frontier line quits the Russian. pro- ceeding from Chan-kai-Jeouan. it crosses at Bedoune. and stops at the lakes of Koulun and Bouir. then proceeds southwestward as far as the Black River. and Mantchuria. According to this arrangement. Thence the line which separates the two empires follows generally the chain of mountains of Hing-ngan. China. the present frontiers of the follow the northern shore of the Empire Gulf of Leao-tong. situated in Asia. second emperor of the Mantchou dynasty." to the west by the mountains of Thibet. called in Chinese the " Sea of Sand. which it crosses at its confluence with the Argoun. without counting its vast and numerous tributary kingdoms. following the shore of that sea in a northeasterly direction . to the north the great desert of Gobi. the along Under the reign of Kien-long. and which San-gari. and to by Yn chain of mountains and by the less elevated ranges that extend limits of the Burmese Empire and Tonquin.

between the country of the Birmans and Cochin China on one side. leaving the sandy deserts and the country of the Iou-kou-noor. # 113 this barrier from northwest to southwest. Kiang. After crossing the Yellow River. to its junction with the Great Wall. toward the middle of The Chinese the branch which proceeds to the south. coasting successively the provinces Kan-sou and Sse-tchouen. crosses it. and then coasts first the left and then the right bank as far as latitude 37 from this point it leaves the river. it deof scends to the south. According to the frontier line we have just traced. at a short distance to the west of Chaii-hai-kouan. or The River. westward to the with proceeding. called by the Chinese. That is the extremity of China on the northwest. with various sinuosities. it runs first southwest and then northwest. par excellence. and the province of Chen-si on the south . and the provinces of Yan-nan and Kouan-si on the other. The frontier then returns to the southeast. between the country of the Ortoos on the north. proceeds. various sinuosities. turning to the northwest. and having reached Si-ning. toward the middle of that part of it which tends north- ward.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. frontier then follows the Great Wall. after having embraced the territory of UTing-hia . again taking a southerly course. Yellow River. to the point whence we set out. Its direction becomes a westerly in the countries where the great rivers that flow from the high mountains of Thibet pour their waters into the immense stream. in : the department of Sou-tcheou. until it has reached latitude 40. and continues to follow the same direction as far as 44. it will be seen that China presents the form of a circle. then joins the Yellow River a second time. After this it turns little again towards the east. or . and separating the country of the Mongols from the two provinces of Petche-li and Chan-si.

allel of north latitude. cast-southeast. The Chinese soil presents also several other great broken chains. that China is comprised between 20 these tude. Mountains of the South. and extends northward to latitude 41. west to northeast is also that of the line of volcanoes.000 square miles more than eight times the surface of France. near the province of Chan-si. in the island of Hai-nan. wich. tending in the same direction. to the fronThis general direction from southtiers of Tonquin. toward the northeast and northwest. three degrees beyond the tropic of Cancer. rather of an equilateral parallelogram from which the It advances on the south to angles have been cut off. presenting. in the north. between the parallels of 31 and 34. it will be seen of lati- and 42 and 97 of longitude E. of which the general direction is toward the northeast. and the other. and the other to the 56th parWithout taking. and 1800 from east to west.114 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for the present. or 2. and from Thai-tong. two prolongations. of which one bears the Chinese name of T/tsinling. known under the name of Nan-ling. from GreenIts entire area contains an extent of 1575 miles and 123 from north to south. which is continued eastward by two principal ranges . or Blue Mountains. and stretches to the southeast. Such arc those which extend from the eastern point of Chantong. dependencies of the great mountain mass of Central Asia. of which one reaches beyond the 40th. The mountains of Thsin-ling and Nan-ling. China forms a considerable portion of the immense slope from the mountains of Thibet to the shores of the The mountains on its western side arc Eastern Ocean. formed of separate groups. are in reality only mountain masses. between the parallels of 24 and 27. . marked in most of the maps of China as continuous chains. two prolongations into account.835.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE^ EMPIRE.

115

which is continued across the great island of Formosa, the Archipelago of lAeou-tchieou and Japan, as far as The learned geologist M. Elie the Aleutian Islands. de Beaumont has shown that it coincides with the great
the terrestrial sphere which passes by the Cordilleras of South America and the Rocky Mountains of the North ; whence it seems we may infer that the
circle of

mountain system of Oriental Asia, and that of the great American chains, are of the same date. The earthquakes, the

mud

the eruptions, the upheavings of

soil,

which have been observed in China from the remotest antiquity, have in fact a striking analogy with phenomena of the same kind that have taken place in the two Americas. There is no volcano now in action in
China, but it is certain that over a great extent of counand in the province of Chan-si try the soil is volcanic there are many volcanic vents, emitting sulphurous compounds Solfatarus, as they are called which are turned
;

to economical uses

by

the inhabitants.

mountain groups in China, flow a great number of streams, which mostly fall into one or other of the immense rivers - Yang-tse-kiang, that we have called the Blue River, and the Iloang-ho,
Parallel to these series of

Both take their rise in the eastern or Yellow River. mountains of Thibet, between 34 and 35 of north latitude. Their mouths also are at no great distance from one another but during their course they leave between them a prodigious tract of country, of which we have already spoken elsewhere. As the Chinese geographers class the mountains according to their own
;

and distinguish live principal ones, whose positions they describe mostly according to historical tradition, so also they mention four rivers, under the name
ideas,

of Sse-tou, "The Four Flo wings ;" namely, the liang, To these must be the Ho, the Iloui, and the Tsi.

116

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMI'IKK

added a considerable number of rivers that fall into the sea, but which do not equal, cither in length or volume, the tributaries of the Yellow and Blue llivers. There are in China several great lakes, among which
are distinguished five principal ones ; namely, the Lake Tlioung-thing, on the confines of Ilou-nan and Ilou-pe;

secondly, the
si; the
ly,

Lake Pkou-yong, in the province of Ki.ang~ Lake thirdly, Houng-tse, in Kiang-sou; fourthly, Si-hou or Western Lake, in Tclie-kiang : and fifth' Lake Tai-hou, or the Great Lake, on the borders

There are also other of Kiang-sou and Tche-kiang. smaller and less celebrated lakes, principally in Yan-iian. The climate of a country that extends from the tropic

56 of latitude, must of course differ excessively in the different provinces ; and it does in fact present, every variety of the temperate, and some also of both
to

the frigid and torrid zones. The province of the Black River has Winters like those of Siberia, and the heat of Canton is equal to that of Hindostan. You see rein-

deer in the north and elephants in the south. Between these two extremes is found every variation of temperature and climate. Thus, at Pekin, in latitude 40, the thermometer falls during the three winter

months
of heat.

22
is

9'.

30 below zero, and rises in summer to 30 At Canton, lat. 23, the mean temperature is The air in China is mostly very salubrious, which
to

the more remarkable, as the most general cultivation, at least all over the southern parts, is that of rice.

v

i

This advantage may no doubt be partly attributed to happy arrangement of the great basins being open to the most healthy winds, but also partly to the wise measures adopted for the improvement of the country in the cultivation of the banks of the lakes and marshy
the
lands, procuring a free passage for the waters of rivers and streams, and subjecting to judicious management

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
the

117

prosperity of the
ants.

work of irrigation, which so materially concerns the Empire and the welfare of the inhabitentire surface of

The

China

may be

divided into three

zones, parallel to the equator, and of which the temperaThe northern ture and products are very different.

zone extends to the 35th parallel, and does not pass to the south beyond the lower valley of the Yellow River. The climate here is much too severe for tea, rice, or the

mostly sown with millet than wheat. A iron and considerable beds of coal, are ores, great many also found here. This precious combustible is indeed found almost all over China; and especially in the It is employed for the common province of Kan-sou. fuel, as well as in the manufacture of iron, lime, etc. The central zone, bounded by the 27th or 26th parallel,
;

common mulberry and barley, which

the land

is

resist the cold better

and the mountains of Xan-ling, has much milder winters
than the northern, and the rice and wheat are excellent 'It there. the possesses, too, the^TJeEter kinds of tea
;

mulberry, the cotton-tree, the jujube, the orange-tree, the sugar-cane, which was imported from India in the eighth century, and the bamboo, which is found, indeed, as far as lat. 38, and which has been applied by the

Chinese to a great variety of purposes. part of this favored zone is celebrated for
tures of silk

The
its

eastern

manufac-

and cotton*; the middle of it passes for the granary of China, and might feed the whole country from its enormous harvests of rice ; the west is rich in
fit for The southern zone, bordered building. the sea, lias the same natural productions as these, by but not generally of as good a quality, as the tempera-

woods

much higher. ^Numerous metalliferous deposits are distributed throughout both zones : gold and silver in the provinces of the south and west ; copper, tin, and
ture is

118

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

lead, in the central province of Kiang-si ; and mercury in abundance in various forms. Finally, the mountains

of the southwest, in

to be rich in metals of all kinds.

Yan-nan and Kouci-tchcou, are said There are also found

in China, the lapis lazuli, the ruby, the emerald, the corindum,* quartz ; ollaris stone, of which vases, and

especially inkstands, are

made

;

steatite,

various kinds

of schist, jasper, and serpentine, used in the fabrication of musical instruments ; and the precious green stone

on

set a high value found in Thai-tong, in the province of Chan-si, but most of these stones come from Khootan, and are brought from Tartary by the Bucharians. China has a great number of native animals, among

called jade,
it,

and by the Chinese, who
It is

Yu.

which are several that are little, or not at all, known in Horses are small, and not so valuable as in Europe. some other countries. In the north are found the camel
of Bactriana, the buffalo, various kinds of bears, the badger, the rat, a particular, kind of tiger, and several
species of the leopard,

and panther.
in Europe, and the pig is There are several species

The ox

is less

common than

smaller than the European. of dogs with black tongues.

The

especially a tailless kind, very

common

cat is domesticated, in the south ;

and the white variety, with silky hair, is not unknown. There are several species of rodentia, some of which, indeed, swarm so as to become" a perfect scourge, and traverse the country in immense troops. The jerboa, the flying-squirrel, the otter, the sable, are found in the forests, and the rhinoceros and the Oriental tapir inhabit the western parts of Kouang-si, Yan-nan and Ssetcliouen. Many kinds of stags, goats, and antelopes,, the musk-deer, and other less known ruminants, people
* precious stone, of which there are said to be the hardest after the diamond.

A

many

varieties,

nnd which

ii

TKANS.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

119

the forests and mountains, particularly in the western In the southwest are also found many of provinces.
large kinds of monrelated to the keys, nearly ourang-outang. China, so fertile in all sorts of natural productions,

the

quadrumana, and even some

also possesses a treasure Avithout which the most abundant riches of the soil become useless ; namely, the indus-

In all that concerns the material try of its inhabitants. conveniences of life, the industry of the Chinese is mar-

The origin of various arts among them is lost in the darkness of ages ; but their invention is attributed
velous.

two personages, whose historical existence has often been doubted by the annalists. Since time immemorial the Chinese have known how to manufacture the silk stuffs that have attracted toward them the merchants of the greater part of Asia. The manufacture of porcelain has been brought to a degree of perfection that has been only very lately surpassed in Europe, and which has not yet been equaled
to
for

The bamboo serves for solidity and cheapness. the fabrication of thousands of articles ; their cottons
; they which, notwithstanding the simplicity of their means, they succeed in producing the most varied designs ; their crapes we have not yet been able -to imitate. Besides their hemp-

and nankeens are renowned
excel in

all

the world over
in

making flowered

satins,

en cloths, they make a very strong kind with a sort of ivy called ko. Their furniture, their vases, their instruments and tools of every kind, are remarkable for a
certain ingenious simplicity well deserving of imitation. The polarity of the loadstone had been remarked

among them 2500 years

before our era, although no re-

had been obtained from it. Gunpowder, and other inflammable substances, which
sult favorable to navigation

they make use of for fire-works of a very

effective kind,

120

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

/

Were known to them from a remote period ; and it is bebombs and swivel guns, of which they the use to the Tartars in the 13th century, may taught have given the idea of artillery to the Europeans, although the form of the guns and cannon made use of at present was brought to them from France, as the names given to them attest. In all recorded time they
lieved that the

how to work in metals, make musical inWood-enand cut and polish hard stones. struments, date in from the China and stereotype-printing graving middle of the 10th century and they excel in dyeing, Very imperfect imitaembroidery, and lacquered work. tions are produced in Europe of some of the productions of their industry their lively and unchangeable colors, their fine and strong paper, their ink, and many other articles, the manufacture of which requires patience, care, and dexterity. They are fond of imitating models that come to them from foreign countries, and they copy them with the most exact and servile fidelity. They
have known
;

for the Europeans articles adapted and images in china, steatite, or painted wood, are made so cheaply among them, that there might often be economy in getting them from China, as they

even make expressly

to their taste,

could only be executed
expense.

by European workmen

at great
in-

AVe may observe, however, that manufacturing
dustry, like every thing else in China,
is in

a state of

decay, and visibly declining from day to day. Many important secrets connected with it are lost, and the
1

workmen would now be incapable of prothe perfection and finish so much admired in ducing the works of past ages. Thence arises the immoderate passion of the rich Chinese for antiques kou-toon, as
most
skillful

they

call them. They seek with avidity for the silks, bronzes, porcelain, and paintings of ancient date, which

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
certainly far surpass

121

more modern productions ; but not only do the Chinese of the present day invent nothing and improve nothing, they retrograde perceptibly from the point attained a long time ago. This deplorable state of things is referable to the genand the carelessness of government, which we have had occasion to mention so often. No
eral disorganization

one cares to

offer

any encouragement
;

to the talents and'

merit of artists or artisans

there is nothing to excite
;

any emulation among them and consequently no one endeavors to make any progress, or to distinguish himself above his fellows. Every man of genius capable of giving a salutary impulse to art and industry, is
paralyzed

by

tirely unknown, and are to bring him punishment

the thought that his efforts will remain en-^ indeed of the two more likely

than reward from the govern-

ment.

formerly, and the means now in contribute so powerfully to which Europe, employed all industrial capacities and talents, were once develop
It

was not thus

in use in the

There were public exand useful arts them and the and reward those who never failed to praise magistrates and success. their themselves by diligence distinguished In the accounts of the voyages made by the Arabs in
Chinese Empire.
hibitions for the productions of the fine all citizens were admitted to examine
; ;

S

China in the 9th century, there is a carious passage, which serves in some measure to explain the astonishing progress made by the Chinese, at an epoch when the other nations of the world were plunged in igno^ ranee and barbarism. " " The of all the Arab
Chinese," says the creatures of God, those
narrator,
are,

who have most

skill in the

hand
tion,

and

in all that concerns the arts of design and fabricafor every kind of work ; they are not in this re-

spect surpassed

by any

nation.

In China, when a

man

VOL.

II.

F

122

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

has made any thing that probably no one else would be able to make, he carries it to the governor, demanding a recompense for the progress he has made in the art. The governor immediately orders the article to be placed
at the door of his palace, and keeps it there for a year : if in the course of that time no one finds any fault in it,

he rewards the

artist,

and takes him

into his service

;

but
is

be pointed out in the work, it any sent back, and no reward given to the maker. "One day, a young man brought a piece of silk stuff,
if

real defect can

on which was represented an ear of corn, with a sparrow perching on it. No one on seeing it could doubt that it was a real ear of corn, and that a sparrow was The stuff remained for some time really sitting upon it.
in the place of exhibition ; at last a humpbacked came and began to criticise the performance. He

man
was

immediately admitted to the governor of the town, and the artist at the same time was sent for. Then they

asked the humpbacked caviler what he had to object to and he said, Every body knows very well that a sparrow could mot perch upon an ear of corn without making it bend ; now the artist has represented it quite straight, and yet he has shown a sparrow perched upon
' ;

it.'

The

observation

was considered just, and the
all this is to

artist

received no reward.

" The purpOKB of the Chinese in

exercise

the talents of the artists, and to force them to reflect maturely upon what they undertake, and devote the

utmost possible care to the works that issue from their
hands."
It is

easy to understand

how these permanent

exhibi-

tions

must

the arts.

excite emulation, and favor the progress of Thus at this epoch China had acquired such

a marked superiority over all the neighboring countries in this respect, that its internal trade obtained an aston-

please God. The foreign- frequented its ports were so numerous. its situation is on a great river. it is this which first made China known in the West. writer describes these terrible executions : " Events have happened that have put a stop to the directed expeditions against these countries. the port where the Arab merchants land. which was effected by the intervention of the Bucharians. 123 The principal commerce carried on ishing development. the capital of These are the terms in which the Arab Tche-kiang. and it is bathed by fresh water. where Khan-fou formerly stood the port exists no longer. I am going. man began by by little . Little bad men collected round him . which have ruined this land (China). who did not belong to the royal house.* " The inhabitants of Khan-fou having closed their the rebels them a That besieged gates. * This We have been on the spot descripticm is perfectly accurate. This then he crafty and disobedient behavior . of the high position she previously held with respect to laws and justice.000 of them were who y massacred at one time at Han-tcheou-fou. and ers called the Westerns to China. and destroyed its power. long time. is the enterprise of a rebel. and which has interrupted the commercial expeditions toward these regions from the port of Syraf. and others . took arms and began to pillage private persons. being filled up with sand. Between this town and the sea there is a distance of some days' journey . and who was called Bauschena. that toward the end of the 9th century 120. his ambition took a and among the towns of China that he higher flight attacked was Khan-fou. his name became terrible his resources increased . . to relate what I have read relaThat which has deprived China tive to these events. the Persians. but the Chinese of the neighborhood have preserved the memory of its commercial importance. with the Romans was for silk. .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. .

the peninsula of Malacca. for commercial purposes. They visit even yet. because the Chinese governor was in the habit of levying a tax upon them according to their numbers. and went to traffic in Arabia and Egypt. and Magi. silk This circumstance was the cause of no more being sent from there to the Arab countries. as well as the precious green stone called jade .124 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIUE. The Chialong all the northern and western frontier. and all the (878 A. nese get horses from Tartary. Jews. because the We leaf of this tree feeds the insect that to the makes the silk. musk and shawls from Thibet . . the ports of Cochin China and Japan. and even Bengal. which were upon the territory of the town. they have at different times occupied themselves with it not be doubted that in a very active manner . who were established in the town." While Empire. up moment when the creature constructs its last dwelling.000 Mussulmans. and carried on trade there. that happen in China. took place in the course of the year 264 of the Hegira The town was taken at last. and foreigners flocked to the ports of the Celestial other regions. on perished Christians.D. without counting the The precise number natives killed at the same time. Persons acquainted with inhabitants put to the sword. the events of persons of these four religions who lost their lives was known. The rebels also had the mulberry and other trees cut down. report that there this occasion 120. At present there is an active foreign trade carried on there. and it can it is the interests of commerce that have carried to Tartary the Chinese colonies established and also drawn thither the armies sent to the Western countries by the Chinese government.). the islands of the Eastern Archipelago. As to land trade. name the mulberry trees in particular. Chinese merchants visited in their junks all the seas of India.

With the exception of opium and Indian cotton.000. up to the end of the 18th century. According to these data.000.000. which. tea and raw silk.000. The more or less consid- erable consumption of the principal products of China. and gold and silver The neighboring towns of the Birmah country get their European goods this . and that is less than 600. and it was by the route of Little Bucharia. she accepts foreign goods only with the view of favoring her own export trade. but the difficulties of way transport have now for some time rendered the foreign commerce by land far less important than by sea. sent nothing to China but its money to exchange for tea. not to buy. England imher into marts 54. soaps. she only takes the tea required for her own consumption. the taste for which has been so rapidly propagated in China.000 pounds. the United States.000. camphor. The port of Canton was for a long time the only one open to European commerce.000 ports pounds of tea.000. leather.000 of raw or manufactured products sent to her from India and the west. it ivory.000 in exchange for above 9. and the towns on the northwest of Kan-sou. by the side of the other powers of Europe. that the first silks formerly arrived in Europe . it would be easy to foresee the commercial opportunities that France might obtain for herself on this new ground. Raw silk is only taken by England and the United . Russia. and especially enormous quantities of opium. als. Celestial Empire. Since the commencement of the 19th. etc. woolen cloth. from Siberia. watches. above 8. wrought metIndia furnishes her spices. furs 125 thread from Silesia-and Russia. value This vast continent yields to foreign commerce the of about 7. has sent also cotton goods.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. determines the importance of the ex- changes that can be effected with the subjects of the China needs to sell. 17.000: as to France.

000 in raw cotton. and above 5^000. repreaH the countries that senting a value of 1.. whose numerous and interesting works afford a proof that it is possito be at the same time a distinguished sailor and a highly gifted writer. notwithstanding the competition of Chinese industry.000 in 440. * Revue des deux Mondes. and it also excludes from the extreme East the produccottons. by being sold at a of very low price.000 in woolen cloths. been introduced into the ports of Canton and Shang-hai to the amount of 1. States England more than 2. have. by means of the profits realized on the return cargoes.* In order to afford the means of estimating at a glance the relative importance of the commercial transactions of foreign nations with China. . cloths offered at Kiaktha and in Central American cottons' brought to Shang-hai and the Asia.000.320.000 pounds.400. FOREIGN VESSELS WHICH ENTERED CHINESE PORTS IN England United States Holland Spain Various nations France 374 183 29 13 22 4 '. Jurien de la Gra- viere. and The Russian Thus in the best years the exchanges of France with China have not exceeded a value of tions of France. British manufactured goods. and which can turn the balance of exchange in its own favor.000 of francs. 2. 1850. the same conditions and submit to the same accept This burdensome commerce is maintained sacrifices.000 in opium. British India goods opening is the only one that finds an easy market. by ble M.. we will give an exact statement of the number of vessels belonging to each which entered its ports during one year. Of in for their an seek China. 1st Sept.000.200.126 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. .000. 1841. China receives annually from Calcutta and Bombay to the amount 1.

" Its rich . Commerce. the Chinese government has never. The great Chinese merchants in the ports open to the foreigners Europeans would doubtless feel it. enormous as their amount appears. The cotton goods brought to China. but its influence is very little felt in this vast Chinese Empire. it was because it has always considered it as prejudicial to the true interests of the country. favored foreign commerce .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHIXESE EMPIRE. and The trade with this immense population of traders. can be in reality but a feeble resource for the immense consumption of more than 300. then. that the Chinese nation as M. it all the" and it really disadvantageous to the Empire. and fertile prov- inces furnish all that requires it has within its own and Europe can only supply it with articles of luxury and fancy. can only be serviceable to the Empire insomuch as by giving up superfluous articles. "China has to it need to and not buy. according to the Chinese. If. and that of opium would rise. Tliis 127 commerce is doubtless of considerable import- ance to England and the United States. Jurien de sell la Graviere truly observes. but it is probable would not experience the least inconvenience. but only for a short time. The course of business would suffer no embarrassment. at any time. they infer from it. and porcelain. tea.000. is for this reason they have always endeavored is . if it has even endeav- ored to paralyze and crush it .000 of men. The price of tea and silk would fall. might cease suddenly and completely. sary and quently increases the price of these articles in provinces. without causing any sensation in the interior provinces. since. it acquires what is neces- This principle being admitted. and conseuseful. that as the trade with foreigners diminishes the quantity of silk. for the Chinese would soon raise it in abundance. limits all that is either necessary or useful.

which is the abundance of what is superfluous among certain citizens.128 JOUItNKY TIIIiOlMMl THK CHINKS!'. and always in the way of barter. . KMIMliK. The Chinese have by no means the same ideas as the Europeans on the subject of commerce. who lived more than two thousand years ago. the more people will have to walk on foot . As foreign commerce can not offer them any article of primary necessity. curiosity. the more those of the poor are small and miserable the more their tables are covered with dainties. nor even of any real . without any considerable modification in their tastes and habits. it. tlie precious ships. As these arc the principles of the Chinese government. it is easy to see that European productions will never have a very extensive market in China at all events as long as the Chinese remain what they arc . supposes the want of necessaries among others. the more people there are reduced to eat only rice. by which it obtains the furs and leather that it really requires." necessary. have never created for the any illusion on this subject Government. advantageous but the exchange of things useful and : The trade in articles of pomp. or whether carried on by exchange or by -money payments. Kouan-tse. The more horses the rich put to their chariots. a celebrated economist of the Celestial Empire. " The best that can be done for men in a social state by means of industry and labor is that all should have the necessaries and some the conveniences of life. the more their houses are vast and magnificent. supposes the existence of luxury . and it has desired only the commerce with the Tartars and Russians. elegance. to fetter trifles The brought by European various objects of luxury. expresses himself " The thus money which enters a kingdom by commerce only enriches it in the same proportion as that There is no commerce permanently which goes out. now luxury.

trade consists principally in the exchange of the grain. but with a certain feeling of satisfaction. the merchandise of all the provinces disTo these vast storehouses people flock charges itself. The are aware of and that is this. utility. that its internal trade alone would suffice abundantly to occupy that part of the nation w^liich can be devoted to mercantile operations. so varied.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. not only without uneasiness. metal. China is a country so vast. that their internal trade is so exand employs vessels of all sizes. and they would see it stopped altogether. into which. One excellent reason Avhy the Chinese care little about commerce is. from the extremities the would rapidly reach the heart. as into reservoirs. The gland . 129 they will interest themselves very little in its extension. rather than by coming to a new rupture with it to arrest the great commercial movement which is one of the principal sources of the prosperity of India. There are in all the great towns im- portant commercial establishments. and before long there would be seen. perfectly English why they have in these latter years bravely taken the resolution to endure all the offenses of the Chinese government. and other natural and artificial productions of the various provinces. salt. and these possessions are nourished by China. . which are continually furrowing the rivers and canals by which the Empire is watered throughout its whole extent. This foreign tensive. The life and movement of that colossal power would be immediately paralyzed in India evil . fertile source of the wealth and power of Great Britain. even in the metropolis. symptoms of a Her possessions in India are the most mortal malady. so rich. case would certainly not be the same in Ena total interruption of the trade with China would be for her a more disastrous event.

and to understand their mode of regarding questions of political and social economy. and that of money from diminIn fixing it at a ishing. the twelfth. as the sixth. and there is a constant cities of bustle going on about them a feverish activity that often would scarcely be seen in the most important Europe. the excess of corn that it receives in tribute. " that money being more casual in itself. chandise. and the intercalary moon (when there is one) do not bear interest. and three per cent. per per month. boats. a distinguished writer of the Celestial Empire. According to Tchao-yng. The government itself carries in store in the granaries that are on trade. One would like to know what object the Chinese government had in view. per annum. terest is two per cent. and the backs of men and of beasts of burden. The channels of communication. the same value in land will always be preferred to that which is in money. by the mediocrity of interest.130 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. it has endeavored to render the distriburate. which makes three per cent. so numerous in The rate of inChina. although mervery inconvenient. A part of the pawnbroking establishments. in fixing the interest of money at so enormous a rate. and in the income derived from it. very high tion of land proportioned to the number of families. It is evident. that in order not to run the risks to which money is to land. all from parts of the Empire." he says. by laying Tip found in many of the chief towns. per month for articles of clothing. for jewels and articles of the metallic kind. inferior It is evident. barrows. also belong to the government. are at all times thronged with on in carried is which carts. the purpose was to prevent the value of land from increasing. The legal interest of money has been fixed at 30 cent. and the circulation of " money more active and uniform. also. and selling it to its subjects in times of scarcity. as being .

the more land as required. the most useful. . or making them over to others.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. lose for the state in neglecting their lands. what those gain own cultivators a certain and inevitable which must also be added the risks of the harvest and the casualties of payment a loss. the most moral and laborious portion of the community. you must have a greater number of acres of bad land to equal a smaller of that which is good and fertile. Tchao-yng concludes thus: "The great advantage which the law of interest at thirty per cent. 131 people will like even to possess a smaller value in land. who are the and obtained is. " The more the is interest of money is raised. has aimed at that the cultivators of land. who possess more than . and not be the unfortunate slaves of the moneyed interest. liable. may possess property in land. to . to equal it. they can cultivate. all risks being compensated. which. This smaller value is proportioned to the risks of money and its profits. consequentwho are their loss." After having shown by examples that the landed possessions of the people have always increased in proportion as the interest of money was high. and even to acquire a certain quantity since and for the same it is not needful for that to be rich reason the divisions are easy in families. Now the more land is required to equal money the easier is it for the poor citizens to preserve what land they have. ly. of those . being aggravated by these risks. Why? land produces always more to those who cultivate it themselves. and must facilitate it to the latter in the same proportion that it disgusts the former. and advantageous to the state for the lands which the government has Because property in had especially in view. renders the purchase of land less advantageous to them than to the poor. and that the rich. and have enough to subsist upon without being rich. most numerous. with greater security.

that since all those who have money has borne this high interest. citizens who fatten their useless idleness on the fruit of the labor of these unfortunate men. and the public necessities. all pro- "A making formulas. "would be that in which every one laboring according to his powers. " will not leave them to lie fallow. Whoever has property if is is or money would be it equally insane idle in his coffers . his talents. and the circulation of it has been more general." says Tsien-tche. out.132 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. good lands. being the mean between the revenue of good land and the profits of wholesale trade." he says. named Tsien-tche. upon therefore. there more consider- able Every body agrees that a merchant never keeps money locked up in his chest." Tchao-yng endeavors afterward rate to prove that the of thirty per cent. because. no one thinks of hoarding it. effect We see. and continual. since the powerful attraction of gain continually draws it " pro^t. precisely what was needed " Whoever lias and bring idle money into circulation. "The richest state would be that in which a small amount of labor would furnish the productions of nature . if there he allowed it to lie more also risk in placing than in cultivating land. maintains that the legal interest of thirty per cent. lively. he will not deprive himself in dead loss of the harvests with which every year was they may fill his granaries. if he be not insane. perty would be divided in such proportions as should secure its enjoyment to every one at the same time. is intended to facilitate commerce." Another economist. the same attraction must produce the same it. being established. The law of thirty per cent. to stimulate commerce. It will be seen that the Chinese are as advanced as we are in the art of well-organized society. since.

" " The population of the Empire In order to effect the land and the industry of man. every place what best flour- and work up all the materials we have. " There they may be all from one another. The empire was richer with a smaller amount of property under the first dynasties. the is a commerce between family and family in same place. however distant . and of the provinces among themselves. a continual. Wealth has necessarily a relation to wants.the State would undertake the distribution of them. and it is for commerce to undertake their transport. and in . on account of proximity commerce. the necessary. from town to town." the goods of the Empire belonged to the State. The superabundant produce of some localities may then become a help to others that are deficient. and that. the agreeable. 133 and art in abundance superior to the numbers and the wants of the inhabitants. Its totality embraces the productions of nature and art ishes in it. it must necessarily undertake these "If exchanges which are effected by commerce. in we must cultivate this. and universal. a commerce from village to village. by carrying the superabundance of one place to another. " The necessity of commerce in the Empire is equal to the necessity of exchanges. the necessity is absolute. of the capital with the provinces. the useful. . " We must distinguish in commerce things and places. the convenient.JOURNEY THROUGH TI1E CHINESE EMPIRE. and the utility of commerce to their utility that is to say. and the superfluous. and the utility universal and continual. from province to province and it is easy. because less labor produced more in proportion to the is such at present that the pressing interest of common necessity requires us to draw all that can be drawn from the fertility of number of the inhabitants. finally. .

and the continuity of these exchanges in proportion to its quantity. and who. as it does to magistrates should who and soldiers. and to keep it there. watchful that the totality of money circulating in the Empire should be proportioned to the value and quantity of the innumerable exchanges of commerce. or at least are in no hurry to make use of it. but money. as it lends itself with facility and promptitude to all the proportions. however. divisions. in- and perpetuates the multitude of exchanges. Merchants. would become honorable. undertake to render this im- portant service to society at their own risk and peril. Money is the spring and the leaven of commerce. etc. it would have to assign a salary to those undertake this duty. by forcing those to whom diminishes the . by these reserves the uniformity. nor convenient enough to provide for the varied and continual wants of society . . "The ancient equilibrium and proportional distribu- tion of property having been destroyed. which has nothing in that case. since relation with the public felicity. Every thing. and correspondences of exchange. constant. It is not less evident to the government. accelerates. and this office. it stands in direct it but what is noble and great.184 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. is for the benefit of commerce. which tends to restore it to circulation. supplies this want so the more easily. therefore. and commerce can only be nourishing inasmuch as the circulation of creases. it is evident that there are a great number of citizens whose expenses are less than their receipts. The proportion and the correspondence of the exchanges of productions is neither uniform. money facilitates. can put by money. that circulation the money withdrawn from facility. consequently. as the sign and equivalent much of a fixed and recognized value. " The law does what it can.

supsufficient. is effected with so . if they had sufficient funds to do without the help of loans. "but that is not The high interest of money. to be at the greatest expense. and of the proportion of the still less drawn it out. " Merchants and traders. purchases. custom and propriety do so still more. it is because almost . by securing the profits which tempt are any that resist so powerful an If there cupidity. which 4e impossible on account of the inequality of fortunes.JOURNEY THKOUGH THE CHINESE EMPIKE. proof that a smaller interest would plies this want. I say. and the dispatch of goods. and the safety of land and water are carefully watched over every thing relating to commerce in sales. Us the State gives most. punished with so much energy. . however. he may withdraw it when he will. and are enticed by the temptation of a temptation so much the more powerful to the profit laborer and the artisan. ing infinite divisions and ramifications. its "If the transports facility. it is a new attraction. that the smallest loss affects his well-being. if much if the privileges of fairs celerity and good faith and markets are so scrupulously preserved if the police kept there is so attentive and so mild if the malversations and tyrannies of custom-house officers are . by the convenience. have money always pressof its immensity and its and on account universal. the smallest sums find a place in it. . and would have deprived commerce of just so much advantage. it would be in the interest of commerce that they should make them. " As the need of in commerce is money in circulation with the value of could merchants exchanges throughout the Empire and traders. do without the continual assistance of loans. and that they should be ren- dered lucrative in order to interest the public in success. and that if he intrusts his money to commerce.

since we can not open the ancient authors. as it only permits. It is impossible to imagine more flagrant usury. and. or even . is in- every one has property engaged in commerce. one of whom." "We might content ourselves with replying. that the fact alleged is at least doubtful. " The economist Tsien-tche versaries of the afterward refutes the ad- law of thirty per cent. is an injustice and a public oppression. of this. the sacred books. method of effectinfallible an is interest of money high a was cent. without perceiving that the profits of trade were prodigious under the beautiful and celebrated either that dynasty of the^Tcheoii .. we may reply that the proportions have all been changed with the increase of the population. and which it is so imand the portant to all the citizens to procure for it. " The ancients tolerated only a Iow4 Leang-tsien. or that those who lent to them did not desire to share the profits made with their own money . " Secondly. . says. Thirdly. that it is terrible to accuse of injustice and usurious oppression a law that zeal for the public good alone has dictated which has been received Avith thanks throughout the Empire. it would be necessary lost of those what we have to inquire whether laws contained the condem- A father nation or the apology of high interest. all that one can say is. prohibited. which is equally for the profit of all. may when he has twelve had only three or be obliged to govern his family differently children to what he did when he four. and it is not natural to suppose merchants always traded with their own funds. This law grand coup per thirty ing who have. rate of interest that of thirty per cent. or terested for those Government must demand the assistance which is its due. that a high rate of interest was not authorized by law but as we do not find that it was . first.136 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

by increasing the rent in proportion to the profit it will procure for him. its failures in its its good faith of which the general result reduces the sum total of the property em- barked in it to an interest that does not exceed by more than four or five per cent. have given up to him. the ordinary return from good land. and so much the more that. . . whether by reason of the population.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The case is the and which I same with the accidents. to secure for it the loans their requires. its losses. and of the public administration. I yield my right to the merchant on condition that he shall make me amends. although it only depends on myself. the greater part of the funds engaged in commerce must be borrowed. is is 137 no restraint on any one which and which replies to all the state of the Empire and of present objections by commerce. and less-frequented What is the reason of this augmentation of rent ? Why should this disproportion e*xist between two houses whose real value is the same. but there are many individuals who lose their interest. if I am the owner. this rate. to profit by its advantageous commercial position." or even their capital. since they have cost the same sum to build ? It is because." "A shop on the great street that runs toward the now several centuries old. money lent to merchants. not enjoins. . Is that too it much advantage. " Commerce has its revolutions.first *as much entrance of the Imperial Palace lets for four times as it would let for if it were in a more ordinary quarter. and compensate those who embark money The flux and reflux of the loss and gain must necessarily be taken into the account in the rate of interest of money. in it for the risks they run ? The public at large always gains in the loans made to commerce. faults. or of the constitution of the government.

the necessi- ties of the State should require the imposition of a tax on commodities the consumption of which is common to all classes. interest for money. over and above the ordinary im- posts. give nothing in return. Every one would admit this. howthat of the customs ever rich they may be. in that case. whatever expense the State may go to to secure the facility and convenience of their .take it at ten millions of ounces of silver.196 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. however. that this tax is levied. since every one pays it in proportion to his consumption. Our literary men who have cried out against the interest of thirty per cent. trade. the de- cree authorizing a rate of thirty per cent. and the State yields it to those who lend their money to their fellow-citizens commerce. it is evident that it should be a tax of which the distribution should be most equitable. understand nothing of political adminLet us change the names. although they gather its This policy is wise and equitable. To what does the excess of interest obtained at present over the whole Empire amount beyond what was obtained under the dynasty of Tang. if the State should demand such a sum as this. nine centuries ago ? Let us. Who would object. " The State has laid no other tax on commerce than the merchant and the trader. only have receivers of taxes. and this will be istrations. and least burdensome to the poor. for the purposes of . they would make the consumers pay any tax that might be demanded of them . public by the profits of their trade. made them the State would therefore. If. public at large. It is on the profits of and not on the trade. and in the most advantageous manner. demonstrated. and in proportion to the fortunes of individuals. for the purpose of providing for the interests of commerce in the interior of the Empire ? Well. has created such a tax. for as the merchant and trader derive their revenues from the best fruits.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and this interest law will have given to the Empire a useful citizen. for the arts . and without being obliged to increase it by the expenses of collection. and to form by that means men capable of political business. well conducted and clever. without making it pass through the treasury. he will be able to borrow enough to make an attempt and as soon as this succeeds. who would have been lost if a helping hand had not been is . commerce is a peculiar one.of the Empire. and favors its division among a The genius for greater number. and that is what the present state of the population renders desirable. whatever he may be. has but a. " A man. yet the administration. If his business demands more. like that for letters. held out to him. that the State yields it to the public. " How is it that the high rate of interest fixed by the law affords advantage to commerce ? Because it opens a career to those who have the talent for it. does nothing for those who have a genius for commerce to assist them in its development. if he of neglect. . for government. which goes to so much expense to facilitate study. it remains therefore to develop it in those who have no other resource. commerce must necessarily be divided among a great number. Now. possibly even one might say that. when men can enter into busi- ness without having any money of their own. all purses will be open to him. Now the high interest of money makes amends for this kind However poor a young man may be. Now this genius for commerce is lost to the Empire in all those who follow a different career. Although commerce is indisputably necessary to the State. All that there 139 is peculiar in this impost is. he must call in help.certain amount of time and strength to employ. he must buy the services of others they cost him little. that is to say. in some respects. . it embraces them all.

to be less extortionate toward the public. so to It is common for people in Europe to form their opin- fans. Rivalry in trade obliges traders to emulate each other in labor and industry that " is to say. In order to facilitate commercial operations. and so on every month till every one has . ' not that the in order any more public might replied. lized the silk factories. and the public is charged with the burden of his idleness. every month on this ^same day lots are drawn for the whole sum. ions of the Chinese from the drawings on screens and and to regard them merely as more or less civil- ized baboons. have to pay for the lacquered work. the festivals. show the mode of thinking of the Chinese writers. and he endeavors to obtain the utmost advantage from them. and slaves of him who has monopo. we by no means intended to express our assent to mists. bearing interest. It was asked of So-ling why he had lent twenty thousand ounces of silver from the 'It was. we presume. all the doctrines of the Chinese econo- Many of these perplexed questions are too far above our knowledge on such subjects for us to pretend to offer We wished merely any opinion on them. which are found over the whole Empire. the shows. concubines. The members of- certain sum these societies agree among themselves upon a to be contributed by each on the first of . that in quoting these passages.' he public treasury to twelve small traders.:. by degrees releases him from the necessity of working himself. the object of which is to avoid the burden of fixed debts. superfluous to warn the reader.MI'IIc. What lie gains by these assistants. for the most part.140 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE E. perhaps at rather too great length.' It would be. the Chinese have invented pecuniary societies. that we were glad to have an opportunity of showing how they treat questions of policy and social economy.

are thus all collected in groups. The immense population of China. pay his contribution forfeits his advances to the is chief. and hold their resources in common. that the founder of the lot. associative spirit is remarkable. however. above all else. he yields his advances to another. and of honor point a failure in them is sure to cover a man with the conIf any one finds himself tempt of his fellow-citizens. increased every the first winners. that almost all the Chinese belong to one or other farmers. who These societies are so becomes answerable for him. As this would. whatever point may first meet his eye. small tradesmen. all unite to render this nation the most commercial in the world. pressed for money. the richness of its soil. much the fashion. is As in obtaining a once for small ones paid at interthe government does not interfere with them sum at in any way whatever. he easily obtains the advantage of having the next lot given to him . he is sure to be struck. its laws and public usages. artisans. whichever side a stranger enters China.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the variety of its products. the activity of its inhabitants. but it is especially in matters of interest and commerce that his . by the prodigious bustle and movement On . A Chinese never lives in isolation. be rather un- toward the last comers. the sum month by a small interest paid by The advantage of these societies consists considerable vals. and if he can not go on any longer. pear to be invariable society has the first fails to namely. who answerable for but this is a case of All the members make it a great very rare occurrence. their rules vary at the pleasure but there are two conditions that apof the members . and that a member who once all. had fair 141 his turn. the vast extent of its and the facility of communication by land and water. territory. faithful to be to these engagements.

whose sharp sound of the multitude. and Han-keou." must be visited. facing one another. much less fights. In seeing the streets thus constantly thronged with people.142 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. that you have the greatest difficulty to make your way through them. from being as nuThe Chinese they are always restrained by a salutary fear of compromising themselves that acts like an instinct . In all parts of the city you meet with a concourse of passengers. and. when one has not seen the great towns. you might be apt to think that all the inhabitants of the town must be out. the amount of the internal trade. : whole country is like a perpetual fair. it is impossible to form an adequate idea of the to west. nevertheless. Long lines of porters stretch through every street . " The Mouth of Commercial Marts. and the houses empty. Ou-tchang-fou. although the police is far merous as in most of our cities in Europe. they are soon quiet again. often pressed so compactly together. and a fair that lasts the whole year without any interruption. and the desire of traffic by which this people is from east incessantly tormented. of the thirst going on every where under the stimulus of gain. The factories also contain a considerable number of workmen and . And yet. But just cast a glance into the shops. they utter a measured monotonous cry. Han-keou especially. is heard above all the clamors In the midst of this crowded vortex of men. and though are easily excited. From north to south. and induced to vociferate. as they proceed with a peculiar gymnastic step. there prevails. Han-yang. and things return to their usual course. for it is one great shop. there are few quarrels. and every production has its street or quarter particularly devoted to it. when one has not penetrated to the centre of the Empire. and you will see they are crowded with buyers and sellers. a very fair amount of order and tranquillity .

which are intended to supply all the internal trade. This same river. describes two curves. taken and China. north of China so that you might traverse its entire extent without ever getting out of your boat. but gigantic and' ingenious labors have come to the aid of nature. artisans . and thence depart. if to these you add the old men. The Annals of China show that at every period each . and Ou-tchang-fou. north the natural communications are less easy. and it is quite astonishing to see vessels of such a size. in such numbers. estimated at eight millions. in the very middle of together. since it is there the goods arrive. Perhaps the world could not show a town more favorably situated. 143 and children. by marvelous and skillful contrivances. but the great port of Han-keou is literally a forest of masts. women. lation We do not know whether the inhabitants of the boats are included in this calculation. two lakes. which An immense number of rivers. and possessing We a greater number of natural advantages. which it fall into these Toward the through all the provinces of the south. Han-yang. to the right and left. and which. you will not be surprised to hear the popuof Han-keou. receive in small boats the merchandise brought from Han-keou. and bears the great trading junks toward the south as far as the bosom of the lakes Pou-yang and Thoung-ting. on leaving Han-keou. and brought into direct communication with the provinces of the east and the west.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. it is in some measure surrounded by the Blue River. in the numerous artificial canals with which the is intersected. and distribute are like two inland seas. establish a communication between all the lakes and navigable rivers of the Empire. have said that Han-keou is in some measure the general mart for the eighteen provinces. Placed in the very centre of the Empire.

and enlarged the old ones. but also bordered with a double line of trees. Some of these canals were lined with freestone throughout their entire length.Ill JOUUNKY TIIUOUUH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. more than four thousand This great enterprise eight hundred miles of canals. In the first year of his reign he dug many new canals. presented to him a plan for rendering all the rivers navigable throughout their A and making them communicate. between the ages of fifteen and fifty. who had to do the nothing but his food. so that vessels could pass from the Hoang-Ho to the Yang-tse-kiang. which was divided between the soldiers and the people. successive dynasty lias paid great attention to the canal system . Chinese historians have branded the memory of the Emperor Yang-ti. to satisfy his own caprice and his taste for luxury. . adopted made. Every family was required to furnish one man. learned man. southern court* was forty feet wide. but they ac* There were at this time four imperial courts. and repaired. because during his reign he never ceased to oppress the people by these corvees. named Siao-hoai. His project was by and there were consequently and executed. another. canals of a eastern to the western court. was less magnificent. remade. one with new invention. who ascended the throne in the year 605 of the Christian era. of the dynasty of Tsin. received a small increase of pay. and from these great rivers to the principal smaller ones. most painful part of the work. to whom the Government gave The soldiers. That from the entire course. of course required a vast amount of labor. but no other work is comparable to that which was executed by the Emperor Yang-ti. arid had on its banks plantations of elm and willow. and during our various journeys we saw remains enough to attest the beauty That which ran from the northern to the of the works.

and the other causes already assigned. his sapecks. he is fond of all kinds of speculation and stock-jobbing. The Chinese has a passionate posed them to traffic. never fear sending a child to make a purchase. having well closed and barricaded his shop. sapeck . have doiibtless contributed much to develop in the country the prodigious commercial activity that has been remarked in it at all but it must be acknowledged also that the epochs character and genius of its inhabitants has always disbenefits conferred . and strengthens with the day. he neglects not the smallest profit least gain is the eagerly . Whatever may be the nature and importance . its system of canals. II. 145 knowledge that he deserved well of the Empire for the by his canals on the internal trade. and his mind. you it is intelligence is when his little fingers are strong thing a child longs for is a it makes of its speech and to learn to articulate the names of coins . and he accepts it the some number of corner. he is capable of buying and In China you need selling.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. first The use that ' VOL. his strength. of his business. The wealth of China. takes delight in combining and calculating the chances of a commercial operation. when in the evening. the means of increasing his fortune. greatest of all is his enjoyment. par excellence. is a man installed behind the counter of a shop. the first enough to hold the with that he amuses himself. love of lucre . and in the intervals of their arrival pondering in his head. full of finesse and cunning. and casting up on his little arithmetical machine. making figures and as soon as the tiny creature can speak and walk. he can retire into always welcome. waiting for his customers with patience and resignation. The Chinese. G . which grows with his growth. pencil. and there count up religiously and reckon the earnings of The Chinese is born with this taste for traffic.

on the contrary. and to give them serious business of this kind to manage at an age when children are mostly occupied with their commerce is so clear Empire enjoy the not unmerited reputation of being very artful and knowa great ing. however. quite It is piece of knavery. The inhabitants of the Celestial Volumes might be written part in mercantile affairs. is and the habit of trickery . and called by the Cliinese tsien. and their scrupulous . more or less ingenious and audacious. and good faith is chiefly found European merchants who engagements. and opening little pawnbroking establishments.146 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. tell A tradesman is often the great commercial houses are. that you need not hesitate to confide to them the most important affairs. on the frauds. and wide awake. rely on it. and familiarize themselves thus with the jargon. it is simply a mode of showing that of the Chinese merchants are clever you . so general. he will not allow himself to be cheated. in extolling the irreproachable probity of their conand it is painful to add that we fear they could not < always return the compliment. and by the Europeans The only . the tricks. and such a character will of course play playthings. have had commercial transactions with China are unanifidelity to their mous duct. Their knowledge in all that relates to and precocious. they amuse themselves with keeping shop. that no one is offended at it . which the little Chinese are addicted are ahvays impregnated with this mercantile spirit . most remarkable for the uprightness and integrity of their dealings. and the frauds may Even the plays to of tradesmen. that this want of probity among the petty traders proud when he can a story of some successful only just to observe. the fashion so universal. legfl coinage existing in China is a little round piece made of a mixture of copper and pewter.

or one walnut. The sapeck is especially an immense resource for those who lire asking alms. The Chinese in the towns generally scales for little buying and selling. smoke some pipes for a sapeck and a citizen who is not rich enough to afford himself a whole orange will This extreme division of Chinese often purchase a half. a dozen of fried beans. they are weighed like any other commodity. are in use throughout the whole Empire . and this small coinage is an incalculable advant- age to small dealings. and agreements are also made in strings of sapecks. they are issued by the great houses of business. With a glish). has to an infinity of small occupabirth coinage given tions that afford a subsistence to thousands of persons. and weigh carry with them all the money they give or receive. in order that they may easily be passed on hole square string of a thousand of these pieces is equivalent usually to a Chinese ounce of silver: gold and 'silver are never coined in China . Bank notes. or . for a man must be a sapeck. 147 They are pierced through the middle with a sapecks. traffic in Thanks to the sapeck. a few melon-seeds. poor indeed not to be able to give a beggar . The value of a sapeck is about half a French centime . one may slice China on very small means. capital of two hundred sapecks (ten pence Ena Chinese will not hesitate to commence some mercantile speculation. and accepted in all the principal towns. payable to the bearer. or one may also drink a cup of tea. when employed a thread. sapecks are used for all small transactions. One may buy a of pear. A for larger purchases than can be paid for in sapecks.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

or the Weeping Willow. and would perhaps themselves have procured us another lodging till the day of our These hopes. Governor of the Province We force the Guard of his The Governor of Hou-pe Conversation with this exalted Personage Good Result of the Visit Moving Courtesy of a Cook Adieus of Master Ting. WE ter. that we could not put up with. did not seem very departure. The magistrates of the capital likely to be realized. no creature came to visit . but to be dropt into a hole and forFor two days gotten. said at the commencement of the preceding chap- that on our arrival at Ou-tchang-fou. us. with the exception of some petty officials. . This treatment was certainly rather wounding to our vanity. where we ran considerable risk of being suffocated. would they only have afforded us space to move in and air to breathe." Chief of the new Escort Palace Fine Arts Religion Towers Chinese Architecture Pagodas Doctrine of the Literary Class Great Honors rendered to Confucius Doctors of Reason Life and Opinions of the Philosopher Lao-tze Buddhism Legen^ of Buddha Dogmas and Moral Precepts Buddhists persecuted by the Brahmins Causes of these Persecutions Dispersion of the Buddhists through the various Countries of Asia. but it could be borne. however. not live without they would understand that we could air.CHAPTER Attempt to see the V. high functionaries of the place We had hoped ' that when the this had themselves seen murderous hole. but we might perhaps have been able to support the trial. took not the slightest notice of us and. To be forsaken by our beloved and amiable Mandarins was distressing. and the Sse-tchouen Escort The Man" darin Lieou. we were confined in a narrow cell of a pagoda.

determined to bear difficult. At the moment when we were about to cross a hall to enter a second court. They looked at us in a hesitating manner. and then we make a vigorous effort to get out of it. promising them at the same time something handsome on our return. we were accosted by a little Mandarin with a gilt ball. . crossed the square. extending at the same time his two arms in a horizontal position. affecting not to hear the thousand remarks that were made around us. the middle of the court-yard before we were surrounded all We by a crowd of satellites and attendants. such as usually throng the avenues to the great tribunals. but their sinister hang-dog physiognomies. did not alarm us much. and then they set in with enthusiasm. and so far our enterprise had not been very crossed the threshold. alighted from our palanquins at the entrance of the palace. and commanded them to conduct us to the Governor of the Province. he asked three times running where we were going. with which we had been marched long familiarized. and endeavor to resume the influence we had lost by our own fault. where the venerable Perboyre had been strangled. who seemed to be acting as a sort He appeared quite aghast of usher to introduce guests. we sent for some palanquin bearers. We We We down obstacles that should intervene to prevent our had scarcely reached approach to the Governor. and where sentence of death had been pronounced against him. 149 we remained in this ignominious position. and arrived at the tribunal where he had been so cruelly tortured. but we paid resolved to them off advance. at our abrupt entrance. After having put on our dress of ceremony. We on boldly.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. as if^to bar our passage. on the subject of our yellow caps and red girdles. and placing himself in our way.

They gazed at us and at one another without speaking a word. jumping alternately to the right and the We walked on. without saying a word. neverleft to prevent us from passing. You can't see the Governor. you you If you stop us for a single leave that door open. and we wish to speak with his Excellency the Governor. when we entered. push in in that way ince ?" and as he spoke he stamped about and gesticulated. leaving the man gazing after us in open-mouthed astonishment. we cried out in the most impe" Woe to if do not rious tone we could . seemed to doubt whether we were not ghosts. are going to his Excellency the Governor. reached the Governor's apartments without any we In the ante-chamber were four superior Mandarins. the arm. we "His Excellency the Governor is not there. the Rites permit people to to the first magistrate of the prov- Do muster." we replied . " we have been at Pekin. . " We are Frenchmen. in Thibet . you are a lost man." "We replied. he opened the We new entered the second court." mo- These words inspired a salutary door again. thence from Pekin to Lha-ssa. ment." " But is his Excellency the Governor informed of arrival at Has your visit been your Ou-tchang-fou ? announced to him ?" "4. theless. and little fear . who.160 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and threw himself upon the two leaves of the folding door. the hall he turned suddenly. as if to shut them but seizing him by.dispatch from the Emperor ought to have informed obstacle. and with his arms extended followed every one of our movements. and as if consulting each other as to what was to be done in these unexAt length one of them ventured pected circumstances. to ask who we were. and thus forced our inAs we reached the end of troducer to walk backward.

and it was absolutely necessary that we should speak with . you have just spoken with him." As we said this. him. When he returns he will send for Now go back you. . We . who after having in a manner applied his face to ours. The speaker. in order not to be abandoned entirely to the vowere left alone for racity of the petty Mandarins. as we have said. we had betrayed much to the truth ? weakness. disappeared through a little suspected that he had gone to the Governor " the manner. " The Governor is absent. inquisitive look." said he. The benevolence of the Viceroy of Sse-tchouen could not avail us farther than Outchang-fou the Governor of Hou-pe" would now have the disposal of us as far as the capital of Kiang-si. and it was now necessary to repair this fault. We a long time. after fixing upon us for a moment an door. if he has any thing to say to you. to announce to him the curious discovery he had just made and he was not long before he returned. and left us alone. At Han-yang. and we will not go away till we have seen him. The Mandarins astonished at our doings made their exit all together. we quietly seated ourselves on a broad divan that occupied a great part of the room." " Who is it who desires us to go away ? Who told you you to say the Governor would send for us ? do seek to deceive us by pronouncing words contrary Why The Governor is here .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. in a perfectly easy to your lodgings. instead of perishing in misery on the road. just as if he had not been telling a lie Governor is absent. so that we had full leisure to arrange the plan we intended to follow. At length an aged attendant appeared. We remarked that the words " dispatch from the Emperor' had an effect on the Mandarins. in order to . " 151 him of our coming to Hou-pe. if we wished to reach Canton in safety.

where. "is the kingdom of France . respectfully. when the Governor entered. and then waited till he This personage did not appear slipuld address us. the back of which waS covered with red cloth embroidered witli silk. several years. Chinese and Europeans are pretty does not like to have in his drawingmuch alike. We saluted him.152 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. said in a tremulous " His voice." From this polite we thought it might not be difficult to recover position. amidst a crowd of Chinese articles of luxury. He crossed the saloon swinging his arms. " Your illustrious country." said he. and looking neither to the right nor the left. that Excellency the Governor invited our illustrious persons to formula. our into come to him. and noticing with feelings of gratified vanity how greatly superior they were to the porcelain from the Chinese factories. and that is enough. not that they have any great value in their eyes as works of art. is it long since you left it ?" " Yes . Who room some ugly figure of bronze or porcelain which he can show has really come from Clilna ? We were engaged in admiring the Sevres vases. Chinese are very fond of decorating their apartments with articles of European manufacture ." . take a good observation of them. and then went and sat down near a flower-stand in a large lacquered arm-chair. In that matter. roy of Sse-tchouen. and we immediately followed the attendant a magnificent saloon. and his thin dark face had a severe and hard expression. to possess the kindness and simplicity of the Vice- He was about fifty years of age. as well as some The rich apparently English pictures on the walls. but they come from a great distance from beyond the Western Seas. we noticed a French clock and two beautiful vases of Sevres China.

" " Ah I am ashamed " ! "You desired to know whether the Viceroy of Sse-tchouen had forwarded a dispatch to announce our arrival at Ou-tchang-fou. during the two days we have been here." "That is the custom of our country. it arrived a long time ago ." "Then we " Certainly. The Emperor gave orders to the Viceroy Pao-hing to have us conducted to Canton with all possible respect ." "It appears." said the Govgreat little and ernor. but it would seem to be interpreted in a different manner in Hou-pe to what it is in Sse- At Han-yang. no one has taken the slightest notice of us. and we have been shut up in a cell where we had . haughtily. and all along the road both Mandarins have respected the orders he gave concerning us. perhaps it depends on the governors of the provinces. Here in the capital itself. "strangers are well treated among us. "that this custom is not general. The Book of Rites is the same for the whole Empire. and during our residence at Tching-tou-fou we had reason to speak in high praise of the treatment we received The illustrious and venerable from the authorities. us the greatest attention . the couriers who carry dispatches travel rapidly. however. with us to go and buy food for ourselves at an inn. we wished to fulfill a duty of politeness. had several interviews. on the other side of the river. we should have died of hunger if we had not had money tchouen. 153 fne. we thought the dispatch had not yet arrived. and we have traveled in the most convenient and honorable manner." we replied." " First. since have doubtless some affair to communicate to you have come to see me.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. paid whom we with Pao-hing." "Oh! From the manner in which we have been treated here.

was strangled here at Ou-tchangsionary. and we have been there two days without seeing any one to whom we could complain. It is probably desired that our journey should end at Ou-tchang-fou. we said to that at last we could no what he was saying. give orders that we at Ilou-pe the good treatment we had received at Sse- tchouen ?" "What the words are you speaking? Emperor extends over all places. and we can not forget that this town is called Ou-tchang-fou. but stood before him calm and motionless. "Your Excellency. Did the Emperor. we are not in the habit of pronouncing rude and injurious words . perhardly room to turn round. his sharp voice became more and more piercing." The Governor fairly shook in his chair with anger. The mercy of Where are you lodged ?" " The Viceroy of Sse-tchouen never asked us where . We him. we are missionaries of the Lord of Heaven . he declared we were calumniating the character of his nation .154 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. nevertheless. however." is the meaning of these words? I do not them. a misa Frenchman. be made to expiate should haps. we are Frenchmen. not to interrupt him. it is not right to assume bad intentions in our brethren . and he began mation. in a very low tone. "What We . we were lodged he knew. When the time came. waiting till he should become more pacified and hold his tongue. but with a certain cold and concentrated energy. into which scarcely any air can penetrate. this city we were conducted into a narrow chamber. to talk with so much volubility and ani- longer understand took good care." comprehend " can not forget that one of our brothers. because it was he himself When we arrived in who assigned us our lodging.

however.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. But whose fault is it that we are now being treated in the manner we have deWe have studied the writings of the phiscribed? losopher Meng-tse. hearing these words the Governor changed counand it was evident he was greatly agitated. not quite six years ago. the Governor who was here six years ago. I do not think there is any differ: ence."- On tenance. and that another of our brothers." 1 The Governor appeared very much astonished "to hear us quote a passage from the classical books. hastily. and he thought proper assure us concerning the fears we had expressed to re- for our . was put to death here. "at the periods of which you speak I was not in the prov- about these " you mean . and we have read in them this ' Meng-tse one day asked the king of Leang whether he thought there was any difference between killing a man with a sword and killing him with ill-treatment. more than his own actions. " This very day." "We are aware of that . fou. especially when we have been lodged almost in a sepulchre?" " I don't know what affairs. need answer for the innocent blood. "in coming here. He endeavored to throw a little more gentleness into his phys- iognomy and manners. I know nothing ince. replied the Governor. also a missionary and a Frenchman. if we fear that some attempt may be made upon our lives. and the king of Leang replied. we crossed the square upon which our brothers were executed." we continued. as soon as he had given the order to have the French missionary strangled. Can it then be surprising if we feel some uneasiness. 155 twenty-three years ago . It was evident to the whole Empire that Heaven had avenged No one. and condemned to perpetual exile. was degraded by the Emperor.

whose heart was with quite paternal kindness for strangers. we endeavored to relax a little of the constraint of the situation by giving his Excellency some information about our long journey and Europe. who had dis- . the introducer of guests. He said that the Mandarins had exepersonal safety. therefore. it was always known Frenchmen were treated in that in France in what manner Altogether we flattered ourselves that we had produced some impression on the Governor. and given to lying. Clet and Perboyre was something very different from an idle rumor. were courte- was him almost an unknown world. and that our visit would have a good result. that we must not believe those stories of two of our countrymen at Sse-tchouen. and descending the numerous of the tribunal. merely reports whose tongues were always active. He added that equally well treated at Hou-pe. that he would have the and that into matter.156 JOUKXKV THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIKE. prove to him that the martyrdom of ]\DI. but that it would not fail to remember it in due time. and took our depature. low idle and false invented by people. and when we reached the first court. did not think it necessary to insist upon the and point. to hall. we should be Those were having been put to death in past times. a severe inhis orders cuted badly. we could easily see that the sucsteps cess of our visit was already known. Before leaving the apartment. since he was determined to have respect filled paid to the will of the Emperor. which At length we performed the salutations required by the Rites. we contented ourselves with observing We foreign countries . every body's sins should quiry be punished. as we had ourselves experienced in the treatment we had received and all along the road. that our government might appear sometimes not to notice it. In crossing the We ously saluted by all whom we met.

the laws of hospitality. then took us on their shoulders. nounce that he was charged by his Excellency the Governor to conduct us to a more suitable and more convenient lodging. numerous by apartments destined to receive Mandarins vast and . hastened and conduct us to our palanquins." Ting. and gladly turned our backs on the detestable den. surrounded religious." " it is " Let us late. for the orders were given as soon as you quitted . rise then packed up our again out of this tomb. presented himself. accompanied by a numerous suite of attendants. whom we found waiting for us at the door with the palanquin." " cried Master who was not that's . and a Mandarin. " When the Governor's palace. and bore us at a rapid pace back to our abode. demanding to speak with the illustrious natives of the kingdom As soon as he saw us he hastened to anof France. We were conducted to the other extremity of the town. go immediately then. because there was not let us room for him to stretch himself out " that's satisfied . half civil and half It was a rich Buddhist convent. than we were with it. Our bearers. shall we go ?" we asked. one that should be more conformable to meet us." goods with all possible haste. almost into the country. and were there installed in a We handsome establishment. We had only been a few hours in this abominable cell when the tam-tam was heard sounding at the door of the little pagoda. with every appearance of the most cordial and profound devotion. it. " Whenever probably every thing is you please ready. more this wretched littlehe was to where keep himself huddled obliged dwelling. Yes.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. played so to 157 much zeal in barring our passage." said we and we should be glad to rise again out of this tomb. up while he smoked his opium.

a sheet of paper in one hand. were gardens. "It darin. very hard perfluous." said the Man- "that the Western nations do not feed in the same manner as The inhabitants of the Central Kingdom. and as far as possible we must comply with peo"We thanked the Mandarin ple's usages and customs. and an inkstand in the other. during all these years we had had accustom ourselves to so many kinds of cookery." for his polite attention. There of distinction on their arrival at Ou-tcliang-fou. and . and all list of dishes would be quite suwell. Every thing that had not the was acceptable The head cook gathered up his writing materials. As soon as we were settled in our dwelling. placing himself at the end of the table. and he arrived quickly with a pencil between his teeth. that we were now hardly capable of appreciating culinary skill. and our ideas on the subject of dishes had become extremely make one vague and confused. the Mandarin who had brought us here sent for the cook of the establishment. The " Superintendant of the Caldron" need only follow the inspirations of his own talents. flavored with suet. is a fact known to all the world. belvederes. but said we had now for a long time been in the habit of living quite in the Chinese manner. and terraces on peristyles. but ingly with the mean little pagoda what we prized above all else was the sweet fresh air of the country that we drew in in long breaths. and begged us to mention the names of the dishes we preferred. taste of barley flour. which gave an air of pomp and grandeur to the place that contrasted strikwe had just left . and. for.158 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. should have found it. and had eaten of so many odd things. would be to to A We . courts planted with lofty forest trees. rubbed a little ink upon a slab. indeed. to us.

was sucli as to show that we could not have done better than confide entirely in his genius and discretion. to our apartments. The day after our moving into this new habitation. we had become tolerably good At bottom he was not a bad fellow. and we had often quarreled . had no friendly ties to sever. company by land and water now we had gradually become we had shared in the good and the bad times on the road and it was not without a kind of emotion that we now saw the moment arrive that was to separate us forever. their mission was now ended. Mandarin and if one only let him play the Chinese a . Having been charged only to conduct us to Ou-tchangfou. 159 took his departure. finger the sapecks right and left all the road. little. each better than the last. Master Ting. we may The skill add. Our regrets were certainly not as lively and profound as those we had expetraveled in for'the space of two months accustomed to live together . with which he compounded for us a number of Chinese ragouts. he proved himself thoroughly worthy. the military Mandarin. which is easily acquired during long and toilsome journeys. Master Ting had We provoked us more than once. for a friends. and they were about to return to their own country. came in a body.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. quite proud and elated at the mark of confidence we had shown him. to bid us farewell. that . but merely a certain habit of being together. yet. on the whole. . and of which. accompanied by his colleague. is to say. and the numerous soldiers and attendants who had escorted us since our departure from the capital of Sse-tchouen. rienced in bidding adieu to our Thibetan escort. We had . he was tolerably good-humored and along amiable. and which it is disagreeable to break off in order to form new ones. and with a certain air of solemnity.

appointed to attend us only to Ou-tchang-^ou . of course not. afterward showed curious incidents of the journey. rubbing his hands. and even appeared to have formed a kind at least. I have got together a nice little lot of ingots . Wei-chan. Master Ting. like bly expect from a Chinese servant. and had made pretty round sum by lie it. I never did. a fine and noble feeling." "Oh. he had reason to We be ji satisfied with having accompanied us. It is for her sake I wish to make some profit. a la Chinoise. it was not "Why. Pao-hing. you only practice filial piety ?" "Exactly." "That is. then. of attachment to us ." the And Master Ting way to Canton. whom the He went man had and This young Viceroy. it our actions. all along the road from the capital of Sse-tchouen to Ou-tchang-fou. filial piety is the very foundation of the ought to be the prime motive of all took his leave. for the sake of money that I wished to accompany you. In loving money. as far as we could possiHe had been. had engaged for us. the rest. by inquiring whether. him a piece of politeness. "the business has been pretty good." said. wishing that the star of happiness might shine on our route all social relations.160 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. yes. of course. farewells were extremely verbose. in a pecuniary point of view. who could think that?" "It is eviden^ that I don't like money. but you know. himself his of with acquitted duty intelligence activity. off quite delighted with the idea of having persuaded us that he had been induced by pure filial piety to fleece the Mandarins. but instead of we laughed a great deal as we recollected many Our weeping. The only one of our Sse-tchouen escort who did not leave us here was the servant. but I should like to offer a little present to my mother on my return.

though we did not think it prudent to express all our satisfaction to him. and continue all our good traditions. the to our new abode came that he pay us a visit of ceremony. having all our work to do over Now we calculated that rather was disheartening. the capital of He begged us afterward to give him our Kiang-si." and it was much more agreeable to us to have to do with a man whom we were already accustomed. His proposal not only met with no objection on our part. on the propriety of the Governor's choice of opinion There were for an affair of so much importance. not two ways to answer such a question in China. Master Ting. decided that he should accompany us to Canton. he had come to express a desire to remain with us till we reached Canton. again the presence of Wei-chan would save us the trouble of un- dertaking another course of education for our future traveling companions . The one that was to leaving us.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Wei-chan could also be of great service to us with the new escort that we were to take at Ou-tchang-fou. and knew. and which in the latter part of our journey had behaved extremely well. he would serve as a good example to It was. had. as the Chinese say. and who suited us tolerably well. but was even eagerly accepted. "the taste of our characters. that idea the of Upon it. 161 but the evening before the departure of his companions. the rest. He had by this time become per- fectly acquainted with our habits. so we replied. therefore. including its chief. and to announce to us had been appointed by his Excellency the Gov- ernor to conduct us to Nan-tchang-fou. Mandarin who had conducted us to After the departure of our Sse-tchouen escort. that in such a choice the Governor had him proved most indisputably his possession of the rare gift . cost us an immensity of trouble to bring We had spent so much pains into such good order. than with a stranger.

such an that his intelligence . More more dignified than Master Ting. and that also had shown no less clearly his desire to Before our render our journey fortunate and agreeable. so that we understood him very imperfectly." calling him . and " The Weeping Willow." that he belonged to the literary but had only attained a low grade . that he had formerly had the government of a small district. the country of Confucius. and Avhen he became at all excited his talk got into such confusion." we could not help adding an epithet. namely. that all. and his goggle eyes that were seen bolting out behind the glasses of his spectacles had the infirmity of frequently shedding tears . and assured us that he had never before met with men whose hearts were so capacious return for our and so merciful. his Excellency of discernment into the characters of men. and somewhat grave he was also more reserved. from the province of Ching . we understood nothing at His physiognomy was very unmeaning . When little this performance was over we tried to have a rational conversation. forty years of age. nary moods he slipped his words together. fail to go and thank him for we would not departure mark of his new conductor made this signal solicitude in and benevolence.162 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but that he was at present out of office. By his language it was easy to see that he was a native of the north. as he exIn his ordipressed himself Avith extreme difficulty. " The Willow . which by no means implies was of a very high order. there remained to him only a few fragments of his teeth. We learned that our Man- darin that was is. Our courtesy the humblest speeches. and not so amusing it was besides not very agreeable to talk with him. that he was called JAe&u. class. so that when we found his name was "Willow. inextricable imbroglio.

pleasure walking enjoy. or in the immense though it was not so ornamental and garden. Their conyou can only . we had obtained an excellent lodging. and the most capricious winding paths imaginable. struction is very difficult to describe. and secondFirst. and endeavored to make out the meaning of the enigmatical sentences with which the walls were adorned. Sometimes we went to visit the Buddhist temple. and all this went by the name of Si-men- You often find in yuen. and assemblies of several other cor- porations . could not exactly understand what this building was there were wings devoted to the service of travelthere were vast saloons destined for ing Mandarins We . where .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. . while we were waiting the arrangements for our departure. We there was a pretty elegant as that of Sse-ma-kouang belvedere. in the the of without out. going court-yards shaded by large trees. we had from time to time that of the principal functionaries of the town. literary meetings. who did not fail to come and pay their respects to us. Garden of the Western Gate. and a pagoda. and so as to be ready for us to set off again in four days. where. devoted to a variety of purposes. 163 It was agreed between us that the new escort should be organized as quickly as possible. The visit that we h^d had the audacity to make to the Governor of Hou-pe had produced two good effects. the large towns of China these unaccountable establishments. we might recover from the fatigues of our journey and also find around us many amusements. and a theatre. there was an observatory. we had recovered our lost influence ly. as soon as they learned that could also we were in favor with the Governor. Besides the company of the Mandarins who resided in the same establishment. sit- uated at the centre of the establishment.

Very few private houses can be called magnificent. towns. but they are extremely rare. are always inferior to those of the south. especially in the In the houses of the rich there are usually villages. and have seldom more than one story. though . with thatched roofs. and In books which sometimes also by ditches. several courts. temples. built of brick or painted . in which either talc painted in various designs. flanked with towers at certain distances. and roofed with gray tiles the second are of wood or The buildings of the north clay. one might call it the Chinese style but no one could have an exact idea of . The edges of the roof are turned up to form a gutter. and the mixture of colors pro- duces from a distance a very agreeable effect. The shops are supported by pilasters. varnished on the outside. of the Celestial Empire. and the corners decorated with dragons and other fabulous animals. The public edifices. have all a certain character peculiar to them which does not belong to any known order of architecture^. ornamented with inscriptions on painted and varnished boards. it is said that the streets of the towns and perfectly straight. or white and colored paper. high walls. wet or dry. A The whole of one southern aspect is always preferred. speak of China. but it is not less true that others are narrow and tortuous. especially in the We have seen here and there some cities of the south. say it is quite Chinese. and in the last are the apartments of the women and the Gardens. one behind another. in town as well as in the country are low.164 JOUKNKY THROUGH TIIH CIIIXESK KMI'IUK. houses. a sort of transparent shell. The towns are almost all built on the same plan they are usually of the quadrilateral form. is used instead of glass. are broad The houses exceptions. side of the apartments is usually occupied by windows. without having been in China. Those of the first class are wood. and surrounded by it .

and his bones divided into eight parts. porcelain tower. and covered with varnished tiles . like that of Nankin. and third order. when Buddha died. and reflects. that were At a short very handsome and imposing in appearance. composed of arches of great strength and span. The sheen of bricks glitters with gold and purple. and pagodas." and the enormous expense of the inutility energetically stone I A famous tower of Tchang-ngan city. his body was burnt. cording to Indian tradition. and in all it is said. and they are built of wood. At Pekin the government offices and the palaces of the princes are raised on a basement. these towers. so common the countries into which Buddhism has penetrated. the ornaments of which being of porcelain have procured for it the name of the form also variable. of brick. The number and their of these floors is is never- very There are some round. are now falling into ruins. and we have seen some stone ones." calls it "the half of a hundred feet A poet. Thence in China. however. to be deposited in towers of eight floors. Most of these monuments. you almost always see a more or less lofty tdwer Acstanding apart and solitary like a colossal sentinel. some square. but the most remarkable monuments are the bridges. theless uncertain. second. but in the ancient poems are found passages which attest the luxury and magnificence formerly displayed by the Emperors in their construc" When I raise tion. my eyes toward the tower of its must seek its top in the clouds. originate.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 165 the term may be applied to some public edifices. the rays of the sun. towers. The bridges are very numerous. which were inclosed in so many urns. in speaking of one of these edifices which was five . in rather a satirical vein. distance from the towns of the first. even of earthenware. like censor to express a rainbow. some hexagonal or octagonal.

Very often they are only like small chapels. in which there arc . to judge from the remains still existing. towers of white marble. of gilt brick. The pagodas or idol temples are scattered all over China with incredible profusion . and I have not dared to ascend to the highest terrace.166 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. precipices. and where The ascent to the you saw cascades and waterfalls. some were built in the midst of the waters. as it were. continues : "I am in fear of asthma. possesses ten thousand of them. seven. after several strophes expressive and admiration at the project and execution of so great a work. The city of Pekin. trees and flowers were made to grow. and suspended like them over their decoration. at all events in part. there is no village that does not possess several of them. or even tlirough it by vaults and caverns imitated from those of mountains. platform on which they were built was by a set of steps roughly cut. upon which. and even of copper . When you reached the platform you found. and outward form varied as much as their internal There were some that had galleries or balconies diminishing in width at each floor . which must have been of extraordinary beauty. To mount so many steps as that is only for those young loins that have the strength jto carry in their hands or on their heads the revenues There were formerly. according of several provinces." to the Chinese books. and from the midst of these rose the towers. and they are seen on all the roads. of astonishment high. and even in the fields. even thirteen floors. and winding round the sides of the rock. nevertheless. nine. whence men below appear like ants. It must be added that the greater part of these pagodas do not differ much from other buildings. enchanted gardens . it is said. They had three. five. some on an enormous mass of steep rocks.

they are still very inferior in style to the most mediocre of. The painters only aration excel in certain mechanical processes relating to the prepand application of colors . and new ones The Song dynasty. as they have seldom been built strongly enough . niches with idols 167 in them. and in the provinces several celebrated pagodas. where you find articles of real merit. nevertheless. ers The Chinese assert that the paint- and sculptors of former times. tion. the Ming the pagodas. worthy of much admirafor as the Temples of Heaven and such. made the roads and the bridges. beauty. The ornaments and as decorations of these temples are. grandeur. but though not devoid of a certain kind of beauty. may be supposed. The sculptures in the pagodas have often merit in the details. instance. especially of the fifth and sixth centuries of our era. when they decay they are usually left to go to ruin as they may. some that exhibit a richand ness. best performances are in miniatures and water-colors. says a built. and their Their landscapes are most distressingly monotonous. but want both elegance and correctness of form. the Tang the towers. and vases with burning perfume. quite in the Chinese and full and the paintings and sculpof caprice and confusion tures have little artistic merit. Chinese proverb. tain times of the year. to resist the ravages of time. in their compositions they pay no attention whatever to perspective.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. taste. European paintings. Temples of any great antiquity are not found in China. to which the Chinese make pilgrimages at cerThere are. as the arts of design are very imperfectly cultivated in China. . Earth at Pekin. were greatly superior to and one may be tempted to those of the present day subscribe to that opinion after having visited the old curiosity shops. or willful injury .

fucius is regarded as the patriarch and reformer. The first and most ancient is that called " The Doctrine of the Lettered. have made nothing. at all events nominally. it is easy to see that these We external manifestations are only the result of old customs. but all religions are tolerated. they are not regarded as politically Three principal religions are admitted and dangerous.168 JOUR'S EY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. that in the highest antiquity the existence of an Omnip- distributing rewards and punishments was in it . which rise in all parts of China. as we have already said. entirely absorbed in material interests and the enjoyments of the present life. provided. and oratories. pagodas. and various recognized passages in the writings of Confucius give room to think that the himself otent God sage acknowledged such a one . which has been variIt is believed ously interpreted at different epochs. but the vague sense in which he has used his words. the little anxiety he has shown . There can hardly be said to be any such thing as a state of religion in China. and totally indifferent to religion in every form. and exist there. It is based on a philosophic pantheism." of which Conjou-kiao. that at various epochs they have been deeply interested in certain religious systems. may add that the present dynasty. considered as equally good one might say equally true there have been although long and bitter wars between them. and do not even try to preserve what lias been made by others. but on looking closely at the matter. In considering the prodigious number of the temples. the Tsing. nevertheless. one might be tempted to think the Chinese a very religious people. at least. which. after many vicissitudes. Their annals attest. The Chinese of the present day are. and no indication at all of pious feelings and ideas. have at length still become acclimatized in the Empire.

a materialistic system that is degenerating into atheism. he contents himself with recommending in general the observance of the ancient practices of filial piety and fraternal love . either in the palace or in the market-place. a disciple. and end of the world." replies Confucius. H . Their religion * itself is ! only a kind of civilization. Should he meet him.'' . is never religious in his writings . in fact. which is reality. the religion and the doctrine of Confucius a system of positivism. and of morality nothing but the . and the bringing the conduct into conformity with the laws of heaven. have permitted his followers to err so that several of them have fallen into a true Spinozism and have taught. "and have only his weapons for a pillow. Let him accept no employment till the enemy of his father no longer exists upon the earth." In another passage this famous moralist expresses himself thus: "The murderer of your father ought not to remain under the same sky with you you must not lay by your arms as long as the murderer of your brother still lives. and the care he takes to base his ideas of morality* and justice. In They ask science of time only what letters . let him not go home to fetch his arms. Little do the Chinese care about long philosophical lucubrations. Confucius. with human actions ought always to harmonize. and Tse-hien. may is suffice for life fill . little for questions concerning the origin. while referring always to the authority of their master. of and only what required to official employments tical of the greatest principles only their pracconsequences . political and utilitarian part at the present day many in in a word. they are what Europe are striving to be- come. progress of nature. "Let him lie down in a mourning habit. II.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. asks Confucius how a morality sou ought to bear himself toward the enemy of his father. And what VOL. -but attack him on the spot. 169 to inculcate such a belief on his disciples. upon the principles of the love of order and a certain not verywell-defined conformity with the will of heaven and the far. They put aside all grand disputes. to attach themselves to the positive. and you can not live in the same kingdom with that of votir friend. creation. all specu- lative questions.

. castalone induces to them ing horoscopes. any thing to do with the matter in either case . and habit conform to ceremonies which they themselves turn into ridicule such as divination. and from which no consequence for official office . This worship has no priests and no idols . have temples raised in his honor. and those who propose to become such. and his image is to be J'ound in the academies and the places where the learned assemble. attach themselves to it. of the stars. the mountains. all which superstitions are in great vogue throughout the Empire. and the rivers. though often without renouncing practices borrowed from But conviction does not seem to have other religions. His tablet is in all the schools : masters and pupils are required to prostrate themselves before this venerated name. and counting lucky and unlucky days. Generally. and the Emperor himself is the patriarch or head of it. need be drawn. their philosophy the art of living in peace. all literary persons. the meaning of which may be interpreted in different ways. and more than three hundred millions of men proclaim him the saint par Never has it been given to any mortal to excellence. it is an external religion personages and literary men Avho aspire to no one regards it as any thing more than but any a social institution. of command- ing and obeying. Whatever is least vague and most.170 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. every magistrate practices it within the sphere of his own jurisdiction . serious in the religion of the Chinese is 'absorbed by the worship of Confucius. as well as to the souls of deceased relations . and where All the towns literary examinations are carried on. The State has always retained as a civil institution the worship paid to the spirits of heaven and earth. at the beginning and at the end of the classes.

is that of the existence of the primordial reason that created the world. participate in the honors the Chinese nation to their glorious ancestor . published by M. necromancy. worship. The second religion in China is regarded by its professors as the primitive religion of the ancient inhabitand it has consequently many analogies with the preceding. who paid by in great numbers. The descendants of Confucius. or Doctors of Reason. it may not be irrelevant here to enter into some details concerning We borrow the life and opinions of this philosopher. at the same time civil and religious. 171 exercise during so many centuries so extensive an empire over his fellow-creatures.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. six centuries before much the Christian era. which they preside. independently of the parts of nature over ants. although every one knows perthat Confucius was simply a mortal man. Abel Rcmusat. they constitute the sole hereditary nobility of the Empire. and enjoy certain privileges appertaining to them alone. is more fully recognized by it. or to receive homage so like true worship. because their fundamental dogma taught by the famous Lao-tze. the contemporary of Confucius. They are called Taosse. rendered to a simple citizen by an immense nation for four and twenty centuries There is nothing in human annals ! A comparable to exist still it. astrology. Lao-tze being little known to Europeans. and practice magic. who well fectly lived in the principality of Lan-sin. in his Melanges Asiatiques. and many other absurd superstitions. . very celebrated in China. " I have subjected to a profound examination the doctrines of a philosopher. only that the individual existence of spirits and demons. them from an excellent notice of him. The priests and priestesses of this worship are devoted to celibacy.

years ago. name has hardly been "The this traditions that for philosophy. being very obscure. and have been current concerning the knowledge of which we are indebted to the missionaries. we learn that the mother of their patriarch bore him in her womb nine times nine years. are not of a nature to What was most positively that this sage. taught them. Avrit- though very known in Europe. and wrote a book that has come posterity under the pompous title of 'The ' down Book to of From this title. according to In searching for the details of others. which procured for him the title of Lao-tze (* Old Child '). they imagine that of their master not to have been its first birth when it came to animate the body above mentioned. Pythagoras pretended to have formerly reigned in Phrygia under the name of Midas . was born 2400 invite any serious inquiry. according to some. but to have already appeared several times upon the It is known that earth. whom one of the three sects of China acknowledge as their head. where his heard. and. his followers Reason and Virtue. and traveled very far into the West. this philosopher left China. known was.172 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE little EMPIIJK. his of the dogma of the transmigration of souls. and whose and consequently very litings. he obtained his opinions. It is recorded also that toward the end of his life. tle read. and that he came into the world with gray hair. life. are not much better appreciated in his own country than in ours. as they admit following his doctrine. under which he is commonly known. I have met with many wonderful things told him by the ignorant sectaries who suppose they are For instance.' have bestowed on themselves that of Doctors of Reason . .' and they support their claim to this denominaIt is from them tion by a thousand extravagances. . to the countries where.

but that which has been made for Lao-tze is certainly magnificent. Like many other founders of religious systems. 173 that he remembered to have been that Euphorbius who wounded Menelaus. My examination of his book fully confirmed this conjecture. perhaps. expresses similar conceptions almost in the and the analogy of the expressions is . His style has the majesty of Plato and we must own also something of his obscu. seeking for the elixir of immortaland the means of reaching heaven by raising themity. and that he recognized in the temple of Juno at Argos the buckler that he had borne at the These sorts of genealogies cost nothing siege of Troy. magiples. I found in his book a true philosopher. I was interested in inquiring whether this sage. rity. to those that fabricate them. Among other transformations. a judicious moralist. and a subtle metaphysician. present some traces of the circumstances that carried them to the extremity of Asia. for ex- He same language . he was far from foreseeing the direction that the doctrines he taught were to take in future ages. astrologers. 600 years before the building of Rome to "It appears me that these fables might have rela- tion to the principles inculcated by Lao-tze. selves through the air. and had converted the inhabitants of the Roman ! Empire.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. not less striking than that of the ideas. and. and should he ever appear again upon the earth he Avould have much cause to complain of the wrong done to him by his unworthy disciInstead of the head of a sect of jugglers. an eloquent theologian. his soul had descended many ages before into the western countries. Here. and also effected a complete change in the opinion I had formed of the writer. whose life offers so many points of resemblance with the philosopher of Samos. might not have also in his opinions some more real conformity with him. and cians.

a precept that one might think superfluous. according to him perfection consists in being without passion.' The morality professed by Lao-tze is worthy of this beginning . in memory of the homicides they have committed. the earth in the heavens. silent. For the rest. nor any greater misfortune than the torments that are the just punishment of them. and deserves to be blotted out from the number of men. I know not how this being is named . any greater sin than ill-regulated desires. victories be environed with tombs. but which was doubtless in- tended to be understood in a sense different from that which it has among us. says. He is averse only to hard-hearted and violent men. he plate the harmony of the universe. and let the monuments of their is . He did not seek to diffuse his doctrine.' he says. the heavens in reason itself. The most splendid victory ' but the light from a conflagration. it carefully.in designate it by the word reason. immovearth.' The ancients * Render no funeral honors to conquerors receive said.174 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.' He who adorns himself with laurels loves blood. his philosophy breathes nothing but mildness and benevolence. and adapt himself to circumstances .' The most solid virtue of the He sage consists in knowing how to pass for a fool. one only being existed that is the mother of the able yet incessantly active universe. -in speaking of the Supreme Being chaos that preceded the birth of the heavens and the immense. adds that the wise man should follow the times. Mention lias been sometimes made of this passage concerning ' The least glorious peace is preferable to conquerors : the most brilliant successes of war. but I Man has his model. in order the better to contemThere is not. the earth. ' ' one conceals If one has discovered a treasure.' " The metaphysics of Lao-tze offer many remarkable . ' Before the ample. them with tears and cries.

in who had adopted this mysterious dogma. Like the Pythagoreans and Platonists. but who has no type but himself. he regards human souls as emanations from this ethereal substance. and it . the inextricable subtleties. we give an idea of the high abstrac- which his Oriental and loses itself? wanders It is sufficient imagination to say that the opinions of the Chinese philosopher on the origin and constitution of the universe present no ridiculous fables or monstrous absurdities . and his cosmogony is in some measure algebraical. as he says himself. and supposes that after death they are reunited with it he also agrees with Plato in refusing to the wicked the tions. The divine Plato. passing over land and sea. but in enigmas. and in the sublime reveries that distinguish them they present a striking and indisputable resemblance to the doctrines professed a little later in the schools of Pythagoras and Plato. Like Pythagoras. seems to envelops friends .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for fear that his tablets. Like Pythagoras. traits that 175 we How in fact could are constrained to pass over in silence. it fear revealing it to the profane. who is the type of the universe. Lao-tze does not employ all this circximlocution. he clouds in his famous letter to three he teaches it to Dionysius of Syracuse. uncreated. they bear the impress of a noble and elevated mind. our philosopher admits as a first cause Reason a being ineffable. " Possibly the then recent recollection of the death of Socrates might have contributed to occasion this reserve. faculty of re-entering the bosom of this universal soul. He attaches the chain of being to him whom lie calls One then to Two then to Three who he says have made all things. he gives to the first principles of things the names of numbers. in . might fall into the hands of some unknown person who should read and understand them.

to which belonged also the philoso- Ten Tribes whom who were the precursors and masters of Pythagoand Plato.of sources as the masters would like to and what countries of the West he by a credible witness that he went drew from the same but one know who were his immediate preceptors. concerning the relations of ancient nations . but I believe. and leaves little doubt concerning the origin of his doctrine. of the Probably lie received it from the Jews the conquests of Salmanasar had just dispersed over Asia .176 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. we find in the writings of this Chinese philosopher the dogmas and opinions which phers ras formed. to all appearance. and not impossible that he penetrated as far as Judea. We know it is to Bactria. Chinese at Athens presents indeed an A idea that runs counter to our opinions. thatJt formed the universe. he must already have gone three parts of the way. Besides this. and the Phoenicians. . It is now certain that Lao-tze . or even Greece. after having traversed Persia. and that the Greeks may have it and that though alluded to them in those Scythians and Hyperboreans whom they mention as remarkable for the mildness and elegance of their manners. it is not improbable that there were Chinese there about that period. we should accustom can not be positively proved that our Chinese philosopher did really reach Greece. the Thracians. or rather our prejudices. if Lao-tze stopped in Syria. In a word. that ourselves to it . nevertheless." is clearly laid down was a three-fold being who This thought confirms all that has been already indicated in the tradition of the journey of Lao-tze toward the West. and overcome . ancient philosophy visited. in his book. or from the apostles of some Phoenician sect. the basis of the Orphic faith and of that antique Oriental wisdom which the Greeks sought for in the school of the Egyptians.

There is an air of romance about these long wanderings. and from the highest antiquity there were in Asia certain tracks marked out. and the world enveloped in obscurity. without what we should But all facts that consider more substantial motives. and the love of truth had power to stimulate them to enterprises upon which even the love of gain would have hardly ventured. they took for such. We can hardly imagine that at those remote periods. nor the countries so entirely unknown. and hospitality. we can hardly conceive that any one the sole desire to that should undertake such a long and toilsome journey from become acquainted with opinions . when geography was so imperfect. but was the time for philosophic travels men were willing to brave every fatigue in the search after wisor what dom. dispensed the traveler from the necessity of many precautions that he could not now safely neglect. the virtue of barbarous nations. What we are tempted to think is that the obstacles were not so great as we have imagined. At all times commerce has had her caravans. that half prevents us from believing in them. which was in some measure but a long pilgrimage from temple to temple. H* . which naturally continued to be followed.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The recollections of ties of kindred still. philosophers should quit their country. it may be. linked the nations of the antique world one to another. Since we have attached ourselves exclusively to the search after facts. from school to school. over a considerable part of the ancient continent. are difficult of explanation are not to be rejected. and pass through a thousand obstacles. and facts of this kind multiply upon us as we penetrate further into the ancient history of the East. Religion favored their progress. m the greatest difficulties in the passage across the plateau of high Asia.

I arrange mine like the fail hook of the fisherman. and I never fail to reach him and master him. thinks that yesterday has never existed. It because appears to us that the ancients were in darkness we see them only through the thick clouds from which we ourselves have but just issued. One day he went to pay him a visit. who when he sees the sun rise. and throw him down . "When. but it is difficult to know what was his opinion of the doctrines of the patriarch of the Doctors of Reason. as is commonly supposed. I arrange mine like a running dog to pursue him. of which only a few rays have reached "A us. when a man makes use me of his thoughts to escape from like the fish of the deep. and asked the cause of his silenee. When I see a man making use of his thoughts to escape me like an agile stag. and . see a he remained three days without pronouncing Tseu-kong was surprised at this. civilized nations of antiquity were by no means so much strangers to each other. "I use of his thoughts to escape me." Confucius was in frequent communication with Lao-tze." said Confucius.178 till JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIUK. and when he returned to' his disciples. or so isolated. like a bird that flies away. are sometimes disposed to place to tlie account of ignorance what is in fact only attributable to our In this respect we might justly apply to ourselves is com- We their own. what said in relation to morals by one of the most cele- brated disciples of the sage whose opinions we have just been inquiring into. and I man make never fail to come up with him. because the motives that urged them to municate one with another are unknown to us. and I never to take him. vivid light shone on the highest antiquity. the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope changed In our opinion the the direction of these long journeys. a word. I dispose mine like a bow armed with its arrows to pierce him. Man is an (infant born at midnight.

But as to the dragon who on the clouds and floats in ether. At his voice my mouth remained wide open my tongue came out of it with astonishment. as well as against the Bonzes. and the . its doctrine. his disciples. and I had not the power to draw it back.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. have employed the weapons of ridicule against them with the greatest success. The Chinese annals are full of the disputes and quarrels of the Lao-tze with the disciples of Confucius. that the most ignorant make them an object of sarcasm. Toward the middle of the first century of our era. and have never failed to latter turn the laugh against the Doctors of Reason. and has not been able to recover its previous him rises . which is the third religion of China." an imperfect transcription of the name of Buddha* So vast a religious system. spread rapidly among the Chinese under the name of the "religion of Fo. my soul was plunged into perplexity. do not at present enjoy any great popularity. and he is like the dragon. The word Buddha is a very ancient generic name. the priests of Buddhism. the Emperors of the dynasty of Han admitted Indian Buddhism officially into their dominions. professed by more than three hundred millions of followers. which has material representations of the divinity. and its propagation among the nations of high Asia. to The superstitions which they abandon themselves are so extravagant. get 179 into my power. I can not pursue him. I have seen Lao-tze. well deserves that we should enter into some details with respect to its origin. This religion. the Doctors of Reason. calmness. They have rendered themselves especially -notorious by their though they pretended elixir of immortality gained great credit for it with many famous Emperors." Whatever may be said of the philosophical ideas of Lao-tze. having in Sanscrit a double .

and sometimes a god. In the eyes of Buddhists this personage is sometimes a man. that we have every where found it reduced to a If we neat formula. The one signifies being. and Cingalese books. "The Saviour The marvelous birth of Buddha. expressed in remarkable terms. . and sought to raise themselves to him by contemplation and holiness. Thibetan. since these truths are traditional. is of little . It is the name by which was originally designated the creative omnipotent God but it has been extended to those who worshiped him. and which we nee'd not be surprised to find also among other nations. This root. more or less a of Cliristian truth. who has become celebrated throughout Asia. "Who of his Hen. superior intelligence." Buddha?" he replied instantly. Thibet. among pagan people in proportion as they have been more or less faithful in preserving the deposit of primitive traditions. addressed to a Mongol or a Thibetan this question. who came* into the world to enlighten men. and point out to them the way of salvation. to redeem them. and have always beThere must be longed to the heritage of humanity. existence . From the concordant testimony of Indian. Tartary. the variation of a few years.180 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. we may place the birth of Buddha about the year 960 before Christ . Chinese. and who is regarded as the founder of the institutions and doctrines comprised under the general name of Buddhism. hoAvever. a man-god. contain a great number of moral truths is and dogmas professed in Christianity. idea of a redemption of the human race by a divine incarnation is so general and popular among the Buddhists. or rather he is both 6ne and the other. his life and instructions. intend by this name to denote an actual historical personage. All the Buddhists. and Ceylon. whom wo have met in China. the other wisdom. Mongol. He is a divine incarnation. more or less.

The child received the name of Arddha Chiddi. who was also an incarnation of Brahma (in Mongol. seven to dress him. " Soutadanna. seven to rock him to sleep. biit he soon embarrassed his tutor by questions. the capital of. she presented him to a king. and medicine. drawing. and lavished upon him the most tender cares. the legend of Buddha. The Great Illusion. seven to amuse him with their sports. merely translations from Thibetan or Sanscrit. . Another king.' but did not consummate his marriage ' with her. Tingri in Tingri). and on the She. of the caste of Brahmins. Esroum Tingri). and afterward begged him to teach him all languages. and was immediately recognized as a divine person. among whom was distinguished the sage Babourenou. of his apostleship. saluting him with of Gods (in Mongol. whom she had borne in her womb three hundred days. seven to keep him clean.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. baptized the young god in divine water. Every one adored him. Hormousta Tingri). reigned in India over the powerful ' Empire of Magadha. an indispensable condition. from whom he learned poetry. it being foretold that he would surpass in holiness all preceding incarnations. which are books. chief of the house of Chakia. an incarnation of Indra (in Mongol. music. He married Mahamaia. seven to bathe him. Taking him in her arms. were virgins charged to serve him. and who enveloped him in a piece of precious stuff. which was Kaberchara. of which we are about to give a succinct analysis. she brought into the world a son. influence. he said. mathematics. although a virgin. conceived by divine fifteenth day of the second month of spring. 181 Klaproth has extracted from the Mongol consequence. When he arrived at the age the title of God Ten of ten. while thirty-five others charmed his ears by songs and instruments of music. they gave him several masters. in Southern Bahar.

He also substituted for his Do not hinder me from for me a sacred duty. on himself the sacerdotal order. he refused to marry unless they could find him a virgin possessing thirty-two virtues and perfections. wife. I am going to return to the condition of a penitent my it is empire . and quitted his wife. and his the preceptor.' accomplishing this step . 'Adieu. " When and he soon surpassed the Avhole human race. flight. but it was necessary to dispute possession of her Avith her uncle. darkness). and he said to his tutor. and by dint of searching they did at last discover one. They even signified to him that they would keep him a prisoner in his palace of Kaberchara. he gave himself up to the practice of virtue and a contemplative life. vocaI have reasons sufficient to follow my my my tion. dear son. Soon renouncing worldly vanities. own name that of Gotama.had also sought her in marriage. his family. who.182 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMIMIJK. all which was to enlighten the world. I renounce you. and spread among nations the knowledge of religion and of the true The preceptor. afflicted at such a resolution. He was then twenty years old the marriage took place and the following year young wife brought into the world a son. There he conferred Oudipa. and tamd. who. father. and afterward a daughter. and went to the kingdom of the on borders of Naracara. that ' is. cut his hair off. however. made vain efforts to dissuade him from this step. and the pupil therefore taught the tutor fifty foreign languages with their peculiar characters. was acquainted only doctrine. but he declared that he would get out in spite of them. senses. . and assumed the costume of a penitent. he had reached the proper age. " Mounted on a horse brought to him by a celestial he then took spirit. He who ex- tinguishes and kills the senses' (yo. with the idiom of India. .

. . watered the figs and the honey with holy water. and thought to tempt him by insidious questions. remote preceptor. The ape leaping for joy.' it is I who have consecrated Gotama myself What have I to do with other own minister. Chari. Eriktou and Debeltoun presented themselves first and inquired with feigned modesty. Five favorite disciples were then associated with their master. and their names became celebrated in the history of they are Godinia. Buddhism . Muigtsan. his father. according to his see custom. the son of his Yet. came often to Gotama one evening it brought him some cakes made of the honey of wild bees. and in memory of the accident the place was consecrated under the the Ape. Gotama. and figs. he ' " by merely making a still He afterward chose a sign with his finger. Gotama. had conducted into the neighborhood of his retreat. 183 "When exhausted by his long austerities. and Sangdan. and then ate of them. what is thy doctrine ? Who was thy tutor ? From whom didst thou ' receive the priesthood?' ' replied my 'I am holy by my own merit. His disciples . pelled sion caused the tutelary genius of this globe to spring teachers? from the earth. He reReligion has penetrated my being. Datol.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.' cocoa-wT ine pacified it One day. whither he was followed by only two disciples. At the end of six years he quitted the desert to go and fulfill the apostolic duties for which he had prepared himself by long fasting.' that seductions of and on the occamany wom. was sent name of Place of the offerings of when an elephant intoxicated with against him by a bad genius. he restored himself by taking the milk of the cows that Soutadanna. A great ape. fell into a well. his enemies found means to discover it. and presented them to him for his repast. wilder retreat. and the celebrated Malou-Toni. and bear witness to his virtues. Langba.en. Khakho-Monsou. as this retreat was.

he adopted the name of ChakiaMouni. The government is in the habit of sending copies Lama monasteries. the afterward crossed he deserts. tained in a collection of eight hundred great volumes. he made three times the circuit of this sacred . but he triumphed over all his adversaries. and continued the preparatory meditations by which he fitted Followed by his five himself for his new functions. Chakia-Mouni then revised the principal foundations of . and betook disciples himself to the sea-shore. or Verbal Instruction. After having taken possession of supreme seat. It is in four languages. and their chief prostrated himself before of it as presents to the great him and acknowledged himself vanquished.' lived in solitude. and on the frail and perishable nature of man. Mantchou. adored him. They turn exclusively on the metaphysics of creation. surrounded by an innumerable multiHis teachings are contude of auditors of all classes.the founders of town before ascending the throne. which tlirec anterior religious epochs had suc- '. Mongol.cessively occupied.184 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. being every where received with veneration. " This monumental work is found in all the libraries of the great Buddhist convents. Varanasi (Benares) to make his entry. Returning to Benares he there unfolded his doctrine. known under the general name of Gandjour. but absorbed in ecstatic contemplation. The finest edition is that issued at Pekin from the Imperial press. and Chithis ' nese. In memory of this triumph there was instituted a festival that lasted for the first fifteen days of the first month. and immediately there shone forth a glory He then took the route to from the face of the saint. the penitent of Chakia. Chakia-Mouni experienced a lively opposition from the priests attached to the ancient creeds. after holding a discussion with them. Thibetan.

who endeavored to overthrow Brahminism. secondly. an inflexible adherence to the law. which is himself. dicted that the reign of his doctrine would last five thou- sand years.' Such is the abridged history of the famous founder of the Buddhist religion. a boundless compassion toward all creatures. not to avenge yourself. and retire to the highest summits of Thibet. Then follows the decalogue. to be chaste fourthly. and this plateau. ' Until that epoch. "This code of morals was beginning all over Before bidding adieu to his disciples. Chakia-Mouni declared that these precepts concerning human actions were revealed to him after the four grand trials that he had gone through when he devoted himself to a state of sanctity. morals and the decalogue. not to be superstitious. not to lie. another man-god. Bud* ' mands . and the modern Buddhists certainly do not pay much attention to it. eighthly. not to bear false witness . 185 First. third. ninthly. 'my religion will be the object of persecution. to be disinterested. predestined ages before to be the teacher of the human race. the ancient religion of the Hindoos. or the ten commandments. an immovable basis. tenthly. to be diffused Asia when he quitted the earth.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but that at the end of this time there would be another Buddha. Moral principles are reduced mercy established on. thirdly. This last prohibition is very remarkable. to be reabsorbed into the universal He was then eighty-four years soul. and special prohibi- tions: First. not to steal. fifthly.' he added. . seventhly. and my faithful ones will be obliged to quit India. he preof age. the aversion to all cruelty. not to kill. not to swear. will become the palace. to four. sixthly. the sanctuary. second. casting off his material envelope. to avoid impure words. and the metropolis of the true faith. fourthly. from the top of which the observer com- the world.

interested. . like the fire that issues from the wood of the Aram. and his history. Chakia said : " There is not between a Brahmin and a is man of another caste the difference that there and a stone. Chakia attracted to himself and consoled the poor and the unThe Brahmins mocked him. The between gold The Brahmin. who were rejected by the first classes of Indian society. The devotion of the Asiatic Buddhist men. or the wind. which in a short time increased to a prodigious extent. But he contented himself with law of mercy for all. in order to share its benefits with other institutions of ceived into the number of his disciples miserable men. dha employed both miracles and preaching as the means of diffusing his religion. In the an order of religious mendicants. in fact. and Chakia-Mouni and his disciples endeavored to put mankind at large in possession. because he refortunate. between light and darkness. as well as that of his disciples. trasts favorably with the hardness and arrogance of Brahminism. however. of the truths which were before regarded as the exclusive property of the privileged classes. The dominant character of Buddhism is. was more disNot aspiring to elevate himself alone. He did not cleave the earth to appear in the daylight. They gave themselves up to severe penance. did not proceed out of the ether. which conspirit of mildness. their religion was only for themselves.186 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The perfection of the Brahmins was in some meas- ure egotistical." One law is a replying. but it was in order to share in another life the abode of Brahma. he practiced virtue. day the Brahmins were " My scandalized at seeing a daughter of the inferior caste of the Tchandala received as a religious woman. a and fraternity. and applied himself to gain perfection. is filled with prodigies and marvels of the most extravagant kind. equality.

minism depending essentially on the hierarchy of caste. according to the tra- . first. and thence spread over Thibet. Brahminism obtained a decisive victory over the partisans of the new religion. Ar isited. toward the sixth century of calculable. the Burmese Empire. and the latter. and even we have most sincerely attached to their religion are. where. they could not but treat as enemies the reformers who proclaimed the equality of all men in this world and the next. then come the Thibetans. . 187 Brahmin was born of a woman. expelled from Hindostan. without distinction of caste. the number of victims must have been inAt 'length. have fallen as far as Ceylon. is abandoned as an object vile and impure. the Mongols. and extremely violent.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. to civil and sacerdotal The empire of Brahfunctions. China. in the third place the Cingalese. and lowest in the scale stand the Chinese. indeed. like the tchandala where. then. then. took refuge in the Himalaya mountains. who. and if we give credit to the traditions and books of the Buddhists. These persecutions were long. Mongolia. and the bitter persecutions which the Buddhists have experienced from the Brahmins are attributable less to a divergence of opinion upon dogmas. Among the Buddhist nations these who appear to us into complete skepticism. and to future rewards. Bucharia. precisely like a person from another caste . our era. when he is dead. dost thou see the cause that should render the one noble and the other vile ? The Brahmin himself. some Buddhists of that country told us that their books alone contained the pure doctrine of Buddha. and that. Japan. than to their admission of all men. is the difference ?" The religious systems of Buddhism and Brahminism resemble each other closely in many points. On our passage to Ceylon.

and that afterward he rose into the skies from the ditions of the country. where he left the It is the mountain called at present print of his foot. when he was flying from the of the he retired into their islBrahmins. as they say. . summit of one of their mountains. as the Mussulmans pretend that the im- pression is that of the foot of the first of men. In the famous temple of Candy.188 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMIMRF. one of Budinterior of the island is the dha's teeth. Adam's Peak. where the Buddhists preserve. persecutions and.

or Fo. they are now united in universal indifferent- THP ism. peace. The pamphlets full of spirited satire which they have continually been firing off at the Bonzes and the Tao-sse have at length stifled in these people every religious sentiment.CHAPTER VI. and the Emperors themselves have done their part toward plunging the nation into the skepticism which is eating away its spiritual life. that the disciples of Confucius had no great difficulty in turning them into ridicule. and which are personified by Confucius. All Religions condemned by the Chinese Government Formulas of Skepticism Condition of the Bonzes of China Buddhist Monasteries Religious Architecture Temple of Fou-Tou Library of the Monastery Visit to the Superior of the Bonzes Profound Respect of the Chinese for Writing Convent of Bonzesses Ceremonies to recall the Souls of the Dying when they are escaping Death of a young Bachelor Mourning of the Chinese Singular Mode of lamenting the Dead Interments Worship of Ancestors Chinese Classification of various Ages of Life Marriage in China Servitude of Women Discord in Domestic Life Examples Sect of Abstinent Women. and there reigns among them the most profound This result must be principally attributed to the literary classes. After having struggled fiercely for ages. is still extant a collection of sentences composed by the . and There effecting it dissolution with frightful rapidity. the one against the other. three religions of which we have spoken in the preceding chapter. Lao-tze. The Doctors of Reason and the Buddhists had aban- doned themselves to so many superstitions. still exist in China. and Buddha.

and that you were taken into the hall of judgment to be punished. The Buddhists.190 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Fo be then What ! a miserable creature must your god Let us take the example of the magistrate . is throne. "you had violated the laws in some way. 'Your Excellency! Your Excellency!' the magistrate would be any more likely to spare you for that ?" In other passages. Emperor Kliang-hi for the instruction of his people and Yoang-tching. has tences. that is to say. the dogmas on which it rests with contempt . and fact. The Imperial commentator rallies them keenly upon this practice. thinking to purify themselves from their sins. for all religions. These sentence's are real lessons in atheism. addressed by a sovereign to his subjects. without exception . who succeeded him on the Imperial made commentaries upon his father's senwhich are intended to be read in public by the One of the points on which the princely magistrates. like other followers of Indian sects. and to effect their salvation by this easy method. this comparison tends to nothing less than the destruction of all idea of worship or homage rendered to the divinity. is the propriety of cheriishing an aversion to all false sects. which is the most widely diffused 'in China. . he will be displeased." he says. condemns them all. by the mere articulation of these holy syllables. " If you do not burn any paper in honor of Fo. and if you do not deposit any offerings on his altar. attach much importance to certain words or syllables. He speaks of especially the object of his reprobation. and send his judgments on your head. "Suppose. which they repeat continually. in He passes them in review. commentator particularly insists. do you think if you were to go on bawling a thousand times over. but that of Buddhism. he turns its practices into derision. you think.

" have given each other the kiss of peace. . will " The sect of the Lord of tend to prove. with which " The that is . could not coming from so high a and all belief in a and future life has been accordingly things as this. but if you transgress the law. every body Thus all the Chinese are three religions are but one." Such spiritual quarter. as the following passage from his successor. and pay your court to him. to imply by that that their religion was good. is perverted and corrupt ropeans who teach it understand astronomy and mathematics. fallen into the grown skeptical and impious. and their partisans. perpetually talking and beings without substance or shadow. It by no means meant. and encroach on the rights of others. Yoang-tching. attentive to your duty. The Christian religion of course. of your district: 191 him. the Government has employed them to correct the calendar. from whom ho might obtain some advantage for the State. and you must not earth. though find a thousand ways of flattering him. San-kiao-y-kiao. however. commit violence." is. to bear fruit. this but as the Eureligion. . satisfied. have abyss of indifferentism. you should he will always be dissatisfied with you. The tional mind religious sentiment has vanished from the nathe rival doctrines have lost all authority. Heaven." he " a sect that is about heaven says. Religious discussions have entirely ceased. and the whole Chinese nation has proclaimed this famous formula. and believe any thing they instructions fail tell you. extinguished. should you never go to compliment if you are honest people. he will not the less be well disposed toward you . who was very favorably disposed toward the missionaries. also. but regarded them merely as artists and learned men. in which they is. not spared by the commentator of the Emperor Khang-hi.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

we are all brothers. regards all religions as things futile and interest . than a formula of politeness exchanged between unknown persons on their first meetIt is customary to ask to " what sublime ing. a third a disciple of Lao-tze. and Buddha. toun-ly. for the classical books taste certain a retained have only and moral precepts of Confucius. and the Chinese still like to make use of them . Lao-tze. but they are now only the memorials of a feeling clearly indicates this long since dead. all dogma. which every one exat the . plains according to his own fancy. But although they have thus made a tabula rasa of their religious creeds. reason is one. another in China. a fourth a follower of Mohammed. the whole nain fact. which has become the only one generally recognized. same time partisans of Confucius. of whom there are you belong. to live merely by their more or less The literary classes depraved and corrupted instincts. the ancient denominations have remained. and it may therefore easily be supposed . invoking always the " ly" or principle of rationalism. an affair of taste and fashion. religion'' One. is to be attached than to the color of your The government. a worship is ing on religious questions. cian. " Pou-toun-kiao. and they bandy it from one to the other with the most exquisite urbanity. Nothing more desolating skepticism. to which no more merely importance garments. after which they all repeat in chorus.192 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. perhaps. will call himself a Confua Buddhist." This phrase is on the lips of every Chinese. they are nothing at all they reject all faith." "Religions are many. tion. of no the literary classes. or rather. as politeness requires. and then every one begins to pronounce a panegyric on the religion to which he does not belong. It is indeed a clear and concise expression of their feel- many In their eyes.

and. and from the Bonzes and Tao-sse being able to obtain only so precarious and humiliating a subsistence. in fact. their number is It is hardly conceivable why continually declining. compelled to recruit itself in a singular manner. without any one ever troubling himself about them. for a . is attached to a pagoda buys. the Christians are reproached and/ / persecuted by the magistrates. and those greater part of them are not sufficiently versed in the classical books for this are compelled in some private industry. with the exception. shaves VOL.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. measure to wander about the villages and beg their The revenues of the pagodas are not now as considerable as they were at some periods. II I . some painted paper and perfumes at the feet or of an idol. said before. the every kind of worship. 193 that there reigns in China an incomparable toleration for The Chinese enjoy. perhaps. men not supported by a religious faith should resign themselves to such abject poverty . provided always that the authorities can be convinced that under pretense of a religious association you are not concealing a political we have For this reason only. most perfect liberty in this respect. The who rice. or to order a few prayers in the hope of imThe exmediately making a large fortune by them. of an occasional practitioner of the art of magic who may come to burn to consult them about casting lots. in fact. They are left to live in poverty and con- tempt in their obscure abodes. however. No one ever thinks of persecuting the Bonzes and the Tao-sse. as object injurious to the State.the child of some indigent family. this priesthood of an extinct religion and a forsaken wor- ship is The Bonze who few sapecks. tenance if would be insufficient for their mainthey neglected to make up the deficiency by some keep a school. tremely slender fees that the Bonzes receive on such occasions.

" in 800 large vol" umes. Pou-tou is an island of the great archipelago of Chu-. . libraries are almost deserted. indeed. to procure for himself a small perpetuated the race of Bonzes. one of the most renowned in the Celestial Empire. as may be seen in the annals of China. This last work of Thibet in which all is a sort of religious Encyclopaedia. There were formerly. in the manner of the Lamas and Tartary. disciple of him. ant. and the Dandgour.IGl'KNKY THROUC. but which at the present day has completely lost all authority and is disciple. insurgents have lately thought to render themselves popular by massacring them every where on their passage. have had occasion to We visit a great number of them. on the coasts of the province of Tche-kiang. whose influence has been so great at different epochs. and among the rest that of Pou-tou. In these were to be seen the finest editions of the " Gandgour. Subsequently he becomes the successor and heir of him to whom he has been sold. or rather a servchild vegetates thus in the company of his master. such is the contempt into ." in 232. or ecclesiastical hisAt present. and by degrees accustoms himself to that his head. and makes a The poor mode of life. In this ! manner The people have no longer the smallest respect for them. More san. however.ll Till: CIIINKSK KMI'IKK. and made to play the most infamous parts . that the credit. in the environs of the most celebrated pagodas. Chinese and Indian books that had any relation to the Buddhist religion were kept." or " Verbal Instructions of Buddha. where numerous Bonzes lived in community. great monasteries.which they have fallen. in his turn. these famous tory of Buddhism.I'Jl . They are often brought on the stage. They possessed rich libraries. and he then seeks.

The habitations of the Bonzes are sheltered from the scorching rays of the sun by umbrageous foliage. more or less important. solemn. and scattered about in the prettiest situations imaginable. . are scattered over the sides of the mountains and valleys of this picturesque and enchanting it island. build a pagoda. two vast and brilliant edifices Buddhist temples the yellow bricks of which announce that their construction is due to imperial munificence. and form the communications betAveen In the centre of the island rise the scattered dwellings. with great trees of the it a number of place flowering It is through shrubs. which nature and art have comAll over bined to adorn with their utmost magnificence. and two of which were founded by emperors. and bushes. with aromatic banks. The principal temple of Pou-tou is reached by a long avenue of grand secular trees. The religious architecture of the Chinese does not at all resemble ours. idea of the majestic. whose thick foliage is . find delightful gardens. that harmonizes so well with the feelings which ought to be inspired by a place When they wish to devoted to meditation and prayer. these cool and fragrant avenues you reach the building. creeping plants. and the brooks and rivulets. they look out for the most gay and smiling site they can find on the declivity of a mount- They have no ain or in a valley . and perhaps somewhat melancholy style. by means of pretty bridges of stone or painted wood. they plant it they trace about evergreen species sides of which they on the paths. 195 than 100 monasteries. full of beautiful flowers cut in the living rock. which is surrounded by galleries. and has less the air of a temple than of a rural abode charmingly situated in the midst of a park or garden. Thousands of winding paths cross the valleys in various directions.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. amidst groves of bamboo gi'Ottoes you and other trees.

ity. whose rich corollas rise majestically upon tender green stalks spotted with black. and cassolets of chiseled bronze. four statues of colossal size. which have the arm and the right hand raised. and the unalterable and eternal quiet to which it has attained. and. whom . square. On the right and left are stationed. ters like surrounded with shrubs that lean over its waweeping willows turtle and gold fish gleam . by which you ascend to the of the temple buildings a kind of porch. where is enthroned a Buddhist Trinthe Past. Several and lead first bridges of red and green wood are thrown over this lake. supported upon eight enormous granite columns. in their gayly colored plumage. Before each idol is an altar covered with little vases for offerings. and the Future. of gigantic dimensions at least Buddha is in the midst. the Present. of painted paper or horn. his hands twelve feet high. the Present and Future. filled lake. through them. The third hall is consecrated to Kouang-yn. crowd of secondary divinities are ranged round the hall. and their a continual cawings and flapping of wings keep up At the end of the avenue is a magnificent clamor. in sign of their activity. representing These three statues are entirely gilt. with troops of crows with white heads. where perfumes are interlaced. A indeed. and two side gates lead to the vestibule of the principal nave. of all forms and colors. and mandarin-ducks. although in a crouching posture. to flights of steps. and gravely placed on his majestic abdomen. the ornaments of which are composed of enormous lanterns. with sentences and hung oval maxims. He constantly burning. like sentinels.iHtt JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the two others. represents the Past. and the walls are with broad strips of satin. round. amidst the splendid water-lilies. play over their surface.

the most heterogeneous and grotesque assembly conceivable. The and varnished tiles is broken and de- when rain falls. with ogres' and reptiles' faces. carefully ticketed in order in cases surrounding a vast saloon. and the gods lie prostrate. it washes the heads of the who seem to need an umbrella more than the The other paperfumes that are burning at their feet. of fecundity. the gods of heaven and earth fabu. literary in a word. vast monasteries of Pou-tou. a person of the Indian Trimourti. and the Bonze it in charge of desired that we should pay it a visit . and ranged They re- . 8000 volumes. Here you see. . statesmen. and decoration must have cost enormous sums is in Its building but at . so that a complete state of dilapidation. rich roof of gilt faced. but we found it very inferior to those that we had seen in Tartary and Thibet. poor idols. warriors. is Finally. and serve sometimes for seats to the curious travelers who visit this holy isle. where once dwelt multitudes of Bonzes. huddled together pell-mell. men This temple present it is divided into four parts. or pandemonium. some are falling entirely into ruins. the images of the saints of antiquity. and of medicine . with their faces to the ground. lous monsters. are now entirely abandoned to legions of rats. representing the creative power. of agriculture. the fourth hall is a pantheon.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and sometimes also According to the Buddhist mythology. of the silk manufacture. or TriKouang-yn une God. philosophers. patrons of war. godas are in no better condition . It possessed about enveloped in yellow satin. containing a complete assortment of hideous idols. The cleanest and best preserved place is the library. 197 the greater number of accounts of China persist in regarding as a goddess of porcelain. their The and great spiders which peacefully weave enormous webs in the deserted cells.

begin with wonderful enthusiasm. Some accompanied by a little analysis of the contents of each volume. "The religious family of Buddha." he replied. but some are simple Chinese transcriptions of Indian books. said.198 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The apartments he occupied were almost clean. in fact. which the Chinese can read fluently. attested. But want of time compelled us to deprive him and ourselves of the pleasure of this learned oration. he was a true type of the bibliopole. and it might We . For eighteen years that he had resided at Pou-tou. continually occupied. did not seem to partake the indifference of his brethren . without understandWe hinted to the libraing a word of their contents. depths of the books. late exclusively to the theology ion of Buddha. and if we had been disposed to listen to him. that were lying open on a table in the corner. indeed. who made this confession. He passed in it the whole day and a part of the night. than those they can not. he had scarcely quitted his library. he was quite ready and willing to favor us with a review of the collection. he in sounding the unfathomable doctrine. "finds now no more attraction in books. He did." The religious Buddhist. that he was doing something else than merely keeping the place. and liturgy of the Most of them are translations relig. I see none but strangers who come to visit the place out of curiosity. rian that books of this kind could not be particularly instructive to the Bonzes. habitation paid a visit to the superior of the island. The Bonzes of Poutou read none no more those they can understand. and it was easy to see that he did not often find visitors complaisant enough to listen to his dissertations on what for him had become a true worship. on the contrary. They never set a foot in the library. whose was situated near the principal temple.

but whose cunning eye." said we. whose language did not indicate any great skill in literature or theology. he said. we thought we might frankly express our own opinion on the subject of the indifference he was deploring. however. in quest of the funds necessary to the realization of his project. had hitherto been very small . but their faith is neither firm nor du- rable. has no more faith. The central nation. have. many contradictory articles of and which darken and confuse common-sense. and that is why my Bonzes come back with empty hands." "False religions." he replied.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. "your marvelous intelligence has seized the true point of the difficulty. "to see the Chinese cold and careless toward did not a worship including so faith. man of about forty years of age. and easily detach themselves from them." . denoted a man accustomed to business and command." tions be seduced for a time by vain superstibut sooner or later they perceive their futility. and that almost all the Bonzes under his authority were now in the interior of the Empire. "We are not at all surprised. 199 even be seen that certain notions of luxury had formerlyThis superior was a presided over their arrangement." "That the true explanation. based upon lies. "Men may are full of clearness and precision. but that Reason is immutable. indeed. It is known that religions are numerous. and brief emphatic speech." which has no root in truth can not satisfy The nations may put faith the heart and mind of man. As he knew that we were missionaries. "These words "A religion it for in a time is . The collections made. only . He told us that for some years past he had been endeavoring to get the pagodas of the island restored." "That is the thing. and he fail to add many long lamentations over the decay of zeal for the worship of Buddha.

is eternal. transport joy. reason is one:" and with this deplorable conclusion he abruptly changed the subject. and that as for his own. that he it had committed an imprudence." This chief Bonze was tolerably well acquainted with the Christian doctrine. and began to talk to us of the fine plans he had in his head for the restoration of the pagodas. too late. we met several boats making for the port of the little island. and then he added the formula customary among the Chinese Pou-toun-kiao toun-ly " Religions are many. He child hid his face in his hands. it had not even common-sense. near this indiscreet young person. is for all men it is immutable as its foundation. young back plenty of sapecks!" Scarcely had he uttered the words before he received a hard thump on the head from an old Bonze. Oh. giving another cuff to the poor novice. but truth for all times "Shaven devil!" cried the worthy man." cried a in a of "we are bringing novice. They were laden with from their Bonzes." had the politeness to tell us that our religion was sublime incomparable. returning quest. upon the "True Knowledge of God. "will lies ? never cure yourself of telling deed!" We you sapecks in- The poor to cry. hunched up.200 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE." said he. and that is not well to reveal the secret of one's riches to the first comer. a certain time. and consequently and place. The religion of the Lord of Heaven. "that's your I'll give you more knocks than we have . and began seemed to understand. and we inquired " whether they had been fortunate. which is the expression of the truth. The for old Bonze had had more experience. who was sitting. he had read several books concerning it. yes. As we left Pou-tou. and among others the celebrated one of FaHe ther llicci. lies ! " There.

very price packages. The rice harvest had been a bad one. remarked." And as he spoke. sapecks. Respect for written characters has been inculcated by the saints of antiquity. and we could not help thinking that they had probably collected a tolerable sum. When a Chinese has money.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. you may almost This mania is always be sure that his purse is empty. and avoid treading upon it." politeness. could they bestow alms on the family of Buddha ? We have. he pointed to a little boat following them that contained a cargo of waste paper. They take care not to to uses put profane any paper on which great letters are written or printed. then. that is an incontestable principle. and if he boasts of having it. The flotilla of Bonzes then continued its route. In showing us the boat filled with old bits of paper. not peculiar to the Chinese character . and thus to save innumerable written . during our long abode in the Celestial Empire. in fact. We do not believe that the Chinese attach any super- . Our excursion into the district of Han-tcheou has not been fruitful. he will never admit that he has . characters from profanation. 201 Then turning "It is to us. had the happiness to collect a large quantity of neglected paper. with bland necessary to correct youth when it outrages the truth . but they preserve with respect whatever has writing on Even the it. or the old Bonze would not have been so hard upon the young novice for his indiscretion. Coarse paper is sold at a low for and other similar purposes . Bonze had said that respect for written characters had been recommended by the saints of antiquity . he said. it may be found elsewhere. children have the same habit. that generally all the Chinese profess the a profound veneration for the written word. however. and we had. and the people were in indigence how. or dirtying it.

202 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. exposed to a certain class of Bonzes make it their special mission to institute every where an exact and minute search and and a hook in their hands. and their journeys to the the sake of recreation. Decay and want of faith are every where perceptible. and nothing indicates that these Buddhist edifices will ever recover their ancient lustre. at certain epochs. There do not exist any monasteries. they appear simply 1o stitious it to pay honor to human thought. the scrupulous solicitude of the Chi- intend by may nese for the written character admiration. and they stop by preference in places where rubbish and filth is thrown. idea to this practice. however. and fixed in writing. this point of view. pagodas little parties got up for You do also occasionally meet people walking in the places sacred to Buddhist devotion. and pick traverse towns. to be burnt before the images of the sages of antiquity. perhaps. but these votaries are in fact mere pleasure seekers. either from neglect or forgetfulness. The majority of the most celebrated pagodas of China are nearly in the same state of decay as that of Pou-tou. properly so called. They up Their carefully every scrap of paper they can see. them. even in China. The religious Buddhists scattered over the different provinces of the Em- . all are not as careful as supposed they ought to be of written paper. is. worthy of it is As. The remembrance of their renown attracts to them. but they are mere promenaders. a num- ber of visitors but it is curiosity and not religion that . where Bonzes live in community. after it. with a hod on their backs. frequented high roads. leave profanation. but it. not pilgrims. or to bargain with the Bonzes for prayers . They go to burn incense at the feet of brings the idols. which In be said to be incarnate. villages. collections are then carried into a pagoda.

*) From all that we have condition of the various modes of worship recognized said concerning the present in China. 203 pire are independent of one another.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. you have only to shave your head and put on a robe with long wide sleeves to . sometimes in another. and their costume differs very little from that of the Bonzes . There remain among them a few . and only returning home when driven by hunger. being often absent for a long time from the monastery. it is allowable to conclude that the Chinese are living absolutely without religion. merely to change your coat and let your hair grow. and the position of their ministers. are far from having the and importance of the Lamas of Tartary and Thibet. and it is certain that respectable people. Convents of Bonzesses are rather numerous in China. In each house there is indeed a chief. especially in the provinces of the South. but he is rather an administrator of temporal goods than a spiritual superior. dhists of China. who are a little anxious about their reputation. not exercise any authority over his brethren. cease to be one. if they happen to find any where a position to suit them. indeed. they are not cloistered. they also have their heads shaven . If we should give credit to public rumor. they do not come back at all. wearing a false tail until your own has The religious Budattained the fashionable length. will not set foot in them. and are frequently met with in the streets. influence it is obvious. just as their caprice dictates. we should say also that there reign great disorders in the interior of these establishments. as long as they can pick up a living. and unconnected by any tie of discipline or hierarchy. sometimes in one way. He who does live without any rule. going vagabondizing about the country. To make yourself a Bonze.

we happened to be witnesses of an occurrence which shows how possible it is to reconcile the most superstitious practices with the total absence of any have said that this vast inreligious conviction. in the establishment called /Si-men-yuen. than habit conviction. in a spacious stitution. posite to the apartment assigned to us. family. At the time of our arrival we found the family ill plunged into great grief. Op>. and an atheistical law.jui . and had three chil- high dren. and who had delayed for two years his return to his native province. with a numerous rin. the hopes of the old Mandarin had not been realized. but it does not seem that the nation has greatly gained thereby in grandeur and prosperity. of only speak government. easily detached. though he was married. to which they yield rather from superstitious practices. During these two years of expectation. belief by the legislature. and from which they are very No account whatever is taken of re-. in the hope that his influence with the first functionaries of the town might obtain for his eldest son a small Mandarinate. We where we were awaiting the day of our departure. in a rather This was occupied by a retired Mandaelegant style. instead of being promoted to a public office. court. had various tenants of different classes. for the state of the sick man was so alarming that they Avere already preparing to . atheistical During our residence at Ou-tchang-fou. but his son. and the magistrates ligious The idea of an it to turn it into ridicule. This aspirant had as yet only the grade of Bachelor. which in France was so extolled in the Chamber of Deputies.Mil UNKY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. who had held formerly a office in the magistracy. or Garden of the Western Gate. there was another wing of the building. had fallen of a malady that seemed likely to carry him to the tomb. has been actually realized in China.

flatter it. overwhelm it with entreaties. The Chinese think. that death is the result of the definitive separation of the soul from the body. they it to come back. The death of this young man would. 205 make him a coffin. they describe in the most movterms the lamentable state to which they will be ing reduced if this obstinate soul will not hear reason. it was evident. it suffers dreadfully from this transitory separathe dying person falls into the last agony. be regarded by the whole family as a terrible event. conjure They tell it that the happiness of the entire family depends upon it. but returns again. but they also think that the degree of illness is in direct proportion to the number of attempts which the soul makes to escape. Nevertheless all hope lost. the Garden of the Western Gate resounded cries and the letting off of fire-works. "what have we done. sometimes on one side. what have we done to you? . the very first night that we passed in our new lodging. for he was its hope and support. it is evident that the soul has gone with the firm resolution if yet not to come back again. as we do. sometimes on the other. and endeavor by prayers and supplications to induce the soul to change its resolution. "Come back.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and there is a method of making it take is not its up abode again in the unfortunate body that is struggling with death. although tion . they urge it. and when the sufferer experiences the terrible crises that endanger his life. that it keeps going away to a certain distance. and keep it alive. which were heard. it is proof that the soul has been momentarily absent. They run after it. They try first the effect of persuasion. The distance being so small that it is still able to exercise considerable influence on the body. come back!" they cry. but almost without interruption. The purpose of all On with this clamor was to save the dying man.

and softening it by their prayers and tears. they lament. They then unite their forces." very well which way the soul is gone. his Soirees de Saint Petersbourg . there are always some more skillful than others. They utter loud cries. they groan. because. they run in all directions. Among those who set out on the chase after a refractory soul. if the soul remains deaf. say it the Chinese. they let off fire-works suddenly in every direction in which they imagine it might be making off they stretch out their arms to bar its passage. diately every body runs that way. in : "The night air is not good. and push with their hands to force it to return home and re-enter the body. they let off squibs and crackers of round the poor all kinds. calling out. it must really be a most stubborn and ill-disposed spirit. These ceremonies mostly take place during the night. strange errand they never fail to take lanterns with them in order to light the soul on its way back." he says. " for the physical man. so that if it does not give it up at last. The animals teach us this. who manage to get . ' ( upon Then they summon the others to help its track. the soul is in the habit of taking advantage of the darkness to slip away.206 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. they weep. " Here it is! here it is!" and immethem. when they all seek a shelter in the night . and hustle it about in all sorts of ways. This opinion seems to be somewhat akin to that expressed by M. they adopt another course. What and make a thousand evolutions in the hope of meeting it. they make a frightful charivari soul. When they are setting out on this. they concentrate their plan of operations. Come motive can you have for going away? knows no one and as back we conjure you. and persists coolly ingoing its own way. de Maistre. If these mild and insinuating methods do not succeed. and try :ul frighten it. and take away any pretense might make of not being able to find it.

our maladies teach us this. and probably also without having any great confidence in it themselves. it was customary to run this way and that in pursuit of his soul. rather than in the even- Why It must be ing to know how he has passed the day? because there is something bad in the night. sick friend lias passed the night. such strange burlesque supplications. who holds in his hands the men. if we had not known that a numerous family was overwhelmed by grief. a fine pagoda dedicated to Buddha. without ever asking whether the custom was reasonable or absurd. but no one of them ever stopped to say a prayer. and they adopted this practice simply to do as others did. to burn incense. that All they knew was when a person was in danger of death. and the relations. and we heard them addressing to it. there was something heart-rending in hearing the . and in momentary exAbsurd as it pectation of a cruel domestic calamity. .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. as we have already said. The gate of of whom a gilt statue stood on the altar. and servants of the patient were continually passing through it. Now and then they stopped under our windows. 20t by raging most during the do you in the morning send to ask how a night. the Master of life destinies of all and death. this temple was open day and night. night long we were kept awake by these manoeuvres of the poor Chinese for the extraordinary arrest of the fugitive soul of their dying relative." In the garden of the Western Gate there was. or to implore the cure of him who seemed so dear to all this was because these people were really without faith or religion . friends. that the scene would have been perfectly amusing The whole and laughable. they did not seem to have any suspicion of the existence of an all-powerful being. and before the statue of Buddha . was. and try to bring it back.

all so many expressions. is to The is object of this practice do honor to the dead. and the little silk cord with which the hair is plaited and knotted up. even to the shoes. as we were going toward cries the apartments of the sorrowing family. more or less elegant. voice of that old with loud On man and those little children." for the death of the head of the Empire is regarded as so immense a catastrophe. the object of his . sometimes even to the anniIn the mean while the body versary of their decease. that it can only be comparable to the fall of a mountain. We that is to say wearing caps and girdles of white linen. in the hope of of consolation to them. he has "saluted the age. It is the custom in China to keep the dead a very long time in the house. a number of circumlocutory phrases to indicate the fact." he has "thanked the world.ick man had The Chinese have more. by just died. and give time for preparation for the funeral. and covered with quick-lime.208 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. clothed in habits of mourning. so that it does not occasion any inconvenience in the house. being able to speak some words informed us that the who a met awe were servant. he has "fallen or given away. one may say. they of course will wear white.. Chinese customs being always in opposition to those of Europe. For complete mourning the dress must be altogether white. They say the person exists no t." he has "ascended to the sky. in the life of a Chinese. to be employed according to the quality of the individual of whom you When the question is of the Emperor. soon saw persons going to and coming from the house of the deceased." etc. calling on the soul of a father and a son. the following morning. His burial the most important affair. as we wear black. is placed in a coffin of extraordinary thickness. they say speak.

to weep together. reigning dynasty has endeavored to check these exorbitant and useless expenses. gossip. and outdo his neighbors. and until the time comes at which it is settled they are to grieve. is . that v is and the spot where the grave matter of serious consideration. drink tea. and occasionally ruin the family outthan not have a fine funeral. women assemble in separate apartments. Death much about that. such a display some necessary. they smoke. all with such an air of careless enjoyment that you can hardly persuade yourself that they are really supposed to be a company . and express their sorrow. rather property. often been present at these funeral ceremonies. the choice of a bursolicitude. Vanity and ostentation certainly have to do with these things . but people are not for alarmed at the most extravagant expenses . in the filial fulfill- ment of an imaginary duty of piety. the Chinese continue to follow their ancient customer After the body has been placed in the coffin. all When the death ^his takes place these cares of course are left as a legacy to relations. Confucius v did not enjoin all these foolish excesses. ial-place.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. To much obtain the funds necessary management is often . laugh. in We have which the Chinese display with marvelous facility their really The men and astonishing talents for dissimulation. the relations and friends assemble at certain appointed hours. is to be dug. but the laws made concerning them appear to affect only the Mantchous . 209 troubles himself a mere trifle no one but the quality of the the ceremonies of the funeral. so as to create a sensation in the country. they will even sell their right. they do not shrink from the most enormous sacrifices. every one wishes to perform the ceremony in grand style. most anxious coffin. but he did advise people to devote as much as the half of their The worldly property to the interment of their parents.

the voice so broken by sobs. the sighs are so agonizing. gossiping. the dramatic piece is.210 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the tears dry up. and they go and place themselves in a circle round the coffin. instead of drinking hot tea. the performers do not even stop to finish a sob or a groan. in- terrupted by groans and sobs. laughing. and drinking tea. One would suppose they were unconsolable . The most every one speaks his pathetic speeches are addressed to the dead . and plenty of them. that actually. But when the ceremony is about to begin. selves When the tears so abundant. what is most extraoryes. it. the nearest relation informs the assembly that the time has come. in their and yet they are nothing more than skillful actgrief. own monologue on the subject. On this signal the noisy conversation that has been going on suddenly ceases. you can hardly help being affected at The Chinese do not fail to turn to account in many circumstances this astonishing talent for going distracted in cold blood. in spite of your certainty that the whole affair is a purely fictitious representation. there are again these incomparable Chinese. the lamentations and good-humored begin. if possible. actually dinary. and pouring from their eyes a quantity . of mourners. ors and all this sorrow and lamentation is only a. Certainly no one could guess that. they had but a moment before been shedding hot tears. and. The grief has such played with still greater perfection. but they take their pipes. the time comes for the women to range themround the coffin. inconceivable indeed. and lo. disAt a given signal the whole play of histrionic talent. scene changes abruptly. and the faces but now so gay instantly assume the most doleful and lugubrious expression. an appearance of sincerity. by tears real true tears.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. by the sharp and discordant sounds of rude instruments of music. that 211 come from one knows not is. who are also to provide them for several days together with splendid repasts. tears of the Chinese are but they soon discover that the no more to be relied on than their words. imagine they have to do with people of the profoundest sensibility. so-called tears. Cordiality and sincerity are qualities rare indeed among the Chinese. and are absolutely inimitable at sobs and groans. although acquainted with these insinuating artifices. hempen girThey and disheveled dles. with strangers that they ob- where. there exist mourners profession. and their lamentations are the accompanied by beating of gongs. that. they are sometimes caught by them. pretty well by skilled in the art of shedding tears. funerals. it is almost needless to say. who have carried it to still greater per- fection. and are for the most part purely fictitious. Missionaries newly arrived in China. What all is also very strange they are tain their most brilliant successes. the expression of the most opposite sentiments. and also of weepers. follow the coffin. in long white robes. however. make an They invite as many exorbitant display at relations and friends as they can. for though most people in China are. The rich inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. and the mourning dresses worn by the whole party are in order to at the cost of the family of the deceased. as we have said. and reciprocally cheated. the most impressible in the world . who have not yet had time to become acquainted with their wonderfully flexible natures. It is. and at will. great number of musicians are bound A hired for the occasion. smell of the powder are supposed to be efficacious in . muster an imposing procession. of water. and the The sudden explosion and the discharge of fire-works. hair. capable of taking by turns.

and Tao-sse that could be col- lected from the whole country round. the Avind carries away in sapecks. at Not having felt any need of religion during their lives. of could admit Confucius the ciples especially hardly necessity of offering prayers and sacrifices for the de- parted. or Tao-sse. in the environs of Pekin. these deceitful appearances of riches. they are taken in by this device. though the supposed bank-notes are in fact only bits While they are engaged in pursuing of white paper. when they are occasionally invited to funerals. that all directions. and fall into the trap with charming simplicity. away the demons and hindering them iron. and gether. and bank-notes. San-kiao-ythe three religions are one. all along the road. the funeral of a great dignitary of the Empire. at which were present We all the Bonzes. the soul of the defunct. the soul of the defunct proceeds quietly and comfortably after its coffin without any danger of being stopped by the way. and as the demons in China are by no means as cunning as the men. and fond of money. falls into nothingness. dispense with the attendance of Bonzes. and they each said their own prayers. The skeptical Chinese are in general quite willing to their funerals. nevertheless. people endeavor to get on their weak frightening . on account of the witnessed greater pomp that their presence confers. which never fails to on seizing and as these malevolent spirits have follow the coffin also the reputation of being extremely covetous. very logically. The Chinese arc in the habit of offering viands. They let fall.212 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for this purpose. It kiao realization of the famous formula. Lamas. profess to believe that man dies altothat soul the vanishes as well as the body. But the Bonzes. side. and was a . ourselves. and performed their own ceremonies. that they The discertainly do not want it after they are dead. they argue.

as long as the body is kept in the family. could the Confucians. and these are served before the coffin. " Could you really suppose me so stupid as that ?" " How " But what then is the purpose of these mortuary re- " We intend to do honor to the memory of our relato show that they still live in our tions and friends remembrance. of the dishes offered to them. indeed. to their dead. observe these practices quite mechanically. and on the tomb after the burial. and that we like to serve them as if they . the essences as they might be called.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for instance. believe that the dead need to eat? Among the lower classes. ignorant people are always credu- lous ?" . who believe the complete annihilation of both soul and body. without ever think- ing of the meaning of them. supOne day we pose that the dead come back to eat? asked a Mandarin. 213 sometimes splendid banquets. but it seems to us that the Chinese are far too intelligent to carry absurdity to such a point as this. many fables are current. whether. What idea is really in the minds of the Chinese on the subject of this practice ? Many people have thought and written that the souls of the departed are supposed to take pleasure in regaling themselves with the subtle and delicate parts. who had just offered a sumptuous repast at the tomb of a deceased colleague. but who does not know that rude. it who is are in impossi- ble to believe they can delude themselves so grossly. no doubt. a friend of ours. but for those the habit of reflecting upon what they do. pasts ?" Who could be absurd enough to were yet with us. the dead stood in need of food ? could you possibly suppose I had such an idea ?" he replied. with the utmost astonishment. How. The masses. in his opinion.

The Chinese have always been in the habit of reserving in the interior of their houses an apartment dedicated to the honor of their forefathers. They go there also whenever there is any important enterprise in agitation. any favor received. to burn per^ superstitious ideas. to inform their ancestors of Avhatever of good or evil happens to their descendants.214 JOUKNKV THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. be regarded in the same light as the offerings to the dead. the the members of to sanctuary family go perform cer^ tain ceremonies prescribed by the Rites . with respect to the practices to which the multitude may possibly attach We which formerly occasioned such long and deplorable disputes between the Jesuit missionaries and the Dominicans may. it is a kind of domestic sanctuary. and all who are rich enough to have numerous chambers in their houses. are inclined to think that all tolerably well-informed Chinese. The worship of ancestors. down to the most recently is only the name of the founder. to prostrate himself before the tablets. Among the princes. They go. perhaps. and make prostrations. . or whenever any important event seemed impending. or merely put on a shelf. he proceeded. a little accustomed to reflection. their ancestors in a corner of their room. To this supposed to represent all the oth'ers. in fact. would be of the same opinion as this Mandarin. on the eve of a battle. even in time of war. the great Mandarins. Formerly. Sometimes there as he is fumes. in which are kept tablets inscribed with the names of ancestors. at the head of his principal officers. the general houses than had in his tent a place set apart for the tablets of his and at the commencement of a siege. dead. and make. ancestors. present offerings. The poor. from him who is counsel as the founder of the family. or any misfortune suffered. and those who have no more room in their is strictly necessary to lodge the living.

and his official . peace and harmony would no longer exist among these infant and of Confucius. but they were severely in these ceremonies all reproved by others. men. He must pay no visits. These customs were tolerated by some of the missionwho saw in them merely acts of civil homage ren- dered to the memory of the dead . But Rome. Once at least every year he must perform a commemorative ceremony at the tombs of his ancestors. that tribunal sov- eyes of every good Cathocut the condemned the worship of short lic. difficult of solution. sensions.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Neither the partisans nor the opponents of the rites practiced in honor of ancestors their opinion was supthe quarrel became embittered. aries. that The ordinary mother is duration of mourning for a father or . and took effectual measures to prevent the recurrence of these unfortunate dis- ereign and infallible in the had proved more injurious to the missions in China than the violent persecutions of the Mandarins. the characteristics of idolatrous worship. three years but this has been reduced to twenty-seven months for the functionaries of the Government. a minister of state to renounce the administration of affairs. During this time of mourning. henceforward. Thence arose those lamentable contests which at this epoch so com- who found The question was really pletely paralyzed the missions. dispute. and . A with the world are completely suspended. doubted that ported by irrefragable proofs . and it seemed as if. 215 to his ancestors a report concerning the situation of his affairs. in which relations all the descendants of the family. women. Cliristian communities. ancestors and of Confucius. and live wholly in retirement. darin is obliged to quit his post. a Chinese can Mannot perform the duties of any public office.

by which we see how ancient is the faith in the immortality of the soul. mourning sacrifices before the tablets. in their absence. or. The Chinese now marry very young. grand parents. or. from which they can not withdraw themselves. will not be seen to tend to the inculcation of respect for paternal authority in the minds when This purpose is also especially evident of the people. However ing more or less exquisite culinary of the modern the be Chinese. children. after cuttings and deprescribed by the ceremonial. and that it may be classed among the earliest traditions of the human race. the ground with numerous decorated having of colored paper. that is.210 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. burn perfumes. take part. and at the tombs of ancesall In tors. have a completely arbitrary authority over young persons in the affairs of marriage. little vases. they make the prostrations some kind of belief in a future life. This canonical book establishes in the following manner the division of the ages of man : t . and. skepticism may profound it is probable that these practices were once based upon They clean the place of burial. some details concerning this matseen what an immense part pabe ter. which is the basis of Chinese There are indeed scarcely any customs that. It is an indisputable fact that in China fathers and will enter into it We and will mothers. though this appears to be contrary to the usages of antiquity. of their ancestors. in the numerous ceremonies connected with marriage. " Almost all men. the souls says Bossuet. easy to see the consecration of the one grand filial piety. closely looked into. it is principle of society. containtombstone the turf or the on posit dainties. ternal power plays in the laws and manners of the Empire." " sacrifice to the manes. in fact. and the prescriptions of the Book of Bites. the nearest relations." these ordinances concerning funerals.

no longer subject to and if they reach a hundred. man is truly man . To . antiquity was of opinion that the age of thirty was the most suitable for marriage. or even before their birth. but the Chinese at the day more precocious. a man and to a of forty. may be intrusted cult old. robust and vigorous for . be founded on this can seldom happen. has a brain as weak as his body. A man of seventy. or even take an oath. he scarcely perceives the first rays of reason. whose strength of mind and body is exhausted. as congeniality of character the parties have not usually seen each other before. but merely to say what they wish to have done.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and can at most only apply to the first elements of the sciences. they need occupy themselves with nothing more than in fanning the feeble flame of life that yet remains to them." According to the Book of Bites. The decrepit age is that of eighty or ninety years . Man at twenty has not yet his full strength. small magistracies man of fifty. Nevertheless. K . as he begins to be a man. and this is the age that is suitable marriage. at the age of ten. men grow and little remains to them but prudence without vigor. At sixty. to unite in marriage the children of different sexes that may be born to them and the solemnity of the engagement is present . probably have abandoned this ancient custom. venerable the laws . therefore. a solemn promise. so that they ought not to do any thing themselves. men at that time of life are like children. Marriages contracted in this manner can not. and giving it to each other. " 217 Man. the most diffi- and extensive employments. Nothing is more common than to arrange a marriage during the infancy of the Two friends make parties. of course. At thirty. should leave domestic cares to his children. one ought to allow him the manly hat. VOL II. marked by their tearing reciprocally a piece out of their tunics.

his house. some days before the celebra- bridegroom make Besides this. which part of tract is it is One is stipulated for in advance. or. fruit. the will of the parent being the sole reason for the formation of the nuptial tie. a more or less considerable trousseau. Polygamy in China. but her parents expect to receive a \surn of money. cluded. is not. it believe. the other. really a legal institution was only permitted to Manda- . not only does the bride bring with her no dower. This practice is. out of pure liberality. liand . and neither party can draw back.218 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. buys a child. of so much has even given occasion to adoptions. and it sometimes happens that the father-in-law sends for the young husband into and constitutes him hour to a portion of his But he can not avoid leaving the rest to some property. who afterward recognizes no other parent. one of his own family and name. Although the wife has no wedding portion. rather. who undertake gratuitously all the negotiations and preparations. If it happens that the father has children of his own after the adoption. that it A man in the eyes of the Chinese. All marriages are made by mediators for both parties. It then takes his name. earnest money have been received. it is customary for the parents to bestow on her. In a Chinese marriage. who may perform the rites and ceremonies before the tablets of his ancestors. who has no male descendants adopts. and at his death wears mourning like a son. importance. fulfill It is even considered as an honor to such a delicate duty. we Formerly. etc. the conas soon as earnest as money paid signed . it still and the adopted child has a right to remains in force. wine. the parents of the presents to those of the bride of silk If these presents and the stuffs. rice. the contract is contion of the wedding. an equal portion of the property with the other children.

and obeentirely inferior and lawful wife in every The secondary wife is so dependent. code. says away lawful wife without reason. and a man may. and lavish on her dience.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The secondary wife is never permitted to abandon her husband for any cause whatever. affection. and he shall receive eighty blows If. of concubinage. to take secondary. wear mourning for her instead of their real mother. and to whom all the others are subordinate. rins 210 and men of forty years of age. " shall be " A man punished But these laws subsist only in the books. "little wives. drive her out of his house." and this silence authorizes the Chinese to treat her according to his caprice. in fact. and does not always observe even those." it says. the his ." The Book of Rites even prescribes the punishments to be guilty with a hundred blows on the shoulders. But whatever may be the number of secondary wives. . She is simply the property of him who has purchased her." of the stick. who had no children. When the Chinese* contracts a lawful marriage he is perfectly aware that he is forming an indissoluble tie. The children "born of these secondary wives acknowl- edge the legitimate one only as their mother. there can never be but one legitimate spouse. and she never calls the head of the house by any name than that of father of the family. has no other limits to observe than those of his fortune." inflicted for the transgression of this law. the law will oblige him to take her back again. that she must obey the thing other ." but the law says nothing of the "little wife. but the husband may repudiate her. who is the mistress of the house. as the phrase is. there is no law to forbid or sell her if he thinks proper " " a man shall send it. His fancy take a secondary wife whenever he pleases. all their expressions of respect. or.

They admit indeed of divorce in several cases. the husband. . the mediators receive the same punishment. and the written laws of the empire are in harmony with They impose severe punishments on married persons who openly neglect their duties.220 JOIKNKV THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. in asking the name of the young lady. there are some rather remarkable ones which concern magistrates. the man concerned in a lawsuit that he of strokes is doubled. liance . If he marry the is to daughter of a decide. the treaty. it is dition. The woman is sent back to her parents. but all legislation on this subject is wholly in favor of the general conviction. and the nuptial presents are confiscated to the public treasury. The law seldom it does mention but to remind her of the inferiority of her conand that she is only in this world to obey and to the obstacles to marriage recognized Among by the law. There are six principal but they are all observed families of only among importance . the woman is always the slave or victim of the man. suffer. for example. but if ever her. and in these two cases. Mandarin. the greater part of them are dispensed with among people of inferior conrites. for Chinese etiquette requires that she should be. will not enter into long details of the ceremonies and formalities number We observed in the celebration of marriage. magistrate. at this stage of dition. is forbidden to form an alliance in the province where he A If a civil Mandarin holds any public employment. and the month and day of her birth. As in all pagan societies. absolutely unknown to her future husband . troubles itself about her. and the marriage declared null and void. The first rite consists in agreeing on the althe second. are marries officers or even takes a (military exempt) lie is secondary wife in the country where he condemned to eighty blows with the is is stick.

my The choice that you deign to make of daughter to become the wife of your son. asked. as pledges of the inten"tion to form the connection ." formation that a day is fixed for the wedding. is to consult diviners concerning the result of the marriage. is played in all these ceremonies by the family of the bride. and the sixth to go and meet the bride. You will find written on another page the name of my daughter. lution. for . My daughter is coarse and stupid. and that of her mother. shows me that you esteem my poor and cold family more than it deserves. The formula of the missives that they address to each other. which politeness. with the day of her When he receives the presents. I dare not disobey you. when the name of his daughter is is required to answer in the following have received with respect the marks of your goodness. The ac. and I have not had the talent to bring her up well. the particular salutations to be used. the father manner: "I Thus. and to report a happy auguiy to the parents of the girl the fourth to offer silk stuffs and other presents. and I only sorry that my daughter has so little merit. the words that they employ. and the inbirth. and conduct her to the house of her husband. all is families according to the rules of the The part. yet nevertheless. 221 the third thing to be done. yet I shall nevertheless glory in obeying you on this occasion. am she is good is augury nothing. complishment of these rites is accompanied in both by a crowd of minute observances from which no one would dare to depart. since the I accept favorable. and I fear that she has not had all the education desirable. most exquisite and modesty. the fifth to appoint the wedding day .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the father " I have received your last resoreplies in these terms : You wish this marriage to take place. however. must always wear a certain stamp of deference previously determined.

attendants. and the The master of important event is announced to them. and when the famhe kneels ily has assembled in the domestic sanctuary. ^ . the ceremonies then invites the father to take a place on As soon as he is seated. she tlier courage. the bride kneels down before her father." On the day marked for the celebration. your present. a cup of wine. I salute you. daughter. whence hangs a large vail that " Take covers her face." The son prostrating himself four times before his father. fore his father. His a and numerous of march befriends. afterward and before drinking makes four genuflections behe advances toward the seat and receives the commands posture. the bride- groom puts on a magnificent dress. and I consent to the day apI will take care to make due pointed for the wedding. bearing lanterns of the most brilliant colors. a at a time when it was usual to cele- brate marriages in the night. and prostrates his face to the ground. replies that he will obey. and mother-in-law. the the seat prepared for him. who exhorts her to obey faithfully the commands of her faserved. and wisdom. preparation. array custom that arose fore him. go and seek behave in all things with prudence and of his father in a kneeling my a palanquin that is already waiting at the door. The your wife. after which he enters father says : " Go son." says. down. . the bridegroom waits at the gate of the second court until his father-in-law comes to intro- duce him. When he has reached the house of the bride. Perfumes are then burnt before the tablets of ancestors.222 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and then the mother places a garland on her head. In the house of the bride similar ceremonies are obAfter the libation and the drinking of the cup of wine. of which his knees receives on bridegroom he first pours a few drops on the earth by way of libation.

for besides the lantern bearers aforesaid. and he salutes her in his turn. The procession advances." to the will of 223 your hus- They then proceed solemnly to meet the bridegroom. and invites his bride to enter. . which the master of the ceremonies carries to the bride. pair At length the bridal and they salute each other very gravely. and then they kneel down together to "adore the heavens and the earth. tables. Before eating and drinking. Before sitting down to table the makes four genuflections before her husband. considerably augmented in number.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and put aside some viands to be offered to the ancestors. and in some measure the symbol of the conjugal tie. the husband on the north. come now people carrying beds. making a profound inclination. who is waiting at the entrance of the second court." It would seem that this act is the essential of the point ceremony. and offers a wild duck to his father-in-law. When they wish to express that " He has adored is one married. the heavens and the earth. When it has once more reached the house of the bridegroom he alights. the bride is colored silk . and they sit down opposite one another. the bridegroom kneels down. and salutes her husband." After they have remained a short time on their knees meet for the first time . " and be always submissive band. the wife on the south there wife side of the portico. who responds with two to her. and all kinds of household utensils. but marches before her to the interior court. they make a libation with wine. and the procession moves away. and when it has reached the middle of the court. any they commonly say. conducted to a palanquin covered with rosethe bridegroom also enters his palanquin. chairs. Then the bride raises her vail. and they both wash their hands. where the nuptial feast is prepared.

politeness re- . goes into the second court of the house.t separate tables. When a marriage procession. clothed in her bridal attire. and the wife performs the same cere- mony with two full respect to her husband. riage. and the husband to present himself in the same manner to the relations of his wife. passes by you must stand aside for it. be it of rich or poor people. and sits down again. and the mother of the bride For them the entire another to the women invited. in little more spirit which the time passes with and gayety. the husband rises. and accompanied. even Mandarins of the highest rank stop. the following day. The wife has ing to pay her respects to all the relations of her husband. and then put what remains into one cup to drink The father of the bridegroom in the it between them.224 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. after which the husband retires into a neighboring apartment. and at the same time cups of wine are brought. in On which her father and mother-in-law are seated ing her visit. mean time is giving his friends a grand banquet in a neighboring apartment. Such is. and the wife makes The newly-married The rest of that day and several followher offerings. of which they drink a part. day a is one long festival. the ceremonial of a Chinese marand we have observed that every one in China professes great respect for this solemn act of a man's life. and if they are on horseback. r. and a mistress of the ceremonies. taste of They then some of the dishes in profound si- lence . than it does with the newly-married pair. and perform genuflections before them . with all their attendants. invites his wife to drink. are ones employed in paying visits. briefly. carrying two pieces of silk-stuff. the wife. await- pair salute them and make four prostrations before them.by her husband.

which she must en- In some parts of the country it is dure with patience. but her eyes streaming with tears. who understood nothing of his prerogatives. "VVe asked for some explana"It is her hustion of this heart-rending spectacle. A few days before she had been the very image of health. quires them to descend. and even sanguinary battles. ried pair. curses . "who has brought the poor K* . and thence arises aversion and even sometimes bitter hatred. her She could face was so bruised and covered with blood. it must evidently be a surprising chance if a pair. band. One day we were witnesses of a terrible scene in a On coming Chinese family that we knew intimately. Without mentioning the numerous causes of jealousy and discord that must arise from the presence of several secondary wives in the same house. from time to time also blows . indicated too well what she was suffering. we found a numerous party assembled round a young woman. should really prove congenial. that a man would hardly like not to follow it. and proclaim himself a simpleton. who appeared on the point of yielding her last in breath. would be to forfeit his marital dignity. conflicts. and the violent beating of her heart. but now she was scarcely recognizable. Perpetual quarrels. 225 and do honor to the newly-mar- It appears somewhat unnecessary to add that Chinese marriages are seldom happy. as to show himself negligent on this point." said the by-standers. these are her heritage. and peace and harmony do not often reign in the interior of a family. take place in which the woman is almost always the sufferer. Incompatibility of character frequently manifests itself soon enough. not move or speak.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. so much the fashion to beat a wife. and of every day . who have never seen each other before marriage. invectives. Privations of every kind.

" gloomy. it costs money. "could possibly have urged ? What crime has your wife committed to be treated in this way ?" "None. The husband was standing there almost stupefied. we were once witnesses of a violent quarrel between a husband and wife. In a large village to the north of Pekin. is the only motive of within some limits the harshness capable restraining of the Chinese toward their wives. his eyes fixed upon his unfortunate victim. we have only been married two years. rushed into the furiously . Two days afterward the poor woman. angel of goodness. and because if you you would have to replace it. it is usually on a principle of economy. none!" he cried in a voice broken by sobs. whom we could never have suspected of such a piece of insanity." And the young man. and you know we have always lived in peace. and even hurled at each other some tolerably inoffensive projectiles. and this morning I gave way to a bad thought. I thought people were laughing on my thing at me. Several of the neighbors tried in vain to restrain still them. pecuniary interest burden because killed it. as you might spare a beast of In some cases. and at length the husband seizing a great pavingstone from the court-yard. their anger increasing they began to break every tiling in the house. abandoned himself to tardy and useless remorse. This hideous calculation is by no means a mere supposition of ours. When they do treat them with gentleness and moderation. expired in who had always been an terrible convulsions. because I had never beaten my wife ." said we. creature to this state.226 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. "She never deserved any punishment. After having for a long time abused each other in the most furious manner. "What you to such a dreadful excess motive. But for some days I have had somemind. silent.

vainly struggling amidst their a sufferings to find some consolation. The wife could not out-do this piece of extravagance. to the husband. where the wife 227 was expending her wrath upon the crockery." replied the kind husband coolly." which is increas- The women who ing rapidly in the southern provinces. of the Celestial Empire are so unforplaces their sufferings in this many life have suggested to them the hope of a future one. and for want of knowledge of Christianity. I can get my kettle mended for two hundred sapecks.". would have been foolish. throwing themselves into the extravagances of the metempsychosis. my elder brother. kitchen. but against his great cast-iron kettle. A man who was standing by. enroll themselves in this sisterhood make a vow to eat neither meat nor fish. why didn't you break your wife's head with the stone. instead of your kettle ? Then you would have had peace in your house." Such an answer will not be in the least surprising to any one who knows the The women tunate. every body hurried forward to prevent a calamity that seemed imminent there was no time but the fellow dashed his paving-stone. not against his wife fortunately.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. if they have been faithful to their vows of . It is most painful to see these poor victims of a skeptical and corrupt civilization. and strewing the floor with the ruins. and it would have "I "buWt cost me a great deal more to buy another wife. but to live wholly on vegetables. "You are a fool. and so the quarrel ceased. laughing. which he stove in with a blow. They think that after and that death their souls will migrate into another body. thought of that. They have formed a sect called the "Abstinents. nor any thing that has had life. that in Chinese. then said. When the husband rushed in with the paving-stone.

doubtless. that some of them enjoy a little the idea of the vengeance they will take on their husbands. At various periods of the year this sisterhood goes in procession to certain pagodas. life abstinence.228 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. leaning on little stieks. perhaps. when they shall be transformed into women. ample compensation after their metamorphosis . a very hazardous conjecture. to make long . and it would not be. and it was truly pitiable to see the poor We women. and hobbling along on their pilgrimages. goat's feet. they will have the happiness to return to The hope of obtaining such an advantas men. They promise themselves. in the hope that after their death they will be able to take ft good revenge on the men for all their present wrongs. age supports them under their daily mortifications. and enables them to endure the troubles and hardships they have to suffer from the other sex. have met them several times.

strength and cour- We age nearly exhausted. our old palanquins. and that during the hottest season of the year. had begun the education of our future traveling companions. Wei-chan. But trusting in the protection of Providence. He had insinuated to them. we began to think of resuming our seemingly felt our interminable journey." and our domestic. and we had still nearly nine hundred miles to travel. and calcined by the scorching of the sun. AFTER four days' rest in the Garden of the Western Gate. in his picturesque and figurative language. The preparations for our departure were made . the "Weeping Willow. we did not doubt of arriving some day safe and sound at Macao. that it would be necessary for them to bend often. and constantly in a southerly direction. .CHAPTER VII. Departure from the Capital of Hou-pe Farewell Visit to the Governor of the Town Burial of the two Martyrs State of Christianity in Hou-pe Disagreeable Incidents on the Road No Provisions in a Town of the third Order Visit to the Palace of the Town Prefect Treatment of Criminals Horrible Details of a Trial The Kouankouen. in order not to graze themselves against certain angular points in our character. or Chinese Bandit Mode of administering Justice Code of Laws General Considerations upon Chinese Legislation Penal and materialistic Character of the Code Defect of Precision in certain Laws Principle of Solidarity Laws relating to Officers of Government Ritual Laws Taxes and Organization of the Family Repression of Crime Territorial Property. the new escort was regularly organized under the command of Master Lieou. were varnished and furbished up anew . somewhat disfigured by the dust.

we perceived at a little distance. that were interlaced by numerous climbing plants. seen it We before. we conof the province of Sse-tchouen. we finally quitting the capital salute his Excellency the Governor of the Before went to province. Vincent de narrow paths. ! . we inquired of one of the palanquin bearers what was the name of the country we were traversing ? Houng-chan. large and populous town of at the utmost. tranquillity. and furroAved in all directions by had a vague recollection of having and on consideration we thought we must have passed through some of the windings of its numerous hills when. The sight filled our hearts with emotion. not very profound. "the Red Mountain. us into a sweet sad reverie. who received us with ceremonious politeness. Beneath these two stones repose the precious remains of two spiritual sons of St. when we Ou-tchang-rou. above an hour. waving his hand. placed side by side. the Viceroy On our side. we departed.:J30 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. he replied. tented ourselves with behaving courteously. of Ilou-pe. " Travel in "Remain seated in we responded. and our eyes with tears. and in a furtive manThis remembrance ner." Yes. on the declivity of a hill. of which the soil was of a reddish color. in the beginning of the year 1840." said he. and with a bow. We had not quitted the entered a mountainous country." ritual. and strictly observing the regulations of the peace. we had for the first time. and in plunged though order to be quite sure that we were not mistaken. that was it! That name was profoundly impressed on our memory In passing along a narrow road bordered with thorny shrubs. traversed the Chinese Empire. two modest tombstones. His language and manners had nothing of the benevolence and affability that had excited a feeling of love for the venerable and excellent Pao-hing.

and this is what we wrote at the time to our brethren in France : alone with a " The precious remains of MM. rise in elegant profusion the beautiful blos- soms of the mimosa. chiseled marble covers the bones of these two glorious children of St. the venerable Clet and Perboyre. how delightful was the hour I passed near these simple but covered mounds. the one in 1822. and prayed to God in the name of these strong-hearted men. Upon an idolatrous soil. we are all children of Cal- some portion of the martyr's Prudence. vary. 231 Paid. for whatever may be the part that the will of God has \ assigned to us here below. In 1840. but God himself seems Parato have undertaken the care of their mausoleum. As we contemplated these brill- iant flowers. Oh! great a consolation would it have been to have stopped for a while. however. escaping from a thick net-work of thorns. There would have been danger in pointing out this sacred treasure to the numerous persons who accompanied us. sitical plants and thorny shrubs. to have knelt. and have need of spirit. we were young Christian of Ou-tchang-fou. in the midst of the Chinese Empire.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. is these heroes of the faith. Clet and Perboyre repose side by side on a green hill. martyred for the faith. Yincent de Paul. and have kissed the how ground consecrated by the blood of these martyrs. . at a short distance from the town of Ou-tchang-fou. Oh. for a little of the intrepidity that always necessary amidst the tribulations of the world . did not permit us to stop. resembling the acacia. a feeling of rapturous happiness hitherNo to unknown seemed to fill and dilate my soul. the other in 1839. grow around it . who served us for a guide. and above the carpet of verdure that covers it. to have prostrated ourselves by these family tombs. when we visited these dear tombs.

Abraham. we did not receive any visits from them at the communal palaces at most. Christians." we may see and bring forth countless worshipers of Jesus. we could only discover them here and there. but some bind-weed. The state of Christianity in Hou-pe is not so flourishAt most there ing as in the province of Sse-tchouen. only the season for the flowers was past. stalks of the wild grass too was withered up. Let us hope that the blood of martyrs. formerly such good seed for Christianity. are not in it more than 12. crept from one tomb to the other." sufferings The two tombs were exactly in the same state as left when we them : both the stones and their inscrip- tions appeared to us to be untouched . we thought involuntarily of the glory with which the of martyrs are crowned in heaven. we proselytism. and to repress the ardor and energy necessary for While traveling over this province. the hour appointed by Him who is able " from the verystones to raise this up children to adamantine soil soften. by their making stealthily the sign . as if to form a bond between them. and belonging of society. contribute to render them timid.PC JOUKXEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMl'lUll. they did not dare to show themselves on our passage . stript of its leaves. always noticed that the Christians kept themselves concealed. but when the hour comes. may not have lost its ferin China. and the small numbers of the and the continual vexations they have to endure from the Mandarins. to the lower classes The frequent and violent persecutions that have harassed this province may perhaps account for this slow progress of the faith .000 or 14. This land has been doubtless tilizing power hitherto deplorably sterile.000 Christians most of them poor. and the mimosas no longer The displayed their bright corollas amidst the leaves.

a few families contrived to obtain some small return from the barren soil. The mission of Hou-pe is at present confided to the care of Italian missionaries. when unfortunately a persecution separated the pastor from his flock. It was necessary also to take the Imperial road. only here and there We sected a few scattered houses and farms. Before sunset arrived at the banks of the Blue River. and took ing Ou-tchang-fou we us farther off Canton. Rizzolatti was arrested. traveled the whole day. ran toward the northeast. without imprudence? to return to the bosom of his mission. the administration had considered it prudent to send us We down . might have embarked at Ou-tchang-fou. and apparently little adapted to cultivation . and sent to the English colony at Hong-kong.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE E. where he is now waiting till circumstances shall appear sufficiently favorable to permit him. the conversion of the infidels. that would that afterward lead us directly to the capital of Kiang-si. who has been many] Under the influence of years in the missions of China. where by dint of patience and industry. as far as the great lake Pou-yang. but we were compelled to proceed by this circuitous way to avoid a number of little lakes would every moment have barred our passage. his long experience. through a country interby hills and ravines. and which denoted a more lively faith. or at all events a moje ardent zeal We for. M. which we had to cross in order to reach a market town situated on The road that we followed on leavthe opposite side. we saw few villages. in order to let us kno~w who they were. 2S3 of the cross. but as that was the season of inundation and tempests.MPIKE. and gone the Blue River. saw no signs of the spirit and activity so perceptible at the missions of Sse-tchouen. Vicar Apostolic. the vicariate of Hou-pe had consid- erably increased. under the direction of Monseigneur Eizzolatti.

He was excessively distressed. a frightful lodgings. and quantity of mosquitoes. was not tearful but furious. vainly gave orders to his subordinates order what he would. no English sailors. we halted at a large village. so poetical. called the kakkerlac. we have adopted that used by The French name is Cancrelat. at least we certainly thought his eyes poured out tears more abundantly than usual. into the bargain.* which abounds in the warm countries of China. Tn. We were mostly lodged and fed in a deplorable manThe ner. After having erossed the Blue lliver. but was no fear of shipwreck. us . as in Sse-tchouen. the name of which we have forgotten.JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMI'IIaC. The route was longer and less agreeable. there stage. we believe. with a * This insect is of the genus Blatta. As we had to manage our affairs well. who had promised to render our lives so delightful. of the order coleoptera. as long as we rehis care. his orders produced only mained under the poorest results. and a large ill-smelling insect. the Weeping Willow. the Dutch and by . and the local administration has not. We found bad for we have nothing to say in its favor. name for it. but this is no great matter. nnd as there is. but our servant. kept him in hopes of his being able he felt his honor hurt. and delights in gnawing the tips of your ears and toes while you sleep. and unspeakably where we had the greater diffidirty in culty procuring just enough to prevent our dying of Our conductors did whatever they could for hunger. a superb communal palace. and his reputation compromised whenever we did not find. a bad supper. erected communal palaces from stage to by land. were obliged to lodge at miserable inns We ill kept. as long as we continued on this cross-road. to receive the public functionaries. Wei-chan. Mandarins in their journeys usually follow the course of the Blue lliver. as elsewhere.

while with the left he wiped his eyes with a bit of white linen. and that there was no reason to attribute ill-will to any one. and the inhabitants to be set in the Cangue. and gazing at us mournfully though his tears and his spectacles. and cursed the whole province of Hou-pe." By no means . they will. 235 He got into a passion splendid banquet ready for us." "Who. we could also be patient when circumstances required it. you would have thought the whole town or village deserved to be burned down. that reminded us a little of the communal palaces. innkeepers.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. extending his right hand toward us. Wei-chan listened attentively to our sermon. piteously. To hear him. or exiled to the end of Bucharia. too. reached toward noon a town of the third order. uttered these interesting words : " The guardian of the establishment is only charged to lodge We us . will attend to us . " " Nobody ?" cried we. and show him that though we had thought proper to be energetic in claiming our rights. they told me the Tribunal would have nothing to do with feeding us. starting up from our seats .'" We were obliged more than once to moderate the extravagance of his zeal. and we were expatiating in a cool pleasant garden. when the Weeping Willow came toward us. good-looking house. we The day before we arrived at the Imperial road. then. called were conducted to a tolerably Kouang-tsi-hien. beneath the broad leaves of a thick grove of bananas. send us dinner from the Tribunal. the insulted every moment. but that did not hinder him rating every body he came in contact with. then. doubtless. the Tribunal told him that he need not provide any victuals " ! " The authorities of the town. . is to undertake it?" "Nobody!" cried the Willow.

but Wei-chan calmed his fears by this way all him that we had behaved in and that no harm had ever the road. but to . ran after us to ask where we were march boldly going. " send and let them take us to our diplo- to the prefect of the town. and our orders were punctually obeyed but the porter. for our palanquin-bearers." said the porter. and I will go and announce you.236 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EM PIKE. who was not accustomed matic proceedings. "give me your visiting card. We the rites of the Empire. on. there is a trial thought this was only a pretext to prevent our and we therefore insisted upon going in. not knowing very well what to do." The Weeper. "At least. that we thought it probable the first magistrate of the town really was engaged as we had been told. had deset off for the prefect's palace. and that we would announce then made a sign to the bearers to go ourselves. in. and assured us that the prefect was then sitting in judgment on a criminal trial. noticing this unusual mode of entrance into the Tribunal. A subaltern officer of the palace also came up to us just as we alighted from our palanquins. We sired our men not to stop at the outer gate. or to make our way into the hall where the trial . and we soon reached the interior court. we replied to the porter. according to order." In the fear that the prefect would not see us if we did. immediately We before the entrance of the principal hall. whether to return home. This court was so full of people. We hesitated for a moment." . along telling come of it. The and we palanquin-bearers arrived. was seized with fright." " The prefect is sitting in judgment of the first importance. that we were not subject to entrance. "To speak to the prefect.

red girdles. the executioners. their clothes and faces spotted with blood blood of the unfortunate creature. that they might not be soiled by the pools of half-coagulated blood with . and were moreover somewhat curious to see what was going on. The magistrate. and sembly. we were ready to faint. was going for 237 on. we felt first object that presented itself on entering this Chinese judgment hall was the accused the person on his trial. He was suspended in the middle of the hall. armed with rattan rods and leather lashes. and our yellow caps exappeared quite cited much more emotion than the spectacle of tor- The audience ture. hall. to whom our coming had been hastily announced. present at this frightful spectacle their at ease.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and hold up his beautiful silk robes. rose from his seat as soon as he perceived As he passed near us. The For ourselves. As we did not at all like having come nothing. in ferocious attithe tudes. he had to walk on the tips of his toes. indeed. at the first glance we cast into the a cold prespiration come over us. and a perceptible throughout the as- Two men with great beards. and our limbs tottered under us . and crossed the hall to meet us. while his flesh was torn almost in tatters. movement of surprise was All eyes were immediately turned toward us. we put aside the crowd and entered. Beneath him stood five or six executioners. of whimsical form and colossal dimensions often seen in the great pagodas. like one of those lanterns. who was uttering stifled groans. formed a very surprising apparition. yellow caps. at the horror visible in our faces. Ropes attached to a great beam in the roof held him tied by the wrists and feet. so as to throw the body into the form of a bow. Many laughed.

He has to "What . magistrate. his ." great crime." he replied. He saluted us smilingly. without some questions to him concerning the was then engaged in. manners. all expressed so much mildness and goodness. session of us. which they were in the habit of traversing night and day in a large boat. also. "I should myself deyou should understand the nature of this trial. upon a some moments before we could recover sat down. be subjected to so horrible a torture ?" "This man is the chief of a band of ruffians. to compassion. divan. You appear to me have shown toward the criminal during has astonished at the extreme severity I the torture he is en. conducted us to a small room situated behind the judge's seat. that indiscretion. and were We fell. who for more than a year past have been committing outrages on the Great River. which the floor was covered. "On sire that the contrary.238 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. tion . then. if you knew his conduct. and my character is averse from all cruelty. moved you The emotions that agitated your hearts on your entrance into the hall mounted to your faces. we seemed to us impossible that this should be the man who had ordered the frightful measure we had just witnessed and so strong a feeling of curiosity took pos. put terrible affair he we asked whether we might. or rather we our composure. has this man committed. you would certainly not think I was treating him with too much rigor. and saying he would suspend the proceedings for a moment. his looks. the tone of his voice. must be A the father and the mother of his people. The * of age that Prefect of Kouang-tsi-hien was nearly forty years his features. It could not recover from our astonishment. I am naturally inclined to mildness. and became visible to every But this criminal does not merit any considerabody.

and committed more than confessing all his fifty murders. pillaged a considerable 239 number and on of merchant junks. otherwise it will sprout forth again. and indulged on board their vessel. such were the amusements in which these monchildren of men. this point the truth has he persists in not denounc- we must tear it up by the roots. He added. prisoners to pieces. and proceed with the ings. they were. with circumstances of horrible barbarity . frightful as Prefect of Kouang-tsi-hien. Although it was late. been brought to light . . replied that his having been so much occupied with this affair was the sole cause of the negligence we had to complain of. of their cutting out the tongues and tearing out the eyes of their cutting their . he must now resume his seat." The magistrate afterward related to us some abominable atrocities committed by this gang of robbers . to whom we had briefly explained the circumstances that had caused us to commit such an indiscretion as to come and trouble The in his official duties. trial. and we had taken nothing that day but a very slight luncheon. Our long residence in China had taught us to what degree the instinct of evil is developed among these people. we had very little inWhat we had seen clination now to sit down to table. sters in human form These details. but ing his companions. did not surprise us. that we might now return to our lodg- him while he was engaged with the certainty that every thing should be arranged in conformity with the Rites but that for himself. it is not sufficient to cut down the trunk.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and heard since we had entered the judgment-hall had . and I am obliged to employ these extreme methods to reach all the guilty. He has ended by crimes. When one Avishes to destroy a tree. women.

The people here have never seen men of the "Western countries. "If you come into the hall. and desired him to open a large window. and if you come in. and in some measAfter a few minutes' reflection he ure embarrass him. at his left. resumed his seat. the judge returned to the hall." He then called an attendant. are seldom We sufficiently acquainted with the idiom of the countries where they are placed.240 JOUKNHV TliKOUGH TUE CHINESE EMPIRE. "Let every " one be modest and respectful After having rapidly glanced over some pages of a manuscript that was probably some document connected . and casting at the judge a look like that of a wild beast. not to need an interpreter whenever they have to address a man of the lower class. replied. the officers of the court will hardly attend to said. have already said that the Mandarins not being allowed to hold office in their own province. judge's question was therefore translated to the prisoner. that he The had . and officers of the court had cried three times. in an insolent tone. in a village near a place mentioned. ! with the trial. and let down a bamboo trellis-work and while we took our places behind this grating. you shall reand from here it will be easy for you seen and see every thing. inbeen quite sufficient to take away our appetite. there would be whether of the any objecprefect quired tion to our being present for a little while at the trial . However. without yourselves being by any one. if you wish it. We but our request seemed to surprise. and the trial went on. which had sunk upon his breast. I fear your presence some disturbance. will create their business. main in to hear this room. who formerly on the trade of a blacksmith. to the judge ordered a functionary who stood ask the prisoner whether he knew a man carried named Ly-fang. who raised a little his head. after the attendants. executioners.

when this man remained a long while in your boat ? Do you persist in uttering a false. and his blood spirted out on all sides. was impossible to endure such a spectacle any longer and we asked one of the officers of the court who had remained with us. and soon the body of the criminal was swinging and turning about under a shower of blows. . He urged us. examined the figure. in order however. which pointed out the number of blows the prisoner was to receive. executioners took their places . like The people about to witness something interesting. and ran down the rattans. in a chanting tone. getting out. all eyes were fixed with stir in the assembly eager curiosity. . One of the executioners picked it up. while he uttered terrible shrieks. A figure was marked upon it. Do you had any dealings with him ?" ' 241 know him ? Have you I do not know him." can that be. reddening the naked arms of the executioners.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and " Fifteen blows cried. sometimes on the miserable prisoner. and arranged themselves a little more conveniently on their seats. . L said. Do you know Ly-fang ?" " I have heard of him I do not know him. he how they managed to . had the complaisance to lead us back through a long VOL." that is to the criminal would receive for the execusay. * heard speak of him. thirty tioners ahvays doubled the number ordered by the judge and this multiplied by the number of executioners. sometimes on the executioners. strongly to await the end of the -to see. trial. II. " I have heard speak of him "How hood ? Speak the truth. . without crossing the hall. There was immediately a furnished a frightful total. whether there was not any way of It . unbind the prisBut we had seen quite enough and the officer oner. Many smiled." The prefect took up from the table a piece of bambo^ wood. and threw it into the middle of the court.

provided only that they could enrage the Mandarins. as he left us. To give and receive wounds with composure. where our palanquins were wait- corridor to the gate ing. and demand condemnation . "are there many kouan-kouen in your country ?" "No. It might really be thought they took a pleasure in having their limbs mangled. worthy of their valor to have an associate. or any support whatever. who make it a sport and a matter of pride to defy the laws and the magistrates. They all confess all their crimes. the confession of the culprit is nec- essary. is own traction." we among us. to kill others with the most perfect coolness . and endure with incredible stoicism all kinds of torture. Sometimes they . Some few live alone. extravagant and atrocious crimes seem to have for them an irresistible atcharacters. and They regard it as unthey are the most ferocious. furnish the most irresist- ible proofs. "this class of men is unknown would not be easy to give a kouan-kouen. said. Sometimes they will even go and denounce themselves to the magistrates from a motive of pride. and stand by each other with immovable fidelity." It this word. " This criminal was a famous houan-kouen" said the officer. they deny all that they have said. and to have no fear of death for yourself: this is the sublime ideal of the kouan-kouen. and then. when the preparations have been made.242 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and when. These men are very numerous in China. and they rely on nothing but the energy of their men The audacity of these the most incomparable. and commit all kinds of crimes. correct translation o( It is given in China to a race of bandits. according to Chinese laAV. and defy the laws. they form societies among themselves.

there life is scarcely any protection. always stands beside them in case he should be The accused is absolutely at the mercy of the wanted. In all the towns of China find numerous collections of little pamphlets. but that is a pure condescension on the part of The the Mandarin. His fortune and his depend almost always on the caprice and rapacity The ordinary tribunals have only of the Mandarins. during the whole trial the judge interrogates him . and an executioner. they are liable to be cuffed or whipped whenever he pleases. and as they cost but a few sapecks they are eagerly bought and read by \ ) the people.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. a single judge . or rather indeed of the subaltern officers of the court. There is no advocate to undertake his defense. case. which form in some measure the judicial records and causes celebres of the Empire. his relations and friends are sometimes admitted to plead for him . 243 succeed in bringing their judges into difficulties. but this simplification is by no means favorable to the accused. and dependent on his good pleasure. and this is their greatest triumph. The manner of administering justice in China It is ex- without exaggeration. favorable or other- wise to the prisoner. that there are four times as many judges in France as in the whole Chinese Empire. for if their depositions do not please the judge. and even getting them dismissed from their offices . and the prisoner remains on his knees . charged with this duty. They contain dramatic biogra-\ you phies of the most famous kouan-kouen . Mandarin who is to judge him. witnesses is sometimes almost as bad as the of position that of the accused. may be said. who have always drawn up beforehand a statement of the received. according to the money they have . and he alone decides on the value of the answers given. for whom tremely summary.

buy how much your son at a single blow ? How much that he may not suffer a long time ? How much that I may dispatch him almost without his will for killing you give me And for these frightful services. mode of proceeding of the infamous Verres. . Chinese justice is very severe on thieves and disturb- . the ** Cicero has described. in prison unfortunate relatives. so many influences brought to bear. the day of their punishment is has already begun in the persons of their Sicily." he says. food . they are prevented from Desolate mothers bringing him either food or clothing. they have begged as the only favor that they might be permitted to catch the last breath of their But at the gate watches the inexorable jailer. up it but "The condemned. that most of the causes are finished in the prov. too. sons. 'And you.' and no suppliant refuses it. so striking is the resemblance between the proceedings of the Mandarins and those of the above described Praetor of Sicily. 'You shall give me. with his energetic eloquence. have passed whole nights near the fatal gate which prevented them from receiving the last embraces of their children .244 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and carry his cause to the sovbut to reach it so many springs ereign court at Pekin must be set in motion. perceiving it ?' must the Lictor be paid. Avhen office in he held fixed are shut . the Prajtor's executioner. Every condemned criminal has a right to appeal to the superior tribunals." It has always seemed to us that Verres must have had some knowledge of Chinese customs. the Lictor Sestius. inces. who levies a tax upon every groan and pang. so much to be allowed to says. and while the father lies stretched on the ground in his dungeon. Even their children are forbid- den to see them . the terror and death of 'our citizens and allies.' he ' so much to go in .

the generally penal character of the legislation of the Celestial Empire. and death by strangulation or decapitation. that in European legislation would entail only forfeitures. or mutilated in the most horrible manner. 7. It into seven portions on the following subjects. Those who have observed attentively the manners and institutions of China. say. that is to Statutes of the grand Dynasty of the It has been translated into English by Sir George Staunton under the title of "Penal Code of China" a title that does not at first seem quite accurate. On \ but also in matters purely civil. as there are many law treated of in the course of the work. Gen- Law . iron cages where the prisoner must remain in a crouching attitude. the cangue. punishment of death.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. with the exception of the rare exceptions. is by no means inapplicable. have been struck by two things the one hand. Military Laws Laws . incapacities. All irregularities. . perpetual or temporary exile into Tartary. peror. though not literal. Laws Fiscal . errors. faults of negligence. . every regulation. the bastinado. fairs. is made under penal sanction. ers 245 ments are of the public peace. 2. drawn up with very full such as European lawyers would call a corpus x / * details. . eral other things besides criminal is divided 1. Laws Criminal. Rebels are cut in pieces. blows on the face with thick leathern soles. . Ritual . Punishments are mostly inflicted in a hasty and arbitrary way. the prison. It is called Ta-tsing Lu-li. Every ordinance of the law. Laws concerning public works but the title of Penal Code. and so forth. 6. Civil Laws 5. The most ordinary punishfines. not only in criminal af- very fit to attract attention. 3. with a fe*w must have the ratification of the EmThere exists in China a code. of Chinese law. the sentence for which. 4. Laws and Tsing. or portable pillory.

But it is not thus witli the Chinese. and in many subsequent decay and fall. find toric * We are accustomed in the history of nations to some well-defined point of departure. some are slight civil reparation. its cases. who conducted them in so rapid a manner to . Chinese civilization originates in an antiquity so remote that we vainly endeavor to discover its commencement.246 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. to to us generally permit onward march. its public private ceremonial. point at which we find them. we and find all China. They seem to have been always livin the same ing stage of advancement as in the present day . Thence may proceed the gratitude felt for the first respect. its police and administration. a principle that has been extended to the respect due to the Emperor. and monuments that remain us to follow. and his delegates. to be present at its birth. and which is in reality little else than the worship of ancient institutions. There are no traces of the state of infancy among This is a 'very peculiar fact respecting this people. its that opinion. and the hisdocuments. be interesting to inquire into the cause of this curious characteristic of Chinese law. China. and its vast population of three hundred millions of men. and this fact must have left a profound impression on the imagination of the people. with its official religion. the progress of civilization. its political institutions. On the other hand. the veneration. almost step by step. or punished in China by It might a certain number of strokes of the bamboo. It would not be then very rash to conjecture that some mysterious event of the highest importance must have brought the Chinese suddenly to the. traditions. all governed on the one single principle of filial piety before adverted to . and the data of antiquity are such as to confirm watch its development. the founders of their ancient monarchy.

reflections enable us to assign to the laws relative to filial piety. and this respect generalized has taken the name of filial piety. The official worin fact of China does not ship possess any of the char- what can properly be called a religion. of those who hold toward the state the place that the father and mother occupy in the family. can future.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and living from day to day. quite natural that the bamboo should be the . political and social. and instincts of the people for and by whom it has been created. unable to communicate to the people those moral ideas that do more for the observance of acteristics of is. a stationary condition of civilization. inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. the laws. a certain state of enlightenment. as may easily be supposed. to all that has existed for ages. It is. and we may say of Chinese legislation. which is the style of nations. and in the second place. had the necessary consequence of cherishing a sort of exclusive spirit. habits. and a contempt for foreigners. profoundly skeptical. 247 Thence the worship of ancestors. The Chinese have in fact always attached the idea of something holy and mysterious to whatever is antique. and consequently. being want- ing in religious faith. be well induced to obey the laws from a sentiment of duty. who were regarded as barbarians. This sentiment. reflects faithfully the manners. of all ancient things. having no energy for any thing but the amassing of sapecks. without troubling themselves either about the past or the and totally indifferent to what touches only the moral nature of man. carried to excess. As the style is the man. so legislation. than the most terrible penal sanctions. which seems to have remained pretty nearly what it- was in the beginning. that it The represents very accurately the Chinese people. their true import- These ance. therefore. not.

depraved by the absence of religious faith and moral education. considered in but merely on the amount of damage that may it. it may certainly be affirmed that the social system in which it is in force is vicious. and this need not excite any surprise. wholly absorbed in material interests. tics.Ml'IUK. according to a scale drawn up expressly to that effect. and the rattan and the bamboo form the sole guarantees for the fulfillment ot duty. The punishments awarded by cording to the itself. like the Chinese. would not subsist long as a nation. The presence of this utilitarian principle in legislation usually indicates that the social bond is artificial. founded and preserve on the principles of absolute justice and right. for Chinese materialism does not con- der some other head. and the Penal Code of China is an illustration of the truth.248 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE E. to be suddenly substituted for the strange one that now Among a nation of speculators and skepgoverns it. . The penal sider the act so much in a moral point of view. but would be speedily dismembered. as with respect to its consequences. necessary and indispensable accessory of every legal law will consequently prescription. Whenever a legislature is compelled to be lavish of punishments. that it does not rest on the true principles that constitute The immense population nationalities. be occasioned by Thus the punishment of theft is proportional to the value of the object stolen. of China. not in the moral law. the social bond is found in the penal. were a system of legislation. even when it has in view objects purely civil. unless the theft be accompanied by circumstances that bring it un- legislation of China is based on the utilitarian principle. it are not graduated acmoral gravity of the crime. and the Chinese always assume a penal character.

did not the Mandarins charged with the execution of the laws find in them the greatest possible latitude. the master-piece of Chinese . with such a clause as this always suspended over his head ? And here is another still more odious : "Whoever shall observe a line of conduct that offends propriety. positive texts. and puts prices on his goods in such a manner that his neighbors can not sell theirs. It really seems to be made expressly honest propensities to favor their oppressive. and thus obtains more than the customary advantage. or eighty. disfor in the absence of clear and . of the Penal Code." What tradesman could be out of the reach of the vexations of the Mandarins. i. stocks his shop. 249 And even so far the object would not be attained. and that is contrary to the spirit of the laws. for example.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the following article : "When a trader. so often observable in the penal code of China. after having observed the nature of his neighbor's business. Very often the definition of a crime is so obscure and imperfect. if the impropriety be very great. he shall be punished with forty strokes of the bamboo. they can always find means of bringing within the category of punishable offenses acts. This is what explains the vagueness and want of precision. shuffling. even without any special infraction of any shall be punished with forty blows. if not perfectly innocent.. page 274. Thus. we find in vol. to subject the inhabitants of a whole district to extorand to accumulate for himself a handsome fortune in a short time. that the law becomes completely elastic in the hands of the Mandarin. are at all events such as can never be subjected to positive laws. which. But this is not enough ." These two clauses are sufficient to enable a Mandarin of their enactments^ tion.

or endeavoring to do so. to watch over the taxes. composed of legislation a hundred families. by destroying temple where his family is worshiped. without any regard being had to their place of abode.250 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE is liMPIUK. shall suffer death by a slow and painful method. as. the eign. of having committed these execrable crimes. division. or to any natural or accidental infirmities. along with six others. or the tombs in which the remains of his ancestors lie buried. and paternal uncles. of high treason. Here is a passage from the first chapter of the second volume " The crime of high treason : is that committed either against the State. as his superior or his inferior. well as their sons. and sons of their uncles. shall be indiscriminately All persons who shall know others guilty beheaded. of for the conduct security Public functionaries are. the punishment he payment of the lic duties. may incur varies from twenty to eighty strokes. according to the extent of the land in question. there is a head. the father. grandfather. but private persons territorial Thus in each from it. or against the Soverthe palace in which he resides. chosen by his fellow-citizens. by overthrowing the established government. persons convicted of the above-mentioned crimes . or individuals having intention to com- . and the performance of other pubThis head is responsible for a crowd of offenses that may be committed within his district. When the lands are badly cultivated. or in enAll persons who shall be convicted deavoring to do so. the vast system of responsibility. grandsons. by which in some measure every subject of the Emperor becomes his relative or his neighbor. principally subject to this terrible responare by no means exempt sibility . whether they be principals or accesAll the male relatives in the first degree of the sories. or of having intended to commit them. we shall see.

and maintain the political And motion yet . and there is something profoundly mysterious in the ancient civilization which has been able to resist to With such this day the flux and reflux of so many revolutions. When we look at the case of a nation composed of 300. by not denouncing the authors of it. the : . and who shall connive at the said crime. all this rigor does not prevent political comon the contrary.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. action in China. unity of these innumerable populations. of its which we have pointed numerous imperfections Penal Code of China is\J still a remarkable monument of the human mind. and from total ruin. an astonishing spectacle . without any religious faith. in spite of the instability to save itself foundation. and given up exclusively to the chances of speculation. indeed. sible to China is the most revolutionary country : systems.000. and there may even be found in it some of the great princithe right of pardon granted ples of modern legislation But. constructed . shall be beheaded." This frightful kind of responsibility is as revolting to common-sense as to the feelings of a Christian but it is quite natural that it should be in constant and energetic . it is imposfound any thing but a factitious kind of order the least breath is sufficient to compromise the solidity of an edifice so painfully. we may conceive that some other than ordinary methods have been found necessary to unite under the same dominion elements so rebellious. yet so badly. China presents. but it shows of what the Chinese would have been capable if they had availed themselves of the light that Christianity has diffused so abundantly among the nations of the West. the defective morality of its citizens. the annals of this strange peo- ple show that in the world. notwithstanding the out. and the falsehood of the principles on which it acts.000 of men. 251 mit such a crime. in fact.

there is sometimes reference to decisions made in pre- ceding analogous cases. guaranteed by the responsibility to charged with the repression of crime. and a special enactment of the code ordains. they are of inferior rank. that at the end of every year. Such references to precedents can not be considered to constitute what is understood by jurisEvery magistrate charged with the adminisprudence. as far as possible. for the confirmation of sentences pronounced against great criminals. officers shall be ex- amined upon their knowledge of the laws by their re- spective superiors . if they hold a high office. or receive forty strokes of the bamboo. but there is no special doctrine to secure them from any departure from it. and in all localities. and if their answers are not satisfactory. they are to be fined a month's pay. the respect for individual of magistrates liberty. or through the fault . but also to diffuse a knowledge of the code. In some of the edicts published by the Emperor. if All individuals.252 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. on occasion of their first offense (if committed by accident. and others. not only to enable the magistrates to understand perfectly the laws they are called on to apply. tration of the law interprets it in his own way. and the office of advocate is unknown. The science of jurisprudence does not exist in China. however. among the people at large. who. which serve to protect the people in some measure against the tyranny of the Mandarins. laborers. but it is made only with the view of illustrating the particular interpretation of a text in the code. Measures are taken. All officers and persons in the employment of Govern- ment are ordered to make it their particular study . the right of appeal. artisans. and by what he regards as the general spirit of the legislature . the regard to extenuating circumstances. the Sovereign. and others.

The Chinese Mandarins enjoy imagined. these . or perhaps more so. over and above this number or shall receive a shall cause another to be so appointed hundred strokes of the bamboo. 253 of other persons) shall be able to explain the nature and object of the law affecting them.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. great facilities for the rapid acquirement of wealth . : and capacity. they degraded and sent into exile. Were such a law in force in our country. and powerful enemy. talent considerable power. indeed.the morrow a but they high the denunciation of a rich of the or caprice Emperor. and. These precautions are curious enough to make it worth while to glance at them. . but their position is not quite so brilliant as is commonly have. if they are men of They may arrive pretty quickly at are never sure of. if we may judge by the precautions taken to avoid solicitations and repress that feverish eagerness for office which has excited so much indignation among us in these latter days. Public employments are as much sought after in China as in Europe. and an increase of punishment for every supernumerary officer whose nomination he shall have procured. or even put to death. the ardor of suitors and the good-will of patrons would probably be a good deal cooled. tinguished for government officers. who are not diseminent services rendered to the State. may at any time cause them to be office . Who knows whether something of the kind may not be thought worthy of adoption in France ? The number of officers for each tribunal and for every department is fixed by law and whoever shall be appointed unnecessarily. shall have been recommended to the goodness of the civil When Emperor as persons worthy of the highest honors. shall be pardoned and released.

and the though incapable persons the law is principally anxious to guard against the slightest infringement of In so vast a population as the power of the Emperor. the existence of traitorous machinations subversive of government. The laws which regulate the conduct of the public functionaries in China. under pain of a hundred strokes. in who some measure. before those great functionaries. are to be sent to prison and beheaded. and compromise the safety of the throne. Addresses sent to the Emperor. if they dared. or. name it eighty strokes of the bamboo. officers. to employ the individual of his Majesty in any address. commits any offense against the laws. and those who have recommended them. against any of the Imperial residences. unrestrained by any moral or religious tie. either at court or in the provinces. therefore. severity can not be intended merely to repress court attainment of high offices by ambiintrigues. and their authors. that of China. as well as the officers whom they concern. law of China is. although very severe.254 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. bles. immoderately severe toward the slightest offense indicative of want of due respect It is forbidden. to assume it one's self or bestow it on others. are somewhat tempered by forms having a certain resemblance to When what in France is called the Constitutional guarantee. and tremtious . are the depositaries of such a portion of its power as would permit them. an officer of the government. in favor of any of the are considered as indicating great officers of the State. are punishable with death. to shake off its The yoke. under penalty of for the Emperor. or any other projectile. if they have been aware of the This excessive offense. . The bamboo also takes cognizance of the crime of throwing a stone. the Sovereignty is naturally suspicious. or to make use of in instructing the people.

his superior. "rebellion. sacrilege. and the culprit can not be brought to trial without the express sanction of his Majesty. imi. Another remarkable feature of the laws on this sub- . whose punishment is the slightest of In China. but that in China official persons are never afraid of any thing the law can menace them with. desertion. dis- loyalty. the lower the committed if officer. sibility. But this privilege ceases when the crime partakes of the nature of treason. insurbordination. is most energetically applied.) and incest. submits a circumstantial account of the affair to the Emperor. to whom all proceedings are to be referred. and to the resentment of their superiors if they refuse it. 255 whether in his public or private capacity. parricide. all. all the other participators are punished. in all important cases. Their position would therefore become an intolerable one. Thus the subalterns are liable to the most terrible punishments if they afford their concurrence in an illegal act. are contrary to the laws. for it is said the crime the higher the responwould not have been he had refused his assistance.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. piety. discord. these crimes are. It is especially with regard to the public functionaries that the system of penal responsibility of which we have spoken above. as they always trust to finding some way of wriggling out of it. or such as being either too mild or too severe. the registrar is considered as the principal author of the crime ." {Vol. privileged persons can only be pursued for offenses against the law upon the positive order of the Emperor. 27. but with less severity in diminishing pro- portion up to the president. p. or who have even become chargeable with faults of negligence. Every time that a tribunal or a body of official persons have incurred guilt by pronouncing erroneous decisions. massacre.

It is somewhat curious to European ideas to see a judge whipped for having made a mistake . and this is perhaps one of the wisest ar- rangements of the Chinese law. The civil capacity of functionaries is restrained within certain limits. is nounced by any of the tribunals as a crime. grandson. that they Tegard an erroneous sentence project. or third order. and the bamboo applied with the large or small end . but even their clerks and registrars. .256 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. nephew. if ple. or turned upside down. are forbidden to hold land in the district under their control. The penal scale established by the code is very simThe most ordinary punishments are the Cangue. failed. suit before the courts. under pain of eighty strokes of the bamboo. and if the person to whom the document is sent The should on this account ticity. feel any doubts of it its authen- and hesitate to execute the orders contains. seal is awkwardly placed. responsibility of the inferior officers is carried so that there are cases in which they would be put to If the Imperial death for having sealed a letter badly. or a hundred if her father or mother have a and he is to undergo the same he marry such a woman to his son. No government officer in towns of the first. or in the reverse case when a cause has been sent from the superior to the inferior court. but even when a superior tribunal confirms the erroneous sentence of an inferior. second. Not only all high officers of government. punishment or brother. and in China not only is a tribunal punishable for a wrong decision on a cause with the facts of which it may be presumed to be well acquainted. all the officers responsible for affixing it are to receive eighty strokes. may take a wife within the limits of their jurisdiction. and the that any military operation should thus have clerk in the office is to be put to death. far.

notwithstanding tliese atrocious severities adopted with a view to the repression of crime. by giving money to the executioner that he to may find as soon as possible the knife destined be plunged into the heart. The relatives generally endeavor in such cases to shorten the unfortunate creature's sufferings. cumstances. the Emperor which has the ever. which has no other power than simply to In China the declare that such circumstances exist. law itself foresees certain facts. The punishment of death is executed by strangulation or is number above sixty and there this decapitation. is also for great crimes the "slow and painful death. of some issues a general act of grace. or some others which are specified. This act. The Chinese law. has some features not altogether unworthy of a modern There is especially a system of attenuating circode. involve a diminution of punishment or some1 times its entire remission. The benefits of this amnesty extend to all who have committed offenses through inadvertence. does not extend to those who have committed treasonable offenses. for instance. which is inflicted in manner The executioner puts his hand into a cov: ered basket in which are a number of knives. marked with the names of various limbs and parts of the body. when they are confirmed. and with the brand.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. howeffect of a full pardon. A combined with temporary or perpetual banishment. founded on more moral bases than in the system pursued in France. In certain cases. he cuts off the part indicated from the body of the victim. according to the gravity of the offense. With us the estimate of the value of such circumstances is left to the consideration of a jury. which. and drawing out one at random. the strokes varying in 257 number up often to a hundred. great event." or the torture of the knife. or who are . on occasion.

or parents beyond seventy or particularly iniirm. would often induce the guilty to make confessions. but in such received by inducement guilty. and in this respect the in Chinese are perhaps in advance of other nations. the culprit has merited banishment. and the crime must be of such a nature that it could be brought under the operation of an act of grace . every Consideration for the relatives is often the to a diminution of the punishment of the have legally merited death. who cases there sixteen. some cases. who gives the decision respecting it. but special pardons may without criminal exception. infirmity will sometimes obtain indulgence but in that case an ex- planatory memorial must be addressed to the Emperor. as before. and confession always obtains a reduction of punishment . saving some civil reparation . "This appears judicious. he will receive instead a hundred strokes of the bamboo. and pay a Age and even for the culprit himself. indeed. but would it not be better that the law itself should provide for this reduction. the case is then referred to must be children under If the Emperor.268 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. them on account merely of their legal implicated in be responsibility . being thus a matter of right. specially provided for. In France a confession will always obtain a reduction of punishment through a declaration of extenuating circumstunces . It is often sufficient if the age or infirmity exist at the time of trial. fine. which. The culprit who voluntarily surrenders to the magistrate without the crime having been otherwise discovered obtains a pardon. from the certainty of obtaining an amelioration of his lot ? . even though they may not have existed at the epoch of the crime. a complete pardon. the civil reparation. saving always.

It happens therefore sometimes. he is . conducts himself toward his prisoners with an atrocious cruelty that we could not have believed if we had not witnessed it. replied. punished with a number of strokes of the bamboo. as may be supposed. that a magistrate. provides certain cases of legal excuse. he is not punishable. we met a party of soldiers. in China. and if the master of at it kill any one in the attempt to do this an improper hour. who were uttering horrible cries. It is regarded as an act of legitimate self-defense. proportioned to the crimes which the said offenders have committed. rather than expose himself to the bamboo. and at the same lime causes the arrest of an accomplice. and neglects to take with respect to them the measures of rigor prescribed by the law. in which were literally piled up a crowd of Chinese. The Chinese law. like that of France.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. equally or more guilty than himself. is subject and when a magistrate commits to minute regulation offenders to prison. when we were passing along the road leadan officer ing to Pekin. \ The treatment of culprits in prison. a right to a pardon. has. Thus it is forbidden to enter an inhabited house by night without due authority . the hand the to by planks A we "We've interrogated. with frightful coolness: been routing out a nest of thieves in a neighboring vil- . As we of human beings to pass. A husband who kills an adulterous wife or her paramour is also held blameless. 259 The criminal who gives himself up. escorting a number of carts. and the mode in which they are to undergo their punishment. One day. with at their head. stopped to allow these cart-loads we were seized with horror on nailed perceiving that these unfortunate creatures were satellite whom of the cart.

was the mocking hilarity of the soldiers. is a political as well as social institution . it may be imagined of what excesses they are capable under the excitement of revolution and civil war. but the feeling has The fear of tho passed away. got a good many of them. we Avere obliged to contrive nailed We some way to prevent their escaping. and as we liadn't lagc. able creatures in their tions In the provinces now in insurrection horrible abominamust be passing. and the law remains.260 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMl'IUE. brought chains enough. and was even them to the tribunal." So you see we "But do not you think there tell ? may be some innocent among them ?" " Who can We are taking there are They have not been tried yet. what was most hideous of all in this dreadful spectacle. they will be any among The fellow seemed to separated from the thieves. ous . them by the hand. If a people can exhibit such barbarity as this in quiet and peaceable times. in Cliina." think the thing quite a matter of course. In the beginning. which. but great as is the talk about filial piety. if men innocent them. in . The Penal Code concerns itself greatly. a little proud of the contrivance. the laws passed on this subject were the expression of a true and lively feeling. regulate filial regard. The reason is obvi- China the law and the bamboo. Perhaps. and by-and-by. and endeavor to maintain the ties of family by artificial means. doubtless. as may be supposed. it is certain that there is much less real harmony and affection in Chinese families than among Europeans. who were amusement the pointing out to one another with an air of contortions and grimaces of the miser- agony of pain. in the organization of the family. not duty and religion.

but this is only first marriage.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and the attachment of children to their parents is little more than an affair of habit. the parties are affianced. and In cases where the marriage is ordered to take place. if she had been already presented and approved. In of the rites and ceremonies observed in the speaking celebration of marriage. we have alluded to the despotic authority of parents over their children. afterward refuse to the its chief is contract. liminaries are adjusted through the intervention of third persons. arAll these prerange the articles of the contract. but their respective families who make the first advances. has been carefully and minutely regulated by Chinese legislation . thus it is not the future wedded pair. 261 cangue and the rattan has taken the place of filial love. If between the betrothal and the marriage the relations of the bride promise her hand to another. and haggle about the price of the marriageable merchandise. the acceptance of the presents is considered as sufficient evidence of the consent of the contracting parties. knowing that ne- . or eighty. there has been no contract. fix the wedding presents. It is thus easy to conclude a marriage without at all consulting the persons most interested. The father of a family can not compel a son who has become a widower to marry a second time. He who should accept a promise of marriage. etc. When the If either bargain is concluded. and it is deeply impressed with the character of the domestic tyranny that is found in the manners of all nations placed out of the influence of Christianity. the head of the family receives seventy strokes. who serve as go-betweens. family ratify condemned to receive fifty strokes with the bamboo. Marriage. under penalty of eighty strokes of the the case with the bamboo. which forms the basis of domestic life.

hundred strokes if she marry again. by eighty blows. but by mutual consent. I. * Vol. p. relative hindrances. p. I. There are ab- The Chinese law obstacles to the formation of solute hindrances. besides being de> graded from her rank. not merely for determinate causes. One of the consequences of the manner in which marriages are made in China is the divorce. It is forbidden to marry during the time fixed by law for the mourning for a father. a mother. . stances is marriage contracted under these circumnot only declared null. begun with another. and the delinquents are punished by a certain number of strokes of the bamboo. eighty proved to have been guilty of theft or adultery. would also receive in cases where either party can be but blows . but punished by a hundred strokes of the bamboo. is punished by a. the congotiations were tract becomes null and void. nevertheless. points out certain circumstances as an alliance. an elder brother or elder sister. are in themselves null and void. should have at least the permission to separate if they can not agree. 188. f Vol. and separated from her new hus^ band.f A Marriages contracted between persons bearing the same family name.* but is widow punished. an uncle or an aunt. or mere retarda- tory obstacles. or a husband. remains valid.262 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. A The marriage contracted during the mourning for a grandfather or grandmother. with any one concealing himself on account of some crime. or with actors or musicians. The husband may repudiate his lawful wife for the following causes. It seems natural enough that persons who naveHbeen married without being consulted. who has received from the Emperor any distinction of rank during the life of her husband. 189.

he is punThe ishable by sixty blows. and should any one receive news of the death of his father or mother. It is also are against your mourning for them. or even addressing abusive words to him. Parricides are the and should they the torture of to knife. I. * Vol. if he have* heard the words.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and not ries. without immediately putting on mourning. or for taking part during its continuance. . or a wife of her husband. p. is placed by the law of China in the of great crimes. from whom you have had your education. in any rejoicings. incurred by this crime of impiety Striking an elder relative is punished with death. to insult them. not to wear to respect their memo- The punishments are very severe."* impious to institute a law-suit near relations. Every government officer on receiving intelligence of this nature. and a year of banishment. propensity to slander or to theft. subjected die in prison. some of which appear rather whimsical: sterility. their dead bodies are to undergo the mutilation. or habitual ill-health. a jealous temper. Impiety. and also bearing false witness against him. 263 im- morality. The law fixes the kind and duration of mourning which every one is to wear on the death of a member of his family. which class " ing manner : Impiety is the failure in respect and care for those to whom you owe your being. contempt of the husband's father and mother. and complain of them. same punishment is to be inflicted for leaving off the mourning before the appointed time. 23. is nothing but the failure in It is defined in the Code in the followfamily duty. must immediately cease the exercise of his He must abstain from functions. and by whom you protected. and put on mourning.

p. as the sun. and the line of conduct they are from exempt to observe on such occasions is to be determined by the itary offices at express orders of the Emperor. they shall be punished by sixty blows of the bamboo. 311. with a view to avoid such suspension. that the filial piety of the Chinese has need of the continual stimulus of the bamboo. the moon. to Here is another arrangement." magicians. Among the ritual laws. the twentysight principal constellations. or the fortunate events . not " It is forbidden to entirely injudicious : calamities that menace the for nation. they are to have five hundred strokes for every one of their predictions. and other celestial appearances. I. hinder them from casting the horoscopes of private individuals who may apply to them. are. 310. meteors. sorcerers. and to mark their time in order to render an account of them to his Majesty the Emperor. there are some other rather curious provisions : "All that concerns the science of the stars. and the forfeiture of his place. however. and if. that may be in store it * Vol. If the said officers neglect to observe exactly the said appearances. this law. comets. shall be observed by the officers composing the astro- nomical council of Pekin. he should falsely represent the deceased person to have been a more distant relation. all public duty during the whole period . however. commanders. he shall suffer the punishment of a hundred blows. or persons holding important civil a great distance from the Court. as well as eclipses. under pretext of announcing the lers. besides being deMilclared incapable of ever holding any for the future. the five planets. .264 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and others. and fortune-telhouses of the civil and military offithe frequent cers of government.* It will be seen by these details." This law does not.

to wear mourning for any of them under pain of receiving a hundred stripes. becomes. of which we have endeavored here to give a slight sketch. M . as well as the Tao-sse. Thus. the officer is to receive forty strokes of the bamboo. and all negligence. applied equally to the delinquent and to the "master of the ceremonies. The health of the swinish multitude affair . or Doctors of Reason. is presumed to have been in fault. therefore. are regarded by the law of China as civilly dead. The Bonzes. often enters into the most minute details concerning points with which European mothers. They are forbidden to visit their fathers and dead ancestors. so that any one of them becomes indisposed. which are fattened in the pagodas for solemn sacrifices. or thin. The Chinese. have very precise and severe laws relating to the official worship. Authority having lost the strength and energy that it once had. notwithstanding their complete indifference in matters of religion. 265 nor from prognosticating births. which is still more remarkable. imperfection. or irregularity in the observance of the is repressed by the bamboo. when the government officer charged with the education of the sacred pigs. legislators would never but in examining some of the countless numbers of its think prescriptions and regulations." rites. without VOL. The penal code of China. II. a very important tom of illness among them is enough to and a sympthrow a whole pagoda into consternation. to sacrifice to their of concerning themselves . does not feed them in the manner prescribed by law.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. or. nor consulting the stars in the accustomed manner. the people live pretty much as they please. we have more than once had occasion to remark that the practice of the people was by no means in accordance with them. and so many more for every ad- whose vigilance ditional sick pig.

and in the most* serious affairs. seated upon one of the shafts of the vehicle. Their own pleasure forms their only rule. were proceeding in a hired cart along the Imperial road. In the summer of 1849. "Look there!" We raised our eyes in the direction in which he was pointing with the handle of his whip. and perceived numerous small cages suspended to the branches of the trees. after Raving shaken the ashes out of his pipe. and looking like some apparatus " What is that ?" said we. Presently. pointing to the tops of some trees at the road-side. was occupied in smoking his pipe and whipping his lean mules. which is bordered by great trees. that stretched out before us as far as the eye could reach. trees. coarsely made with sticks of bamboo. The Mandarins exercise their power according to their own caprice. We could not long endure this and lay at the foot of the disgusting sight. said. directs them to torture a prisoner to obtain a confession. and began looking to the right and left. when the law. Almost all were in a state of putrefacSome of the tion.266 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and the features hideously distorted. by cages were broken. from others the heads had fallen out altogether." The cart drove on. troubling themselves about the code and its regulations. While the driver. jumped down. we were crossing the prov- One evening we ince of Chan-toung to go to Pekin. "and you will soon know. perhaps." he replied. well. and soon. or even to inflict the punishment of death. a human head. " Look for bird-catching. . they pay no attention to the law unless it suits them to do so. and. shuddering. and the heads hung in them only the beards or the hair . the Chinese Phaeton. our eyes wandered carelessly over a dull and monoton- ous plain. ing for something. like a man who is seek- He soon came running back. we beheld in each of about fifty cages.

and yet con- who ravaged trived to escape the pursuit of the Mandarins. those heads all utter frightful vociferations. when it is dark. without waiting for any authority from the Emperor." "No. the driver related to us that this infested by bands of thieves. At the this a of ExCommissioner year. with a considerable armed force. . the whole country round. and. out from We for can hear them cry the villages round. beginning traordinary had been sent from Pekin." "Why?" we." said our driver. "never fear to pass this way said at night. for the mere sight of these hideous cages affected our imaginations so that we could not days get rid of the impression. terrible execution had alarmed the. however. whole dis- "I would take good care. and their heads for a terror to evil doers. and one day in a certain village he had seized almost the whole gang.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE." were not at all surprised that our driver should all You put faith in this story. 267 As we district had formerly been drove away. hung to the trees on the road This trict. "there can hardly be much of robbers just now. had had them all be- headed. but because.

off to the capital. with the The case. JUST as we were about to leave Kouang-tsi-hien. we received a visit from the prefect of the town. . ' Inspector of Crimes." make him speak. "I was employed the whole day in interrogating him. even through and death. whom we were happy to have an opportunity of thanking for the manner in which we had been treated. they stand by each other. I sat also during a part of the night without being able to succeed in makThat is just like ing him denounce his accomplices. Government Couriers Storm Departure from Kouang-tsi-hien Mode of Epistolary Correspondence Grand Festival at Hoang-meiIdea we ought to have of the Fire-works Chinese Music hien Music of the Ancient Chinese Imperial Koad to Pekin The Roads Halt upon the Borders of Lake Pouyang Embarkation in China Kakkerlacs on board the Junk Glance over the Province of Hou-pe' Details conAgriculture in China Imperial Festival of Labor cerning Agriculture Agricultural Productions -The Bamboo The Water Lily Imperial Ilice Observant Character of the Chinese Classification of Corn What becomes of the Swallows during WinMethod of hindering Manner of making a Cat tell the Time ter Asses from Braying. In a few days." said he. "Yesterday. but I do not think he will . and that was why I did not come to pay my respects to you.CHAPTER VIII. the kouan-kouen tortures ered. I will send him necessary documents connected with his it. when he has recovand that the frenzy caused by the torture has dis- appeared.' will en- deavor to succeed. superior tribunals of Ou-tchang-fou will then undertake The Ngan-tcha-sse. We asked what had become of the robber-chief.

and one mass of bruises. and the people of our caravan looked about anxiously in all directions for a place of refuge. We have a tremendous storm. and continually if we liked. or procuring shelter. "This is a most vexatious circumstance!" said he. a violent clap of rain thunder broke over our heads. of conjuring the storm.. we do not see what else can be done." ! But our conductor did not at all relish the idea of resreturned to the charge. we could find some means that evidently. after having flagellated a prisoner till he is covered with blood. to have remedies applied to restore his strength. and the habitations were so few that we could not just then see any." " But if the storm comes " "Well. and these remedies are said to be so efficacious. it seems. very. the sky became covered with clouds. He seemed to think that men like us ought not to have been embar- . we must submit as well as we can be resigned. The country we were traversing was wild and sterile. in a large village that lay quite away from the road. About an hour after we had quitted Kouang-tsi-hien. so as to be able to torture him again without danger of killing him . and enormous drops of feared for a time that we were began to fall. and that we could only have reached by crossing going to the fields. " Do what can we do ? It's not easy to help it. at a very great distance. ing. except." we replied . imaginignation. "we are going to have bad weather. 269 It is customary for the judge. JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Our Weeping Willow was in extreme perplexity. that the torture can often be repeat- ed daily." " In that case what do you propose to do ?" " Yes. and lie came every moment to our palanquins to ask what was to be done.

erate. They walked on in silence. but the Rites imperatively required that we should remain shut up in We our palanquins. but after the few large heavy drops. Fortunately for us. Toward noon we were joined by two travelers. a three-fold cotton girdle. and for their entire clothing a thin they sang with all their pair of drawers. The mud was not immodfresh. became atmosphere. there was no. fastened with leathern thongs. that it drank in with avidity all the The palanquin-bearers water that fell from the sky. Their eyes were constantly fixed on the ground. but. storm after all. but with no appearance of haste. rassed about such a thing as that. really envied them. worn in a cross-belt . These two men were government couriers. with bare heads. cool and deliciously we were on a sandy soil. and the varnished boxes on backs contained dispatches from the Administration of Ou-tchang-fou. the rain began to fall quietly and regularly. they reveled with delight in the cool fresh rain. and they scarcely turned their heads when they passed through the middle of our caravan. and an enormous varnished box. they burst into peals of laugh. going to Pekin the Imperial road. had been which before suffocating. In a few minutes they were far from us. as appeared quite delighted when they felt the rain running down their backs. with a long and uniform step. the enced the smallest inconvenience. with peaked rattan caps. and no one experi- On the contrary. and soon after quite out of sight. It continued to do so the whole day. The Chinese government em- by their . on their feet they had sandals. and thus obtained so easily the pleasure of a prolonged bath ter . swinging their arms. .270 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and one that was so dry and thirsty. The horseman and pedestrians were not less pleased . and might and main seemed to make a mere sport of their toilsome vocation.

271 whose services means by made acquainted with what is passing in the provinces. The missionaries. they days together without couriers never These appear hurried you difficulty. whose Before pace is said to be faster than that of a horse. demands more If the intelligence to be conveyed celerity. yet they get along with extraordinary rapidity. correspondence that exists in Europe. are performed with tolerable regularity . find it hard to endure the tediousness of these communivery cations. The Chinese do not suffer much from this state of facility of . or sometimes employ pedestrian couriers. and among the tributary nations. but on ordinary occasions they do not go faster than a trot. and when you wish to send letters you trust to the complaisance of some traveler. which is. would say they were walking at an ordinary pace. and . a very costly method. and the quantity of which they increase every day. of course. which are hung about their limbs. Relays of this it is horses are kept at certain distances all along the principal roads. ploys couriers on foot and on horseback. Accidents of various kinds also happen to the messengers on the road and often. these men go through a long course "of preparatory training. after all the expense you have been at. loaded with a number of bags filled with sand. or send a messenger at your own expense.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. who are accustomed to the prodigious must . being accepted to fill this office. your letters go astray. by making forced marches. Fifty days suffice to bring a letter from Paris to Canton. There is no such thing in China as a post for the use of the public. By degrees they acand when afterward quire great strength and agility to their legs are accusdiminish the which they weight are to walk for able tomed. . the estafettes gallop day and night. but from Canton to Pekin takes three months.

s family eight man. provided he after- son. It must not be supposed. their hands never tremble as they they do not often settle even by writing. one should If. on the contrary. as well as the one to whom ward communicate its contents to the lawful owner of the epistle. Looking at every thing only on the positive and material side.272 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. a native of Pekin. feel the need of corresponding with their relations and friends. but there is never any thing friendly and to confidential in them. Many conversations that we had had with this Chinese had led us to suppose that he was not. and coolly read the characters he is tracing . for having scarcely any domestic affections. however. therefore. crated They are mere commonplace by custom. that the Chinese break the seal of a letter . but prefer going to the place and treating vivd voce. If you sec any one writing and feel at all 'curious. . They know nothing of the lively emotions that the mere sight ~f a known handwriting can awaken . a fact of which we were witnesses furnished us with the means of estimating the importance and value of a letter in this We were staying at the time with a literary country. who had left h. it is a mere trifle. and communicate their joys and their sorrows. you have only to lean over his shoulder. they have no idea of the things. they address missives to each other on all occasions . years before to take the office of schoolmaster in one of the towns of the south. The first year of our residence in China. quite of so cold and insensible a nature as most . and no offense. any happen to open and read a letter addressed to any one else. they do not tender relations by which two hearts delight to draw near in intimate correspondence.and might be nont formalities conse- any other per- they are addressed. nobody minds doing that. their commercial affairs do not frequently write letters .

and set about writing to his master's mother. I should write a letter to old mother . I think sidering for a moment he said. yes . take this sheet of paper" and the pupil accordingly took the paper. figures paper upon of birds. write their letters upon fancy which are stamped. " Interrupt your lesson for a moment. The Chinese mostly ages. After con- my heard nothing of her for four years. The pupil presented himself with the proper air of demure modesty." he re- " take your mother. Since there is such a good opportunity lines. and mythological person. better. I have sending something to his family or friends. lose and write me for a letter to my is any time. we asked the schoolmaster whether M* . as the messenger was going off that evening. " Directly. butterflies. and we asked him whether he would not like to take the opportunity of his the appearance of possessing " Oh. in that case. of his countrymen : 273 manners were kind. One day we were on the point of sending off a messenger to Pekin. and he had more warmth of heart than is common here. and she does not know where I am." it would not be amiss if I were to write a few thought his filial piety did not seem of a very fervent complexion but we merely told him that he had . going directly." and plied . flowers. The Chinese is black.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. write immediately. directly. When the pupil had left the room with his sheet of ornamented paper. We " you shall have the letter in a few minutes. who was singing out his classical lesson in the next room probably some fiiie passage out of Confucius upon the love that children owe to their parents." said the master . the courier Here. But don't pencil. character being always of a fine not lost amidst these fantastic ornaments. in red and blue. he called to one of his pupils.

lost no time. "Not in the least. the Blue River. Do you think he does not know perfectly well how a son ought to write to his mother ?" We had nothing to reply to this . much traveled the whole day through the fresh pourand arrived in the evening at Hoang-mei-hien. however." he an" I don't think he knew whether she was liv" * ing or had already saluted the world. with his letter in an elegant envelope. The proximity of the lake Pou-yang. obedient to his master's orders. rain. and any other would doubtless have felt as this lad knew swered. gives a great commercial activity to this town. but we understood immediately the difference between filial piety. ." " Don't he know For more quite well what to say ? than a year he has been studying literary composition. for the letter would have done just as well for any other mother in the Celestial Empire as for the one to whom it was addressed. which he had even had the politeness to seal all ready. while.' " In that You did case. to write the address with his own hand . and he is acquainted with a number of elegant formulas. and it receives all the merchandise sent from the little river. and the road to Pekin. and as it is so magnificently described and commented on in their books. The pupil. which appeared to us rather superfluous. He returned soon afterward. how can he write the letter ? not even tell him what he was to say. situated on the banks of a We satisfaction in the receipt of it. long He wished.274 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. so that this admirable son did not even give himself the trouble to read the unctuous expressions of tenderness and respect that he had addressed to No doubt he had known them by heart a his mother. his mother. not far from the Imperial road. and had himself taught them to the pupil. as it is felt and practiced in China. ing a town of the third order.

to crown all. and with great noise but the grandest pieces were placed at the angles of the court. This perpetual cracking noise was only interrupted by the explosion of a -sort of bombshell that went off very suddenly. It might have been thought that the Mandarins of this town intended to make us forget the annoyances we had experi&iced for the previous month. and placed on the ground. it rushes to an imis . that shot into the air with splendid effect. and we were received in it with a magnificence that we had been little accustomed to since we had left the province of Sse-tchouen. wheel then kindled. mart of Han-keou." which pleased us most of all. The ceremonial of visiting etiquette all its . was observed in there seemed no end of our bows. and then suddenly springing into the air. suspended in large bunches on bamboo poles. There were rockets of various colors. their dry and noisy detonations never ceasing for a single moment. called by the Chinese "a flying It has merely to sun. and besides the hangings of rich silk. These were composed first of a prodigious quantity of crackers. The communal palace. north or south of the Empire.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. in which we were lodged. the lanterns. throwing out bluish flames in all directions. a kind of wheel. there were vases of flowers that shed a deli- red cious perfume through the apartments. we were treated at night to a serenade and a brilliant display of fire-works. where dragons and other fabulous beasts vomited fire at every pore. and immediately it begins to turn rapidly. the also. was tastefully fitted up. and of rigor the abundant outpouring of fine hollow words . ince of for 275 the great central Hoang-mei-hien was to be our last stage in the provHou-pe . and the sentences suspended on the walls. be put on a large plate. and . and at last.

theatrical representations. . this grand evening's entertainments. flutes. receptions of Mandarins and they are sure to manage somehow or other great men In the towns and villages you to bring in fire-works. but it is so intolerably monotonous. all the most distinguished artists of. so that one might take the whole We Chinese Empire for one great pyrotechnic establishment. have said that in the poorest hovels. that pleases you pretty well at first. has a certain softness and very much like ours. and the instruments in great variety.Hoang-mei-hien had been collected. melancholy in its tones. and they have remained faithful to their first inclinations. liking squibs and crackers a great deal better than cannon. and other both wind and stringed instruments of such whimsical forms that we can not attempt to give any description of them. Chinese music. There were hautboys. but their taste is less decided for the kind made use of in war than for the milder sort employed for fire-works. funerals. marriages. Of Chinese music.27C JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. meetings of friends. and lets fall a fiery rain of all sorts of and varied colors. that if prolonged it becomes exceedingly irritating to the nerves. you are always sure to find melon seeds. In acter all their festivals and solemnities of whatever char- births. hear them popping and cracking at almost every hour of the night and day. where the peo- ple have scarcely the necessaries of life. and the orchestra was certainly considerable. we can not speak so favorably as It is probable that for of their pyrotechnic displays. and we might have added also that fire-works are seldom wanting. it is true. The Chinese have always "been passionately fond of powder. of which they knew the use long before the mense brilliant Europeans. violins. height. They were fire-work makers before they Avcre artillerists.

for instance. and also the works of the Chinese themselves. indeed. one might suppose they merely blew into their instruments. but was lost in the great fire ordered by the Emperor Tsing-che-hoang-ti. have been a collection of hymns and prayers. might lead you to suppose they attached great importance to music. such as are heard in the chants of savages. or Book it of Music. and deplores the loss of such a precious monument of antiquity. that in the early ages of China. This opinion. you find these ical books. " music and the rites" was an expression for religion might be confirmed by many passages from the annals and canonIn the Li-ki. chanted in the sacrifices and other religious solemnities. even to the point of regarding it as an essential element in good government and the happiness of the people. and though their compositions are doubtless not of much scientific value." might lead us to suppose that before the introduction of the worship of Buddha and Lao-tze these words designated the primitive religion of the Chinese. but which must have been based on the great traditions The Yo-king is supposed to confided to humanity. and which are more or less agreeable. Confucius speaks of this canonical book with the greatest respect. and containing also religious doctrine and instruction. of whose doctrines little is known. iff The Chinese have no semi-tones in their scale . The esteem and veneration professed in ancient times for "the rites and music. king. or twanged their strings at random. . European books concerning China. The Yowas counted among the sacred books. you do sometimes hear some- thing like simple melodies in them. notes. it appears they have spiration of the moment . from the inhowever. and the Book of Rites is thought to have formed its complement.JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIKE.

when he visited different parts of the Empire. All these sayings are very remark- and indicate evidently that among the ancient Chi- . agree in saying that music was. It is related that Chun. Its purpose is to make known man able. . and rendering the State prosperous. "the government had perfect unity.278 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. festation of the laws of heaven. etc. the ceremonies and music embraced the whole Empire. words: "Music is the expression of the union of earth and heaven. the Chan-ty. the object of the continual meditations of sages. it teaches principal end is to regulate fathers and children. the maniwisdom. With music and ceremonies nothing in Music acts upon the interior of the Empire is difficult. the that reference bond of the laws. and the ceremonies and music became only an empty name withThe ancient poets call music the echo of out reality." After the first dynasties. in the early ages. their reciprocal duties. there came divisions into the government. whether they had changed noWe can hardly suppose the question thing in music. even to declaring that is philosophers of antiquity sometimes go still furit is the chief support of authority. ceremonies and music are the most prompt and efficacious methods for reforming manners." cient writings. the founder of the Chinese monarchy. the rules of his conduct. and it is evident then made to the religious instruction The Annals. and all ancontained in the "Yo-king." The ther." and to lead toward him. the mistress and mother of virtue. " Under the first dynasties. According to the school of Confucius. princes and subjects. inquired every where. with the spirit. Its it connection into and man. brings the passions ." says a famous Chinese moralist. and of the care of government. "the sovereign Lord. was merely of singing and notation. husbands and The sage finds in music wives.

Yang-siou. an explanation of these unaccustomed honafforded ever. we were saluted by more fire-works . "that you have nowhere been treated with more attention than in the " Than in the town of Hoangprovince of Hou-pe. others crouched on the ground. easy to understand the great importance attached to it . and the ensign was standing in a most irreproachable attitude. ors. just as we were about to set off. nese." and on the other with "Bravery!" As we crossed the court. religion is only an empty name withto the Divinity . music. of Hoang-mei-hien seemed determined to grand style. smoking or fanning themselves. we really hardly understood such a display of magnificent courAn expression made use of by the prefect. He held gravely in both hands a long bamboo pole. and with this amendment we entered the palanquins. and two military Mandarins. Their costume was tolerably uniform. at least some were huddled in a corner. accompanied by the authorities of the town." we replied. howtesy. At the moment when we were entering our palan- having long and pompously thanked him for all his politeness.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The next morning. out reality. These heroes were indeed already drawn up in the court-yard. "You see. and seemed to feel all the sublimity of his office. and to keep it up to the last. was to be made to our escort. inscribed on one side with the words " Militia of Hoang- mei-hien. therefore. as the above-quoted philosopher. remarks. after . and were carried away quins. that is to say. smiling." said he. but at present." mei-hien. and we were informed that an addition of thirty soldiers. 279 music was the expression of religious worship paid it is. on the top of which floated a triangular flag of a red color. the prefect and the principal functionaries presented themselves. and some were treat us in The town leaning against the wall.

all bristling with rough . little inconvenienced by it. They spoke little and sung still less. of which Hoang-mei-hien occupies the apex. they were besides more talkative and playful we often heard them warbling some song. that thronged every to the communal all palace. and teasing each other with jokes and The heat was scorching. and the other from north to south. On leaving this town rection of our route. among whom it was easy for us to distinguish the men of the north from their southern brethren. more vigorous limbs. well to do something to give us a pleasant recollection of Hou-pe.280 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. wished. us this kind of probability the order to give ovation at Hoang-mei-hien had proceeded from the palace of the Governor of Ou-tchang-fou. The northmen. though in a harsh nasal. we completely changed the Our course from the frontier di- of Thibet to Canton described two sides of a triangle. only endeavored to refresh themselves by continual chewing of bits of areca nut. were suffocated by the heat and dripping with perspiration. Their swarthy complexions. as well as by their more elegant costume . They knew very In for we had expressed our opinion often enough. that we had not been satisfied and loudly enough with the treatment we had generally received in Houpe. before allowing us to enter the next province. but they seemed very puns. One side of this triangle runs from east to west. avenue through an immense crowd. thick mustaches. and especially their sonorous language. voice. The latter might be known by their pale and somewhat effeminate but refined and intelligent faces. They were not sure that our complaints on this suband they ject might not lead to vexatious consequences. We met on this road a great number of travelers. on the contrary. and .

and caravans of asses and mules. Chinese assert that the carelessness of the government with respect to the modes of communication only dates from the accession of the Mantchou-Tartar dynasty. This contrivance must have afforded them much relief. accidents frequently hapinpen.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. had most likely state. and mud holes. where navigable rivers are not so numerous as in the South. guided by two men. been a fine one. the other pushing in a pair of shaft*. The only functionary who had charge of the road. There some districts in which th% public have endeavored . The government does in fact never concern itself about the roads. aspirationsj'distinguished 281 ern Chinese. and at some time or other. which the carts and barrows followed with the most scrupuIt was easy to see that time was the lous assiduity. for they are not the men for any needless complication of machinery. one pulling by a rope. and traveling with the merchandise t'hat they were going to Their means of transport for sell. except those which the Emperor has to travAs to the erse when he takes the trouble to travel. were carts with two horses. to supply for themselves a remedy for this deplorable . it Sometimes when the wind was favorable they tried to by fixing above their small vehicles a mat or even spreading a sail. they must manage as well as they can. and carriages upset and travelers crushed form cidents too common for any body to concern themselves about are you merely pass by on the other side. under former dynasties. The road we were following was broad enough. or had just bought. and in the northern provinces. and especially barrows. of hillocks and hollows. or they would not have lessen their toil adopted it. but it was now in a detestable full almost every where broken up. people. Almost all them strongly from the Souththe travelers were traders. and frightful ruts.

"To get to Nan-tchang-fou." we had now arrived was the celebrated Pou-yang. and which we had passed on the ice not far from its source in traversing one of the great valleys of We On this day we crossed it in a large passage Thibet. . cases it is to be in the at his tricts very common to condemn the party declared wrong to mend a certain piece of the road of fine. that is to say. Before the end of the day we arrived once more on the banks of that famous Blue River. and one that to us was of no little importance. and after an hour's navigation we landed at a little town called Hon-keou. by cutting a The lake at which tongue of land that separated them. whose decisions they respect. which we seemed to meet every where since our departure from the capital of Ssetchouen. regretted our little cross roads. it is . this was the last time. In all negligence of the government. and the thick dust in which we were constantly enveloped. customary only to have recourse to the tribunals at the last extremity most people prefer choosing as arbiters some old men of tried integrity and long experience. which the Chinese have brought into communication with the Yellow River. found this day's march on the Imperial road extremely fatiguing. own expense by way and in these dis- the good state of the road is in a direct ratio with the quarrelsome and litigious spirit of the inhabitants. the capital of Kiang-si. "Mouth of the Lake. lawsuits. we had to choose between two roads. where at least we had the advantage of being able to rest from time to time under the shade of a great tree. At Hon-keou we had to settle a very knotty point.82 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. We added much to the oppression of the excessive heat. or drink a cup of ice-cold water from a mountain spring. disputes. the tumult of the travelers. boat . In such and quai-rels.

" On the following day. which is delightful in fine weather. the one by water across the lake Pou-yang. inconvenient. if any one would undertake that it should not rain. What our friend the Willow thought. the sky was clear. for then you have to journey almost incessantly through quagmires and ponds. The lake Pou-yang is about forty-five miles . that plan is full wisdom. after consulting some experienced persons of the locality. tween these two we had to choose. we should certainly have preferred the water. and the inns are small. Hon-keou." we can " reflect on it with of is Yes. he was exceedingly ready to point out the inevitable inconveniences in either course. that we thought better to stay a little it day more information at ." said he . in order to obtain a "let us go to bed. it was impossible to guess . but by roads generally bad. The other way was by land. and we heard from every one that there was no likelihood of any immediate change. There was a favorable breeze. but when it came to taking a resolution. he wiped his tearful eyes and had nothing more to say. a real inland sea.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. There are also no communal palaces in the towns where you stop. 283 equally frequented by travelers . "we are too tired to-day to settle this grave question. and with a favorable breeze. and on the other hand it would be more prudent to go by land. The case seemed so perplexing." said we to our conductor. to-morrow calmness and deliberation. it was decided that on the whole we had better go by the lake. wind. one way or the other. and destitute of every comfort. and the choice was If any one would have secured us a good not easy. but dreadfully tedious if the wind be contrary. and very danger- ous if you happen to meet with a storm. " in great enterprises precipitation always injurious. Bedirty. and nearly impassable in the season of rain and tempest.

one day would suffice to wind good A junk was hired. lampoil. bumping themselves the and wainscot. sometimes on the other. A tolerably spacious cabin had been reserved for the rest (as we had scarcely retired to we supposed) than we began much to regret that we had not passed the night on shore. and beginning to promenade along our arms and legs. they would in fact eat a traveler up clothing. by from fifteen to eighteen broad. it would only be a question of time and patience. but skimming round another. We insolence to pass over our faces . but far from agreeable to us. and then they were not long in insinuating themselves beneath the coverlet. ink and inkstands. and eveii the tobacco : but their favorite dainties are the tops of your fingers. however. in order to their more atrocious manoeuvres. bedding and all if they were let alone . length by dint of searching they discovered some small opening. against performing all kinds of gambols. hats. to get up an appetite. very amusing doubtless for them. and then little be ready for they took a more exercise. Sometimes they had the pouch . and toes . we could feel the tick- At ling of their little feet and their cold stomachs. There was such a multitude of these disgusting insects . We heard them first in circles. coats. morning. ears. Nothing comes amiss to a kakkerlac shoes. Swarms of kakkerlacs began to make war upon us in the most pitiWillow and ourselves. and the same evening we went on board in order to be able to start at dawn on the following long. heard them constantly gnawing. to carry a Mandarin junk we were told. but it was really a merchantman. tobacco. they became less manner.284 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMl'IUE. us the end of our voyage. sometimes on one side. and with the that was blowing. By degrees. pursuing one quieter. to rest a little probably.

and rise to the the measured song of the sailors. and all the men were on board not one failed to answer to the roll-call. pretty long. and even in this it was necessary to be extremely cautious. As soon a retreat.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and the sound of the tam-tam. and chinks of floors. and as anchor began to . They make their way into linen. on board this junk. the army of kakkerlacs retired into cantonments. that one would really almost rather make them a present of a toe. it would not be an uninteresting animal. and seem to find every where suitable board and lodging. that we had ity. The capstan was then manned. being of a and an inch chestnut about It can color. effected and the junk give the order to did not appear that there was captain of and. for they give out such an intolerably fetid odor when crushed. but to make amends it can gallop with marvelous It is not a disagreeable-looking creature. An immense matting sail was unfurled. rapidity. and they increase and multiply in them in a truely terrific manner. than come to this extremtinent. hardly go further in its flight than a grasshopper can leap. and marked predilection for whatever is dirty. a packet of fire-works let off. and merely put them to flight without crushing them. 285 and they were so intolerably imperto pass the whole night in chasing them. strange to say. though they do not by any* means despise those of the rich. they choose mostly to invade the habitations of the poor. it any thing to stop for. and its devastating and cunning propensities. and especially old furniture and old rags. as day broke. Were it not for its bug-like odor. sail. books. The provisions had been laid in the evening before. but the junks are their most favored resort. as they have a very These kakkerlacs swarm in the south of China.

from the remotest antiquity. ince of Hou-pe* is the province of Hou-pe. We where else noticed so much heads. the harvest of a year is seldom sufficient for a month's consumption. it has . is covered with a multitude of ponds and marshes. It is said that in the province of Hou-pe*. cotton. We remarked. The The villages have in general can make but little use. pire can not all Although the eighteen provinces of the Chinese Embe placed on the same rank for fertility and the value of their productions. The inhabitants have an unhealthy and rather wild aspect. The great populations of the towns are supplied from the neighboring provinces. the breeze caught the junk we began to glide rapidly over the blue waters of the lake Pou-yang. which is not very fertile." in all respects very inferior to that of land. In no other country in the world has agriculture been BO highly honored. Sse-tchouen. and cultivated with remarkable intelligence. to enter Hou-pe signifies "north of the Lake. and especially Sse-tchouen. We that of had now left Kiang-sL and serves to designate the country lying northward of The provthe great lakes Pou-yang and Thing-toun. it may nevertheless be said that on the whole China is an admirably fertile country. besides the numerous rice fields that border the some lakes and rivers. and hemp. nevertheless. a very poor and wretched appearance. and still more from baldness. or so many scalddoubt that these infirmities the unwholesome diet to which they are confined. in the province of Hou-pe tolerably fine plantations of indigo. which can not in ten years consume the produce of one.286 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and are frehave noquently affected by cutaneous diseases. and there is little proceed from the stagnant waters among which these unfortunate people pass their lives. industrious and patient as they are. of which the Chinese.

In order to enable the reader better to judge of the importance attached to this ceremony. each in their turn. On the twenty-third day of the third Chinese moon say toward the end of the month of March that is to render the mon- arch goes to the sacred field accompanied by three princes of the blood. and the head of the State the Emperor never fails to homage to agricultural labor. have constantly. a great number of other functionaries of secondary rank. 1767). following his example the princes and ministers. of the thirty-second year of the reign of Kien Long (April 22. such as Confucius and Meng-tze. and several laborers. The Emperor ground. we will translate the programme of the fete presented in the form of a memorial to the Emperor Kien Long. and the other Tribunals. and then the laborers complete the tillage of the field. guide the plow. by a public ceremonial which dates as far back as the 12th century before our era. and traces a certain portion of a furrow . the tilling the On the evening Mandarins of the secondary palace of the Will respectfully bear the tablet of the Tribunal of ministers to the temple dedicated to the inventors and protectors of agriculture. 287 been placed in the first rank among various kinds of inIt has been celebrated by the greatest moraldustry. The Mandarins of the Emperor office of Public Revenue will prepare the instruments of . in their proclamations. the nine Presidents of Courts. at the opening of each year. he himself lays his hand upon the plow.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. the magistrates ists. recommended the people to be assiduous in the culture of the fields . After having offered sacrifice upon an earthen altar. and inserted in 1767 in the gazettes of Pekin and the provinces. re- "The Tribunal of Rites. and trace some furrows. spectfully announce the ceremony of the 23d day of the 3d moon. will perform in person the labor of before.

after to the Governor of. the Master of the Ceremonies. will assemble at noon in the Sacred Field. All being ranged in order shall stand waiting in silence. and holding spades. The four titled old men. the Mandarins of the Emperor's household. and the thirty laborers of the three orders. the capital. and all the instruments of tillage will be placed in order near the Imperial tillage 1 IK -in pavilion. pitchforks. and will himself accompany them to the Sacred Field. and their hands. and conduct him to his palace to repose himself and quit his habits of cere- princes and great personages who have to In the mean perform the labor will also quit theirs. will place themselves in two lines. . will have them carried. and the boxes of seed mony. and the other officers on duty. the thirty-four old men of Pekin. " These being finished. "Red tablets will be planted on the ground to mark and distinguish the different portions of land which the princes and great persons have to till. will be taken out of and placed on one side of the Sacred "The Master of the Ceremonies. time the plow and the whip. and the boxes filled with seed corn. The corn to be used their envelopes Field. the fourteen chanters. to the right and the left of the Sacred Field. rakes. and twenty peasants wearing straw hats. the Mandarins of the Imperial Household. and inclosed them covered having them in boxes. there to wait the conclusion of the sacrifices. with silk envelopes. and the other officers of the Court will repair at the fifth watch (day break) to the outside of the Imperial palace. On the day of the ceremony. along brooms in with the fifty standard bearers.288 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. by the Emperor. the ten great officers of the first guard will surround the Son of Heaven. the thirty-six players of instruments. and transmit The latter.

and. " 289 The hour of tillage having come. As soon as he has reached the spot. At the first movement of his Majesty all those who have and the singers will begin their flags will wave them. ' Present the plow. songs to the accompaniment of all Governor of Pekin peror will till will bear. and the first Mandarin of Agriculture. Then the Master of the Ceremonies shall take a flag and shall wave it three times. the President of the Tribunal of Rites will say in a loud voice. will then go to the spots marked out. which the Son of Heaven will take in his left Two old men will then lead forth the oxen. with his face turned toward the north. The three and the nine who are to till princes. and hand. great personages the ground. the first Mandarin of Agriculture shall enter the palace to invite the Son of Heaven. the II. The President of the Tribunal of Rites. 4 Present the whip. The Em- "When VOL. with his face turned toward the north. all who have any office will repair to their posts. will kneel sent the handle of the plow to the it down with both knees on the ground and will present the whip. the box of the instruments.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. will conduct him to the Sacred Field. and will prewill take hold of Son of Heaven. will kneel down on both knees. the} rest ranging themselves Field. who with his right hand.' and immediately the Governor of Pekin. two laborers of the first order will support the plow. and his Majesty will advance.' and immediately the Minister of Public Revenue. The President of the Tribunal of Rites will then say in a loud voice. Son of Heaven shall have finished his N . on two sides of the Sacred " The ten great officers of the first guard having surrounded the Emperor. the grain. will walk before them. three furrows. with his face turned toward the south. and the Minister of Public Revenue will follow him.

each having an to guide the oxen. will stop. they will man come and take their places in proper order. will cover the of Agriculture. on either side of the Emperor.290 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. as well as the boxes Then the music of seed corn. 'Receive the plow. and will carry them away. and two inferior Mandarins of Pekin gin to till and remain standing. will conduct his Majesty up the central staircase.' Public Revenue will then kneel down to receive it. The President in a loud voice. and two inferior Mandarins to walk after them and sow. each having an old man to guide their oxen. the President of the Tribunal of Rites will say tillage. they will come and take their places. and the President of the Tribunal of Rites will invite the Son of Heaven to ascend the Imperial The same President. with the silk envelopes. and two laborers to supthe port plow. of the Tribunal of Rites will then say ' Receive the whip. on the western . and till to walk after them and sow the seed. Then the ground. "All the Princes. When they have finished.' The Governor of Pekin will immediately kneel down to receive it. The nine gin to old till first and dignitaries of the Empire will then bewill make nine furrows. and remain standing. two laborers to hold up the plow. They plow and the whip. and great personages who have no will range themselves part in the remainder of the ceremony. When they have finished. and his Majesty will seat himself with his face turned to the south. and the first Mandarin pavilion. the three princes will befive furrows. and the inferior Mandarins of Pekin will cover the implements of husbandry and the boxes of grain with their silk envelopes. The Minister of in a loud voice. " The President of the Tribunal of Rites will then lead to the foot of the Imperial pavilion. Mandarins.

nothing mean and made use of for this action is elegant and dignified . It was evident there was in their eyes despicable in the occupation. and each bearing an implement of husbandry. and public opinion ennobles in some measure all that cultivated. the old men and the laborgo and finish the tillage of the Sacred Field . the old men and the laborers. sometimes wearing silken robes. to thank the Son of Heaven. Whatever the Mandarins relates to the labors of the fields. and the The very word travelers manifested no surprise at it. to the field to be A influence the government and have in the matter. standing waiting gravely with a three-pronged pitchfork the passage of the carts and caravans of mules. and will enter a car of state. escorted cians. or the dung of horses ritorial the expression is always the same. it is certain may that the Chinese profess a great esteem for agriculture. and then the President of the Tribunal of Rites will come and inform his Majesty that the ceremonies of the tillage are finished. Then all together. the Governor taking the part of the Emperor. The Emperor will then descend from the pavilion by the eastern staircase. dressed according to their condition. all 291 the Mandarins of Pekin. "After ers will this ceremony. How many times have we seen on the roads in the northern provinces rich farmers. from the great division of terproperty. will kneel three times. with his principal officers. and will nang.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. seldom conducted on a large scale. side. Chinese agriculture is. it signifies literally to gather / thus you gather flowers." by choirs of singers go out by the gate of Sienand bands of musi- similar solemnity takes place in every province. and proceeding. in order to collect the dung. . and three times strike the earth with their foreheads. with their faces turned toward the north.

There are indeed in the north. on a little hillock. and drawing them painfully out again. JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but whether the cultivation be on a large or a small scale. one would hardly reconcile with their known character the liberality with which count- . mules. the Chinese use only the most simple inTheir plows are frequently without any struments. which they spread over them in profusion.29'2. One day we had the patience to wait a long while at the side of a road. In the north. under the shade of a mulberry tree. and asses. farms of considerable extent. as well as horses. In the southern provinces. to watch whether the poor laboring wife." . that the rural produce under this system is of a less salubrious nature. also. Without being aware of the value attached by the Chinese to this kind of manure. the rice-fields are usually tilled with " buffaloes. and so hopping from one end of the furrow to the other. but it is possible. while her husband walked behind. and guided it. sat down in pastoral fashion. Pitiable it is to see the poor things sticking their little feet into the ground as they go. and especially their rice-fields. In the south. was allowed from time to time to rest herself. with human maIt nure. forewheel. and we saw with pleasure that there was a cessation of work The husband and wife then at the end of each furrow. the Chinese prepare their lands. called aquatic oxen. who was drawing the plow. our common domestic oxen are made use of. is unquestionable that by this means a they give strong impulse to vegetation . and refreshed themselves by smoking their pipes. and more than once it happened to us to see a plow drawn by a woman. and it may be that to this cause is attributable the existence of several maladies of the south that are among the inhabitants unknown in the north. and only turn up the earth a very little way.

indeed. you are often suddenly struck by a horrible stench that threatens to suffocate you. less 293 small buildings are provided in all parts foi the accommodation of travelers. the most desert places. and . in place on this point. the tallow The Chinese tree. When and sell them to farmers to enrich the soil. or at least some pines for turpentine. such a passion for human manure of all kinds. they sow the sweet potato. they plant in it some useful trees. from which they remove every weed with the most invincible patience. he binds several stalks together into a kind of sheaf. powerful though escapes from cowhouses and sheep-folds. farmer is incredibly anxious about his harvest . where solicitude for objects of public interest was carried even to excess . but in reality. somewhat that odor. and the cuttings of nails. or approach a farm. Not that healthy. but an atrocious mixture of all that is disgusting. self-interest is the motive power that has been at work in the production of these useful institutions. that the barbers even save the croppings of beards. if he dreads that a violent wind may shake out the grains of rice by lashing the ears one against another. You would really suppose yourself in a country.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. if they can not succeed in making it produce something. you are astonished to find these small edifices-. where the most eager competition does not take On the least frequented roads. the mulberry. built of straw. Small cultivators in China often employ spade husbandry. and it is impossible not to admire the neat condition of their fields. or even stone. The Chinese have. and if there is a corner quite unproductive. There is no town or village. and cotton . hemp. you enter a Chinese hamlet. clay. In places too dry for the culture of rice. The ground must be bad and sterile indeed. so as to make them afford each other a mutual support.

that three harvests a year are reguWhen the first is pretty well advanced. and even exhihit varieties not found elsewhere. and which send the water from one reservoir to another with great rapidity. and cultivated with so skill. It is. larly gathered. which is the principal food of the lower classes. In irrigation also they check the ravages of the wind. often carrying bamboo tubes up the sides of mountains. Many much provinces are so fertile. whence it afterward runs through little rills over the fields. sufficient to turn. in the north and west it is not more used than in France. a mistake to suppose that throughout the Empire the Chinese live chiefly on rice . and in the south. to spread the waters of rivulets and ponds over their fields. where bread is made precisely as in Europe . and then mostly on grand occasions. and surrounded with vessels that take up the water from the rivulets. form the daily food of the people. It is only seen on the tables of the rich. barley. which are cut into terraces. They have a thousand contrivances in times of drought. however. and the basis of aliment for all. and enable them to flow off again when the inundation is too They make use chiefly of chain pumps. buckwheat. Sometimes they fix at the edges of streams large wheels of extreme lightness. In the north barley and wheat are more especially cultivated . Wheat. Indian corn. rice. they put in motion with their feet. except in the province of Kan-sou. which great. care and the same time. so that there are two different crops in the same field at All the cereals known in Europe are found in China. which a very slight current is These wheels are most ingeniously constructed. and pour it into large wooden tanks.294 JOURNEY THKOUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and cultivated to the very top. in the intervals between the sow the second they ridges. the water through display great industry. millet. every where else they .

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and sometimes acquiring the proportions of a tree. sometimes a mere plant. and especially in our superb possessions in Africa. that one can hardly conceive the existence of China without it. boo is applied are so many and so important. fruits. if lie . the color. varieties of the bamboo are counted in the Empire. sometimes in the shape of a bun. and vegetables of Europe. leaves. Besides possessing the cereals. many of which would doubtless prosper in the south of France. A will yield a considerable revenue to its proprietor. after the rice and silk. the numerous uses of which have had great influence on the habits of the Chinese. as well as in peculiar and whimsical conformations which are forest of bamboos perpetuated in certain species. It issues from the ground like the asparagus. height. of which it is a native . of the diameter that it afterward remains when grown. there is nothing that The uses to which the bamyields so great a revenue. and. but merely boiled in steam. the distance of the knots. The bamboo has been known from the remotest times in China. and roots. Among the most celebrated we must mention the bamboo. but the cultivation of the large kind dates only from the end of the third Sixty-three principal century before the Christian era. China has also. The dictionary of Khang-hi defines it as "a production that is neither tree nor grass" (fei-tsao fei-mou). in her vegetable kingdom. they differ from one another in diameter. Little loaves about the size of a man's fist are occasionally made. spoil the wlieateii flour. It is no exaggeration to say that the mines of China are less valuable to her than her bam- boos . eating it 295 in the state of unfer- mented half-done paste. sometimes pulled out in ribbons like macaroni. and the thickness of the wood. a rich variety of other productions. in their branches. that is an amphibious vegetable.

and a great number of textile. of which there are many species . economical. the camellia. the star anise. and received much encouragement. " The to regulate the cutting. The nymphaja. and nutritive aquatic plants. but the mother is never sepa- knows how rated from her children. and a number of other fruit trees peculiar to the southern provinces . the hortensia. grandchilthe of the dren Chinese proverb. the li-tchi. the tallow tree. the rhubarb. or ginsing . or water-lily. the Doctors of Reason have placed it among the ingredients for . and from the remotest epochs it has attracted the attention of the Government. or dragon's eye . of which the Chinese make such wonderful use. the loung-yen. the medlar. or varnish tree . "never bamboo. or cereal productions. cultivated for the beauty of their flowers. on account of the beauty of its flowers . many kinds of roses. the odoriferous Queen Marguerite. The cultivation of useful vegetables is a branch of industry to which the Chinese have always especially devoted themselves . In the most populous provinces even the rivulets and ponds have been turned to productive account.296 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The poets have celebrated it in their verses. are sown in them. brought from China by Lord Macartney . as well as the cotton tree. has always been a great favorite in China. exclusive of the object of the most active commerce tea may be counted the wax tree." says see their grandmother. and a prodigious diversity of ligneous herbaceous plants. which would deserve to be naturalized in Europe. the paper mulberry. the tree paeony. such as the tubers of the Sagittarius and water-lily. of which the bark is very thick . the jinchen. the cinnamon tree. the orange." Among the useful and curious vegetable productions of China. the small magnolia. the day lily. the jujube.

but it com- monly grows at the two ends.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and sometimes as much as twelve or fifteen feet long. it is as thick as your arm. sometimes with single flowers. This plant. spungy fruit. The Chinese . fleshy. and composed like it of two white between which is the germ. flowers of the water-lily have numerous petals. and symmetrically ar' ranged along them. rather darker underneath. commonly called in China lien-hoa. distinguish four kinds of water-lily. enveloped in a kind of shell like the acorn. the the white. it for its utility. sends out shoots which increase its growth. which becomes a pletely open . and supported by long stalks spotted with black. full face. the red. 297 and the economists have exthe present day. of veins. others rise above it to different They are of a tender green on the upper surheights. some swim on the surface of the water. thers. The stalks of both leaves and flowers are pierced quite to the extremity by holes rounded like those of the root. rounded. or attaches itself to the clay by bunches of fibres. and sloping to the middle . scolloped at the edges. The color is pale yellow outside and milk-white within and it lies along . the tliree latter yellow. sometimes with double. disposed in such a manner that when they are not com- The you might take them for large tulips afterward they expand into a rose-like form. The root of the water-lily is longlived . the bottom of the water. has broad rounded leaves. divided throughout its length into cells full of oblong seeds. the elixir of immortality tolled it . The stamens are very delicate filaments terminating in violet-colored anlobes. In the middle of the flower is a large conical pistil. and the pink. which spring out at various distances From the midst of these fibres it sometimes along it. At has also become the symbol of the secret societies.

Finally. a.2a8 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Its seeds are eaten as nuts are in Europe. to eat with rice . water. and its great leaves lying on the surface of the water or raised majestically to various heights. it is always excellent and wholesome. which has enabled them to turn to use an immense number of plants neglected in Europe. to render it a little milder. and in the is summer eaten raw like and very refreshing. The gigantic root is a resource for culinary preparations. They are larger than poppies. . Chinese poets are particularly fond of celebrating the beauty of the water-lily gleaming in the moonlight as the boats row about the basins illumined by swarms of glow-worms and fire-flies. and there is nothing comparable to the effect produced by this splendid flower on the ponds and basins It does not bud till toward the end of May. too. the leaves are constantly made use of instead of paper for wrapping up all kinds of things. the beauty of which is of course enhanced. but more easily and rapidly by roots it does not require any kind of culture. The water-lily is very remarkable. The Chinese pickle great quantities of it with sidered delicious salt it and vinegar.nd boiled in sugar and water they are con- by epicures. and their dazzling tints are . is extremely agreeable when it is boiled with reduced to a powder milk or fruit. in a utilitarian point of view. and their greatest men. of China. when it is enameled by flowers of various dyes. and when dried are often mixed with tobacco. The Chinese owe their numerous discoveries in agri- culture principally to their eminently observant character. They are very fond of the study of nature. and in whatgreat ever way it is dressed. form a covering of most exquisite verdure. The young beautifully relieved by the green leaves. This plant may be propagated by seeds. but its germination is very rapid.

and ends very late. and to ity. because my gardens that it was first cultivated. Every year has multiplied the produce of the precedthe rice served ing. where the cold begins very early. and now for thirty years it has been on my table. I had rose above all the rest." The Emperor Khang-hi did render in fact an immense service to the populations of Mantchuria. where the cliit was in It is the mate is milder. the grain was very fine and full. but in the provinces of the south. and I was induced to keep it for an experiment. find collect The We in the curious memoirs written : that prince the following passage "I was walking. and was already ripe. and in fact it did. in some by fields where rice was sown. with care whatever promises to be of public utilcelebrated Emperor Khang-hi has thus rendered an important service to his country. that proceeded from it came into ear before the ordinary time. gathered and brought to me . and the to soil more it." says the Emperor Khang-hi. do not disdain to attend to the smallest circumstances connected with it. ceeds admirably in dry countries. or 'Imperial rice/ flavor. and very pleasant It has been named ya-mi. and yielded their harvest in the sixth moon. that can ripen north of the Great kind only Wall.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. fertile. and has no need. and of a rather reddish color. which was not expected till to yield its harvest tice the ninth. "on the first day of the sixth moon. like . and see whether it would on the following year All the plants retain this precocity. I happened to noit it a rice plant that had already come into ear. but of a sweet perfume. by encouragwhich sucing the culture of this new kind of rice. 299 and even their Emperors. it is obtain two harvests a year from solation to and it is easy to a sweet confor me have procured this advantage my people. The grain is long.

One of our Christian converts if in France the kinds of corn that The question flower in the night were very numerous. and thereupon our neophyte began to explain to us some most curious theories connected with the He told us that the numerous kinds blooming* of. the common rice. of com were all ranged under two categories. It would cerof perpetual irrigation. which is. or "Oh. if it has not long since been acclimated at the mission in the environs of While we were Pekin. but we have never heard that any experiment was tried with it. obliged agriculturists. that. we several times made it our business to send and commerce. and it is not the fault of the missionaries there. no!" he exlaimed. ground. "your cultivators must know how could they carry on their agricultural labors with success. one of which invariably began to flower in the night. Do they sow their fields at random with- out paying any attention to the sun and moon?" For the second time we were forced to avow our profound ignorance. corn. in their opinion. we did not know that any species flower- ed in the night. has led them to make a curious corn. remark concerning asked us one day.300 JOU11SEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. . a minister could preserve sufficient tranquillity of mind to occupy himself with a new kind of rice discovered in by a Mantchou-Tartar Emperor ? The observant spirit with which the Chinese are gifted the highest degree. and the other no " The choice of the less invariably in the day. and that probably even the farmers of our country would know no more about it than we did. How indeed could it be expected that with some of it to the ministers of agriculture our perpetual revolutions and rapid changes of government. that and we were to not being confess puzzled us. that we had never heard the phenomenon mentioned. of the greatest importance. tainly prosper in France.

and the Chinese have A We been as curious as ourselves to know what became of them during their six months of absence." tained that for classifications. for we should very likely not have been able to perceive the flowering of an ear of corn. and the kind of culture. should. in order to give an idea of the sagacity of this people. and return in the spring. Every body knows that swallows go away in the autumn. and others supposed . returned several successive years to the same house it was therefore certain that those that went away in the autumn were the same that had returned in But where did they go to ? The ancients the spring. whose claws certain marks had been made to know them by. we should have been much the forwarder. to. and catch in the fact those that should take it into their heads to blow. . very curious and original collection might be made of the remarks of the Chinese. .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 301 the time for sowing." he said. and where they went 011 It had been ascertained that swallows. that they passed beyond the seas. We can not undertake to say how far this observation sufficient zeal is correct. Indeed we are not sure that even if we had. if it did take place. but also on many other branches of natural history. not only on agriculture. even that they plunged beneath the waters but these opinions are regarded by the Chinese as puerile fables. people must expose themselves to the risk of having very bad harvests. will mention a few that we happen to remember. and he main- want of being acquainted with these two and conforming to the rules derivable from them. "be varied according to the species. and we must own we never had in the cause of agricultural science to spend a night in a corn field in order to mount guard over the ears. We must therefore leave it to those better informed to decide on the value of this Chinese observation.

nor proceed in troops. themselves up into regular armies. and went to seek a refuge. like the migratory birds that come every year from TarThese draw tary. Emperor. and their passage lasts several days. after reporting these circumstances "The ancients thought that swallows changed their climate. illustra- . in order to escape the horrors of insurrection and As there were no vegetable crops they were reduced to feed on rats and swallows. named gous fact.J502 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. more than a thousand families deserted their villages. Yang-ty. undertake long journeys. The following anecdote. having ordered on the banks of the Yellow River. and that during the winter they merely hide themselves in holes and caverns. and return thither in the spring. and several observations have demonstrated to them. while the swallows. even in the provinces nearest the sea. people being overwhelmed by the misfortunes that afflicted them during the reign of the Emperor. when they dis- appear from one province. are not seen in any greater numbers in the other. in order to go and pass the winter in some warm " the It is written in the annals of China that country." the and the Chinese not naturalist concludes that emigrate." Another historian reports the following analofamine. which they found collected in masses in the caverns and hollows of the rocks. there were found immense multitudes of swallows collected in the holes and caves of the rocks. says. as is supposed. "The some repairs Luchi. A Chinese naturalist. that swallows do not. but remain always about the same country. in the wildest mountain solitudes. Ngan-ty. do not know what the naturalists of Europe may swallows do We say to this account. since no one has ever seen them the direction of southern countries. but it is difficult to imagine how they should set out in have done so. and wherever the shore was steep and solitary.

but as seemed They surprised eyes. but we did not wish to question the little pagan. but : and the cat. who was taking a buffalo to graze along our path. but it was hidden behind thick " The clouds. asked him carelessly. by pushing up the lids with looked at the child with surprise. lest he should find out that we were Europeans by our ignorance. To say the truth." and with these words he. just taken place. will. As soon as ever we reached the farm. he was evidently in earnest continued our route. "it is not noon yet. we fear. and he could read no answer there. whether it was yet noon. a young lad. "Very well. we whether they could made tell haste to ask our Christians by looking into a cat's at the question . They brought us three or four. we met. we had not at all understood the proceeding. We sky is so cloudy." and he showed us the his hands." said we. not be to their taste any more than to that of the clockmakers. who made her escape pretty quickly. "Look here." said he." said he. near a farm.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. though astonand not much pleased at the experiment made on her eyes. ran toward the farm. as we passed. there was no danger in confessing to them our ignorance of the properties of the cat's eyes. We cat's eyes. the clock our complaisant neophytes immediately gave chase to all the cats in the neighborhood. behaved with most exemplary complaisance. and came back a few minutes afterward with a cat in his arms. and explained in what manner they might . The child raised his head to look at the sun." and he then let go the cat. we related what had That was all that was necessary. however. 303 live of another Chinese observation. when we went to pay a visit to some families of Chinese Christian peasants. One day. "thank you. and we ished. "but wait a moment .

which is not liable to the inconveniences of the preceding. there will. such as they are. be some who will not give themselves the trouble to run after the cat. The great inconvenience of these inns is their intolerable noisiness. At most could only be disagreeable to asses. You stop every evening. as thin as a hair. The Chinese have also given us the benefit of their experience in another similar case. and has no tenit dency to compromise any industrial interest.304 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but all considerations must give way to the spirit of progress. and that after twelve the dilatation recommenced. because. as it may. and we hope. most likely. the pupil of their eyes They pointed out that ] went on constantly growing narrower until twelve o'clock. by somewhat reIn the straining them in the exercise of their free will. doubtless. north of China. All important discoveries tend in the first instance to injure private interests. nevertheless. we concluded that it was past all noon. speaking of this Chi- nese discovery. When we had attentively examined the eyes of all the cats at our disposal. among the number of persons who may wish to know the hour. that watches will continue to be made. tend to injure the interests of the clock-making trade. where traveling by water is not so easy as in the south. as We have had some hesitation in the sale of watches the eyes perfectly agreed upon the point. or on the backs of asses or mules. when they became like a tine line. and interfere with . it is very common to make journeys in wagons. or who may fear some danger to their own eyes from too close an examination of hers. be made use of for watches. which makes it a very hard matter to get a night's rest . and pass the night at one of the more or less comfortable hostelries which. drawn perpendicularly across the eye. you never fail to meet with on every road.

that all the asses within hearing. This ass." Aa . superiority. was so filled with the sense of his own and so proud of it. in them. we could not his of ass. got to an inn. let them be at ever so great a distance. altogether. chist "I would soon have stopped his singing. In 1840. catechists." said we. became the evening. and there appeared to be something so pe- culiarly provoking in the tones of his voice. so full of ardor and agility. When we that his folly became quite insupportable. when our catechist was vaunting him. guidance mounted on a magnificent ass. influenced. we were once making a journey in a wagon in the province of Pekin. help interrupting qualities One "Your ass. that whenever he became aware of the presence of any of his brethren. however. these terrible animals. that the two mules who completed our team had all the difficulty in the world to keep up with him. instead of trying to rest himself. Our equipage was under the one of our of an old schoolmaster. were quite sure to respond in a magnificent bravura. 305 unfortunately. as good Chinese subjects. he never failed to begin boasting of it in such loud and sonorous tones. this indefatigable beast passed the whole night in practicing his music . impossible to close our eyes. and yield to all the caprices of their philharmonic instincts. If. doubtless under pretense that music has always been held in honor in the Empire. to sing the whole night long. by the it power of some magnetic fluid. "is an abominable brute. think themselves obliged. so that.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. During the whole journey he has prevented our getting a wink of sleep. it would seem. there should be any asses as well for in the court-yard of the establishment. you make up your mind at once not to close may your eyes." " did not you tell me so before ?" said the cate- Why .

"Well. but that night we slept quite soundly. and the ancient schoolmaster indulged occasionally in a small joke." in the morning. ate toward him. not. and. now. I saw to that before I went " that noticed. and piece of pleasantry . therefore. the creature raised. thinking this was another " Come. ground. when we met "Perhaps him. then his ears." smiled. convince can And acsee. as soon as ever he felt his musical appendage at liberty. the poor ass with a large stone attached to his tail. you easily yourselves. long as his song lasts.306 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. to tie a large stone to the end of his tail. sure enough. his ears We . You must have you have only To insure his silence." he continued. and he keeps it extended horizontally as bed." We cordingly we followed him to the court-yard. when an ass is going to bray. hung felt quite compassionnoted humility and dejection. he always begins by raising his tail. we took little notice of his reply. no. to I think not. accustomed spirits. and with the air of having entirely lost his His eyes were fixed on the his whole appearance dedown. did the ass make a noise last night?" said he. first his head. and begged his master to untie the stone directly . but he cried. without reply. and qt last began to bray with all his wonted enthusiasm. was somewhat of a wag. at all events we certainly did not hear "No. then his tail. where we beheld. so that he can not raise it.

of water the long waves raised by the wind the large . but we got rid of this annoyance by having our beds carried up on deck. was not of a nature to give siness. and began to blow right a-head. for instead of one day's journey not gone more than half continued fine. or FoundEdict against Infanticide Work of the Society of the ling Hospital Holy Infancy. and Cora Brandy OUR navigation on the lake Pou-yang was performed without accident .CHAPTER Navigation of the Pou-yang IX. During these two days we seldom saw land. Wine. so that we were compelled to make some long tacks. and lying down among the sailors for their perpetual noise and gossip was. less of a nuisance than the torments of the kakkerlacs. One day's delay was of however. Pauperism tuitous Coffins in China Great Number of Junks Desert Tracts Bands of Mendicants Society for Gra- Causes of Pauperism of The King of the Beggars The Hens' Feathers Inn Gaming Various Chinese Games Mode studying the Law against Gamblers Drunkenness The Vine. Infanticide Its Causes Truth and Exaggeration concerning Infanticide in China Yu-yng-tang. trary. though conus the smallest unea- we can no consequence . and we could hardly persuade ourselves that we were really in The immense extent the centre of the Chinese Empire. the wind when way changed. The weather anticipated. at any rate. but it was much slower than we had *We had we had two. The kakkerlacs made war upon us with the same fury as on the night before. but not say that passing another night on board the junk was quite so much a matter of indifference. and the breeze.

vessels that were it look more like a sea than a lake. and great numbers crossing. moving about in all directions. for on 'leaving the lake Pou-yang. and without inhabitants. and looking like marine monsters. with all their matting majestically displayed. ney that was to bring us therefore. who prefer seeking a more precarious subsistence from the chances of trade and navigation. They are of very various construction. to trusting to the peaceful labors of the field. the navigation would have been too laborious and tedious. wind. or from the thought- less carelessness of the people of the locality. and the different points to which they are proceeding occasion a great variety in the Some are going before the arrangement of their sails. We preferred.808 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. by land. rapidly. It is not uncommon in China to meet with desolate tracts of this kind. the wild and dreary aspect of which reminded us of the steppes and deserts of Mongolia. resuming. the jourin two days to our third great The province of Kiang-si is regarded as one of the most populous in China. and we were therefore greatly surprised to observe on our route vast plains without cultivation. but with the wind and current against us. others are struggling painfully with wind and wave. The evolutions of all these floating machines were so swift and various that the picture changed every moment. this way and that. These fallow grounds are most common . halt. chasing each other. we entered the mouth of a navigable river that passes under the walls of Nan-tchang-fou . made The innumerable junks that are constantly plowing the surface of the Pou-yang make really a very pretty sight. whether on account of the barrenness of the soil. We might have gone by water as far as the capital of Kiang-si. in contrary directions.

China could yet supply more completely the wants of her inhabitants. every year on the increase. always found in no other country such a depth of disastrous Not a year passes poverty as in the Celestial Empire. that it is This circumstance may. many extremely poor. so that it has often been thought that notwithstanding the encouragement given to agriculture. We will not venture to say it is easier in China than elsewhere completely to extinguish pauperism. help . in which a terrific number of persons do not perish of famine in some part or other of China . might develop prodigiously the immense resources of the Empire. number of these might certainly be diminished and we have noticed during our residence in China. that rapid progress of the formidable insurrection is threatening at this moment totally to overthrow this colossal Empire. and on the banks of rivers. Chinese government does not abundance and riches that are met with in this magnificent It is certain that the know how country. and best epochs. or support a greater number of them. zealous for the public good. always governed countries. to turn to account all the elements of intelligent administration. unfortunately. and the class of But the the necessitous will be always considerable.JOUENEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and go and pass their lives in the boats. and in the most flourishing there and have there been. the to astonishing facility and explain perhaps. will be poor. 309 in the neighborhood of the great lakes. In all the great centres of population. but unquestionably there can be At all and the multi- . and procure for the masses a much larger share of prosperity and comfort. The inhabitants leave the land when they can. by guiding judiciously this patient and in- An dustrious population. there will always be.

The unfortunate creatures. first by the torrents of rain that fell. It had the a of vast on the surface of which trees sea. we were stopped for six months in a Chris- community of the province of Tche-kiang. women. After having tried to raise dikes round their fields. and children.310 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. to seek in the towns and villages for some little nourishment wherewith to sustain. The Chinese. You see them then ince. Many fall down faint- ing by the way-side. and their fields were once more covered. who foresaw already the destruction of the havest. but just when they seemed on the point of succeeding in their cult diffi- and toilsome undertaking. day and night. and then by a general intian undation over all that part of the country. bodies lying in the fields. in working at their chain pumps. tude of those culable. In 1849. in order to . standing in mud and water up to their hips. an inundation. For three whole months we witnessed their unceasing industry. the rain again came pouring down. were. their miserable existence. occur to injure the harvest in a single provand two-thirds of the population are immediately reduced to a state of starvation. for a brief interval.occupied. and at the road-side. who live merely from day to day is incalLet a drought. and all the horrors of famine. and you pass without taking much notice of them so familiar is the horrid spectacle. their labors were never discontinued for a moment. forming themselves into numerous bands perfect armies of beggars and proceeding together. appearance and villages were floating. or any accident whatever. they next attempted to drain off the water by which they were filled . men. displayed the most remarkable industry and perseverance in struggling against the misfortune from which they were suffering. and die before they can reach the You see their place where they had hoped to find help.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and after all their exhausting labor. Besides these local and accidental miseries. In the great towns the multi- tude of paupers is terrific. crawling through the streets. The inundation could not be mastered. and wait for better days but the others. Calamities of this kind occur every year in some place or other . and those who have made any savings are able to get through the crisis. the poor sufferers were compelled to their fields. and wander about the province with bags on their backs. their lips livid. have no choice but to expatriate themselves. They were hideous to look at half covered with rags. it was necessary to retrench something even sities. in order to be able to bestow a rice on them. 31i that turn into the beds of the rivers and canals the waters were desolating the country. who are always in much greater numbers. their dislocated limbs. and these but lately peaceful and industrious peasants were evidently driven by despair to be ready for every excess. to . their features contracted. and though we were but little richer than they. of famine. however. which like an incurable leprosy extends its ravages also over the whole nation. The Christian community in which we lived was several times visited by these famishing hordes . or die . and to seek a subsistence in the neighboring provinces. and found themselves in a complete state of destitution. begging here and there for a little rice. You see them continually. their hideous wounds. Then abandon the cultivation of they began to assemble in great bands. there is what may be called a fixed and permanent pauperism. their hair . numerous families went from our necesfew handfuls of Whole villages were abandoned. displaying their deformities. bristling.

or interfering with them in various ways to their a superstition The best means of averting the malignant prejudice. or inquires whether they have any corner in which to obtain shelter to pass a night. The Chinese who are in easy circumstances do not object to bestow a few sapecks in alms. in creating diseases in them. or a piece of money. have never yet formed any benevolent society for the solace of the sick and the unfortunate. so ready and skillful at organizing every kind of society that has any commercial or industrial object in view. The poor have no home they go and crouch somewhere about the . As it for this. though it is scarcely allowable to scruaction. or they where they construct wretched side. merely to rid themselves of their presence . starved to death. It is among the Chinese that the souls of the dead are often changed into evil spirits. who are mostly . hovels with frag- ments of matting that they have picked up on the way- The Chinese. no one troubles himself about these miserable creatures. who take pleasure in tormenting the living. or the enticements of the gaming table. with the single exception of a society to provide coffins gratis for the dead who have no relatives to undertake their funerals.312 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. tinize the is motives of those who perform any good impossible not to doubt whether at bottom this does not owe its origin to a self-interested motive. rice. and com- / They give a handful of passionate their distresses. Every day many arc excite public commiseration. influences of these evil-disposed spirits. devils. but they know nothing of the feeling of charity that induces any one to interest themselves in the poor i to love them. but further than this. tribunals or pagodas. or even for resisting thieves. to the sick and unfortunate. lie little along the ramparts.

human misery account. The poor this formidable capital of is turned as far as possible to profitable and are formed into companies. instituted with the wants of the indigent. II. and battalions. their king calls a meeting of the principal inhabitants. coffins for those so implacable against the living. the poor do not fail in retribution to form companies for taking advantage of the If. scandalous appearance of this army of vagabonds. and proposes for a certain sum to deliver them from the hideous invasion.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and it is on him the blame is laid when any disorders among them that are too outrageous and dangerThe King of the ous to public peace to be endured. disorderly. and this great army of paupers has a chief. He responsible for the conduct of his tattered subjects. After VOL. who bears the title of " King of the Beg- gars. and seek by their insolence to in' timidate every one they meet." is and who is actually recognized by the State. or rather maraud all The pencil of Callot over the environs of the capital. 313 have been deprived of sepulture. for however. the opulent classes neglect to associate the benefit of the poor. at Pekin Beggars occur days on which he is authorized to send into the country some of his numerous phalanxes and bid them ask alms. marching proudly to the conquest of some village. would be necessary to paint the burlesque. There are certain is a real power. Every one brings to the common stock some in- firmity real or supposed. because their bodies is of course to buy who obtaining burial. rich. regiments. While they swarm about like some devastating insects. is supposed fail die without having the means of This benevolent attention can not it to dispose them favorably toward the members of the exception of this With the society for gratuitous coffins. O . we have never heard in China of any purpose of providing for the society.

simply composed of one great hall. Mendicants and vagabonds who have no other domicile come to pass the night in this immense dormitory. the village pays its ransom. without having read a line of Cabet. old and young. all without exception. and an officer of the company stands at the door to receive the .314 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but every thing goes first into the hands of the king. These hordes sometimes reap tolerably abundant harvests in their expeditions. or Victor Considerant. and many people will no doubt feel somewhat humiliated on being told that the Asiatics. It is called Ki-mao-fan. Every one settles himself and makes his nest as well as he can for the night in this ocean of feathers . that is. appear to have made great progress in their theories. Communism prevails in the full force and rigor of the expression. the Chinese have found means to furnish to the poorest of the community a warm feather-bed. a long dispute the contracting parties come to an agreement. the Chinese even. who. and the beggars decamp to go and pour down like an avalanche upon some other place. have been for a long time reducing to practice opinions supposed to have burst forth but yesterday from the powerful brains of the philosophers of the West. Men. and he afterward makes the distribution among his subjects. are admitted. women. By dint of carrying out the laws of progress. for the small consideration of one fifth of a "House of the Hens' Feathers. when day dawns lie must quit the premises. There exists at Pekin a phalanstery which surpasses in eccentricity all that the fertile imagination of Fourier could have conceived. and children. and the floor of thrs great hall is covered over its whole extent by one vast thick layer of feathers. These grand new ideas are not monopolized by Europeans." This marvelous establishment is farthing per night.

asleep. and in the felt coverlet. preparatory to gathering into groups and dispersing about the various quarters of the . the managers of it used to furnish each of the guests with a covering. had laid down upon the feathers. and a child as a grown person. half- places are not allowed. must pay the some establishment of this eminently philaninstitution. The sharedo. after a signal lansterian has been made on the tam-tam to awaken those who are. the precaution having been previously taken to make a number of holes in it for the sleepers When to put their heads through. and invite them to draw their heads back into the feathers in order not to be caught by the neck and hoisted into the air with the coverlet. but it was first On the thropic and moral found necessary to modify this regulation. every body had gone to bed. that is to say. and scarcely decent. 315 rent of one sapeck each for the In night's lodging. yet to give no covering been too cruel. is coverlet hoisted up again. or to supply an additional garwinter. in order to escape the danAs soon as it is daylight. An immense day time suspended to the ceiling like a great canopy. for the communist company got into the habit of carrying off their ment during the rigorous cold of holders saw that this would never coverlets to sell them. the counterpane was let down by pulleys. deference no doubt to the principle of equality. the phager of suffocation. was made. therefore to find at all It and they should would have was necessary reconciling the interests of the establishment with the comfort of the guests. This im- mense swarm of beggars is then seen crawling about in the sea of dirty feathers and inserting themselves again into their miserable rags. some method of and the way in which the problem was solved was this : of such gigantic dimensions as to cover the whole dormitory.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. be ruined.

It is true. These vices gambling. of course are not. etc. playing passion. and their decided taste for stockjobbing and speculation. and have always and misery in their train. and debauchery. except that nothing but tea is drunk in them. their immoderate love of lucre..316 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. among any nation that has by the laws of the Empire. a game similar to the Italian morra. nese are also passionately fond of cock-fights. Among the principal causes of pauperism in China may be mentioned. There is not a village that has not its gaming-house. chess. drunkenness. they have been all ages and countries. with so There they pass days and nights. dice. disorder brought that the Chinese give themselves up to them however. and its professed much gamesters. and China is now in fact one vast gaming-house. to seek town by lawful or unlawful means their scanty subsistence. grasshoppers. Chinese games are very numerous . when they . The Chinese are. a good deal like our cafes. they assemble both in private houses. as well loses is as of combats between crickets. known in with a passion never exceeded ever existed. and these interesting amusements always give occasion to Habitual gamwagers. blers prefer cards and dice . He who The Chiobliged to pay a cup of brandy. they play at cards.peculiar to China . draughts. but their cupidity. industrious and economical. on this subject has been overpowered by the habits of the people. and Gaming is prohibited but all legislation tsei-mei. that they scarcely give themselves time even to take their food. as we have said. often to a considerable amount. and in public establishments. besides the excessive carelessness of the government and the exuberance of the population. easily tempt them to gambling.

often depends on a cast of the dice. fect authenticity. on a level with the They turn first one side toward the warmth. or crouch down against the chimneys. and begin to play again with the most Such facts as these will appear composure. them. clothes he has on for one game more. and family. far from trying to help. are not engaged in traffic. for the cold soon seizes the unfortunate creatures. ground. they have lost all their houses. their land. look on with ferocious and malignant hilarity. duty. and this horrible custom gives rise to scenes that would not be credible. while their gambling companions. and their money. they will play for their wives even. fabulous to many persons. men ' They rush about in all directions like madmen to try and save themselves from being frozen. we can testify to their per- . during the most intense cold of winter. men running about in a state of complete nudity. which in those countries are carried along the walls of the houses. The horrible spectacle seldom lasts long. whose destiny Nay. having been driven pitilessly from the gaming-houses when they had lost their all. The gamblers then return to their table. They cast aside every obligation of station. that they When proceed even to the most revolting extremities. you may sometimes meet. In the northern provinces. and when once they have got into the habit of gambling they seldom or never recover from it. then the other. to live only for cards and dice. especially in the environs of the Great Wall.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and this fatal passion gains such an empire over them. did we not know that the passions always tend to render cruel and inhuman. and they perfect fall down and die. the Chinese does not for he stake the very will gambler stop hero. 317 They seek eagerly for strong excitements. but having resided several years in the north of China.

During the game. and between the two players is placed a small but very The one who wins then takes the hand sharp hatchet. But these strictly true. and you can smell the odor of the consuming flesh." passage on the subject from the from which we have already quoted more than once "Among men of a volatile and boastful character. but the man goes on with his game. ally play We had thought to rocally with frightful stoicism. will sometimes play for the fingers of their hands. and commented upon by Here is a the Arab travelers in the 'ninth century. they keep by them a vase containing nut. not prevent the players' from beginning again. which traordinary Those who have is really carried to absolute madness. nese gamblers were known. for olive oil is not known in this country. dip it in oil. which cauterizes the wound. a table and actuwill collect round more to lose nothing will cut off recipfor which their they fingers. and cuts off one of his fingers with the hatchet . Some will take a match. and the vanquished party immediately dips his hand into the hot This operation does oil. and even in China gam- . the match burns. A fire is kept burning under it. pass over these revolting particulars. These excesses seem surprising enough. but the truth have invented still more exis. have a strong objection to relating things that. and exhibits no sign of pain. : those who belong to the lower classes. as may be supposed. have an imfacts concerning Chi- " Chain of Chronicles." All players. places it on a stone. that Chinese gamblers of methods satisfying their passion.818 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. or sesame oil. for we do not like to put the confidence of our readers to too great a trial. and set fire to it . the piece falls. do not cut off their fingers and roast their arms. of the loser. al- We though we know them to be probable appearance. place it on their arms. and who have no money.

that the mere idea of receiving a present from the people under his jurisdiction excited his anger and indigna- He loved money. teach the people to disregard the laws . he always managed ments.to invite him to take tea. so elevated. to make it understood what sum he was to receive. nobody plays a game the less in any province of the Empire. for the principal person in the town. to be allowed to win. gamblers. and after that. We money once knew offered to a Mandarin who objected to have him when he went on a search for His sentiments were so noble. a good dinner is given to them. and quote passages from against it. after having duly exhorted the villagers to persevere in the observance of the five social duties. 319 bling is not always carried to these insane excesses. On their arrival. simply on condition of being paid for their connivance. they often visit the villages under pretense of seeking for gamblers. and then the way was. or village. nevertheless. has become so general. in some measure. The magistrates themselves. . as well as a larger or smaller ingot of silver. but he was particular about having it offered in a manner that should not wound the delicacy of his sentiWhen he came to a place. that the laws are powerless In vain do the magistrates make eloquent proclamations against gamblers. and nothing is more common than to see numerous families reduced to wretched indigence by the conThe evil sequences of a few games of cards or dice. and then they continue their tour. . the most celebrated moralists. tut throughout the Empire it is the cause of great misery. to play a game or two-. in support of their fine speeches . How could he have been a Mandarin if he did not ? He liked to get it. when in fact they are insuring them perfect impunity.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. But it was necessary for those . at which games the Mandarin was tion.

He often loses the whole of his hard earnings in a few hours. can only refer to the vine and however this may be.320 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. yielded to the temptations of this fascinating display. women. and the old people are very often the first to urge them down the abyss from which they can scarcely ever rise again. though the case is the reverse with the passion for gaming. and when once he has inveterate street of a great town. he finds it afterward still more difficult to withstand them. The grape has been known from the remotest antiquity. and within every one-'s reach. not their habitual beverage tea that intoxicates them. paying great atten- and trying trate was to get the game. and children every body plays but the lower classes are certainly the most and determined gamblers. for this worthy magisnot satisfied unless he had the gain and the glory too. to affect to be who played with him tion. Children. In almost every you meet little ambulatory gamin a cup placed upon a stool a of dice ing-tables . scarcely less efficient than the passion for gaming . in China. The passion for gambling has now invaded all classes of society in China . men. as the southIt is. and celebrated The learned assert that the descriptions of the Imperial Gardens in the Tcheouky a work attributed to the celebrated Tcheou-long. who ascended the throne in the year 1122 before Christ . but a variety of alcoholic liquors which are very popular. crowd round the tables as eagerly as their parents. ern Chinese drink less but play more. but this vice does not create quite as much misery in the south as in the north of the Empire. . too. Drunkenness is also in China a cause of pauperism. and chose to have both his pockets filled and his skill admired. pair form an almost irresistible attraction to the workman returning from his daily labor. of course.

" he adds. and ficed to the culture of cereals. though it is really indisputable that it was known to the Chinese long before The Annals contain accounts of vathe Christian era. The historian Sse-ma-tsien speaks of a certain rich man who had a vineyard so considerable that he made every year 10. having the property of keeping many years. and caused a good deal of mischief. subsequently. has undergone many revolutions. on the contrary. "The wine of grapes.321 no doubt that there were many vines in the provinces of Chen-si and Chan-si ages before the Christian era. When at various times the government has given orders for cutting down the trees. and came from the West. that the very remembrance of it was lost . Persia.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Thibet. the multitude of which was supposed to injure the corn.000 measures of wine. According to the testimony of the Annals. and pitilessly sacrilike Under some reigns the extirpation of the vine was so complete in certain provinces. Tourfan. every thing else in China. the vine." At this time wine was very common. and other countries. you might suppose from some historians express themselves that the vine was becoming known for the first time. The numerous songs composed under the dynasties of the Yuen and are a proof that the Chinese have not always disdained the juice of the grape . This is probably what gave rise to the idea that the vine was only cultivated in China at a comparatively recent period. it has sometimes been specially pointed out. Hami. the vine has not been excepted. there is . and the Emperor Ouenty has sung of it with a lyric enthusiasm worthy of Han Anacreon or Horace. that it rious species that were brought from Samarcand. it used to be put into urns and buried. with which O* . when permission was given to plant it the manner in which again.

relations. do not cultivate the vine on a large the fruit is only scale. and its products regarded as objects of lux- ury. and not only English connoisseur in wine. and make a great consumpThe most commonly used is that obtained tion of it. and perceived in and bouquet of Spanish wines. of our day. Khang-hi. the Europeans Tche-kiang. and the consequent necessity of population of China. It China has had would even be easy to show that grape wine was in use under every dynasty. exist in China several excellent kinds of grapes. the Chinese manufacture a spirituous liquor from corn. we offered them to an He tasted. but discovered that it was the produce of some celebrated vintage in Spain. He served it at dessert to some of his countrymen. and At present there still every reign to the 15th century. and. that this rice-wine was that which is drunk com. taste of which is sometimes very agreeable . In default of grape wine. they are always disposed to judge a One day we took it of Chinese productions. however. reserving neglected. works from plants foreign countries. in the province of As it is made from rice. sent for a great number of new tching. having first sealed them with great care. It it the true flavor of quite exceptional quality must be owned. and do not make wine of grapes . It is a kind of beer. and Canton generally pronounce it at Macao resident but detestable. The immense gathered for eating either fresh or dried. priori into our heads to fill some bottles with it. Yoangand Khien-long. the from the fermentation of rice. . the vine to be occasions land for the food. found it excellent. however. and the Mantchou Emperors.322 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. that of the best quality comes from Chao-hing. who pronounced a high eulogium upon it. and have in their three first of the The Chinese taken credit to themselves for doing so.

and in this state become articles of commerce. acidified and dried. The preparation of this yeast requires great care and practice . being only corn flour fermented. rye. or barley. This flour is mixed with warm water. and though conbut little alcohol. to powder.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. least Every locality has a different receipt. In order to procure the fermentation of the rice. to which they give the name of "mother of wine. These are ranged on a board. and weighing four or five pounds. been earlier than the end of the 13th century. and placed in a chamber hermetically closed. monly in 323 China is not very agreeable. and mix it with a certain leaven. and then kneaded into a mass rather iirmer than bread-dough. taining easily gets into your head. almonds. The Chinese were acquainted with this manufacture at twenty centuries before the Christian era. they place it in large jars. The " mother of wine" millet is used instead of rice. masses moulds. it may be made equally well with oats. Before . and left to ferment. reduced and fruits dried and of bark trees. The makers know when the fermentation is finished by a reddish color reaching the centre of the loaves. though the makers try to keep them off by placing aromatic herbs between the loaves. and even the maggots that get into it do it no great harm. They are then exposed to the air to dry. Corn brandy was not known in China at so ancient The use of it does not seem to have a date as wine." This leaven is made with the flour of good wheat. and the flour of peas or beans is sometimes mixed with the leaves and it. It is then placed in wooden and made into of the shape of a brick. as well as odoriferous herbs. and the goodness of the wine depends on the In the north of China quality of the yeast employed. in which all the bran has been left. When this yeast has been properly made it is rather better for being old.

it is said. peasant of the province of Chan-tong. and that instead of fermenting it had become mouldy. in the centre of which is a small china bowl. by passing it through a still. There exist considerable manufactories where through the still. made corn brandy was only trying to correct the bad taste of some old wine. great many The useless manipulations thus spared. or green however.". and he was much surprised to find that his process had produced a spirit. and a fectly. At the inns they bring and place on the table of their guests a little urn filled with brandy. table. Not being able. and a miniature tripod. and then so that you have the pleasure place the urn upon it of keeping your alcohol hot as long as you remain at . and the possibility of making A alcohol from grain was found out by mere chance. to use it for wine. and set light to it. and they are so little in the habit of drinking any thing cold that they have even their brandy served up to them smoking hot. that epoch the Chinese were not acquainted with the The first person. For a long time spirits were only made from wine. do not care about these niceties . product is passed several times and thus obtains the strength and its These liquors always retain an unenergy of alcohol. The Chinese. therefore.24 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. he thought he would try and make brandy of it. and his experiment succeeded perSince then his method has been adopted. and . taste it but . who wished to make a large quantity of wine. This horrible drink is the delight of the Chinese. they drink it with avidity . Into this they pour some spirit. brandies of the north are made principally with large millet (holcus sorghum). may be got rid of by macerating pleasant fruits aromatic herbs in them. who process of distillation.. found that the millet had not been properly stirred.

have assured us that it is far from uncommon in this country. moreover. find in imbibing these burning drinks. they will pass whole days and nights in drinking successive little cups of it. but many persons. on whom we can place the most perfect reliance. sake of of men who have absorbed such a quantity of alcohol as to have become fairly saturated with it. His troubles will only begin in the last moon the legal period of payment. poverty. very soon makes its entrance into the house. and to have. especially of those of the north. But many instances have been mentioned having died a fiery death to us of their it . if he have any. until their intoxication makes them inca- pable of carrying the cup to their lips. The Chinese law prohibits the fabrication spirits. who swallow it like waMany ruin themselves with brandy. as others do with gaming. and. has been sufficient to envelop in flames and consume these wretch- ed creatures. and with usury. perhaps in merely lighting a pipe. or to carry pleasure the Chinese which are absoill his furniture and his clothes to the pawnbroker's. Then tippler maj- indeed he must pay. with all its lugubrious train. In company. The slightest acci- dent then. When this passion has once seized on the head of a family. 325 ter. It is unfortunately the custom for the distilleries to supply brandy on credit for a whole year. so that a go on for a long time drawing from this inexhaustible spring. or even alone. in a manner. and as money does not usually become more plentiful with a man from the habit of getting drunk every day. exhaled it at every pore. he has to sell his house and his land.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. very for the tasted. One can hardly imagine what lutely like liquid fire. of rice-wine to and on the ground that corn ought be taken . We have not ourselves witnessed any occurrence of the kind.

then. distill . to their using the very best grain the harvest pro- duces.826 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and unfit for any other purBut that does not form the slightest hindrance pose. ary impression . still more disastrous. that the varnish of modesty with which it is covered is this ancient . and the slang of the worst resorts of licentiousness threatens to are become the ordinary language of conversation. There some provinces in which the inns on the road have apartments entirely papered with representations of all kinds of shameless debauchery. the greatest care of. their public morality is but a mask worn over the corruption of their manners. The large establishments called But these laws Chao-kouo require a permission from the government to brandy and this is sold to them only on condition that they shall employ in their distilleries nothing but grain that is spoiled. and these abominable . but a very short residence among the Chinese is sufficient to show that their virtue is entirely external . are the two permanent causes of pauperism in China but there is a third. Chinese society has a certain tone of decency and reserve that may very well impose on those who look only at the surface. and judge merely by the moment. a fee to the Mandarin removes all difficulties. gaming are pretty much like those that prohibit a perfect dead letter. Gambling and drunkenness. in a country where all the labor and industry of the inhabitants is scarcely sufficient to supply the food required for the immense population. will take care not to lift the unclean vail that hides the putrefaction of We the leprosy of vice Chinese civilization has spread so completely through this skeptical society. Their language is already revoltingly indecent. continually falling off and exposing the hideous wounds which are eating away the vitals of this unbelieving people.

I can add of others to assure it Although my to the crowd millions you that thousands of infants perish in the waters of the rivers. true and what false. it may well be supposed. 327 pictures are known among the Chinese by the pretty name of "flowers. Many accounts sent from China have also served in our from the facts ascergeneralization It is worth while to try and find what is really tained.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. or in the jaws The letters of missionaries that I have read of beasts. Annals generally assign as the cause of this barthe misconduct of parents. Of late years lively discussions have arisen upon this lamentable subject. and particularly of France. as it mostly happens in cases of dispute. and there has been. and libertinism are thus largely developed and. " Some persons ask whether is it is true that infanticide of every-day occurrence in China. there do exist countless multitudes perpetually stagnating in vice and misery. we believe. must be terrible. On one hand. in this monstrous barbarity with to embroil the controversy . and for the prevention of which the of charity Europe. far too much which the Chinese nation is reproached. drunkenness. has been so deeply interested. where so feAV people stop calmly at the point of truth. and always ready to enroll themselves under the banners of theft and high- way is To this pauperism especially. robbery. so common in China. voice may not go for much. in a society in which gambling. . We will first quote some passages from a letter of M. who for seven years exercised his apostolic zeal in the mis- sions of China." The ravages of pauperism. the trouble and burden barity in the . opinion. it has unquestionably been greatly exaggerated. Delaplace. to be ascribed the monstrous crime of infanticide. an attempt has been made to deny the fact which is mere folly and on the other. in fact.

they may merely comprise under this head whatever proceeds from it. among the characters en- perfume are burned. into another body. or simply caprice and custom. But it seems to me that to all these causes it is . of a numerous family. as a sort of sacrifice. it that the evil is not so striking in their parts of be may the country as it is here .added that of superstition. or that since the custom originates in superstition. I can not pretend to affirm any thing concerning all China. and the question not easy to answer is for the idea attach- ed to this word very vague . the houen is appeased. and what is graved upon sticks of there to fear ? . "The Chinese of whom I speak. These honors paid. where every province has a language. papers are burnt. believe in the metempsychosis. According to their notions. then.328 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. which has abode in the it. you may receive what I have told you as from an eye-witness . where they were made. nearly all the pagans of Ho-nan. spirit. What is is a houen? . vitality. you it will say. has three houen. Every individual. its to the domestic houen. that is the domestic houen To this last reposes in the tomb. but remember that my observations apply only to the province of Ho-nan. This is but too true. However this may be. for that must be which occasions more rest. and superstitions peculiar to itself. and at the death of their possessor one of them migrates in the family. customs. frightful. more irretrievable ravages than all the If the other missionaries do not speak of it. the family make themselves easy. every man has three houen. but may be said to signify mind. tablet. the other remains and the third . and funeral repasts offered. and I have witnessed the deplorable effects of these things both at Macao and in the other districts that I have visited during the past five years. that is to say.

When a as their houen child is very shall not ed. and in its imperfect state is still more to be dreaded than that of grown men . goin ing a little one way. trive matters so that the in fact. of the " The person appointed to carry away the poor dying child does not proceed in a straight line.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and they are least unfortunate who are merely abandoned their lives may be sometimes prolonged or even saved. and the family is saved. . one might laugh at the precautions taken to deceive the houen. or the houen will be angry inbury deed . may not be inclined to rebe in case it should able to find its way. describin order that ing a number of triangles. although incomplete. not turn one sick with disgust and horror. alive. nothing can be done to pay it honor. turn to its former home. they conhouen as it leaves the body know They it the family from which it has proceedtake the poor little dying creature and throw or in the water. deplorable ? " Is not reason Such why : so many children are cast actually the upon the highis ways. it ill. they endeavor to trick and deceive the houen. is not supposed to be perfect. one upon another. it still exists . now east. houen the in this labyrinth of broken lines. or rendering them any kind of worship. but. abandon it in some remote spot. but others are sometimes immolated in a more cruel manner. They get out of this dilemma by a true Chinese method . and now west. that is to say. and yet its anger is to be dreaded. then turning back and walking an opposite direction . 329 those "Such are who die the measures to be taken with respect to at a . for children ? lets to mature age but what is to be done Custom does not permit the raising tabthem. in its last agony. or the beast Then If the thing did field. but will take vengeance on the fish. this pitiable. but zigzag.

for the reasons above stated. A of evil spirit that desires to torture human creatures. but one derived from the same strange superstition. exercise the same The houen is regarded by them as a sort cruelties. will cease to is torment the fam- Here. It was neces- in such a way sary. and that it should have no desire to lodge any more under his roof. that we can not. do what they can to satas it. to torment the houen. secondly. may even be that the kind of people with whom I have come in contact during the last three years. the one composed of the head and breast. dispatched it himself with his this child would fasten upon anof that the houen ing . a pagan of the neighborhood (about a mile from my house) seeing his child his idea behatchet ill. another dying child to be hacked and two rules are to be observed in the oper- must be cut into three portions. therefore. may be excepBut be assured that I am writtional. new-born infant. even come near these poor little victims to bestow on them the gift of baptism.330 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. It ing to you deplorable truths truths so much the more deplorable. first. therefore. the third of the legs and feet . satisfied. even in Ho-nan. isfy long as a breath remains in the little body. the second of the trunk and thighs. Do you believe these horrors ? I certain that many even among the missionaries have never heard them mentioned. it must be the father or mother who shall thus mangle their am own offspring. has not afforded the houen sufficient means of slaking its thirst for barbarity. All is done in secret between . They must. it to pieces . and I repeat that it is very possible they may not be common all over China. The houen. therefore. " Others from a different motive. and the district of country I have traversed. other. "In the month of June last. and that all his children would die. once ily. dying so young. ation .

he is a man of the most perfect prudence and discretion. examining very attentively the while in what way the blood issued from the gash. I say unvail. and especially if it touched the knees of the infant. then. vital strength was displayed in it. it spouted out. on the contrary. man had for his of a tolerably opulent family. " Since we are upon this subject. and . even as he does. who delight in blood. I will unvail to you most probably new to you you must have been in some such situation as I have found myself in. left.' Oh pagans! true children of the demon. He have a son. This custom was surely the invention of him who has been called 'a murderer from the beginning. when will your hearts be moved by the charity of Jesus Christ ?" We have chosen this letter in preference to many others that we might have taken from the Annals of the " Holy Infancy. for . to become acquainted it another horror. for on that depended the presage. and having laid his little daughter on the ground. it If that it it flowed gently along the was a proof had no virtue and energy and consequently he could only expect in future to have daughters. and know that though his feelings are lively. a pagan of two first children successively two wished to know whether he should Can you guess what he did to find it out? He took a tcha-dze." Propagation of the Faith and of the because we were intimately acquainted with its author. the father and mother. and he would be certain to obtain a boy. and pressed it down with all his strength. a kind of cleaver used to chop up daughters. he placed her neck under the blade of the instrument. If. 331 who reserve for themselves this ferocious privilege.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. straw for the food of animals. is with it : "A course. cleaver. indeed.

In the part of the country alluded to by M. and make the whole Chinese Empire responsible for what passes in a single district. would assuredly never write down any facts without their authenticity. unquestionably. but even to the province or Ho-nan. that the district where these atrocities took place may form an exception. than in any other place in the Avorld. but the birth of a girl is regarded as a calamity. kill their appears that persons in embarrassed circumstances new-born female children in the most pitiless manner.332 JOU11NEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EML'IIJK. more common. Delaplace some it seems hack their children to pieces to torment the houen. As for ordinary infanticides the suffocation and drowning of infants they are innumerable. We have ourselves during our many journeys and our long residence in China never heard of these horrid practices. We can hardly . to observe. and the information it their principal cause is pauperism. especially with necessitous parents. expect to find superstitions . not only to China in general. This is. and of very rare occurrence. one great cause of the numerous prejudices that exist in Europe on the subject of the to the account of three Chinese. much but it logic in heads is still crazed with such possible that these facts may be exceptional. we see. quite comsingle individual it is hundred millions. but with the view of sending the houen away content and pleased. A . He refrains from generalizing upon what he has seen or heard. The birth of a male child in a family is an honor and a blessing . He liaving inquired thoroughly into is careful. Unfortunately this wise caution is not always observed mon for them by those who speak of China to put down the act of a . even from persons most worthy of credit. and prevent its wishing to return to them others hack them up also. From we have collected in various provinces.

furnish young girls with suitable occupations. then. where the culture of cotton. she must reAccording A main shut up till the period of her marriage. they . and the breeding of silk-worms. are bar- barous. it is that gans. boy 333 is soon able to work and help liis parents. on the contrary. the frequency of infanticide in China lead they are allowed to to the conclusion that the Chinese.JOURNEY THIJOUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and even of the Chi- nese in general. In certain localities. even in cases where the heart alone ought to have influence. takes place among Christian nations. and she can not exercise any kind of industry. There are. by which she might make amends to her parents for the expenses she occasions. have not made greater progress in evil. degraded men to be found among them . ferocious. unwilling to see live. as a nation. whose only sanction When we consider what is the rod and the gallows. It is therefore the girls only that are murdered. regardless whom they have given birth of the lives of these to ? We think not. But can we ? Should we not. is a mere burden. Christian- and commit crimes. genealogical chain. Must. to Chinese manners. and a new link added to the . as they are regarded as causes of indigence. in whom self-interest is the only rule of good and evil. of course. Interest is the supreme motive of the Chinese. girl. and the parents are even them marry and enter another family. who count upon his support for their old age the family is continued also by a boy. who live in a skeptical society. under atheistical laws. be surprised at this have cause for surprise if it were otherwise ? What motive can be capable of arresting the force of passion in men without any religious belief. on the contrary. men who shrink from no atrocity . easily fall it may be said with truth that they into vice. we shall see that we have not quite so much room to cry out about paIf there is any thing to be surprised at.

and leaving room to imagine that those that remain unknown must attain a still more frightful amount. the Houses of Refuge of various kinds. and its inhabitants almost innumerable. which is anticipated in- fanticide. numerous institutions of Christian charity. to collect these poor. that infanticides should be com^ law gives the father such abof the child. national manners.334 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. respect for human life. an. or other inhuin China. the vigilance of magistrates. be suppressed. Hospitals. persons. was passing in Paris in the time of St. are by no means unknown. infanticide. not only place their lives. gentle. ity has ennobled human blood and inspired an infinite Among Christians. have just been relating of the Chinese has a strong resemblance to what. and willful abortion. where the solute mon power over the life man souls. and among these one of the most pernicious is the exposure and abandonment of newborn infants. would not present a spectacle not What we very different from that now seen in China. whose benevolence watches over the misfortunes and miseries of the whole world. religion. Need we wonder. but also their by not attempting to procure for them . " The city of Paris being of such an immense extent.d nevertheless. and charitable people of Europe. all protect the lives of children as much as those of grown persons. forsaken little ones. in peril. there occur among them many disorders which it is not always possible to prevent. Notwithstanding the severity of the laws. and the precautions of every kind with which the lives of new-born infants are surrounded. and Let the Foundling tend them with pious solicitude. Vincent de Paul. as among us. whose unnatural mothers. crimes of this nature are continually engaging the attention of justice. and it will soon be seen whether the most civilized. laws. then. it appears. and where there are not.

in which they have been bought . for there was no one who took the least care for their preservation and what is still more deplorable many died without baptism. with one or two servants. gave them drugs to put them to sleep that killed them. was not one that escaped misfortune. touched . and sometimes the attendants. even for as little as twenty sous. to escape the annoyance ' of their cries. in the Eue St. cany them took the charge of them to so great a . in order to make use . for want of sufficient funds. and sold for the smallest sums. or something worse.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. horrible to relate. the greater part of these poor children perished .are or with various bad intentions. and take notes of the place and the circumto a They used formerly house called IM Couche. cases." "This disorder. who lived there. so Christian as Paris. so strange in a city so wealthy. where they were received by a certain widow. this widow having declared that she had never caused any one of them to be baptized. it is the business of the commissioners of the Chatelet to pick up these forsaken children. or bring up those who were weaned. so . or to introduce as supposititious children into There. or keep nurses to suckle them. them families. and underto stances in which they are found. were They bought in this way sometimes to make them suck diseased women. and according to the orders of the police. the baptism tion. operations of them in magical and diabolical so that it seems these poor innocents were There all condemned to death. Landry. t'hat 335 might bring them into a state of salva- "No year passes in which three or four hundreds are not found exposed in the city and suburbs. given to Those who escaped any body that came to ask this for danger were them. well provided with police. but not being able to attend number. whose corrupt milk soon killed .

and burials are consequently very expensive. stated. among the In the accounts of missionaries. be surprised to hear of infanticides miserably destitute lower classes of China ? Christian. he spoke to some of the ladies of Charity. but not seeing very well what was to be done. and becoming the prey of unclean animals. We is of these accounts the custom are convinced of the perfect correctness but it must not be supposed that . repeat. . and persons not in good circumstances are often much embarrassed for the means of rendering the accustomed funeral honors to their * Life of St. in the time of St. quite so general that you can not take a walk without seeing the body of some infant in the jaws That would be a great mistake. in all directions by land and water. it has frequently been it is common in China to see the bodies of infants floating on the waters of the lakes and rivers. then. relatives. the heart of M. we never saw the body of a single forsaken infant. vol. every family inters its own dead on its own ground.336 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. When Vincent de Paul. quite We we should even be among others: surprised if it did not. and well-ordered city of Paris. infants were treated in this wealthy. L p. we feel it as a duty to declare that during more than ten years that we were in the habit of traveling about China*. for this reason There are in China no places set apart for cemeteries. Vincent. as there are in Europe. or lying on the road. neverthethat are certain fact we the does occur. is the way in which. but to see whether it was not possible to provide a remedy for it. then. Vincent de Paul. for it was already well known. not to discover the evil. and of dogs or hogs."* This. by Louis Abelly. 143. and less. that Need we. when it became known to him . and begged them to go to the house. and AVC certainly did not go along with our eyes shut.

and parents already poor will not them. is A signal made east. may happen sometimes. into these wells. 'the north.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but it is gross exaggeration to say that they are filled with living infants whose cries are heard afar off. that they wish to put away. ing. though that the case of female infants of rid themselves. every day just before morning dawns. There have been instances of unnatural parents throwing girls alive into these pits. each drawn by an ox. all imaginable must be made to obtain a coffin and a suitable funeral. In the great cities you see near the ramparts crypts intended to receive the dead bodies of infants whom the They are thrown parents have no means of burying. dead or living. namely. the living carried to an asylum named Yii- VOL II. peohear many things not to be heard by any one else. and of the passage of the cart. ple At Pekin. five carts. especially in whom the parents wish to but may sometimes hope perhaps that others will take them. west. P . and it is then far from impossible that it may become the prey of beasts but it would be wrong to conclude. and placing it in the current of a river. and give them to The dead are thrown into the above-menthe driver. and from time to time quick-lime is thrown in also to consume them. or even occasionally with leaving it on the road-side. when a body is seen under such circumstances. the deceased sacrifices is 337 a father or a mother. town . traverse the five districts of the centre. reduce themselves to mendicity for the sake of burying They content themselves therefore with wrapping the body in a piece of matting. But with respect to dead children there is not the same anxiety. that it had always been left exposed while liv. bring them out. When the imagination is powerfully excited. and those who have children. in the ravine of some solitary mountains. south. tioned pit.

and fear that the care to be bestowed by the mother when a girl is born. How then can you massacre those .338 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. " The Criminal Judge of the province of Kouangforbids the abandonment of female intong strictly fants. fish. or Temple of the new-born. Many people in Europe are perfectly persuaded of the whole Chinese nation being so brutal and barbarous. that the crime of infanticide is tolerated among them by government and public opinion. birds. that in Canton and its environs the abominable pracof exposing female infants. These hospitals for forsaken children exist in all towns of any im- portance. Although there exist many establishments to receive foundlings of the feminine sex. Of this the following Edict placarded in Canton toward the end of 1848 may serve as one proof. raise their voices against this horrible abuse of paternal authority. all love their little ones. and the magistrates have never ceased to the case. and wild beasts . "I therefore severely prohibit it. may tend to retard another birth. in others because the parents desire tice prevails a son. and urge the following considerations. and fulfill the duties of life. " yng-tang. This is not The murder of infants is regarded as a crime in China. " Consider the insects." where nurses are provided at the expense of the state. in some cases because the family is poor. and orders that people shall cease this detestable I have learned custom. and can not maintain a numerous offspring. and which" breaks the harmony of heaven. this revolting a practice which is an outrage to practice still prevails morals and civilization. "EDICT AGAINST INFANTICIDE.

" We might quote a great number of proclamations of the first Mandarins of the Empire. and espeYou stifle cially the decrees of the justice of heaven ? but will of this when it is love. Discontinue. goodness. all. and hands prothough it may be difficult for you to many your daughters. that is no reason for abandoning them. If you commiseration. are You abandon them. and to draw on yourselves reproof and calamity. 339 who are formed of your own ? blood. The two powers of heaven and earth forbid it. to bring them up with care . and if a girl is born to you.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for you can by the labor of your cure for yourselves some resource. " Let every one obey this special edict. and which threaten them with all the rigors of the law. custom of devoting your children to death . then. you shall. how can you hope to have sons ? Will you not have to fear the consequences of your unworthy conduct. which speak in repare robation of the conduct of parents unnatural enough to put their girls to death. or give them to some friend who may bring them up for you. if and you have daughters. These proclamations certainly themselves show how . Children of both sexes belong to the order of heaven. and for the crime of the murder of your children you this unworthy of any indulgence. If you kill her. cease to commit this bad action. you ought to bring her up. send them to the foundling hospitals. and who are to you as the hairs of your head "Do not make yourself uneasy on account of your poverty. as soon as you are found out. or if you are too poor for this. even though she may not be worth as much as a boy. for you are unnatural parents. your paternal you repent too late. "I am a judge full of benevolence. be punished according to the laws.

never- that these establishments afford a very poor resource. busy the Mandarins and officers of the hospital are far in making as much money as they can out of to attend much to the treatment of the children. however excellent and praiseworthy in themselves. and if these works of beneficence. We know very well. every province of China the government has expressed some interest in the fate of forsaken children. at its birth. but at the same time they afford a proof that Government and public The Foundling opinion do not favor such crimes. and if it appeared ill-formed. . Hospitals alluded to also testify to the certain amount of solicitude in the Chinese administration toward these unfortunate theless. little creatures. in their ponds by The Romans. to withdraw men from vice and lead them to virtue. it is because the religious idea. the vital spark of faith. frequent infanticides must be in China. is because. thrown into an abyss at the throwing their slaves to them. every child. wanting The Society of Holy Infancy. had assuredly no very tender and compassionate feelings toward small children. appear struck with sterility. It is said that in Lacedemon. it. according to the laws of the sage Lycurgus. constantly against every attempt on human life. Even the Chinese have not yet Their government at least protests reached that point. who fattened the fish powerless to oppose a sufficient barrier to this progressive evil. founded at Paris only a . is to vivify them and render them fruitful. too it. and if it is A foot of Taygetus.S40 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. something more is required than In worldly motives and philosophical considerations. was examined with care. and can by no means remedy so extensive an evil . which have existed in China for ages. good government might certainly do much for the welfare of these establishments. and of which the pagan nations of the West never had even the idea.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Strange indeed is it. thus warmly interested in the salvation of infants abandoned at the other extremity of the world. to Happy is the childhood of Catholic Europe. religion has thus inspired in their earliest years the heroic sentiments of beneficence and self-sacrifice. by the zeal and charity of M. than the immense revenues of all It is beautiiul. than the Emperor of China. Society may count upon a generation. be now that this Society of Holy Infancy should struggling with more success against the prac- tice of infanticide. with his legions of Mandarins. has already perhaps saved in China a greater number of children. even of those who reject with disdain the benefits of her inexhaustible charity. thus to watch with gener- ous solicitude over the children of foreign nations. it is the hospitals of this vast Empire. all his treasures and . glorious for Catholic France. de Forbin Janson. and whose touching and marvelous works are making their influence felt in the whom most distant countries. 341 few years ago.

the country that we traveled through for two days. The Guard-house his Steed Uncultivated Tracts in the Province of Kiang-si Theft of Water-melons Arrival at Nan-tchang-fou Mode of installing one's Solemn Public Supper self in the Palace of Literary Composition Disappointment of the Spectators Visit of the Prefect of the The Mandarin and Town Mongol Mandarin His geographical Knowledge Labors of the Protestant Methodists in China Chinese Astronomers Aspect of the Capital of Kiang-si Manufacture of Porcelain Chinese Antiquaries Origin of the God of Porcelain Pisciculture in Kiangsi A New traveling Arrangements. FROM the Lake Pou-yang to Nan-tchang-fou. and those who had forgotten to bring a little store with them had to drink hot water. bles. offer no refreshment to rige boiled in water. afc far as our eyes could reach we saw nothing but vast prairies scantily covered with dry yellowish grass. that crumbled to dust civilization. in which were seen here and there a few wretched huts built of reeds and some patches of ground half peasants. was a mere desert.. was not of that vague sweet melancholy feeling that is often so . . its culti- vated fort by poor Considered in relation to com- nothing could well be more gloomy appearance . as may be sup- but red We posed. therefore. and and desolate than beneath our feet habit the travelers. name of inn the dilapidated sheds. and salt vegetadid not find even tea. precisely calculated for a Journey of and pleasure yet our two days' march across this wild and desert track was a real refreshment to us. the capital of the province of Kiang-si. This country. to which from is given.CHAPTER The Vinegar Polypus X. a source .

up inquired of the White Ball. had towns great and for some days the peaceful silence of the desert was delightful. and furnished to our im- had aginations most charming and varied pictures. but as cold as ice. drank hot wine and boiling tea. their the long caravans of camels. that our We minds had need of this calm- agitation of so many at last almost thrown us into a fever. . we stopped at a sort of guard-house. the grunting ox of Thibet. munched the chives and the ginger. daring to touch them. Our tongues and throats really seemed to dry more and more as we looked at him. The tumult and Before arriving at Nan-tchang-fou. who had about fifteen solThe refreshments that he diers under his command. grouped themselves together. ness and repose. the yellow sheep. the tall grass of the desert. 343 It seemed to us as if we were soothing to the heart. and we ger. smoked one after another five or six pipes of tobacco. "a few yards from here there is a very and the water is excellent. well. without The Weeping Willow. The manners flocks of those . their and herds . once more wandering amidst the wild solitudes of Mongolia. nomadic tribes. gazed mournfully at these Chinese dainties. indeed. and found himself afterward perfectly refreshed. the Buddhist monasteries with their numerous Lamas. all these things did not seem likely to quench our intense and burning thirst. and we were very graciously received by a Mandarin with a white ball. rice-wine.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. preserved gin- and pickled chives . offered us were indeed in that weather not very tempting. all these recollections gradually tents. to allow the hottest time of the day to pass." deep replied he. been so long whirled about in the restless crowds of the civilized Chinese. roasted pistachio nuts. whether it would not be possible to procure any where a little cold water ? We "Yes. tea.

" pus vinegar . and ran to draw us some of this dan- gerous water.344 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. some. "but I am afraid you will not like it. How it happened that these numerous and abundant libations. the White Ball gave us some of his wonderful vinegar. and with the help of a little brown sugar we compounded an exquisite beverThe Chinese gazed at us with astonishment as age. but when touched. it is ! We "Polypolypus vinegar. years ago I was sent on an expetong?" dition into that country. tubes. and shapeless appendages that give it a very ugly and repulsive appearance . merits It is a monstrous assemblage particular mention." During this conversation the soldier arrived with the pail of ice-cold water . it contracts and dilates and assumes various It is an animal whose structure and character forms. we drank it. and I brought back a tsou-nodze with me. oh we are acquainted with that . then asked whether perhaps there " I have Avas any vinegar in the establishment. it you must warm a little before drinking it. promising to take every precaution against any illness it might occasion. it is the But how does it happen best vinegar that can be got. otherwise it will certainly give you the colic. instead of occasioning colic only cheered and refreshed us." he said." begged him to send for some. . that on account of its extraordinary property of making excellent vinegar. you would take it for an inert dead mass. and they could only get over the difficulty by declaring that the people of the West had a totally different organization from that of the Central Nation. of fleshy and glutinous membranes. made by the animal itself. and a good-natured soldier We took a large pail. that you possess such a treasure as a tsou-no-dze (vineWere you ever on the coast of Leaogar polypus) ? some "Yes. they could not understand. This tsou-no-dze is a creature.

we presented it to the Christians of our mission in the Valley of Black Waters. first and of a very agreeable off transformation the source appears inexhaustible. without any more spirit. and without the addition of the smallas clear as spring water. and the Chinese fish for it on the coasts of Leao-tong. This polyp is placed water. and days this liquid is found trans- vinegar. "I will ask the favor of accompanying you as. and in a short time is found to possess the same property of changing water into vinegar. and kept it for a year. After the est ingredient. " Since you have honored my*poor dwelling. taste.. it is add an equal quantity of pure water. is easily pro. it is for as drawn by degrees for consumption." "We can not permit such an expenditure of kindness on your part. and the vinegar remains equally only necessary to good.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. but we ourselves possessed one of these polypi. pagated by germination you detach a limb. ure for Thibet. are not better 345 known than that of the other polypi. using constantly At our departthe delicious vinegar it distilled for us. far as the river which passes by Nan-tchang-fou. but it is rather scarce. like the other polypi. Possibly it may be more abundant in some other tsou-no-dze is places. The vinegar very strong." "The Rites . These details are not only based on the best information we have been able to collect. to which a few after twenty or thirty formed into excellent in a large vessel filled with fresh glasses of spirits are added. which vegetates and grows. This found in the Yellow Sea. where it is neglected from ignorance of its peculiar property. The tsou-no-dze." said he. without going through is any other process. the lemonade thus obtained After having abundantly quenched our thirst with we bade adieu to the gracious White Ball of the guard-house.

" " Sse-tchouen and in our opinion ! and humble prov- We it is have traversed that province. who jumped upon his back to a stake a pretty nimbly." "I was not born under a happy influence. MandaEvery one knows that. As soon as he was saddled they dragged him toward the Mandarin of the White Ball. richest province of of Sse-tchouen can not find him- very pleasantly situated in Kiang-si. require it. Success appears to fly from me. a soldier was saddling a lean horse that was kept tied few yards from the guard-house." said we. ^ staggered under the load. though such a precaution appeared quite unnecessary. the Empire. but perhaps your good words will bring me better fortune. and in fact it is the practice of Government only to send here rins whom it wishes to punish. and we The poor animal . "that you will not remain long here. as there was not much danger of his running away. and that the Emperor will give you in a better country a post more appropriate to your virtues and merits. especially in such a desert as this district." are since you willing to extend the demands of the Rites instead of limiting them!" "No! I am originally from the poor ince of Sse-tchouen." " Every thing Kiang-si offers indeed few resources." While we were thus talking with mutual compliments. "We must hope." This little conclude that our dear piece of confidence gave us the right to White Ball himself had been in a manner put in the corner when he was sent to Kiang-si.846 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. although the cavalier was not of excessive dimensions . is dearer than in the other provinces. self A man the finest. "Ah! you are not a man of Kiang-se.

who made two or three jumps forward." cried the ardent cavalier again." and at the same tune he hit his courser a thump on the head with the handle of his whip. we will try again. While the rider was employed in picking himself up again. the horse returned with the most perfect composure to his beloved stake." and as he spoke he contrived once more to seat himself on his high-mettled racer. as private people do not make use of them either for travto . "let us set off. was not at all discouraged.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE." said the White Ball. tary glided softly along his out his measured in the middle of arms. which two of the soldiers had dragged forward again. which he contemThe Mandarin plated in the most affectionate manner. The animal shook his ears. executed a few heavy gambols." . " are you not going to get into your palanquins ? Do let us set off. and then we entered our palanquins and followed. "that's it. for it is easy to see that your quadruped will hardly be able to keep up with our bearers. but merely observed." he cried. "Come. and then stumbled and fell on his knees as if to entreat his rider to leave him to his repose. and then returned to his former state of majestic immobility. "Yes." "Directly. " the stupid beast stumbled. " Come. 347 could not make out how he was to accompany us. but he remained all the way so far behind that no one would have dreamed that he was supposed first. The miliMandarin and stretchhis neck. There are very few horses in the south of China. sneezed." said we " do you try to go on before us. if he were mounted in that fashion. I will go and again he bestowed a vigorous cuff on the head of the steed. At last they succeeded in getting him into motion. ing length the road." form part of our company. while a third was belaboring him behind with a broomstick.

large ferry-boat lay ready to carry us A across. the capital of the province of Kiang-si. with the ex- ception of our supposed companion. who cursed them with all the strength of his lungs. but to no purpose. and ran after them. from his out of reach. stole as many as they could and jumping quickly on board again were soon The owner witnessed the theft. gesticulating vociferating ers had divided the water-melons among them and were carry. we found some public functionaries waiting for us on a broad quay that ran the whole length of the suburb. When we had crossed the river Tchang. At certain distances on the with relays. The deliberations of our men of . They then immediately ran to a field of water-melons. the town of Nan-tchang-fou. refreshing themselves quite at their ease. At the moment when the boat was about to start. two of our bearers begged the master to wait a moment. and leaped ashore again. They entered into conference with the Weeping Willow. while we remained seated in our palanquins. While he was and on the the maraudshore. apparently without suspecting that ihcy were exotic personages who had just landed in the capital of Kiang-si. cling or for rural labor. established for principal roads you meet the service of Government. but tries they can not well endure the heat of the southern counin a few years they lose their strength. and our whole caravan entered it. who was behind.348 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. as he was too late. come at last completely unserviceable. house that stood but a little way off. and be. the Mandarin of the White Ball. and the crowd circulated about us. After two hours' march we arrived on the banks of a On the opposite bank was great river named Tchang. and these horses come from Tartary. nobody knew how far. and are in general of a pretty good breed. without troubling themselves at all about the unfortunate proprietor.

or Palace of Literary Composition. already lodged once during our journey at one of these establishments. who certainly would not be able to relieve them from their perplexity. but our servant Wei-chan came up and pointed out to us a large stately "That. is it proper that we should not yet know where we are to lodge ?" The Mandarins. "See!" said we to the personage of Nan-tchang-fou. "he said. "the lower classes of the people are already assembling from all corners upon the quay. and we had a very agreeable recollection of it. that at last got out of our boxes. and Wei-chan. We did not deliberate much longer therefore.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. it will be remembered. "was a Wen-tchang-koun. quired than a little steadiness. who perfectly understood these sudden evolutions. ! . 349 we business were so immoderately prolonged. already bewildered by the concourse of people. and called out to the bearers in the most imperious tone we could command. to go and inquire what they were talking about. shouting to the crowd to make way with all due respect. The passers-by immediately noticed the strangeness of our costume. building. did not know what to do. it appeared." We had. and why they kept us so long waitThe Mandarins of the place had not ing in the street. and we returned accordingly to our palanquins. "we obey. "to the " Wen-tchang-koun "To the Wen-tchang-koun?" they repeated." and immediately they took up the palanquins. yet. but resolved to go and install ourselves To succeed in our attempt nothing more was rethere. An immense crowd had soon collected round official us. put himself at the head of the convoy. and they were consequently endeavoring to get some advice from the Willow. made up their minds as to where we were to lodge. and the magic yellow caps and red girdles did not fail to produce their effect.

" We concluded with a profound bow who departed looking extremely mystified. and that we have installed ourselves at the Wen-tchang-koun. When every one else was gone. and folding doors were all thrown wide open to admit after having traversed several halls and corridors. to the variously-colored balls. "go no idea what to do with us. Open the superior apartments directly." We who had come then addressed the functionaries of the town. his little tearful eyes twinkling curiously. seeing a procession arrive. Let every one do his duty. Lieou. and we entered thus the palace The waves ment. escorted by an immense crowd. The us. "you had to conduct us to the capital . tell We him that we are in the enjoyment of good health. which of Literary Composition with that "haughty majesty" is so much to the taste of the Chinese. to receive us at the quay. and audacity. followed us by a kind of instinct all the other members of the caravan did the same. and seeming about " Master to ask what we were going to do with him. the . who had not yet made up their minds. to the prefect of the city. all will be content. we stopped at the most remote. and then here some days. prepare the evening meal. desired to see the chief-guardian of the Wen-tchang" koun. in a manner conformable to our tastes. and as if they were made to play a part that they did not in the least understand." said AVC.850 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The guardians of the establishment. but who had "Do you. by the contrivance of Wei-chan. of the multitude divided as if by enchantand Mandarins of the Willow the Weeping town." said we. who conducted the enterprise with marvelous then issued from our palanquins. of course supposed the new-comers were persons of distinction. the Weeping Willow remained planted before us without saying a word." said We " and shall remain we.

he will put you somewhere. and soon all heads were held as high in the air as possible." about thing " Go and look for the head keeper of the establishment . the news flew round with the speed of lightning. and your mission therefore is finished where are you going to . and by de- . ed stopped to contemplate us at leisure. lodge?" " Where air am I going to lodge ?" he repeated with an of open-mouthed astonishment. "How do I know?" " You have certainly a better right to know than any else. where the crowd had assembled around us while the Willow and We took a the Mandarins carried on their debate. "That and you can settle your affairs with them.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and the delicious freshness of the evening was beginning to make itself felt. we are arrived at that capital. cool An open gallery." body is possible. and the surrounding country. 351 of Kiang-si. looked on the quay. of the house. who were still stationed on the quay. and vases of flowers. Some of the Chinese." The Willow thought there was some sense in what we said. and all eyes were directed toward the Every one that passgallery of the Wen-tchang-koun. the assistance of some of the servants with Wei-chan. while we ascended the stairs to take a view of the lodging that thus appropriated. perceived us . we had had already put every thing in order in the and spacious apartments which overlooked the town as well as the course of the river that we had just crossed. provided with large porcelain seats. the sun had just set. To-morrow we shall most likely have a visit from some of the authorities. few turns backward and forward in this charming gallery. but nevertheless I do know noit. and went in search of the keeper accordingly.

looked at one another. and they evidently anticipated great amusement from and. and to ask where We ring to both. there was no grees the crowd became so dense. a position. that As we had so elevated possibility of passing at all. A brilliantly varnished the attendants table . the same thought occurand inquired whether there would be any it inconvenience in our taking it on this gallery." he replied. and we therefore quietly continued our promenade. what fashion the Western Devils consumed They expected curious. by which Chinese repasts are usually commenced. it was resolved that we should sup in the open air. we would please to have it served. many curious and interesting reflec- The Maitre d'Hotel of the Wen-tchang-koun now came to inform us that the supper was ready. . we could not be inconvenienced by their looks." especially when they kept at a respectful distance. "None at all. without inconven- ience. Men from beyond to see something extremely the seas. the very legitimate curiosity of the inhabitants were only deprived of the adof Nan-tchang-fou." As we asked nothing better than to be agreeable to the " hundred families. eager as they were . happy to be able to satisfy. must certainly eat and drink in * " Hundred families" is a Chinese phrase. meaning the people. at so great a distance from the multitude. in which there hearing vantage We doubtless occurred tions. seeing in their food. the of conversation. was brought and placed in the middle of the gallery served when the crowd obon it numerous little placing dishes of dainties.352 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and with such sin- gular physiognomies. and besides. will be lighter and cooler here. the Hundred families* collected down there will be able to see you. "on the contrary. a loud murmur arose all along the quay.

Amidst these innumerable spectators there must have been some who understood the meaning of this sign. 353 a manner quite unknown to the people of. drawn on a large scale. and especially the two signs of the cross. Our prayer before the meal. seizing little morsels here and there. as if we had been born on the borders seeds. to get a glimpse into European manners. we resolved to eat and drink in the most rigorously orthodox Chinese fashion. spectators. began all this was familiar to them. They expected. and poured out some little porcelain cups of it. and crunching the melon-seeds . and.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Wei-chan brought us the rice-wine smoking hot in a pewter urn. exactly of the Yellow River. which we drank in the most scrupulous conformWe then began to pick some melonity to the Rites. The somewhat to take less inastonished. terest in our manoeuvres We passed some time in drinking these little cups of rice-wine. we generally directed our attention to what was more substantial. either from vanity. "We . disappoint the curious gazers. and the desire to display Avere to our knowledge of their customs. and go through our exercise with these instruments as if we had done nothing else all our lives there was a movehave ment among the crowd as much as to say. for there are Christians at Nan-tchang-fou. the Central Nation. promised them from the commencement something interesting. not that we in the habit of doing so. instead of the Garonne. of the worthy inhabitants of was Xan-tchang-fou complete when they saw us adjust The disenchantment our ivory chop-sticks between our fingers with perfect ease and gravity. but this time. carry them dexterously to our mouths. therefore. but the majority must have considered this a very odd way to begin supper. or out of mischief.

who. accompanied by the functionaries of his tribunal. they might almost belong to the Flowery Kingdom. were dexterously disposing of the minute dainties served up to them. re- quested to know why we had established ourselves at the Wen-tchang-koun. our escort were unable to tell where we should go. the disappointed crowd after a time began to disperse. when we landed on this side of the river." was " we therefore chose the Wen-tchang-koun. appeared upon the balcony." the exhibition thus by no means realized all that had promised. we beheld a procession of Mandarins draw up before the gate of the In a few minutes an officer of the establishment palace. and the magistrate immediately presented himself." "No doubt the situation is most agreeable in the heat of summer . but this building is not quite at the our reply . "Invite him to enter. on which was inscribed the name of the prefect of the district. stimulated by excellent appeit As tites. casting glances from time to time. those men are not nearly such barbarians as we thought . " Because. but we do not think the lodging in the interior of the town can be so We Europeans like fresh air. After the usual salutations and compliments. been prettily taken in . upon the two French missionaries." we said . and a few idle people. and agreeable as this. this balcony suits us admirably. who smoked their pipes. .354 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE." "These people were very stupid! Your lodging was prepared in the centre of the town." "We are obliged for your attention. whose face showed him to be of Mantchou-Tartar descent. and soon there remained no one on the quay but some dealers in fruit and provisions. As we were about to rise from table. and presented us with a sheet of red paper. with an observant eye. the prefect.

The prefect was most agreeable. the learned men would not fail to lodge you in every cried the Wen-tchang-koun on your route. virtues ized countries are scrupulously observant of the rites of If you should ever deign hospitality toward strangers." "Well said! very well said!" cried the Mandarin. and the Rites. how comfortable we are ." know it. and repair interior of the "Ah! we are " You see we. and the conversation turned to Very difficult it spoke of our travels." any The advice was taken. "I came town. China. which com- plaisance we rewarded by panying him Composition. to visit the of the country humble Empire of France. and said not another We word about turning us out. 355 disposal of the municipal authorities . with a shower of quick little bows." . not think of less almost impossible you had better more let us talk of something else. and we also know that the Literary Corporation delights in the exercise of those social "We which are inculcated in the sacred and classic The literati and Bachelors of Arts in all civilwritings. which are founded on reason." continued. executing in our turn a great many bows. a little of every thing. of the countries of the West in short. resuming position. of embarrassing topics. it is the property of the Literary Corporation.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. enjoin you to leave us in peace. " I see that it will be difficult to persuade laughing. unworthy so much attention!" replied you " to leave the Wen-tchang-koun." "Ah! I am unworthy! I am unworthy!" prefect. "Neverhe a vertical theless. reason invites us to remain." to invite you to the lodging I have prepared in the to leave this palace." the polite attention of accomto the gate of the " Palace of Literary . .

The next day and the following day we passed in the capital of Kiang-si. We it was lively. sat down We were at first inclined to recall him opposite us.356 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. savage behavior. and we were visited by many Mandarins." we said. there was one who interested us by his almost rough." ." "The Chinese are very ceremonious. insincere courtesy that characterizes the Chinese. and the cool mantchang-koun. and all that remained for us to do was Our to arrange the rest of our journey to Canton. breathing the fresh air from the river. were one day reclining on porcelain seats in our balcony. and to soften a forcibly little the bluntness of his behavior. position was thus triumphantly established at Nan-tchang-fou. which was without a tinge of the supple. and by the chiefs of the learned body whose palace we occupied. to the observance of the Rites. and. Every one was very obliging. "between friends etiquette is superfluous. and we thought that his conduct might denote a haughty character. to which we were unaccustomed in China. nor did they find fault with our manner of installing ourselves in the Wen- They contented themselves with laughing good-naturedly at the neatness and decision with which we had got out of our difficulties. when a young Mandarin entered abruptly. But his countenance pleased us ." replied he. "You treat us like old friends. intelligent. we received at Nan- tchang-fou. without being announced. bade us good day with a proud and independent bow. but not necessarily an impudent one. pushing forward a bamboo seat with his foot. full of can- dor and integrity. ner in which we had Among the numerous visitors established ourselves to our liking. and watching the passers-by on the quay below. "but I am not a Chinese. I am a Mongol.

to ship. and the This young man conversation carried on in Mongol." From that moment Chinese was set aside." " "Yes. to the Koukounoor on the shores of the Blue Sea. you know the great Kouren and the Koukou-noor ? You have encamped in the Land of Grass ? No doubt you can speak the Mongol language. from the great Kouren. to the ears of a Tartar of the Steppes. he had obtained the degree of bachelor. brother. Pekin in the suite of his sovereign." At the sound of these names. 357 it. having passed the necessary examinations." we replied. testify his friend- " What. study literature. the young Mongol rose in a transport of delight. seizing our hands. with which we had resided for two years. to enter the magistracy. and. and have pitched our tents in all the pastures of Tartary. and a few months before meeting us had been sent as supernumerary Mandarin to a tribunal of the capital of Kiang-si. "we understand the tongue of Tchinggis and Tim our. Probably we had met him more than once during our He told us. belonged to one of the noblest families of the tribe of Gechekten. After several years' study. that having gone journeys in the desert. Perhaps our old predilection for the Mongols influenced us. but we thought there was something superior ." he exclaimed. when the tributary princes paid their annual visit to the Emperor at to the commencement of the year. and patting us on the shoulder. he had been seized with His aim was to learn a desire to stay in the capital. near the Kalkhas. "A Mongol! Ah! we ought to have guessed We ourselves have spent a good deal of time in the Land of Grass we are acquainted with the Eight Banners. so poetical and sweet . its Chinese.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

in your country. is surrounded ple by water on all sides. my part. cross the desert to Kiaktha. him of the improbability of findcamels in Paris. We did not inform for ing purchasers that city in his estimation. engrafted The disposition. we spent at Nan-tchang-fou we saw several times. " I know that the country of the Red-haired peoOh. and the various Western States.358 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. They are islIf I wished to visit them." said he . on the frontiers of Siberia. intelligent and well informed. appeared to have this strong. to the "Chinese character in this child of the desert. He even went so far as to ask us whether in coming from France to China we had followed the route round Cape Horn. unit- on ing and blending with advantage Chinese intelligence and penetration with the rough frankness and energy of the Mongol Tartars. and During the time this and especially quite free from that affected disdain for foreign countries. and with sincere admiration. Thence I should traverse the kingdom of the Oros (Russians). for the men and things of Europe. the Cape of Good Hope. if I wanted to reach I rather would travel with a caravan. vigorous produced a new type." " And if you wished to visit the In-ki-li ?" (English). and his society was Mandarin young His conversation recalled most agreewelcome. " Sea voyages must be very comfortable when you are used to " but for them. or through the Red Sea. the Chinese love to exhibit. I should sell my anders. camels and hire a fire-junk" (steamboat). to all that we told him of the nations of the West. civilization of Pekin. which On the contrary. until I reached the grand Empire of France. I should start from Pekin. and the Mongol fashion. always time had the we ably spent in the deserts of Tarlong He was also tary. he listened attentively. lest it should lower .

and especially the kingdoms of Europe. The Methodist ministers. It is evident that a European hand has been engaged in their composition. who lie in ambush in all the five ports open to Europeans. a few days before our departure from China. technical treatise on the Electric Tele* graph. and from the flattering strain with which the United States are mentioned in them. and this appears to us an immense step toward the development among them of the taste for European science. Since the war with the English. However. we chanced It was simply a to get sight of one of these productions. In 1851. 359 Of late years there is a remarkable tendency among the educated Chinese to the study of geography and of foreign nations. containing very correct information concern- ing the various parts of the world. they have composed certain little scientific works. there have appeared several very complete Chinese geographies. it is strongly to be suspected that an American has had something to do with these publications. have at last given up this harmless and useless system of Propagandism. a man must be profoundly ignorant of the Chinese nation to offer such a book for its instruction. and they have lost some of their faith in the miraculous effect of this measure.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. their vocation being to print books and disperse them. will not make much impression on the Chinese nation. by which they hope to captivate the minds of the Chinese. Truly. The theory of the Electric Telegraph for men whose . having remarked that the prodigious quantity of Bibles furtively scattered \ along the shores of the Empire have not proved remarkably efficacious in working the conversion of the Chinese. They seem convinced now that bales even of well-bound and cautiously-distributed Bibles.

language does not even contain terms to express the simplest ible. the author has had recourse to new combinations of characters. the heavenly bodies. instead of a dragon who is seeking to devour the sun and moon. Doubtless every body must wish for the moment when the Chinese shall abandon their ancient prejudices. tien-wen "celestial literature. and who trouble themselves little it is about what passes among The most erudite Chinese. wlrich Methodists at least should understand.of the among them simplest principles of the science. And yet if there is on the earth a nation absorbed by the affairs of this world. in order to express new ideas. but all instruction ought to proceed methodically. or as they call it. and so held in high favor some Jesuit astronomers who visited the court in the first reigns of the Mantchou dynasty. We phenomena of is electricity feel assured. and cultivate the modern sciences . and those who regard an eclipse as a natural phenomenon. less busied more or with stars and planets. instead of teaching the cate- chism to their neophytes. how to calculate eclipses. which the Chinese will not be 'in a hurry to construe. assuredly the just know of the existence of astronomy. forming a very original jargon. it has been supposed that the nation was devoted to astronomic science. Would there be a single Christian in China if the Catholic missionaries. It is scarcely credthat throughout the Celestial ! nation there this not one man capable of understanding work.360 JOUUXEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. for. had begun by placing in their hands a treatise on grace. and consisted of three hundred millions of Aragos." But they are ignorant . with dissertations on the Jansenist heresy? This proceeding has been adopted partly in consequence of a false idea of the Chinese which has been Because they are said to know conceived in Europe. are enlight- .

we are convinced. Physiology. the members of. in 1840. so it 361 much power If foreign astronomers formerly exercised at the court. is not a proof that the native professors of the science Until the Jesuits came to their were incompetent? assistance. furnished recipes for amassing a large fortune in a short time. the Tribunal of Mathematics have relapsed into their former ignorance. and every year government is obliged to send the almanac to Canton. they would make but hitherto they have studied nothing rapid progress for its own sake. in honor of widows and virgins.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. form its most striking architectural works. tronomy. If the books on astronomy and electricity. a trade. We monuments worthy of attention. would have ropeans. that the Methodists compose for them. great aptitude for all the sciences. asare considered mathematics. but secretly. to be corrected by EuThe Chinese. We took advantage of our leisure time to view Nan- tchang-fou. which is one of the most celebrated of the provincial towns. and since their expulsion from Pekin. tribunals. chemistry. but would laugh in derision at a proposal merely to increase their knowledge: they would consider such an offer merely as a bad joke. ened indeed. they look only on the practical and . Like other Chinese towns. they were unable to draw up a good almanac. a few triumphal arches. erected and Pagodas. only in their bear- In their hands every thing becomes ing upon sapecks. and enjoyed such fame. II Q contains no public . They would listen very attentively to any one who should teach them how to augment their incomes. From then: quick penetration and incomparable patience. a very correct it had already passed through it and in too great a hurry to have idea of it. they would soon conquer their repugnance to study them. The streets are large and tolerably VOL. productive side of things.

Han-keou. which are sent . dred separate factories. describe the bustle It is difficult to and the town. and Nan-tchang-fou is naturally the repository for the sale of their productions. tal of Sse-tchouen. Canton. Kiang-si a poor province.S02 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Nevertheless. and All goods from the north or the south must go by Nansupport. King-te-tching is not a regular town. so frail and delicate. it contains more than a million of inhabitants. All day activity that reigns throughout long clouds of smoke and columns of flame ascending from its chimneys. filled It contains several immense with china and porcelain of every kind. such as Nan-kin. almost all employed in the manufacture of china. shops. on the banks of the great river which falls into that lake. On commerce of Nan-tchang-fou is considerThis results from its position on the line of communication between the great centres of population and Pekin. representing various scenes in Chinese life. the town is the most the capiregular and handsome. Although Kiang-si is a poor province. that they have been called egg. and thousands of furnaces. from those great urns covered with richly colored reliefs. not being surrounded by walls. activity. to tiny cups. next to Tching-tou-fou. shell china. the Avarehouses and laid out. that we saw throughout the Empire. The chief porcelain factory is at King-te-tching. This province contains all the largest porcelain factories. incapable of selfclean. tchang-fou. When we among call agricultural produce. we refer to for its manufactures have been the most important in China for centuries past. and shops magnificently adorned the whole. east of Pou-yang. are constantly at work upon the china vases. the able. and at night the whole place appears on fire a stranger would imagine it was one immense More than five hunconflagration.

another the blue. the division of labor is carried to an infinitesimal extent. . as in all Chinese manufactures. flourishing condition under the dynasty of Han. another. but the enamel is finer. Then there are some ornaments with magic figures. one lays on the red china vase. and thence all over the world. which are only visible when the vessel is full. By the assistance of these precious documents and numerous specimens of kao-lin and pe-tun-ze* our manufacturers suc- ceeded at last in making a perfect copy of the Chinese and Japanese vases. and Chinese beautiful antiquaries possess specimens dating from that time. Each workman has certain flower color. The manufacture of china dates from a very ancient It was already in a period in the Celestial Empire. and had. who was intrusted with the mission to Kiang-si in the beginning of the 18th century. Amateurs preserve specimens of some kinds of which the Chinese have lost the secret of fabrication. Father D'Entrecolles. has passed tlirough the hands of more than fifty different workmen. In this. are not as They transparent as those made the commencement of the Christian still more at present. when finished and ready for sale. where a number of the workmen have embraced Christianity. * Essential materials for the manufacture of china. which were so long the envy and despair of the European imitators. has furnished us with very curious and detailed accounts of the manufacture of china. and the inner cup solid and of dazzling whiteness. and the coloring vivid. about era. such as the double cups.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. often occasion to visit King-te-tching. These figures are drawn on the inside. therefore. in which the outer part is perforated like lace. a bird . 363 in prodigious quantities into all the provinces of China. A one paints a . his particular department .

though to imitate these kou-toung so as to deceive the most are esteemed as practiced eye. It looks like the most delicate and exquisite of mosaics. which they call kou-toung. which is two or three months old at the utmost. It had to be invented anew. as if the vase were composed of a thousand different pieces. and the colors have undergone a particular preparation." They for the works of art. where they undergo a second cooking. the entire surface of which is covered with lines crossing in all directions. by Father d'Entrecolles : As each profession has its particular idol. is prepared most of the "fine old china of the dynasty of Yuen. The makers of the sham kou-toung After the first generally use a kind of reddish earth. or "old vase. baking of the vessels they are thrown into a kind of greasy broth. as well as of many others. however. the whole art has been completely lost several times in the course of those tremendous revolutions which have so often shaken that Empire to its foundations. There is a class of Chinese amateurs who devote them- selves exclusively to the collection of antique bronzes and porcelain. and many antiquaries exhibit in their cabinets with the most perfect good faith. The secret of the fabrication of this kind. where they lie for forty or In this manner fifty days. and are then dug up again. divinity be- . and after this they are buried in a sewer. According to the Annals of China." The whose ** origin is thus described porcelain manufactory possesses a patron deity.804 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and this was not always with as much success as before. is now entirely unknown. There is also a kind of biscuit china. but chiefly prized value attached to the things of past mysterious the workmen are cunning enough Chinese ages. which renders them invisible when dry. pretended ancient porcelain.

lain one of them. as it has * Lettres cdifiantcs ct curieuses. it is of count or marquis not surprising that to there is a god of porcelain. which he furnished. This . iii. getting only kicks and cuffs in return. and these poor creatures lavished their money and their laAt last. The and the is but worthy of remark on account of its peculiarprofits of which are not to be despised. ity. . and treated the unhappy workmen with the utmost severity. It cording to a particular design. and abounds in ponds there a scarcely cottager who can not boast of at least one close to his house. bor. p. and these are turned to account for province fish. threw himself into the blazing and was immediately consumed. less important and valuable doubtless than the china manufacture. furnace. is very marshy. Since then man. the rearing of which yield annually a considerable revenue to their cultivators. ing as easily conferred as the title 865 among certain European nations. and the porce- beautiful which was baking in this fire came out perfectly and quite to the Emperor's taste. the master manufacturers redoubled their efforts. and no bounds to his will. that his example factories. He owes his existence the following circumstance : It is said that a long time ago a certain Emperor desired to have some china ac- was represented to him his orders his desire." * province of Kiang-si possesses another trade. has led any of his countrymen to aspire to similar honthis unfortunate ors. at first regarded as a hero.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. that it was impossible to execute but remonstrance served only to heighten As an emperor during his lifetime is the sets chief god of China. . During the last few years much attention has been turned in France to the art of pisciculture. in despair. however. vol. has become the tutelary idol who presides over porcelain It is not stated. 221.

866 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. We staid five days at Nan-tchang-fou. like other sorts. Morning and even- ing the proprietors of fish-ponds ransack the fields for which they carry home in enormous fish rise to the surface. They are then taken out and sold alive in the towns. and we are also unaware whether the spawn undergoes any preparation before it is sold. after which they grow no more. and require abundant nourishment. For a few sapecks you may buy a bowlful of this mud. which is of an exquisite flavor . The a number of rabbits. very called. Their voracity can that of silk-worms be to only compared just before After fed thus their cocoon. In a month at most they are strong and active. it is been to ficial Kiang-si practiced after the following fashion : v In spring a number of men go round the provinces selling spawn. quantities. rapid. at least we never saw them. the quantity being augmented as they The growth of these fish is incredibly increase in size. and throw themselves eagerly on their food. In this art known is well Europeans. which they devour speedily. and pains have been bestowed on the artiBut. it is merely tlirown into the water. keeping up all the time a kind of murmuring suitable plants. When they have attained some size they arc fed with tender vegetables chopped up and thrown into the water. and in a few days the young come forth. Their establishment consists of a wheelbarrow loaded with barrels containing a thick liquid more like mud than any thing else. The fish-ponds of Kiang-si contain only this one kind of fish. It is impossible to distinguish the smallest animalcule in it with the naked eye. enough to sow a large pond . in China. during which . if there are any noise. however new production and rearing of fish. for about spinning being a fortnight they generally attain a weight of two or tliree pounds.

we were provided with a well-armed vessel of war for escort. further on to It what use we put it. The extreme heat of the weather. and well- Our efforts were crowned with perfect sucprovisioned. and can be crossed in a single day . and our own need of repose. and treated us . We knew that this route was infinitely preferable to the land journey. the journey to Canton. that we might be at ease and free to attend to our exercises. but. he issued a decree enjoining a contribution of five ounces of silver from every town we should pass. must be confessed. and took pains to carry out the plans we had formed. decided us to continue our journey Iby water. prefect us all showed the tary. we had a large sum It will be seen of money over when we reached Canton. particularly if we were furnished with government junks. 367 time our chief occupation was to arrange the rest of our The Governor of the province. that the authorities of Nan- tchang-fou behaved very handsomely. we took with us our first-rate artiste^ own servant Wei-chan and a cook. and the functionaries. the river Kiang would take us all the rest of large river as far as the the way to Canton. cess . and their suite. We had ex- pressly stipulated that we should be alone. In order that we might be treated perfectly according to our wishes. greatest attention. From Nan-tchang-fou we could follow the course of a mountain Mei-ling. The commissariat department was arranged by the Governor on a truly sumptuous scale. one for the Mandarins and one for ourselves. a sum amountThis was to be entirely deing to about fifty francs. a according to the prefect of Nan-tchang-fou. which is just half-way. and live as best pleased us .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. voted to the furnishing of our table . as the towns stand close together along this river. after this. civil and miliof the town. and two superb junks.

but the propagation it does every where . father. who every ten years conducts an embassy from Kiaktha to Pekin. four ounces of vinegar. as throughout the Celestial Empire. and we Weeping his tearful accepted good wishes with gratitude. The "You "Yes. of the faith goes on but slowly . to enter our junk. two ounces of butter. are Christians. tal of Hou-pe*.G8 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIUE. a pound of salted vegetables. The Willow bade us a touching farewell. who wished us a good journey. they are in general poor. we were accosted by two worthy citizens. and very timid. two saucers of lamp-oil. with extraordinary pomp. According to a law. Lazarus. a cup of wine. and this dignified and liberal conduct contrasts strongly with the shabby treat- ment of the Russian colonel. Every year a certain number of conversions take place. We knew 111? moment we looked in their faces with whom we had to do. looking all around to see that they were not observed. and were then We obliged to leave them." they replied. one ounce of salt. The mission of Kiang-si. and once in nine days a Chinese dinner of four courses. four ounces of fermented beans. counts now nearly ten thousand Christians. escort. and of our fellow-laborers. As we were about to embark. dispersed throughout the province . two fish. intrusted to the brother- hood of St. which is faithfully executed. which had accompanied us from the capitook leave of us at Nan-tchang-fou. open countenances. hastily asked news of the mission." we said. with pleasant. the representative of the Czar has a daily allowance of one sheep. a jar of milk. a pound of tea.

Gabet Departure for Pekin Arri- Luxury of Water-carriage val at Marseilles in 1852. during our residence in China. . Accustomed. dining-room. the Frontier Town Chinese Rope-dancers Little Feet of the Women Origin of this Custom Navigation of the Tigris Recollections of our Entry into China in 1840 View of the Port of Canton European Vessels First Night in Canton Our Martyrdom in Tartary Savings on the Road bestowed upon our Servant Wei-chan Stay at Macao Death of M. sible to enjoy a more convenient and elegant mode of river navigation than that with which the prefect of Nan-tchang-fou had provided us. of the Mountain Mei-ling Nan-hioung. curiously cut. and bed-chamber of exquisite cleanliness and luxuriously furnished. we had not supposed the Chinese capable of . On each side were large windows. fitting up a junk with so much comfort. THE Junk on board which we embarked to ascend the river Tchang was a little floating palace. to travel in merchant vessels and transports. and filled in with glass instead of paper a piece of exIt would be impostraordinary magnificence in China. and the men worked the junk and carried on their various occupations without ever coming to our end of the boat. and the paintings and gildings lavishly distributed around were heightened in effect by that beautiful Chinese polish We which has not its equal in the world. had a drawing-room.CHAPTER XL Departure from Nan-tchang-fou A Mandarin Junk Comfort and Vehicles and Hotels Fiacre and Cabriolet stands at Pekin Chinese Light Literature Collections of Maxims and Proverbs Passage. In the forepart of the vessel were the sailors' quarters and the kitchen.

came to inquire whether we were satisfied with our accommodation. and the landscapes which are gradually unfolded along the banks. being accustomed to the navigation of stormy seas. and by means of a rattan cable attached to the prow. The small boat had been launched." You Such journeys as this are real parties of pleasure. are most comfortable your delightful vessel is a Paradise but the motion is very great toward the stern. who no doubt had received minute instructions concerning the voyage. but we thought it right to tell the captain that it was unnecessary. I only carry out the orders I received at Nan-tchang-fou.captain's reply. This was the case the first day. The captain. we perceived by the trees on the bank that we were passing rapidly along. few moments after the noise of the oars ceased. and whether the motion of " We his " ignoble junk" did not disturb our repose. we were being quietly towed against the current. This was indeed a polite attention . board or in the boat makes no difference to the fatigue. recourse was had to the oars. It is customary to tow junks when they carry Mandarins of high rank. the sailors make a great deal of noise in rowing.870 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE." He made us a low captain ." A We was the . the gentle motion of a junk on a river was little "Whether the sailors row on likely to disturb us. enjoy the most profound and undisturbed tranquillity. offer the amusement of an inexhausti- . but on looking out of window. bow. seemed moved by magic. and . The river we were ascending was not very rapid. ." said the "I will go and see to it. and the junk appeared perfectly motionless . "Besides." "These inconveniences can be removed. and went away. but when the wind was insufficient or unfavorable.

provided only that they would make out a statement declaring the motives of the refusal. It is not customary in China to travel at night. as a compensation for our sufferings in the frightful deserts of Tartary and Thibet. and willing to receive absolutely nothing. without once going out of it . The functionaries did not always show any remarkable eagerness to bring on board the number of sapecks fixed by the tariff. Generally the payment was made with tolerable exactness . had suffered for 871 We forgot for some days the fatigue we more than two years. and every evening we got snugly into Our anchoring was performed with considerable port. and kept them himself under lock and key . as trial we had received with resignation those of and tribulation. and signed by the auBut no one would ever agree to thorities of the town. and the matter always ended by their sending the When we became too much encumbered with sapecks. so pleasantly situated were we. commodating. They sometimes sent us deputations to try and strike a bargain with us. we merely taking a memoranthis.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. we anchored. . with hearts full of gratitude. this hard cash. We whether lying on the right or left bank of the river. and to allege a thousand and one reasons why they should be dispensed from We were very acfurnishing the whole sum specified. and we accepted these hours of recreation from the hand of God. Wei-chan used to get them changed into bank notes. When we came to any town liable to contribution. The paternal goodness of Providence granted us this interval of calmness and repose. either by land or water. but there were from time to time some little difficulties to conquer. payable to the bearer. ble variety. passed two weeks in our floating hermitage. dum of their amount. and our Mandarin conductors went to the tribunal to demand the prescribed sum.

and had most refined and elegant manners. unluckily. The war-frigate used to precede us.372 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and when every body was ready and in full dress. By his language. which every one admires. another gun was fired to announce the moment of our departure. therefore. the ancliors dropped. a gun was fired. we went on He was a Peboard the junk of the civil Mandarin. other We . and all our rapid means of locomotion. and ostentation. may run over the whole world in this way without having much idea of the countries AVC have traversed. steamboats. In the morning as soon as it was daylight. our junk and that of our conductors were brought up alongside. In when we . Fo-kien. melancholy expression of his face made it evident that he was suffering from some keen sorrow. mingled with a few Chinese expressions. and the . and contented ourselves with mak- We ing him very short and purely ceremonious visits. Railroads. it was that to see he came from the metropolis easy but. so after having exchanged many gestures and much pantomime witli him. and we began again our delightful trip. as became a native of the capital of the Flowery Kingdom. of course to the accompaniment In the of the tam-tam. and which we never fail to appreciate are in a hurry to get from one place to anbut these hasty journeys are. respected his grief. and the discharge of fire-works. it must be owned. or the nations we have visited. as he only spoke the dialect of his own more or province. seldom interesting. also. to go from one vessel to another to pay The captain of the our traveling companions. are assuredly marvelous inventions. and choose a suitable place . and originally frigate we could not manage to keep up very long conversa- evening we used visits to tions with him. less disfigured . even stage-coaches. he did not much care to talk. kin citizen of the purest breed. an from old was sailor.

who wish to make traveling a pleasure and a luxury will be obliged to come to China. and wish to spare these luxuries. Nothing disturbs them neither heat. without crossing the frontiers of their own acquainted with almost country. In the southern provinces most of the traveling is done by water. . they can make themselves all climates and all productions of the earth. though their means of transport are slow and often inconvenient. made the banks of rivers.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. over the rivers and canals by which the em- The rich citizens of the Kingdom of pire is traversed. where they are heaped one upon another. fitted up with all the comforts of Chinese civilization. In general the Chinese are not sedentary . the travelers stopping wherever convenience or the pleasure of the moment may suggest. travelers crowded junks. Flowers find in all the great ports pretty boats. living on rice boiled in find only dirty. melon seeds. water. and get a Mandarin junk. Europe at the present 373 day travelers are forwarded ex- Henceforward those actly like bales of merchandise. nor the noisy conversations that are constantly going on all around them. as well as the whole night. with incomprehensible patience. sleep almost the whole day. in which they may glide gently from province to province. and passing their time in smoking and picking Those who are of an economical turn of mind. As the most important towns are commonly situated on on hire. but with the exception of the aristocratic boats just mentioned. to be let These voyages or rather long excursions. it is easy by this plan to study the country. and make yourself acquainted with the manners and customs of the inhabitants. and as. nor the smoke of tobacco or opium. are in the easiest style. without seeming to think it at all unThey will remain shut up in them for months pleasant. they are always very ready to set off on a journey.

and this is perhaps one reason why the Chinese have acquired so much skill in the difficult art of setting fractured limbs . but it would certainly be a preferable plan to make better roads and carriages. Experienced travelers know perfectly well what they have to trust to with respect to the inexhaustible abundance promised by the signs. The inscriptions in letters on the large gates. promise you peace. or they are drawn in a kind of wheel-barrow. all kinds of virtues.precaution to have the sides of the vehicle cushioned. To look at the pompous signs by which they are vdecorated you would imagine you had met with the most virtuous men in the universe. in addition to abundance of good cheer. or go on foot. but perhaps less tedious. and there are no seats in them. But you have hardly crossed the threshold. generosity. The Chinese coaches are not on springs. on asses or mules. before you discover that you have got into a den of thieves. disinterestedness. . and that the landlord amidst his guests was a very patriarch surrounded by a numerous family. cumstances travel in palanquins or in a kind of coach or wagon. and in imminent danger of a broken head. you are constantly jolted up and down. where you will be likely to be both pillaged and starved. terribly rough.374 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. In the north the modes of locomotion are more faPeople in easy cirtiguing. Prudent people take the. and the accomplish- ment of all your wishes. others on horseback. Upsets are of every-day occurrence. so that you must always sit As the roads also are cross-legged like a tailor. which must not always be judged of by their names. so that the limbs might not want setting quite so often The most-frequented roads of the north are provided with numerous inns. concord. in order to soften a little the blows they are constantly receiving right and left.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
and take care
visions. It is

375

to

have with them an assortment of pro-

customary for every one to carry a little bag of tea, suspended to his girdle ; and those who are not inclined to content themselves with a kind of bun made of wheat and rice boiled in water, are also accompanied by an oblong trunk, divided into various compartments filled with potted meat, salt fish, and sour krout. The Chinese call these provisions for .traveling " kan-leang that is to say, dry and cold." In the considerable towns you do find sometimes tolerably well-kept inns, with private rooms for those who desire them ; and such as Europeans, whose habits are not too luxurious, might occupy with pleasure, though of

You

course they are not so elegant as those of our best hotels. can, however, take your meals at the table d'hote,

as in ours, and tended.

or have the dishes you desire served to you separately, you are mostly well and promptly at-

customary to commence by drinking tea, and amusing yourself with little trifling dainties, the cooks
it is

As

(or,

to give

tion, the

them a more stately and appropriate appella" Mandarins of the Kettle") have time for their

culinary operations. They bring the dishes ordered, in the most ostentatious manner, and when the waiters of the establishment put down the dishes before the guests,

they sing out their names in a loud voice, so as to be heard by every one. This plan, as may be supposed, is found very useful in exciting the vanity of the guests, and inducing them to ask for expensive things, that perhaps they would willingly have done without if they

had been dining in private. When the repast is finished, the head waiter of the hotel comes to the door, and commences a kind of song, of which the subject is the nomenclature of the dishes, and the burden, the

sum

total of the expenses.

When

the guests go out

876

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIUE.
this,
it

and

must be owned,

is

a

critical

and solemn

moment

dined economically depart with an humble and contrite air, and try to avoid the
those
notice of the company; while the Chinese lords, who have eaten sumptuously, and of high-priced viands, march out with their pipes in their mouths, their noses in the air, and casting proud and disdainful glances on all around. If the fashion were adopted in the taverns of Europe, of proclaiming aloud what every body had taken, it is to be feared that many a guest would give himself an indigestion out of pure vanity.

who have

The

Chinese,

when traveling,

are habitually abstinent,

and in some of the provinces they have a practice to which we found it very difficult to accustom ourselves.
Before setting out in the morning, they swallow a large cup of warm water, in which they have previously dissolved a few grains of salt. They are gifted with astonishing powers of appetite and digestion, which seem to

be entirely under their control. They support hunger and thirst with the greatest facility, and yet, when the opportunity presents itself, they can swallow vast quantities of rice without suffering the slightest inconvenience. Their stomachs seem thus to be of almost unfathomable have traveled in districts of the north where depth. there was really scarcely any thing to be bought, and

We

the Chinese,

who

provisions, used to take at one required for twenty-four hours.
all at

did not like the trouble of carrying meal all the food they

In the morning as

soon as ever they were up, they breakfasted, dined, and

supped

once.

Many important cities of the south are built in the water like Venice, and the magnificent canals that serve
for

streets are furrowed by innumerable little boats. Pekin offers a very remarkable peculiarity namely, in some of the populous quarters, you find coach stands,

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

377

where small vehicles, drawn by one or two mules, can be taken on hire by the hour or by the drive, exactly

hackney coaches and cabriolets in Paris and LonThis custom is very ancient in the Celestial Emand does not at all seem to have been borrowed pire, from Europe. Probably it existed when our good fore'fathers were running wild in the woods. But although the Chinese have been in possession of coaches longer than we have, their coaches are still Those of Pekin are scarcely greatly inferior to ours. any better than the detestable traveling wagons of which we have already spoken. They are smaller, more elegantly painted and varnished, and fitted up inside with red or green silk but they are never on springs, and this inconvenience is felt even more in the capital than
like

don.

;

in the country.

which were formerly paved with not large flag-stones, having undergone any repair for, perhaps, two hundred years, have lost almost as many
principal streets,

The

stones as they have retained

;

so that

you come

contin-

ually to great square holes, and, as may be supposed, this is not very convenient for carriages ; and they often

proceed by a series of jumps from one side to the other. Their wheels are, indeed, of enormous solidity, and

they very seldom break ; but that does not prevent the vehicle from upsetting. During our stay at Pekin, we were induced once to take a drive in one of these abominable machines, and we were so atrociously maltreated in the course of it, that we resolved never again to have

recourse to that

method of locomotion. The Chinese accommodate themselves to it wonderfully, and sit tranquilly smoking their pipes, and seeming, by the elasticity that is so remarkable in them, to defy the roughest
jolts

that

and the most unexpected bumps. any one of them had fractured his

We never heard
The

skull.

driv-

378

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

have no other seat than the pole, tut to they manage preserve their equilibrium. In general it may be said that all methods of locomotion in China are either fatiguing, or dangerous, or tediera of these coaches

ous,

and these coaches unite
are,

all

these advantages in one.

The Mandarin junks
the most comfortable.

unquestionably, the best and Since leaving Nan-tchang-fou to

ascend the river Tchang, our days had flowed on with
indescribable calmness and rapidity, and we profited by this period of peace and tranquillity to collect our notes,

and revive the

recollections

compose

this narrative.

which have enabled us to This glance cast tack upon

our past tribulations was a source of pleasant emotion. One can only enjoy the sweets of repose after long faWhen the sailor has got into port, he likes to tigue.
look back on the furious tempests of the ocean, and the ecstasies of felicity are reserved by Providence for hearts

bruised and worn

by

suffering.

quiet interval of this peaceful voyage procured for us, also, a better acquaintance with the light literature of China. Our servant, Wei-chan, was a great

The sweet

and whenever he went ashore he used to come back with a stock of little pamphlets that he afterward devoured in his own cabin. These ephemeral producreader,

tions of the ready pens of the literary class usually consist of tales, novels, poems, biographies of illustrious

or of notorious villains, and fantastic and marvelous stories of various kinds. The Greeks fixed the abode of their monsters and ephemeral creatures in the East, and the Chinese have returned the compliment by

men

placing theirs in the West, beyond the great seas. dwell their Dog-men, their nation ears
trail

There

long enough to on the ground as they walk ; there is the kingdom of Women, and of the people with a hole right through them at the breast ; the Mandarins of which people,

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

379

when they go

merely pass a stick through this hole, carried thus Between two domestics. If the hearers are strong enough, they often string on
out,

and have themselves

several gentlemen at once. These tales are a good deal in the style of Gulliver's Adventure, and some of them are full of the most dis-

gusting obscenity

ing their imaginations
fore.

Chinese are fond of indulgwith this kind of reading, which, indeed, can teach them little that they did not know be;

for the

found in the collection of Wei-chan some very we read with the most lively interest. These were collections of proverbs, maxims, and popular sentences, from which we made some excurious productions, that
tracts that

We

we

will give here, as

we

believe the reader

them with pleasure, as specimens of Chinese character and modes of thought. There are some indeed that have subtlety and salt enough not to be disdained
will peruse

by La Rochefoucauld. " The sage does good as he breathes it " One may be decorous without being

is his life."

chaste

;

but

one can not be chaste without being decorous." " My books speak to my mind, my friends to
heart
;

my

all

the rest to

" The wise

my

ears."
all

man

does not speak of

he does, but he

does nothing that can not be spoken of." "Attention to small things is the economy of virtue."

" Raillery " Man

is

the lightning of calumny."
virtue,

may

bend to

but virtue can not bend to

man."

"Repentance is the spring of virtue." " Virtue does not talents, but it
place.

supplies their give Talents neither give virtue nor supply the place

of

it."

380

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

is

"lie who finds pleasure in vice, and pain in virtue, a novice both in the one and the other."
" One

may

do without mankind, but one has need of
is

a friend."

"Ceremony

the

" If the heart does not go with the head, the best
thoughts give only light
;

smoke of friendship."
this is

why

science

is

so

little

persuasive, and probity so eloquent." " The pleasure of doing good is the only one that

never wears out."

men; to rewomen." " You must listen to your wife, and not believe her." "If one is not deaf or stupid, what a position is that If with a wife and a daughter-inof a father-in-law
nounce science
is

"To

cultivate virtue is the science of

the virtue of

!

law, one has also sisters and sisters-in-law, daughters and nieces, one ought to be a tiger to be able to hold

out."

" The happiest mother of daughters
only sons."

is

she

who has

" The minds of women are of quicksilver, and their hearts of wax." " The most curious women willingly cast down their eyes to be looked at." " The tongues of women increase by all that they take from their feet." "The finest roads do not go far." "When men are together, they listen to one another; but women and girls look at one another." "The most timid girl has courage enough to talk
scandal."

" The tree overthrown by the wind had more branches than roots." " The dog in the kennel barks at his fleas, but the dog who is hunting does not feel them."

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.
" He who
lets things

381

be given to him,

is

not good at
in a vil-

taking." ' ' At court people sing that they may drink lage people drink that they may sing."

;

" Great souls have

" The prison
full
;

wills, others only feeble wishes." shut night and day, yet it is always the temples are always open, and yet you find no
is

one in them."

"All

errors

have only a time;

after

a hundred
lies,

millions of objections, subtleties, sophisms, and the smallest truth remains precisely what it was
fore."

be-

"Who
whom we

is

He the man most insupportable to us? have offended, and whom we can reproach

with nothing." " Receive your thoughts as guests, and treat your
desires like children."

" Whoever makes a great fuss about doing good, does to be seen and noticed he who wishes little very when he is doing good, will not do it long he who mingles humor and caprice with it will do it badly. He who only thinks of avoiding faults and reproaches,
:

;

will never acquire virtues."

" For him who does every thing in its proper time, one day is worth three." " The less one has for one's self, the more
indulgence

one

may have
those

for others."

"Towers

are measured

by

their

shadow, and great

men by

who

are envious of them."

"We must do quickly what there is no hurry for, to be able to do slowly what demands haste." " He who wishes to secure the good of others, has his own." secured already " The court is like the sea; every thing depends upon the wind."

382

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

"

What

a pleasure

it is

to give

!

There would be no

rich people if they were capable of feeling this." " The rich find relations in the most remote foreign countries ; the poor not even in the bosom of their own families."

" The way to glory is through the palace to fortune market ; to virtue through the desert." the through
;

"The
which it " One

truths that
is

we

least

wish to hear are those

most to our advantage to know." forgives every thing to him who forgives him-

self nothing."

"It is the rich who wants most things." " Who is the liar? He who
greatest

speaks most of

himself."

" fool never admires himself so much as when lie has committed some folly." "When a song gives much fame virtue gives very

A

little."

" One never needs one's wits so much as when one
has to do with a fool."

"All

is lost

when

the people fears death less than

poverty."

After a delightful voyage of fifteen days we arrived at the foot of the mountain Mei-ling, when we bade adieu

Mandarin junks, and returned to our palanquin. we began to climb the steep and rugged sides of the Mei-ling. There are several paths, but as all they present nearly the same difficulties, you do
to our

At

sunrise

not give yourself much trouble about the choice. The multiplicity of paths is occasioned by the great numbers of travelers and porters who are obliged to
cross the mountain, which is in fact the sole passage for all the merchandise that the commerce of Canton is continually pouring into the interior provinces of the

Em-

We went to lodge on the quay. where travelers go to refresh themselves a little in the shade. some old men. in a spacious and magnificent communal palace. This town is celebrated for its storehouses and its vast port. pire. We arrived toward noon at the summit of the mountwhere there is ain. on account of the masses of rock with which the way was thickly strewn. and on the other begins that of Canton. remarked. among the long files of porters. and we arrived in the evening at Nan-hioung. we hastened to express to the prefect of the town our wish to complete the journey down the river to Canton as before in a Mandarin junk. in the form on one side of which ends the . and Canton represented to us Europe France. bending painful- We ly under their load. nevertheless. where all the junks stop that come up the river from Canton. At certain distances you find bamboo sheds. and as the last fifteen days had been so agreeable. that country so dear to our recollections. to drink some cups of tea.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. live. dragging themselves slowly up these tortuous and almost The men whom their poverty perpendicular paths. it is said. We descended the mountain slowly and cautiously. a very short time. The next day all was strictly regulated in conformity . of an immense portal a sort of triumphal arch. for we had now at last set foot in the province which is in direct communication with Europe. . 383 It is impossible to see without pain all these un- fortunate creatures loaded with enormous burdens. province of Kiang-si. It seemed as if we were only a short way from Canton. to restore their sinking spirits. and scarcely able to support their tottering steps. and smoke a pipe of tobacco. could not cross this frontier without emo- We tion. condemns thus to this terribly hard labor.

and the prefect of the town had When we darins thought proper to indulge us with a representation. have already said that. from the highest antiquity. It happened that there was then at Nan-hioung a celebrated troop of rope-dancers. it is said. performed prodsuppleness of limb igies of agility. notwithstanding the incredtroop ible smallness of their little goats' feet. pass circle. and in the north of China there are ambulatory horse-riding companies in which the women excel in the management of skillful the horses and the most difficult feats of the circus. and the naturally artists The Chinese speedily commenced their evolutions. and cut little all kinds of in the capers. entered the court in company with the Man- we were received with some music. which was certainly loud enough. as might be supposed from their great elasticity and but the most distinguished of the . We They show themselves in general indeed more than the men in these performances. who. in other respects. with our request . peans sometimes imagine that the Chinese in the excess of their jealousy have invented this custom in order to . were two women. while the horse is galloping and bounding The fashion of feet is general in China. in order to give the captains of the junks time to make their preparations. through hoops. though the women are forbidden to play any dramatic part. and Eurodates. but it was settled that we should pass the day at Nan-hioung. leg. they are allowed to dance on the rope and figure in the exercises of equitation. but of rather equivocal pretensions The ropes were all ready stretched. One can hardly imagine how they can stand on one pirouette. are very skillful rope-dancers. As soon as we rose from table we were invited to go and smoke and take tea in a spacious court under the umbrageous shelter of an avenue of great trees.384 JOUKNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

. and to give to their basis the elegance they so much desired. rich and poor. little feet. It is said that in some remote antiquity. It has been introduced gradually without any deliberately formed purpose. she naturally gave the tone to Chinese fashion. Those who were already of mature age. VOL. in town and country. always enveloped in bandages. the Chinese ladies sought by all possible methods to follow the fashion. Chinese women. Young ladies had the consolation of obtaining some success. little. gifted with remarkable attractions. and from which all the life has been squeezed out. and as people elegance and good taste. like other fashions. they were generally adopted throughout the Empire. a rapid progress criterion of beauty had been discovered. at last. Upon these stumps they draw pretty II. keep their abroad. R richly-em- . they found it impossible to suppress the legitimate developments of nature. at the extremity of their legs they have only shapeless stumps. resorted in vain to bandages and various means of compression . a certain princess excited universal admiration for the delicate smallness of her feet . and the results of these measures having appeared highly satisfactory. are all lame. ceeding generation to witness the complete triumph of Mothers devoted to the new mode did not when a daughter was born to them.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 385 women But though in-doors. it have always a passion for new follies. however. to compress the feet of the poor little creature with tight bandages that hindered their growth . there no reason to attribute to it the invention. and prevent their gadding this jealousy may perhaps find its is account in this strange and barbarous mutilation. and the ladies of the capital adopted her as the type of and as she was besides made The admiration for small feet was admitted that. fail. but not It was reserved for the sucto the extent they wished.

which they can nese sisters. and support themselves upon them by Their constantly keeping themselves exactly balanced. but there is as they consider this In general they are so much at their ease. As they are practiced from their infancy. broidered boots. that serve them for feet. however. froin their little tottering steps. The Mantchou Tartar women have preserved the use of feet as large as Nature made The mothers. them but the manners of the country have. find not been properly tortured with bandages it no easy matter to get married. who can often run pretty quickly. the Chinese women do not find as much difficulty as might be supposed.386 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. one may venture to conclude that they do not suffer much pain or fatigue from the stumps often affectation in that. and resembles that of the Basque people when mounted on stilts. step in it is a kind of hop. upon . and as they sometimes pass whole days in this sport. All the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire are mad upon this point of the little feet of women. that they were just ready to fall . totter even more lamely than their Chifeet is _ unquestionably most bar- This fashion of little barous. . . that when they think they are not seen they run and jump and frolic about quite prettily. terminating in a point. not more than many lame people among us. When you meet these women in the streets. therefore. are of course extremely solicitous upon this point. The favorite game of young Chinese girls is battledore and shuttlecock but instead of a battledore they make use of one of their little boots to send the shuttlecock backward and forward. nevertheinfluenced them so far that they have invented less. and injurious to the development of the . shoes with very high soles. and young girls who have in their infancy. you would think. absurd. some kind of step graceful.

too. if any one should tell them that beauty selves to pain every for does not consist in having imperceptible feet. have no right to be so very severe upon the Chinese . the recollections of having ascended this river in 1840. but it does in having an intangible waist. and that our junk began to move rapidly on her way. came . raised. 387. besides. it is to have the shape of a wasp ? knows but that the Chinese and European ladies would end by making mutual concessions. The performance of the rope-dancers lasted evening. and many of them subject them- day by wearing shoes that are not them. on our first entrance into the Empire. which were built and decorated precisely like those that had carried us as far as the mountain of Mei-ling. though it is not desirable to have the feet of a goat. physical strength . and their all Who the manoeuvres were very amusing .JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. they would not fear to disfigure completely the works of their Creator. and that. for the thought that in a few days we should be at Macao occupied us incessantly. for they also set a considerable value upon small feet. due admiration on their The next morning we embarked on board the junks. and occasioned us too lively emotion to permit of our bestowing skill. and who would dare resist her dictates ? ropeans. What would the Chinese really large enough women say. but we could only give them a divided attention. and 1 adopting both fashions at once ? Under pretext or increasing their beauty. What now remained to us of our long and toilsome journey was nothing more than an agreeable excursion. but what means are there of putting a stop to the deplorable practice ? It is decreed by fashThe Euion. We had nothing to do but to allow ourselves to float As soon as the anchor was quietly on to Canton.

Chinese robes completed my my metamorphosis. to some kind friends in France. that I had been cultivating for some time. thronging back into our minds. and. and a Chinese seminarist. it was not true for the people of Canton. mission situated at a short distance from the Mei-ling mountain : "Toward six o'clock they made my toilet." This city. followed me . a la Chinoise. that descended nearly to complexion. produced on me the impression of one great ambuscade. as I said it. the courier A followed him. was artificially improved by the addition of a yellowish tinge all over it . knees. bound for the mission of Kiang-si. on the confines of the great Chinese fellow. and filling them with This is what we wrote at that time sweet melancholy. finally. which they arranged in plaits. I followed the courier. in the fashion of the counthe long and thick mustaches. opened the march . not too fair before.38S JOUKNEY TllliUL'GH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. tortuYou might suppose ous. proceeding was dark. and I found myself in possession of a magnificent tail. They shaved my head. disguised the European cut of nose. . my My my try . on which I have now been letting the hair grow these two years past they then put me . on giving them an account of our departure from Canton. so that we formed a kind of thread to guide ourselves through the great labyrinth called Canton. and winding like a corkscrew. on a long system of legs. that. Its streets are narrow. eyebrows were cut off. we took our way to the up the river from Canton. on a false head of hair. as you know. with the exception of the spot at the top. and our first Our letter was dated from a introduction into China. "As soon as it junk. that the shortest line between any two given points was a straight one. mounted province of Kiang-si. was to conduct us to Nan-hioung.

so that we passed the night in the rivesr. so to speak. or break the chain that our But. and soon found ourselves. "Amidst all the immense population by which the streets were thronged. he had retraced his steps. and who alone knew the way. with the fronts of the houses all whimsically carved. in which direction were we to look for him ? street we were in was no thoroughfare. the next day. The water of all is covered by a prodigious quantity of vessels The dimensions and of indescribable forms. finished their preparations. opposite the town. so we cried aloud for our guide in The not pearance. with thankful The crew had not yet hearts. and we did not then imagine we should one day become acquainted witli him in the capital of Thibet. alas! presently we found it was party formed. our grand business was not to lose sight of each other. under the very bear$ of the Viceroy. and. . ornamented with Chinese characters you will have an idea of Canton seen hasti- ly by lamp-light. and we did know which of the turnings he had taken. lanterns of all of all colors. and we could not go on till all directions.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 389 Now. At formed the next link to the corner of a dark street. greatet part are shaped like fish and among these the * This viceroy was Ki-chan. big lanterns. shapes and sizes. if to these capricious-looking streets. of sight. broken. the courier me lost sight of the Chinese who who Once out preceded him. on board our junk. and picked us up again We then resumed our just where he had dropped us. . and fortunately at last he made his apHaving noticed that no one was following him.* " The river of Canton during the night presented really the most fantastic spectacle I had ever witnessed. Our perplexity was great. It seemed to be almost more populous than the town. march gayly. you throw in a profusion of little lanterns.

many resplendent with gilding. as we thought they would not be sharp enough to find us out. it show. Chinese have chosen for models those of the most ex- Some of the vessels are built like traordinary figure. " The as this of the river is called Tigris. and we rejoiced at this. fried fish. and letting off of fire-works. who were the sailors. " Every one seems to find on the river whatever is necessary During the night I was amusing myself a long while in watching the passing and repassing before our junk of a crowd of small craft. part by Europeans. to rice. It goes on winding through a long chain of mountains. fruit. and dying on . living. and. Wednesday. . that were nothing else than provision-shops bazaars in in miniature. suited us delightfully .390 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. houses. who sat at the helm and filled the office of pilot. They appeared simple-hearted fel- lows. without ever becoming entangled one with the other. . and when its rather shallow bed is not inclosed between high-pointed rocks.s on both banks more or less extensive plains of fine whitish sand . day. selling and etc. complete the effect of the picture. The skill of theii occupants in this respect is really admirable . cakes. were them They soup. the crew was not numerous. did not display any remarkable scenery on its banks.the water. with hearts full of hope. like the and elegantly carved into transparent lace-work. early Our little bark morning. but all are richly decorated. you must add the incessant beating of tam-tams. carvings of some of our ancient cathedrals. and these have rather an equivocal reputation . you see that they are an aquatic population : born. hung round with pretty wood lanterns. All these floating habitations. and their aged mother. consisting only of three young men. " The next we set off in the for his subsistence. . are cruising about incessantly.

upon which were moving something like human figures amidst innumerable lights. and some scattered groups of pines. and was enriched besides by a phenomenon. filled with passengers. divided this mountain. kinds of galleries cut in it. idols that attract pilgrims from a great distance. and rich plantations of bamboo and weeping willow many high hills. These are the things that meet the eye as you " In several places we saw enormous masses of calcareous stone. Those who came to practice their superstitious rites there passed from their boats into a subterranean pasin the rock sage."* * Annals of the Propagation of the Faith. It was a celebrated place of idolatrous pilgrimage. I asked the Chirifise whether they could account for this. we saw moored at the base of the rock a crowd of little skiffs. ' Oh. 88. for the most part sterile and bare some lightly covered by a layer of reddish soil. They said. proceed up the river. the Emperor Yao. 391 some fields of rice and wheat. in order to open a passage for the river. and withered grass on which buffaloes were carelessly . that look as if they had been cut by the hand of man from the summit to the base. aided by his Prime Minister. No. From junk approached the spot.' great inundation. to facilitate the flow- This ing off of the waters after the great inundation. according to the Chinese chronology. etc. yes . . 212. time to time some flaming matter fell from these As our galleries and was extinguished in the river. corresponds to the time of Noah's deluge. which I was a long time without compreI could see at a great height on the rock two hending.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Chan. and the question did not puzzle them the least in the world. p. . feeding. and then ascended by a staircase cut There are found here certain to the upper galleries. " One of the shores rose perpendicularly in a colossal wall of a single block.

who in our former passage had given us so many frights. we distinguished some more . were now sweeping us on rapidly to and soon. the Tigris had ceased to roll its blue waters through mountains . The last rays of the sun were just fading on the horizon^ when we perceived something like an immense forest. those custom-house offi- cers ranged along the shore. and in contemplating the points that had struck us forcibly at the period of our entrance into China. and had just bade adieu forever to the European colonies of Canton and Macao. where from time to time we inhaled a powerful and in- vigorating breeze. after In passing up the river again. as we advanced. By degrees. and the The sound of Cctnton junks became more numerous. years. and we entered on a richly cultivated plain. we were now about to see them once more! On the sixth day after our departure from Nan-hioung. that we listened to with a mingled feeling of joy and sadness. an interval of six We took pleasure in recalling our former impressions. stripped of its leaves and branches. among the innumerable masts of Chinese junks. we saw again with emotion the mountains that form a sort of natural dike to the waters of the Tigris. It seemed to us as if we were about to enter the Celestial Empire for the first time. the roads of Canton . the oars and the shrill nasal song of the sailors filled the air with a wild and melancholy harmony. breeze. and Canton was not far off! Standing motionless on the deck of the junk. But. straining our eyes in that direction. and retainThe current.892 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. that seemed to expand our chests. the bed of the river enlarged itself. we felt all the tremor that precedes the strong emotions of a return after long absence. It was a breeze from the sea. and the tide. the ing only the trunks of the great trees. instead of that. that pagoda dug in the living rock .

now passed us . in China. were watching us passing . as it droll it all was! A How ing cigars. those curious nar- seemed. in short. assuredly without suspecting that they had under their eyes two Frenchmen just returned from the high table-land of Asia.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. while we were going into ecstasies at their astonishing Those rubicund visages. and of England. In traversing the port of Canton on our Mandarin junk. pasted. The mere sight of a European flag makes the heart beat. those blue physiognomies. but when one has been long at the other side of the world. We their glazed hats. our eyes sought with eager curiosity for all that passed alongside of an English and we could not brig. That of France was not among them . Thibet man would have burst out laughing to see those faces. 893 elevated than the rest. naked of beard or mustache. on an inhospitable soil. it seems that all the people of the West form one great family. eyes. who. painted with a white awning. but having instead a bunch of red sers. waistcoats. those long noses and fair hair. upon their limbs how pretty trim little vessel. A . and covered green and in it were seated three European gentlemen. for it awakens all the recollections of our country. of Portugal. enjoying apparently a pleasure trip. and amidst the flags of all colors that were waving in the air. we perceived those of the United States. grotesque in the eyes of an Asiatic would their costume have appeared They wore black hats and white trow. smok- row clothes. and the peculiar structure of whose yards made us give a sudden start. Among the native vessels of China arose the grand and imposing forms of a steam-ship and several East Indiamen . ranged in a line along the deck. ! and jackets. Probably they were amusing themselves at our Chinese costume. and filled our eyes with tears. gaze enough at the sailors in was not Chinese.

but Providence had been our guide. where a Manport.As soon as we had entered the apartments assigned to us. we should probably get on a great deal Under the better. A short time after our arrival at Macao. we received a visit from a long Chinese who presented himself in the quality of official interpreter to the administration. After making many intricate turns through this vast in a little wharf. we had reached Canton in the month of October. understood now how curly hair on each cheek. 1846. French. we fell on our knees. This was At length. that he was an man the wretched pretext interpreter. and to the house of a civil functionary of inferior rank.894 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and we were transported at a rapid pace to the centre of the town. but to this he would not agree. then. absurd Europeans must look in countries which have We no knowledge of their customs and fashions. and led us in perfect safety through all the dangers by which we had been surrounded. They put us into palanquins. persisted in his unintelligible jargon. we landed at last darin was waiting for us. After he had made an imposing display of his whole stock of knowledge of English. and Spanish. We asked him . When we quitted the capital of Thibet. and extending His kingdom upon earth. it seemed to us as if we should never reach the end of the journey we were undertaking. It appeared to be full of so many difficulties and hardships. that in all human probability we should perish of fatigue and privation on the way .. six months after our ! departure from Lha-ssa. we told him that if he would be so kind as to speak Chinese. and returned thanks to God for all the mercies He had showered upon us during these laborious journeys journeys that were truly undertaken in the hope of glorifying His name. Portuguese.

JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. and who took . who are very ignorant. man had known M. him to get a letter carried for us to that gentlebegged immediately. was then at and as he replied. Van Bazel a long time. especially by it the Buddhists. about six hundred miles from the Great Wall. the Dutch Consul. passed the whole night rummaging in this incoherent mass of news that was piled up in the middle ot our room. "Yes! yes! Signer!" we Canton. Another Lazarist. and we knew how much sympathy and devotion he had always shown to the Catholic missionaries. It was as follows have lately received intelligence of the lament able death of the two fathers of the Mongol Tartar Mission. joined him with the "A French Lazarist of the name purpose of forming a mission for the conversion of the Mongol Buddhists. carrying an enormous bale of English newspapers. whose name is not known to us. having been regarded as foreign Lamas. took up his abode about three years ago among some Chinese families established in the valley of Black Waters. accompanied by a porter. and in one of the very first newspapers that We chance threw into our hands. we read an article that we thought rather curious. We begged him to send us some newspapers. 395 Van Bazel. and appears that. whether M. as we had had no news from Europe for We more than three years. to which the Dutch Consul had had the kindness to add some bottles of claret. they were treated in a friendly manner. in order to help us. as he said. The interpreter departed on this errand. the : "We author of the article continues : of Hue." After a slight glance at the Tartar countries. and soon came back. They studied the Tartar language with the Lamas of the neighboring monasteries . to revive the recollections of our country.

seemed capable of refuting it. and the Mandarins who had accomOur journey panied us from the capital of Kiang-si. There was an enormous heap of it. the Latin of their breviaries for Sanscrit. ing to the orders of the Governor of Kiang-si. which they do not understand. The immediate cause of this event is not yet known. safe and sound." It may well be imagined that this article astonished us a little . This money therefore must now be resigned to those to whom it . we held at an early hour a grand which were assembled all the high dignitaries of Canton. all the towns through which we passed had to pay us a contribution for our maintenance. following day reception." said we. with the intention of commencing the work After that period very little was heard of conversion. until in May last information was received that they had been fastened to the tails of wild horses and dragged to death. " There " a considerable sum. "When the Missionaries believed themselves suffi- ciently instructed in the language they proceeded into the interior. being concluded we thought it would be proper to render publicly our accounts to the Chinese administration. but for which they have much veneration. and we thought we had some reason to doubt its perfect accuracy. Nevertheless. at On the We therefore all the ordered our servant Wei-chan to bring in money that we had saved since our departure from Nan-tchang-fou. all the details were so well arranged. so that the eyes of the assistants quite sparkled as they looked at it. that the whole really seemed to bear upon it the stamp of truth. and nothing less than our return in person. of them.396 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. Accordis. but our conscience forbade us to incur any unnecessary expense.

" we said. addressing the func- "take it. to we could not help traveling at its expense but we are about to quit the Empire. Government. could beto no one else to ourselves. we informed Wei-chan that this little treasure belonged to him. now that to our proposal ?" The council having signified its approval of this suggestion. and unanimously declared. we were escorted. . where we had some European friends. we advised him to carry it away immediately and place it in Wei-chan did not wait to be told twice. at our The excellent M. and we never saw him again. If it is 397 yours. Van request. Since no one else seems to lay claim to this money. belongs. and for fear the Mandarins should afterward take it into their heads to seize upon it. and having brought us. The Imperial Commissioner Ky-yn was still at that time Viceroy of the province of Canton. Does any one object Canton. but. but long replied that Missionaries did not leave their home sum having been We to "Your go and amass riches in foreign countries. we do not wish to carry away a single sapeck. as we expressed a wish to remain for awhile at Canton. we would ask whether it may be allotted to our servant. tionaries of Canton. "having forced us to leave Thibet. did the like truly this . He offered us a junk to take us the same day to Macao. but took instantly possession of the cash and disappeared. to the Dutch factory. against our own will. ." we added. to whom we offered it. security. Bazel sent a receipt for us to the Viceroy." They protested with energy that they had no claim to this money. and &om that moment our official relations with the Chinese authorities were terminated.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. The Mandarins of our escort. every one displayed a disinterestedness all exemplary. that legally allotted to us.

Victorieuse. we seemed to be breathing the air of our country and. living in the very midst of it. for- getting his infirmities and sufferings. and our eyes gush full of delicious tears. days afterward we had clasped in our arms our and dear bretliren at Macao. A month after our arrival at Macao. we ourselves . But such was One day we received the afflicting news that this indefatigable and courageous Missionary had yielded his last breath on the coast of Brazil. and we used to like to go and walk on the sea-shore merely to look at old friends Two We the flag floating at its mast. America. we had been so solicitous to recall the vital warmth into the nearly frozen limbs of our friend. around us the Thibetan. and listening only to his devotion to the sacred cause in which he was en- gaged. Tartar. When we went to visit our little France. as we called it. France was still far from us. La. and to hear sounding in our ears only that beautiful native tongue whose harmonious accents made every fibre of our souls thrill with joy. We hoped all at the time soon to meet again this companion of some measure our wanderings. we little thought that God had appointed him to find a grave on the burning shores of South not the will of God. and Chinese physiognomies. embarked for Europe.898 JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. For a long time we felt in the midst of them like men awakened were astonished to see no longer from a deep sleep. in the hope of exciting the zeal and charity of the Catholics in favor of the interest- ing populations of Tartary and Thibet. There was in the roads a French corvette. and yet we seemed to have found it again. Gabet. After a tolerably long residence at Macao. for whose salvation he would gladly have laid down his life. the friend whose existence was in identified with our own. When amidst the snow of high Asia. M.

landed at last in the month of June at embarked We the period of the glorious solemnities of the Fete-Dieu. when the city of Marseilles presented a spectacle that be effaced from our recollection. Egypt. We till we were first for China in the year 1838. and Syria.JOURNEY THROUGH THE CHINESE EMPIRE. thus traversing and as we have already stated in our former work. more on the road to Pekin. . Palestine. since He reserved for us in the end such happiness as few men have ever felt. the shattered state of our health subsequently obliged us to return to France. set off once 399 China for the third time. and not permitted to see our native country again 1852. and which our feeble and imperfect powers are altogether inadequate will never ! how beautiful ! ! to express. after having visited on our way India. O God was our Catholic France how worthy of the love of all her children Blessed be the Lord that He premitted us to endure some sufferings among foreign nations.

.

worship of. Chinese. of the Celestial Empire. ii. the. i. 404. 72. 403. i. . their intercourse with China. erected to virgins and widows. Night-blowing corn." sect of. of China. 402. Chinese classification of various. 292. 364. 294. The Water-lily. Americans (Ya-me-li-kien). ii. Character of Chinese. 300. 296. 299. 396. fondness of the Mantchous for chewing the. 118. i. Chinese. Camel batteries. i. Advertisements. Arts of the Chinese. i. i. Actors. ii. ii. Chinese. Areca nut. character of. 407. 120. Ancient towers. 118. Acupuncture. 94. perial rice. 106. 46. 50. 17. 195. ii. Those at Arches. 410. triumphal. Nullity of the army opposed to Europeans. ii. etc. Ning-po. Inexhaustible resources of China for a great army.. i. i. remark of M. Agriculture.INDEX. government of the. 275. character of the Chinese on agriculture. Army. 216. Chinese. 76. 164. 300. Vegetable productions. i. political. Apathy. 112 . 90. i. "Abstinent Women. G3. 404. Its constitution in the provinces. Arms. 119. i. 227. i. Animals. Religious. 47. Gunpowder Artillery. Drouyn de Lhuys on the causes of the great invasions of the barbaric hordes of. 350. duties of. known to the Chinese at a remote period. ii. i. 115. ii. i. i. ii. its perfection in China. 115. 400. 122. ABSOLUTISM. 342. ii. 120. Asia. origin of. Arabs. of the Chinese. 113. 408. 116. 300. Ancestors. et seq. Grand review. ii. 273. in China. the famous Imperial. Academy. 411. of Han-Lin. Literary. 295. Annals. 214. Aristocracy of Khionng-tcheou. 287. State of the European rule in Asia. ii. Ages. of the Chinese Empire. Antiquaries. i. the Imperial. 165. state of. ii. Chinese. the celebrated annual. ImObservant Corn. 397. lost in the darkness of ages. Number of troops in the whole empire. 115. Architecture of Chinese halls of justice. i. Watchful care of the farmers. Almanac. 403. Agricultural festival. Annalists. 1-19. 293. Military and naval officers. of the Chinese. 107.

or Four Classical Books. magnificent monastery of. 185. Regarded as civilly dead.. 203. Associations (or houis) of eveiy kind in China. 134. published at the expense of the Government. 40. 140. Blue River (Yang-tze-kiang). cuniary societies. College ii. Father. 115. ments. The Five Sacred Books (King). 75. Astronomy. 314. Bouvet. 108. of the Christians in 712. 154. Bon/esses. 187. 101. from braying. Brandy. of Lou-ting-Khaio. Bandits. 186. i. 265. ii. 35. Society Society for gratuitous coffins. 312. Bridge. 202. 11)5. Bonzes. nese. Their respect for the written character. 191. "Book of Places. 142. INDEX. 39. Society of the Holy Infancy. 193. custom of conferring. Study. The Book of Changes (y-King). The Lun-yu. ii. 270. Chinese respect Bachelors. i. Their ancient monasteries. society. 57. Causes of these persecutions. 135. The Bonze prophecy concerning the destruction of Tching-tou-fou. Brick-tea. i. ii. ii. 82. 143. Shipwrecks on the. 200. 139. Blue Mountains of China (Thsin-ling). Destruction of the ancient books by the Emperor Thsin-che-Hoang. 139. Bibles scattered along the coast by the Methodists. i. ii. ii. Their holy island of Pou-tou. Dispersion of the Buddhists through the various countries of Asia. 179. crupper. 375 ii." Buddha in the island of Pou-tou. 187. i. 179." the. 141. Their persecution . Books. Chinese. celebrated suspension. Anti-gambling " PeLao-niou-houi. or Philosophical Conversations. Tatar and Chinese. ii. 58. 115. 242. The Classical Book of Meng-tze. 381-386. i. in Pekin. of The "Gandgour" and "Dandgour. corn. 313. ii. 81. or names and titles of all the functionaries of the Empire. 314. An indiscreet novice. ii. ii. immutability of. the. 330. The San-dze-king.402 Asiatics. 187. 114. Contemptuous neglect of. 141. The Ta-hio. i. Boots of honor. 305. by the ChiMethod of perpetuating the sect of Bonzes. or Society of the Old Bull. method of hindering an. or Grand The Tchoung-young. of. 306. Buddhism. manufacture of. 194. 181. i. 194. for. or Mincius. Ignorance of the Chinese of. Their ancient and modern govern- Ass. 187. 324. Visit to the superior of the Bonzes. of beggars. Chinese missionary. 194. 135. uselessness of the. 283. Their famous libraries." 84. Dogmas and moral precepts. Buddhists per- secuted by the Brahmins. 340. i. i. 193. ii. or Sacred Trimetrical Book. The Sse-chou. 118. 137. 198. Magnificent temple . 194. 132. convents of. 361. Bombast of Chinese official reports. 163. 52. Authority. i. or The Invariable Centre.i. Legend of Buddha. 121. 194. Period of its'introduction into China. 359.

Mountains. 351. duties. Chan-hai-kouan. Compared with the French. Sse-ma-kouang. 60. 218. 354. 112. And in matters of government. 121. Calendar. ii. the Emperor. 403 363. 112. 351. 147. Cangue. tion of.INDEX. . 63. punishment of the. Productions. i. office of universal. 341. origin of the words. or Book of Verses. Canton. Chi125. Book of (y-King). the. 112. i. throughout all the revolutions of China. A i. 126. first appearance of the cholera at. ii. China and Chinese. state of the. adoption or purchase of. empire. 168. pire. 281. 144. or Hall of Holy Instructions. 125. 109. one of the gates of the Great Wall. Changes. i. i. where a man has no male descendants." of the Arabs. Its relations with India. Chan-tong. 372. The inconstancy of the Chinese in matters of religion. nese political economists. Infinitesimal trade. 112. Chan-yu-ting. by lamplight. descendants of Confucius residing in. Coin of the emChina. method of making a cat tell the time. the. Census. i. i. i. Canals of China. Camel batteries. M. Liberty enjoyed by the Chinese. His deliverance. 370. i. Uniformity of the Chinese type. 145. His minister. 144. the Lazariste. 353. 141. etc. Exclusiveness not a character of the ancient Chinese. The mutability of the East. i. ii. 351. The Arab name Sin-Sina and 114. i. Conquest of. note. i. See Rites. Chinese civilization. 282. 87. 210. Children. Imports and exports. Court i. Boundaries of. the Latin Sinae-Sinensis. 146.. the. 280. ii. Early development of its internal trade. 146. 142. Carayon. Climate. 412. Early hours of the Chinese. Chinese industry. 52. 303. of China. ii. 125. i. 142. 116. Names borne by The word Tchina. Cadi of Cadis. 358. 351. in face. The commercial heart of Character of the true Chinese. appearance of. 57. 115. i. i. 123. language. 404. 214. ii. the country from time to time. 350. Attention paid to the construcThe great canal of the Emperor Yang-ti. Celestial Empire (Tien-chao). by Thsing-che-houang. 114. Chen-tsonng. "Chain of Chronicles. existence of. Cat-clock. 59. the Chinese. account of. i. of Pekin (Tou-tcha-yeun). 113. Rivers and Lakes. Present state of commerce with Europeans. 120. 80. ii. a name of China. office of. Che-king. 29. 119. citizen of Tou-ki-hien in the. 116. Centralization. of Confucius. CordiReligion. death of. Evil Future possibilities of forebodings concerning the Empire. 29. et seq. its Censorship. 351. of. Province of. 119. Arts and manufactures. manners. et seq. ii. Port of Canton. 103. 49. 62.. Their liberty of the press. 114. Decay of the productive art. The. the. 388. 116. 128. Castor-oil plant. 351. Ceremonies. Sketch of the geography of the Chinese Extent of its entire area.

Persecutions under the Emperor Young-tching. China respecting concessions to Chinese Christians. 82. MisPlan Carpin sions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 326. Numerous departures of the new missionaries. The Christian religion known by the name of Tien-tchou-kiao. 167. 84. 65. An expected convert. 166. discovery of a family of. The monument and inscription at Si-ngan-fou. 175. Manilla. Favor of the Emperor KienPersecutions of Kia-king. Christianity in China which it first A : M. 164. Institution of an archbishopric in Pekin in the The archbishop Jean de Montcorvin. China. 174. 166. The priest Olopen. Guizot's embassy to of. 159. missions. in China. . 241-245. 223. Chou-king. i. Its course through Asia to Europe. Duty of the French government Services rendered by the respecting its Chinese missionaries. Timotheus. The propagation of Existence of Christianity regarded as a political movement. 67. 67. and Rubruk. 58. State of Chrisfamily. 87." the name of the Christians of China. among the Chinese. The Ricci. sufficiency of the Edicts in their favor. 211. of Confucius. 155. 66. Release of three Christians from imprisonment at Tchang-cheou-hien. In84. et seq. 29. Francis de Xavier. Foundation of Macao. 154. 155. 160. 170. the Nestorian Patriarch. at Khioung-tcheou. Report addressed to the Emperor concerning the Christians. The Church never discouraged. 173. 153. ality Their hidden See Porcelain. and the Emperor's answer. 162-166. 152. Abandonment of the long. Cessation of persecution of. 159. The priests Y-sou and Niu-chou. 176. 242. Chinese Christians in religious liberty in the five free ports. Martyrs See Christianity. 142. 175. Emperor Tai-tsoung. 154. St. ii. 153. 154. 85. 157. Causes of this. Kaio-you.lM-1 INDEX. 158. Terror of the inhabitants. tian of Tching-tou-fou. 157. 85. ChrisChristians. 29. Missions from the Nestorians of high Asia. Persecutions of Christians at Ou-chang-fou. or Book of History. 49. Community of Christians at the town of Tchoung-king. 170. Immense numbers note. Imprisonment of the head of the Tchao Christian women in China. 88. 29. Christians protected by the Emperor Khang-hi. 217. 154. 157. and sincerity rare profligacies. Liberality of the persecution. Cholera. 161. China the birth-place of the. the. Hue's interview with some Chris" tians at Leang-chan-hien. The Bonze The Roman priest Sohan. 166. Chinese missions mostly unsuccessful. 166. i. of Tching-tou-fou. fourteenth century. missionaries to the Chinese government. 154. Circumstances under appeared at Chan-tong. Existence of Christianity in China as early as the fifth and sixth centuries. 243. Speech of the Emperor Young-tching to the Jesuits. Motives of the government for persecuting the Christians. 31. 47. M. Father Missions of the seventeenth centuries. 164. 169. 161. Difficulties in propagating the faith in China. 177. 172. Introduction of Christianity into China in the fifth and sixth centuries. edicts. 257-263. i. The illustrious Kouo-tze-y. Chinese indifference in matters of religion.

or Book of History. king. 194. 47. i. Custom-houses. 111. Coin of the empire. 143. 131. 245. ii.. Conversation. administration of. ii. 182. . Treatment of. 232. ii. "Dandgour. i. the six sovereign. 237. i. The most ordinary General and special pardons. M. i. 1G8. i. 278. 64 . " Red Clet. 109. their duties. Couriers. 120. Remarks on his religion and doctrine. Dead. His Book of Spring and Autumn. 257. his tomb in the i. Description of the bird. 59. Magnificent one at Kien-tcheou. origin of. 100. Commerce. 109. 116. His philosophy a counterpoise to the Imperial power. 142. or Grand Study. Commissariat. Grand reception of M. i. His Chenations. of Pekin. 313. i. 143. 142. vengeance. ii. 237. 118. tails of a trial. i. i. 32. 338. sovereign Court of. See Bites. of politeness. ii. Conditions on which he allows to sovereigns the right of governing His Chou-king. his establishment of the Portuguese power in China. Fernand. 105. Society for gratuitous. Civil government of the provinces. i. 118. Death. i. or Book of Verses. M. Horrible deCriminals. Eizzolatti. 37. Civil officers. 191. Cymbals Oppressed. Hereditary titles of his descendants. 135. State of Christianity in the province of Hou-pe. 237. ii. founder of the empire. Chinese. 339. Cookery. or Koung-kouans. 208. 338. in China. 42. 212. of Buddha. of the Empire. i. ii. i. Terrible act of Chinese customs respecting the dead. 246. Custom-house officers. 213. i. Mountain. His praise Extracts from his Ta-hio. 194. of accused persons. Hue Communication. unknown. Climate. College. ii. Talent of the Celestials for Cookery.INDEX. 160. Their right of appeal. government. Civilization. Courts. ii. 258. The College of Medicine. 113. Chusan. Chinese attachment " of the to. 405 tianity in the province of Sse-tehouen. His descendants in Chang-tong." the. Chinese notions respecting. Communal palaces. 233. Treatment punishments. Colonial office of Pekin (Ly-fan-yuen). 210. 244. 231. D'Andrada. archipelago of. The College of Astronomy. 120." ii. Opinion entertained by the Emperor Young-tching of the Christian religion. ii. i. 114. 310. polite. 138. Cormorant fishing on the lakes. 118. Criminal jurisdiction. the. ii. 101. ct seq. the Lama. Chinese. 237. 118. special dangers from the presence of the. ii. 271. ii. 358. 35. 39. Dchiamdchan. See Mandarin. Chun. ii. i. National. his ideas of government. caimness with which it is viewed by Chinese. ii. i. Chinese. 181. duties of the department of the." the. 146. Confucius. Chinese. of China. at one. 223. Customs. Coffins. state of the channels of.

13. The Koua. Chinese instruction. 349. Wide diffusion of primary inDifference between the people of the North and struction. 8. His titles in the Chinese language. Education in China. but only of the modern. 350. 211. practice. Divination. 23. 107. i. Etiquette. the. i. 141. 342. ii. 131. Desfleches. or lines of divina- Divorce. missionary to China. 134. i. 271. Extensive collections of Chinese dramatic pieces. tion. frequency of. His harem. 226. 118. Father. 141. his palace. English (In-ki-li. Chinese. ii. i. mode of. Chinese law Doctors of medicine. i. Laws concerning. or Four Classical Books. 326. 271. Dufraisse. De Visdelou. Edward Biot on them. ii. 370. 107. Father. i. The Sse-chou. Chinese missionary. treatise on (y-King). 308. . Dinner party. names given by the Chinese to the kingdoms of. 120. Father. 143. 163. 130. Theatrical tastes of the people. of China. An emperor's opinion of the law courts. Despotism. 130. 271. Chief branches of instruction. ii. 118. Houng-mao-jin). i. Chinese missionary. 131. 134. Charmerit. Government of opinion. Method of teaching the classical writings in schools. Monseigneur. Europe. description of Misstatements of Europeans respecting Chinese cooka. his letter on the demolition of DC De 1 the Christian religion in China. ii. 273. his letter to M. 118. their former importance. 412. i. Chinese. Fontaney. Mailla. 112. The Chan-yu-ting. Exclusiveness not a character of the ancient. 103. ii. 65. 129. ii. Distilleries (Chao-kouo). Dinner. description of a. 273. Epistolatory correspondence. 273. Disgusting Drama. i. ii. Checked by public His family. 358. Desert tracts of land in China. schools. 137. restrictions on Oriental. 117. his answer to the report respecting the missionaries. of virtue. Character of the present Emperor. 361. Early hours of the Chinese. i. 14. 125. Bishop of Sinite. 130. i.406 INDEX. 273. political inactivity. 142. Dykes on the Yellow River. acter of the audiences. Chinese attention to the minuta: of. i. 64. 133. His absolute authority. 208. 163. 119. Emperor. Their literary Observations of M. Their present Anecdote of a eunuch in power. 134. 33. 134-136. 141. or Sacred Trimetrical Book. his martyrdom. i." 105. of. 109. ery. 105. Fondness for polite and decorous observance. the. 210. Drunkenness. South. i. Method of saying lessons in The San-dze-king. His body-guards. 81. Eunuchs of the palace. 88. 320. His name of " The Son of Heaven. Hoc. 165. 272. Extract from the TaInculcation hio of Confucius in favor of self-improvement. Monseigneur. i. Study of the Five Sacred Books. 141. or Hall of Holy Instructions.

annual. " Gandgour. The local administration of Pekin. 398. 60. 163. 37. 115. the founder of Chinese civilization. Pillage at Fireworks. wells of. i. 349. rearing of. God. Existence of centralization throughout all the revolutions of China. Fou-youen. 317. Chinese missionary. ii. Fishing cormorants. 277. 349. Gardens. or Fou-lang-sai). Fou-lang-sai. 385. i. or Sand. Father. the idea of. 165. 229. 111. province of. 276. 82. condition and government of. Feet. 164. 112. i. ii. i. et seq. 40V ii. ii. 206. ii. 229. i. the Chinese prefecture so called. 276. 118. 394. i. Geography.. Fires. Fo-kien. 310. Famines. 309. Fou-hi. Gazette. Pekin. governing principle of the Chinese empire. Rapacity of the Mandarins. Tendency of the Chinese for geographical inquiry of late. 194. felt and expressed. Fou. Chinese knowledge of. Fish. Government. 359. The communal organizafucius. i. The six sovereign courts or ministers. et seq. 365. 172. Ideas of ConThe Emperor. 341. 247. Origin of the custom. " Sea of Gobi. little. 202. Fou-ki-hien. ii. ii. constitutive principles of. i. 174." the empire. Foundling hospitals in China. in China. 105." or Verbal Instructions of Buddha. Garrison towns. Father. French cemetery in Pekin. Venality . Chinese fondness for. 111. ii." ii. i. Fou. note. Excesses of the gamblers. Chinese. 69. " The Book of or names and titles of all the functionaries of Places. 106. Gaming. 40. Gabet. fires. Chinese. passion of the Chinese for. Filial piety the single i. account of the. Christianity in. expressed by the term Tien-tchou. 228. i. tion and dispersion of the Chinese Christians. in Kiang-si. 338. 1 19. Geographical knowledge of a Mongol Mandarin. Chinese term for Frenchmen. M. i. his death. 111. i. Difference between filial piety Fire. 317. 121. i. ladies. 358. Gerbillon. town of. 337. 148. France compared with China in some respects. i. i. 118. 121. Names given by the Chinese to the kingdoms of Europe. desert of. Machinery of the celestial government. Administration of the provinces. 141. i. 105. i. in Sse-tchouen. 349. i. prefecture of the. among Chinese Fey-yue'-ling mountain. 274.INDEX. tion. 207. 300. in China. Civil and military officials. ii. i. i. 108. His letter on the persecuGaubil. or sub-governor of a province. Frenchmen (Si-yang-jin. Chinese Missionary. 60. 122. Garden of Flowers. Chinese. 384. 85. a first order of town. Central administration of Pekin. ii. 100. their frequency in China. 109. ii. 318. i. ii. Fire-engines. 111.

i. Chinese 276. 112. Chief causes of this. i. 115. ii. Hiang-you. Doctrines of political of justice. 124. The great work of Sse-ma-tsien. town of. Hon-keou. Han yang. 101. 326. i. 295. Hackney coaches. i. the Chinese prefecture so-called. town of. i. tion of the travelers at. 113. i. 113. i. 250. ct erned by the single principle of filial of responsibility. or August Elevations. 74. of the Emperor. ii. or men of Han. 136. 60. Injurious innovations Their fatal effects on the empire. ii. 119. or societies. ii. ii. government of Confucius. 118. 105. 286. i. scq. i. i. 350. of Pekin. i. Han. 105. 377. Historiographers. 142. 115.ii. 112. or Yellow River. a the. valley of. 57. Hing-pou. 115. ii. 350. 116. 293. " Hoang-mao-jin. i. Remarks on. Han-Lin. Han-tchouan. i. 124. Ho-tsing. The whole Empire govThe vast system Guards of the Emperor. town of. 116. ii. in China. Animation of the place. ii. Horses in the south of China. Book of (Chou-king). 35. province of. Hoang-tsao-ping (Yellow Grass Plains). i. mountains of. Han-jin. Government condemnation of all religions. ii. Hing-ngan. conquests of the. or wells of fire. title pastry. town of. Motives of the government for persecuting the Christians. i. 112. Hospitality. the. town of. perfection of. the. i. piety. Hoang-mei-hien. Great Wall. 247. i. Famous historical bestowed upon Mandarins. 138. 302. . Hoang-chou. 347. 282. ii. or " odoriferous" work of Ma-touan-lin. Inof the Mantchous. 326. establishment of. Gunpowder known fondness for. 325. 101. its immense trade." Chinese name for the English. 275. Houis. i. or supreme court of criminal jurisdiction. 160. Hien. History. Cool recep- Harem. a name of China. a title of the Emperor. Hoa-yuen. Men of the Red Hair. of Confucius. Conditions on which Confucius allows to sovereigns the right of governing nations. 59. 329. constancy of the Chinese in matters of government. ii. 170. 3G5. Hong-kong. Heon. Sec Associations. See Metempsychosis. ii. i. Hoang-te. Hoang-ho. 189. ii. instance of. famous Imperial academy of. 142. to the Chinese at a remote period. 120. the. 104. Houen. or garden of flowers. Han-keou. 368. College of. 99. Study of. 300. 352.408 INDEX. a title of the Emperor. dynasty of. i. or August Sovereign. Houng-tse Lake. Hou-pe'.

266. 269. And at Han-tchouan. tcheou. 33. 92. Letter from the Bishop of Sinite. Honors paid on the road. 108. and punishment of the military Mandarin Lu. la Cldnoise. Arrival at Marseilles. 152. 369. 184. Reach Tching-tou-fou. disappointment. And at Kouei- A A Journey to Hoang-mei-hien. A storm. A toilet 395. Lodgings in a theatre. Disputes with the Mandarins of Kiennocturnal apparition. dinner with the prefects of the town. 383. tcheou. The trial. Arrangements for the departure. 266. 242. 354. 217. Arrival at Khioung-tcheou. Last visit to the Viceroy. 312. Quarrel with a Leave Fou-ki-hien. 230. Departure from TchoungAddition to the escort of a military Mandarin and eight king. 382. IT S 236. 62. 32. Appearance before the Viceroy. 35. 339. Visit to a magnificent Bonze monastery. the Abbe Arrangements for his departure. 243. 409 Hou-pou. 195. 388. Riot in the town of Ya-tcheou. and obtaining an interview. 268. 43. 56. visit to the prefect. 229. trial demanded. i. 62. 373. 71. The tombs of the pe'. Arrival at Pa-toung. 238. Dangerous illness. 179. ii. 42. 146. Hotel of the Beatitudes. Acquittal of the accused. 374. Letter from a Christian family there. 225. Arrival at Leangcheou-hien. 332. 375. Grand reception at a communal palace. 282. Success of the visit. Fatigues of the road. The trial presided over by the Missionaries. i. i. Hos- A A . 383. 94. The nocturnal procession. Navigation of the Blue River. or the court for the management of the revenue. 296. Leave Han-tchouan. 41. Reach Canton. Departure from Ya-tcheou. 236. Discovery of a family of Christians. Retrospect.INDEX. 230. departure from Leang-chan-hien. 243. 414. Arrival at Tchoung-king. 253. 112. 352. Arrival at Oti-tchang-fou. No provisions to be had. 74. Arrival pitality of the igation of the Disembarkation at I-tchang-fou. 59. Arrival at Fou-ki-hien. 8. 191. Quit Song-tehe-hien. 63. 44. Voi. 236. ArNan-tchang-fou. 27. 330. Observations on Chinese Christianity. 295. 151. Invitation to Lodgings in the court of justice. Hue. doctor. Passage of the mountain Mei-ling. 421. 101. Attended by two Mandarins . Arrival at Kin-tcheou. 232. Farewell of the Thibetan escort. Arrival at Kuen-kang-hien. 270. Leave Kin-tcheou. Forcing the guard. Bad reception at Han-yang. Arrival at Solemn public supper. the river Lou. Attempt to see' the Governor of the province. 230. Mandarin. 295. 49. 226. at I-tou-hien. 255. 148. 144. 269. 254. Imprischan-hien. Trickery of Mandarin Ting. Arrival at Tchang-cheou-hien. 231. Leave Tchangsoldiers. Suspension-bridge over : yue'-ling Family of the conductor. 279. Arrival at Tien-men. 34. 399. 395. at Song-tche-hien. NavBlue River. 35. Recovery. 156. 247. And Terrific threats. And Macao. 47. onment of the head of this family. 276. 374. 335. Crossing the Feymountain. Bad and dangerous road. of honor. 36-40. 68. Departure from the province of Sse-tchouen. 415. Departure from Nan-tchang-fou. rival atNan-hioang. Entry into the province of Hou-pe. 348. Triumphal Arrival at Yao-tchang.152. Creating a sensation. Arrival at Ou-chan. 283. Aspect of the road. et seq. Departure from Tching-tou-fou. Arrival at Kien-tcheou. 236. 354. martyrs. 151. 419. Departure from HouFarewell visit to the Governor. 182.

389.. M. sketch of a passage in. Inns. i. town of. Stanislas. races. 211. in China. the insect so called. 308. 339. 160. Quantities of the. Judgment-halls. especially females. i. i. mode of administering. Japan. 41. 276. at Hon-keou. in Islands. his responsibility. of China. town of. the. Christianity in. In-ki-li. of Pa-toung. the name of the Chinese Christians. i. 389. Infanticide. 122. Besieged and destroyed. 342. Julien. ii. Judges. Juggling and sleight-of-hand. i. ii. M. 72. perfection of. i. 70. his journey to China. 336. the. et seq. a Chinese term for the English. the divinity so called. Its accomplished Mandarin. i. 234. 341. 327. description of the. 381. i. ii. 352. Kakkerlac. ii. 379. i. description of the. a river. 263. frequency of. 375. his account of the salt and fire-wells of Sse-tchouen. the Chinese. 100. 334. floating. ii. i. province of. Interments. i. 299 . . 187. 75. i. compared with Roman judges. Accounts of fanticide in Paris in the seventeenth century. Lodging of versation with the prefect of. 70. town of. i. Delaplace respectMethods of killing children. laws concerning. 332. Insurrection of the present time. 96. 333. Junk. 285. ii. 123. ii. et seq. 300-308. ii. Testimony of M. i. 329. Navigation of the Blue River. 243. Work of the Holy Infancy. 97. Chinese. Interest of money. Industrial exhibition of the Chinese. of Sse-tcheouen. 329. Junk Justice. i. missions to China respecting. 130. i. 340. 341. Junk traveling. Kan-Sou. Impiety. 244. His mastery over the Chinese language. His publication on the travels of a Chinese in India. 255. Edicts against infanticides. ii. 63. His con- I-tou-hien. 12:5. Kao-wang. i. per annum. Legal interest fixed at 30 per cent. 332. Industry of the Chinese. Ibn-vahab. 338. description of the. 313. 406. 130. 96. 327. Imbert. 213. I-tchang-fou. or Ngan-tsha-sse. ii. 36. Ining. China. ii. 334. remarks on the. i. Great numbers of. Kao-pan (theatre of examinations). Kan-fou. i. War-junks." a term for the people of China. 242. and interview with the Emperor. ii. Hurricanes of Tsing-khi-hien. Mortuary repasts. 284. 145. 40. ii. ii. His peroration. ii. Judge. i. Itinerary. M. " Hundred Families. 340. Kaio-you. Inspector of Crimes. Hue at.410 INDEX. customs of the Chinese at. 350.

112. the Emperor. Grand reception of M. ii. i. or communal palaces. i. province of. Chinese. Its antiquity. the Emperor. Koung-pou. M. appearance of the. brick tea of. 155. Meaning of the term. Emperor con- His attempt to ameliorate Lagrenee. town of. townspeople and Mantchou Tartars. the protector of the Christian religion in Pekin. ii. i. i. Kouan-tse. 49. town of. " Khom-dan. 317. i. Aristocracy of the inhabitants. i. The primitive characters. His death. Magnificence of one at Kien-tcheo. Discovery of a Christian family there. i. 116. town of. Kioung-tcheou. His report to the Ky-yn. Lampoons. Hue's disputes with the Mandarins Kien-tcheou. i. 388. ii. Uncultivated tracts Kiang-si. Kuen-kang-hien. 191. i. cerning the Christians. 128. 182. i. ii. Kiang rivers. Chinese embassador at Lha-ssa. Kiun-ke-tchou. Koung. the. punishment of one. Remarks on. of China. 47. 110. i. 39. 47. 319. Its wide diffusion. 408. 109. 164. 237.. Kouang-fou. his exile of the Dragon of Ilain. 342. ii. 319. or nine orders of civil and military officials. Battle between Kin-tcheou. 57. 390. i. the Emperor. 347. ii. 58. i. 411 Khang-hi. 298. the. 342. M. i. The written and the spoken languages. 308. Kia-king. 111. or scarf of felicity. Kouan-kouen. Ideographic characters. 141. his views. 48. ii. et seq. 297. i. ii. remarks on. Khiou-ping. the condition of the Chinese Christians. i. Chinese. 141. of. Khata. 388. 207. i." trade in the. town His improvements in Ki-chan. 195. 84. worship paid to him. 297. Its gardens. town of. i. the. 238. 201. i. 113. Khioung-tcheou. one of the imperial councils. 286. 318. town of. Its duties. of. Koung-kouans. his additions to the empire.INDEX. i. Koua. his character. the political economist. 237. or lines of divination. 330. Kouang-ti. 111. Kouang-ping. King-pou. 110. King. his mission to China. 164. son of the god of war (Kouang-ti). i. or grand tribunal of crimes at Pekin. 319. Language. imperial commissioner. in the province of. 76. i. or supreme court of public works. the province of Sse-tchouen. 40. 83. Hue at one. Kouei-tcheou. the illustrious. the highest title bestowed upon Mandarins. or the Five Sacred Books. i. Kien-long. 28. and patron of the Mantchous. Read- . i. i. Lakes. 320. i. Official at. 235. or Chinese bandit. Punishment of a criminal Kouang-tsi-hien. 242. In a state of siege. 421. town of. 80. 50. Kouo-tze-y. Junk races at. i. god of war. 383.

Corruption both among the examiners and the examined. sketch of a. the military Mandarin of M. i. 85. ii. Stanislas Julien. or corporation of men of letters. i. 109. added to China. there. Country of. officials. 163. or the six sovereign courts of the government. 112. literary 326. Description of him. 328. Analysis of tlio work. Enu- Freedom of locoLiberty. at Nan-tchang-fou. life and opinions of. 257. i. 112. ii. Literary examinations. 250. 80. tobacco of. 325. Appointed to the escort. Laws. of Confucius. translation of this work. or Laws and Statutes of Sir George Staunton's the Grand Dynasty of the Tsing. M. . The Wen-tchang-koun. the philosopher. Chinese missionary. the Mandarin. motion in China. 324. The historian Sse-ma-tsien. i. The Annals of Sse-ma-kouang. 254. Chinese measure of length. Lao-tze. Li-ki. Laws which regulate the conduct of tific character of the law. ii. i. the.>7M.'127. Bonzes. meration of them. i. 197. Leou-pou. Literary Corporation. do not exist in China. in the provinces. The Ta-tsing Lu-li. the Imperial. Hue's escort. ii. 111. i. i. Lha-ssa. difficulty of the study of Chinese. 198. 255. in China. ii. the. in China. 194. and their duties. 215. 326.412 INDP. Li. extent of. Literary Composition. Liberty of the press in ancient Chinese institutions. of the The library of the Library. 145. 245. Li-pou. ct KCIJ. Language. 32. The vulgar style of language. Letters. 316. Contempt of the Chinese for the belles lettres. 216. 326. Its librarian. Book of Kites. i. The famous. Supposed persons. The Houan-hoa. 256. Man of. 277. Importance of Chinese monuments. 171. Chinese light literature. or language of intsnictcd Dialects of some of the provinces. palace of. The academic style. 325. 349. of. the. i. 124. 252. Held in great honor in Fou-ki-hien. of Pa-toung. 112. 245. Father. Leang-chan-hien. influence. . French translation of this work. 322. Chinese emhassador at. 162. large amount of political. Leang. or Temple of Literary Composition. i. 326. i. 245. 326. Low condition of. town Leao-tong. Responsibility of government officials. public. i. Law courts. 314. 240. 245. ii. Penal character of the legislation of Unscienthe empire. 277. the Mantchou Tatar. 162. M. i. . Historical encyclopaedia of Ma-toun-lin. government of. 248. Le Comte. 327. 132. ii. 324. the. Chinese. Literary aristocracy. 119. or highest sovereign court. Its Almost the only nobility recognized. 313. 329. 238.X. of Pekin. 261. great Buddhist temple of Pou-tou. Laws concerning marriage. Abel Kemusat. 80. ii. 108. The system of responsibility. MM. ii. Libraries. ing and writing Chinese. the Emperor's opinion of. 28. 61. Lieou ("The Willow"). ii. 325. 313. 163. ii. 328. 143. 316. Christians of. 107. i. i. 128. or Literature.

His punishment. Mantchou Tartars. 159. i. Their conduct criticized by lampoons. Titles bestowed on the most distinguished Mandarins. scrupulous Mandarin. 319. 253. 353. Caught in flagrante delicto. Probable origin of the name. i. Rapacity of the Mandarins throughout the empire. Airs of a young Mandarin. Hue's disputes with the Mandarins of Kientcheou. 231. 354. Description of a military Mandarin of the escort.. eigners. 371. Mandarins. Maize. 183. Manilla. Degeneracy of the magistrates throughout the emTheir Restrictions on the marriage of Mandarins. 35. 231. Fatal Their exclusion of foreffects of their policy on the empire. 366. Mongol Mandarin. first named the Central Kingdom. 60. 180. 123. 109. 111. Duty of a Mandarin when dead bodies are found Magistrates. i. power and_ emoluments. 120. Catching a Mandarin in flagrante delicto. constitution of. The name mandarin unknown to the Chinese themselves. the book so called. language of the. Their responsibility for suspicious deaths. 43. 220. 357. Return of M. 103. The Mandarin of Tching-tou-fou. 119. Their injurious innovations since their conquest of China. Disputes with the Mandarins of Leang-chan-hien. 184. the river. Their communal palaces. accomplished Mandarin of I-tou-hien. 160. i. 139. i. Boots of honor conferred on popular Mandarins. 370. i. Ly-fan-yeun. appointment of. his travels. The veracious Mandarin of Tchang-cheou-hien.INDEX. Bridge at. 29. Their battle with the Chinese of Kin-tcheou. 195. i. 47. See Mandarins. 145. Ly-pou. Lessons they sometimes receive. or colonial office of Pekin. etc. A A Their unpopularity throughout the empire. pire. 253. M. 37. Marks by which the various grades of Mandarins are known. 413. 35. 388. i. valiant Mandarin. 175. 242. town of. 75. 78. 413 374. 93. 214. His geographical knowledge.Ridiculous position of one. i. 111. Manufactures of the Chinese Empire. Their opium-smoking. Lo-yang. i. Treatment of the tyrannical Mandarin of A Ping-fang. or sovereign court of rites. to the escort. of. 340. of. 387. 61. Kao-leang. Chinese Christians in. 358. Their treatment of the Christians. General conduct of the Mandarins. character of the. 113. 160. The under suspicious circumstances. town of. 336. Marco Polo. i. i. Lou-ting-khaio. various modes Lou. Trickery of Mandarin Ting. . 413. Hue to. i. 357. Their generosity. or Philosophical Conversations. 233. 238. His account of China. 47.. 90. 35. its cultivation in the province of Sse-tchouen. 112. 109. Locomotion. 288. Sketch of the private life of a Mandarin and his family. Mantchuria added to China. Macao. 368. The hospitable Mandarin of Long-tche-hien. 244. Lun-yu. Lu. 52. ii. 114. The Mandarins of the escort. Excluded from table. 76. Its decline. Their responsibility for inferiors. ii. 242. a military Mandarin. foundation ii. ii. ii.

Military officials. terrific variety of the Chinese modoppf. or Sian-yo. ii. 389. among i. i. Ming-jin. Chinese. Mayor. remarks on. 383. his classical book. 33. i. His place in the estimation of his countrymen. i. 109. great number and beauty of those of Tien-men. 277. Montcorvin. 47. Its vast storehouses and Nnn-hioang. i. ii. 278. 263. the Chinese. Chinese. ii.414 INDEX. throughout the Celestial Empire." jurisprudence Washing 288. collection of Celestial. 13. i. Disgusting practice. 46. Murder. 220. Obstacles to the marriage of civil and military officers. 140. ii. Receiving a proposal. 140. Meng-tze. i. of the Bonzes. 26. Chinese. Mourning. i. " The Medicine. Music. . 141. amy. i. government of the. Merchandise. 159. Those of Ning-po. passage of the. display of Chinese. in Pekin. or Men of Ming. 45. 208. a title bestowed upon Mandarins. 259. PolygMarriages. 45. 21G. 57. The Idea we ought to have of the Yo-king. method of electing him. Laws concerning marriage. town of. See Meng-tze. i. 359. Regulation sorrows. 31. 104. music of the ancients. ii. 288. or Book of Music. Analysis of the i. odor of. Nnn-tchang-fou. 383. Profession of medicine free in China. Maxims. 311. See Mandarin. Jean de. work. Materialism of the Chinese. 194. 261. 240. 276. town of. 328. water. Abel Kemusat on him. 108. Appearance of. port. college of. Mountains. i. The Houen. 382. 217. 276. 349. Chinese medicine. Nan. Musical instruments. The "House of the Hens' Feathers. Methodists. 114. the. Protestant. Customs respecting. belief in. Ma-touan-15n. Nautical races. 113. 222. 120. 112. 326. 210. the philosopher. Laws concerning. 326. their appearance in the province of Sse-tchouen. Monuments erected to virgins and widows. 379. Metempsychosis. 214. Musk. 351. Compared with Confucius and Socrates. a name of China. ii. Mountains of China. swarms of. i. Eulogium of M. his picture of Chinese government. Passion of the Chinese for the water-melon seed. 361. i. the mountain. ii. 118. 415. i. Mosquitoes. ii. the Medical of of the 287. 176. Chinese work on (Si-yuen. his historical encyclopedia. i. ii. ii. i. Mincius. Chinese. 214. Monasteries. their labors Military. bands of. ii. Pit. 139. Montesquieu. Mendicants. ii. Military government of the provinces. 139. 328. archbishop of Pekin. i. i. The wedding. Singular method of lamenting the dead. 208. and Diogenes. 45." 314. Melons. i. 218. Mei-ling. ii. ii. 221. Long period of mourning. of nearly all the pagans of Ho-nan. 329. et seq. ii.

407." the Mandarin. i. the. i. 116. Ngan-tsha-sse. of Sse-tcheouen. ii. Pecuniary societies. 47. communal. Deplorable consequences of opium- Olopen. Immense quantity consumed. 70. 117. His dispatch to the emperor. town of. 140. Strictures on opium-dealers. i. respect for even scraps of waste paper on which letters are written or printed. 117. Pastry. Bands of mendicants. 111. 52. 111. Number of sailors and of the warNaval and military officers. 154. See Inspector of Crimes. the Christian priest. Chinese. 96. 66. viceroy of Sse-tchouen. 312. 141. Ornaments and decorations of the. general and special. 93. 405. i. i. i. 88. or hiang-you. His last interview with M. 92. 56. organization of. Palaces. or Koung-kouans. i. Causes of pauperism. 286. 53. i. " One man and two Chinese and English opium. See Mandarin. Paper. i. the. the. " Pao-ngan. Pardons. Navy. Newspapers. His interview with M. 415 301. life of. sources of China for a great navy. Palanquin-bearer. ii. . i. eyes. in China. Pauperism in China. ii. Peacocks. Ning-po. Niu-chou. 93-95. town of. 123. 35. sketch of the private His two sons. 109. 121. Description of the prefect of. ii. 311. civil i. ii. His death. Its importance. the priest. the Chinese authoress." story of. imperial government of. 116. i. i. 166. 258. 283. Extent of the Imperial Library of. persecution of Christians at. 118. 57. the. Government of the imperial Great scientific establishments of. i. Ou-chan. note. 148. Hue. 257. Pa-toung. 210. i. Portrait of him. 52. Officers. Hue and his companions. 329. 117. i. cemetery in. 311. 47. 101. Naturalists. Pao-hing. i. the Chinese. 302. 325. 146. 115. Chinese. odoriferous. vast numbers of. 405. 166. Ou-tchang-fou. 316. i. i. French palace of. 111. 111. Pan-houi-pan. Nobility. 55. i. Pekin. 202. local administration of. 270. Nei-ko. Palace. ii. i. 108. one of the two imperial councils. the. Pekin Gazette. Introduction of opium into China. city of.INDEX. consumers. objects of. 149. and military. 309. 155. 54. English opium smoking. 411. Pagodas. . Its duties. i. 51. i. 296. 126. rarity of. Ou-tchang-fou. Inexhaustible rejunks. or Hidden Treasure. town of. Method of smoking it. throughout the empire. great number of monuments in. account of. 201. Opium. 54. 115.! Palanquin traveling. smugglers in. ii.

ii. 131. i. 116. ii.. 364. the. specimen of a Chinese descriptive. or sect of the White Lily. 11. i. the econrnni^f. i. i. 195. 130. Curious and detailed account of. i. ii. 65. Praised Its antiquity. i. 131. Pou-tching-sse. 95. 39. by Father D'Entrecolles. or saying a lesson at school. 113. 53. Hue. the. 13. 284. Although existing. 307. ii. 78. 9. 2G5. i. 102. i. Ping-fang. ii. ii. an ancient institution in China. not a legal Chinese inper cent. stitution. ii. 95. Press. Promenade. 128. the missionary. Pey-chou. 363. vast variety of the. . The god of porcelain. 140. 172. Pisciculture in Kiang-si. Politeness of the Chinese. Pou-tou. the. ii. Polygamy in China. a title the. of China. History of the art. Tchao-yng. ii. 363* 364. 2GO. Physicians. Perboyre. 74. ii. Pigs. Immense num- Productions. by Confucius. Proverbs. Macao. 133. ii. ii. liberty of the. 117. 130. of the multitudes in some The method localities. ii.410 INDEX. Chinese. 152. Density Causes of the vast increase in the population. Instance of. their re-discovery of China. 308. Philosophical Conversations (Lun-yu). town of. GG. 50. Polarity of the loadstone known to the Chinese 2500 B. Population of China. 271. Navigation of the. of registration. 119. in Viceroy of Sse-tchouen. Pou-yang. ii. 127. 194. Pe-lien-kiao.id. Their foundation of unknown in China. At Ou-tchang-fou. 73. of China. Persecutions at Tching-to-fou. i. i. 15. 98. the. Perocheau. 11G. i. 98. 99. 160. ii. 282. 119. 9G. not known in China. i. public. M. 89. System of Chinese economists upon interest of thirty Politics. Magnificence of its temples. Beauty of island. Chinese to discuss. 88. 363. his letter to M.C. i. Phou-yong Lake. i. 77. Ping-pou. ii. 218. 149. his travels. 131. his martyrdom. ii. 47. 365. 379. 1 '. 98. Porters. Hue. 202. Ping-hou. Poem. or Sovereign Court of War. 85. Immense number of Bonze monasteries in the. manufacture of. of Meng-txc. i. 231. Political economy. 85. holy island of. Its treatment by a tyrannical Mandarin. Porcelain. 158. of Sse-tcheouen. i. the lake. the sacred. lake. 70. ber of junks on the. long caravans of. the celebrated economist. ii. aversion of the ii. 109. bestowed upon Mandarins. Pipe for smoking opium. Police. His examination of M. The regular practitioner. i. Plan-carpin. Scene of his death. 160. Description of him. 88. 195. laws concerning. Placards. collection of Celestial. 3G5.. Kouari-tse. Chinese. 183. i. Phy. 76. Navigation of. Chinese. Portuguese. ii. 6G. Post-office. China and France compared.

149. a government monopoly. 88. ii. 119. i." 168. i. 168. 140. 339. 245. 42. in times of drought. See Christianity. 8* . Great number of revolutions of the Chinese empire. i. The Dragon of Kain exiled by the Emperor. its duties. 161. his eulogium on the classical book of Meng-tze . 193. i. 191. i. the. 171. His remarks on the restrictions of Oriental arbitrary power. ii. 244. Its introduction of Christianity into China. 267. Sect of Abstinent " women. 171. His acquirement of the Chinese language. i. Polite conversation. 60. 213. Abel. The Doctrine of the Lettered. Arbitrary infliction of. all religions condemned by the Chinese government. 234. ii. public (chou-chou-ti). Reading Chinese. ii. 245. Punishments. 219. Sailors. Inconstancy of the Chinese in matters of. 182. Roads of China. Paternal instruction of Young-tching. 162. administration of the. Remusat. 190. The imperial high road. 30. Readers. Salt. Father Matthew. His remarks on the life and opinions of the pLilosoi<her Lao-tze. Rope-dancers. 120. 235. i. 248. 190. Religion . Summary punishment of. Penal character of the whole legislation of the Chinese. Representation. For impiety. Religious edifices. acter of Chinese politeness. Revenue. Department of the revenue in the provinces. His remarks on Chinese politeness. 154. 281. i. 263. 323. i. of China. M. 292-294. Singular char- His labors and state of the. 256. The emperor Khang-hi's Collection of Sentences. ii. method of teaching. ceremonious visits. See Pagodas. 300. i.INDEX. ii. general presentiment of. 87. 384." 171." 227. i. Buddhism. superstitious practices to obtain. ii. i. Rites. 158. Bonzesses. 113. 133. The Bonzes neglected and treated with contempt. 389. Reason. Salt-wells in Sse-tchouen. Robbers. 372. 189. i. the management of. 189. the missionary. i. Confucius. i. Roman empire. 119. ii. 108. ii. ii. missionary to China. Heading. Palace of. Custom of Etiquette of offering hot towels after meals and on journeys. 114. i. Ricci. 179. i. 218. 179-187. 203. Tribunal of. 417 Provinces. called Ta-thsin by the Chinese. death. Rubruk. 328. 112. Doctors of. 142. frightful example. Regattas. the most ordinary. Book of (Li-ki). 84. ii. Chinese. Constitution of the Sovereign Court of. in Pekin (Toun-tchin-sse). Magnificent " libraries of the Bonzes. 70. 84. A Rain. in China. Riot in Ya-tcheou. Parting ceremonies. 223. Rice wine. Chinese. his travels. manufacture of. 194. 56. Formula of skepticism. "Doctors of Reason. 154. Revolution. 322. 179.

Sian-yo. tents. i. 352. i. 331. i. 189. discovery of a. 134. Chinese. 352. His poem. 349. Its construction of superb roads throughout A A the empire. i. ii. 326. 133. of Confucius. 133. i. ii. Sse-ma-tsien. 213. province of. i. i. made by Confucius. Science. Hospitable Mandarin of. Fertility of. 355. of the Romans. the emperor. Soldiers. South. 326. of the eleventh century. Mantchou. Sse. vast numbers of. i. the. method of electing him. in Pekin. 142. Snuff-boxes. 326. Shops. His great work. of scientific knowledge among the Chinese. 65. dynasty of. 70. 217. i. the. Father Formula of skepti- Adam. 70. the. the. monument and inscription at. 355. 308. 61. great social experiment. i. i. 396. 394. Schal. ii. Societies (or houis). i. under the administration of Ki-chan. town of. i. the priest. i. ii. 153. 162. Book of (Tchun-thsiou). Skepticism . i. Analysis of its con- " Scarf of Felicity. prime minister. 116. DeState i. i. Sse-chou. 29G. Fou-lang-sai. 191. missionary to China. Songs. See Associations. Schools in China. i. Chief branches of instruction scription of a. ii. for the French. Improvements in. in. trade in the. Temperature of. 108. Silk. 395. socialist chief Socialists. or Western Lake. Number of troops in the empire. Sohan. Chinese. Sse-tchouen (Four Valleys). its frightful spread in China. Smuggler. 45. Si-gnan-fou. Snuff-taking in China. 216. i. 70. or commissioners of provinces. i. i. Chinese names i. 66.418 INDEX. 40. 128. Song. 202. Si-hou. 143. "The Sse-ma-kouang. 396. 202. ancient Chinese (Che-king). ii. 135. Shipwrecks on the Blue River. Its fertility. i. 48. 154. See opium. Garden of Sse-ma-kouang. 114. 61. San-dze-king. i. 134. 202. i. Sinae-Sinenses. 40. 355. 350. Smugglers in opium. 395. i. Sou-tsoung. his mission to China. 352. His ascendency. His death and magnificent funeral. Chinese. the Chinese historian. 296. His Annals of the Empire. 132. cism. Song-tche-hien. 155. 129. Chinese soldiers. 381-386. Schoolmaster. establishments for the promotion of. sketch of a Chinese. Mountains of the (Nan-ling). 393. i. 100. or mayor. 118." i. Serica and the Seres. 296 . His really paternal rule. Social amusements of the Chinese. Smoking opium. Si-yang-jin. i. Spring and Autumn." or Khata. or Four Classical Books. 296. i. Extent and importance of. 63. 51. of the time. or Sacred Trimetrical Book. collection of. i.

214. 253. i. 30. 352. Chinese. i. note. State of Christianity in. Sse-ye. Mode of averting the malignant influences of evil-disposed spirits. Tchang-cheou-hien. or Doctors of Reason. i. the Emperor. 66. Tchina. cultivation of the cane in the province of Sse-tchouen. i. 297. 291. 353. 419 Inhabitants of. or Great Lake. 348. of the town of Leang-chan-hien. 245. town of.INDEX. 118. Language of. i. 102. i. dynasty of. 290. 83. ii. Staunton. His recommendation to his subjects to despise ii. Departure of M. 31. Father. Tcheou. ii. the. appearance of the suburbs of. 119. 60. town of. the Emperor. the political economist. ii. i. 100. i. Those of the provinces. i. i. 243. 310. Wells of salt and wells of fire in. i. 301. . his invasions. i. 29. Description of the city. i. i. Tchao family. Kouang-ti. frequent method of wreaking vengeance on an enemy. Their military watch over the high civil functionaries. 59. 119. Suicide common in China. the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines. the Emperor. 354. 56. 291. his protection of the Christians in the eighth century. 58. His death. Swallows. 193. i. Tcheou. 215. 116. a name of China. Chase after a soul. 302. 112. 73. See Roman Empire. i. 284. Tching-wang. Tchao-yng. His acquittal. Tagales. or Flower of the Centre. 129. 85. 205. tempt. 124. Sugar. 100. Suffering. 59. ii. their conquest of China. missionary to China. the Chinese prefecture so called. counselors or pedagogues of prefectures. origin of the word. A Tachard. the Emperor. Tao-kouang. 130. Sir George. His edict in favor of Christians. Taxes. a second order of town. of China. Their god of war. 297. 297. i. 313. A A Christians in. ii. Hue from. Treated with neglect and con- Tatars. Tao-sse. the. or China. Productions of 296. i. ii. or Grand Study. Chinese dread of. Ta-thsin. Tai-tsoung. Tribunal of. the. ChrisTching-tou-fou. Superstitions of the Chinese at the appearance of the cholera. 300. Persecution of prefect of. 65. i. Tchinggis Khan. i. ii. i. 297. 116. Tchoung-hoa. i. 171. i. 353. Causes of his inundation of the world with blood. Tai-hou. 312. Tcheou-koung. imprisonment of the head of the. Its inhabitants. city of. 135. Ta-tsien-lou. Ta-hio. 215. religions. 154. Tchang-hi. Tchang river. Streets. his translation of the Chinese code of laws. Chinese notions respecting the migratory habits of. Sugar used in China. 232. uncle of the Emperor Tching-wang. his opinion of the law courts. tian of. 353. 163. 71. i. all 170. the. 175. 290. or the Roman Empire. Tcheou. i.

Passionate fondness of the people for. the Chinese name for the idea of God. nese. 214. Universal theatrical tastes of the ChiTheatre. appearance of. Tou-tcha-yuen. 19G. 160. river. Tien-chao. Titles not hereditary. 353. i. 110. 217. his elementary lessons and conversations. 350. and the llussian mission of 1821. duties of. Tien-hia. His vow. ii. 44. of Pou-tou. or Men of Thsing. and the causes of it. Timotheus. the moralist. i. ii. i. or Book of Spring and Autumn. 160. 272. Their Famed for the number and beauty of its waterattention. . His filial piety. Te-siou. His adieu. Tchoung-kouo. 114. His devotion to Kao-wang. Tien-dze. 173. 173. 99. His hilarity. i. i. His conquest of China. Tea. i. 354. ii. 45. 44. 332. town of. 195. Thsin-che-Hoang. Tien-tchou. town of. Hereditary. i. 107. 39. 190. 114. His dramatic performances. throughout the empire. the book so called. Beneath the Heavens. duties of. 109. or Invariable Centre. i.420 INDEX. Towers. or Men of Thang. Cultivation of. the magnificent. Tigris. 195. Chinese. 215. 390. 217. a name of China. i. of the Chinese. Tien-tchou-kiao. Titles of the Emperor. the title par excellence of the Emperor. Temples. M. ceremony of taking. 145'. a name of China. Brick-tea. Tchoung-young. ii. religious. the Mandarin of the escort. 269. 263. the Christian religion so called. the 120. Toun-tchin-sse. ii. Thang-jin. i. ii. i. 351. 105. bestowed on distinguished Mandarins. ii. 378. 143. Tchun-thsiou. 109. Patriarch of the Nestorians. Tobacco. his missions to China. i. ancient. town of. a name of China. i. the. Thoung-thing Lake. the name of the present pretender to the throne. Tchu-hi. his destruction of the ancient books. Tea-porters. Tchoung-king. or Palace of Representation of Pekin. Visit from the Mandarins of. His wrath on the Blue Kiver. 105. i. 354. 43. Trickery of. of Confucius. of Leao-tong. 271. 40. i. Tembowski. the Emperor. 157. i. 142. or Empire of the Centre. a name of China. Seo Pagodas. a name of China. 39G. Called tambakou by the Mantchous. His discovery. the Celestial Empire. Ting. Tien-men. 327.. or Celestial Virtue. the. His opinion of the souls of women. 383. 137. 351. 395. Tchoung-tching. 378. 217. 223. Thsing-jin. fright in a tempest. 216. 145. or Son of Heaven. 116. melons. 165. i. Ti-tou. or Office of Universal Censorship of Pekin. 39. i. or highest military officer. His 272. 132. but carried back to the ancestors. i. 215. 184. 2G8. i. 295. 215. do not exist except in the ImThe titles perial family and in the descendants of Confucius. i. 330. Snuff-taking. Tien-te. the. Mark of a Pekin dealer in tobacco. i. i.

note. Wheeler. ii. Father. the. his introduction of opium into China. freedom of. culture of the. i. Urbanity of the Chinese. 296. 119. Chinese provincial. ii. 139. i 52. Savings of the road bestowed on him. Trial . i. Chinese. of. vast internal. Tze. death of. 277. 142. opponent. Colonel. i. i. 111. Details of a Tribunals. 228. the political economist. i. 69. the. Watchman and criers. a War-god (Kouang-ti). his picture of Chinese government. i. et seq. Water-lily (lien-hoa). i. 80. 72. 160. White lily (Pe-lien-kaio). note. 113. Water communications of China. 237. i. 234. Infinitesimal trade of the Chi- nese. 143. 172. ii. i. his quarrel with an importunate visitor. extract from his writings. M. 132. Hit socialist chief of the eleventh century. Visits. Vine. i. Vegetable productions of China. honors raid to. See Rites. 61. sect of Widows. Sovereign Court for the management of. Wen-tchang-konn. 300. 115. ii. Hue's servant). 46. i. 104. his introduction of opium into China. i. Volcanoes in China. i. ii. 416. 121. honors paid to. ii. His ascendency over the Emperor ChenHis expulsion from China. i. His attention and intelligence. 3. description of the. a third order of town. ii. 131. 247. Virgins. i. ii. town of. the. 344. ij. 63. Trade. Hurricanes of. Vinegar polypus. Verbiest. i. War. C3. in China. ii. Christians 59. a title bestowed upon Mandarins. town of. Traveling. 144. i. 297. 409. of China. 345. note. 321. 41. a great trial presided over by missionaries. Vacher. 164. description of. 46 the. ii. i. ii. vice-president. 118. His proposal. Wang-ngan-che. 304. cf Confucius. of. His extravagant zeal. Tse-liou-tsing. 162. account Uniformity of the plan of. Wei-chan (M. three orders of Chinese. i. Verses. Tsoung-ping. i. 401. That of Nan-tchang-fou. 297. 71. 235.. 279.INDEX. Tsien. Book of (Che-king). 417. 109. in Fcu-ki-hien. Tsoung-tou. a favorite in all times in China. i. 349-353 i. i. Wells of salt and wells of fire. 52. missionary to China. Tsien-tche. Towns. or Temple of Literary Composition. 295. . ii. 304. Tsing-khi-hien. i. 41. ceremonious. or governor-general of a province. the minister. Voltaire. i. or vice-admiral. 421 59. War. with the English. tsoung. ii. Watson. 147. 140.

214. 190. 330. Xavier. 133. 263. 266. great canal of. 108. 164. dynasty of. 51. town of. Riot in. His speech to the Jesuits in justification of his course. The condition of women ameliorated in Chinese Christian families. The Mandarin Ting's opinion of women's souls. 191. Writing. 172. Customs at marriages. History of Chinese writing. name for the Yang-tze-kiang. town of. i. 132. ii. 258. 43. 225. ii. province of. Wine. Yuen. 265. warm. i. Yun-nan. . the. Its site. i. the." Chinese Americans. Value set on fine writing. or wells of salt. 133. 271. 161. of. of China. ii. i. 323. 227. or "little wives. Navigation of. ii. the. Public. i. "Men of the Gaudy Banner. 186. Yn mountains. his mission to Japan. ii. THE END. 154. the. An affectionate husband. et seq. 187. i. river. Servitude of women. 112. i. 118. his mission to China. 141. i. 115. Ya-me-ly-kien. Secondary. 114. or Book of Changes. Yen-tsing. 270. 376. His paternal instructions. or jade-stone. Y-sou. 277. Shipwrecks on the. 350. Polygamy. method of teaching. his persecution of the Christians. Christian. 260. Yu. Domestic unhappiness. ii. et seq. 42. Ya-lou. Supreme Court of. The mother of wine. 112. ii. 381-386. Influence of women in the conversion of nations." 227. 375. i. the priest. the Emperor. i. the Emperor. Abject condition of women throughout the empire. i. St. i'ao-tchang. the. Works. Yellow River (Hoang-ho). 144. i. 217. its construction of the vast system of canals. 191. Young-tching. 256. 115. the. ii.422 INDEX. 322. Women. Yo-King. i. 225. Y-King. 321. 278. i. ii. 300." 218. Francis de. JTang-ti. Ya-tcheou. 264. or Book of Music. 322. 283. Chinese manufacture Corn wine. opium smuggling in. ii. Blue River. 321. Sect of " Abstinent Women. 261. i. drunk by the Chinese.

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