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Home Office Statistical Bulletin 05/02

12 July 2002

International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2000


by
Gordon C Barclay & Cynthia Tavares

The tables in the Bulletin are based on these Excel spreadsheets. If you have any
enquiries about these figures please contact the authors:
Gordon.Barclay@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk Tel +44 20 7273 3960
Cynthia.Tavares@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk Tel/FAX +44 20 7273 3154

Home Office RDS


50 Queen Anne's Gate
LONDON SW1H 9AT
United Kingdom
Tables updated: 30 May 2002
Table 1 Crimes(1) recorded by the police
Country 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963
EU Member States average
England & Wales(2) 479,400 524,506 513,559 472,989 434,327 438,085 479,710 545,562 626,509 675,626 743,713 806,900 896,424
### 978,076
Northern Ireland(3) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Scotland .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Austria .. .. .. 194,916 201,701 214,451 215,330 225,660 231,635 238,987 241,798 228,043 229,958 235,211
Belgium(4) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Bulgaria .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Czech Republic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Denmark(21) 109,117 122,645 120,329 120,168 111,220 115,928 114,066 117,091 115,550 119,125 126,367 131,520 135,681 143,191
Estonia(22) 5,225 5,773 4,905 5,181 3,804 3,860 5,177 5,252 6,278 4,658 5,049 6,083 5,985 5,649
Finland 51,273 51,952 50,811 54,125 52,520 48,240 51,491 58,009 61,081 63,685 65,201 67,162 70,194 75,245
France 574,289 528,027 545,678 547,611 524,579 516,764 558,046 667,674 603,967 644,758 687,766 708,780 733,866 567,681
Germany (5)
1,327,455 1,543,122 1,516,819 1,491,120 1,504,647 1,575,310 1,630,675 1,685,698 1,726,565 1,951,290 2,034,239 2,120,419 2,106,469 1,678,840
Greece(6) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Hungary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Ireland (Eire) 12,231 14,127 14,720 15,602 11,917 11,531 12,782 14,037 16,567 17,865 15,375 14,818 15,307 16,203
Italy .. .. .. .. .. .. 344,943 352,594 346,718 313,960 332,662 379,246 416,140 429,339
Latvia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Lithuania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Luxembourg(7) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Malta .. .. .. .. .. ..
Netherlands 93,000 108,300 102,800 96,900 91,400 91,300 93,000 105,200 111,300 111,600 116,500 119,300 127,300 129,800
Norway(8) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33,481 36,403 38,514 38,584 43,071 42,840 45,988
Poland(23) 203,376 323,505 351,467 341,658 313,555 339,840 369,002 405,145 424,446 429,470 429,991 405,288 423,924 516,159
Portugal(9) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Romania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Russia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Slovakia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Slovenia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21,753 25,508 18,578 18,093 22,850 23,141
Spain .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Sweden(10) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Switzerland(11) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Turkey .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Australia(12) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Canada(13) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 514,986 572,105
Japan(14) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
New Zealand .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
South Africa .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978

### 1,067,963 1,133,332 1,199,859 1,207,354 1,289,090 1,488,638 1,555,995 1,646,081 1,690,219 1,657,669 1,963,360 2,105,631 2,135,713 2,463,020 2,395,757
.. .. .. .. .. .. 24,810 30,828 35,884 32,057 33,314 37,239 39,779 45,335 45,335
.. .. .. .. .. .. 167,223 210,966 212,529 207,778 233,555 281,485 317,877 363,382 334,957
237,855 244,475 253,012 266,848 277,770 282,948 285,507 216,559 294,200 291,709 306,253 295,780 305,501 303,567 313,233
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,622 1,699 2,826 2,874 2,075 1,844 1,881
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
150,187 155,238 152,548 170,831 194,326 209,745 260,072 298,590 301,142 311,324 325,725 290,450 276,731 307,416 340,069
5,164 5,122 5,686 5,465 6,147 5,959 6,099 5,909 5,787 5,934 6,034 7,759 7,006 6,796 6,771
81,520 81,427 79,945 91,538 102,097 111,022 122,849 138,465 155,122 168,966 177,615 191,704 177,669 185,209 183,425
611,521 660,441 735,084 839,024 937,642 1,021,215 1,135,621 1,289,378 1,675,507 1,763,372 1,827,373 1,912,327 1,823,953 2,097,919 2,147,832
1,747,580 1,789,319 1,917,445 2,074,322 2,158,510 2,217,966 2,413,586 2,441,413 2,572,530 2,559,974 2,741,728 2,919,390 3,063,271 3,287,642 3,380,516
.. .. .. .. .. .. 179,331 198,315 230,296 196,119 199,520 184,865 248,941 254,567 261,111
109,260 121,961 121,020 119,872 118,254 110,622 122,289 123,147 116,373 119,290 111,825 120,889 129,424 123,623 126,907
17,700 16,736 19,029 20,558 23,104 25,972 30,756 37,781 39,237 38,022 40,096 48,387 54,382 62,946 62,000
445,432 452,754 484,447 513,233 541,457 482,317 547,839 626,644 685,947 715,420 754,011 770,569 767,427 914,240 1,075,990
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
140,900 147,200 157,400 166,000 182,000 203,500 225,800 269,800 302,500 340,400 374,900 398,000 462,200 479,700 492,100
47,057 47,532 48,509 51,258 51,747 60,060 64,868 73,482 79,727 86,725 91,208 96,754 90,262 90,101 103,031
469,371 491,556 525,541 498,013 468,602 497,971 424,217 475,411 379,086 355,125 339,542 340,440 324,181 344,506 355,492
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
22,481 25,913 26,042 25,369 24,116 23,878 23,874 26,887 27,751 28,876 29,296 29,820 29,890 30,303 27,307
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
626,038 628,418 702,809 784,568 897,530 994,790 1,110,066 1,166,458 1,189,805 1,298,551 1,456,885 1,585,805 1,637,704 1,654,020 1,714,297
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

2,376,666 2,688,235 2,963,760 3,262,422 3,247,032 3,499,060 3,611,837 3,847,410 3,892,201 3,715,767 3,870,748 4,543,611 5,276,173 5,591,717 5,526,255
54,262 56,316 62,496 62,020 63,984 66,779 64,584 68,255 63,860 55,890 55,147 57,198 63,492 67,532 66,228
346,680 364,587 408,204 435,081 445,495 471,643 457,899 458,605 472,947 457,921 478,208 518,522 572,921 564,890 517,247
330,132 347,013 381,841 3,879,870 387,789 391,602 426,724 398,960 391,291 400,621 423,025 457,623 468,832 502,440 493,786
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 293,631 314,778 336,377 353,492 382,667 386,474 388,150
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
2,113 2,229 2,188 2,416 2,781 3,095 3,556 3,576 3,634 3,582 3,672 3,684 3,626 3,811 4,302
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 345,205 398,505
355,054 406,346 405,746 413,033 414,985 419,337 477,259 512,853 524,323 536,880 536,564 527,421 519,775 536,821 546,894
8,546 11,125 9,314 9,311 15,244 15,437 14,828 12,500 11,465 12,167 19,141 23,807 31,748 41,254 37,163
192,979 221,106 239,877 258,711 254,649 264,542 291,551 309,539 314,423 334,185 389,010 435,154 389,180 389,536 383,268
2,330,566 2,627,508 2,890,020 3,413,682 3,563,975 3,681,453 3,579,194 3,292,189 3,170,970 3,132,694 3,266,442 3,492,712 3,744,112 3,830,996 3,881,894
3,533,802 3,815,774 4,071,873 4,291,975 4,345,107 4,132,783 4,215,451 4,367,124 4,444,108 4,356,726 4,358,573 4,455,333 5,302,796 6,291,519 6,750,613
294,056 295,393 309,267 335,170 393,506 352,488 291,355 294,300 303,182 311,179 287,177 330,803 358,998 379,652 358,503
125,267 130,470 134,914 139,795 151,505 157,036 165,816 182,867 188,397 185,344 225,393 341,061 440,370 447,215 400,935
64,057 72,782 89,400 97,626 102,387 99,727 91,285 86,574 85,358 89,544 86,792 87,658 94,406 95,391 98,979
1,103,536 1,139,201 1,180,421 1,123,655 1,207,242 1,273,694 1,364,010 1,403,214 1,867,035 1,894,327 2,053,522 2,501,640 2,647,735 2,390,539 2,259,903
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37,056 44,984 56,615 60,378
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22,306 23,689 24,699 25,046 26,746 28,446
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
532,300 615,660 715,430 825,650 888,760 986,560 999,030 1,007,560 1,042,120 1,056,740 1,066,130 1,052,512 1,083,733 1,168,493 1,173,643
107,683 121,565 131,317 148,276 159,598 151,622 164,067 164,890 198,877 220,338 237,319 235,256 252,362 254,099 244,659
337,302 337,935 379,762 436,206 466,205 538,930 544,361 507,913 508,533 475,273 547,589 883,346 866,095 881,076 852,507
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 307,328
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,185,914 1,220,361 1,619,181 1,839,459 2,173,074 2,760,652 2,799,614
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89,872 88,157 105,060 146,125
27,455 28,998 32,375 43,557 51,074 45,014 42,776 38,118 35,421 38,735 39,967 38,353 42,250 54,085 44,278
.. 408,947 429,492 447,510 589,450 729,382 776,529 879,822 992,223 979,839 1,030,996 1,021,050 990,306 934,070 938,612
.. 926,277 935,825 983,758 959,127 983,175 1,018,349 1,095,357 1,092,417 1,086,211 1,144,800 1,218,820 1,199,101 1,195,154 1,191,251
.. .. .. 335,374 339,110 330,492 333,618 331,476 334,057 329,667 331,989 354,265 382,661 374,237 371,740
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. 618,668 639,855 693,191 727,461 811,914 837,987 897,262 1,007,494 1,023,132 1,062,367 1,110,720 1,205,277 1,146,558 1,156,028
1,855,271 2,045,399 2,168,201 2,203,668 2,148,633 2,147,657 2,174,175 2,277,749 2,368,956 2,390,007 2,425,936 2,627,193 2,898,988 2,847,981 2,735,626
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,577,954 1,641,310 1,673,268 1,636,628 1,707,877 1,742,366 1,801,150
.. 286,789 294,015 309,843 376,141 377,451 370,844 376,558 368,712 378,122 384,928 409,747 446,417 464,596 462,536
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Table A Crimes(1) recorded by the police (percentage changes) Average annual percentage change
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1990-2000 1996-2000 1999-2000 1990-2000
-1% 1% 0% -0.2%
5,146,383 5,139,307 4,930,678 4,545,337 5,109,089 5,301,187 5,170,843 4% (16)
-8% -2% ..
67,886 68,808 68,549 59,922 109,053 119,111 119,912 .. .. 1% ..
500,110 475,697 451,956 420,642 431,551 435,703 423,172 421,903 -18% -6% -3% -2.0%
504,568 486,433 485,450 481,549 479,859 493,246 560,306 22% 15% 14% 2.0%
577,902 709,836 725,914 818,759 856,495 849,323 848,648 .. 17% 0% ..
.. .. 184,975 228,219 149,532 132,897 127,659 .. -31% -4% ..
4,330 4,029 4,528 3,909 4,318 4,212 4,358 18% -4% 3% 1.7%
372,427 375,630 394,267 403,654 425,930 426,626 391,469 .. -1% -8% ..
546,926 538,963 528,488 531,102 499,167 494,191 504,231 -4% -5% 2% -0.4%
35,739 39,570 35,411 40,972 45,721 51,539 57,799 143% 63% 12% 9.3%
383,351 381,652 376,788 373,846 383,479 372,207 385,797 361,105 -11% 2% 4% -1.2%
3,919,008 3,665,320 3,559,617 3,493,442 3,565,525 3,567,864 3,771,849 4,061,792 8% 6% 6% 0.8%
6,537,748 6,668,717 6,647,598 6,586,165 6,456,996 6,302,316 6,264,723 .. -6% -1% ..
303,311 329,110 349,476 377,871 385,681 373,680 369,137 12% 6% -1% 1.1%
389,451 502,036 466,050 514,403 600,621 505,716 450,673 32% -3% -11% 2.8%
101,036 102,484 100,785 90,875 85,627 81,274 73,276 -16% -27% -10% -1.8%
2,173,448 2,267,488 2,422,991 2,440,754 2,425,745 2,373,966 2,205,782 -12% -9% -7% -1.3%
.. 39,141 38,205 36,865 36,374 43,969 50,199 .. 31% 14% ..
58,364 60,819 68,053 75,816 78,149 77,108 82,370 122% 21% 7% 8.3%
29,160 28,380 27,566 24,355 27,155 26,957 22,816 14% (17) -5% (18) -1% (19) 1.3% (17)
.. .. .. .. 14,793 16,031 17,016 .. .. 6% ..
1,206,128 1,126,659 1,076,074 1,104,760 1,102,670 1,152,068 1,173,688 12% 9% 2% 1.1%
249,615 286,037 292,249 308,055 318,275 315,924 330,071 31% (20) 13% 4% 3.0% (20)
906,157 974,941 897,751 992,373 1,073,042 1,121,545 1,266,910 43% 41% 13% 3.7%
330,010 326,572 322,256 321,643 341,122 362,589 363,294 .. 13% 0% ..
297,046 321,651 361,061 399,105 363,690 353,745 340,414 .. 10% -3% ..
2,632,708 2,755,669 2,625,081 2,397,311 2,581,940 3,001,748 .. 85% (17) 9% (18) 16% (19) 6.4% (17)
137,713 114,579 99,402 92,395 93,895 94,016 88,817 93,053 -1% -11% -6% -0.1%
43,635 37,288 36,838 37,173 55,259 61,693 67,617 76% 84% 10% 5.8%
901,696 908,264 930,780 924,393 917,314 961,787 923,269 -10% -1% -4% -1.0%
1,112,505 1,145,945 1,175,339 1,196,065 1,181,056 1,194,171 1,214,968 0% 3% 2% 0.0%
358,028 346,634 356,018 382,769 378,045 355,212 270,733 242,908 -24% -24% -24% -2.7%
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1,147,318 1,133,123 1,190,852 1,243,729 1,299,480 1,329,797 1,431,929 .. 20% 8% ..
2,646,209 2,639,654 2,644,893 2,534,766 2,461,156 2,356,831 2,353,926 -10% -11% 0% -1.1%
1,784,432 1,782,944 1,812,119 1,899,564 2,033,546 2,165,626 2,443,470 49% 35% 13% 4.1%
447,525 465,052 477,596 473,547 461,677 438,074 427,230 426,526 4% -11% -2% 0.4%
2,014,589 2,056,569 2,049,100 2,073,049 2,192,080 2,345,011 .. .. 14% (18) 7% (19) ..
nnual percentage change
U.S.A(15) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3,384,200 3,488,000 3,752,200 3,109,500

(1) More serious offences. In many countries defined as against the 'penal code' or 'criminal code' and excludes less serious crimes (misdemeanours). The range of offences covered differs
between each country and comparison based upon absolute figures are therefore misleading.
(2) Until 1979, excluding offences of "other criminal damage" of value £20 and under. From 1980, revised counting rules and all criminal damage included.
By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995). Expanded offence coverage and revised counting rules from 1 April 1998. England & Wales
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules. Northern Ireland
(4) New collection system introduced in 1994, however not all police forces submitted returns in 1994. Data may only be regarded as complete from 1995 onwards. Belgium
(5) Until 1956, West Germany excluding Saarland. From 1963, traffic related crimes excluded. From 1992, including former East Germany but only part of East Germany in 1991. Germany
(6) Includes misdemeanours and traffic offences. Greece
(7) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. Luxembourg
(8) From 1957 to 1990, crimes investigated by the police; from 1991, crimes recorded by the police. Norway
(9) New unified collection system introduced in 1993 covering the three police forces. From 1995, other police functions e.g. gambling, economic activities, customs and county public finance
are included. Portugal
(10)Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. Sweden
(11)Figures include selected penal offences and all drugs offences. Penal code offences are estimated to be approximately two-thirds of all offences which also include less serious offences
such as shop-lifting, bicycle theft and use of cars for "joyriding". Switzerland
(12)Data for selected violent and property crimes. By financial year until 1992 and by calendar year from 1993 onwards. Figures before 1995 are not comparable with later years due to differences in the offences included. Australia
(13)Includes Criminal Code incidents (violent, property and other crimes within the Criminal Code - e.g. prostitution, arson, mischief). Does not include drugs, traffic, provincial or municipal
bylaw violations. Canada
(14)Excludes traffic, professional negligence and offences against special penal codes such as drugs, firearms and sword control offences. Japan
(15)FBI Uniform Crime Index covering murder and non-negligent manslaughter, manslaughter by negligence, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and theft of
motor vehicles but excludes arson and drugs offences. USA
(16)Comparisons between the earlier year and 2000/2001 are based on figures for the financial year 2000/2001 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules and also using financial year data for the earl
(17)1989 - 1999.
(18)1996 - 1999.
(19)1998 - 1999.
(20)1991 - 2000.
(21)Changes in statistical practices in 1960 and 1979. Denmark
(22)Figures from 1989 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in the registration rules. Estonia
(23)Figures from 1962 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in the registration rules. Poland

.. Data not available.


Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
4,564,600 4,739,400 5,223,500 5,903,400 6,720,200 7,410,900 8,098,000 8,588,200 8,248,800 8,718,100 10,253,400 11,292,400 11,349,700 10,984,500 11,209,000

d. Australia

year data for the earlier year.


12,249,500 13,408,300 13,423,800 12,974,400 12,108,600 11,881,880 12,431,400 13,211,900 13,508,700 13,923,100 14,251,400 14,475,613 14,872,900 14,438,200 14,144,800
13,989,500 13,862,727 13,493,863 13,194,571 12,485,714 11,634,378 11,605,751 -20% -14% 0% -2.2%
Table 1.1 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Homicide(2)
Number of homicides
Number
(2)
of homicides(2) Homicides(2) per 100,000 population
% change % change
Country 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1996-2000 1999-2000 1997 1998 1999
EU Member States average -1% 6%
England & Wales(3) 726 745 679 748 750 766 850 25% 11% 1.46 1.43 1.46
Northern Ireland(3) 86 24 39 49 75 34 48 .. 41% 2.93 4.44 2.01
Scotland(4) 113 137 135 95 100 128 108 -20% -16% 1.85 1.95 2.50
Austria 88 78 99 66 77 60 82 -17% 37% 0.82 0.95 0.74
Belgium 121 142 118 145 218 172 158 34% -8% 1.43 2.14 1.68
Bulgaria .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus 0 0 4 3 4 4 4 0% 0% 0.46 0.60 0.60
Czech Republic 286 277 267 291 313 265 279 4% 5% 2.82 3.04 2.58
Denmark(4) 79 60 69 88 49 53 58 -16% 9% 1.67 0.93 1.00
Estonia (5)
302 246 214 178 196 157 143 -33% -9% 12.17 13.48 10.86
Finland 147 146 156 139 113 143 148 155 -5% 3% 2.70 2.19 2.77
France 1,406 1,336 1,171 963 961 953 1,051 1,046 -10% 10% 1.64 1.64 1.61
Germany(6) 1,373 1,373 1,249 1,178 975 1,005 961 -23% -4% 1.44 1.19 1.23
Greece 133 151 169 203 176 155 158 -7% 2% 1.94 1.67 1.47
Hungary 313 296 271 289 289 253 205 -24% -19% 2.84 2.85 2.51
Ireland (Eire) 32 53 46 53 51 47 56 22% 19% 1.44 1.38 1.24
Italy(7) 1,008 1,042 1,001 924 918 854 818 -18% -4% 1.61 1.59 1.48
Latvia .. 185 176 173 169 152 150 -15% -1% 7.18 7.01 6.31
Lithuania .. 443 366 336 311 309 370 1% 20% 9.07 8.40 8.35
Luxembourg(8) 6 2 4 4 4 3 1 50% (12) -25% (13) 0.96 0.94 0.70
Malta .. .. .. .. 5 10 4 .. -60% .. 1.32 2.65
Netherlands(9) 276 299 239 230 207 230 226 -5% -2% 1.48 1.32 1.46
Norway 34 43 43 38 38 37 49 14% 32% 0.87 0.86 0.83
Poland 915 854 873 807 759 741 854 -2% 15% 2.09 1.96 1.92
Portugal 170 125 116 129 150 131 127 9% -3% 1.30 1.50 1.31
Romania(10) .. 696 684 660 561 465 560 593 -18% 20% 2.95 2.50 2.08
Russia(10) 32,286 31,703 29,406 29,285 29,551 31,140 .. -2% (12) 5% (13) 19.96 20.20 21.40
Slovakia 129 128 132 140 128 141 143 129 8% 1% 2.60 2.37 2.61
Slovenia 34 45 38 36 15 25 28 -26% 12% 1.81 0.76 1.26
Spain 1,053 984 962 1,032 1,040 1,102 1,192 1,234 24% 8% 2.59 2.61 2.77
Sweden(11) 159 179 199 157 185 188 175 -12% -7% 1.77 2.09 2.12
Switzerland 80 82 83 87 76 89 69 -17% -22% 1.22 1.07 1.24
Turkey .. 1,746 1,814 1,691 1,693 1,541 .. -12% (12) -9% (13) 2.65 2.65 2.31
Australia 320 356 348 360 332 386 346 -1% -10% 1.94 1.77 2.04
Canada(7) 596 588 635 586 558 538 542 -15% 1% 1.95 1.84 1.76
Japan(10) 1,279 1,281 1,218 1,282 1,388 1,265 1,391 14% 10% 1.02 1.10 1.00
New Zealand 73 50 63 89 64 99 99 93 57% 0% 2.35 1.68 2.59
South Africa 26,832 26,637 25,782 24,588 24,875 23,823 21,683 -16% -9% 56.86 57.52 55.09
U.S.A. 23,310 21,606 19,645 18,208 16,970 15,522 15,517 -21% 0% 6.80 6.28 5.69

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving),
euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide.
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(4) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police.
(5) Excludes assault leading to death.
(6) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the
government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification
of the country.
(7) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) Excludes euthanasia.
(10)Includes attempts.
(11)Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. Includes help with suicide.
Figures from 1997 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in statistical routines.
(12)1995 -1999.
(13)1998 -1999.
(14)1997 to 1999.
(15)1994 -1998.
(16)1997 -1998.
(17)1996 to 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
00 population Homicides(2) per 100,000
Country
population
population
average per year
2000 1998 to 2000 1997 1998 1999 2000
1.70
1.61 1.50 51,403,000 52,374,333 52,525,000 52,939,000
2.84 3.10 1,674,959 1,688,616 1,688,600 1,691,800 1999 mid year
2.11 2.19 5,122,500 5,120,000 5,119,200 5,114,600
1.01 0.90 8,072,182 8,078,449 8,083,000 8,127,024
1.54 1.79 10,170,226 10,192,265 10,213,752 10,239,085
.. ..
0.60 0.60 657,900 663,300 666,800 671,300
2.72 2.78 10,309,137 10,289,621 10,282,784 10,266,546
1.09 1.00 5,275,121 5,294,860 5,313,577 5,330,020
9.94 11.43 1,462,130 1,453,844 1,445,580 1,439,200
2.86 2.60 5,147,349 5,159,646 5,171,302 5,181,115
1.79 1.68 58,722,674
### 58,722,674 59,125,000 58,746,500
1.17 1.19 82,012,162 82,057,400 82,014,566 82,142,684
1.50 1.55 10,486,595 10,510,965 10,521,669
2.04 2.47 10,174,442 10,135,358 10,091,789 10,043,000
1.48 1.37 3,693,000 3,790,000 ..
1.42 1.50 57,563,354 57,612,615 57,612,615 57,679,895
6.22 6.51 2,410,000 in 2001
10.00 8.91 3,707,200 3,704,000 3,700,800 3,698,500
0.23 0.87 (14) 418,300 423,700 429,200 435,700
1.06 1.68 378,000
1.42 1.40 15,567,100 15,654,200 15,760,225 15,940,815
1.09 0.93 4,392,714 4,417,599 4,445,329 4,478,497
2.23 2.04 38,649,914 38,666,145 38,653,625 38,363,625
1.24 1.35 9,957,270 9,979,960 9,997,590 10,242,900
2.50 2.36 22,400,000 in 2001

.. 20.52 (14) 146,739,400 146,327,600 145,500,000 144,900,000


2.65 2.54 5,387,650 5,393,382 5,398,657 5,402,547
1.41 1.14 1,986,848 1,982,603 1,985,557 1,990,272
2.94 2.77 .. 39,852,651 40,500,000 in 2001
1.97 2.06 8,847,625 8,854,322 8,861,426 8,882,800
0.96 1.09 7,105,446 7,114,600 7,160,400 7,209,900
.. 2.54 (14) 63,898,000 in 1996 66,600,000
1.81 1.87 18,524,155 18,730,359 18,937,166 19,157,140
1.76 1.79 29,987,214 30,247,949 30,499,200 30,769,700
1.10 1.06 126,270,000 126,580,000 126,790,000 126,861,989
2.58 2.28 3,781,300 3,805,600 3,825,800 3,843,200
50.14 54.25 43,243,427 in 1996
5.64 5.87 267,783,607 270,248,003 272,690,813 275,130,000
Table 1.2 Comparison of homicide(1) in selected cities
Number of homicides(1) Number of homicides(1) Homicides(1) per 1
City 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1990
EU Member States' capital cities' average
London, England 184 184 175 160 169 167 139 190 159 190 189 2.50
Belfast(2), Northern Ireland 26
### 55 51 42 34 9 20 16 18 11 21 8.80
Edinburgh(3), Scotland 12 8 9 11 9 18 6 8 10 11 5 2.73
Vienna, Austria 35 38 29 35 28 26 35 25 27 26 .. 2.30
Brussels, Belgium .. .. .. .. 19 15 17 20 22 33 26 ..
Sofia, Bulgaria
Lefkosia, Cyprus 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0.00
Prague, Czech Republic 32 21 35 38 34 37 28 40 51 64 49 2.60
Copenhagen(3), Denmark 20 10 12 14 14 9 24 34 8 8 9 3.60
Tallinn , Estonia
(4)
44 37 66 85 89 84 49 38 58 40 39 9.17
Helsinki, Finland 23 23 26 11 13 13 23 11 8 16 11 9 4.69
Paris, France 91 80 75 80 88 102 63 46 50 43 88 3.70
Berlin(5), Germany .. 94 109 152 138 125 121 150 97 86 76 ..
Athens & Pireus, Greece 2 4 3 1 1 13 15 14 17 19 17 ..
Budapest, Hungary 31 51 52 53 70 60 41 59 59 49 35 1.50
Dublin, Ireland 11 12 22 8 14 26 19 21 31 24 16 1.10
Rome(6), Italy 68 46 37 34 28 30 33 35 33 29 36 2.45
Riga, Latvia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Vilnius , Lithuania
(8)
82 72 59 56 54 59 ..
Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Valletta, Malta .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Amsterdam(7), Netherlands 57 26 51 50 61 64 42 40 38 22 29 7.99
Oslo, Norway 13 9 14 13 4 9 8 12 8 9 6 2.81
Warsaw(8), Poland 60 56 90 67 111 88 90 98 89 80 88 3.62
Lisbon, Portugal .. .. .. 50 59 47 65 48 33 28 24 ..
Bucharest, Romania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Moscow(8), Russia 441 501 925 1,404 1,820 1,702 1,544 1,477 1,180 1,206 .. ..
Bratislava, Slovakia .. .. .. 21 15 15 9 27 14 18 15 17 ..
Ljubljana, Slovenia .. .. .. .. .. 3 3 4 4 6 5 ..
Madrid, Spain 73 54 45 90 95 78 82 93 94 90 100 2.33
Stockholm(9), Sweden 25 49 61 68 63 55 22
### 11
### 19
### 29
### 15
### 3.70
Berne, Switzerland 6 2 6 6 3 1 4 3 4 4 1 4.43
Geneva, Switzerland 9 6 2 4 4 5 2 8 3 13 5 2.30
Ankara, Turkey .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Canberra, Australia .. .. .. 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 2 ..
Sydney, Australia .. .. .. .. .. 72 72 74 58 67 55 77 ..
Ottawa(10), Canada .. 15 13 12 12 24 11 9 3 12 8 ..
Tokyo(8), Japan 111 110 121 127 139 142 117 131 132 157 151 0.90
Wellington, New Zealand 2 1 4 2 5 2 2 4 4 .. .. 1.50
Pretoria(11), South Africa .. .. .. .. 483 502 483 527 .. .. .. ..
Dallas TX, USA 252 191 231
New York NY, U.S.A. 2,245 2,154 1,995 1,946 1,561 1177 983 770 633 671 673 30.65
San Francisco, CA, USA 58 64 59
Washington DC, U.S.A. 472 482 443 454 399 360 397 301 260 241 232 77.80

(1) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving),
euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide.
(2) By financial year from 1996 (e.g. 1996 = 1 April 1996 to 31 March 1997).
(3) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police.
(4) Excludes assault leading to death.
(5) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the
government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification of the country.
(6) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(7) Excludes euthanasia.
(8) Includes attempts.
(9) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. 1997 figures are not comparable with previous years
due to a change in statistical routines.
(10)Ontario part of the Ottawa-Hull Census Metropolitan Area. Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(11)Including rural areas.
(12)1997 to 1999.
(13)1996 to 1998.
(12)1995 to 1997.

.. Data not available.


Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
Table B Comparison of homicide(1) in selected cities
Homicides per 100,000 population of the city
(1)
Homicides per 100,000 population of the city
(1)
Number of homicides(1)
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1998 to 2000

2.50 2.40 2.20 2.30 2.20 1.85 2.51 2.09 2.47 2.59 538
18.78 17.38 14.32 11.70 3.11 6.93 5.55 6.26 3.87 7.43 50
1.82 2.05 2.49 2.03 4.02 1.34 1.78 2.22 2.44 1.10 26
2.50 1.80 2.20 1.80 1.60 2.20 1.60 1.69 1.62 .. 78 (12)

.. .. .. 2.00 1.58 1.79 2.11 2.31 3.60 2.71 81

0.00 0.43 0.42 0.00 0.00 1.23 0.00 0.00 0.39 0.00 1
1.80 2.90 3.10 2.80 3.00 2.30 3.30 4.25 5.30 3.30 164
1.80 2.20 2.50 2.50 1.60 5.03 7.02 1.64 1.63 1.77 25
7.76 14.00 18.78 20.10 19.32 11.46 9.04 13.97 9.72 9.73 137
4.67 5.23 2.19 2.56 2.52 4.38 2.07 1.49 2.92 2.00 1.62 35
3.71 3.47 3.41 4.00 4.73 2.96 2.16 2.44 2.02 4.10 181
2.70 3.20 4.40 3.90 3.60 3.49 4.34 2.83 2.53 2.20 259
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.53 0.60 0.53 53
2.50 2.60 2.60 3.50 3.10 2.20 3.10 3.17 2.67 1.93 143
1.20 2.10 0.80 1.30 2.50 1.80 2.02 2.87 2.22 1.48 71
1.66 1.35 1.26 1.05 1.13 1.24 1.32 1.25 1.10 1.36 98
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. 14.20 12.60 10.20 9.70 9.30 10.20 169
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
3.64 7.15 6.95 8.42 8.86 5.85 5.59 5.27 3.03 3.97 89
1.93 2.96 2.72 0.83 1.84 1.62 2.40 1.59 1.77 1.18 23
3.38 5.43 4.07 6.76 5.37 5.51 6.02 5.49 4.95 5.43 257
.. .. 2.70 3.20 2.60 3.50 2.60 1.84 1.52 1.28 85
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. 10.33 15.80 20.70 19.53 17.82 17.10 18.64 18.85 .. 3,863 (12)

.. .. 4.65 3.32 3.32 1.99 5.98 3.11 4.02 3.35 3.80 47


.. .. .. .. 0.93 0.93 1.24 1.24 1.87 1.96 15
1.79 1.49 2.96 3.12 2.57 2.86 3.24 3.26 3.12 3.47 284
3.40 4.20 4.70 4.30 3.80 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.90 2.00 63
1.46 4.40 4.44 2.24 0.75 3.03 2.30 3.11 3.13 0.82 9
1.60 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.26 0.51 2.01 0.74 3.23 1.22 21
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. 0.67 1.00 0.33 0.65 1.30 0.32 0.65 0.64 5
.. .. .. .. 1.88 1.86 1.88 1.46 1.66 1.35 1.88 180
2.08 1.77 1.59 1.57 3.11 1.42 1.13 0.50 1.48 0.97 23
0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.20 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.31 1.24 440
0.70 2.90 1.40 3.60 1.40 1.30 2.50 2.50 .. .. 10 (13)

.. .. .. 39.40 40.96 39.40 43.00 .. .. .. 1,512 (14)

23.14 17.50 20.63 674


29.30 27.15 26.48 21.27 16.08 13.39 10.51 8.60 9.03 8.69 1,977
7.82 8.46 7.73 181
80.60 75.20 78.50 70.00 64.98 73.11 56.89 49.15 46.44 41.78 733
n of homicide(1) in selected cities
Homicides(1) per 100,000 population of the city
average per year from 1998 to 2000
2.48
2.38
5.85
1.92
1.64 (12)
2.87

0.13
4.28
1.68
11.14
2.14
2.85
2.52
0.55
2.59
2.19
1.24
..
9.73
..
..
4.09
1.51
5.29
1.55
..
18.20 (12)
3.49
1.69
3.28
2.97
2.35
1.73
..
0.54
1.49
0.98
1.22
2.10 (13)
41.12 (14)
20.42
8.77
8.00
45.79
Table 1.3 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Violent crime(2)

Country 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
EU Member States average
England & Wales (3) 294,231 303,742 319,675 348,032 352,873 605,797 703,107 733,374
Northern Ireland(4) 7,507 7,693 8,368 9,110 7,837 21,452 24,163 24,323
Scotland(5) 23,085 23,382 24,360 25,178 23,656 25,725 27,321 27,047
Austria 46,969 49,074 46,560 46,476 46,942 48,200 49,242 ..
Belgium(6) .. 50,033 66,749 54,065 60,605 61,882 61,992 59,791
Bulgaria .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus(7) 139 164 177 178 184 168 278 113
Czech Republic .. 20,177 21,712 22,825 23,223 23,464 23,228 21,996
Denmark 14,524 14,816 13,440 13,405 13,963 13,754 14,735 15,748
Estonia 1,422 1,686 1,507 1,328 1,265 1,191 1,183 1,158
Finland 25,226 26,017 28,218 30,825 31,202 31,726 32,089 34,291 33,355
France 144,368 155,869 165,381 178,363 189,203 193,480 215,968 243,166
Germany 160,680 156,272 170,170 179,455 186,447 186,306 186,655 187,103
Greece 8,317 9,081 8,693 8,149 8,766 9,312 9,097 9,105
Hungary 24,574 26,035 25,731 24,674 26,987 28,414 28,277 29,144
Ireland (Eire)(8) 5,470 5,046 5,764 6,554 5,488 4,515 .. 3,312
Italy(9) 58,432 56,880 56,143 61,916 64,945 71,775 76,823 74,136
Latvia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Lithuania 2,160 5,810 4,437 5,020 5,531 5,200 5,117 6,176
Luxembourg(10) .. 5,665 5,274 5,400 4,471 4,949 4,376 4,280
Malta .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Netherlands 61,591 67,077 65,284 67,479 74,691 76,666 86,587 90,944
Norway(11) 14,551 15,754 16,237 19,029 18,507 18,445 18,811 20,582
Poland(12) .. 54,470 56,476 60,322 66,927 70,001 78,457 90,062
Portugal .. 17,098 17,016 15,494 16,733 15,463 18,942 19,780
Romania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20,818 25,787
Russia(7) .. 190,483 180,793 161,644 119,041 92,697 97,153 ..
Slovakia 9,722 9,876 10,990 11,391 11,564 12,427 13,531 13,549 14,450
Slovenia 1,128 1,165 984 1,043 900 1,172 1,355 1,414
Spain .. 81,318 79,200 86,949 87,775 91,099 128,496 119,923
Sweden(13) 67,793 65,235 66,369 65,863 68,310 70,488 75,745 74,646
Switzerland 6,606 6,002 6,042 6,932 7,472 8,015 8,528 8,152
Turkey .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Australia(14) 26,410 28,047 130,965 146,845 162,063 171,012 172,972 181,999
Canada(15) 310,201 303,745 295,702 296,746 296,890 296,166 291,327 301,875
Japan 37,085 36,515 35,860 37,506 40,570 41,751 43,822 64,418
New Zealand 40,634 41,337 41,981 42,250 42,191 42,590 42,714 44,887
South Africa .. 596,043 627,271 640,354 645,737 661,779 768,932 ..
U.S.A. 1,926,020 1,857,670 1,798,792 1,688,540 1,636,096 1,533,887 1,426,044 1,424,289

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Violence against the person, robbery and sexual offences.
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995). Revised counting rules from 1 April 1998.
(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not comparable with previo
(5) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, robbery, sexual offences (excluding indecent exposure, brothel keeping and offences related to prostitution).
(6) Excludes robbery.
(7) Violence against the person, aggravated assault and sexual offences only.
(8) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, intimidation, abduction and false imprisonment, sexual offences,
robbery and aggravated burglary.
(9) Includes homicide, injuries, sexual assault, robbery, extortion and kidnapping.
(10)Includes homicide, murder, rebellion, intimidation, other violence against the person and sexual offences. Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years
(11)Includes homicide, sexual offences and robbery but excludes crimes against personal liberty (for example threats, duress and limitation of liberty).
(12)Includes homicide, rape, fighting and battery, causing bodily injury and robbery.
(13)Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(14)From 1995 includes murder, attempted murder, manslaughter,
driving causing death, sexual assault, kidnapping and abduction, robbery, blackmail and extortion, and assault). Figures before 1995 exclude assault.
(15)Includes homicide, attempted murder, sexual and non-sexual assault, other sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
(16)Comparisons between the earlier year and 2000/2001 are based on figures for the financial year 2000/2001 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new
(17)1995 - 1999.
(18)1998 - 1999.
(19)1998 - 2000.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
% change % change
1996-2000 1999-2000
14% 2%
15% (16) 4%
.. 1%
7% -1%
6% (17) 2% (18)
11% -4%
.. ..
-37% -59%
-4% -5%
17% 7%
-13% -2%
11% 7%
36% 13%
4% 0%
12% 0%
18% 3%
-49% -27% (19)
20% -3%
.. ..
23% 21%
-17% (17) -12% (18)
.. ..
35% 5%
8% 9%
49% 15%
28% 4%
.. ..
-46% (17) 5% (18)
19% 0%
36% 4%
38% -7%
13% -1%
18% -4%
.. ..
24% 5%
2% 4%
72% 47%
6% 5%
23% (17) 16% (18)
-16% 0%

d are not comparable with previous years.


elated to prostitution).

comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.

e account of the effect of the new counting rules.


Table 1.4 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Domestic burglary(2)

Country 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
EU Member States average
England & Wales(3) 724,573 661,194 638,631 581,985 501,593 473,349 442,602 402,984
Northern Ireland(4) .. 9,833 9,774 8,530 7,155 7,725 7,665 8,375
Scotland .. 53,116 44,725 40,814 36,792 38,033 36,265 32,684 30,181
Austria .. 14,160 13,721 13,849 12,826 11,811 10,111 13,262
Belgium(5) .. 156,864 187,739 180,104 143,769 63,022 61,916 75,846
Bulgaria .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus (6)
1,443 1,291 1,036 1,318 1,079 1,358 1,019 1,018
Czech Republic .. 14,804 13,936 13,538 13,068 12,752 12,445 11,294
Denmark 121,491 32,363 33,502 34,648 31,463 34,311 33,497
Estonia 7,137 6,878 8,175 6,864 6,610 7,026 7,588 7,285
Finland 13,194 12,829 11,512 10,311 10,436 10,291 9,763 9,264 7,957
France 248,002 246,641 237,624 236,272 213,561 207,274 191,102 186,492
Germany 227,090 210,982 211,221 195,801 182,009 166,742 149,044 140,015
Greece (6)
32,803 34,011 42,377 42,825 44,286 43,228 36,947 31,840
Hungary 17,771 21,061 22,372 30,116 31,269 30,525 29,902 26,866
Ireland (Eire) 18,238 18,713 18,506 17,672 16,970 15,840 14,286 13,376
Italy 192,141 198,401 212,477 230,258 237,445 246,804 234,252 207,317
Latvia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Lithuania 6,964 7,414 7,462 8,631 9,424 9,246 9,180 9,203
Luxembourg(7) 2,942 3,728 3,249 3,152 2,416 2,649 2,092 2,081
Malta .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Netherlands 119,858 123,962 118,115 103,953 97,690 90,357 91,996 91,146
Norway 20,754 18,213 19,544 19,107 16,923 15,106 12,636 11,066
Poland (8)
.. 57,120 62,011 65,945 70,187 74,137 74,326 77,427
Portugal 19,376 23,129 21,969 22,798 24,202 21,515 22,224 21,153
Romania 31,163 29,024 31,311 29,404 21,287 19,024
Russia .. 21,556 19,303 17,490 35,905 40,219 45,106 ..
Slovakia 3,928 4,666 4,480 3,859 3,854 3,639 3,601 3,248 3,144
Slovenia 583 586 558 518 988 ..
Spain(6) .. .. .. .. 229,790 226,207 239,896 224,725
Sweden(9) 20,237 17,670 16,701 16,835 18,359 17,536 16,834 17,581
Switzerland(10) 69,278 66,466 67,044 74,321 82,559 83,416 76,322 60,384 57,375
Turkey(6) .. .. 74,965 96,775 113,421 104,282 89,351 ..
Australia 235,634 240,765 256,772 269,554 284,974 295,699 273,867 283,209
Canada(11) 239,322 227,199 235,129 242,639 233,724 221,366 197,781 175,795
Japan 254,516 247,661 234,586 223,590 221,678 237,703 260,981 296,486
New Zealand .. 46,415 46,594 48,912 49,376 49,481 47,621 40,999 36,255
South Africa(11) .. 228,021 244,063 246,438 249,375 266,817 285,515 ..
U.S.A.(10) 2,834,800 2,712,774 2,593,784 2,506,400 2,460,526 2,332,735 2,100,739 2,049,946

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Gaining access to a dwelling by the use of force to steal goods.
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995).
(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(5) Until 1997 includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(6) Includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(7) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(8) Includes burglary from garrets and basements in blocks of flats.
(9) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(10)Includes attempts and burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(11)Includes attempts.
(12)1995 - 1999.
(13)1998 - 1999.
(14)1994 - 1998.
(15)1997 - 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
% change % change
1996-2000 1999-2000
-15% 0%
-31% -9%
.. 9%
-20% -10%
-4% 31%
.. 22%
.. ..
-23% 0%
-17% -9%
0% -2%
6% -4%
-10% -5%
-21% -2%
-28% -6%
-26% -14%
-11% -10%
-24% -6%
-10% -11%
.. ..
7% 0%
-36% (12) -21% (13)
.. ..
-12% -1%
-42% -12%
17% 4%
-7% -5%
-34% -11%
134% (12)
12% (13)
-16% -10%
69% (12) 91% (13)
.. 6%
4% 4%
-19% -21%
19% (12) -14% (13)
5% 3%
-28% -11%
33% 14%
-16% -14%
17% (12) 7% (13)
-18% -2%
Table 1.5 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Theft of a motor vehicle(2)

Country 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
EU Member States average
England & Wales (3) 597,519 524,094 513,927 466,783 400,524 391,807 374,686 338,796
Northern Ireland (4)
8,974 7,794 8,404 8,633 8,090 9,715 10,196 10,806
Scotland(5) 42,816 41,962 37,514 34,161 28,646 28,433 29,818 26,238 23,208
Austria .. .. 6,095 5,791 5,950 5,771 5,679 8,601
Belgium 32,806 37,603 33,598 35,242 36,555 35,780 33,395
Bulgaria .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus 587 551 543 1,661 1,609 1,252 959 1,237
Czech Republic .. .. 27,327 29,639 31,331 29,779 28,946 25,539
Denmark 35,696 35,601 36,737 43,187 42,701 38,871 35,195 33,730
Estonia (6)
2,621 2,536 1,955 1,643 1,762 2,106 2,455 2,322
Finland 21,059 21,043 19,772 20,261 22,015 26,404 29,611 26,391 22,583
France .. 484,179 453,525 443,767 417,360 415,930 395,947 401,057
Germany 276,745 272,357 262,620 225,787 190,585 162,518 140,636 127,750
Greece (7)
.. .. .. 5,309 6,568 7,610 7,239 ..
Hungary(7) .. .. 12,847 16,978 20,163 20,847 16,670 14,297
Ireland (Eire) 12,039 11,754 13,405 13,589 13,793 14,851 15,964
Italy 311,256 302,490 305,438 317,897 301,233 309,113 294,726 243,890
Latvia .. .. 2,774 2,216 2,082 2,483 3,102 2,932
Lithuania 2,879 6,344 6,738 6,267 6,697 6,946 6,671 9,006
Luxembourg (8)
1,234 898 1,196 819 675 655 626 542
Malta .. .. .. .. .. 1,166 1,076 1,051
Netherlands(7) 44,044 46,045 40,902 36,772 37,309 37,408 37,831 38,320
Norway 21,288 20,816 22,519 21,447 20,019 21,672 20,863 23,339
Poland (7)
.. 45,999 54,807 50,799 56,871 65,399 74,514 68,062
Portugal 15,542 18,340 17,334 19,993 22,792 26,965 28,163 26,428
Romania .. .. 2,687 1,800 2,110 2,284 2,331 2,149
Russia .. 46,782 48,532 41,712 35,778 35,448 37,152 ..
Slovakia 9,698 9,137 7,696 6,682 7,438 7,682 7,123 6,073 6,073
Slovenia .. .. 1,302 1,252 1,145 1,311 1,147 1,291
Spain .. 99,768 98,847 113,916 133,330 136,084 138,961 134,583
Sweden (9)
.. 66,234 70,299 71,567 78,826 76,495 78,216 75,125
Switzerland .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Turkey .. .. 14,832 22,554 19,515 19,109 17,912 ..
Australia 112,508 119,760 126,919 122,931 130,406 131,587 129,552 139,094
Canada(5) 156,685 159,469 161,696 180,123 177,130 165,920 161,388 160,268
Japan 281,513 268,887 277,239 274,122 269,138 282,248 286,069 309,638
New Zealand (6)
.. .. .. .. 32,082 30,803 25,680 21,992 20,201
South Africa .. 104,302 101,056 96,715 100,637 107,513 103,502 ..
U.S.A. 1,563,100 1,539,287 1,472,441 1,394,238 1,354,189 1,242,781 1,152,075 1,165,559

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) All land vehicles with an engine that run on the road which are used to carry people
(including cars, motor cycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles, etc.).
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995).
(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not compara
(5) Includes attempts.
(6) Taking/conversion of motor vehicles.
(7) Cars only.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(10)1995 - 1999.
(11)1998 - 1999.
(12)1994 - 1998.
(13)1997 - 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
% change % change
1996-2000 1999-2000
-2% -1%
-27% -10%
.. 6%
-23% -12%
49% 51%
-1% -7%
.. ..
-26% 29%
-14% -12%
-22% -4%
41% -5%
30% -11%
-10% 1%
-43% -9%
.. -5% (11)
-16% -14%
19% 7%
-23% -17%
32% -5%
44% 35%
-48% (10) -4% (11)
.. -2%
4% 1%
9% 12%
34% -9%
32% -6%
19% -8%
-23% (10) 5% (11)
-9% -15%
3% 13%
18% -3%
5% -4%
.. ..
21% (10) -6% (11)
13% 7%
-11% -1%
13% 8%
.. -14%
2% (10) -4% (11)
-16% 1%

ot comparable with previous years.


Table 1.6 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Drug trafficking(2)

Country 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
EU Member States average
England & Wales(3) .. 18,340 21,272 22,122 23,336 21,788 19,956 19,820
Northern Ireland(3) 156 358 204 185 176 193 193 228
Scotland 5,233 5,918 7,974 6,957 8,180 8,490 8,668 8,761 10,293
Austria .. .. 2,058 2,209 2,656 2,594 2,514 1,503
Belgium .. 2,842 6,896 8,362 11,072 10,158 9,968 9,488
Bulgaria .. .... .... .. .. .. .. ..
Cyprus(4) 86 135 156 183 239 285 252 289
Czech Republic(5) .. .. 999 1,592 2,404 4,156 6,100 3,292
Denmark .. 273 291 354 171 178 129 225
Estonia(6) 8 8 12 30 30 117 180 306
Finland(4) .. 5,936 9,052 7,868 8,323 9,461 11,674 13,445 14,869
France .. 8,714 5,661 5,158 8,300 11,908 12,529 4,254
Germany .. 45,088 54,889 65,615 69,093 68,994 73,271 76,594
Greece(4) 1,577 1,837 2,930 4,272 5,970 6,574 6,692 7,785
Hungary .. .. 48 24 51 122 390 578
Ireland (Eire) .. .. 826 958 1,637 1,766 1,971 1,706
Italy .. 38,290 38,269 38,954 41,420 43,014 45,038 34,800
Latvia(4) .. .. 271 361 426 389 511 655
Lithuania (6)
266 306 382 500 616 607 693 915
Luxembourg(4)(7) 613 751 764 864 805 825 941 1,226
Malta .. .. .. .. 37 88 100 ..
Netherlands .. 4,452 4,248 7,331 13,675 7,690 7,613 7,474
Norway .. .. 11,911 13,699 16,169 17,276 17,820 19,302
Poland .. 127 284 494 1,006 2,297 2,181 1,866
Portugal .. 4,517 4,509 3,879 3,390 3,538 4,091 3,214
Romania .. .... .... .. .. .. .. ..
Russia(4) .. 74,798 79,819 96,645 185,832 190,127 216,364 ..
Slovakia .. 88 606 735 967 520 362 604 652
Slovenia .. .. 302 445 620 659 740 964
Spain .. 15,608 15,118 15,307 14,274 13,263 12,389 11,032
Sweden (8)
.. 815 689 635 561 446 542 353
Switzerland .. 2,465 2,171 2,515 3,253 3,734 3,715 3,021
Turkey .. .... 2,457 2,667 2,900 2,569 3,303 3,448
Australia (9)
.. .. .. 24,994 24,313 23,348 17,702 14,426 12,697
Canada .. 17,874 17,394 17,913 17,299 17,808 20,145 21,587
Japan(10) .. 3,329 2,982 2,678 2,359 2,712 2,299 2,307
New Zealand (4)
.. 14,790 12,274 12,658 14,532 15,158 .... ..
South Africa(4) .. 47,323 40,782 39,241 42,805 39,830 41,461 ..
U.S.A.(11) 22,018 22,023 24,915 27,457 33,160 37,322 40,383 ..

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Illegal importing, exporting, supplying, transportation, etc. of narcotic drugs.
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(4) All drugs offences.
(5) Number of people prosecuted.
(6) Illegal manufacture, acquisition, storage, transportation, delivery or trafficking of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.
(7) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) By financial year (e.g. 1994 = 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994).
(10)Excluding amphetamines.
(11)Arrests by Drug Enforcement Administration.
(12)1995 - 1999.
(13)1998 - 1999.
(14)1994 - 1998.
(15)1997 - 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.
% change % change
1996-2000 1999-2000
-5% -8%
-10% -1%
.. 18%
26% 1%
-32% -40%
13% -5%
.. ..
58% 15%
107% -46%
-36% 74%
920% 70%
71% 15%
-18% -66%
17% 5%
82% 16%
2308% 48%
78% -13%
-11% -23%
81% 28%
83% 32%
23% (12) 14% (13)
.. 14% (13)
2% -2%
41% 8%
278% -14%
-17% -21%
.. ..
171% (12) 14% (13)
-18% 67%
117% 30%
-28% -11%
-44% -35%
20% -19%
29% 4%
-42% -19%
21% 7%
-14% 0%
2% (14)
4% (15)
2% (12)
4% (13)
62% (12)
8% (13)
Table 2 Victimisation risk

Percentage victim once or more in 1999


Burglary
Contact Theft of a (inc.
Country Overall crime(1) car attempts)

England & Wales 26 3.6 2.6 5.2


Northern Ireland 15 2.4 1.5 2.5
Scotland 23 3.4 1.0 3.2
Belgium 21 1.8 0.8 4.1
Denmark 23 2.3 1.4 4.2
Finland 19 3.2 0.5 1.2
France 21 2.2 1.9 2.3
Netherlands 25 2 0.5 3.6
Poland 23 2.8 1.7 3.1
Portugal 15 1.4 1.2 2.5
Spain 19 1.5 0.5 1.9
Sweden 25 2.2 1.6 2.3
Switzerland 18 2.1 0.4 2.7
Australia 30 4.1 2.1 6.6
Canada 24 3.4 1.6 4.4
Japan 15 0.4 0.1 1.8
U.S.A 21 1.9 0.5 3.8

(1) Robbery, assaults with force and sexual assaults.


Source: Criminal Victimisation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries: Key findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey (We
ional Crime Victims Survey (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum 2000) by John van Kesteren, Pat Mayhew & Paul Nieuwbeerta.
yhew & Paul Nieuwbeerta.
Table 3.1 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Assault, 1995
England & Northern
Wales Ireland Scotland Denmark Finland France Germany Portugal Sweden
SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population 53 39 249 79 150 68 53 27 106
Percentage of which were:
Fined 14% 22% 57% 7% 75% 26% 55% 60% 29%
Non-custodial sentences 58% 23% 29% 7% 2% 12% 23% 1% 24%
Suspended sentences 2% 34% .. 26% 14% 42% 15% 30% 19%
Unsuspended sentences 27% 21% 13% 60% 9% 20% 6% 8% 28%

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences 7,335 .. 1,716 2,395 .. 7,795 2,397 188 2,586
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months 45% .. 58% 93% .. 58% 16% 11% 71%
6 and less than 12 months 20% .. 20% 5% .. 24% 40% 42% 12%
12 and less than 24 months 18% .. 9% 2% .. .. 20% 27% 12%
24 and less than 60 months 15% .. 9% 1% .. 17% (1)
17% 17% 2%
60 months and over 2% .. 4% 0% .. 1% 2% 3% 0%
Life (absolute number) 13 .. 0 0 1 0 .. ..

(1) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months


.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe
Table 3.2 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Robbery, 1995
England & Northern
Wales Ireland Scotland Denmark Finland France Germany Portugal Sweden
SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population 10 12 13 10 9 11 12 16 6
Percentage of which were:
Fined 1% 0% 8% 0% 1% 1% 1% 2% 0%
Non-custodial sentences 36% 15% 27% 2% 4% 9% 24% .. 36%
Suspended sentences 0% 23% .. 18% 29% 25% 37% 30% 4%
Unsuspended sentences 63% 62% 65% 79% 66% 65% 39% 68% 60%

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences 3,259 .. 433 409 .. 4,063 3,131 1,067 338
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months 12% .. 16% 23% .. 30% 0% 1% 16%
6 and less than 12 months 11% .. 17% 29% .. 28% 11% 1% 9%
12 and less than 24 months 22% .. 15% 31% .. .. 25% 20% 44%
24 and less than 60 months 41% .. 24% 16% .. 31% (1)
47% 45% 26%
60 months and over 15% .. 28% 1% .. 11% 15% 34% 2%
Life (absolute number) 2 .. 0 0 .. 5 0 .. ..

(1) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months


.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe
Table 3.3 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Theft(1), 1995
England & Northern
Wales Ireland Scotland Denmark Finland France Germany Portugal Sweden
SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population 249 195 433 556 627 167 234 81 374
48
Percentage of which were:
Fined 24% 24% 41% 73% 87% 10% 60% 18% 48%
Non-custodial sentences 56% 39% 32% 6% 1% 17% 18% 2% 33%
Suspended sentences 0% 19% .. 11% 6% 6% 13% 39% 10%
Unsuspended sentences 20% 18% 27% 11% 6% 6% 8% 40% 10%

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences 25,354 .. 6,044 3,084 .. 30,754 12,862 2,928 3,201
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months 61% .. 70% 88% .. 59% 26% 5% 63%
6 and less than 12 months 18% .. 24% 10% .. 26% 40% 11% 26%
12 and less than 24 months 16% .. 4% 2% .. .. 23% 44% 8%
24 and less than 60 months 5% .. 2% 0% .. 14% (2)
11% 28% 1%
60 months and over 0% .. 0% 0% .. 0% 0% 11% 0%
Life (absolute number) 1 .. 0 0 .. 2 0 .. ..

(1) Includes burglary offences as these may not be identifiesd separately in the court statistics in many countries.
(2) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months
.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe
Table 4 Prison population(1)

Country 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
EU Member States average
England & Wales (2) 47,422 50,099 48,481 45,649 46,310 46,350 45,633 49,392 51,265 55,537 61,940 65,771 65,594 65,666 67,056
Northern Ireland(3) 1,858 1,901 1,815 1,733 1,996 1,811 1,902 1,911 1,740 1,640 1,555 1,454 1,158 1,011 872
Scotland(4) 5,446 5,229 4,986 4,724 4,839 5,257 5,637 5,585 5,626 5,862 6,084 6,018 6,029 5,868 ..
Austria(3) 7,419 6,565 6,325 6,527 6,714 6,913 7,099 6,806 6,180 6,778 6,946 6,891 6,877 6,861 ..
Belgium(4) 6,695 6,497 6,688 6,549 6,194 6,869 7,489 7,489 7,693 7,935 8,522 7,860 8,143 8,524 8,536
Bulgaria(5) .. .. .. .. .. 8,022 .. .. 8,529 .. .. 11,541 .. .. 8,971
Cyprus .. 185 191 218 223 221 194 184 202 235 263 226 247 288 369
Czech Republic(6) 28,411 23,615 22,365 8,231 12,730 13,967 16,567 18,753 19,508 20,860 21,560 22,067 23,060 21,358 19,320
Denmark 3,190 3,362 3,378 3,205 3,404 3,406 3,370 3,508 3,421 3,194 3,170 3,340 3,496 3,240 3,105
Estonia(7) .. .. .. .. 4,408 4,778 4,514 4,518 4,401 4,224 4,638 4,791 4,379 4,679 4,803
Finland(6) 4,252 4,054 3,721 3,252 3,427 3,175 3,432 3,322 3,092 3,248 2,836 2,772 2,663 2,887 3,110
France(8) 50,639 46,423 45,102 47,449 48,675 49,323 51,134 53,758 53,178 54,014 54,442 53,607 53,948 48,835 47,005
Germany(5) 52,395 52,345 48,998 51,122 52,970 59,579 65,828 65,452 65,652 71,675 75,026 78,324 79,666 79,507 80,333
Greece 3,809 4,178 4,593 5,133 5,321 6,602 7,135 5,835 5,831 5,270 5,577 7,129 7,525 8,038 8,343
Hungary(6) 22,543 20,821 15,928 12,319 14,810 15,913 13,196 13,143 12,455 12,763 13,405 14,366 15,110 15,757 15,588
Ireland (Eire) 1,936 1,953 1,980 2,108 2,114 2,155 2,801 2,053 2,032 2,139 2,424 2,620 2,741 2,887 3,091
Italy(6) 34,383 34,675 30,594 32,588 32,813 46,152 51,231 52,041 49,102 48,747 50,527 49,173 53,296 54,479 55,743
Latvia .. .. .. .. .. 8,340 .. .. 9,457 .. .. 10,070 .. .. 8,831
Lithuania(6) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13,289 12,200 13,628 14,404 14,412 9,516 11,566
Luxembourg .. 372 349 386 365 408 418 452 453 427 443 392 386 400 ..
Malta .. .. .. .. .. 169 .. 204 .. 189 254 260 230 257 ..
Netherlands 4,909 6,254 6,155 6,892 7,302 7,495 8,037 8,737 11,616 13,261 13,618 13,333 13,231 13,847 14,968
Norway(4) 2,023 2,113 2,208 2,397 2,548 2,477 2,650 2,670 2,610 2,602 2,536 2,466 .. .. ..
Poland(2) 95,203 75,995 56,528 46,606 57,083 61,040 61,895 61,694 65,819 57,320 57,424 59,180 54,842 65,336 80,004
Portugal 8,424 8,168 8,593 9,169 8,171 9,183 11,079 10,023 11,829 13,743 14,167 14,330 13,086 12,728 13,210
Romania .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 46,454 43,609 44,227 51,310 51,396 49,682 50,307
Russia(6) .. .. 698,900 714,700 722,636 750,280 844,870 920,685 1,017,372 1,051,515 1,009,863 1,009,172 1,060,085 .. ..
Slovakia .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7,979 8,168 7,656 6,897 6,904 7,136 ..
Slovenia 901 1,341 1,224 973 820 936 960 879 648 614 768 793 935 1,136 1,155
Spain(6) 26,905 28,917 30,947 33,058 37,857 41,894 46,076 47,144 44,956 42,105 42,756 44,370 44,197 45,309 41,131
Sweden(9) 4,776 5,427 5,277 5,300 5,203 5,249 5,697 6,210 6,285 5,768 5,221 5,290 5,484 5,678 6,089
Switzerland(10) 3,449 4,679 4,714 5,074 5,375 5,441 5,627 5,676 5,655 5,479 5,428 5,648 5,818 5,727 5,160
Turkey .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49,895 .. 60,606 60,391 67,581 49,512 55,609
Australia(11) 11,934 11,849 12,496 14,305 15,021 15,559 15,866 16,944 17,428 18,193 19,128 19,906 21,538 21,714 22,458
Canada(12) 30,906 30,795 31,532 33,379 33,527 35,235 36,441 37,740 38,516 38,574 38,775 37,793 37,384 .. ..
Japan(2) 55,210 54,344 51,829 48,243 45,749 44,876 45,057 45,573 46,535 48,395 50,600 52,830 54,811 59,982 52,167
New Zealand(3) 3,117 3,458 3,750 4,167 4,278 4,369 4,600 4,413 4,685 4,983 5,152 5,450 5,661 5,720 5,887
South Africa(4) 114,098 111,481 111,557 110,194 101,775 102,268 111,798 110,933 110,069 118,731 134,202 141,441 154,576 166,334 169,559
U.S.A.(13) 856,906 949,659 1,076,670 1,148,702 1,219,014 1,295,150 1,369,185 1,476,621 1,585,586 1,646,020 1,743,643 1,802,187 1,860,520 1,931,859 1,965,495
(1) At 1 September: number of prisoners including pre-trial detainees.
(2) At 31 August.
(3) Annual averages.
(4) Average daily population.
(5) At 31 January.
(6) At 31 December.
(7) At 1 January.
(8) Metropolitan and overseas departments.
(9) At 30 September.
(10) At 20 March.
(11)Average daily population upto 1990; From 1991 at 30 June.
(12) Annual average by financial year (1 April - 31 March).
(13) At 30 June.
(14)Based on estimates of national population.
(15)1988 - 1998.
(16)1994 - 1998.
(17)1997 - 1998.
(18)In 1998.
(19)1989 - 1999.
(20)1995 - 1999.
(21)1998 - 1999.
(22)In 1999.
(23)At 15 August.
(24)1999 - 2000.
(25)In 2000.

.. Data not available.


Source: Statistical contacts in each country; International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College, London.
Table C Prison population(1) (percentage changes and rates)
Rate(14) per Rate(14) per Rate of of Rate of of
100,000 100,000 occupancy in occupancy in Country Country
% change % change % change % change population in population in 2000 (per 100 2001 (per 100 population in population in
1990-2000 1996-2000 1999-2000 2000-2001 2000 2001 places) places) 2000 2001
27% 4% 0% 1% 87 88
44% 18% 0% 2% 124 127 104 .. 52,939,000
-42% -38% -13% -14% 60 51 96 57 1,697,800
24% 0% -3% -3% (24) 115 115 (25) 95 .. 5,114,600
5% 1% 0% 0% (24) 84 84 (25) .. .. 8,127,024
30% 7% 5% 0% 83 83 96 .. 10,239,085 10,263,414
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8,150,000
32% 23% 17% 28% 43 55 120 154 671,300
159% 2% -7% -10% 208 188 106 .. 10,266,546
1% 1% -7% -4% 61 58 89 89 5,330,020 5,363,718
.. 11% 7% 3% 325 334 90 92 1,439,200
-11% -11% 8% 8% 56 60 68 .. 5,181,115 5,194,901
3% -10% -9% -4% 80 77 100 97 60,967,540 61,260,000
56% 11% 0% 1% 97 98 .. 104 82,142,684 82,334,500
57% 53% 7% 4% 76 76 166 158 10,521,669 in 1999 10,939,771
28% 23% 4% -1% 157 155 147 152 10,043,000
37% 35% 5% 7% 76 82 89 82 3,790,000 in 1999
67% 12% 2% 2% 94 97 112 112 57,679,895 57,844,017
.. .. .. .. .. 368 .. .. .. 2,400,000
.. -22% -34% 22% 257 313 96 116 3,698,500 3,692,600
4% -6% 4% 4% (24) 92 92 (25) .. .. 435,700 441,300
.. 36% 12% 12% (24) 68 68 (25) .. .. 378,000 in 1998
101% 4% 5% 8% 87 93 96 95 15,940,815 16,061,921
17% (15) -8% (16) -3% (17) -3% (17) 56 .. .. .. 4,478,497 4,503,436
40% 14% 19% 22% 170 207 103 120 38,363,625 38,641,046
39% -7% -3% 4% 124 128 .. 116 10,242,900 10,318,084
.. 14% -3% 1% 222 225 143 149 22,400,000
52% (19) 4% (20) 5% (21) 5% (21) 729 (22) 729 (22) .. .. 144,900,000
.. -13% 3% 3% (24) 132 132 (25) .. .. 5,402,547 5,378,951
17% 85% 21% 2% 57 58 108 108 1,990,272 1,992,269
37% 8% 3% -9% 114 102 108 106 39,852,651 in 1998 40,271,000
7% -2% 4% 7% 64 68 101 103 8,882,800 8,907,801
13% 5% -2% -10% 79 71 85 .. 7,209,900 7,258,800
.. .. -27% 12% 74 83 .. .. 66,600,000
52% 19% 1% 3% 113 116 .. .. 19,157,140 19,386,663
19% (19) -3% (20) -1% (21) -1% (21) 123 (22) 123 (22) .. .. 30,769,700 31,081,900
24% 24% 9% -13% 47 41 93 .. 126,861,989 127,108,518
37% 15% 1% 3% 149 152 .. .. 3,843,200 3,880,500
51% 40% 8% 2% 385 392 63 66 43,243,427 in 1996
68% 17% 4% 2% 685 697 .. .. 282,124,631 284,796,887
Table 5 Country population
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
England & Wales 51,403,000 52,374,333 52,525,000 52,939,000
Northern Ireland 1,674,959 1,688,616 1,691,800 1,697,800
Scotland 5,122,500 5,120,000 5,119,200 5,114,600
Austria 8,072,182 8,078,449 8,083,000 8,127,024
Belgium 10,170,226 10,192,265 10,213,752 10,239,085 10,263,414
Bulgaria 8,150,000
Cyprus 657,900 663,300 666,800 671,300
Czech Republic 10,309,137 10,289,621 10,282,784 10,266,546
Denmark 5,275,121 5,294,860 5,313,577 5,330,020 5,363,718
Estonia 1,462,130 1,453,844 1,445,580 1,439,200
Finland 5,147,349 5,159,646 5,171,302 5,181,115 5,194,901
France metro+DOM/TOM
60,304,000 60,564,000 60,967,540 61,260,000
Francemetro 58,722,674 59,125,000 58,746,500 59,039,000
Germany 82,012,162 82,057,400 82,014,566 82,142,684 82,334,500
Greece 10,486,595 10,510,965 10,521,669 10,939,771
Hungary 10,174,442 10,135,358 10,091,789 10,043,000
Ireland (Eire) .. 3,693,000 3,790,000 .. ..
Italy 57,563,354 57,612,615 57,612,615 57,679,895 57,844,017
Latvia 2,410,000
Lithuania 3,707,200 3,704,000 3,700,800 3,698,500 3,692,600
Luxembourg 418,300 423,700 429,200 435,700 441,300
Malta 378,000
Netherlands 15,567,100 15,654,200 15,760,225 15,940,815 16,061,921
Norway 4,392,714 4,417,599 4,445,329 4,478,497 4,503,436
Poland 38,649,914 38,666,145 38,653,625 38,363,625 38,641,046
Portugal 9,957,270 9,979,960 9,997,590
Romania 22,400,000
Russia 146,739,400 146,327,600 145,500,000 144,900,000
Slovakia 5,387,650 5,393,382 5,398,657 5,402,547 5,378,951
Slovenia 1,986,848 1,982,603 1,985,557 1,990,272 1,992,269
Spain 39,852,651 40,271,000
Sweden 8,847,625 8,854,322 8,861,426 8,882,800 8,907,801
Switzerland 7,105,446 7,114,600 7,160,400 7,209,900 7,258,800
Turkey 63,898,000 in 1996
66,600,000
Australia 18,524,155 18,730,359 18,937,166 19,157,140 19,386,663
Canada 29,987,214 30,247,949 30,499,200 30,769,700 31,081,900
Japan 126,270,000 126,580,000 126,790,000 126,861,989 127,108,518
New Zealand 3,781,300 3,805,600 3,825,800 3,843,200 3,880,500
South Africa 43,243,427 in 1996

U.S.A. 267,783,607 270,248,003 272,690,813 282,124,631 284,796,887

.. Data not available.


Source: Statistical contacts in each country.