Home Office Statistical Bulletin 05/02

12 July 2002

International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2000
by
Gordon C Barclay & Cynthia Tavares
The tables in the Bulletin are based on these Excel spreadsheets. If you have any
enquiries about these figures please contact the authors:
Gordon.Barclay@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk Tel +44 20 7273 3960
Cynthia.Tavares@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk Tel/FAX +44 20 7273 3154
Home Office RDS
50 Queen Anne's Gate
LONDON SW1H 9AT
United Kingdom
Tables updated: 30 May 2002

Table 1 Crimes(1) recorded by the police
Country

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

EU Member States average
England & Wales(2)

479,400

524,506

513,559

472,989

434,327

438,085

479,710

545,562

626,509

675,626

743,713

806,900

Northern Ireland(3)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Scotland

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Austria

..

..

..

194,916

201,701

214,451

215,330

225,660

231,635

238,987

241,798

228,043

229,958

235,211

Belgium(4)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..
..

Bulgaria

896,424
###

978,076

Cyprus

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Czech Republic

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

109,117

122,645

120,329

120,168

111,220

115,928

114,066

117,091

115,550

119,125

126,367

131,520

135,681

143,191

Denmark(21)
Estonia(22)

5,225

5,773

4,905

5,181

3,804

3,860

5,177

5,252

6,278

4,658

5,049

6,083

5,985

5,649

51,273

51,952

50,811

54,125

52,520

48,240

51,491

58,009

61,081

63,685

65,201

67,162

70,194

75,245

574,289

528,027

545,678

547,611

524,579

516,764

558,046

667,674

603,967

644,758

687,766

708,780

733,866

567,681

Germany

1,327,455

1,543,122

1,516,819

1,491,120

1,504,647

1,575,310

1,630,675

1,685,698

1,726,565

1,951,290

2,034,239

2,120,419

2,106,469

1,678,840

Greece(6)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Hungary

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Finland
France
(5)

Ireland (Eire)

12,231

14,127

14,720

15,602

11,917

11,531

12,782

14,037

16,567

17,865

15,375

14,818

15,307

16,203

Italy

..

..

..

..

..

..

344,943

352,594

346,718

313,960

332,662

379,246

416,140

429,339

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Lithuania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Luxembourg(7)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

111,300

111,600

116,500

119,300

127,300

129,800

Malta
Netherlands

93,000

108,300

102,800

96,900

91,400

91,300

93,000

105,200

Norway(8)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

33,481

36,403

38,514

38,584

43,071

42,840

45,988

Poland(23)

203,376

323,505

351,467

341,658

313,555

339,840

369,002

405,145

424,446

429,470

429,991

405,288

423,924

516,159

Portugal(9)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Romania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Russia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

21,753

25,508

18,578

18,093

22,850

23,141

Spain

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Sweden(10)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Switzerland(11)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Australia(12)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Canada(13)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

514,986

572,105

Japan(14)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

New Zealand

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

South Africa

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

###

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1,067,963

1,133,332

1,199,859

1,207,354

1,289,090

1,488,638

1,555,995

1,646,081

1,690,219

1,657,669

1,963,360

2,105,631

2,135,713

2,463,020

2,395,757

..

..

..

..

..

..

24,810

30,828

35,884

32,057

33,314

37,239

39,779

45,335

45,335

..

..

..

..

..

..

167,223

210,966

212,529

207,778

233,555

281,485

317,877

363,382

334,957

237,855

244,475

253,012

266,848

277,770

282,948

285,507

216,559

294,200

291,709

306,253

295,780

305,501

303,567

313,233

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1,622

1,699

2,826

2,874

2,075

1,844

1,881

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

150,187

155,238

152,548

170,831

194,326

209,745

260,072

298,590

301,142

311,324

325,725

290,450

276,731

307,416

340,069

5,164

5,122

5,686

5,465

6,147

5,959

6,099

5,909

5,787

5,934

6,034

7,759

7,006

6,796

6,771

81,520

81,427

79,945

91,538

102,097

111,022

122,849

138,465

155,122

168,966

177,615

191,704

177,669

185,209

183,425

611,521

660,441

735,084

839,024

937,642

1,021,215

1,135,621

1,289,378

1,675,507

1,763,372

1,827,373

1,912,327

1,823,953

2,097,919

2,147,832

1,747,580

1,789,319

1,917,445

2,074,322

2,158,510

2,217,966

2,413,586

2,441,413

2,572,530

2,559,974

2,741,728

2,919,390

3,063,271

3,287,642

3,380,516

..

..

..

..

..

..

179,331

198,315

230,296

196,119

199,520

184,865

248,941

254,567

261,111

109,260

121,961

121,020

119,872

118,254

110,622

122,289

123,147

116,373

119,290

111,825

120,889

129,424

123,623

126,907

17,700

16,736

19,029

20,558

23,104

25,972

30,756

37,781

39,237

38,022

40,096

48,387

54,382

62,946

62,000

445,432

452,754

484,447

513,233

541,457

482,317

547,839

626,644

685,947

715,420

754,011

770,569

767,427

914,240

1,075,990

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

140,900

147,200

157,400

166,000

182,000

203,500

225,800

269,800

302,500

340,400

374,900

398,000

462,200

479,700

492,100

47,057

47,532

48,509

51,258

51,747

60,060

64,868

73,482

79,727

86,725

91,208

96,754

90,262

90,101

103,031

469,371

491,556

525,541

498,013

468,602

497,971

424,217

475,411

379,086

355,125

339,542

340,440

324,181

344,506

355,492

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

22,481

25,913

26,042

25,369

24,116

23,878

23,874

26,887

27,751

28,876

29,296

29,820

29,890

30,303

27,307

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

626,038

628,418

702,809

784,568

897,530

994,790

1,110,066

1,166,458

1,189,805

1,298,551

1,456,885

1,585,805

1,637,704

1,654,020

1,714,297

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

2,376,666

2,688,235

2,963,760

3,262,422

3,247,032

3,499,060

3,611,837

3,847,410

3,892,201

3,715,767

3,870,748

4,543,611

5,276,173

5,591,717

5,526,255

54,262

56,316

62,496

62,020

63,984

66,779

64,584

68,255

63,860

55,890

55,147

57,198

63,492

67,532

66,228

346,680

364,587

408,204

435,081

445,495

471,643

457,899

458,605

472,947

457,921

478,208

518,522

572,921

564,890

517,247

330,132

347,013

381,841

3,879,870

387,789

391,602

426,724

398,960

391,291

400,621

423,025

457,623

468,832

502,440

493,786

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

293,631

314,778

336,377

353,492

382,667

386,474

388,150

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2,113

2,229

2,188

2,416

2,781

3,095

3,556

3,576

3,634

3,582

3,672

3,684

3,626

3,811

4,302

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

345,205

398,505

355,054

406,346

405,746

413,033

414,985

419,337

477,259

512,853

524,323

536,880

536,564

527,421

519,775

536,821

546,894

8,546

11,125

9,314

9,311

15,244

15,437

14,828

12,500

11,465

12,167

19,141

23,807

31,748

41,254

37,163

192,979

221,106

239,877

258,711

254,649

264,542

291,551

309,539

314,423

334,185

389,010

435,154

389,180

389,536

383,268

2,330,566

2,627,508

2,890,020

3,413,682

3,563,975

3,681,453

3,579,194

3,292,189

3,170,970

3,132,694

3,266,442

3,492,712

3,744,112

3,830,996

3,881,894

3,533,802

3,815,774

4,071,873

4,291,975

4,345,107

4,132,783

4,215,451

4,367,124

4,444,108

4,356,726

4,358,573

4,455,333

5,302,796

6,291,519

6,750,613

294,056

295,393

309,267

335,170

393,506

352,488

291,355

294,300

303,182

311,179

287,177

330,803

358,998

379,652

358,503

125,267

130,470

134,914

139,795

151,505

157,036

165,816

182,867

188,397

185,344

225,393

341,061

440,370

447,215

400,935

64,057

72,782

89,400

97,626

102,387

99,727

91,285

86,574

85,358

89,544

86,792

87,658

94,406

95,391

98,979

1,103,536

1,139,201

1,180,421

1,123,655

1,207,242

1,273,694

1,364,010

1,403,214

1,867,035

1,894,327

2,053,522

2,501,640

2,647,735

2,390,539

2,259,903

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

37,056

44,984

56,615

60,378

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

22,306

23,689

24,699

25,046

26,746

28,446

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

532,300

615,660

715,430

825,650

888,760

986,560

999,030

1,007,560

1,042,120

1,056,740

1,066,130

1,052,512

1,083,733

1,168,493

1,173,643

107,683

121,565

131,317

148,276

159,598

151,622

164,067

164,890

198,877

220,338

237,319

235,256

252,362

254,099

244,659

337,302

337,935

379,762

436,206

466,205

538,930

544,361

507,913

508,533

475,273

547,589

883,346

866,095

881,076

852,507

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

307,328

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1,185,914

1,220,361

1,619,181

1,839,459

2,173,074

2,760,652

2,799,614

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

89,872

88,157

105,060

146,125

27,455

28,998

32,375

43,557

51,074

45,014

42,776

38,118

35,421

38,735

39,967

38,353

42,250

54,085

44,278

..

408,947

429,492

447,510

589,450

729,382

776,529

879,822

992,223

979,839

1,030,996

1,021,050

990,306

934,070

938,612

..

926,277

935,825

983,758

959,127

983,175

1,018,349

1,095,357

1,092,417

1,086,211

1,144,800

1,218,820

1,199,101

1,195,154

1,191,251

..

..

..

335,374

339,110

330,492

333,618

331,476

334,057

329,667

331,989

354,265

382,661

374,237

371,740

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

618,668

639,855

693,191

727,461

811,914

837,987

897,262

1,007,494

1,023,132

1,062,367

1,110,720

1,205,277

1,146,558

1,156,028

1,855,271

2,045,399

2,168,201

2,203,668

2,148,633

2,147,657

2,174,175

2,277,749

2,368,956

2,390,007

2,425,936

2,627,193

2,898,988

2,847,981

2,735,626

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1,577,954

1,641,310

1,673,268

1,636,628

1,707,877

1,742,366

1,801,150

..

286,789

294,015

309,843

376,141

377,451

370,844

376,558

368,712

378,122

384,928

409,747

446,417

464,596

462,536

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Table A Crimes(1) recorded by the police (percentage changes)
1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Average annual percentage change

1990-2000

1996-2000

1999-2000

1990-2000

-1%

1%

0%

-0.2%
..

5,146,383

5,139,307

4,930,678

4,545,337

5,109,089

5,301,187

5,170,843

4%

-8%

-2%

67,886

68,808

68,549

59,922

109,053

119,111

119,912

..

..

1%

..

500,110

475,697

451,956

420,642

431,551

435,703

423,172

-18%

-6%

-3%

-2.0%

504,568

486,433

485,450

481,549

479,859

493,246

560,306

22%

15%

14%

2.0%

577,902

709,836

725,914

818,759

856,495

849,323

848,648

..

17%

0%

..

..

..

184,975

228,219

149,532

132,897

127,659

..

-31%

-4%

..
1.7%

421,903

(16)

4,330

4,029

4,528

3,909

4,318

4,212

4,358

18%

-4%

3%

372,427

375,630

394,267

403,654

425,930

426,626

391,469

..

-1%

-8%

..

546,926

538,963

528,488

531,102

499,167

494,191

504,231

-4%

-5%

2%

-0.4%

35,739

39,570

35,411

40,972

45,721

51,539

57,799

143%

63%

12%

9.3%

383,351

381,652

376,788

373,846

383,479

372,207

385,797

361,105

-11%

2%

4%

-1.2%

3,919,008

3,665,320

3,559,617

3,493,442

3,565,525

3,567,864

3,771,849

4,061,792

8%

6%

6%

0.8%

6,537,748

6,668,717

6,647,598

6,586,165

6,456,996

6,302,316

6,264,723

..

-6%

-1%

..

303,311

329,110

349,476

377,871

385,681

373,680

369,137

12%

6%

-1%

1.1%

389,451

502,036

466,050

514,403

600,621

505,716

450,673

32%

-3%

-11%

2.8%

101,036

102,484

100,785

90,875

85,627

81,274

73,276

-16%

-27%

-10%

-1.8%

2,173,448

2,267,488

2,422,991

2,440,754

2,425,745

2,373,966

2,205,782

-12%

-9%

-7%

-1.3%

..

39,141

38,205

36,865

36,374

43,969

50,199

..

31%

14%

..

58,364

60,819

68,053

75,816

78,149

77,108

82,370

122%

21%

7%

8.3%

29,160

28,380

27,566

24,355

27,155

26,957

22,816

14% (17)

-5% (18)

-1% (19)

1.3% (17)

..

..

..

..

14,793

16,031

17,016

..

..

6%

..

1,206,128

1,126,659

1,076,074

1,104,760

1,102,670

1,152,068

1,173,688

12%

9%

2%

1.1%

249,615

286,037

292,249

308,055

318,275

315,924

330,071

31% (20)

13%

4%

3.0% (20)

906,157

974,941

897,751

992,373

1,073,042

1,121,545

1,266,910

43%

41%

13%

3.7%

330,010

326,572

322,256

321,643

341,122

362,589

363,294

..

13%

0%

..

297,046

321,651

361,061

399,105

363,690

353,745

..

10%

2,632,708

2,755,669

2,625,081

2,397,311

2,581,940

3,001,748

..

137,713

114,579

99,402

92,395

93,895

94,016

88,817

340,414

85% (17)
93,053

9% (18)

-3%
16% (19)

-1%

-11%

-6%

..
6.4% (17)
-0.1%

43,635

37,288

36,838

37,173

55,259

61,693

67,617

76%

84%

10%

5.8%

901,696

908,264

930,780

924,393

917,314

961,787

923,269

-10%

-1%

-4%

-1.0%

1,112,505

1,145,945

1,175,339

1,196,065

1,181,056

1,194,171

1,214,968

0%

3%

2%

0.0%

358,028

346,634

356,018

382,769

378,045

355,212

270,733

-24%

-24%

-24%

-2.7%

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1,147,318

1,133,123

1,190,852

1,243,729

1,299,480

1,329,797

1,431,929

..

20%

8%

..

2,646,209

2,639,654

2,644,893

2,534,766

2,461,156

2,356,831

2,353,926

-10%

-11%

0%

-1.1%

1,784,432

1,782,944

1,812,119

1,899,564

2,033,546

2,165,626

2,443,470

49%

35%

13%

4.1%

447,525

465,052

477,596

473,547

461,677

438,074

427,230

4%

-11%

-2%

0.4%

2,014,589

2,056,569

2,049,100

2,073,049

2,192,080

2,345,011

..

242,908

426,526

..

14% (18)

7% (19)

..

nnual percentage change

U.S.A(15)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3,384,200

3,488,000

3,752,200

3,109,500

(1) More serious offences. In many countries defined as against the 'penal code' or 'criminal code' and excludes less serious crimes (misdemeanours). The range of offences covered differs
between each country and comparison based upon absolute figures are therefore misleading.
(2) Until 1979, excluding offences of "other criminal damage" of value £20 and under. From 1980, revised counting rules and all criminal damage included.
By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995). Expanded offence coverage and revised counting rules from 1 April 1998. England & Wales
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules. Northern Ireland
(4) New collection system introduced in 1994, however not all police forces submitted returns in 1994. Data may only be regarded as complete from 1995 onwards. Belgium
(5) Until 1956, West Germany excluding Saarland. From 1963, traffic related crimes excluded. From 1992, including former East Germany but only part of East Germany in 1991. Germany
(6) Includes misdemeanours and traffic offences. Greece
(7) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police. Luxembourg
(8) From 1957 to 1990, crimes investigated by the police; from 1991, crimes recorded by the police. Norway
(9) New unified collection system introduced in 1993 covering the three police forces. From 1995, other police functions e.g. gambling, economic activities, customs and county public finance
are included. Portugal
(10)Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence. Sweden
(11)Figures include selected penal offences and all drugs offences. Penal code offences are estimated to be approximately two-thirds of all offences which also include less serious offences
such as shop-lifting, bicycle theft and use of cars for "joyriding". Switzerland
(12)Data for selected violent and property crimes. By financial year until 1992 and by calendar year from 1993 onwards. Figures before 1995 are not comparable with later years due to differences in the offences included. Australia
(13)Includes Criminal Code incidents (violent, property and other crimes within the Criminal Code - e.g. prostitution, arson, mischief). Does not include drugs, traffic, provincial or municipal
bylaw violations. Canada
(14)Excludes traffic, professional negligence and offences against special penal codes such as drugs, firearms and sword control offences. Japan
(15)FBI Uniform Crime Index covering murder and non-negligent manslaughter, manslaughter by negligence, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and theft of
motor vehicles but excludes arson and drugs offences. USA

(16)Comparisons between the earlier year and 2000/2001 are based on figures for the financial year 2000/2001 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new counting rules and also using financial year data for the earl
(17)1989 - 1999.
(18)1996 - 1999.
(19)1998 - 1999.
(20)1991 - 2000.
(21)Changes in statistical practices in 1960 and 1979. Denmark
(22)Figures from 1989 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in the registration rules. Estonia
(23)Figures from 1962 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in the registration rules. Poland
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

4,564,600

4,739,400

d. Australia

year data for the earlier year.

5,223,500

5,903,400

6,720,200

7,410,900

8,098,000

8,588,200

8,248,800

8,718,100

10,253,400

11,292,400

11,349,700

10,984,500

11,209,000

12,249,500

13,408,300

13,423,800

12,974,400

12,108,600

11,881,880

12,431,400

13,211,900

13,508,700

13,923,100

14,251,400

14,475,613

14,872,900

14,438,200

14,144,800

13,989,500

13,862,727

13,493,863

13,194,571

12,485,714

11,634,378

11,605,751

-20%

-14%

0%

-2.2%

Table 1.1 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Homicide(2)
(2)
Number of homicides
Number
of homicides(2)

Country

1994

1995

1996

1997

Homicides(2) per 100,000 population

1998

1999

2000

2001

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

-1%

6%

EU Member States average

1997

1998

1999

England & Wales(3)

726

745

679

748

750

766

850

25%

11%

1.46

1.43

1.46

Northern Ireland(3)

86

24

39

49

75

34

48

..

41%

2.93

4.44

2.01

113

137

135

95

100

128

108

-20%

-16%

1.85

1.95

2.50

Austria

88

78

99

66

77

60

82

-17%

37%

0.82

0.95

0.74

Belgium

121

142

118

145

218

172

158

34%

-8%

1.43

2.14

1.68

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Cyprus

0

0

4

3

4

4

4

0%

0%

0.46

0.60

0.60

286

277

267

291

313

265

279

4%

5%

2.82

3.04

2.58

79

60

69

88

49

53

58

-16%

9%

1.67

0.93

1.00

Scotland(4)

Czech Republic
Denmark(4)
Estonia

302

246

214

178

196

157

143

-33%

-9%

12.17

13.48

10.86

Finland

147

146

156

139

113

143

148

155

-5%

3%

2.70

2.19

2.77

France

1,406

1,336

1,171

963

961

953

1,051

1,046

-10%

10%

1.64

1.64

1.61

Germany(6)

1,373

1,373

1,249

1,178

975

1,005

961

-23%

-4%

1.44

1.19

1.23

Greece

133

151

169

203

176

155

158

-7%

2%

1.94

1.67

1.47

Hungary

313

296

271

289

289

253

205

-24%

-19%

2.84

2.85

2.51

32

53

46

53

51

47

56

22%

19%

1.44

1.38

1.24

Italy(7)

1,008

1,042

1,001

924

918

854

818

-18%

-4%

1.61

1.59

1.48

Latvia

..

185

176

173

169

152

150

-15%

-1%

7.18

7.01

6.31

Lithuania

..

443

366

336

311

309

370

20%

9.07

8.40

8.35

Luxembourg(8)

6

2

4

4

4

3

1

50% (12)

0.96

0.94

0.70

Malta

..

..

..

..

5

10

4

..

-60%

..

1.32

2.65

276

299

239

230

207

230

226

-5%

-2%

1.48

1.32

1.46

Norway

34

43

43

38

38

37

49

14%

32%

0.87

0.86

0.83

Poland

915

854

873

807

759

741

854

-2%

15%

2.09

1.96

1.92

Portugal

170

125

116

129

150

131

127

9%

-3%

1.30

1.50

1.31

..

696

684

660

561

465

560

-18%

20%

2.95

2.50

2.08

32,286

31,703

29,406

29,285

29,551

31,140

..

19.96

20.20

21.40

Slovakia

129

128

132

140

128

141

143

Slovenia

34

45

38

36

15

25

28

1,053

984

962

1,032

1,040

1,102

1,192

Sweden(11)

159

179

199

157

185

188

Switzerland

80

82

83

87

76

..

1,746

1,814

1,691

Australia

320

356

348

Canada(7)

596

588

635

1,279

1,281

73

South Africa
U.S.A.

(5)

Ireland (Eire)

Netherlands(9)

Romania(10)
Russia(10)

1%

593

-2% (12)

5% (13)

8%

1%

2.60

2.37

2.61

-26%

12%

1.81

0.76

1.26

24%

8%

2.59

2.61

2.77

175

-12%

-7%

1.77

2.09

2.12

89

69

-17%

-22%

1.22

1.07

1.24

1,693

1,541

..

2.65

2.65

2.31

360

332

386

346

-1%

-10%

1.94

1.77

2.04

586

558

538

542

-15%

1%

1.95

1.84

1.76

1,218

1,282

1,388

1,265

1,391

14%

10%

1.02

1.10

1.00

50

63

89

64

99

99

57%

0%

2.35

1.68

2.59

26,832

26,637

25,782

24,588

24,875

23,823

21,683

-16%

-9%

56.86

57.52

55.09

23,310

21,606

19,645

18,208

16,970

15,522

15,517

-21%

0%

6.80

6.28

5.69

Spain

Turkey

Japan(10)
New Zealand

129

-25% (13)

1,234

-12% (12)

93

-9% (13)

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving),
euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide.
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(4) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police.
(5) Excludes assault leading to death.
(6) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the
government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification
of the country.
(7) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) Excludes euthanasia.
(10)Includes attempts.
(11)Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. Includes help with suicide.
Figures from 1997 onwards are not comparable with previous years due to a change in statistical routines.
(12)1995 -1999.
(13)1998 -1999.
(14)1997 to 1999.
(15)1994 -1998.

(16)1997 -1998.
(17)1996 to 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

00 population Homicides(2) per 100,000
Country
population
population
average per year
2000
1998 to 2000
1997

1998

1999

2000

52,939,000

1.70
1.61

1.50

51,403,000

52,374,333

52,525,000

2.84

3.10

1,674,959

1,688,616

1,688,600

1,691,800 1999 mid year

2.11

2.19

5,122,500

5,120,000

5,119,200

5,114,600

1.01

0.90

8,072,182

8,078,449

8,083,000

8,127,024

1.54

1.79

10,170,226

10,192,265

10,213,752

10,239,085

..

..

0.60

0.60

657,900

663,300

666,800

671,300

2.72

2.78

10,309,137

10,289,621

10,282,784

10,266,546

1.09

1.00

5,275,121

5,294,860

5,313,577

5,330,020

9.94

11.43

1,462,130

1,453,844

1,445,580

1,439,200

2.86

2.60

5,147,349

5,159,646

5,171,302

5,181,115

1.79

1.68

58,722,674
###

58,722,674

59,125,000

58,746,500

1.17

1.19

82,012,162

82,057,400

82,014,566

82,142,684

1.50

1.55

10,486,595

10,510,965

10,521,669

2.04

2.47

10,174,442

10,135,358

10,091,789

1.48

1.37

3,693,000

3,790,000

..

1.42

1.50

57,612,615

57,612,615

57,679,895

6.22

6.51

10.00

8.91

57,563,354

2,410,000 in 2001
3,707,200

3,704,000

3,700,800

3,698,500

418,300

423,700

429,200

435,700

15,654,200

15,760,225

15,940,815

4,417,599

4,445,329

4,478,497

38,649,914

38,666,145

38,653,625

38,363,625

9,957,270

9,979,960

9,997,590

0.23

0.87 (14)

1.06

1.68

1.42

1.40

15,567,100

1.09

0.93

4,392,714

2.23

2.04

1.24

1.35

2.50

2.36

..

20.52 (14)

378,000

10,242,900
22,400,000

146,739,400

146,327,600

145,500,000

144,900,000
5,402,547

2.65

2.54

5,387,650

5,393,382

5,398,657

1.41

1.14

1,986,848

1,982,603

1,985,557

2.94

2.77

..

39,852,651

1.97

2.06

8,847,625

8,854,322

8,861,426

0.96

1.09

7,105,446

7,114,600

7,160,400

..

10,043,000

1,990,272
40,500,000 in 2001
8,882,800
7,209,900

2.54 (14)

63,898,000 in 1996

1.81

1.87

18,524,155

18,730,359

18,937,166

1.76

1.79

29,987,214

30,247,949

30,499,200

30,769,700

1.10

1.06

126,270,000

126,580,000

126,790,000

126,861,989

3,781,300

3,805,600

3,825,800

3,843,200

270,248,003

272,690,813

275,130,000

2.58

2.28

50.14

54.25

5.64

5.87

66,600,000
19,157,140

43,243,427 in 1996
267,783,607

in 2001

Table 1.2 Comparison of homicide(1) in selected cities
Number of homicides(1)
City

1990

Number of homicides(1)

Homicides(1) per 1

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1990

184

175

160

169

167

139

190

159

190

189

2.50

55

51

42

34

9

20

16

18

11

21

8.80

EU Member States' capital cities' average
London, England

184

Belfast(2), Northern Ireland

26
###

Edinburgh(3), Scotland

12

8

9

11

9

18

6

8

10

11

5

2.73

Vienna, Austria

35

38

29

35

28

26

35

25

27

26

..

2.30

..

..

..

..

19

15

17

20

22

33

26

..

Brussels, Belgium
Sofia, Bulgaria
Lefkosia, Cyprus

0

0

1

2

0

0

3

0

0

1

0

0.00

Prague, Czech Republic

32

21

35

38

34

37

28

40

51

64

49

2.60

Copenhagen(3), Denmark

20

10

12

14

14

9

24

34

8

8

9

3.60

Tallinn , Estonia

44

37

66

85

89

84

49

38

58

40

39

Helsinki, Finland

23

23

26

11

13

13

23

11

8

16

11

Paris, France

91

80

75

80

88

102

63

46

50

43

88

3.70

Berlin(5), Germany

..

94

109

152

138

125

121

150

97

86

76

..

Athens & Pireus, Greece

2

4

3

1

1

13

15

14

17

19

17

..

Budapest, Hungary

31

51

52

53

70

60

41

59

59

49

35

1.50

Dublin, Ireland

11

12

22

8

14

26

19

21

31

24

16

1.10

Rome(6), Italy

68

46

37

34

28

30

33

35

33

29

36

2.45

Riga, Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

82

72

59

56

54

59

..

Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Valletta, Malta

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Amsterdam(7), Netherlands

57

26

51

50

61

64

42

40

38

22

29

7.99

Oslo, Norway

13

9

14

13

4

9

8

12

8

9

6

2.81

Warsaw(8), Poland

60

56

90

67

111

88

90

98

89

80

88

3.62

Lisbon, Portugal

..

..

..

50

59

47

65

48

33

28

24

..

Bucharest, Romania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

441

501

925

1,404

1,820

1,702

1,544

1,477

1,180

1,206

..

Bratislava, Slovakia

..

..

..

21

15

15

9

27

14

18

15

Ljubljana, Slovenia

..

..

..

..

..

3

3

4

4

6

5

..

Madrid, Spain

73

54

45

90

95

78

82

93

94

90

100

2.33

Stockholm(9), Sweden

(4)

Vilnius , Lithuania
(8)

Moscow(8), Russia

9.17
9

4.69

..
17

..

25

49

61

68

63

55

22
###

11
###

19
###

29
###

15
###

3.70

Berne, Switzerland

6

2

6

6

3

1

4

3

4

4

1

4.43

Geneva, Switzerland

9

6

2

4

4

5

2

8

3

13

5

2.30

Ankara, Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Canberra, Australia

..

..

..

2

3

1

2

4

1

2

2

Sydney, Australia

..

..

..

..

..

72

72

74

58

67

55

Ottawa(10), Canada

..

15

13

12

12

24

11

9

3

12

8

..

111

110

121

127

139

142

117

131

132

157

151

0.90

Wellington, New Zealand

2

1

4

2

5

2

2

4

4

..

..

1.50

Pretoria(11), South Africa

..

..

..

..

483

502

483

527

..

..

..

..

252

191

231

633

671

673

58

64

59

260

241

232

Tokyo(8), Japan

Dallas TX, USA
New York NY, U.S.A.

2,245

2,154

1,995

1,946

1,561

1177

983

770

San Francisco, CA, USA
Washington DC, U.S.A.

472

482

443

454

399

360

397

301

(1) Intentional killing of a person excluding attempts: murder, manslaughter (excluding death by dangerous driving),
euthanasia and infanticide; excluding abortion and help with suicide.
(2) By financial year from 1996 (e.g. 1996 = 1 April 1996 to 31 March 1997).
(3) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police.
(4) Excludes assault leading to death.
(5) Includes homicides recorded by the ZERV (Central Group for the investigation of crime associated with the
government and reunification), which were committed in former East Germany or at the border before reunification of the country.
(6) Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(7) Excludes euthanasia.
(8) Includes attempts.
(9) Includes all deaths initially reported as homicide to the police. 1997 figures are not comparable with previous years
due to a change in statistical routines.
(10)Ontario part of the Ottawa-Hull Census Metropolitan Area. Includes murder, manslaughter and infanticide.
(11)Including rural areas.
(12)1997 to 1999.
(13)1996 to 1998.

..
77

..

30.65
77.80

(12)1995 to 1997.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

Table B Comparison of homicide(1) in selected cities
Homicides per 100,000 population of the city

Homicides per 100,000 population of the city

(1)

1991

1992

1993

Number of homicides(1)

(1)

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

1998 to 2000

2.50

2.40

2.20

2.30

2.20

1.85

2.51

2.09

2.47

2.59

538

18.78

17.38

14.32

11.70

3.11

6.93

5.55

6.26

3.87

7.43

50

1.82

2.05

2.49

2.03

4.02

1.34

1.78

2.22

2.44

1.10

26

2.50

1.80

2.20

1.80

1.60

2.20

1.60

1.69

1.62

..

78

..

..

..

2.00

1.58

1.79

2.11

2.31

3.60

2.71

81

(12)

0.00

0.43

0.42

0.00

0.00

1.23

0.00

0.00

0.39

0.00

1

1.80

2.90

3.10

2.80

3.00

2.30

3.30

4.25

5.30

3.30

164

1.80

2.20

2.50

2.50

1.60

5.03

7.02

1.64

1.63

1.77

25

7.76

14.00

18.78

20.10

19.32

11.46

9.04

13.97

9.72

9.73

4.67

5.23

2.19

2.56

2.52

4.38

2.07

1.49

2.92

2.00

3.71

3.47

3.41

4.00

4.73

2.96

2.16

2.44

2.02

4.10

181

2.70

3.20

4.40

3.90

3.60

3.49

4.34

2.83

2.53

2.20

259

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.53

0.60

0.53

53

2.50

2.60

2.60

3.50

3.10

2.20

3.10

3.17

2.67

1.93

143

1.20

2.10

0.80

1.30

2.50

1.80

2.02

2.87

2.22

1.48

71

1.66

1.35

1.26

1.05

1.13

1.24

1.32

1.25

1.10

1.36

98

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

14.20

12.60

10.20

9.70

9.30

10.20

169

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

3.64

7.15

6.95

8.42

8.86

5.85

5.59

5.27

3.03

3.97

89

1.93

2.96

2.72

0.83

1.84

1.62

2.40

1.59

1.77

1.18

23

3.38

5.43

4.07

6.76

5.37

5.51

6.02

5.49

4.95

5.43

257

..

..

2.70

3.20

2.60

3.50

2.60

1.84

1.52

1.28

85

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

10.33

15.80

20.70

19.53

17.82

17.10

18.64

18.85

..

3,863

..

..

4.65

3.32

3.32

1.99

5.98

3.11

4.02

3.35

..

..

..

..

0.93

0.93

1.24

1.24

1.87

1.96

15

1.79

1.49

2.96

3.12

2.57

2.86

3.24

3.26

3.12

3.47

284

3.40

4.20

4.70

4.30

3.80

3.00

2.00

3.00

3.90

2.00

63

1.46

4.40

4.44

2.24

0.75

3.03

2.30

3.11

3.13

0.82

9

1.60

0.50

1.00

1.00

1.26

0.51

2.01

0.74

3.23

1.22

21

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.67

1.00

0.33

0.65

1.30

0.32

0.65

0.64

..

..

..

..

1.88

1.86

1.88

1.46

1.66

1.35

2.08

1.77

1.59

1.57

3.11

1.42

1.13

0.50

1.48

0.97

23

0.90

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.20

1.00

1.10

1.10

1.31

1.24

440

0.70

2.90

1.40

3.60

1.40

1.30

2.50

2.50

..

..

10

(13)

..

..

..

39.40

40.96

39.40

43.00

..

..

..

1,512

(14)

23.14

17.50

20.63

674

29.30

27.15

26.48

21.27

16.08

13.39

10.51

8.60

9.03

8.69

1,977

7.82

8.46

7.73

181

80.60

75.20

78.50

70.00

64.98

73.11

56.89

49.15

46.44

41.78

733

137
1.62

3.80

35

(12)

47

5
1.88

180

n of homicide(1) in selected cities
Homicides(1) per 100,000 population of the city
average per year from 1998 to 2000
2.48
2.38
5.85
1.92
1.64 (12)
2.87
0.13
4.28
1.68
11.14
2.14
2.85
2.52
0.55
2.59
2.19
1.24
..
9.73
..
..
4.09
1.51
5.29
1.55
..
18.20 (12)
3.49
1.69
3.28
2.97
2.35
1.73
..
0.54
1.49
0.98
1.22
2.10 (13)
41.12 (14)
20.42
8.77
8.00
45.79

Table 1.3 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Violent crime(2)
Country

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

294,231

303,742

319,675

348,032

352,873

605,797

703,107

733,374

7,507

7,693

8,368

9,110

7,837

21,452

24,163

24,323

Scotland(5)

23,085

23,382

24,360

25,178

23,656

25,725

27,321

27,047

Austria

46,969

49,074

46,560

46,476

46,942

48,200

49,242

..

..

50,033

66,749

54,065

60,605

61,882

61,992

59,791

2001

EU Member States average
England & Wales (3)
Northern Ireland(4)

Belgium(6)
Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Cyprus(7)

139

164

177

178

184

168

278

113

Czech Republic

..

20,177

21,712

22,825

23,223

23,464

23,228

21,996

14,524

14,816

13,440

13,405

13,963

13,754

14,735

15,748

Estonia

1,422

1,686

1,507

1,328

1,265

1,191

1,183

1,158

Finland

25,226

26,017

28,218

30,825

31,202

31,726

32,089

34,291

France

144,368

155,869

165,381

178,363

189,203

193,480

215,968

243,166

Germany

187,103

Denmark

160,680

156,272

170,170

179,455

186,447

186,306

186,655

Greece

8,317

9,081

8,693

8,149

8,766

9,312

9,097

9,105

Hungary

24,574

26,035

25,731

24,674

26,987

28,414

28,277

29,144

Ireland (Eire)(8)
Italy(9)
Latvia

5,470

5,046

5,764

6,554

5,488

4,515

..

3,312

58,432

56,880

56,143

61,916

64,945

71,775

76,823

74,136

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

2,160

5,810

4,437

5,020

5,531

5,200

5,117

6,176

Luxembourg(10)

..

5,665

5,274

5,400

4,471

4,949

4,376

4,280

Malta

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Netherlands

61,591

67,077

65,284

67,479

74,691

76,666

86,587

90,944

Norway(11)

14,551

15,754

16,237

19,029

18,507

18,445

18,811

20,582

Poland(12)

..

54,470

56,476

60,322

66,927

70,001

78,457

90,062

Portugal

..

17,098

17,016

15,494

16,733

15,463

18,942

19,780

Romania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

20,818

Russia(7)

..

190,483

180,793

161,644

119,041

92,697

97,153

..

Slovakia

9,722

9,876

10,990

11,391

11,564

12,427

13,531

13,549

Slovenia

1,128

1,165

984

1,043

900

1,172

1,355

1,414

Lithuania

Spain

..

81,318

79,200

86,949

87,775

91,099

128,496

119,923

Sweden(13)

67,793

65,235

66,369

65,863

68,310

70,488

75,745

74,646

Switzerland

6,606

6,002

6,042

6,932

7,472

8,015

8,528

8,152

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Australia(14)

26,410

28,047

130,965

146,845

162,063

171,012

172,972

181,999

Canada(15)

Turkey

310,201

303,745

295,702

296,746

296,890

296,166

291,327

301,875

Japan

37,085

36,515

35,860

37,506

40,570

41,751

43,822

64,418

New Zealand

40,634

41,337

41,981

42,250

42,191

42,590

42,714

44,887

..

596,043

627,271

640,354

645,737

661,779

768,932

..

1,926,020

1,857,670

1,798,792

1,688,540

1,636,096

1,533,887

1,426,044

1,424,289

South Africa
U.S.A.

33,355

25,787
14,450

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Violence against the person, robbery and sexual offences.
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995). Revised counting rules from 1 April 1998.

(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not comparable with previo
(5) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, robbery, sexual offences (excluding indecent exposure, brothel keeping and offences related to prostitution).
(6) Excludes robbery.
(7) Violence against the person, aggravated assault and sexual offences only.
(8) Includes homicide, other violence against the person, intimidation, abduction and false imprisonment, sexual offences,
robbery and aggravated burglary.
(9) Includes homicide, injuries, sexual assault, robbery, extortion and kidnapping.

(10)Includes homicide, murder, rebellion, intimidation, other violence against the person and sexual offences. Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years
(11)Includes homicide, sexual offences and robbery but excludes crimes against personal liberty (for example threats, duress and limitation of liberty).
(12)Includes homicide, rape, fighting and battery, causing bodily injury and robbery.
(13)Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(14)From 1995 includes murder, attempted murder, manslaughter,
driving causing death, sexual assault, kidnapping and abduction, robbery, blackmail and extortion, and assault). Figures before 1995 exclude assault.
(15)Includes homicide, attempted murder, sexual and non-sexual assault, other sexual offences, abduction and robbery.

(16)Comparisons between the earlier year and 2000/2001 are based on figures for the financial year 2000/2001 which have been adjusted to take account of the effect of the new
(17)1995 - 1999.
(18)1998 - 1999.
(19)1998 - 2000.

.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

14%

2%

15% (16)

4%

..

1%

7%

-1%

6% (17)
11%

2% (18)
-4%

..

..

-37%

-59%

-4%

-5%

17%

7%

-13%

-2%

11%

7%

36%

13%

4%

0%

12%

0%

18%

3%

-49%

-27% (19)

20%

-3%

..

..

23%

21%

-17% (17)

-12% (18)

..

..

35%

5%

8%

9%

49%

15%

28%

4%

..

..

-46% (17)

5% (18)

19%

0%

36%

4%

38%

-7%

13%

-1%

18%

-4%

..

..

24%

5%

2%

4%

72%

47%

6%
23% (17)
-16%

5%
16% (18)
0%

d are not comparable with previous years.

elated to prostitution).

comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.

e account of the effect of the new counting rules.

Table 1.4 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Domestic burglary(2)
Country

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

402,984

2001

EU Member States average
England & Wales(3)

724,573

661,194

638,631

581,985

501,593

473,349

442,602

Northern Ireland(4)

..

9,833

9,774

8,530

7,155

7,725

7,665

8,375

Scotland

..

53,116

44,725

40,814

36,792

38,033

36,265

32,684

Austria

..

14,160

13,721

13,849

12,826

11,811

10,111

13,262

Belgium(5)

..

156,864

187,739

180,104

143,769

63,022

61,916

75,846

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Cyprus

(6)

Czech Republic
Denmark

1,443

1,291

1,036

1,318

1,079

1,358

1,019

1,018

..

14,804

13,936

13,538

13,068

12,752

12,445

11,294

32,363

33,502

34,648

31,463

34,311

33,497
7,285

121,491

Estonia

7,137

6,878

8,175

6,864

6,610

7,026

7,588

Finland

13,194

12,829

11,512

10,311

10,436

10,291

9,763

9,264

France

248,002

246,641

237,624

236,272

213,561

207,274

191,102

186,492

227,090

210,982

211,221

195,801

182,009

166,742

149,044

140,015

Germany
Greece

32,803

34,011

42,377

42,825

44,286

43,228

36,947

31,840

Hungary

17,771

21,061

22,372

30,116

31,269

30,525

29,902

26,866

Ireland (Eire)

18,238

18,713

18,506

17,672

16,970

15,840

14,286

13,376

192,141

198,401

212,477

230,258

237,445

246,804

234,252

207,317

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Lithuania

6,964

7,414

7,462

8,631

9,424

9,246

9,180

9,203

Luxembourg(7)

2,942

3,728

3,249

3,152

2,416

2,649

2,092

2,081

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

119,858

123,962

118,115

103,953

97,690

90,357

91,996

91,146

(6)

Italy
Latvia

Malta
Netherlands
Norway

20,754

18,213

19,544

19,107

16,923

15,106

12,636

11,066

(8)

..

57,120

62,011

65,945

70,187

74,137

74,326

77,427

Portugal

19,376

23,129

21,969

22,798

24,202

21,515

22,224

21,153

31,163

29,024

31,311

29,404

21,287

19,024

Poland

Romania
Russia
Slovakia

..

21,556

19,303

17,490

35,905

40,219

45,106

..

3,928

4,666

4,480

3,859

3,854

3,639

3,601

3,248

583

586

558

518

988

..

Slovenia
Spain(6)

..

..

..

..

229,790

226,207

239,896

224,725

Sweden(9)

20,237

17,670

16,701

16,835

18,359

17,536

16,834

17,581

Switzerland(10)

69,278

66,466

67,044

74,321

82,559

83,416

76,322

60,384

Turkey(6)

..

..

74,965

96,775

113,421

104,282

89,351

..

Australia

235,634

240,765

256,772

269,554

284,974

295,699

273,867

283,209

Canada(11)

239,322

227,199

235,129

242,639

233,724

221,366

197,781

175,795

Japan

254,516

247,661

234,586

223,590

221,678

237,703

260,981

296,486

New Zealand

..

46,415

46,594

48,912

49,376

49,481

47,621

40,999

South Africa(11)

..

228,021

244,063

246,438

249,375

266,817

285,515

..

2,834,800

2,712,774

2,593,784

2,506,400

2,460,526

2,332,735

2,100,739

2,049,946

U.S.A.(10)

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Gaining access to a dwelling by the use of force to steal goods.
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995).
(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(5) Until 1997 includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(6) Includes burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(7) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(8) Includes burglary from garrets and basements in blocks of flats.
(9) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(10)Includes attempts and burglary in non-domestic premises (e.g. shop, garage, hotel).
(11)Includes attempts.
(12)1995 - 1999.
(13)1998 - 1999.
(14)1994 - 1998.
(15)1997 - 1998.

30,181

7,957

3,144

57,375

36,255

.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

-15%

0%

-31%

-9%

..

9%

-20%

-10%

-4%

31%

..

22%

..

..

-23%

0%

-17%

-9%

0%

-2%

6%

-4%

-10%

-5%

-21%

-2%

-28%

-6%

-26%

-14%

-11%

-10%

-24%

-6%

-10%

-11%

..

..

7%

0%

-36% (12)

-21% (13)

..

..

-12%

-1%

-42%

-12%

17%

4%

-7%

-5%

-34%
134%

-11%
(12)

-16%
69% (12)
..

12% (13)
-10%
91% (13)
6%

4%

4%

-19%

-21%

19% (12)

-14% (13)

5%

3%

-28%

-11%

33%

14%

-16%

-14%

17% (12)
-18%

7% (13)
-2%

Table 1.5 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Theft of a motor vehicle(2)
Country

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

597,519

524,094

513,927

466,783

400,524

391,807

374,686

338,796

2001

EU Member States average
England & Wales (3)
Northern Ireland

(4)

Scotland(5)
Austria

8,974

7,794

8,404

8,633

8,090

9,715

10,196

10,806

42,816

41,962

37,514

34,161

28,646

28,433

29,818

26,238

..

Belgium
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark

..

6,095

5,791

5,950

5,771

5,679

8,601

32,806

37,603

33,598

35,242

36,555

35,780

33,395

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

587

551

543

1,661

1,609

1,252

959

1,237

..

..

27,327

29,639

31,331

29,779

28,946

25,539

35,696

35,601

36,737

43,187

42,701

38,871

35,195

33,730

Estonia

2,621

2,536

1,955

1,643

1,762

2,106

2,455

2,322

Finland

21,059

21,043

19,772

20,261

22,015

26,404

29,611

26,391

(6)

France

..

484,179

453,525

443,767

417,360

415,930

395,947

401,057

276,745

272,357

262,620

225,787

190,585

162,518

140,636

127,750

Greece

..

..

..

5,309

6,568

7,610

7,239

..

Hungary(7)

..

..

12,847

16,978

20,163

20,847

16,670

14,297

12,039

11,754

13,405

13,589

13,793

14,851

15,964

311,256

302,490

305,438

317,897

301,233

309,113

294,726

243,890

Germany
(7)

Ireland (Eire)
Italy
Latvia

..

..

2,774

2,216

2,082

2,483

3,102

2,932

2,879

6,344

6,738

6,267

6,697

6,946

6,671

9,006

1,234

898

1,196

819

675

655

626

542

..

..

..

..

..

1,166

1,076

1,051

Netherlands(7)

44,044

46,045

40,902

36,772

37,309

37,408

37,831

38,320

Norway

21,288

20,816

22,519

21,447

20,019

21,672

20,863

23,339

Poland

(7)

..

45,999

54,807

50,799

56,871

65,399

74,514

68,062

Portugal

15,542

18,340

17,334

19,993

22,792

26,965

28,163

26,428

Romania

..

..

2,687

1,800

2,110

2,284

2,331

2,149

Russia

..

46,782

48,532

41,712

35,778

35,448

37,152

..

Slovakia

9,698

9,137

7,696

6,682

7,438

7,682

7,123

6,073

Slovenia

..

..

1,302

1,252

1,145

1,311

1,147

1,291

Spain

..

99,768

98,847

113,916

133,330

136,084

138,961

134,583

Sweden

..

66,234

70,299

71,567

78,826

76,495

78,216

75,125

Switzerland

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Turkey

..

..

14,832

22,554

19,515

19,109

17,912

..

Australia

112,508

119,760

126,919

122,931

130,406

131,587

129,552

139,094

Canada(5)

156,685

159,469

161,696

180,123

177,130

165,920

161,388

160,268

281,513

268,887

277,239

274,122

269,138

282,248

286,069

309,638

Lithuania
Luxembourg

(8)

Malta

(9)

Japan
New Zealand

..

..

..

..

32,082

30,803

25,680

21,992

South Africa

..

104,302

101,056

96,715

100,637

107,513

103,502

..

1,563,100

1,539,287

1,472,441

1,394,238

1,354,189

1,242,781

1,152,075

1,165,559

(6)

U.S.A.

23,208

22,583

6,073

20,201

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) All land vehicles with an engine that run on the road which are used to carry people
(including cars, motor cycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles, etc.).
(3) By financial year from 1994 (e.g. 1994 = 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1995).

(4) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998). Figures from 1998/99 are recorded under revised counting rules and are not compara
(5) Includes attempts.
(6) Taking/conversion of motor vehicles.
(7) Cars only.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(10)1995 - 1999.
(11)1998 - 1999.
(12)1994 - 1998.

(13)1997 - 1998.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

-2%

-1%

-27%

-10%

..

6%

-23%

-12%

49%

51%

-1%

-7%

..

..

-26%

29%

-14%

-12%

-22%

-4%

41%

-5%

30%

-11%

-10%

1%

-43%

-9%

..
-16%

-5% (11)
-14%

19%

7%

-23%

-17%

32%

-5%

44%

35%

-48% (10)
..

-4% (11)
-2%

4%

1%

9%

12%

34%

-9%

32%

-6%

19%

-8%

-23% (10)

5% (11)

-9%

-15%

3%

13%

18%

-3%

5%

-4%

..

..

21% (10)

-6% (11)

13%

7%

-11%

-1%

13%

8%

..

-14%

2% (10)
-16%

-4% (11)
1%

ot comparable with previous years.

Table 1.6 Crimes(1) recorded by the police: Drug trafficking(2)
Country

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

..

18,340

21,272

22,122

23,336

21,788

19,956

19,820

2001

EU Member States average
England & Wales(3)
Northern Ireland(3)

156

358

204

185

176

193

193

228

5,233

5,918

7,974

6,957

8,180

8,490

8,668

8,761

Austria

..

..

2,058

2,209

2,656

2,594

2,514

1,503

Belgium

..

2,842

6,896

8,362

11,072

10,158

9,968

9,488

Scotland

Bulgaria

..

..

..

..

..

..

Cyprus(4)

86

135

156

183

239

285

252

289

..

..

999

1,592

2,404

4,156

6,100

3,292

Denmark

..

273

291

354

171

178

129

225

Estonia(6)

8

8

12

30

30

117

180

306

Finland(4)

..

5,936

9,052

7,868

8,323

9,461

11,674

13,445

France

..

8,714

5,661

5,158

8,300

11,908

12,529

4,254

Germany

..

45,088

54,889

65,615

69,093

68,994

73,271

76,594

Greece(4)

1,577

1,837

2,930

4,272

5,970

6,574

6,692

7,785

Hungary

..

..

48

24

51

122

390

578

Ireland (Eire)

..

..

826

958

1,637

1,766

1,971

1,706

Italy

..

38,290

38,269

38,954

41,420

43,014

45,038

34,800

..

..

271

361

426

389

511

655

Lithuania

266

306

382

500

616

607

693

915

Luxembourg(4)(7)

613

751

764

864

805

825

941

1,226

Malta

..

..

..

..

37

88

100

..

Netherlands

..

4,452

4,248

7,331

13,675

7,690

7,613

7,474

Norway

..

..

11,911

13,699

16,169

17,276

17,820

19,302

Poland

..

127

284

494

1,006

2,297

2,181

1,866

Portugal

..

4,517

4,509

3,879

3,390

3,538

4,091

3,214

Romania

..

..

..

..

..

..

Russia(4)

..

74,798

79,819

96,645

185,832

190,127

216,364

..

Slovakia

..

88

606

735

967

520

362

604

Slovenia

..

..

302

445

620

659

740

964

Spain

..

15,608

15,118

15,307

14,274

13,263

12,389

11,032

Czech Republic(5)

Latvia(4)
(6)

....

....

....

....

Sweden

..

815

689

635

561

446

542

353

Switzerland

..

2,465

2,171

2,515

3,253

3,734

3,715

3,021

Turkey

..

2,457

2,667

2,900

2,569

3,303

3,448

(8)

....

Australia

..

..

..

24,994

24,313

23,348

17,702

14,426

Canada

..

17,874

17,394

17,913

17,299

17,808

20,145

21,587

..

3,329

2,982

2,678

2,359

2,712

2,299

2,307

..

14,790

12,274

12,658

14,532

15,158

..

47,323

40,782

39,241

42,805

39,830

41,461

..

22,018

22,023

24,915

27,457

33,160

37,322

40,383

..

(9)

Japan(10)
New Zealand

(4)

South Africa(4)
U.S.A.(11)

....

..

(1) Definitions of offences vary between countries both due to legal differences and statistical recording methods;
comparisons may be affected by these differences.
(2) Illegal importing, exporting, supplying, transportation, etc. of narcotic drugs.
(3) By financial year from 1997 (e.g. 1997 = 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998).
(4) All drugs offences.
(5) Number of people prosecuted.
(6) Illegal manufacture, acquisition, storage, transportation, delivery or trafficking of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.
(7) Includes attempts, preparation and conspiracy to commit an offence.
(8) Figures from 2000 onwards are not comparable with previous years as they no longer include offences dealt with by the Judicial Police.
(9) By financial year (e.g. 1994 = 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994).
(10)Excluding amphetamines.
(11)Arrests by Drug Enforcement Administration.
(12)1995 - 1999.
(13)1998 - 1999.
(14)1994 - 1998.
(15)1997 - 1998.
.. Data not available.

10,293

14,869

652

12,697

Source: Statistical contacts in each country.

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

-5%

-8%

-10%

-1%

..

18%

26%

1%

-32%

-40%

13%

-5%

..

..

58%

15%

107%

-46%

-36%

74%

920%

70%

71%

15%

-18%

-66%

17%

5%

82%

16%

2308%

48%

78%

-13%

-11%

-23%

81%

28%

83%

32%

23% (12)

14% (13)

..

14% (13)

2%

-2%

41%

8%

278%

-14%

-17%

-21%

..

..

171% (12)

14% (13)

-18%

67%

117%

30%

-28%

-11%

-44%

-35%

20%

-19%

29%

4%

-42%

-19%

21%

7%

-14%

0%

2%

(14)

4% (15)

2%

(12)

4% (13)

62%

(12)

8% (13)

Table 2 Victimisation risk
Percentage victim once or more in 1999

Overall

Contact
crime(1)

Theft of a
car

Burglary
(inc.
attempts)

England & Wales
Northern Ireland
Scotland

26
15
23

3.6
2.4
3.4

2.6
1.5
1.0

5.2
2.5
3.2

Belgium
Denmark
Finland

21
23
19

1.8
2.3
3.2

0.8
1.4
0.5

4.1
4.2
1.2

France
Netherlands
Poland

21
25
23

2.2
2
2.8

1.9
0.5
1.7

2.3
3.6
3.1

Portugal
Spain
Sweden

15
19
25

1.4
1.5
2.2

1.2
0.5
1.6

2.5
1.9
2.3

Switzerland

18

2.1

0.4

2.7

Australia
Canada
Japan
U.S.A

30
24
15
21

4.1
3.4
0.4
1.9

2.1
1.6
0.1
0.5

6.6
4.4
1.8
3.8

Country

(1) Robbery, assaults with force and sexual assaults.
Source: Criminal Victimisation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries: Key findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey (We

ional Crime Victims Survey (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum 2000) by John van Kesteren, Pat Mayhew & Paul Nieuwbeerta.

yhew & Paul Nieuwbeerta.

Table 3.1 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Assault, 1995
England &
Northern
Wales
Ireland

Scotland

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Portugal

Sweden

SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population

53

39

249

79

150

68

53

27

106

Percentage of which were:
Fined

14%

22%

57%

7%

75%

26%

55%

60%

29%

Non-custodial sentences

58%

23%

29%

7%

2%

12%

23%

1%

24%

Suspended sentences

2%

34%

..

26%

14%

42%

15%

30%

19%

Unsuspended sentences

27%

21%

13%

60%

9%

20%

6%

8%

28%

7,335

..

1,716

2,395

..

7,795

2,397

188

2,586

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months

45%

..

58%

93%

..

58%

16%

11%

71%

6 and less than 12 months

20%

..

20%

5%

..

24%

40%

42%

12%

12 and less than 24 months

18%

..

9%

2%

..

..

20%

27%

12%

24 and less than 60 months

15%

..

9%

1%

..

17%

17%

17%

2%

60 months and over

2%

..

4%

0%

..

1%

2%

3%

0%

Life (absolute number)

13

..

0

0

1

0

..

..

(1) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months
.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe

(1)

Table 3.2 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Robbery, 1995
England &
Northern
Wales
Ireland

Scotland

Denmark

Finland

France

13

10

9

11

Germany

Portugal

Sweden

12

16

6

SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population

10

12

Percentage of which were:
Fined

1%

0%

8%

0%

1%

1%

1%

2%

0%

Non-custodial sentences

36%

15%

27%

2%

4%

9%

24%

..

36%

Suspended sentences

0%

23%

..

18%

29%

25%

37%

30%

4%

Unsuspended sentences

63%

62%

65%

79%

66%

65%

39%

68%

60%

3,259

..

433

409

..

4,063

3,131

1,067

338

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months

12%

..

16%

23%

..

30%

0%

1%

16%

6 and less than 12 months

11%

..

17%

29%

..

28%

11%

1%

9%

12 and less than 24 months

22%

..

15%

31%

..

..

25%

20%

44%

24 and less than 60 months

41%

..

24%

16%

..

31%

47%

45%

26%

60 months and over

15%

..

28%

1%

..

11%

15%

34%

2%

Life (absolute number)

2

..

0

0

..

5

0

..

..

(1) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months
.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe

(1)

Table 3.3 Sentencing and sentence lengths: Theft(1), 1995
England &
Northern
Wales
Ireland

Scotland

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Portugal

Sweden

SENTENCING
Total number sentenced per
100,000 population

249

195

433

556

627

167

234

81

374
48

Percentage of which were:
Fined

24%

24%

41%

73%

87%

10%

60%

18%

48%

Non-custodial sentences

56%

39%

32%

6%

1%

17%

18%

2%

33%

Suspended sentences

0%

19%

..

11%

6%

6%

13%

39%

10%

Unsuspended sentences

20%

18%

27%

11%

6%

6%

8%

40%

10%

25,354

..

6,044

3,084

..

30,754

12,862

2,928

3,201

SENTENCE LENGTHS
Number of unsuspended
sentences
Percentage of which were:
under 6 months

61%

..

70%

88%

..

59%

26%

5%

63%

6 and less than 12 months

18%

..

24%

10%

..

26%

40%

11%

26%

12 and less than 24 months

16%

..

4%

2%

..

..

23%

44%

8%

24 and less than 60 months

5%

..

2%

0%

..

14%

11%

28%

1%

60 months and over

0%

..

0%

0%

..

0%

0%

11%

0%

Life (absolute number)

1

..

0

0

..

2

0

..

..

(1) Includes burglary offences as these may not be identifiesd separately in the court statistics in many countries.
(2) Sentence length of 12 and less than 60 months
.. Data not available.
Source: Council of Europe

(2)

Table 4 Prison population(1)

Country

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

England & Wales (2)

47,422

50,099

48,481

45,649

46,310

46,350

45,633

49,392

51,265

55,537

61,940

65,771

65,594

65,666

67,056

Northern Ireland(3)

1,858

1,901

1,815

1,733

1,996

1,811

1,902

1,911

1,740

1,640

1,555

1,454

1,158

1,011

872

Scotland(4)

5,446

5,229

4,986

4,724

4,839

5,257

5,637

5,585

5,626

5,862

6,084

6,018

6,029

5,868

..

Austria(3)

7,419

6,565

6,325

6,527

6,714

6,913

7,099

6,806

6,180

6,778

6,946

6,891

6,877

6,861

..

Belgium(4)

6,695

6,497

6,688

6,549

6,194

6,869

7,489

7,489

7,693

7,935

8,522

7,860

8,143

8,524

8,536

Bulgaria(5)

..

..

..

..

..

8,022

..

..

8,529

..

..

11,541

..

..

8,971

EU Member States average

Cyprus

..

185

191

218

223

221

194

184

202

235

263

226

247

288

369

28,411

23,615

22,365

8,231

12,730

13,967

16,567

18,753

19,508

20,860

21,560

22,067

23,060

21,358

19,320

Denmark

3,190

3,362

3,378

3,205

3,404

3,406

3,370

3,508

3,421

3,194

3,170

3,340

3,496

3,240

3,105

Estonia(7)

..

..

..

..

4,408

4,778

4,514

4,518

4,401

4,224

4,638

4,791

4,379

4,679

4,803

Finland(6)

4,252

4,054

3,721

3,252

3,427

3,175

3,432

3,322

3,092

3,248

2,836

2,772

2,663

2,887

3,110

France(8)

50,639

46,423

45,102

47,449

48,675

49,323

51,134

53,758

53,178

54,014

54,442

53,607

53,948

48,835

47,005

Germany(5)

52,395

52,345

48,998

51,122

52,970

59,579

65,828

65,452

65,652

71,675

75,026

78,324

79,666

79,507

80,333

3,809

4,178

4,593

5,133

5,321

6,602

7,135

5,835

5,831

5,270

5,577

7,129

7,525

8,038

8,343

22,543

20,821

15,928

12,319

14,810

15,913

13,196

13,143

12,455

12,763

13,405

14,366

15,110

15,757

15,588

Czech Republic(6)

Greece
Hungary(6)
Ireland (Eire)

1,936

1,953

1,980

2,108

2,114

2,155

2,801

2,053

2,032

2,139

2,424

2,620

2,741

2,887

3,091

Italy(6)

34,383

34,675

30,594

32,588

32,813

46,152

51,231

52,041

49,102

48,747

50,527

49,173

53,296

54,479

55,743

Latvia

..

..

..

..

..

8,340

..

..

9,457

..

..

10,070

..

..

8,831

Lithuania(6)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

13,289

12,200

13,628

14,404

14,412

9,516

11,566

Luxembourg

..

372

349

386

365

408

418

452

453

427

443

392

386

400

..

Malta

..

..

..

..

..

169

..

204

..

189

254

260

230

257

..

4,909

6,254

6,155

6,892

7,302

7,495

8,037

8,737

11,616

13,261

13,618

13,333

13,231

13,847

14,968

Netherlands
Norway(4)

2,023

2,113

2,208

2,397

2,548

2,477

2,650

2,670

2,610

2,602

2,536

2,466

..

..

..

Poland(2)

95,203

75,995

56,528

46,606

57,083

61,040

61,895

61,694

65,819

57,320

57,424

59,180

54,842

65,336

80,004

Portugal

8,424

8,168

8,593

9,169

8,171

9,183

11,079

10,023

11,829

13,743

14,167

14,330

13,086

12,728

13,210

Romania

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

46,454

43,609

44,227

51,310

51,396

49,682

50,307

Russia(6)

..

..

698,900

714,700

722,636

750,280

844,870

920,685

1,017,372

1,051,515

1,009,863

1,009,172

1,060,085

..

..

Slovakia

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

7,979

8,168

7,656

6,897

6,904

7,136

..

Slovenia

901

1,341

1,224

973

820

936

960

879

648

614

768

793

935

1,136

1,155

Spain(6)

26,905

28,917

30,947

33,058

37,857

41,894

46,076

47,144

44,956

42,105

42,756

44,370

44,197

45,309

41,131

Sweden(9)

4,776

5,427

5,277

5,300

5,203

5,249

5,697

6,210

6,285

5,768

5,221

5,290

5,484

5,678

6,089

Switzerland(10)

3,449

4,679

4,714

5,074

5,375

5,441

5,627

5,676

5,655

5,479

5,428

5,648

5,818

5,727

5,160

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

49,895

..

60,606

60,391

67,581

49,512

55,609

Australia(11)

11,934

11,849

12,496

14,305

15,021

15,559

15,866

16,944

17,428

18,193

19,128

19,906

21,538

21,714

22,458

Canada(12)

30,906

30,795

31,532

33,379

33,527

35,235

36,441

37,740

38,516

38,574

38,775

37,793

37,384

..

..

Japan(2)

55,210

54,344

51,829

48,243

45,749

44,876

45,057

45,573

46,535

48,395

50,600

52,830

54,811

59,982

52,167

Turkey

New Zealand(3)

3,117

3,458

3,750

4,167

4,278

4,369

4,600

4,413

4,685

4,983

5,152

5,450

5,661

5,720

5,887

South Africa(4)

114,098

111,481

111,557

110,194

101,775

102,268

111,798

110,933

110,069

118,731

134,202

141,441

154,576

166,334

169,559

U.S.A.(13)

856,906

949,659

1,076,670

1,148,702

1,219,014

1,295,150

1,369,185

1,476,621

1,585,586

1,646,020

1,743,643

1,802,187

1,860,520

1,931,859

1,965,495

(1) At 1 September: number of prisoners including pre-trial detainees.
(2) At 31 August.
(3) Annual averages.
(4) Average daily population.
(5) At 31 January.
(6) At 31 December.
(7) At 1 January.
(8) Metropolitan and overseas departments.
(9) At 30 September.
(10) At 20 March.
(11)Average daily population upto 1990; From 1991 at 30 June.
(12) Annual average by financial year (1 April - 31 March).
(13) At 30 June.
(14)Based on estimates of national population.
(15)1988 - 1998.
(16)1994 - 1998.
(17)1997 - 1998.
(18)In 1998.
(19)1989 - 1999.
(20)1995 - 1999.
(21)1998 - 1999.
(22)In 1999.
(23)At 15 August.
(24)1999 - 2000.
(25)In 2000.
.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country; International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College, London.

Table C Prison population(1) (percentage changes and rates)
Rate(14) per
100,000
population in
2000

Rate(14) per
100,000
population in
2001

% change
1990-2000

% change
1996-2000

% change
1999-2000

% change
2000-2001

27%

4%

0%

1%

87

88

Rate of of
occupancy in
2000 (per 100
places)

Rate of of
occupancy in
2001 (per 100
places)

Country
population in
2000

Country
population in
2001

44%

18%

0%

2%

124

127

104

..

52,939,000

-42%

-38%

-13%

-14%

60

51

96

57

1,697,800

24%

0%

-3%

-3% (24)

115

115 (25)

95

..

5,114,600

5%

1%

0%

0% (24)

84

84 (25)

..

..

8,127,024

30%

7%

5%

0%

83

83

96

..

10,239,085

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

32%

23%

17%

28%

43

55

120

154

671,300

159%

2%

-7%

-10%

208

188

106

..

10,266,546

1%

1%

-7%

-4%

61

58

89

89

5,330,020

..

11%

7%

3%

325

334

90

92

1,439,200

-11%

-11%

8%

8%

56

60

68

..

5,181,115

5,194,901

3%

-10%

-9%

-4%

80

77

100

97

60,967,540

61,260,000

56%

11%

0%

1%

97

98

..

104

82,142,684

82,334,500

57%

53%

7%

4%

76

76

166

158

10,521,669 in 1999

10,939,771

28%

23%

4%

-1%

157

155

147

152

10,043,000

37%

35%

5%

7%

76

82

89

82

67%

12%

2%

2%

94

97

112

112

..

..

..

..

..

368

..

..

..

-22%

-34%

22%

257

313

96

116

3,698,500

3,692,600

4%

-6%

4%

4% (24)

92

92 (25)

..

..

435,700

441,300

..

36%

12%

12% (24)

68

68 (25)

..

..

378,000 in 1998

87

93

96

95

15,940,815

56

..

..

..

4,478,497

4,503,436

103

120

38,363,625

38,641,046

10,242,900

10,318,084

101%

4%

5%

8%

8,150,000

57,679,895
..

57,844,017
2,400,000

-8% (16)

-3% (17)

-3% (17)

40%

14%

19%

22%

170

207

39%

-7%

-3%

4%

124

128

..

116

..

14%

-3%

1%

222

225

143

149

5% (21)

5% (21)

729 (22)

729 (22)

..

..

144,900,000

3% (24)

132

132 (25)

4% (20)

5,363,718

3,790,000 in 1999

17% (15)

52% (19)

10,263,414

16,061,921

22,400,000

..

-13%

3%

..

..

5,402,547

17%

85%

21%

2%

57

58

108

108

1,990,272

37%

8%

3%

-9%

114

102

108

106

39,852,651 in 1998

5,378,951
1,992,269
40,271,000

7%

-2%

4%

7%

64

68

101

103

8,882,800

8,907,801

13%

5%

-2%

-10%

79

71

85

..

7,209,900

7,258,800

..

..

-27%

12%

74

83

..

..

66,600,000

52%

19%

3%

113

116

..

..

19,157,140

19% (19)

-3% (20)

123 (22)

123 (22)

..

..

30,769,700

31,081,900

24%

24%

9%

-13%

47

41

93

..

126,861,989

127,108,518

37%

15%

1%

3%

149

152

..

..

3,843,200

3,880,500

51%

40%

8%

2%

385

392

63

66

68%

17%

4%

2%

685

697

..

..

1%
-1% (21)

-1% (21)

19,386,663

43,243,427 in 1996
282,124,631

284,796,887

Table 5 Country population
1997

1998

1999

2000

England & Wales

51,403,000

52,374,333

52,525,000

52,939,000

Northern Ireland

1,674,959

1,688,616

1,691,800

1,697,800

Scotland

5,122,500

5,120,000

5,119,200

5,114,600

Austria

8,072,182

8,078,449

8,083,000

8,127,024

Belgium

10,170,226

10,192,265

10,213,752

10,239,085

Bulgaria
Cyprus
Czech Republic

2001

10,263,414
8,150,000

657,900

663,300

666,800

671,300

10,309,137

10,289,621

10,282,784

10,266,546

Denmark

5,275,121

5,294,860

5,313,577

5,330,020

Estonia

1,462,130

1,453,844

1,445,580

1,439,200

Finland

5,147,349

5,159,646

5,171,302

5,181,115

5,194,901

France

60,304,000

60,564,000

metro+DOM/TOM

Francemetro

5,363,718

60,967,540

61,260,000

58,722,674

59,125,000

58,746,500

59,039,000

82,142,684

82,334,500

Germany

82,012,162

82,057,400

82,014,566

Greece

10,486,595

10,510,965

10,521,669

Hungary

10,174,442

10,135,358

10,091,789

10,043,000

..

3,693,000

3,790,000

..

..

57,563,354

57,612,615

57,612,615

57,679,895

57,844,017

Ireland (Eire)
Italy

10,939,771

Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg

2,410,000
3,707,200

3,704,000

3,700,800

3,698,500

3,692,600

418,300

423,700

429,200

435,700

441,300

Malta
Netherlands

378,000
15,567,100

15,654,200

15,760,225

15,940,815

16,061,921

Norway

4,392,714

4,417,599

4,445,329

4,478,497

4,503,436

Poland

38,649,914

38,666,145

38,653,625

38,363,625

38,641,046

9,957,270

9,979,960

9,997,590

Portugal
Romania
Russia

22,400,000
146,739,400

146,327,600

145,500,000

144,900,000

Slovakia

5,387,650

5,393,382

5,398,657

5,402,547

Slovenia

1,986,848

1,982,603

1,985,557

1,990,272

Spain

39,852,651

5,378,951
1,992,269
40,271,000

Sweden

8,847,625

8,854,322

8,861,426

8,882,800

8,907,801

Switzerland

7,105,446

7,114,600

7,160,400

7,209,900

7,258,800

Turkey

63,898,000

Australia

18,524,155

18,730,359

18,937,166

19,157,140

19,386,663

Canada

29,987,214

30,247,949

30,499,200

30,769,700

31,081,900

126,270,000

126,580,000

126,790,000

126,861,989

127,108,518

3,805,600

3,825,800

3,843,200

3,880,500

270,248,003

272,690,813

282,124,631

284,796,887

Japan
New Zealand

3,781,300

South Africa

43,243,427

U.S.A.

66,600,000

in 1996

in 1996

267,783,607

.. Data not available.
Source: Statistical contacts in each country.