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ANS: Steps of the Research process Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. This process is used in all research and evaluation projects, regardless of the research method Step 1: Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, Step 2: Review the Literature Now that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area. The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area. Step 3: Clarify the Problem Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project. Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study. These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions depending on who is reading the study. To minimize confusion about what the terms and phrases mean, the researcher must specifically define them for the study. Step 5: Define the Population Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations.
Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey. Q. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. but researchers in other fields. Step 8: Analyze the Data The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. and where data will be collected. with a questionnaire. Step 7: Collect Data The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question.2 What are descriptive research designs? Explain the different kinds of descriptive research designs. through observations. Instructions Preparing a Descriptive Research Study Identify the subject or phenomenon you wish to study and make sure it is appropriate for a descriptive design. This type of research is often associated with anthropology. which is a smaller group selected from the population specified for the study. . the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed. a descriptive research design can serve as a first step that identifies important factors. The details of the facts won't be known. The group of participants is called the sample. In the instrumentation plan. The descriptive method often involves extensive observation and note-taking. places and other phenomena. or from the literature. The existing phenomena's facts are not known to the person The Descriptive Method of Research D The descriptive method of research design helps researchers plan and carry out descriptive studies.Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study. Descriptive research design aims to observe and describe a subject without affecting its normal actions. such as education. and the content of the program. as well as in-depth narrative. sociology and psychology. However. when. Because it does not lend itself to in-depth analysis or hypothesis testing. designed to provide rich descriptive details about people. specifying who will participate in the study. how. The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan. use it. some researchers regard the descriptive method as unscientific. The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly related to the research questions. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. laying a foundation for more-rigorous research.
you may want to describe how an instructional method's delivery differs across campuses or how members of a particular tribe interact with one another. Articulate your key research questions. reliable and appropriately sensitive can impact assessments be regarded as credible'. Conducting Descriptive Research Read over your field notes. A measure that is poorly chosen or poorly conceived can completely undermine the worth of an impact assessment by producing misleading estimates.Decide on the type of descriptive research design that will be most appropriate for your study. valid and sensitive as possible. Keep your research questions in mind as you read the material. Reliability The reliability of a measurement instrument is the 'extent to which the measure produces the . in which a researcher describes two or more sets of subjects. For example. survey information and other data collected for your study. Condense the data by drafting memos or summaries that organize extensive field notes and other information into a more concise form. an in-depthnarrative that contains extensive details and description of the subject observed. with the researcher taking notes or making recordings of everything being observed without knowing how to use the information collected. validity and sensitivity It is important to ensure that the instruments (for example. etc. Q. descriptive research runs the risk of becoming unfocused. Without a clear research question. For example. Include specific examples of incidents or events you observed that help illustrate important points you want to make. questionnaires. looking for patterns and trends in the material collected.3 Explain the concepts of reliability. Another type of descriptive design is a comparative study. interview transcripts. which will help you write your report. Knowing the research questions you want to answer will help focus your observation and other field research. Only if outcome measures are valid. an education researcher may want to study the implementation of a new instructional method by comparing its use in three different classrooms or three separate campuses. tests. The most basic type is the single-subject case study.) used in program evaluation are as reliable.
and the program will 'appear to be less effective than it actually is. A good questionnaire should not be too lengthy. It is the duty of evaluators to produce credible evaluations. hence. Decide the matter/content of individual questions. an instrument may be deemed valid if accepted as valid by the stakeholders Sensitivity The principal purpose of the evaluation process is to measure whether the program has an effect on the social problem it seeks to redress. the purpose of the study and hypothesis framed.interviewing method can be telephone. The target audience must be concentrated on. Simple English should be used and the question shouldn’t be difficult to answer.Explain the questionnaire design process. Does the question contribute for the objective of the study? Is . State the kind of interviewing technique.There are two deciding factors Is the question significant? . assessment. as their findings may have far reaching effects.Observe contribution of each question. validity and sensitivity can be said to be credible evaluations.This will depend upon the nature of the problem. the greater it’s statistical power and the more credible its findings. Validity The validity of a measurement instrument is 'the extent to which it measures what it is intended to measure' This concept can be difficult to accurately measure: in general use in evaluations. mails. personal interview or electronic interview. A discreditable evaluation which is unable to show that a program is achieving its purpose when it is in fact creating positive change may cause the program to lose its funding undeservedly Q4. it may dilute and obscure the real effects of a program. Only measures which adequately achieve the benchmarks of reliability. editing. the measurement instrument must be sensitive enough to discern these potential changes A measurement instrument may be insensitive if it contains items measuring outcomes which the program couldn't possibly effect. Questionnaire Design Process St State the information required. it is important to ensure the evaluation is as reliable as possible.same results when used repeatedly to measure the same thing' The more reliable a measure is. and redrafting. Hence. A good questionnaire requires sensible langu age. If a measuring instrument is unreliable.
embarrassing. interesting questions should be used as opening questions to gain co-operation and confidence of respondents).5 The procedure of testing hypothesis requires a researcher to adopt several steps. dull and sensitive questions could be difficult).O Overcome the respondents’ inability and unwillingness to answer Decide on the structure of the question. Introduction Hypothesis testing is generally used when you are comparing two or more groups. address. When you are evaluating a hypothesis. you need to account for both the variability in your sample and how large your sample is.Questions can be of two types: Structured questions Unstructured questions Determine the question language/phrasing it should be unambiguous and easy to understand Properly arrange the questions To determine the order of the question. or if they are likely just due to chance. etc. take decisions on aspects like opening questions (simple. This is formally done through a process called hypothesis testing. Describe in brief all such steps. Vertical response questions should be used Pre-test the questionnaire Always pretest the questionnaire before full survey to know shortcomings Finalize the questionnaire If everything is in order finalize it. The required space for the answers to the question should be sufficient. contact number of respondents). logical sequence. Q. difficult questions (complex. Recognize the form and layout of the questionnaire Reproduce the questionnaire Paper quality should be good. classification information relates to social and demographic characteristics. The font type and size should be appropriate. Questionnaire should appear to be professional. Based on this information. effect on subsequent questions. type of information (Basic information relates to the research issue. you'd like to make an assessment of whether any differences you see are meaningful. Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: . and identification information relates to personal information such as name.
lower) or twosided. medical research. e. or in other words.05. a researcher is usually interested in disproving the null hypothesis.g.. research in different fields can be called different types of research. relationship. For example. Step 2: Specify the Alternative Hypothesis The alternative hypothesis (H1) is the statement that there is an effect or difference. This is usually the hypothesis the researcher is interested in proving. and basic. observational and experimental research. This means that there is a 5% chance that you will accept your alternative hypothesis when your null hypothesis is actually true. the greater the burden of proof needed to reject the null hypothesis. Q6 a) What are the different kinds of research reports available to the researcher? There are many ways to categorize the different types of research. A few of these types of research include quantitative and qualitative research. In research studies. We often use two-sided tests even when our true hypothesis is onesided because it requires more evidence against the null hypothesis to accept the alternative hypothesis. The research methods that are used and purposes of the research also can be used to categorize the different types of research. such as scientific research. or difference between two or more groups or factors.Specify the Null Hypothesis Specify the Alternative Hypothesis Set the Significance Level (a) Calculate the Test Statistic and Corresponding P-Value Drawing a Conclusion Step 1: Specify the Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis (H0) is a statement of no effect. social research. Quantitative and Qualitative . applied and developmental research. Step 3: Set the Significance Level (a) The significance level (denoted by the Greek letter alpha— a) is generally set at 0. to support the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis can be one-sided (only provides one direction. environmental research and so forth. The smaller the significance level.
Q6 b). so the questionnaires used in this method typically include yes-or-no questions or multiple-choice questions rather than openended questions such as essay questions. it can be called basic research. Finally. That information is then analyzed and used to draw conclusions. Even for a single hypothesis there are a number of analyses a researcher might typically conduct. It is the examination of things as they naturally or inherently are. equipment that is used to measure something and databases of existing information. the researcher often will attempt to address the original broad question of interest by generalizing from the results of this specific study to other related situations. This type of research involves exploring that which is not known or understood.Quantitative research is the collecting of objective numerical data. the initial problem that the researcher wishes to study. The goal of quantitative research is to compile statistical evidence. At this point. Observational and Experimental Observational research is the collection of information without interference or input from the researcher. usually by analyzing it in a variety of ways. What should be the ideal structure of a research report? The ideal structure of a research report :Most research projects share the same general structure. Applied and Developmental When the purpose of research is simply to reveal or discover what is true. The researcher simply observes. The research process usually starts with a broad area of interest. For instance. This might involve formulating a hypothesis or a focus question Once the basic data is collected. the major components in a study: The Research Problem The Research Question The Program (Cause) . Features are classified and counted. Basic. Some of the tools used for this type of research include questionnaires that are given to test subjects. measures or records what occurs. The researcher has to narrow the question down to one that can reasonably be studied in a research project. the researcher might conclude that other school districts similar to the one in the study might expect similar results. on the basis of strong results indicating that the math program had a positive effect on student performance. and statistical models are constructed to analyze and explain the information that has been gathered. the researcher begins to formulate some initial conclusions about what happened as a result of the computerized math program. the researcher begins to try to understand it.
The Units The Outcomes (Effect) The Design .
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