Integration: Mapping the Field

Report of a Project carried out by the University of Oxford Centre for Migration and policy Research and Refugee Studies Centre contracted by the Home Office Immigration Research and Statistics Service (IRSS)

by Stephen Castles, Maja Korac, Ellie Vasta, Steven Vertovec

with the assistance of Katrin Hansing, Fiona Moore, Emma Newcombe, Lucy Rix, Soojin Yu

December 2002

The views expressed in this report are those of the authors, not necessarily those of the Home Office (nor do they reflect Government policy).

Home Office Online Report 28/03

Integration: Mapping the Field
Report of a project carried out by the University of Oxford Centre for Migration and policy Research and Refugee Studies Centre contracted by the Home Office, Immigration Research and Statistics Service (IRSS) Executive summary i-ii

PART 1
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 Chapter 2 Background to the Project Structure of the Final Report 1 1 2 4

Project Methodology

2.1 Scope of the project, methodological considerations and building of data-sets 4 2. 2 Sources of data for bibliography building and methods used to search literature 6 2.3 Selection of articles and reports for inclusion and categories indicating different aspects of research/integration 9 2.4 Searches for recent and current research 9 2.5 Interviews with researchers and NGO representatives in the field 10 Chapter 3 Integration of immigrants and refugees: a conceptual survey 3.1 The concept of integration 3.1.1 Integration as a complex two-way process 3.1.2 Integration into what? 3.1.3 Alternative concepts 3.2 Definitional issues 3.2.1 Defining immigrants 3.2.2 Defining refugees 3.2.3 Defining integration of immigrants 3.2.4 Defining integration of refugees 3.3 Factors conditioning integration 3.3.1 Integration as a process 11 11 11 13 14 19 19 20 22 23 26 26 ii

3.3.2 Appraising the conditioning factors 3.4 Indicators of integration 3.4.1 Conceptual problems with indicators of integration 3.4.2 Issues of evaluation 3.4.3 Possible indicators 3.5 Issues of methodology in integration research 3.5.1 Quantitative and qualitative research methods 3.5.2 Unit of analysis and time span 3.5.3 Availability of data 3.6 Approaches to integration policy: comparative aspects 3.6.1 Areas of current policy 3.6.2 Political participation 3.6.3 Social integration 3.6.4 Cultural integration 3.7 Conclusion Chapter 4

27 29 29 30 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 38 39

Recent and current research about immigrants and refugees 41 4.1 Published academic research about integration of immigrants from 1996-2001 43 4.2 NGO based research and reports about the integration of immigrants from 1996-2001 52 4.3 Current academic research about immigrants from 1996 onwards 56 4.4 Published academic research about integration of refugees from 1996-2001 59 4.5 NGO based research and reports about the integration of refugees from 1996-2001 67 4.6 Current academic research about refugees from 1996 onwards 71 4.7 Recent and current academic research about ethnic minorities and asylum seekers from 1996-2001 73 4.8 Conclusion 75 Gaps in the research on integration of immigrants and refugees 5.1 Conceptual and theoretical gaps 5.1.1 Immigrants 5.1.2 Refugees 5.2 Methodological gaps: immigrants and refugees 5.2.1 Lack of adequate statistics 5.2.2 Interdisciplinary research 5.2.3 Qualitative research methods and the need to make the voices of immigrants and refugees more representative 5.2.4 Language and translation 5.2.5 Combining qualitative and quantitative research 5.2.6 Participatory research/social action research 5.2.7 Dissemination 5.2.8 Comparative research 5.2.9 Longitudinal research 5.2.10 Community and academic research 76 77 78 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 88 83 83 76

Chapter 5

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5.3 Gaps in substantive research in specific integration topics and sectors 5.3.1 Immigrants 5.3.2 Refugees 5.4 Conclusion Chapter 6 Conclusions

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APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Model/guide for collection of materials and bibliography 1996-2001 102 103 105

Appendix 2 List of experts interviewed and consulted Appendix 3 Integration models in selected immigration countries

PART 2
Data Set 1 Data Set 2 Data Set 3 Data Set 4 Data Set 5 Bibliography of academic works Publications and reports by NGOs and statutory bodies Recent and current research since 1996 Research centres Key periodicals/ websites/ data sets/ organisations

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Executive summary

1. The ‘Integration: Mapping the Field’ Project surveyed British research on immigrants and refugees conducted between 1996-2001 predominantly within academic and NGO sectors. The exercise included extensive searches of literature and current research alongside interviews with numerous experts in both sectors. Carried out under contract to the Home Office - Immigration Research and Statistics Service (IRSS), the following Report’s aim is to better inform government policy development. 2. The Project surveyed over 3,200 bibliographic references. The authors emphasize that, although substantial, due to time constraints this cannot represent an entirely comprehensive overview of the field. It does, however, provide sufficient grounds for a highly informed discussion of the main areas of integration research conducted in the UK over the past five years. 3. The Report is divided into two parts. The first is comprised of six chapters outlining conceptual and methodological issues, specific areas of concentration regarding published and ongoing research, significant gaps in knowledge, and views on the future development of policy-relevant research on the integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK. The second part includes a number of databases covering bibliographies of academic publications and reports by NGOs and statutory bodies, lists of current research, key journals, websites, research centres and relevant organizations. A series of topical briefing sheets has been produced in conjunction.

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4. The Report demonstrates that overall there is a serious lack of data and other factual knowledge about processes and factors of immigrant and refugee integration. This is particularly indicated by a subject-by-subject discussion of research 1996-2001 (Chapter 4). The Report describes significant gaps and proposes a variety of measures with regard to the development of appropriate databases, concepts, theories and research methods. Among a variety of issues, this includes calls for: analyses of historical experiences of integration; recognising the contemporary significance of transnational networks among immigrants and refugees; detailed studies of labour market experiences; more exploration of the impact of legal categories on integration processes; high-quality longitudinal studies; combining quantitative and qualitative methods in evidence-gathering for policy; more work on specific ethnic groups; and more gender-aware research. 5. The authors offer a series of suggestions for further expansion and improvement of policy-related research. While the Mapping Project indeed surveyed a considerable amount of research on immigrant and refugee integration, overall work in this field is highly uneven, poorly co-ordinated and limited by inadequate data. In addition to simply more research, there is a need for developing an agreed conceptual framework and set of research indicators to measure various aspects of integration. A quasiautonomous ‘Immigration and Integration Research Bureau’, akin to that established in Australia, may be desirable. In any case, there is much to be gained by a greater research-policy partnership between academics, policy-makers, themselves. practitioners and immigrant and refugee groups

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PART 1

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Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter summary – The contextual background to the Project is briefly recounted followed by a description of the Report’s structure. The Report is comprised of two Parts: the first includes a conceptual and methodological discussion of integration research, an account of subject areas covered by research 1996-2001, the highlighting of significant gaps in research and a set of recommendations for developing the policy-research agenda. The second part is made up of a number of data sets covering bibliographies of academic and NGO publications, lists of current research, key journals, websites, research centres and organisations.

1.1 Background to the project Migration is one of the highest issues on the political agendas of the British government, the European Union (EU) and most of its constituent Member-States. An ageing population and labour shortages in both high and low-skilled sectors currently represent just a few of the phenomena suggesting the need for rethinking surrounding migration. The recent rise in immigration debates reflects at least four forces: ‘the strength of the British labour market, globalisation, increasing economic integration and labour mobility within the EU, and rising political instability around the world. Since these forces are likely to persist, we can expect higher immigration’ (The Economist 27 January 2001: 38). It follows that, concerning a variety of policy domains relevant to migration, there is high demand for more and better social scientific research. This Report arises from a project funded by the Immigration Research and Statistics Service (IRSS) of the Home Office following an Invitation to Tender issued in December 2000. The contracted project was required to be very short-term in duration, covering a period of just 20 weeks (19 February – 6 July 2001). The context of the project arises by way of the policy goal that Home Office policies in the field of integrating immigrants and refugees should be informed by the best possible research data and information. In order to develop and improve upon policy initiatives surrounding the integration of immigrants and refugees in British society, therefore, the current array of integration research and information should be examined. From there, new and modified policies based on solid evidence and sound vision could be formulated. The following Report is intended to be a contribution to this process. Following the contracted terms of reference set out for the project by the Home Office, we emphasize that this ‘mapping’ exercise is intended solely as a large-scale survey of current academic work and non-government organisational reports conducted in the field of immigrant and refugee integration in Britain. It is not a review of literature or an evaluation of research or policy. Given restraints of time and resources, moreover, the mapping exercise has been as full as possible but cannot claim to be wholly comprehensive. “The project has been Specifically, the project has been designed to provide an designed to provide an overview of current research in the area of immigrant and overview of current research that can be used for policy development.” 102

refugee integration in the UK that can be used for policy development. This has entailed: (a) the theoretical interrogation of key terms, concepts and approaches to issues surrounding integration and policy intervention; (b) an extensive “mapping” of literature, covering several areas relevant to integration in the UK, across various academic disciplines, government departments and NGO’s; and (c) a series of interviews with experts from academic and non-academic sectors in order to obtain information on research completed or in process and to gather informed opinion and advice regarding conceptual and empirical gaps and key areas for future policyrelevant research on immigrant and refugee integration. In the course of research numerous general references to ethnic minorities and asylum-seekers were gathered: while these topics were not part of the project’s terms of reference, many such references have been included since they may overlap with studies of immigrants and refugees. This Project Report complements the ‘mapping the field’ exercise on Asylum Policy and Process in the United Kingdom undertaken by colleagues at the University of Warwick also on behalf of IRSS/Home Office.

1.2 Structure of the Final Report This Report follows a structure of discussing methodological and conceptual issues through overviews of research specific to the last five years in the UK, to a detailed list of references and relevant contacts. The Report is divided into two Parts, the first being comprised of various overviews of the field and the second made up of bibliographic and other data. Part 1 Chapter 2 reviews the specific methods and approaches used in the ‘Integration: Mapping the Field’ Project, including comments on electronic search engines, sources, keywords and a framework of interviewing experts in the field. In Chapter 3 we describe many of the difficulties in defining just what the ‘integration’ of immigrants and refugees might mean. The chapter represents a distillation of literature surveyed by the Project, comments of interviewed experts, and prior experience of the Report’s senior authors. We provide a Glossary of other terms also often used in policy and research, such as assimilation, incorporation and inclusion. Along with a discussion of pertinent terms and definitions, we proceed with the recognition that ‘integration’ is a kind of umbrella term for summarizing a wide variety of facets and possible trajectories and outcomes. A discussion of processual features surrounding integration follows, as well as an outline of key factors conditioning different pathways of integration. Subsequently, possible quantifiable indicators of integration are listed. It is very important and highly instructive to recognize the ways in which national models, government policies and administrative contexts impact upon various modes of integration: therefore as an Appendix to this chapter we include an extensive section describing a number of differing models of immigrant and refugee integration (Australia, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland) and how they have affected migrant settlement and community development.

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The substantial set of literature 1996-2001 and compendium of current research is discussed in Chapter 4 by way of key subject groupings. Broken down into sections covering both immigrant- and refugee-related research, the chapter indicates the main topics that have been researched under the following headings: education and training, labour market, health, housing, socio-cultural and political issues, women and gender, family and children, justice and the legal system, welfare and social policy, discrimination and racism, citizenship and multiculturalism, neighbourhood renewal and social exclusion. Contrasted to the subject-led mapping discussion of research 1996-2001, Chapter 5 goes on to describes significant gaps in the current research agenda. Subsequently, a variety of measures are suggested with regard to the development of appropriate databases, concepts, theories and research methods designed to fill these substantial gaps. Chapter 6 concludes the Report by way of a series of suggestions arising from the mapping project. These concern not only the current state of integration, but recommended directions for future research and mechanisms for enhanced researchpolicy coordination. Part 1 concludes with a set of three appendices: 1. A model/guide for collection of materials and bibliography used in the mapping project; 2. A list of experts interviewed and consulted; and 3. A comparative description of integration models in selected immigration countries. [NB: all references sited in Part 1 appear in Part 2 - Dataset 1.] Part 2 This part includes the following sets of data:   Data Set 1 - bibliography of academic works concerning immigrant and refugee integration 1996-2001, divided into several specific areas of study Data Set 2 - bibliography of publications and reports on the integration of immigrants and refugees by non-government organizations and statutory bodies Data Set 3 – list of recent and current research projects (including principle investigators and institutions, funding bodies and contact details) Data Set 4 - list of research centres on migration and refugee studies, with websites Data Set 5 - list of key periodicals, websites, datasets and relevant organizations.

  

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Chapter 2 Project methodology
Chapter summary – The ‘Integration: Mapping the Field’ Project surveyed British academic and NGO research on immigrants and refugees between 1996-2001. This included extensive searches of literature and current research alongside interviews with experts.

2.1. Scope of the project, methodological considerations, and building of datasets The aim of this research project, as explained earlier, is to map out existing and current research on integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK. In discussions with the Home Office, it was agreed the study would focus on research conducted or published during the period from 1996, the year when the Immigration and Asylum Act was passed. The primary geographical framework for this ‘mapping’ project is the UK. However, selected research about integration conducted in other countries is also included, as a way of pointing to studies and experience that may be useful for consultation and comparison. Further, relevant studies about integration in the UK, published prior to 1996 are also included, to indicate the development and main research trends in the field. Given the main objective of this project, this study focused on identifying and summarising the main areas, themes, and topics addressed in research about integration in the UK, as well as on indicating the main research gaps concerning definition of terms, concepts, methodological considerations, and areas relevant to the field. To meet this project objective, four sources of data and information were used: • “This study focused on identifying and summarising the main areas, themes, and topics addressed in research about integration in the UK”

Bibliography of published research - this involved the building up of bibliography that reflects geographical and time/period considerations set out by the project objectives, as well as conceptual considerations relating to definition of categories ‘refugee’, ‘immigrant/migrant’, and ‘ethnic minority’ (see Data Set 1). Additionally, the major task in building up the bibliography was to develop a model or a guide of relevant aspects of integration to facilitate data collection, classification, and analysis (see Appendix 1). Current research list - this involved building up a list of research that is currently being carried out as well as that which has been carried out in the UK over the past four to five years. The list also includes information about a selection of relevant projects conducted outside the UK. Interviews – with key academic researchers, NGO representatives and community sector workers involved in research and work in the field (see Appendix 2). These interviews provided experts’ insight and comment on the current situation concerning approaches and research about integration, as well as information on evident and hidden gaps in the field. Therefore, they were considered as0 an invaluable source of information for this study. 105

Literature - academic literature was used in order to provide a more in-depth understanding of some of the concepts and debates around the process of integration. Where relevant it was also used to support some of the other data.

Additionally, this ‘mapping’ exercise also included building up of sets of data concerning relevant journals, web-sites of organisations, databases, and organisations (see Data Set 5) as well as relevant Research Centres in the field, both within and outside the UK (see Data Set 4). Therefore, discussion in this report is based on all mentioned sources of data and information, as well as on expertise of the members of the team. In terms of fields of research covered in this study, this ‘mapping’ is multifaceted. It was concerned with several broad and multidisciplinary areas of research – refugee, migration, race relations and minorities studies – and research relating to integration of immigrants and refugees in these fields. This multifaceted approach was shaped by the main objective of the project, which required mapping the field of research about integration of two categories of newcomers, the category of immigrants, on the one hand, and the category of refugees, on the other. In the UK context, as this ‘mapping’ revealed, research in the area of race relations and ethnic minorities studies often refers to both first and second-generation migrants as well as refugees. In order not to allow for some of the research about immigrants and refugees to disappear into the ‘ethnic minority’ category, this category and field of study had to be to some extent included in the project. Consequently, Data Sets 1-3 provide a selected list of research focusing on the ‘ethnic minority’ category. However, to meet the project objective, it was necessary not only to cover a broad range of areas of research, but also to keep the two categories of newcomers separate in our discussion and analysis. This caused problems, both in terms of the scope of searches conducted and with regard to maintaining conceptual and analytical clarity in analysis and discussion presented in this study. Clearly, there are overlaps between these two categories of newcomers, particularly with respect to the issues involved in the process of their integration, as is evident from, at times, repetitive discussion presented in this report. In discussions with the Home Office, this conceptual, methodological, and practical problem was pointed out. However, it was agreed to keep the two categories as separate as possible in the analysis, given the needs of the institution.

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In terms of the types of research/studies and other publications included in this study, the scope of this ‘mapping’ project was quite broad. The primary focus was on research conducted and published in academic literature and did not include book reviews, unpublished conference and working papers, and doctoral theses. The study also sought out “grey literature” produced by the NGO sector involved in research and work with refugees and immigrants. This proved to be a particularly complex and difficult task, given that many NGO’s keep only one copy of research or programme reports that were considered relevant for this study. Before addressing in more detail methods used in creating these sets of data, it is important to emphasise that information collected in this study cannot be considered entirely comprehensive. This is due to the serious time constraint involved in conducting and completing this project, as well as to the limitations associated with availability of data and methods used in collecting information for this project. The latter issues are discussed below in more detail. 2. 2. Sources of data for bibliography building and methods used to search literature The starting point involved in this ‘mapping’ was to identify literature relevant to integration, such as existing bibliographies containing recent publications in the relevant fields of study. Given the rapid growth of the volume of publications in recent years, bibliographies of published academic research printed by national libraries have not been able to follow adequately this growth due to the increased cost involved in subscribing or maintaining the bibliographies. Consequently, electronic equivalents have become the main source of information in searching literature. Electronic databases enable much more complex searching and often provide access to abstracts or even full-text of the publication. Additionally, and very importantly, electronic searching is substantially less time-consuming and more systematic than the search of printed bibliographies. Nevertheless, these bibliographic search engines cannot claim to be fully comprehensive as they do not include all published articles, nor do they reveal the content of the studies identified. Given the problems mentioned, two main sources of information concerning relevant literature were identified and two main methods were used in detecting research about integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK: • • electronic bibliographic resources – these were searched for set of ‘keywords’ to identify relevant publications; relevant articles and books identified – these were consulted by physically searching their citations, i.e. ‘snowballing’, for other relevant publications not already identified through the electronic search process.

These searches covered several fields of research, as mentioned earlier, and were not constrained by disciplinary boundaries because each of the areas covered is multidisciplinary, including anthropology, geography, economy, law, political science, psychology, sociology, and social policy. Electronic searches

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The first stage involved in this data-gathering exercise was to consult the databases of the Refugee Studies Centre (RSC) at the University of Oxford, and the ESRC Research Programme on Transnational Communities. The information held at the RSC Documentation Centre is predominantly in the form of journals and reports, including grey literature, primarily on refugees. The information at the ESRC Research Programme on Transnational Communities includes a number of ongoing research projects located at universities throughout Britain. In addition to the searches of databases of these two resources, databases were also searched physically, because of the possible time lag between acquisition and entry to databases as well as because a physical search usually generates other useful pieces of information. In addition to these two specialised catalogues, a search was made of university libraries using the following online search engines:

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OLIS COPAC ZETOC BOPCAS BIRON SOSIG ISI BIDS-IBSS SOCIOFILE INGENTA REGARD

Oxford Library Information System - Oxford University's online union library catalogue Unified catalogues of some of the largest university research libraries in the UK and Ireland British Library's Electronic Table of Contents British Official Publications Current Awareness Service Bibliographic Information Retrieval Online Social Science Information Gateway Institute for Scientific Information - Web of Science Bath Information Data Services - International Bibliography of the Social Sciences Database containing abstracts of the world's literature in sociology and related disciplines Major online search service Online database of ESRC-funded research

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MIMAS

Manchester Information & Associated Services

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The search terms entered into bibliographic databases were:

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Refugee(s)

Migrant(s)

Immigrant(s)

Ethnic minority/ies

integration settlement adaptation assimilation adjustment integration settlement adaptation assimilation adjustment integration settlement adaptation assimilation adjustment integration settlement adaptation assimilation

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adjustment All these terms/keywords were entered with inclusion of one of the following geographic terms: United Kingdom, Britain, England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, International, in order to uncover as much information as possible. As expected, all of these searches generated extremely long lists with almost all of the search engines, and much of the material was repetitive, and some not relevant to this ‘mapping’. It was important, though, to use all of the listed keywords, because of the complex and multifaceted character of this study. Some of the conceptual and methodological problems related to building up of relevant sets of data were already discussed in this section. Additionally, it is important to briefly mention here the problem with definition of terms: ‘refugee’, ‘im/migrant’, and ‘integration’, which are central to this study. These terms and concepts are widely used in literature and other publications, but they are often vaguely defined, as will be discussed later in this Report. This is particularly the case with the term ‘integration’, which is seldom defined with any accuracy. Hence, there was a need to search for relevant research and publications by using five different terms (i.e. integration, settlement, adaptation, assimilation, and adjustment) in order to ensure it would uncover as much information as possible. This data-gathering exercise, did not include systematic searches of literature on asylum seekers, unless it explicitly concerned integration and/or settlement issues. All other information relating to asylum seekers in the UK was omitted from this study, since a separate report concerning asylum policy and law has already been prepared and submitted to the Home Office. Given a variety of aspects of integration, and consequently a range of disciplines addressing the issue, electronic searches also included search of a number of professional journals in the area of economics, education, training and employment, as well as health (see the list of professional journals - Data Set 5). Electronic searches for this ‘mapping’ exercise also included a number of web-sites hosted by academic institutions, organisations, and individuals active in the field. Some of these contain reports in downloadable form, and many provide links to other sites of interest. A list of relevant web-sites and addresses is also provided in Data Set 5. Snowballing In addition to the electronic sources, a ‘snowballing’ strategy was used to find relevant sources. This involved systematic searches of contents of all volumes (19962001) of main academic journals in the field, as well as using bibliographies of books and articles from journals to look for references which may not have been turned up from the electronic sources (see Data Set 1). Although time consuming, this technique proved to be very useful for collecting information for this study.

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Although not a ‘snowballing’ technique in a strict sense, searches for unpublished, ‘grey’, literature produced primarily by the NGO sector involved in work in the field, resembled this process. Given that systematic, electronic databases of these reports and publications do not exist, it was necessary to collect this type of information by contacting directly a selected number of organisations, and to ‘snowball’ from information obtained to identify additional relevant sources. The organisations selected were considered ‘key’ in one of the main areas pertaining to integration, such as housing, health, education, training, or employment. They were identified through our contacts and consultations with practitioners in the field as well as through the expertise of some of the team members (see Appendix Two for list of NGOs contacted).

2.3. Selection of articles and reports for inclusion and categories indicating different aspects of research/integration The initial stage of the mapping process involved a careful examination of each bibliographic list generated, by looking at the title of the item, and making a judgement as to whether it was relevant to this report. Additionally, whenever it was possible given the limitations of physical availability of publications and the time constraint involved in conducting and completing this ‘mapping’ exercise, abstracts and/or full-text of items were consulted before they were included in the bibliography. The next stage involved consideration of the aspect of the integration process it addresses, and consequently a decision about the category in which the item should be included. This process was facilitated by a model/guide that was developed during the initial stages of this ‘mapping’ exercise, broadly listing categories/issues pertaining to integration of newcomers (see Appendix 1). It needs to be noted that this model was flexible and allowed for new categories to be added as they emerged during the course of this data-gathering or, alternatively, for the already defined categories to merge in order to correspond better to the situation in this field of research. The latter stage and/or categorisation of items gathered implied that publications listed in the bibliography were duplicated in cases in which research addresses more than one aspect of the process of integration (e.g. if it looks at the situation of refugee women regarding their education, employment, and wider social inclusion). In such cases, the item was included in the bibliography under all relevant categories (e.g. women and gender, education and training, and social inclusion). In discussions with the Home Office, it emerged that this approach would suit their needs best, because it would make the bibliography more ‘user-friendly’ and accessible for different users within the institution. 2.4. Searches for recent and current research

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This task of searching for recent and current research began with a formal letter (email) to a number of people and organisations in the migration field asking them to provide us with some detail about research they have carried out over the past five to six years or research they were currently involved in. The following researchers and organisations were contacted or consulted: • • • • • • Directors of relevant research centres and organisations Researchers in centres, organisations and academic departments known to the project researchers REGARD data base of ESRC which provides details of award holders working in this field Directory of Research in Migration Being Carried out in Britain in 1998 (Kershan, AJ. and Lahiri S. (eds) Centre for the Study of Migration at Queen Mary and Westfield College London, University of London Both academic and NGO interviewees were asked about their own recent/current research as well as providing names of other researchers working in the field Snowballing

Researchers were asked to provide information about their project titles, the researcher(s) name(s), the funding body, project dates, description of the research and contact details. Much of this information gathering was conducted via email and some was followed up by telephone. Despite this, there are likely to be gaps. One known gap is that of current doctoral research. The information gathered was so piecemeal it was not able to provide a systematic understanding of research topics covered. As a result, doctoral research was omitted from the mapping. Further, it cannot be assumed that all current researchers in the field have been represented in our recent/current research list (Data Set 3) as there is no central register of researchers in the field. The strategy adopted was as comprehensive as possible.

2.5. Interviews with researchers and NGO representatives in the field As already mentioned, individual researchers and organisations in the field were consulted and asked for information relevant to this study. The 33 individuals who were interviewed were people or organisations who were known to have worked in the field, or who others active in the field had suggested consulting (see Appendix Two for the list of people interviewed). Each interview addressed the following topics: • • • • • concepts/approaches to integration in literature/research and what would be the most desirable approach gaps in the existing research about integration of refugees in Britain the most common research methods used and problems in research methodology criteria for evaluation of the integration policies used/developed among researchers and practitioners in Britain useful sources of information about recent and current research as well as other contacts.

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Most of the interviews were conducted face-to-face, each lasting approximately one hour. Only a few were conducted over the telephone or email, primarily in cases when interviewees were located outside Oxford/London. Almost all of the individuals and organisations approached agreed to share their knowledge and expertise in the field.

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Chapter 3 Integration of immigrants and refugees: a conceptual survey
Chapter summary – This chapter, which comprises an overview discussion of issues surrounding the idea of immigrant and refugee ‘integration’, collectively draws upon three sources: (1) the project’s compiled literature and current research lists, (2) interviews with key academics and NGO representatives, and (3) the four senior authors’ own experience and expertise. It is emphasized that integration must be recognized as a ‘two-way’ process involving both the newcomers and the receiving society. Also, many in the field believe that different factors and processes differentiate refugee from immigrant integration. Numerous conditioning factors, possible indicators, questions of data and methodological matters are outlined. It is clear, however, that there is no consensus as to what ‘integration’ of immigrants or refugees really means, or how it can be measured. Finally, a variety of comparative policy interventions are identified. The Chapter includes a glossary of overlapping or alternative concepts.

This study is designed to provide an overview of current and recent research on the integration of immigrants and refugees into UK society. However, before looking at specific research on integration in the UK, it must be emphasised that there is no single agreed understanding of the term ‘integration’. Meanings vary from country to country, change over time, and depend on the interests, values and perspectives of the people concerned. Research on immigrant and refugee integration is based on a set of assumptions, concepts and definitions that are often tacit rather than explicit. Such assumptions and concepts are multi-layered and complex, and may lack coherence or even contradict each other. It is therefore necessary to discuss the varying meanings of ‘integration’, and to examine the conceptual frameworks which underlie these. That is the purpose of this Chapter of the Report. The Chapter has three main sources: first, selective reading of some of the literature listed in Datasets 1 and 2; second, comments made in the expert interviews carried out for this project; and third, the previous comparative research experience of the authors. We start by examining the concept of integration and presenting a brief glossary of alternative and supplementary concepts. Then we discuss definitional issues with specific reference to immigrants and refugees, the conditioning factors and indicators of integration. Finally, we look at the various modes through which government agencies can intervene in the integration process. An appendix to the Chapter presents brief accounts of integration approaches used in various immigration countries. 3.1 3.1.1 The concept of integration Integration as a complex two-way process

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A discussion on integration can start with the very general question: how do newcomers to a country become part of society? More specifically, we can ask: what happens to immigrants and refugees once they are in the UK? In what way and to what extent do they find work and housing? Is it possible for them to access public services of various kinds, especially welfare and educational services? How do they negotiate all the private services needed in a complex economy, such as banks, rental and estate agents and insurance? How do they build up social and cultural relationships within their own ethnic groups and with the wider community? How do they come to participate in political processes at various levels? Do they encounter barriers to full participation based on their national origins, race, ethnicity, or social and cultural background? These are just some aspects of the complex process of becoming part of a new society that is referred to in popular and political usage as integration. The very broadness of the integration process makes it hard to “Integration of newcomers to define in any precise way. Integration of newcomers to a socia society takes place at every ety takes place at every level and in every sector of society. It level and in every sector of involves a wide range of social players: public officials, political society.” decision-makers, employers, trade union officials, fellow-workers, service providers, neighbours and so on. The immigrants and refugees themselves play a crucial role in the integration process. Developing the human agency needed to function effectively in a new environment requires the individual and collective initiative of the newcomers. Where restrictive rules and rigid systems confine them to a passive role, integration may be slow and incomplete. Some respondents from the NGO sector argued that the 1999 Asylum and Immigration Act tends to bring about segregation rather than integration, because they feel it has encouraged an air of hostility and racism not only towards asylum seekers but towards all newcomers. Another specific concern voiced by respondents was that integration cannot be expected where racism creates isolation and conflict. Popular attitudes and policies often seem to be based on the assumption that integration is a one-way process. Migrants are expected to integrate into the existing culture or society without any reciprocal accommodation. Integration then has the connotation of assimilation in which immigrants are expected to discard their culture, traditions and language. In contrast, much of the research literature as well as the experts interviewed for this study stress “Integration is a two-way that integration is a two-way process: it requires adaptation process: it requires adaptation on the part of the newcomer but also by the host society. Sucon the part of the newcomer cessful integration can only take place if the host society probut also by the host society.” vides access to jobs and services, and acceptance of the immigrants in social interaction. Above all, integration in a democracy presupposes acquisition of legal and political rights by the new members of society, so that they can become equal partners. Indeed, it is possible to argue that, in a multicultural society, integration may be understood as a process through which the whole population acquires civil, social, political, human and cultural rights, which creates the conditions for greater equality. In this approach, integration can also mean that minority groups should be supported in maintaining their cultural and social identities, since the right to cultural choices is intrinsic to democracy.

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The process by which immigrant groups adjust to different cultures, termed acculturation, has become a matter of interest to anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists. Although researchers have focussed on different aspects of the acculturation process, they agree that acculturation is multidimensional, and includes one’s orientation towards one’s ethnic group as well as towards the larger society (Berry 1980, Padilla 1980, Phinney 1996, Rogler et al. 1991). In this context, integration is understood as a process by which individuals and groups maintain their cultural identity while actively participating in the larger societal framework (Berry 1980). Therefore, exploration of the process of integration is concerned with issues such as identity, belonging, recognition and self-respect. Because integration is such a complex process it cannot be studied from the perspective of any single social science. Economics, political science, history, sociology, anthropology, geography, urban studies, demography and psychology all have a part to play. The research reviewed in this report comes from a wide range of social scientific disciplines and much of it is consciously interdisciplinary. There is no single, generally accepted definition, theory or model of immigrant and refugee integration. The concept continues to be controversial and hotly debated. In the NGO/community sector, our research showed that the term ‘integration’ is often considered problematic. Many of those interviewed would not chose to use the term, and some believed that it had been imported from European networking. Integration was perceived as a buzzword that must be used in order to obtain European Commission funding. ‘Integration’ was seen as a top-down term and was not used voluntarily by grassroots organisations. While academics use the term more readily, both academics and workers in the NGO/community sector echo each other in terms of problems noted with the concept of integration. 3.1.2 Integration into what?

Integration means different things to different people. It has been used in varying ways in different places and at different times. It often has normative significance, i.e. the implication that newcomers should change their values and behaviour to ‘fit in’ with the existing society. It also seems sometimes to imply that there is just one way of becoming part of a given society, or that nation-states need “Are we referring to to be mono-cultural to be cohesive. Yet the very hallmark of an integration into an existing open democratic society is that people may have quite different lifestyles, values or ideas of the good. In a multicultural society ethnic minority, a local community, a social group, marked by differences in culture, religion, class and social behor British society?” aviour there cannot be just one mode of integration. The key question then becomes: ‘integration into what’? Are we referring to integration into an existing ethnic minority, a local community, a social group, or British society?

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Most political discussion of integration seems to assume tacitly that it means conformity with a homogenous set of norms and values within a monocultural society. Such an assumption, however, is at odds with the broad ideals of multiculturalism accepted by most mainstream political opinion in the UK today. It is generally accepted that the UK is comprised of numerous groups of different cultural backgrounds whose rights to cultural practice and expression of identity should be safeguarded, and who should be officially protected from a variety of forms of discrimination. (A wider discussion of public and academic debates surrounding multiculturalism is beyond the scope of the current report. The most recent and cogent discussion of such ideals – including a discussion of how immigration and refugee reception dovetails with them – is to be found in the Runnymede Trust’s Report (2000) on The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain.) The question ‘integration into what?’ is important at another level. Since modern societies are highly complex, integration may take place differently in various subsectors. For instance, immigrants and refugees may find that they have access to the labour market, but are excluded or disadvantaged in the welfare and education sectors (or vice versa). They may be included in both of these, but excluded from political membership. Or they may be included in all of these sectors, but excluded in terms of culture, identity and everyday forms of social interaction. A number of such issues and the dilemma of definition concerning the term ‘integration’ itself are highlighted in the vexed question: can one speak of immigrant or refugee incorporation into an excluded underclass with little public voice and few chances of socio-economic mobility, as integration? 3.1.3 Alternative concepts

Many social scientists prefer to use other terms rather than integration. Some of these set out to be general and neutral, while others are more normative. We provide a brief Glossary below, along with some pros and cons of a number of such relevant terms. While we will use the term integration in this Report, it is important to remember the inherent difficulties in the concept, and that other terms can better convey certain aspects of process, scope for policy intervention or socio-cultural dynamics. Some social scientists suggest that we should not speak of integration but of inclusion, and study the way newcomers are included in specific sectors of society such as the labour market, housing, education, health and social services, neighbourhood life. Inclusion refers to how immigrants and refugees have access to, use, participate in, benefit from and feel a sense of belonging to a given area of society. Inclusion is a useful concept for policy formation, because it helps indicate what specific authorities or agencies can do in their own areas of responsibility. If we examine areas of exclusion of immigrants and refugees, we can link the analysis with debates on social exclusion, which is now widely considered a major policy issue in contemporary societies. Some social scientists prefer to use the term participation as a framework for looking at the access of immigrants and refugees to the various subsectors, since it implies a more active role for the group concerned than do the terms inclusion or integration.

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Glossary of selected terms relating to integration of immigrants and refugees Note: This list gives a general idea of meanings attached to specific terms in current social scientific literature on immigration and integration. Some terms have more than one meaning. There is hardly ever a consensus on the precise meaning and significance of terms, so such a list is of indicative value only. Integration Usage 1: The process through which immigrants and refugees become part of the receiving society. Integration is often used in a normative way, to imply a one-way process of adaptation by newcomers to fit in with a dominant culture and way of life. This usage does not recognise the diversity of cultural and social patterns in a multicultural society, so that integration seems to be merely a watered down form of assimilation. Usage 2: A two-way process of adaptation, involving change in values, norms and behaviour for both newcomers and members the existing society. This includes recognition of the role of the ethnic community and the idea that broader social patterns and cultural values may change in response to immigration. • Problem with the concept: the concept is vague and slippery and seems to mean whatever people want it to. Assimilation The imagery associated with this term implies bringing immigrants and refugees into society through a one-way, one-sided process of adaptation: the newcomers are supposed to give up their distinctive linguistic, cultural or social characteristics, adopt the values and practices of the mainstream receiving society, and become indistinguishable from the majority population. Sometimes this process is expected to take more than one generation. The state tries to create conditions favourable to this process through dispersal policies, insistence on use of the dominant language and attendance at normal state schools by immigrant children. The emphasis is on the individual immigrant, who ‘learns’ the new culture and gives up the culture of origin through a process of acculturation. Assimilation has been the prevailing approach in many immigration countries, including the UK, the US, Australia and Canada until the 1960s, and is still important in some European countries, notably France.

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• Problems with the concept: (1) assimilation devalues the cultures and languages of minority groups, and thus contradicts democratic principles of diversity and free choice. (2) It pre-supposes that a receiving society is willing and able to offer equality of rights and opportunities to immigrants who assimilate; assimilation fails where there is discrimination. (3) It is based on an individualistic model, and ignores the importance of family and community in social life. (4) It gives little attention to the possibility of diverse paths followed by immigrants.

Segmented assimilation A term coined by US sociologists (Portes and Zhou,1993) to indicate that immigrants sometimes do not become active members of society as a whole, but rather become assimilated into specific parts of it, defined on the basis of race or ethnicity and class. Thus Mexicans in the US are said to ‘become assimilated as blacks’ (i.e. into a disadvantaged and discriminated part of society), while Koreans ‘become assimilated as whites’ (i.e. into the dominant group). The focus of research under the concept of segmented assimilation is thus on the processes that stigmatise or privilege certain groups when they enter US society, and on the ways migrants – especially members of the so-called second generation – direct their strategies of adaptation toward specific ethnic communities and economic niches. • Problem with the concept: it is in danger of losing sight of broader or multiple patterns of integration. Structural or functional assimilation Recognition that immigrants may participate successfully in some spheres of activity (for instance, in the labour market or education system) while they remain highly discriminated against or excluded from other spheres (such as neighbourhood life or the political system). • Problems with the concept: it may suggest that certain domains are sufficient for integration on their own. This approach may fail to observe important linkages between spheres of activity. Acculturation The process through which immigrants are expected to learn the language of the country of immigration, as well as its presumed dominant cultural values and practices. • Problem with the concept: it seems to pre-suppose that the receiving society is mono-cultural and that immigrants have to give up their own ethnic group cultures. Adaptation

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The selective and often conscious attempt to modify certain aspects of cultural practice in accordance with the host society’s norms and values. The idea may coincide with a view that ‘public’ behaviour should conform with UK culture, while ‘private’ activities may continue in line with society and culture of sending country. • Problem with the concept: assumes the onus is wholly on the immigrant to ‘do something’ to make himself/herself ‘fit in’. Public/private divide very artificial in reality and may propose that assimilationism is appropriate for the public sphere while multiculturalism is pertinent only to the private sphere.

Incorporation Usage 1: Incorporation of immigrants is seen by some social scientists as a fairly neutral term to refer to the overall process by which newcomers become part of a society. It is seen as avoiding the normative implications of such terms as assimilation, integration and insertion. Comparative studies then speak of ‘modes of incorporation’. Usage 2: Incorporation is used by other observers to refer to a broadly defined political sphere alongside integration in the social sphere. That is, incorporation is conceived as becoming part of a polity – that is, gaining access to rights and privileges (including those of citizenship), participating in a society’s legal, organisational and political structures, and policy measures to assist this (such as encouraging membership in work councils and trade unions, supporting the creation of ethnic associations, establishing forums for consultation, and so forth). • Problem with the concept: it may lead to an overly rigid conceptualisation of legal/political and social/cultural spheres. Inclusion The process whereby immigrants or refugees become participants in particular sub-sectors of society: education, labour market, welfare system, political representation etc. The emphasis is on active and conscious processes: that is policies of public agencies or employers, as well as on the role of the newcomers themselves. This is seen as the antithesis of exclusion or social exclusion. • Problem with the concept: like ‘integration’, the term is so broad and vague that it can be over-used and invoked without any attempt to establish relevant indicators. Exclusion

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This can refer to denial of access to certain rights, resources or entitlements normally seen as part of membership of a specific society. Immigrants are often included in some areas of society (eg. labour market) but excluded from others (eg. political participation). This leads to the notion of differential exclusion as a mode of immigrant incorporation. Social exclusion pertains to a situation in which an individual or group suffers multiple types of disadvantage in various social sectors (eg. education, employment, housing, health). Cumulative exclusion means that people are largely outside mainstream economic, social and political relationships, and lack the ability to participate which is crucial to full citizenship. Social exclusion affects nationals as well as immigrants. However, specific types of exclusion experienced by immigrants and refugees such as lack of political rights, insecure residence status and racism – increase their vulnerability to social exclusion. The socially excluded tend to become concentrated in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, which are often characterised by poor services and amenities, social stress, crime and racial conflict. • Problems with the concept: (1) inclusion has normative undertones suggesting that newcomers should change their values and behaviour to ‘fit in’ with the existing society, rather than society adjusting its structures to accommodate the newcomers. (2) It also seems sometimes to imply that there is just one way of becoming part of a given society. Insertion The process though which immigrants and refugees are brought into various social sub-sectors. The term originates in the French Republican Model of individual assimilation of immigrants, and carries the implication of being inserted into an unchanged social institution – in other words that the immigrant has to assimilate to existing structures. • Problems with the concept: Like assimilation, insertion neglects the collective dimension of societal belonging. The role of the ethnic community is ignored. Settlement Another attempt to find a relatively general and neutral term for the process whereby immigrants and refugees become part of society. The term is widely used in countries of permanent immigration like Australia and Canada, where the emphasis is on the role of government services in the process. However, much sociological research on settlement emphasises the active role of the immigrants and the ethnic community. Settlement is also used with reference to geography and spatial patterns and residential trends. • Problem with the concept: settlement is mainly used in the context of policy models, and tends to define the process in top-down or social engineering terms.

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Denizenship A term coined by Swedish sociologist Tomas Hammar, to indicate that some immigrants in European countries who do not have full formal citizenship still have a legal claim to important rights that are normally seen as part of citizenship, for instance local voting rights (in Sweden and the Netherlands), the right to permanent residence in a country, and social rights. • Problem with the concept: denizenship appears to contradict the liberaldemocratic principle of full inclusion of all permanent residents as full members of society and above all as active participants in the political system. Citizenship Refers either to formal membership of a polity (eg. having a British passport) or to having de jure and de facto enjoyment of a set of rights (eg. civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights). Citizenship is sometimes seen as a mark of full integration into society. Problem with the concept: People who have formal citizenship may not enjoy full access to important rights, as a result of racism or social exclusion. In such cases, citizenship may be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient condition for full integration. Race relations approach The idea that group identities based on race or ethnicity play an important and enduring role in structuring relationships between immigrant or minority groups and the majority population. The central concern for policy in this model is to deal with discrimination and racism and to ensure equal opportunity across the various racial or ethnic groups. This approach has been most significant in the UK, the US and the Netherlands. Problem with the concept: race relations approaches may ascribe unitary identities which ignore the diversity within groups on the basis of gender, social status, cultural differences and individual preferences.

3.2

Definitional issues

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This study considers integration of both immigrants and refugees. We have endeavoured to discuss the two categories separately, where appropriate. However, many of the conceptual and methodological issues are very similar for both. The dynamics of the integration process, the groups and institutions involved, and the social sectors that play a part are more or less the same. The difference between the two categories lies in two main factors. First, voluntary migrants are generally able to plan and prepare their migration and are likely to have some resources to help them settle, while refugees cannot plan their migration and may suffer considerable trauma and dislocation during their flight. Second, the legal and institutional regimes for the two categories differ considerably. This makes it important to examine differing situations and experiences of refugee and immigrants, even if the underlying integration process takes a similar course. In this Report, we generally use the term ‘immigrants’ to refer to long-term entrants to the UK who are neither refugees nor asylum seekers. This usage is useful for policy debates, but is not formally correct. In demographic terms, anyone who crosses an international border with the intention of a long-term or permanent stay is an ‘immigrant’ or an ‘international migrant’. ‘Refugees’ and ‘asylum seeker’ are technically sub-categories of international migrant. Other sub-categories include ‘highly-skilled migrants’, ‘unskilled labour migrants’, ‘undocumented (or irregular or illegal) migrants’, and ‘dependants of primary migrants entering through family reunion’. All these concepts are politically loaded in the UK (and indeed elsewhere). The next sub-section will discuss the complexities of defining immigrant and the following sub-section will deal with refugees. 3.2.1 Defining immigrants

Some migration scholars speak mainly of ‘immigrants’ while others tend to refer to ‘migrants’. ‘Immigrants’ is sometimes used to imply long-term settlement and integration, while ‘migrants’ sometimes has an implication of temporariness, or of the possibility of return migration. However, these terms are used in varying ways, and there is no agreed or precise differentiation. ‘Immigrants’ was a generally used category in the 1950s and 1960s at the time of large-scale immigration from the New Commonwealth. Policies of integration and multiculturalism developed since the 1960s labelled black and Asian populations as ‘ethnic minorities’, and the term ‘immigrant’ became less common in UK research. Lack of specific research was linked to the fact that the UK did not consider itself to be a country of immigration. Although economic immigration in fact continued, it was not perceived as a major issue. In the last few years, however, international recruitment of skilled personnel has received official support, and there is a growing discussion on the future need for unskilled workers (Glover et al.:2001). Nonetheless, many persons interviewed for this project said they could not speak legitimately of immigrants in the UK – there were only asylum seekers or ethnic minorities. There has been relatively little research on the social situation and integration of white immigrants, who include both highly-skilled personnel from the EU, North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan, as well as low-skilled workers (for instance for catering, and agriculture) from a range of origins.

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It has become clear in the course of this research that immigrants often tend to ‘disappear’ into the category of ‘ethnic minority’ in both popular and political discourse. This is problematic not only in terms of clarity of research, but also in terms of policy development. One example has to do with immigrant children as opposed to the children born here of immigrant parents – the second generation and later generations. It is well documented in the international literature that the schooling needs of immigrant children are different from the needs of the second generation which may again differ “Today’s migrants may have from the children of longer established population (Portes settlement needs rather and Zhou; 1993, Portes: 1998). Similarly, today’s adult different from those who migrants may have settlement needs rather different from arrived 30 years ago.” the adult migrants (now labelled ethnic minorities) who arrived 30 years ago. Overall, the term ‘ethnic minority’ in the UK seems to be an all-encompassing term embracing long term migrants, the second and later generations, recently arrived migrants, and also people who initially settled here as refugees (Favell; 1998; 1999). In the research reviewed for this Report, samples of ethnic minority respondents can include all of these groups. This issue may be significant as it can have the effect of undermining or distorting important differences between groups. For example, immigrant youth may have a set of social characteristics which significantly differentiate them from second generation youth. It therefore became evident that we should add the term or key word ‘ethnic minority’ to our database searches as there was often an overlap between the two categories. Even so, the categories have been kept separate for the bibliography (Datasets 1 and 2). A similar problem of definition arises when using the term ‘black’ in research. During the 1970s and 1980s the term ‘black’ became a much debated political term in the UK. For some people it came to signify empowerment for members of ethnic minorities of both Afro-Caribbean and Asian origin. However, many members of Asian communities were not prepared to take on the label of ‘black’ as a term of identity. Another problem is that categories used for ethnic minorities in the census and other statistics are based on place of origin (India, Pakistan etc.) and do not reflect ethnic or religious diversity within communities. 3.2.2 Defining refugees

The definition of refugees has become increasingly complex in Europe due to changes in the causes of forced migration in the past decades. A single legal definition of a ‘refugee’ provided by the Geneva Convention has become inadequate to address these changes. As a result, a number of categories and statuses have been developed in different EU countries for people moving in a variety of ‘refugee-like’ circumstances.

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In terms of legal status and differentiated sets of rights attached to them, Joly and associates identify five types of ‘refugee’ in Europe (Joly et al.1992). These are: i) ‘convention refugees’ recognised on the basis of the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the status of refugees; ii) ‘mandate refugees’ the category which indicates that refugees are recognised by UNHCR but not by the host government; iii) ‘humanitarian refugees’ are those granted the right to stay on humanitarian grounds which implies less rights than full refugee status or ‘convention status’; iv) ‘de facto refugees’: the category which refers to those who are refugees in practice, but have not sought refugee status for various reasons; and finally v) ‘refugees in orbit’, those who move between different European countries in search of a more permanent status. The importance of the latter three categories is becoming increasingly important due to the intensification of restrictions on official recognition under the Geneva Convention. These categories are legal constructs that to a great extent determine the life chances and well-being of refugees settling in the EU states, because each category implies different sets of rights. These affect important aspects of refugee settlement that range from legality and duration of residence, access to assistance, services and the labour market, to possibilities for family reunification. Literature/research about integration of refugees in the UK often refers to refugees as a ‘generic’ category describing groups of individuals with very different rights - convention refugees, those with exceptional leave to remain (ELR) granted for humanitarian reasons, and asylum seekers. Authors frequently acknowledge the differences embedded in these various legal situations/statuses and then proceed to discuss aspects of settlement/integration that these groups have in common. One of many problems arising from such broad definitions of refugees is a lack of focussed discussion and research about the relationship between temporary protection and integration. Yet another important problem with defining refugees in relation to integration is to determine the point in time when a refugee stops being a refugee. Moreover, there is a lack of clarity in conceptual terms concerning linkages between integration of refugees and return. It is important to recognise that integration does not imply a point of no return. Rather, it is critical to examine how these processes influence one another, and how they have become transnational issues.

The changing character of international migration results in blurred boundaries between economic migrants and refugees. While researchers agree that both groups have some needs and characteristics in common because they are newcomers, they also contend that refugees have additional, distinctive needs. The situation becomes even more complex given the increasing-

“The changing character of international migration results in blurred boundaries”

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gly restrictive immigration policies in Europe in general, and the UK in particular. Restrictions to immigration into the EU have contributed to the emergence of socalled asylum migration as almost the only opportunity for migration from the less developed countries. This situation creates a need to explore the overall economic, social, and political impact of these legal labels and categories created by specific contexts of the receiving societies. Moreover, the current policy context in the EU has created a category of illegal migrants that needs to be unpacked and carefully researched because it is shaped by the context in the receiving societies as well as by the broader international context. 3.2.3 Defining integration of immigrants

Overall, there is an absence of any clear definition of integration in UK research on immigrants (see Favell, 2001; Banton, 2001). Much of the empirical research seems to focus on factors which may block integration, such as labour market problems, racial discrimination, lack of political participation, and problems with social and welfare policy. It is significant to note that, in the early post-war years, UK policymakers and researchers used the terms assimilation and integration for the settlement of New Commonwealth immigrants. In 1965, the first Race Relations Act appeared and the political vocabulary shifted from integration to ‘race relations’. The emphasis was on ‘good race relations’ namely, peaceful co-existence through tolerance, diversity and pluralism’ (Weil and Crowley, 1999: 108). As numerous interviewees suggested, UK researchers have been concerned to contribute, through their research and policy input, to strategies to combat exclusion and facilitate integration. Both empirically and theoretically, much of the research has focused on issues of class, race, gender and the role of state within a ‘race relations’ model. Nevertheless, while the concept of ‘race relations’ is an important one, there are some problems with it in the UK context in that the term is not all-encompassing for the various migrant groups in the UK. The political discourse which emerged around this term referred specifically to Blacks and Asians. As a result, white immigrants have been marginalised in the debate around race relations. Rather than an explicit research area, studies of integration have been an implicit aspect of a race relations framework, in which theoretical work has focused on definitions of ‘race’, equal opportunities and outcomes, social justice, racism and antidiscrimination strategies. In the 1980s and 1990s, an approach known as British Black Cultural Studies, based on experiences of anti-racist solidarity and resistance, became important in academic discourse (Favell, 2000). At the same time, the mainstream social sciences have been more concerned with empirical description, policy development and quantitative census analysis. However, while some research throughout the 1990s has been concerned with cultural diversity, cultural and social changes, and complexities of cultures, there has been a noticeable lack of research on institutions and social action and a ‘fixation with theoretical abstraction and textual and cultural analysis’ (Solomos, 1999). Several interviewees stated clearly that the cultural studies paradigm cannot provide the necessary systematic and rigorous analysis required for understanding institutional processes.

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Within immigration research, the notion of community plays a key role. Yet it is rarely precisely conceptualised. The notion of community needs to be considered in terms of its fluidity as well as in terms of social, regional and political roots both in the home country, and in the country of settlement as well as in terms of its transnational practices. Part of the integration process for immigrants is gaining the ability to create robust communities. The important aspect is that people should be empowered as part of a democratic society rather than being compelled to perform according to criteria of integration determined by government policies. Here participation research is crucial. With regard to the definition of integration, it is also important to keep in mind the differences within communities. One of the questions frequently asked by the NGO sector is what constitutes an integrated person or community? Furthermore, how does one define the difference between not “What constitutes an being integrated and being socially excluded? Here again, integrated person or there needs to be a clear understanding of the effects of exclucommunity?” sionary processes on newcomers and the importance of self and community-defined programmes. 3.2.4 Defining integration of refugees

This mapping exercise reveals that the term integration is widely used with regard to refugees, but is seldom defined with any consistency. As Robinson (1998a: 118) suggests, integration is a vague and ‘chaotic’ concept. Terms such as holistic approach to integration, social inclusion, settlement or re-settlement are considered more acceptable by many British researchers and NGO representatives, than the term ‘integration’. Re-settlement acknowledges the fact that refugees had already been ‘settled’ in their countries of origin in terms of qualifications, jobs, social status, family and social networks etc. Such terms are considered more adequate to explain a complex of mutual adjustment of newcomers and the established community of the receiving society. They can help avoid approaches to integration that entail any notions of assimilation. By the same token, this terminology problem indicates the increasing awareness that what is termed ‘integration’ should be about building bridges as much as about bonds with roots and native cultures. This, however, does not imply that the desirable concept of ‘integration’ should mean break-up of linkages with countries of origin or a conflict with community development and involvement. In the context of the refugee studies literature, integration is mainly understood in terms of practical or functional aspects of integration. This situation is embedded in the fact that refugee status implies the right to special protection. This right involves, among other things, provision of social protection and access to social services to facilitate settlement and integration of refugees. Assistance in housing, language training, education and re-training, and access to the labour market have become areas of governments’ concern with regard to managing refugee settlement in the receiving societies. Research about integration of refugees in the UK from 1996 onwards is primarily centred on exploration of functional aspects of integration, with an emphasis on the availability and quality of social services, as well as rights and access to them. All these aspects of integration, which may be termed “functional integration” (Korac, 2001) have been to a lesser extent linked and explored in relation to other important aspects of social integration, such as wider societal interaction and participation in socio-cultural and civil/political spheres. “Conceptual problems relating to ‘integration’ extend to the question of who is defining the term.”

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Conceptual problems relating to ‘integration’ go beyond these theoretical issues and extend to the question of who is defining the term. Interviewed NGO representatives commented that ‘integration’ seemed to represent a kind of medicine that newcomers should take in order to ‘fit in’, rather than a process which ensured that they had rights and access to services they needed. The way the verb can be used to suggest that people would ‘be integrated’ through various ‘integration programmes’ was felt to undermine positive concepts of empowerment, choice, growth and development. It was also felt that conditions for successful ‘integration’ include a harmonious, equal and welcoming society. These conditions do not always prevail in the UK, and the likelihood is that newcomers will enter a situation of inequality, racism, and poverty. In the current EU context, it is not only that refugees are expected to conform and ‘integrate’ in a prescribed way, but also in ways that vary from one nation-state to another. This creates problems for research about integration of refugees as well as for refugees who are not given a ‘voice’ in the process that determines their well-being and life chances. The problem of power and voice relating to the process of defining ‘integration’ is apparent in disagreements between governments of the receiving societies, including the UK, on the one hand, and refugees, practitioners, and researchers, on the other, about the effects of asylum process on the process of integration. This mapping exercise reveals that researchers and practitioners (i.e. the NGO sector) believe that the processes of integration/settlement and the length of the asylum process are intrinsically linked, both conceptually and practically, because they argue, how long a person awaits status acknowledgement and what he or she does during that period has enormous repercussions for the integration process. The asylum period may be lengthy, and it has been shown that if the refugee is excluded from all ‘integration’ services during this time, this will have a highly detrimental effect on long-term integration. This issue becomes even more important if we note that over a third of asylum seekers will receive some sort of admission to the UK. To prevent these people from undergoing education, training or employment whilst they are waiting for a decision, as is currently the case in the UK, can jeopardise their future careers and their potential to contribute to national prosperity. This discussion indicates that many questions concerning what it actually means to be ‘integrated’ in the UK context still remain to be answered. Does ‘integration’ suggest a personal and cultural change, which is not expected of all newcomers (i.e. individuals or groups) in the UK, such as wealthy businesspeople, Japanese or American immigrants? Many interviewees from the NGO sector were deeply concerned that ‘integration’ policies might lead to compulsory programmes for the most disadvantaged immigrants and refugees coming from less developed countries. All felt that these would be highly detrimental to the re-settlement process.

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Moreover, there is a concern about how we explain the difference between not being ‘integrated’ and being ‘socially excluded’. It is clear from the limited research that has been carried out within the NGO sector, that the greatest barriers to ‘integration’ faced by newcomers are those erected by the host society. There is some indication that barriers such as racism, and hostility towards newcomers/refugees are more difficult to overcome than barriers embedded in problems with language and professional skills. For example, a refugee might go through a complex process of re-qualification, obtain an advanced level of English, and undergo work placements, and might still be unable to find work. This might be due to racism, negative stereotypes of refugees, or ignorance and confusion about permission to work (exacerbated by Section 8 of the Asylum and Immigration Bill). Furthermore, if and when a refugee overcomes all these barriers, does this ‘integrated’ refugee then become a full member of UK society or rather a member of an ethnic minority? These questions clearly show the need for development of clear concepts and national strategies relating to integration issues. Our search for a comprehensive working definition of integration of refugees that would reflect concerns and problems revealed by this mapping exercise, points to the definition given by Tom Kuhlman, which can be useful for further consideration and discussion (1991): ‘If refugees are able to participate in the host economy in ways commensurate with their skills and compatible with their values; if they attain a standard of living which satisfies culturally determined minimum requirements (standard of living is taken here as meaning not only income from economic activities, but also access to amenities such as housing, public utilities, health services, and education); if the socio-cultural change they undergo permits them to maintain an identity of their own and adjust psychologically to their new situation; if standards of living and economic opportunities for members of the host society have not deteriorated due to the influx of refugees; if friction between host population and refugees is not worse than within the host population itself; and if the refugees do not encounter more discrimination than exists between groups previously settled within the host society: then refugees are truly integrated.’ (Kuhlman 1991: 7, emphasis added) This definition, as Kuhlman suggests, should be taken as an ideal, rarely achieved in reality, but which can be regarded as a model for assessing integration of refugees. This definition emphasises that integration is relative and culturally determined, as well as a two-way process. In other words, integration has to be assessed relative to the situation in the receiving society (e.g. assessment of friction between refugees and the established community is relative to friction within the latter group, as is assessment of participation of refugees in the economy relative to their skills).

3.3

Factors conditioning integration

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An understanding of the various factors conditioning immigrant and refugee integration will affect the efficiency of policy interventions. Policy makers need to know what categories of entrants are involved in integration processes, and what their specific characteristics are. They also need to examine the role of different societal sectors, institutions and agencies in integration. Indicators of what is deemed to be successful integration should be highlighted, as well as problems in the process. Policy makers should also be informed by historical knowledge of how such processes have taken place in the past – in the UK and elsewhere; this will help in formulating realistic expectations of how integration should take place, and the likely duration of specific aspects of it. It is important to realise that while some government policies may assist integration (e.g. assistance in finding work or housing), others may hinder it (e.g. dispersal of asylum seekers to areas with poor employment opportunities, restrictions on the right to work or on welfare entitlements). 3.3.1 Integration as a process

Integration is often assumed to be a singular, universal, stage-sequential and regularly paced process to which all individual immigrants or refugees are exposed. It is with reference to such presumed universal stages and pace that migrants and refugees are often judged, in public discourse, ‘successfully’ or ‘unsuccessfully’ integrated. This was evident in the recent statement by Labour MP Phil Woolas, who suggests that in Oldham ‘the Muslim community has not integrated at a pace which the white population (and many within the Asian population) find acceptable’ (The Guardian 15 June 2001: 20). Woolas’ solution is ‘coerced integration’ – but as with most discourses around integration, he offers no indication of what this might entail. “Integration should be The research done in this study indicates that integration should recognised as an be recognised as an umbrella term suggesting a set of possible umbrella term” and overlapping processes and spheres. (Favell; 1998; 2001). And rather than a standard pace, these processes in particular spheres entail different velocities as well as variable trajectories and outcomes. We can distinguish between short and long-term processes of integration, but we should always remember that integration starts from day one of arrival. Long-term outcomes may be influenced by early experiences. Individuals or groups with limited rights and opportunities may integrate in ways that lead to disadvantage and marginalisation. For instance, ‘guestworker’ policies that require immigrant workers to work in low-level jobs are likely to affect their social position and even that of their descendants for long periods. Undocumented immigrants may well settle permanently, but their initial poor conditions may restrict future opportunities. Asylum-seekers who are treated with suspicion and even confined to detention centres may find it hard to feel that they are full members of society when and if their refugee claims are recognised.

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Another set of processual issues surrounding integration concerns what Morton Weinfeld (1997) calls a ‘nested process’ – reflecting the questions raised earlier surrounding ‘integration into what?’ This approach entails the recognition that migrants and refugees are not just undergoing processes of finding their way into satisfactory exchanges and senses of belonging to the wider society. Rather, they first integrate by way of consolidating their relationships with family and extended kin groups, then sub-groups and wider ethnic groups, then neighbourhoods and cities, and finally into what we might call national society as a whole. This nested process should be recognised in policy terms, since different domains of policy impact on each level or arena of integration in this sense. Finally, we need to acknowledge that each domain of activity (and thereby, research and policy) has its own processes, modes and meanings of integration: social, cultural, religious, political, economic, geographical/spatial, media, leisure. “A constellation of factors With regard to each of these – as with the broad notion of integration significantly influences process as a whole – a constellation of factors significantly velocity, trajectory and influences velocity, trajectory and outcomes (Vertovec; 1999). outcomes.” Variations in integration processes and outcomes have been attributed to a range of factors such as demographic characteristics of a group, legal status, labour market and social status, and cultural and religious elements brought from the home country. Such factors are often conceived in monolithic terms such as ‘Islam’ or ‘village culture’ of this or that country. Contemporary research and analysis demonstrates that much more work is needed on factors such as: gender relations, home country conditions and dynamics, conditions of the migration process itself, changing sources of human, social and financial capital, and the role of transnational networks and patterns of interaction in patterning migrant strategies. 3.3.2 Appraising the conditioning factors

When we examine integration and factors conditioning it, does it make a difference whether the newcomers are immigrants, refugees or indeed asylum-seekers? Certain social processes influencing integration are similar in character for all people entering a new society. However, there are significant differences in processes or trajectories of integration that are largely conditioned by structural factors. First and perhaps foremost is the issue of official status. The state assigns newcomers to specific categories according to their mode of entry. These categories shape rights and opportunities, and thus have important effects on patterns of integration. Any discussion of integration needs to examine both the general process, and the variants resulting from official classifications and policies. In fact all immigration countries have a range of policies for different groups: skilled immigrants, refugees, dependents of legal entrants, asylum-seekers and undocumented workers. Group experiences and the long-term outcomes of settlement processes may differ radically.

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Alejandro Portes and Rubén Rumbaut (1990) approach modes of incorporation by way of typology which maps the complex formed by the policies of the host government (receptive, indifferent or hostile); forms of social reception faced by immigrants (prejudiced or non-prejudiced); and the characteristics of the co-ethnic community. With regard to these variables, researchers need to analyse both vulnerabilities and opportunities surrounding the trajectory of immigrant individuals and groups, including the differential resources which pathways of incorporation present. Combining the following check-lists for each group of immigrants could lead to a kind of Integration Matrix, which might help in identifying specific situations, needs and problems, and subsequently in the planning of immigrant and refugee services. Conditions of exit: factors concerning the specific socio-economic and political conditions in migrants’ places of origin, including poverty, class structure, political dynamics or repression, conflict, environmental degradation; Categories of entrant: skilled immigrant workers, unskilled immigrant workers, undocumented workers, refugees, asylum seekers, students, dependents of primary migrants in the other categories; Legal status: citizenship, residence status, right to work, entitlement to social housing, health care, welfare and social services; Characteristics of entrants: age, gender, place of origin, nationality, ethnicity, presence of family members, English proficiency, educational background, religion, occupation and skill level, qualifications (recognised in the UK/unrecognised), migration experience (voluntary/forced, legal/illegal); Characteristics of ethnic community: number in UK, geographic distribution, segregation/concentration in specific areas, religion, ethnic community associations, leadership, social divisions, political divisions; Conditions of receiving context: nature of national receptivity (immigration suppressed, permitted but not encouraged, or welcomed and supported), type and extent of government policies (such as access to various legal statuses, assistance, English language training, induction packages), available housing stock, degree of physical segregation, nature of local labour market, school provision, availability of advice bureaux, history of same or other ethnic group presence; public opinion surrounding stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination and racist violence versus patterns of tolerance, cooperative activity and group interchange.

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An innovative new approach to conditioning factors is the ‘forms of capital’ model of immigrant incorporation developed by Victor Nee and Jimmy Sanders (2001). Their argument is that the mode of immigrant (and by extension, we can add refugee) incorporation or integration is largely a function of the social, financial and human capital of families, as well as how these resources are used by individuals within and apart from the structure of ethnic networks and institutions. Such forms of capital reflect the pre-migration backgrounds (especially class) of immigrants and refugees as well as how they are transformed in the light of other factors suggested above. Such approaches importantly shift attention from factors that presumably reduce migrants and refugees to mere pawns of wider systems and structures. Their own motivations, strategies and networks need be emphasised. This “Migrants’ own includes not only the use of ‘forms of capital’ but factors surro- motivations, strategies and unding individual and household decision-making (today often networks need be conducted transnationally over the telephone or other modes of emphasised.” telecommunication), the pooling and use of investments (not least in the process and method of migration itself), savings and remittances. It is clear that the constellation of the kinds of favourable to unfavourable factors and conditions powerfully affect integration outcomes. Such variable sets of conditions tend to channel immigrants and refugees into highly differentiated socio-economic outcomes such as: • unemployed and relying on welfare; • clustering toward the lower tier of the receiving labour market or in the informal economy with low wages and little scope for mobility; • prone to effective ‘deskilling’ of skilled and highly trained migrants who must take low skill jobs in the receiving context; • acting as service providers wholly within an ethnic ‘enclave’ or as service brokers between groups; • competing as free wage labourers able to compete relatively fairly on an open labour market; establishing businesses and conducting professional practice without significant constraints.. 3.4 Indicators of integration

For purposes of policy formation and evaluation, it would be extremely useful to have a set of generally accepted indicators of integration. However, arriving at such a set of indicators presents considerable problems. This section examines some of the conceptual and practical issues, and discusses possible indicators and ways of linking them together. 3.4.1 Conceptual problems with indicators of integration

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The problem of defining indicators of integration is closely related to the conceptual problems of defining integration, discussed in the previous section. What it means to be ‘integrated’ influences the ways in which indicators are defined. Moreover, issues of evaluation are related to the previously discussed question about who defines successful integration and against what societal objectives they are compared (Robinson 1998a). In other words, if integration is to be understood as a two-way process, refugees should be given the opportunity to contribute to the formulation of determinants that constitute successful integration. As already mentioned, ‘integration’ is a politically loaded term. Forms of settlement and inter-group relations vary across ethnic communities depending on such factors as community, religion, class, gender and many other differences. Some communities may be perceived as integrating better than others. This may lead to hierarchies of ‘integratable’ communities and individuals. It is important to focus on an overall understanding of the situation of specific groups, rather than a limited range of indicators. One case in point is the issue of crime. Some observers might suggest that ethnic minority groups with low crime rates are well integrated, while those with relatively high crime rates are poorly integrated. However, the matter might have more to do with levels of unemployment, discrimination, housing conditions and service provision. Similarly, while it is interesting and important to know about levels of inter-marriage, these cannot in themselves give us a full understanding of group integration, in cases where immigrants and refugees experience high levels of discrimination and exclusion in relation to the labour market, schooling and training. Finally, indicators of ‘integration’ are very rarely applied to the majority population. When levels of crime are high in white communities, they generally are not explained in terms of lack of integration. Explaining crime in terms of ethnicity may mean falling into sociobiological and racist explanations. Therefore community needs and barriers to equal participation should be seen as equally important to individual economic or educational performance in constructing indicators. The lesson that emerges from such discussions is that undue emphasis on a limited number of indicators (such as employment, residential concentration or rates of criminality) may lead to misleading results. It is essential to “It is essential to use an use an integration framework based on a wide range of indicintegration framework ators. Moreover, such indicators should not be set in a topbased on a wide range of down way by government agencies, but should rather be the indicators.” result of consultations including a range of community groups, and spokespersons for immigrant and refugee communities. 3.4.2 Issues of evaluation “There is a clear distinction between the policy objectives and their effects.”

One of the first problems to be addressed regarding evaluation of indicators is to make a clear distinction between the policy objectives and their effects. It is critical to examine both the extent to which policy objectives have been achieved, and the effects of a policy on immigrants and refugees in terms of their

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legal and social status in the receiving society. These two aspects may differ considerably. Robinson (1998a) gives an example of this problem. In his discussion of the UK Government’s programmes to resettle Ugandan Asian quota refugees who arrived in the UK in 1972, he states that the objective of this policy was ‘dispersal of migrants’ with the aim to confront ‘ghettoisation’ of these refugees and other migrants. However, Ugandan Asians ignored this government programme, and organised their own resettlement in ethnic areas, resulting in only 37 per cent of these refugees being dispersed. As Robinson claims, the programme was thus a failure when judged against government objectives, but was a success when set against the standards set by the refugees themselves (Robinson, 1998a: 121). This discussion brings into the focus another related issue. In evaluating policies, it is more feasible to evaluate programmes for specific groups, Ugandan Asian or Bosnian refugees for example (e.g. Robinson, 1986, 1995, 1998b, 2000), than to look at policies or programmes in general. It is very difficult to generalise because of the many differences among immigrant and refugee populations and because of differences between the regions they settle. Kuhlman’s model of refugee integration (see above) suggests a range of different aspects of integration. They include spatial integration, economic integration, social integration, political integration, legal integration, and psychological integration. One of the issues involved in evaluating integration of specific groups is whether we should weigh all of these aspects of integration equally. This mapping exercise demonstrates that researchers and the NGO sector are inclined to give preference to economic integration, without denying the importance of other aspects. Robinson’s research about the development of policies for the resettlement of refugees in the UK, from 1945 to 1991 shows a change in government interventions in the early stages of integration, and reveals an implicit decision about which elements of integration are more important than others (Robinson 1999). This research demonstrates that up to the late 1950s, the government’s most important objective in resettling the Poles was to assist them in finding employment. This objective, however, was not reflected in more recent resettlement programmes for Ugandan Asian, Vietnamese and Bosnian refugees. The emphasis of these policies has shifted to locating accommodation, and has given little attention to whether refugees are being resettled in places that have local economies capable of providing them with appropriate employment. 3.4.3 Possible indicators

The assessment of different aspects of integration of immigrants and refugees includes objective indicators that are relatively easily quantifiable, as well as subjective or qualitative indicators. The former include indicators such as employment rates among refugees or statistics of accessing and completing further education courses, the latter includes indicators such as playing a role in the community, personal satisfaction, or having a ‘voice’. We list below indicators of some aspects of integration identified by respondents in this mapping exercise: Indicators of education, training and employment • statistics of accessing and completing training programmes; • statistics of accessing and completing further education courses;

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• • • • • • • •

statistics of those who successfully re-qualify and are able to practise their original profession; statistics of those who have their qualifications recognised for academic or employment purposes; number of job applications made, interviews attended and job offers granted; number of successfully self-employed immigrants and refugees; number of immigrants and refugees who set up successful businesses; unemployment rates amongst immigrants and refugees (considering different categories, such as gender, nationality, age etc.); employment distribution by occupation and industry; economic outcomes (such as income levels or home ownership) of immigrants and refugees compared with those of the majority population;

Indicators of social integration • residential segregation (e.g. indexes of dissimilarity and segregation); • intermarriage; • English acquisition; • social interaction within and outside group; • rates of victimisation to crime; • rates of racially-motivated offences; • rates of offending for various types of crime. Indicators of health • life expectancy; • age and gender specific mortality rates; • age and gender specific morbidity rates for significant illnesses; • accident rates; • access to medical services. Indicators of legal integration • right to reside in the country; • right to participate in the labour market; • right to access social services; • acquisition of citizenship. Indicators of political integration • participation in trade unions and professional associations; • participation in other associations; • participation in political parties; • participation as voters; • election to representative positions in local, regional and national government. Indicators of overall integration

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• •

demographic indicators, such as fertility and mortality rates, life expectancy and inter-marriage (the rationale behind this indicator is that if a group of newcomers/refugees ‘behaves’ demographically in a similar way to the indigenous population, we may consider the group integrated into the receiving society. This does not imply cultural assimilation because the group in question may or may not retain many of its cultural characteristics). personal assessments of availability, quality, and adequacy of assistance programmes and services provided; personal assessments of satisfaction with one’s achievements and situation in the receiving society.

The above list should by no means be considered comprehensive or complete. The major problems in constructing and evaluating indicators of integration suggest the need for more work in this area. It might be possible in this way to establish a set of agreed indicators for integration. These could be linked in a matrix, which might allow the weighting of different aspects, as well as consideration of group differences with regard to starting conditions and desired outcomes. 3.5 3.5.1 Issues of methodology in integration research Quantitative and qualitative research methods

The above discussion on indicators of integration shows the necessity of using both quantitative methods (e.g. surveys and analysis of statistical data sets) and qualitative methods (e.g. individual in-depth interviews or participatory methods) in research about integration. There have been attempts, outside the UK, to quantify indicators of refugee adaptation and to apply more methodological rigour in ‘measuring’ integration (e.g. Montgomery, 1996). Montgomery’s study, distinguishes between ‘objective aspects’, such as economic components of integration, “Subjective indicators’ and ‘subjective aspects’, such as feelings about one’s own situaof integration are as tion or achievement. This study indicates that ‘subjective indicimportant as ‘objective ators’ of integration are as important as ‘objective indicators’, indicators” which are usually those considered important from the host government perspective. This implies that immigrants and refugees should be given a voice in defining indicators of integration, and in the process of policy evaluation. Robinson (1998a: 122) argues: ‘since integration is individualised, contested and contextual it requires qualitative methodologies which allow the voices of respondents to be heard in an unadulterated form.’ Quantitative research on a national sample of East African Asian refugees showed them to have achieved significant social mobility within the UK labour market (Robinson 1993). However, qualitative research with a small group of these refugees ‘demonstrates that whilst many individuals have achieved significant social mobility they have very different evaluations of their “success”.’ (Robinson, 1998a: 122-3). Robinson goes on to explain that their definition of integration success goes beyond simple, measurable, individual occupational mobility, and includes indicators such as quality and strength of their social links with other compatriots in the UK, and their ability to ensure that their children can enter the professions.

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3.5.2

Unit of analysis and time-span

Research about integration of immigrants and refugees, as our interviews showed, is about integration of individuals and groups as well as about mutual adjustment of newcomers and the established community of the receiving society. This is clearly a conceptual issue as well as a methodological problem. How is the unit of analysis to be defined to reflect these conceptual concerns? In other words, is research about integration of immigrants and refugees to examine this phenomenon at the individual, household, community or national level? Moreover, if research is conducted at a group level (i.e. by examining integration of a group of refugees), should it relate their situation to the situation of another group, and if so, which group? Should it be the entire population, or only other minorities, and if so, which minorities? Additionally, if it is accepted to consider integration as a process, as this mapping project indicates, what time period should be considered when examining who is ‘integrated’? 3.5.3 Availability of data

Official statistical sources do not always provide data useful for integration research. Entry figures given in the Home Office’s International Passenger Survey refer to inflows of ‘non-European Economic Area nationals, British “Official statistical sources do citizens and Other EEA nationals’. The Home Office gives not always provide data useful other figures on ‘admissions of spouses, fiancé(e)s and childfor integration research.” ren’, ‘extensions of leave to remain as a spouse or fianc(é), ‘admissions of work permit holders and their dependants’, ‘extensions of leave to remain as work permit holders’, and ‘applications for asylum.’ Such statistics do not permit a ready breakdown into categories relevant for integration research. It is extremely difficult to relate entry figures to later ‘acceptances for settlement’. Data on family reunion are not presented in a comprehensive form and cannot easily be linked to entry of primary migrants, making it impossible to work out group structures and potential community needs for services and amenities. Moreover, official figures show considerable discrepancies according to definitions and methods of collection. For instance the authoritative OECD Report on Trends in International Migration notes that the inflow of foreign workers in 1997 numbered 79,000 according to the International Passenger Survey, 59,000 according to the Labour Force Survey and 130,300 according to the Department of Social Security (OECD, 1999: 219). We need to pay closer attention to the meanings of statistical and social categories especially since the terms are important when developing settlement policies for newcomers.

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Methodological issues and problems of research methods concerning research about integration of refugees go beyond the questions addressed thus far. They extend to problems of availability of data concerning overall numbers of asylum seekers and refugees in Britain, as well as data about specific groups of refugees (e.g. children, men/women, elderly, disabled and/or those with special needs,). Robinson ’s work about the importance of information for the resettlement of refugees in the UK (1998b) gives an overview of the implications of the lack of reliable official data in this area. This corresponds with the concerns of researchers and NGO representatives interviewed for this mapping project. Due to unavailability of reliable official data on the size or distribution of refugee groups within the UK, in the public domain, even organisations specifically established to serve the needs of asylum seekers and refugees lack basic information to plan their services. Most of the quantitative studies done in the field of integration in recent years have focussed on ethnic minorities, reflecting policy concerns with improving race relations. The census and a number of large surveys do provide a reasonable amount of data, especially for large and long-established groups. By contrast, the data situation for smaller and more recently arrived groups is very poor. This is a serious obstacle to policy-relevant research on integration of immigrants and refugees. 3.6 3.6.1 Approaches to integration policy: comparative aspects Areas of current policy

The Appendix to this Chapter provides comparative descriptions of approaches to immigrant integration in a number of immigration countries. These experiences show that ideas on the aims and mechanisms of integration policy vary considerably in different countries. Moreover, there are numerous ways in which government agencies can intervene in the integration process. These comprise “There are numerous laws, policies, guidelines and good practice codes, publicly supways in which ported initiatives and state funding. Such modes of integration government agencies can policy have an influential role in determining immigrants’ social and economic outcomes as well as their impact on non-immigrant intervene in the integration process” local communities. Current areas of government policy intervention relevant to immigrant and refugee integration include the following (after Glover et al. 2001):       access to employment (particularly through permits and status); access to housing, health, education and benefits (also largely determined by immigration status); family reunion; English language training; social exclusion (including measures to help with employment, reduce crime, tackle racism, and improve educational and health outcomes); equality (especially involving penalties for racial and ethnic discrimination);

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   

civic and cultural involvement (regarding policies valuing cultural diversity, such as funding for cultural and self-help activities); citizenship / nationality (frameworks encouraging and easing the path to full citizenship); access to voting and candidature; legal flexibility to accommodate cultural / religious customs (including changes to law in order to accommodate specific practices).

It is important to link policies on integration with other economic and social policies, to achieve ‘joined-up thinking’ across government departments. Immigrants and refugees often tend to be ignored in wider government policies concerning the labour market, social services, social exclusion an poverty reduction. Policy planners should include such groups from the outset in setting targets and planning interventions. This section presents some important sets of policy recommendations for immigrant integration, made by various overseas bodies for certain key policy fields. These may be useful in providing ideas for possible policy initiatives in the UK. 3.6.2 Political participation

A number of cross-national policy re-evaluations surrounding immigrant participation have been undertaken. One key set was advanced by the Standing Conference of Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE), in its Frankfurt Declaration entitled ‘Towards a New Municipal Policy for Multicultural Integration in Europe’. This contains a section of policy recommendations under the heading ‘Effective participation by immigrants in local political life’ (see CLRAE 1992). The Frankfurt Declaration includes proposals that: • immigrants must be involved in public enquiries and consultation; • consultative councils should be set up within the decision-making system of local authorities and these should be (a) staffed by persons either elected by immigrants or nominated by immigrants’ associations, and (b) organised by neighbourhood in larger cities; • the right to vote in local elections should be extended to foreigners who have been resident for several years; • procedures for gaining nationality should be facilitated and obstacles for multiple nationality should be removed. Obviously the capacity for effecting these kinds of policies will largely depend on the national membership models outlined in the previous section. 3.6.3 Social integration

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Policy approaches to promoting social integration are as broad and varied as the notion of integration itself. With regard to research and policy concerning immigrants, however, one example stands out. A large-scale project on the relationship between newcomers and established residents in U.S. communities was sponsored by the Ford Foundation in the early 1990s. Entitled Changing Relations, the project made a series of important policy recommendations. The general message of the project’s recommendations was that ‘attention must focus on participation and membership, on opportunities to pursue shared concrete tasks, and on building organisations in local neighbourhoods.’ (Bach et al. 1993: 7-9). Among the project’s conclusions and specific recommendations are the following: • ‘the uniqueness of local combinations of groups requires a renewed focus on community building. Grass-roots organising is a useful approach in promoting opportunities for interaction among groups at the local level. “Bottom-up” processes often work better than “top-down” ones. Leadership training for community members should be encouraged, particularly for teenagers and women, who have already forged interpersonal and inter-group relations in many communities. • ‘Local activities should encourage participation and mobilisation across group lines. Attention should be focused on producing unified activities that require the energy of diverse people to reach a shared goal. It is not enough to simply try to negotiate group differences. These common projects should address community conditions, such as housing, education, and recreation. • ‘Existing organisations are not necessarily responsive to the new demographic, social, and economic diversity in today’s communities. They should consciously seek ways to cross group boundaries and identify common projects. Reexamination of and innovation in membership and approach in all organizations are needed to build co-operation and encourage inclusion of diverse participants. • ‘Established residents need more and better information about newcomers. Such information could be provided through creative use of community newspapers, library resources, and outreach programmes. • ‘Special events and public festivals can create a more tolerant tone in communities and are particularly effective when they involve face-to-face collaboration among groups in planning the events. Such efforts must lead to continued opportunities for inclusion and full participation. One-time efforts often exacerbate rather than resolve tensions.’ Although the recommendations were made in the context of the US, they are relevant for other countries as well. Another set of pertinent, and in some cases overlapping, proposals where put forward by the Council of Europe in its Bremen Declaration (CCC 1992). These included recommendations that European local authorities should consider: • providing premises for immigrants’ meetings, • encouraging (financially and by way of infrastructure) the creation of ethnic associations, • setting up neighbourhood information offices open to both indigenous and immigrant inhabitants,

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• stimulating joint neighbourhood activities, • including immigrants on consultative committees, • facilitating the training of managers from immigrant populations for integration into public office and services. Many of the recommendations in both cases have been summarized by Robert Bach (1993: 164), the Changing Relations project director, as involving the need to promote ‘active, conscious decisions to organize around common issues – not just for the sake of integration but when diverse people perceive similar interests’. 3.6.4 Cultural integration

Another set of recommendations serves to exemplify policy issues and needs concerning the general topic of culture. Again in the Council of Europe’s Bremen Declaration, the representatives of 21local authorities urged that new, innovative measures must be promoted for developing all kinds of cultural activity, endorsing cultural diversity, and thereby strengthening ‘cultural democracy’ in European cities (see CCC 1992). One key section of the Bremen Declaration concerned ‘The Cultural Contribution of Populations of Foreign Origin’. This advocated: • a major reinforcement of local authorities’ actions to encourage acceptance of the multi-ethnic societies which several European cities have already become and derive therefrom all the enrichment which they can bring to the life of all their citizens. • European immigration countries have to recognise that they have become multi-ethnic societies. They must draw the legislative conclusions from this development in order to ensure and promote equal rights for all the people living in their territory. • ethnic minority cultures must be supported so that the members of the ethnic minorities can live as equal partners in the host country and yet at the same time maintain contact with their country of origin. • the members of ethnic minorities should have free choice in deciding to what extent they wish to retain their native culture or develop it in the new social context. With special regard to aspects of culture, various agencies and inter-governmental bodies have also highlighted the role of media policy in facilitating immigrant and refugee integration. For instance, the Council of Europe (1994) has recommended the widening of scope of current media policies to increase public awareness of the reality of ethnic diversity, to support immigrant/ethnic media initiatives with public funding, and to foster ‘good practice’ codes for the media. It also advocated training projects to encourage young immigrants to consider a career in media, the development of local media in ‘ethnic languages’, and the need for concern over a balanced portrayal of immigrant and minority groups in all forms of media.

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The areas of policy recommendation outlined above each concern what we might call questions of integration by way of fair representation. This is based on a dual understanding of the notion of representation, involving (1) representation as voice and (2) representation as image. The first sense of ‘representation’ refers to the ways in which immigrant and ethnic minority groups have the capacity and opportunity to organise themselves politically and take part in realms of public decision-making that affects them. The second sense of ‘representation’ refers to the qualitative images and symbols surrounding immigrant and ethnic minority groups that their practices present in the public sphere. In accordance with general tenets of multiculturalism concerning long-established ethnic minorities, immigrants and refugees should be provided with some facility for self-representation of images and meanings attributed to them in the public sphere. 3.7 Conclusion Research on immigrant and refugee integration often begs a fundamen- “Integration: is it a tal question: is it a condition or a process? What are criteria for judgcondition or a ing whether integration – as process or condition – is present, absent, process?” high, low, declining or underway? Methodological implications follow, including whether and how the researcher is to be engaged in describing or measuring indices and understanding patterns (such as vertical and horizontal mobility). The choice of methods - including the compilation of indices of dissimilarity, ethnography, and network analysis - follows accordingly. Rather than the common approaches of assessing individual and group differences in rates of integration, Robert Bach (1993: 157) advocates ‘refocussing immigration research to include community transformation as a whole’; that is, research should not just focus on the immigrants, but should examine established populations and how immigration ‘has changed the composition and relationships between members of groups in urban communities’ (Ibid.). This represents perhaps one of the most innovative and fruitful areas of policy related research: tracing the contours of interaction and trust that are formed or stifled in social fields characterised by immigration. This would entail description and analysis of social networks, crosscutting ties and sources of multiple identification which might form the stuff of new associational activity and civil regeneration. The conceptual survey on integration research presented in this Chapter has attempted to show some of the problems, controversies and contradictions to be found in current social scientific and policy debates in the UK and other immigration countries. These issues cannot be resolved in a study of this kind, but it is important to be aware of them when turning to more detailed examinations of research on integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK in the rest of this Report. Some of the research gaps identified in our study can be attributed to the lack of a clear and generallyagreed conceptual framework for integration research. This points to the need for more research on the meaning of integration for different groups involved in the process. There also needs to be consultation involving government, academic, NGOs and immigrant and refugee communities to examine differing understandings of integration, and to find ways of bridging differences. Such debates may help in the formulation of more appropriate goals, mechanisms and indicators for the process.

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Integration is a problematic concept, but abandoning it and replacing it with another one (inclusion, settlement or whatever) will not solve anything: concepts take on the social meaning that they are given by powerful groups and institutions. The task is rather to find ways of securing broader participation in the process of defining and shaping the integration process. This in turn will help make social research a more useful instrument for policy formation in this area.

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Chapter 4 Recent and current research about immigrants and refugees
Chapter summary – Here, the substantial set of literature 1996-2001 and compendium of current research is discussed by way of key subject groupings. Broken down into sections covering both immigrant- and refugee-related research, the chapter indicates the main topics that have been researched under the following headings: education and training, labour market, health, housing, socio-cultural and political issues, women and gender, family and children, justice and the legal system, welfare and social policy, discrimination and racism, citizenship and multiculturalism, neighbourhood renewal and social exclusion.

This Chapter maps out research on the integration of immigrants and refugees that was identified through our search of literature referring to ‘immigrant’, ‘migrant’ or ‘refugee’ categories. In some cases, however, the discussion in this Chapter will also refer to publications concerning ‘ethnic minorities’ category because the boundaries between these categories are often blurred and consequently, literature about ethnic minority issues frequently covers some aspects of integration of immigrants and/or refugees. This Chapter also gives a brief overview of themes and topics addressed in a selection of research about asylum seekers. The research about asylum seekers included in the Report, although not comprehensive, is considered relevant for a fuller understanding of the issues relating to the integration of refugees. The collected bibliographies (Data Sets 1, 2 and 3) will be reviewed in this Chapter in order to provide an indication of areas and categories covered by the published research over the past five years both in the immigration and refugee areas. Although the bibliography of research about integration presented in the second part of this Report (see Data Set 1) cannot be considered fully comprehensive, as pointed out earlier, it does provide sufficient grounds for discussion of the areas in which research has been conducted in the UK over the past five years or so. A review “Some aspects of the of the themes and topics of the published research reveal that some integration process are aspects of the integration process are more researched than others, more researched than while other areas remain inadequately or under-researched. The coverage of research in each category as revealed in Table 1 and Figure 1 others” (see below) can only be taken as a broad indication of publications. Within the wider survey of literature and research, the limited survey of academic literature 1996-2001, across disciplines and roughly categorized into main policy areas, provided the following breakdown. It is important to note that the substantial sample of over 500 works indicates the relative ratio of research over the range of topics. Although the following Chapter provides a more comprehensive list of the gaps that have emerged from this mapping exercise, in this Chapter, as we map the themes and topics covered in each category, we have also included some of the main gaps in order to provide a more integrated mapping for each category.

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This will be followed by a brief outline of some of the research that has been carried out in the NGO sector (see Data Set 2) over the past five years. In this section is provided only a sample of the areas of research carried out in that sector. A mapping of Data Set 3 follows. This data was collected from interviews with a sample of key researchers, as well as information provided from research Centres in immigration and refugee research. Snow-balling technique was also adopted in order to make the list as comprehensive as possible. It should be noted that despite the effort made and the various methods used to collect this data, there is no doubt some ongoing research does not appear in this list. Furthermore, some of the research that appears in Data Set 3 has already been published. However, this may simply be the early publication(s) of their current or ongoing research. Finally, there is a small section on current research on ethnic minorities and asylum seekers. Table 1 − Academic publications 1996-2001

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General Education and training Labour market Health Housing Socio-cultural area Political area Women and gender Family and children Justice and legal system Welfare and social policy Discrimination Citizenship and multiculturalism Neighbourhood renewal Government docs

Immigrants 43 30 41 55 14 59 11 14 14 12 17 26 23 1 9

Refugees 29 13 6 26 15 8 4 6 24 6 9 4 2 0 17

Total 72 43 47 81 29 67 15 20 38 18 26 30 25 1 26

150

Total

369

169

538

In graphic form the above table is depicted below: Figure 1
Mapping the Field - Breakdown of Academic Publications
70

60

50 Number of Publications

40

30

20

10

0 General Immigrants Refugees 54 56

Educatio Labour n and Market Training 29 16 40 6

SocioWomen Family Justice Welfare Citizens Neighbo GovernPolitical DiscrimHealth Housing Cultural and and and and hip and ur- hood ment Area ination Area Gender Children Legal Social Multicult Renew a Docs 54 27 13 15 66 14 9 6 14 11 10 31 15 15 18 9 39 6 22 3 1 1 3 16

4.1 Published Academic Research about integration of immigrants from 19962001 This section includes a mapping of the published academic research that appears in Data Set 1. At the end of each category there appears a brief indication of our estimation of perceived gaps so as to provide a more integrated mapping of the main themes for each category. 1. General

This category covers published research that is concerned with a more universal and broad-ranging approach to integration. This includes research on acculturation and integration (Berry, 1997; Skerry, 2000). Another group in this category includes published research on measuring and statistical problems of integration (Pryce, 2000; Rees and Duke-Williams, 1997; Aspinall, 2000) while some refer specifically to particular ethnic groups and their integration into UK society (Cicak-Chand, 1996; Bhopal, 1999). A further group considers the notion of diversity in the UK (Frow, 1996) and some are specifically concerned with the effects of migration on UK cities and urban living (Dorsett, 1998; Champion, 1999). Some of these are expressly concerned with broad policy issues (Dorr and Faist, 1997) while others concentrate on the relationship between immigration and the nation state (Joppke, 1999) particularly institutional integration (Dorr and Faist, 1997). Only one is concerned with the matter of deportation (Cohen, 1997). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • processes of integration and acculturation UK as a multi-ethnic society 151

• • •

migration and the cities immigration and the state methodological issues - measuring integration and studying immigrants

There are two main gaps in the published research on universal aspects of immigration and integration. The first concerns the immigration process itself and such questions as why do certain groups choose the UK; the issue of trafficking; the broader institutional aspects of integration. Secondly, migrant perceptions and strategies of integration need to be systematically researched. Of equal importance are the perceptions of the non-immigrant population of integration strategies of local immigrant communities. This needs to feed directly into developing channels of information to local immigrant and non-immigrant communities so as to avoid many destructive misconceptions within local communities. 2. Education and training

Much of the research in this category is about children and adolescents in school (eg: Ghuman, 1997; Parker-Jenkins and Haw, 1998; Sharma, 20000), with far less carried out among adults (eg. Chu, 1996; Pithers and Lim, 1997). Three provide comparative analyses with other countries (Leblond and Trincaz, 1999; McEachron, 1998; Zoccatelli, 1996), while another two are specifically concerned with young men (Wrench, and Hassan, 1996; Wrench and Qureshi, 1996). At least a third of these publications are concerned with specific ethnic or religious groups. The key issues engaged by researchers in the field of immigrant education and training over the past five include:     bilingualism and competence in English language (eg. Thompson, 2000; Dodwell, 1996) children’s vulnerability and experience of racism and xenophobia (eg Eslea and Mukhtar, 2000) modes of in-service training to support immigrants and refugees educational experiences of children, particularly in a multi-ethnic environment (Sharma, 2000; Parker-Jenkins and Haw, 1998; Warner, 1999; Tatar and Horenczyk, 1996) development of specialist curricula (Levine, 1996) integration into school (Zocatella, 1996; Wrench, and Hassan, 1996)

 

A great part of this research evaluates issues and problems for immigrant children and possible changes to strategies and policies. The research is conducted in individual schools and, with the exception of the comparative research, there appears to be very little holistic research of the needs of immigrant students in particular localities and regions. Further, there appears to be very little research on the pedagogical needs of children from varying cultural, class and educational backgrounds. Finally, there appears to be very little research on the training needs of adult immigrants, for both women and men. 3. Labour market

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The experience of immigrants in the labour market is a reasonably well researched area compared with other areas. Over a quarter of the publications are concerned with specific ethnic groups such as South Asians and Blacks (Berthoud, 1999; Holdaway, 1997; Lightbody, Nicholson, Sian and Walsh, 1997) while almost a quarter of the studies are concerned with matters to do with the relation between ethnicity, language or religion with employment (Brown, 2000; Kershen, 2000,Fitzgerald, Finch and Nove, 2001; Shields and Wheatley Price, 2001). Research on various forms of discrimination such as racism, gender discrimination and other forms of exclusion included about thirteen of the publications (Holdaway, 1997; Wrench, Hassan and Qureshi, 1999; Evans and Bowlby, 2000; Wrench, 2000). Many of these link up with various aspects of unemployment (Ortega, 2000; Wheatley Price, 2001). One major research question deals with the impact of immigration on the economy and the labour market. Over a quarter of the publications researched skilled migration as well as small businesses and the migrant economy (Robinson and Carey, 2000; Madood and Virdee, 1998; Metcalf, Maddod and Virdee, 1996; Gidoomal, 1997). Much of the research in this area concludes that on the whole the UK economy benefits positively (Glover et al, 2001). It is surprising that there was only one publication on the informal economy (Mingione, 1999) and two on illegal or undocumented labour (Prest, 1997; Devell, 1998). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:          unemployment (Wheatley Price, 2001). self-employment, business and entrepreneurship (Metcalf, Maddod and Virdee, 1996. ethnic stratification, poverty and occupational mobility (Model, 1997; Shields and Wheatley Price, 2001) unskilled versus high skilled sectors (Robinson and Carey, 2000). wages, income and earnings (Shields and Wheatley Price, 1998). discrimination in the labour market (Wrench, Hassan and Qureshi, 1999; Holdaway, 1997). informal economy and employment of illegals (Mingione, 1999; (Prest, 1997; Devell, 1998). recruitment overseas (Khadria, 1999). gender differences in the labour market (Cox, 1999; Evans and Bowlby, 2000.

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Much of the research concentrates on skilled migration, business and entrepreneurship and the benefits to the economy. There is a distinct lack of research on unskilled migrants and availability and use of further education and training as well as skills recognition of other groups of migrants including women and undocumented migrants. The position of immigrant women in the labour market clearly requires systematic research. Although there appears to be a reasonable coverage in the area of discrimination and unemployment, there is no systematic research which deals with these matters within regions, across enterprises or across ethnic groups. One issue which needs to be addressed is to question how their unskilled status and their labour market participations (or lack of) relate to their use of social services compared to those who are skilled workers. Mapping of the labour market category also reveals a clear lack of research on the skills of the family reunion spouses as well as of those who come in with work permits, for example, Commonwealth working visitors. Further, there is no evidence of research on the labour market participation of these two groups. There is little evidence of research on skills levels and labour market participation of young people. Finally, the effects of the ‘brain drain’ on developing countries and the long-term follow on effects of unwanted immigration in the developed countries needs systematic examination. 4. Health

Immigrant health appears to be one area which is reasonably well covered by academic research in comparison to other areas. The majority of publications in the list refer to specific illnesses in specific ethnic groups. Broadly, the illnesses range from psychological and mental health issues (Callan, 1996; Williams and Hunt, 1999) to more specific problems such as dermatitis, cancer, liver problems, cardiac illness and HIV/AIDS (Sabatier, 1996; O’Brien and Power, 1998; Haworth, Raleigh and Balarajan, 1999). The main groups covered are Asian or South Asian, and more specifically Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Bengali (Bedi, 1996; Williams, Hunt and Bhatt, 1997) Afro-Caribbean (Harrison et al, 1997; Gibbs, 1996); one on Chinese (Chan, 2000), one on Turkish (Hoggart et al, 2000), one on Jewish (marks and Hilder, 1997), several on the Irish (Williams and Ecob, 1999); Walsh and McGrath, 2000). As has been mentioned earlier in this Report, much of the research on the Asian and AfroCaribbean’s can well include both immigrants and ethnic minorities of long standing. The research on recent arrivals only is likely to be minimal. Length of stay would be a crucial factor in determining differences between members of the same ethnic community. Ten are region or locality based (Hoggart et al, 2000; Eade, 1997; George et al, 1997) while only five deal with such matters as ethics in the health profession, equity in the NHS regarding ethnicity and provision of services more generally (Smaje and Le Grand, 1997; Wedderburm-Tate, 1998; Sher and Farsides, 1996; Haour-Knipe and Rector, 1996). Beliefs, attitudes and practices concern five of the publications (Rait, 1997; Bedi, 1996). Women’s health has five publications (eg Thompson, 1998; Baraitser, 1999; Gibbs, 1996) while there are three covering children (Harris, 2000; Sharma, 2000; Marks and Hilder, 1997), one on men, and one on the elderly (Rait, 1997). Two papers cover ethnicity and class issues (Williams, Wright and Hunt, 1998; Harding, 2000). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:  AIDS/HIV (Haour-Knipe et al, 1999). 154

      

psychological needs, well-being, psychotic disorders (Williams and Hunt, 1999). primary health care, family planning and sexual health (Baraitser, 1999). specific diseases: cancer, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, parasitic diseases (Harding and Rosato, 1999). alcohol and substance abuse (Harrison, Sutton and Gardiner, 1997). child-, elderly- and women-specific healthcare (Rait, 1997; Harris, 2000; Thompson, 1998). dietary and nutritional needs, factors and change (Sharma et al, 1999; Yang and Read, 1996). group-specific types and rates of mortality (Williams and Ecob, 1999).

Research on specific problems in specific ethnic communities is extremely important and needs to continue. The main gaps in research in the health area appear to be in the areas of women’s, children’s and, in particular, health matters of the elderly. Adequacy of health service for various groups and illnesses also requires attention. 5. Housing

Unlike the listing of references in the ‘ethnic minorities’ section, there appear to be very few publications over the past five years in the area of housing for immigrants. The two areas most covered within this category are first, matters to do with stigmatisation, marginalisation and racism towards immigrants (Greenwood, 1997; Murray, 1998) and secondly, the relationship between housing and welfare needs and cultural needs (Webb, 1998; Duncan and Kleinman, 1999). Others were specifically concerned with particular ethnic groups, the elderly (Sandhu, 1999), one specific locality (Winstone, 1996) and one comparative study (Duncan and Kleinman, 1999). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:      assessment of housing needs (Webb, 1998; Duncan and Kleinman, 1999) access to various housing sectors, tenures and standards (Bowes et al, 1997) housing and welfare needs (Duncan and Kleinman, 1999) cultural needs and housing (Webb, 1998) marginalisation and racism (Third and McEwen, 1997).

Clearly there has been very little research carried out on the specific needs and position of recently arrived migrants. This needs to be carried out in relation to access to social housing, to employment, schooling, and entry into an established ethnic community. Furthermore, research questions need to be examined about the impact on family reunion immigrants who are excluded from social housing. There is also a need to examine the issue of housing segregation for recently arrived migrants and the problems of homelessness. 6. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation

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Around half of the publications in this category are based on specific groups or communities including religious eg Muslim, Hindi (Dwivedi and Prasad, 2000; lewis, 1997) and ethnic/regional communities eg South Asian, Punjabi (Kumari, 1998; Peach,1997; Singh, 2000; Siddhisena and White, 1999). Almost as many report research carried out among ethnic or religious communities in certain locales in the UK (Vertovec, 1998; Raj, 1997; Bourne and Kyriacou, 1999). One of the more popular topics appears to be centred around religion and matters of religious identity (Dhooleka, 2000; Kalilombe, 1997; Vajifdar, 2000) . The other is concerned with issues of identity and community (Song, 1997; Jeffers, Hoggett and Harrison, 1996; Chessum, 2000). More general aspects of acculturation and integration are also of concern to researchers (Parekh, 2000; Van Oudenhoven, Prins and Buunk, 1998). There are five publications concerned with language issues (Richards and Yamamoto, 1998; Loewenberg and Wass, 1997) and even fewer which deal with gender issues (Bhopal, 1998; Franks, 2000), youth (Kucukan, 1998; Qureshi and Moores, 1999) and children (Nesbitt, 2000). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:       religious affiliation and practice. language acquisition and maintenance. media representations (Martin, 1998). cultural continuity among the young. the creation of hybrid cultural forms. change and continuation of gender relations and practices.

Although these are some of the key issues researched, there are clear gaps in research on women, children and youth with regard to religion, language and community/identity issues. An understanding of the position of immigrant women in the various communities is clearly lacking. In some communities it is women who arrive as family reunion members. Little is known about their positions and expectations in the UK. Indeed, what is the gender of family reunion arrivals in the various ethnic communities? This is also a policy issue. The problems of immigrant youth and particularly immigrant children with regards to the relationship between recent community status and schooling (e.g. pedagogy, language, identity) is also under-researched. Research on the aged in various immigrant communities is also lacking. 7. Political area: organization, self-Initiatives and participation

There are two main areas covered in this category – local initiatives and community organizations (Ahmed, 1998; Bairner and Bradley, 1999) and publications on political participation. Two of these are concerned with a specific group of British South Asian Elites (Saggar, 1998; Asghar, 1996) while the other is based in a particular locale of Birmingham and Bradford (Rex and Samad, 1998). One is concerned with the issue of ‘ethnic entry’ into the British Labour Party (Fielding and Geddes, 1998) while another is concerned with collective claims or migrant challenges to the nation state (Koopmans and Statham, 1999). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:

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   

the role of community organizations and leaders political participation collective mobilisation ethnic entry into political parties.

There appears to be very little research published over the past five years on the community and political organization of immigrants groups. Do recently arrived migrants integrate into already established community organizations? Do the new groups have their special needs and experiences represented in the already established organizations? Are most of the leaders men, as is often the case? How do community organizations cater for immigrant children and youth? What resources do recently arrived immigrants have to develop their own initiatives? 8. Women and gender

There has been a gradual shift in the realization that there needs to be specific research on immigrant women and children if we are to understand the gendered, cultural and class experiences of immigrant women and girls. Migrant women are especially vulnerable to various forms of discrimination in all walks of life and this has serious policy implications. Some research on women has appeared in all the categories in this bibliography and in this specific category on Women and Gender we find that indeed nearly all the publications can be inserted into the relevant other categories. Part of the issue here is concerned with where researchers publish their work. Much of the research in this section is published in so called women’s journals. Thus, the two areas which have the most coverage are first, those about specific groups dealing with matters of identity, community and the specific knowledge required of community workers when dealing with specific communities (Crewe and Kothari, 1998; Macey, 1999) . The second most common area is that of immigrant women in the labour market (Evans and Bowlby, 2000) with one of these concentrating on female entrepreneurs (Dhaliwal, 1998). On specific gender issues there are few, for example, one on lone mothers (Sinha, 1998) and another on women’s political participation (Jones-Correa, 2000). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:    gender differences in the labour market gendered political participation change and continuation of gender relations and practices.

In each of the categories mapped out so far, there has been a clear lack of published research on immigrant women, for example, in the labour market, and in housing. In this section, there is an apparent gap in research specific ‘gender issues’ such as lone mothers; the position of women in their families and communities; domestic violence; women’s cultures in birthing practices and child-rearing; women and domestic work. 9. Family and children

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The majority of this published research is based on specific ethnic groups, with two main topics covered. One is concerned mainly with traditional values (Lau, 2000), and the process of transition (Bose, 2000) while the other main topic covers childrearing (Dosanjh and Ghuman, 1997) with one of these specifically on child maltreatment (Fontes, 2000). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:   family-values and tradition child-rearing practices.

In this area there is more research carried out in the NGO sector as the sample of published articles in Data Set 2 indicates. In academic research the main areas which are under-researched are child rights in the family including how immigrant families in various communities deal with gay and lesbian children; adult couples and problems of integration; family break ups and how these are dealt with within families and communities; domestic violence; the elderly. 10. Justice and legal system Unlike in the NGO sector, the published research in this area is minimal and the topics are disparate. One article is on undocumented immigrants (Engberson and Van der Leun (1998) while another is on changing immigration and employment laws (Trott, 2000). Another is on children and families in Childrens Act proceedings (Lau and Bond, 2000), and two are guides or handbooks. Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • undocumented immigrants immigration and employment laws protection of children.

The justice and legal system appears to be under-represented in academic research. Systematic research programmes need to be developed to deal with such issues as the relationship between ethnicity and youth, specific immigrant groups, women and children in relation to policing, the law courts and other institutions in the legal system. Racially motivated incidences, and court decisions need to be monitored. Statistical data needs to be collected on a longitudinal basis. 11. Welfare and social policy This category is one which can be absorbed within others such as housing, health etc. As a result, there appears to be very little academic research within this category and what does appear covers a divergent set of topics. Nevertheless, there are two topics which can claim some coverage – immigration and welfare controls (Cohen, Humphries and Mynott, (2001) and immigration and the welfare state Dorr and Faist, 1997). One other questions culturally appropriate services (Anon, 2000b) while another deals specifically with care for older migrants (Blakemore, 1999). Only one appears on the parity between UK and European policy (Wakamatsu, 1997).

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Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • immigration and welfare control immigration and the welfare state UK and the European Union immigration policies.

While there may be evaluations of welfare strategies within the various categories of policies, it is clear that there is a gap in research which deals with the relationship between specific policies and integration for specific immigrant communities and groups such as immigrant youth and children. The specific needs of immigrants in a comprehensive sense appears to need some attention. Overall, there needs to be some critical questions addressed regarding the need for a systematic immigration policy which deals with labour migrants, undocumented immigrants, women migrants as head of families, family reunion migration et. al. Further, the role of public and social policies and immigration needs to be addressed. Finally, more research on harmonisation process with the European Union is required. 12. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies As with several other categories, this category can be easily absorbed within others such as discrimination in the labour market, in health etc. This section lists research which deals with discrimination, racism, race relations and migration policies fairly broadly. Most of the publications deal with specific forms of racism in specific social areas such as sport or work (Collins, 1998; Dummett, 2000; Wrench, 1997) while others report discrimination in policies and legislation (Anwar, 2000; MacEwan, 1997;Dean and Belchak, 2000). One is specifically concerned with immigration controls (Morris, 1998). Other research is concerned with the issue of race relations (Alibhai-Brown, 2000) and one is specifically concerned with the topic of managing diversity (Collett, and Cook, 2000). A number of articles are concerned with specific ethnic groups such as West Africans while about five refer to Irish immigrants in the UK. Only one article is concerned with immigrants’ perceptions of host attitudes (Horenczyk, 1997). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • racial discrimination race relations and managing diversity immigration legislation, policy and controls.

Little appears on the impact of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 on recently arrived migrants, though it may be too soon for such research to be published. One major gap in the published research on racism is that on institutional racism. Very little research appears to be carried out on the various immigration categories such as family reunion. Finally, the relationship between racism (institutional and otherwise) and integration requires systematic analysis. Research that deals with the relationship between class and ethnicity is needed in economically depressed local areas where ethnicity has become the main explanation for socio-economic problems. 13. Citizenship and multiculturalism

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Citizenship is addressed in a number of ways. First, it is dealt with as a legal entity (Houston, 2000; Kershaw and Pearsall, 2000), secondly, as an aspect of social rights (Smith and Blanc, 1996; Joppke, 1999), thirdly, in relation to the notion of identity (Bryant, 1997; Hudson and Reno, 2000), fourthly, where it is more directly related to integration (Bisogno and Gallo, 2000; Crowley, 1998; Favell, 1998). Multiculturalism is also researched in relation to political integration (Rex, 1998), multiculturalism and the state/policies (Cross, 1998; Martiniello, 1998) and national identity (Parekh, 2000). Several refer to specific groups such as Muslims (Bastenier, 2000) and East African Asians (Mattausch, 1998). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • • • philosophical aspects of citizenship, integration and national identity citizenship and the law citizenship as social rights multiculturalism, the state and political integration multiculturalism and national identity.

In the context of UK immigration, the meaning of multiculturalism is unclear in policy terms and in regard to race relations policies. Multiculturalism often refers to the notion of identity as well as to a set of social policies. Both need to be more fully analysed as well as the relation between the two. The debate about English and British identity which was begun by Parekh needs to be followed through with systematic longitudinal research which deals with issues of citizenship, ethnic and national identity. 14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion There appears to be very little research over the past five years on social exclusion of immigrant groups. Part of the problem relates to the definition of social exclusion which can also be defined as racial discrimination in the case of immigrants. Such research would appear in the earlier category 12. In addition social exclusion is often discussed in terms of ethnicity, so there may be research carried out in the UK which includes such categories as social exclusion and ethnicity. Furthermore, any research which may be carried out on social exclusion of specific ethnic groups is likely to cover the broader term of ethnic minorities (eg see Chau and Yu, 2001) and again this may appear in the category on discrimination. Nevertheless, there is a clear lack of research on the process of social exclusion as it impacts on recently arrived immigrants. 15. Government documents and evaluations

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As can be seen from the listing in this section, there are very few government documents based on academic research on the area of integration of immigrants. The publications listed record immigration statistics. There is one evaluation study in this section (Richardson and Hills, 2000) which does not deal with question of ethnicity. Nevertheless, the Cabinet Office (2000) document, Minority Ethnic Issues in Social Exclusion and Neighbourhood Renewal, clearly deals with the subject of ethnicity in detail. Again, this document does not single out immigrants from ethnic minorities. No evaluation research on the integration of immigrants appeared in our searches. This is an area which is more likely to be carried out in the NGO area. These often appear as reports and are generally not listed in any data bases. 4.2 NGO based research and reports about the integration of immigrants from 1996-2001 This mapping project includes reports and research about integration of immigrants that have been carried out in the community sector as well as those commissioned by government departments. Given the lack of systematic information and databases relating to this sector, as discussed in the methodology chapter, the bibliography presented in the second part of this study cannot be considered comprehensive. Further, only a number of NGOs were selected for this exercise, as time did not permit a systematic search of all such organizations. Nonetheless, this section provides an overview of the issues and topics addressed by the NGO sector involved in some areas of integration of immigrants. The selected areas covered in this ‘mapping’ are those pertaining to health, housing, adult education and training, employment, political organisation and participation, self-help and community initiatives, social/cultural/religious issues, family life, and police/justice/legal systems. Issues relating to evaluation of programmes and policies pertaining to integration of immigrants are also covered, as well as “NGO reports and special programmes concerning integration of immigrant children research address and women. Reports and research done in each of these areas addravailability and quality ess a wide range to topics and issues of availability and quality of of services” services to facilitate integration based on assessments of community needs. 1. General The research carried out within the NGO and community sector necessarily includes some government and academic research - as material to consult or as research that has been carried out with partners. This section covers a number of broad topics from research on ethnic minorities in the inner city (Dorsett, 1998) to statistical material with a social focus on ethnic minorities from the Office for National Statistics (1996) through to research carried out by the Runnymeade Trust on the multi-ethnic good society (1996). 2/3. Adult education, training and employment

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Of the 30 or so articles in this section, the majority are concerned with employment and labour market matters (Owen, 2000; Sly et al, 1999); educational issues (Adand and Azmi, 1998) and language skills and problems (Carr-hill et al, 1996). Specific ethnic groups, such as Afro-Carribean, are considered in the research (Wrench and Hassan, 1996) while several articles are concerned with women eg Ethiopian and Eritrean women (Reda, no date). Some articles are concerned with racism in the labour market (TUC, 1999) as well as the plight of illegal workers (National Association of Citizens Advice Bureau, 1996). Several articles are concerned with business support for ethnic minority firms (Bank of England, 1999) and on business benefits of race equality at work (Metcalf and Forth, 2000). 4. Health The category of health covers a broad array of health issues and processes. The areas covered include specific health problems and disabilities (Ahmed, 1998; Butt and Bignall, 2000); the elderly (Lindsay et al, 1997; Patel, 1999); learning difficulties (Steele et al, 2000); general health care (National Health Service Ethnic Health Unit, 1996); childbirth issues (Clark, 1997); and research on specific ethnic groups in relation to specific issues such as attitudes of young single Somalis (Williams et al, 1998) and counselling services for Asian people (Netto, 2001). More than average research on evaluation of appropriate services and assessment appear in the NGO sector research (Bariso, 1997; Commission for Filipino Workers, 1997; National Health Service Ethnic health Unit, 1996). One study is concerned with homelessness and access to health care (Small and Hinton, 1997). 5. Housing This is another area that appears to receive necessary research attention in the NGO sector. Problems with housing can create immediate social problems such as homelessness (Davies, 1996), problems for the elderly and the need for sheltered housing (Goodby, 1996); problems with health (Small and Hinton, 1997). One area which receives specific attention is racism (Marshall et al, 1998; Kilpatrick, 1997; Dhooge 1996). There is also some research indicated on housing associations (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1996; London Federation of Housing Associations, 1996). One evaluation appears to have been carried out on association strategies (Housing Corporation, 1996). 6a. Social/cultural/religious [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 6b. Community/self-help This section contains research on various immigrant/ethnic communities (Somali – Ahmed, 1998) and Bangladeshi organizations (Asghar, 1996); ethnic voluntary and community organization (McLeod et la, 2001). It also includes research on needs of various communities and organizations (Iraqi Community Association, 1996). 7. Political organisation and training

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This section contains research (mostly academic research) on Black and Asian voting (Owen, 2000) and the British electoral system and ethnic minorities (Anwar, 2000). Another on the EU parliamentary election polls and ethnic minorities in Britain (Operation Black Vote, 1999). 8. Women This research deals with a number of issues which concern women directly such as labour market participation (Bhavni, 1997); childbirth (Clark, 1997); identity issues (Dattani et al, 2000); trafficking (Kelley and Regan, 2000); domestic violence versus deportation (Southall Black Sisters, 1996); while others are concerned with specific immigrant women such as Armenian women (Barseghian, 2001). 9a. Family life Many of these articles are concerned with support for families, the elderly (Bowes and MacDonald, 2000; Bowes and Dar, 1997; Yu, 2000). Others deal with parent-child communication (Lam, 1996); family mediation (Pankaj, 2001); deportation of families (Churches Commission for Racial Justice, 1997). 9b. Children Much of the research in this section relates to children’s schooling issues including teaching and learning strategies and issues to do with achievement (Bourne and Blair, 1998; Gillborn and Gipps, 1996; NALDIC, 1998; Runnyneade Trust, 1998). Some of the research is concerned with racial equality in schools (Commission for Racial Equality, 2000) and issues of race and identity (Richardson and Wood, 1999). Another issue covered is the provision of social services for children and the issue of race (Barn et al, 1997), and some research is concerned with specific ethnic groups and certain issues such as the education of Somali children in the UK (Kahin, 1997). 10. Police/justice/legal system This section covers a mixed bag of issues ranging from the law and the rights of people in the criminal justice system (NACAB, 2000; NACRO, 1996; Rison, 2000); ethnicity and victimization (Percy, 1998; Dilton, 1999) ethnic differences and decisions about young offenders (Barclay and Mhlanga, 2000); through to questions about racism and prejudice (Maynard and Read, 1997; HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2001) and working with racially motivated and racist offenders (National Association of Probation Officers, 1997); a report on the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (The Stationary office, 1999) and an evaluation of the recommendations of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (Bland and Quinton, 2000). 11. Welfare and social policy [This is an area of research which is easily absorbed in each of the categories we have used as a guide in this mapping exercise. ] 12. Racism/discrimination

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Many of the articles in this section have already appeared in their relevant other categories which cover legal issues (eg Maynard and Read, 1997); on racial equality in schools (Commission for Racial Equality, 2000); business benefiting of racial equality at work (Metcalf and Forth, 2000). Nevertheless, Home Office research by Sibbett (1997) is listed on the perpetrators of racial harassment and violence and the joint NGO submission to the UN committee for all forms of racial discrimination (Liberty Trust, 2000). 13. Citizenship and multiculturalism [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion There are several articles on social exclusion (Brownhill and Darke, 1998; Ahmed, 1998) as well as the Cabinet Office’s ‘Minority Ethnic Issues in Social Exclusion and Neighbourhood Renewal’ (2000). 15. Evaluation Overall, evaluation research appears to be more readily carried out within the NGO sector, though it is not readily available to policy makers, communities and the general public. Some research is concerned with methodology (Bell and Gibson, no year of publication) while other articles or reports are directly concerned with measuring processes and strategies (Health Action for Homeless People for Kensington, 1999; Scottish Community Development Centre; Migrant Resource Centre, 1999). In summary, two main issues emerge when reviewing themes and topics of the NGO reports and publications. Firstly, there are numerous reports and publications based on the perspectives of clients/groups using services in these areas. Secondly, there are a number of projects that carry out assessments and monitor accessibility and appropriateness of services in these areas based on clients/groups’ needs. This is particularly the case in areas of health and housing, and specifically concerning the special needs of immigrant children. This ‘mapping’ clearly indicates that there is a “Research going on certain amount of evaluation research going on in the community sector. It also reveals in the community sector is frequently that, unfortunately, this valuable information is frequently lost to the lost” remainder of the NGO sector, policy makers, the communities themselves and the society at large due to lack of systematic strategies of dissemination and communication between different groups and sectors involved in research and policy development in the area of immigrant and refugee integration. 4.3 Current Academic Research about immigrants from 1996 onwards Current research in the UK is thematically varied and often focuses on specific substantive issues. Although much of the research focuses on matters to do with integration and settlement, generally this is not the “Current academic research in the UK is thematically varied”

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stated aim of the research. Further, it needs to be stated at the outset that often the research includes immigrants, ethnic minorities and refugees. Some may be concerned specifically with immigrants though this may depend on the focus of the research where such a distinction may not be significant to the goals of the research. While comparative research is seen by many of the interviewees to be a gap in UK research on immigration, when we review current ongoing research, UK researchers have begun to carry out comparative research. Some of this has been driven by the EU funding strategies and others have developed out of research links forged among researchers both within the UK and in Europe. 1. General Here we have a disparate selection of research which is currently being conducted in the UK. For example, one is concerned with migration and the UK economy (Hatton, 2001-); on immigration controls in three EU countries (Morris, 1998-2000); on globalisation and regional development (2001-2003); and research on the Chinese diaspora (Pieke, 1998-2000). 2. Education and training There is one project in this section on pupil mobility with emphasis on immigrant children (Dobson and Henthorne, (1999-2000). 3. Labour market Here we have a longitudinal study of training, employment and migration in the London borough of Hackney (Institute of Employment Research, Warwick, 19972002); and another on borders and labour dynamics (Vickerman and Papapanagos, 1999-2001). Two projects on entrepreneurship - an EU project on entrepreneurship in the garment industry in Amsterdam, London, Birmingham, New York Miami and Los Angeles (Rath, Prodromos and Panayiotopoulos, 2000-2001) and one on entrepreneurship, kinship and the circulation of assets (Ballard and Gardner, 19992001); one on undocumented labour in London (Jordan,1997-1999). 4. Health [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 5. Housing [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 6. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation

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Three projects in this section appear to deal specifically with issues of integration. One concerns three ethnic groups Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields (Kershan, 2000-2003) while the other is a comparative European project on the integration of second generation youth (Penn, Perret and Lambert, 1998-2000). A third is concerned with West African Methodists in London (Wood and Eade, 20002001). 7. Political area: organisation, self-initiatives and participation There is one project in this section which is concerned with diasporic politics of immigrants and refugees from Turkey in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK (Nielsen, 1999-2000). 8. Women and gender One project is concerned with the maternal health needs of Turkish-speaking women in Hackney (Sales, Hoggart and Raman, 1998-2001) and another with integration of East Europeans in Bradford (Jackson, Holmes and Smith, 1997-1998). 9. Family and children There are three projects in this category – one is on the impact of legal status and children on transnational household strategies of migrant domestics (Phizacklea and Anderson, 11998-2001) another forced marriages (Samad and Eade (2001) and a third on the impact of immigration control on families (Humpjries and mynott, 1998-2001). 10. Justice and legal system The one project in this section is on the law and policy towards the Roma in the UK (Stevens, 2001). 11. Welfare and social policy [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 12. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies One project on migration and settlement policy (Kofman, 1999-2001) and another on civic stratification, exclusion and migratory trajectories in the UK, France and Italy (Kofman, Sales and Lloyd, 1999-2001). 13. Citizenship and multiculturalism This project is concerned with citizenship and inclusion/exclusion in four EU countries (Schuster and Solomos, 1999-2001). 14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 166

15. Government documents and evaluations To summarise, one of the outstanding features of this current research is that none appears to be carried out on a nation-wide basis. While the above research is very important in terms of adding to national and community knowledge as well as contribution towards policy, there is clearly, as also mentioned by some of the interviewees, a lack of nation-wide research on such issues. Secondly, as we can see from this list, there is little systematic research being carried out on both entry and settlement policy and on outcomes in various communities and regions. Thirdly, there is little systematic analysis on theoretical issues though there is some in the recent groups of articles published by Favel (2001), Parekh (2000). Social research on ethnic communities which considers matters of importance such as forced marriage, health matters as well as social research located in various localities are of paramount importance. This type of research arises through researcher knowledge with various communities and issues. However, there appears to be little or no work being carried out on conceptual issues to do with integration and race relations. What does the race relations paradigm mean for the UK in the 21st century? What is the overall policy of immigrant settlement and what are its constituent parts such as integration into the labour market? Fourthly, there is very little research work on gender issues, not only in terms of issues relating to immigrant women and girls in education, the labour market etc. but also in terms of research on immigrant men and boys. While there is some important research on youth, there needs to be a more systematic research agenda on immigrant youth – tomorrow’s adult generation. Fifthly, there appears to be little research carried out specifically on the attitudes of immigrants in terms of policy issues and the process of integration. Finally, the mapping on current research reveals the necessity to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the 21st century which covers the following areas: 1) policy definitions of ‘race relations’, ‘integration’, settlement, ‘multiculturalism’ etc 2) research on newly arrived community groups 3) neighbourhood and regional research 4) institutional racism and anti-racism 5) policy research on labour market, education and training, health; other citizenship issues such as equality of outcomes, immigrant participation, cultural processes etc. This needs to be done on a nation-wide basis. evaluation of policy in practice. 4.4 Published academic research about integration of refugees from 1996-2001 The collected bibliography and information about research conducted in the UK from 1996 onwards presented in this report (see Data Set 1) document that there is relatively little research about integration of refugees, given the urgency and importance of the issue. The existing research primarily focuses on specific issues concerning integration/ “There is relatively little research about integration of refugees”

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settlement of refugees. Aspects that are more frequently explored are education and training, health, and housing, as well as issues of exile, identity, and diaspora. In terms of specific groups covered by research in the UK, children are the most researched category. 1. General

A number of thematically varied studies, however, do exist in the UK. We were able to identify 29 references of research pertaining to more general aspects of refugee settlement. Of studies concerning the situation of forced migrants at the national level, much of the research is about asylum policy and its impact on protection and settlement of refugees (e.g. Bloch 2000a, 2000b, Richmond 2000) or about the situation of refugees from a single country of origin settled in the UK, such as Bosnians, Kosovans, South Africans, (e.g. Bloch 1999, Forest and Smith 1996, Israel 1999, Robinson and Coleman 2000). There are also studies about the situation of refugees in one locality (e.g. London) or a region (e.g. Wales). These studies focus primarily on problems concerning refugee settlement and provision, availability and quality of variety of a services to meet their needs (e.g. Bloch 1996, Green 1996, Robinson 1999). In some cases, they analyse the process of integration of refugees from a single country of origin in one locality or region, such as Vietnamese in London (Griffiths 2000, Lam and Martin 1997). These studies are generally focussed on various functional aspects of refugee settlement (e.g. housing, re-training and employment issues) and examine the availability and quality of social services provided to facilitate their functional integration. Other specific issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • • the importance of information in refugee settlement (e.g. Raddon and Smith 1998, Robinson 1998b) official policy and refugee responses (e.g. Lam and Martin 1997) the role of the media in (re)defining the refugee (e.g. Kaye 1998) the reasons for choosing Britain as the country of asylum (e.g. Day and White, forthcoming).

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It is striking that we were not able to identify any UK-based research that focuses specifically on asylum seekers/refugees’ attitudes towards integration and/or their vision about what constitutes ‘successful’ integration. It may be, of course, that these issues have been addressed but hidden in the existing academic research that to some extent includes exploration of experiences of refugee settlement in the UK. There is hardly any research on groups with special needs, such as the disabled, and none on elderly refugees. In terms of methods of research these studies vary and sometimes combine both quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. surveys, individual interviewing, and/or focus groups (e.g. Bloch, 2000). There is also very little comparative research at all levels. There is not any comparative research about refugees from different countries of origin and how they adjust to the British context. Comparative research about the situation of refugees and asylum seekers in different geographic locations within the UK is also missing, as well as about groups arriving at different times. Finally, there has been very little systematic research about settlement/integration issues at the national level, since 1996. This is not surprising given methodological concerns, problems with access to reliable official data about refugees, discussed earlier, as well as a general lack of resources (i.e. funding) for this type of research in the UK. 2. Education and training

Of the 13 references in this category, much of the research is about educational needs and problems of children and young adults (e.g. Closs and Arshad 2000, Kahin 1997, Marland 1998). Far less research is focused on issues concerning education and training needs of other refugee groups (e.g. Bloch 1996, Lam and Martin 1996). Most of the research is on a local (e.g. London) and/or regional level (e.g. Scotland). Much of this research evaluates issues and problems for refugee children and possible changes to strategies and policies. A very few studies about educational aspects of integration focus on specific types of education for refugees, such as higher education or citizenship education (e.g. Shah ed. 1996, Omoniyi 2000). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • children’s vulnerability and experiences of racism and xenophobia (e.g. Brewin and Demetriades 1998) modes of in-service training to support refugees and facilitate social inclusion (e.g. Jones and Rutter 1998)

As already emphasised, there is a lack of research in this area about educational needs and problems of adults, and those with a low level of education in particular. 3. Labour market

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This mapping shows that the area of labour and employment is under-researched. A small number of studies, only six in this category, may indicate that specific issues of employment and the labour market participation of refugees were to some extent covered and ‘hidden’ in research about immigrants and ethnic minorities. These few studies focus primarily on issues concerning employment of highly skilled refugees, such as medical doctors or engineers (e.g., Beecham 1999, Salinas 1998), or on the employment situation of refugees in one locality, such as the London Borough of Newham (Bloch 1996). Key issues engaged by researchers in these few studies include: • • • • employment needs of refugees (Bloch 1996) labour market experiences of refugees with professional skills (Pile 1997) legal barriers to employment of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK (Hudson 1996) problems of medical doctors in the UK and issues of wasted resources (e.g. Berlin, Gill and Eversley 1997).

Given the extent to which this area is under-researched, it is safe to suggest that more research about a variety of aspects concerning the labour market is needed. We point here to issues such as employment/unemployment rates among refugees and the barriers to their labour market participation, informal economy and refugees. 4. Health

The area of health is one of the better-researched aspects of refugee settlement. Of the 26 references in this category, the research primarily covers two main issues concerning health, the issue of needs of refugees and the issue of healthcare provision, and it usually addresses these issues at the national level. With respect to the needs of refugees, research mainly focuses on trauma, and physical and mental stress associated with terror and conflict that caused flight and their impact on exile (e.g. Burnett and Peel 2001, Gorst-Unsworth and Goldenberg 1998, Lavik et al. 1996). Studies about healthcare provision focus on availability and access to primary health services (e.g. Deane 1997). Within research focusing on healthcare provision, less research is centred on problems relating to inequalities and their effect on refugees and the healthcare system (e.g. Jones and Gill 1998a, 1998b). We were able to identify only one study about psycho-social problems of refugees caused by postmigration experience, and specifically by the policy context in the UK, which determines refugee well-being and choice in the process of settlement (Jobbins 1997). In terms of specific groups, much of the research in the area of health is focussing on children (e.g. Davies and Webb 2000, Hodes 2000). We identified only one study about healthcare needs and provision for disabled refugees (Roberts 2000) and none on needs of refugees with other special needs, such as elderly or those with specific diseases. Therefore, key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • responses to trauma and torture (e.g. Harris and Maxwell 2000, Herman 1998)

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• •

primary health services and refugees (e.g. Hargreaves, Holmes, and Friedland 1999) child specific healthcare (e.g. Sellen and Balkan 2000).

Although the area of health is relatively better-researched than other areas, as mentioned earlier, there are many aspects and problems relating to the issue of health that are not studied in the UK. Some of the issues that need the attention of researchers are: needs of refugees with specific diseases, needs of specific groups (e.g. elderly, women), family planning and sex education etc. 5. Housing

Of the fifteen references in this category, much of the research is about the involvement and problems of local authorities in providing adequate housing for refugees or about access to social housing (e.g. Gosling 1998, Zetter and Pearl 1999). Other key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • the role of associations and the local state in negotiating housing (e.g. Bright 1996) housing choice versus housing constraints and the role of ‘gatekeepers’ (e.g. Cullen 1996, Graham 1998) evaluation of advice services for refugees (e.g. Means and Sangster 1998).

Many aspects of housing problems of refugees remain uncovered by research, such as assessment of degrees and indices of segregation and homelessness among refugees. 6. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation A small number of studies in the socio-cultural area. We identified eight references in this category, primarily addressing the issues of identity, diaspora and community among different refugee populations in Britain (e.g. Griffiths 1997, Phillips and Hardy 1997, Wahlbeck 1998). We identified only two comparative studies in this area, and they explore community work and politics of exiled Kurdish refugees in Finland and England (Wahlbeck 1996, 1999). Therefore, key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • negotiation of new identities (e.g. Griffiths 1997) the role of community organisations and leaders (e.g. Wahlbeck 1998, Zetter and Pearl 2000).

Among many issues that need attention of researchers in this area, we point here to exploration of religious affiliation and practice as well as change and continuation of gender relations and practices in exile. 7. Political area: organisation, self-initiatives and participation

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A small number of studies focussing specifically on this area, only four references in this category, focus on the following issues: • • relationship between the policy context and refugee participation (Bloch 2000, Zetter and Pearl 2000) refugee associations and diaspora and their impact of the character of participation of refugees (Wahlbeck 1996, 1998).

Given the importance of the issue for full integration of refugees in the receiving society and the research specifically focusing on participation of refugees in the political sphere, we argue that virtually all aspects of political participation represent a gap in research in the UK. 8. Women and gender

Of the six references with a specific focus on the category of women or the issues of gender as they pertain to integration, most of the research in this area focuses on the gender dimension of legal/admission policy issues (e.g. Crawley 2001). Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include: • • • legal status of refugee women (e.g. Crawley 2001, 1999) gender sensitive approach to migration (Sweetman ed. 1998) experiences of exile of refugee women from specific ethnic backgrounds in one locality (Sales and Gregory 1998).

Given that it has become widely acknowledged that every aspect of exile and refugee experience is importantly gendered, it is striking that there are very few studies focussing specifically on these aspects of exile and integration. It may be, however, that researchers apply a gender sensitive approach when examining different aspects of refugee settlement and, consequently, knowledge about these important issues remains ‘hidden’ in research. Nonetheless, the issue of gender remains an underexplored aspect of integration in the UK. 9. Family and children

This area appears to be better researched than other areas, because this mapping points to 24 references focussing specifically on this category. Most of the research, however, focuses on children and almost none on family life and integration issues. The research on refugee children is primarily concerned with the issues of schooling and education, as discussed earlier, as well as with the legal issues affecting unaccompanied minors. Most of this research refers to the refugee children in general and their situation in the UK, and there are few studies that explore the situation of children from specific ethnic groups or countries of origin, such as Albanian, Bosnian, and Somali children. Key issues engaged by contemporary researchers in this field include:

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• • • • • •

legal aspects of admission and reception of unaccompanied children (e.g. Ayotte 1998, Russell 1999, Taylor 1997) rights of children from families seeking asylum (Sone 1997) needs and problems of refugee children and their implication for policy makers (Rutter and Hyder 1998) social roles and networks of refugee children (Candappa 2000) psychological problems of refugee children (Hodes 2001) culturally sensitive educational assistance to refugee children and their families (Rutter 1997).

As already mentioned, one of the main gaps in this area is knowledge and empirical data on family life of refugees, the patterns of change as well as the ways in which family life safeguards cultural practice and maintains native language. Another important gap is missing research about inter-marriage and the process of negotiation of cultural practices of family members. 10. Justice and legal system In the area of law and justice, a very limited number of studies address the legal issues concerning race, gender, or sexual practice of refugees (i.e. homosexuality), as well as issues pertaining to refugee children as they relate to the admission and reception processes. In the six references in this category, the researchers focus on the following topics: • • • • legal issues and gender (Crawely 2001) legal concept of asylum and racial issues (Shah 2000) exploration of the category ‘refugee’ as a legal construct (Tuitt 1996) sexual practice of asylum claimants and the determination process (Mcghee 2001).

The limited number of studies in this area indicates that there are many gaps in research. Some of the main gaps relate to the lack of statistical data on rates and analysis of root causes of victimisation of various refugee groups as well as their criminality in areas of their settlement. 11. Welfare and social policy Welfare and social policy has seldom been the primary focus of research in the UK. Of the nine references in this category, the researchers focus on the following topics: • • • effects of the UK policy context on refugee settlement, their self-sufficiency and participation (e.g. Bloch 2000, French 1999, Joly 1996) evaluation of specific sectors and programmes, such as housing, education, and health service (Okitikpi and Aymer 2000, Stanton 1998, Trafford and Winkler 2000) welfare rights and fiscal impacts of refugees (Remedios 1997).

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Although the lack of research specifically focussing on welfare and social policy may not mean that these issues remain unexplored in studies that address broader issues of refugee settlement, this mapping indicates that there is a lack of research about policy strategies and delivery of policies for refugees. 12. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies The four references in this category include discussion of the following issues: • assessment of specific government programmes to assist refugees from specific countries of origin and their social implications, including experiences of discrimination and racism. Most of this research was carried out by one researcher (Robinson 2000, 1999, 1998) the role of the media in social constructions about asylum seekers and refugees (Kaye 1998).

It is important to emphasise again that the lack of research specifically focussing on discrimination and racism may not mean that these issues remain unexplored in studies that address broader issues of refugee settlement. Nonetheless, this mapping indicates that there is a lack of systematic research and empirical data about forms and instances of discrimination and racism experienced by different refugee groups caused by the policy of dispersal. 13. Citizenship and multiculturalism Citizenship and multiculturalism is another area that is presently under-researched. The two references in this category address the following topics: • • comparative perspective on citizenship and social policy issues as they pertain to refugees in Britain and Europe (Bloch and Levy eds. 1999) issues concerning citizenship education and refugees (Omoniyi 2000).

The lack of research in this area documents yet again the existing gap in research about different aspects of wider societal participation of refugees in UK society. 14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion This mapping exercise does not indicate any research focusing specifically on issues relating to the neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion category. 15. Government Documents and Evaluations The 17 references presented in Data Set 1 represent government publications and documents as well as evaluations of specific policy measures in the area of refugee settlement (e.g. Robinson and Coleman 2000). The government documents address four broad areas: i. ii. implementation of specific policies responsibilities of local authorities for implementation of specific policies and provision of specific social services 174

iii. iv.

strategies for integrating refugees statistical data.

Key issues addressed within these four areas include: • • • • • implementation of the policy of dispersal (Audit Commission 2000 document) the role of local authorities in implementing policies pertaining to asylum seekers and refugees (Association of London Government 1996 document) the role of local authorities in providing health services to asylum seekers and refugees (Audit Commission for Local Authorities 2000 document) strategies to facilitate full and equal participation of refugees in UK society (e.g. Carey-Wood 1997, Home Office 1998 and 2000 documents) statistics on immigration control and persons granted British citizenship (e.g. Jackson and McGregor 2000, Kilsby and McGregor 2000).

Although the number of studies focussing on assessment of specific government policies/programmes (e.g. Bosnians, Ugandan Asians, Vietnamese) is not significant, it is important to emphasise that these studies give explicit or implicit policy recommendations and can be highly useful in terms of policy development in the UK.

4.5 NGO based research and reports about the integration of refugees from 1996-2001 This mapping project indicates that the NGO sector and statutory “NGO and statutory bodies in the UK provide valuable research materials about the issues bodies’ research pertaining to refugees, their needs and their integration/settlement in materials represent an the country. Their reports, guidelines, and policy recommendations invaluable source of based on their experience of work with refugees in local communities, information” as well as research, represents an invaluable source of information to both researchers and policy makers. The bibliography of publications and reports on integration of refugees in the UK by the NGO sector and statutory bodies presented in this report (see Data Set 2), cannot be considered comprehensive, because systematic data bases do not exist, as already emphasised in this report. Nonetheless, the collected information clearly indicates a variety of aspects of integration covered. This mapping indicates that the areas of health and education, training and employment are better covered than other areas. In terms of focus on the situation of specific groups, there is the indication that children are more often a focus of concern than other categories. 1. General

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NGO reports and publications are primarily concerned with needs of refugees and asylum seekers and services to meet these needs, as well as with assessment of current policies and programmes concerning refugees and asylum seekers. The former type of reports and research refer to the situation of refugee population from a single country of origin or ethnic group in a city borough or town, and far less often to a region (e.g. Green 1996, Humm 1996). Most of these reports and publications are small-scale, generally based on ‘snap-shot’ methodologies. The methods used in evaluating specific programmes and services are prevailingly qualitative, based on individual interviewing or on focus groups. Although data collected for these reports cannot be considered highly representative of the targeted population of refugees, these reports and publications represent a source of valuable information about potentially good practices and strategies for integrating refugees at local level. The material that assesses current policies and programmes pertaining to refugees and asylum seekers offers updates, critiques, and recommendations concerning policy developments pertaining to asylum seekers and refugees (Refugee Council 1996 and 1997 reports on the state of asylum and the government’s new policies pertaining to refugees). Additionally, the NGO sector provides relatively comprehensive information about nation-wide services for refugees and asylum seekers in the UK as well as guides to recent changes in legislation concerning asylum seekers (e.g. ILPA/Resource Information Service 2001 document, Refugee Council 1996 document on refugee resources in Britain). Key issues addressed in these documents include: • • • • critical assessment of social effects of different policies, such as the policy of dispersal (Asylum Rights Campaign 2000 document), and the voucher scheme (Oxfam/T&G/Refugee Council 2000 document) development of programmes to assist earlier self-sufficiency among refugees (Lukes, Bell and Lloyd 1997) financial impact of refugees and asylum seekers (e.g. London Research Centre 1998) assessment of the situation and needs of refugees and asylum seekers in places of their settlement.

2/3. Adult education, training and employment Material on education, training and employment presented in this report consists of research and guides and manuals for both practitioners in the field as well as for refugees (e.g. Prince 2000, Peters 2001). Research material in this area focuses on employment by assessing the needs of refugees in specific settlement areas (e.g. Shuttle 1996), by pointing to the institutional barriers that hinder participation of refugees in the labour market (e.g. The Industrial Society 1999), and by assessing specific training programmes for refugees (e.g. Canadappa 1999). Key issues addressed in this area include: • language needs of refugees (e.g. Little and Lazenby Simpson 1996)

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• •

training needs and employment of the skilled and qualified (e.g. Peabody Trust/London Research Centre 1999 document) routes to finding employment (e.g. Africa Educational Trust, Gillet and Gregg 1999)

In terms of focus on special groups, this mapping indicates that there is more attention on young refugees, male in particular, as well as those with professional skills. We identified only one study that focuses on employers and their assessment of vocational training provided for refugees (Thomas Coram Research Unit/Canadappa 1998). 4. Health Material on the area of health is primarily research about the health needs of refugees or about their experience as users of health care services in areas where they settled (e.g. Croydon, Cardiff, Camden and Islington). There are also guidelines and manuals providing information and advice to practitioners in the field, such as general practitioners, pediatricians and advisory workers (e.g. Levenson 1999). Key issues addressed in this material include: • • • • mental health problems of refugees and asylum seekers (e.g. Pourgourides and Sashidharan 1996; Refugee Support Service 1997 document) health implications of the asylum seeking process (e.g. Enfield and Haringey Health Authority 1999 report, Muzaffar, Saeher, Haque, Obaidul and Sugden 1999) care of victims of torture (e.g. Newham Refugee Centre 1996 report) problems of specific diseases, such as HIV, assessment and prevention among asylum seekers and refugees (e.g. London Borough of Lewisham 1999 document, Maharaj, Warwick and Whitty 1996).

In terms of specific groups, research in this area focuses more often on children and young refugees (e.g. McCallin ed. 1996) than on other groups, such as disabled (SIREN/Roberts 2000). In terms of the country of origin or ethnic background, the collected material almost exclusively focuses on the needs of newly arrived groups, such as Bosnians (e.g. Vaskovic 1998) and Kosovans (e.g. Dean 2000). 5. Housing The collected material on housing indicates that this area is less often the focus of attention of the NGO sector. A very few publications in this area, presented in the second part of this report, address the issues of: • • • access to the private housing sector (Garvie 2001) assessment of the housing situation of specific refugee groups (e.g. Latin American Welfare Group 1996 document) use of public funds for meeting housing needs of refugees and asylum seekers (e.g. London Research Centre 1998 document).

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A very few publications pertaining to this area identified in this research address the issues of strategy concerning interfaith refugee networks (Social and Pastoral Action 1997) as well as the information needs of refugee groups (Radden 1998). 6b. Community/self-help initiatives Relatively little material pertaining to this area, identified in this mapping, primarily addresses the issues of the role of community networks in settlement of specific groups, such as Bosnians (Maric unpublished), and to problems in obtaining asylum experienced by certain groups of refugees, such as Sri Lankan Tamils (Refugee Council 1997 document). There are also reports about refugee participation and empowerment (OXFAM 1996). Other specific issues covered include discussion about the ways to overcome diversity among refugee communities (e.g. Field and Harrow 1999) as well as routes to the self-sufficiency of refugees (e.g. Lukes, Bell and Lloyd 1997). 7. Political organisation/participation We were able to identify only one document pertaining to this area, published by Amnesty International, which deals with issues of refugees’ right to participation and ‘voice’. 8. Women NGO reports focusing specifically on women are not numerous, as this mapping indicates. A few publications included in the bibliography primarily address the issues of asylum process and the position of women (e.g. ILPA/Refugee Action 1998, Refugee Council 1997 document). A few reports also look into the specific situation of women concerning the labour market and employment (e.g. The Industrial Society 1999, Refugee Women’s Association 1998). 9a. Family life A few publications pertaining to this area identified and presented in the bibliography of NGO publications, primarily focus on the needs, family life, and problems of specific refugee groups in the UK, such as Bosnians, and Vietnamese (e.g. Kirby 1999, Lam 1996). We were also able to identify two reports focussing specifically on elderly refugees, their needs and family problems (Refugee Action 1997, Refugee Council 1998). 9b. Children Material focussing specifically on children addresses primarily their specific situation in the areas of health and education and offers practical guides and resource books for practitioners in schools and health services (e.g. Islington Council 1997 document; Lewisham Education and Community Services 1998 document). Key issues addressed in this material include:

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• • • • •

assessment of children’s specific settlement needs (e.g. Gosling 2000) psycho-social needs and well-being of children (e.g. Davies and Webb 2000) childcare provision (e.g. Praxis 1998 document) unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and their needs (e.g. Russell 1999, Stone 2000) educational needs of refugee children (e.g. Refugee Council 1997 document).

Most of these publications address the situation of refugee children in general, and to a lesser extent focus on children from specific country of origin. 10. Justice/political/legal system NGO reports focusing on this area are primarily concerned with asylum rights and challenge the official procedures in assessing asylum claims and determination process in general (e.g. Asylum Aid 1999, Asylum Rights Campaign 1996, Jagmohan 1996, Refugee Legal Centre 1997), as well as detention practice in the UK (e.g. Amnesty International UK 1996, Hornsby-Smith et al. 1997). 11. Welfare and social policy [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 12. Racism/discrimination A few reports with a special focus on racism and discrimination, identified in this mapping, focus on issues of poverty of asylum seekers and refugees caused by the implementation of the Asylum and Immigration Act (Carter 1996), and racism and xenophobia caused by the implementation of dispersal policy (Fekete 2000). 12. Citizenship and multiculturalism [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 13. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 15. Evaluation Information about evaluation reports provided in the second part of this report (Data Set 2) indicates that the NGO sector evaluates their specific projects, such as The Bosnia Project (e.g. Compass Partnership 1997). Some of these evaluations and reports are based on joint evaluation, and involves both service/programme providers and refugees (e.g. Refugee Education and Training Advisory Service 2000). 4.6 Current academic research about refugees from 1996 onwards The Data Set 3, presented in the second part of this report, gives an indication of the current, ongoing or recently completed, 179 “This set of data reveals relatively small number of studies on refugees”

research about integration of refugees in the UK. This set of data reveals relatively small number of studies on refugees conducted by different research institutions in Britain. 1. General

Current research in this category thematically ranges from issues relating to patterns of integration and alienation of refugees in the UK in relation to the legal and political institutions (the project carried out by Joly) to assessment and evaluation of the policy of dispersal and its effect on the situation of refugees settled in Scotland (the project carried out by Walsh). Other issues addressed include: the character of links established between transnational exile communities in the places of their settlement and their countries of origin (the project carried out by Black, Koser, and Al-Ali), and analysis of policy transformations in Britain and the ways in which they shape priorities in research about refugees and asylum seekers (the project carried out by Zetter).

2.

Education, training, and employment

Current research pertaining to education and training of refugees looks into the issues of their needs and the ways to overcome the barriers to their employment in UK society (e.g. the project carried out by Roberts). These studies primarily focus on the situation in the UK, and to a lesser extent to the situation in a region or locality (the project carried out by Block in Newham). 3. Health

This mapping identified only one current research project about health issues as they relate to refugee settlement. This ongoing study looks into the health and social welfare problems of a specific refugee population, the Ethiopian refugees (the project carried on by Papadopoulos). This project is concerned with the health and social care needs of Ethiopian refugees in the UK. It aims to identify risk groups, common health and social needs. Its research methodology and methods are designed to involve community groups as a way of their empowerment and capacity building. 4. Housing

This mapping indicates that the current research on housing problems of refugees focuses on social housing provision for refugee and asylum seekers in the UK (the project carried out by Zetter et al.) as well as problems related to housing associations and housing management (the projects carried out by Pearle and Zetter). We were also able to identify one small-scale research about the housing and welfare needs of a specific refugee population in one locality, i.e. the Vietnamese refugees in London (the project carried out by Chevannes). 5. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation

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The research project identified in this category looks into the ways in which monocultural communities affect refugees and asylum seekers settled in such areas (the project carried out by Dawison). 6. Political area: organisation, self-initiatives and participation

This mapping has not been able to identify any current research specifically focussing on the issues pertaining to this category. 7. Women and gender

The two projects that focus specifically on the issues related to women and gender, which have been identified in this mapping, look into the issues of dispersal and their effect on the lives of Roma refugee women, as well as on the issues of domestic violence, women, and adequacy of legislation to protect them (the project carried out by Ceneda, Palmer, and Smith). 8. Family and children

Current research focussing on issues pertaining to family and children looks into issues ranging from the problems of legal provisions to family reunification and their impact on refugees (the project carried out by Mynott), welfare professional responses to the needs of children and families traumatised by flight (the project carried out by Okitikpi and Aymer), to problems of children separated from their parents and families (the project carried out by Dawson). 9. Justice and legal system

[No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 10. Welfare and social policy The two projects identified by this mapping, which examine the issues of welfare and social policy, are looking at the role of social services in meeting the resettlement needs of refugees (the project carried out by Sales, Dutton, Kohli, and Hoggart), as well as the specific needs and problems of disabled refugees in the UK (the project carried out by Roberts). 11. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 12. Citizenship and multiculturalism [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.] 13. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion [No specific research identified in mapping exercise.]

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14. Government and evaluations To summarise, a quick review of the current research list (Data Set 3), shows there is very little research currently being undertaken on the integration of refugees in the UK. Gaps are specifically highlighted in Chapter 5. 4.7 Recent and current academic research about ethnic minorities and asylum seekers from 1996-2001 The information collected on recent and current research about ethnic minorities, as evident from the list presented in the second part of this study (see Data Set 1 and Data Set 3), shows that ethnic minorities are the focus of academic research more often than simply immigrants or refugees. Given that this project focuses on research specifically on immigrants and refugees, in this section we will very briefly point to the themes and topics of this research, some of which may pertain to the situation of immigrants and/or refugees in the UK. Themes and topics of research about ethnic minorities range from policy-oriented research, to issues relating to health, labour market and/or specifically women and work, family life, and different aspects of exclusion. Frequently, these specific issues or aspects of integration are explored in relation to the situation of specific ethnic group, i.e. minority, such as Chinese, Sri Lankans etc. Research on ethnic minorities in the UK, as this ‘mapping’ suggests, also focuses on exploration of theoretical issues concerning ethnicity and multiculturalism. This type of research also seems to focus more often on gender-related aspects of integration, and examines not only the specific situation of women but also men, and black men in particular. In terms of focus on specific groups, it is also apparent that the research about ethnic minorities more often addresses the problems of youth, in relation to the labour market in particular, than is the case in research about immigrants.

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Given the focus of this mapping, the bibliography about asylum seekers collected in this research represents only a selection of work about this legal category of forced migrants and issues that pertain to the process of integration of those who may be permitted to stay in the UK. As Data Sets 1 and 3 indicate, much of the research about asylum seekers gives critical analysis of asylum policy in the UK by focussing on its exclusionary practices and their social implications (e.g. Cohen 1996; Ferriman 1997). There is an indication that research about asylum is more often comparative in nature than research about refugees in the UK. It examines reception conditions in different European countries (e.g. Bank 2000; the project carried out by Schuster and Solomos ), or more broadly issues about exclusionary mechanisms relating to asylum in Europe (e.g. Joly 1996, Lassalle 2000). Additionally, some of these studies focus specifically on human rights issues relating to asylum procedures in the UK and other European countries (e.g. Blake and Wright 1999, Feria-Tinta and Doebbler 1999). Research focussing on critical examination of reception and treatment of asylum seekers in the UK, frequently addresses the issue of detention of asylum seekers in the UK and its psycho-social implications (e.g. Pourgourides 1997, Silove, Sinnerbrink, Field, Manicavasagar, and Steel 1997, Travers 1999). There is also research focussing on social implications of limited access to welfare system and social services, which points to the poverty and social exclusion created by the withdrawal of the right to social welfare benefits (e.g. Carter 1996; Garvie 2001, Kaye 1999). In addition to studies about the area of welfare and social policy as it pertains to asylum seekers, the area of health is also often the focus of research. These studies primarily address the issues of health care and health needs of asylum seekers (e.g. Peel 2001, Taylor 1998; the project carried out by Johnson) or the impact of asylum on health of asylum seekers (e.g. Jobbins 2001). In terms of special focus on particular groups of asylum seekers, research primarily focuses on children, either on the situation of unaccompanied children in the asylum process (e.g. Ayotte 1998) or on the problems of children in education and schools while awaiting a decision about their status (e.g. Brewin and Demetriades 1998). This mapping also indicates that the current research about asylum seekers (see Data Set 3) is more increasingly focussing on researching and assessing the consequences of the policy of dispersal (e.g. the project carried out by Hewitt and Cwerner). 4.8 Conclusion The mapping of the main themes and topics of research about immigrants and refugees presented in this chapter was given according to the categories and classifications which were developed to facilitate collection and building up of data sets provided in the second part of this report. These categories emerged from interviews with experts in the field as well as from the authors’ expertise as being the most suitable given the character of this mapping and its terms of reference. Given that the categories used, correspond generally to key policy areas it was considered that they would provide the most useful framework for discussing and presenting “Categorisation is information collected in this research. This, not problem-free” however, does not mean that the categorisation is not problem-free. As emphasised throughout this chapter, some of the categories put emphasis on specific aspects of integration or specific groups of immigrants and

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refugees, which may not always be the central focus of researchers’ attention, but may still be addressed in their discussion and therefore ‘hidden’ in analyses. This problem is compounded by the fact that boundaries between immigrants, ethnic minorities, and asylum seekers are often blurred. Hence, some areas that appear under-researched in this mapping, for example the category ‘neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion’ in research about refugees, may be covered to some extent by research about ethnic minorities or immigrants. For these reasons, the discussion in this Chapter should be taken as an indication about the state of the art in these areas of research. While this Chapter aimed to give an overview of the main themes, topics and issues covered by research in the UK from 1996, the gaps that emerged in the discussion will be addressed more comprehensively in Chapter 5.

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Chapter 5 Gaps in the research on integration of immigrants and refugees
Chapter Summary – In both academic and NGO sectors, experts agree there is a serious lack of data and other factual knowledge about processes and factors of immigrant and refugee integration. This situation is currently compounded by the absence of an overall systematic research strategy. Contrasted to the subject-led mapping discussion of research 1996-2001 represented in the previous Chapter, this Chapter describes significant gaps and recommends a variety of measures with regard to the development of appropriate databases, concepts, theories and research methods. Among other things, this includes calls for: analyses of historical experiences of integration; recognising the contemporary significance of transnational networks among immigrants and refugees; more exploration of the impact of legal categories on integration processes; the need for longitudinal studies; combining quantitative and qualitative methods in evidence-gathering for policy; more work on specific ethnic groups; more gender-aware research; and finally, the need for enhanced cooperation between academic researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and immigrants and refugees.

The overview of research (Data Sets 1−3) together with the expert interviews carried out for this study indicate that there are gaps in virtually every area of research on immigrant and refugee integration. These research gaps have been categorised according to the guiding model of categories or classifications which were developed at the beginning of the research based on the interviewees’ and researchers’ expertise (see Appendix 1). These categories also correspond generally to key policy areas. In some areas, however, there is simply a lack of knowledge. For example, very little is known about undocumented workers, about family reunion “There are gaps in members, or about recently arrived communities. On the other virtually every area of hand, a lack of systematic research strategies in key policy areas, research on immigrant and along with lack of co-ordination between government and the refugee integration” academic research and NGO sectors have led to a situation in which there is an insufficient body of social scientific knowledge for evidence-based policy development.

5.1 Conceptual and theoretical gaps Our study has found that there is considerable confusion about the social scientific concepts and theories needed to analyse integration processes. There is no consensus about the meaning of terms like integration, incorporation, inclusion, participation and other terms used to describe the process of adjustment and changes associated with immigration and exile. Further, there is no agreement about the “There is no consensus operationalisation of these concepts to be applied to various fields about the meaning of of study, and about the most useful indicators for assessing the terms like integration” outcomes of integration processes. Some of the unevenness and contradictions can be attributed to disciplinary and paradigmatic differences, but others seem to be the result of a lack of adequate research and debate between various actors in the field. 5.1.1 Immigrants

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There is a need for systematic analysis of various theories and models of integration. The aim would be to compare the empirical and analytical basis of the differing approaches, and to assess their usefulness for various policy contexts, as well as the way they correspond with the needs and goals of various stakeholder groups. The use of terminology (for instance acculturation, race relations, settlement, ethnic relations, multiculturalism) need to be considered as well. The varying meanings of the term ‘integration’, which range from assimilationist to pluralist perspectives, need to be examined more closely in terms of their application to two-way processes of accommodation between minorities and the broader society. Further, conceptual and theoretical issues concerning the ‘race relations’ paradigm and the necessity for its further development to address adequately the changes in international migration patterns affecting the situation in the UK. Theories of immigration and integration need to be examined more closely, especially in terms of their relevance to the UK and the possible shift to a policy of ‘planned migration’. Such research should include comparative research in European and other western countries of immigration (such as the Netherlands, France, Sweden, US, Canada and Australia). Comparison of past experience and of policy models is needed both in general and for specific groups (highly-skilled migrants, labour migrants, family reunion, undocumented workers labour market, legal, female immigrants). Such research would have to be linked to comparative analysis of broader state policies on the labour market, education, social services etc. Research is needed to clarify the composition of and linkages between immigrant categories in the UK. Researchers need to develop a generally-agreed set of definitions on what constitutes immigrants, ethnic minorities, the second and subsequent generations etc., while being mindful of the problems of constraining people’s choices by attaching labels to them. The relationship between the concepts of ‘immigrants’ and ‘refugee’ needs to be examined. Legal and popular usage of these “The relationship between the terms concepts of ‘immigrants’ and does not always correspond, leading to possible confusion. ‘refugees’ needs to be This is partly due to complex and changing legal and policy examined” settings, and partly to the fact the people do not always fit comfortably in a single category or move between them. There needs to be a systematic analysis of the history of the UK race relations approach, including assessment of the positive and negative outcomes in various sectors of society. Such research is necessary before decisions can be made about adoption of integration approaches used in other western immigration countries. Study of the race relations approach should include examination of local and community level experiences, to develop understanding of the causes of persistent racism and inter-group conflicts in some areas. Varying policy models and outcomes need to be set in the context of broader economic and social problems in the specific areas. There is a need for research on the integration process of various long-standing communities, to work out which approaches and policies have been successful, and for what reasons.

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Research is required on cultural and community change. How do immigrants develop the individual and group capabilities needed to function in a new socio-cultural setting? What is the role of community leaders, religious leaders, associations and ethnic economic infrastructures in such processes? How does the receiving population experience change and cope with it? How are institutional practices modified to make services more relevant? Such research also requires examination of varying perceptions and definition of ‘community’. Research on immigrants and social exclusion/inclusion is needed, since these have become key public policy concepts in the context of changes in the welfare state. This requires examination of the position of immigrants in relation to class, ethnicity, gender in terms of policy objectives for various social sectors. This research should be linked to examination of participation in various contexts. Research is needed on the significance of transnational communities for immigrants in the UK. Due to the rapidly improving transport and communication technologies associated with globalisation, it is increasingly easy for immigrants to maintain enduring economic, social, political and cultural linkages with their countries of origin and with co-ethnics in other places. This is thought to influence processes of integration in receiving countries. Research on this topic is in its infancy, but is crucial to understanding the situation of new immigrants in the contemporary world. 5.1.2 Refugees

The gaps in empirical research about different aspects of integration of refugees make it difficult to develop a good theoretical and conceptual framework for addressing and understanding integration issues. Consequently, there is a lack of clear concepts and developed theoretical framework based “There is a need to develop a on empirical studies about integration of refugees in the UK. theoretical framework that There is a need to develop a theoretical framework that will will bridge the gap between bridge the gap between frameworks of ‘race relations’ and frameworks of ‘race relations’ ‘refugee studies’. This mapping project points to the following and ‘refugee studies’” areas of research that are important for the development of clear analytical concepts and definitions, as well as empirically well-grounded policy recommendations: There is a need to conceptually clarify the relationship between integration and return. This kind of research would be an important source of information about how grounded is the notion adopted by EU governments that a lack of integration programmes facilitate return of the refugees. There is a lack of research that explores the relationship between temporary protection and integration. The question of social effects of temporary protection on the process of integration has become increasingly important due to the intensification of restrictions on official recognition under the Geneva Convention.

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There is a need to explore the relationship between asylum process and integration in order to understand the economic, social, and political consequences of policies that encourage and facilitate integration only after status acknowledgement. This type of research should focus on people at the commencement of the asylum process, including their beliefs and hopes about their future, as well as their attitudes towards UK society. Such an exploration has to be followed by an examination of how such expectations are affected by the asylum process. This research should also include evidence from frontline agencies and organisations working with refugees in each integration area (education, health etc). There is a lack of research about the role of refugee communities and networks in the process of integration. This type of research can shed more light on the relationship between integration of groups and individuals. It should explore how refugee communities facilitate integration in the receiving society. In this respect, it would be useful to do comparative research with countries where community organisations are not as developed as in the UK (e.g. Austria or Italy). There is a lack of research that explores differences among different categories of immigrants in the UK and the social consequences of these legal constructs. This type of research should compare the experiences of different groups, i.e. economic migrants, convention and humanitarian refugees, as well as illegal immigrants. Such research would be very useful in uncovering to what extent these categories are mere legal constructs and to what extent they both reflect and shape social reality. There is a lack of conceptually grounded indicators of integration. Development of good and useful indicators requires clarity concerning the following questions: • who defines ‘successful’ integration (i.e. policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and/or refugees?) • which aspects of integration are more important (i.e. legal, economic, social, political, psychological?) • how do we measure ‘soft’ indicators (i.e. methodological problems involved in the use of quantitative versus qualitative research methods). There is a lack of research about experiences of refugees regarding integration, how refugees see themselves, their communities and UK society. There is little or no research about the strategies of integration developed by the refugees themselves. This kind of research would be an important source of knowledge about the ways in which refugees respond to specific policy contexts and which policies allow refugees to cope better.

5.2 Methodological gaps: immigrants and refugees Research about the integration of immigrants and refugees and other migrants involves many methodological problems. These problems are largely the same for immigrants and refugees, and will be dealt with together in this section.

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5.2.1

Lack of adequate statistics

Existing official statistics are collected for a variety of purposes and do not necessarily correspond with the needs of integration research. For instance Home Office immigration control statistics break entrants up into categories that give little information on likely group structures and settlement patterns. Data on acceptances for settlement cannot be readily linked to immigration control data. There seems to be no meaningful way to aggregate data in terms of community composition, nor to relate them to regional distributions. In principle the Census should resolve this problem through provision of household data at all geographical levels. However, Census data are in fact inadequate for integration research for two reasons: first, 10 year intervals make the data far too irregular to study new immigrants and refugees; second, small ethnic groups are very hard to pick up in Census data, especially in cross-tabulations. Similarly, the Labour Force Survey is not fine-grained enough to pick up smaller groups. The lack of reliable data about immigrants and refugees makes it practically impossible to produce ‘evidence-based’ research about any aspect of their integration. Researchers and practitioners need reliable information about: how many refugees and immigrants are currently in the UK; where they come from and who they are in terms of age, gender, educational level, professsional skills, etc. Integration research clearly requires additional sources of data such as: • “Lack of reliable data makes it practically impossible to produce ‘evidence-based’ research”

A longitudinal survey, which interviews representative samples of immigrants and refugees on arrival and again at regular intervals. This would be a very powerful tool for integration research, and has been used successfully in other countries (notably the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrant Arrivals (LSIA) in Australia). Sample surveys on the characteristics and integration experience of specific categories of entrants and specific ethnic groups, both at the national and regional levels. A nation-wide statistical database on highly-skilled refugees and immigrants: their skills and qualifications, participation in re-training, qualifications obtained and employment outcomes. Regional databases on service needs and availability using information collected by NGOs as well as community organisations. NGOs have vast amounts of useful data in their organisational databases, which need to be made available for researchers and organisations/agencies involved in work with immigrants and refugees. Interdisciplinary research

5.2.2

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Some researchers have become so specialised in their own areas of expertise that often they are unaware of what other researchers are doing. This is problematic in integration research because all aspects of the process are interrelated. There is a need for setting up interdisciplinary research teams in this field. 5.2.3 Qualitative research methods and the need to make the voices of immigrants and refugees more representative There is a need to move away from community-based contacts in selecting interviewees, and to seek alternative ways to access immigrant and refugee populations in order to include marginalised individuals. The people interviewed are often those who are already active in refugee communities or people who have already accessed services successfully, hence, their ‘voices’ may not be representative. • • • Newcomers, who may be more isolated or not supported by their communities, are rarely given a voice in research. Interviews with community leaders are not always representative of the community as a whole, or of specific groups such as women and youth. Focus groups, as yet another way of collecting qualitative data in research about integration, may be also problematic, because they tend to allow the most powerful voices to be heard. It is crucial for this type of research not to rely on only one network in selecting interviewees and to cover a variety of groups of immigrants and refugees (i.e. from different countries of origin as well as of different age, gender, educational background etc). Language and translation

5.2.4

It is important to conduct qualitative research with recent immigrants and refugees in their own languages. This requires adequate measures to overcome language difficulties, which in turn require adequate funding. • • • Interviewing through interpreters is one solution, but requires adequate training for both interviewer and interpreter. Where bi-lingual community workers are employed as interviewers, it is vital that they receive adequate training. Professional translations of research instruments are needed, as some interview techniques can be problematic when interviews are conducted in one language though written in another. Combining qualitative and quantitative research “There is a lack of studies that combine quantitative and qualitative research methods.”

5.2.5

There is a lack of studies that combine quantitative and qualitative research methods. The process of integration as a complex social 190

phenomenon requires to be systematically explored by a combination of representative surveys and in-depth interviews. Combining the two research methods is useful because it makes it possible to identify overall trends among newcomers as well as acquiring a more in-depth knowledge about many aspects of integration that are not quantifiable. NGO research tends to be mainly qualitative which is often useful for service providers, but quantitative research would also be useful, especially for service planning. Representative samples are difficult to obtain in the community sector, so there is a need for triangulation of data (investigation of a specific issue using a variety of data-sets and methodologies). 5.2.6 Participatory research/social action research

There is a lack of participatory/social action research in the area of integration, particularly regarding cultural change as an interactive process among different groups of newcomers, as well as between the newcomers and the established community. This type of research involves community members designing their own research, choosing research topics, and conducting interviews. This kind of research is very important in terms of facilitating groups to develop their own strategies for change, carrying them through and evaluating their work. It is also crucial in evaluations because it allows the voice of refugees and other migrants to be heard. This kind of research methodology is more important in those communities where literacy is a problem. Participatory research does not lend itself easily to quantification and is more time and labour intensive. 5.2.7 Dissemination “Research on integration needs to be adequately disseminated to all stakeholders”

Research on integration – whether based on statistics and surveys, or on community and NGO studies – needs to be adequately disseminated to all stakeholders. Currently too little funding is made available for this process. Part of the dissemination process should be translation of reports into the relevant languages, and distribution through community associations. 5.2.8 Comparative research

There is a lack of comparative research at all levels: • between different countries • between different geographic localities within the UK • between different groups of refugees and/or other migrants concerning their country of origin or time of arrival • between refugees and immigrants.

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This type of research can help develop clear analytical categories for research and analysis. It can also help provide policy recommendations based on evidence about how policies affect different categories of newcomers and to what extent they are nationally applicable (i.e. do they facilitate integration better in some geographic areas than others). Comparative research between different countries can provide evidence about the ways in which different socio-cultural and policy contexts influence integration of newcomers. 5.2.9 Longitudinal research

There is a lack of longitudinal research about the process of integration of both refugees and immigrants. Such research is critical for evaluating policies and programmes, because it can provide in-depth insights about different stages of the process of integration of refugees and immigrants. It can also provide evidence about long-term consequences of integration policies. 5.2.10 Community and academic research Community research is often under-funded and may lack academic credibility. Academic research can be somewhat distanced from the realities of refugees’ and immigrant’s lives. Both sides would benefit from closer collaboration in the planning, carrying out and analysis of research. 5.3 Gaps in substantive research in specific integration topics and sectors 5.3.1 Immigrants

Overall there is relatively little research on recent immigrants in the “There is relatively UK, and almost nothing on certain groups and aspects of integration. little research on This seems to be due to two circumstances: first, the UK is not generecent immigrants in rally perceived as a country of immigration and there is no immigrathe UK” tion policy as such. Secondly, the race relations model has been dominant in research and has concentrated attention on longer established ethnic minorities. A picture has emerged (from both our academic and NGO material, and interviews) that immigrants are sometimes included as part of racism or poverty reports, but they are rarely singled out as a specific group. As a result, what could be labelled as two separate categories - The Immigration Process and Perceptions and Strategies of Integration – have been included within the first category General at the beginning of the list of categories which have guided this research in the process of building the data sets.

1. General The immigration process There is a need for research on specific immigrant groups coming to the UK, and the relevance of the migratory process for later settlement. Topics to be covered include: 192

• • • •

demographic, economic, social and cultural characteristics of specific groups reasons for migration, perspectives for duration and nature of stay, expectations with regard to integration migration experience: legal or illegal, smuggling or trafficking, experiences during travel and on arrival effect of the immigration process on the integration process. Perceptions and strategies of integration

Receiving populations may have tacit assumptions that integration is a one-way process through which migrants or minorities are the ones expected to integrate without any changes from the majority population or culture. Immigrants may have quite different expectations with regard to social and cultural interaction. There is a need for research on how different groups – both immigrants and groups within the receiving population – perceive integration. Processes of negotiation, socio-cultural transformation and attitudinal change need to be researched. This has also to do with definitions of integration. • It is important to study levels of membership in civil society – that is the types of rights held by various immigrant groups – and their consequences for participation in various arenas, such as the labour market, housing, local and national politics and so on. There needs to be research on immigrant success stories (defined in both economic and cultural terms), and the ways in which these can be used as role models.

2. Education and training Schools and other educational institutions play a key part in long-term integration into society. The UK has a good record of education research concerning Commonwealth immigrants and existing ethnic minorities. Relatively little has been done on the educational situation of newer immigrant groups. • As immigrant children of diverse backgrounds enter local schools, there will be an urgent need for increased research attention to all aspects of their educational experience at a local and regional level. One important research question is to tackle why certain groups are not achieving scholastically and what are specific policy strategies to deal with such problems. Gendered research on all aspects of educational experience and needs of immigrant children.

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A need for more research on the pedagogical needs of children from varying cultural, class and educational backgrounds. Separate research on education levels, training needs and available programmes for adult migrants, again with separate research on female and male immigrants.

3. Labour market Many aspects of immigrant integration into the labour market and the wider economy have been insufficiently studied and are poorly understood. Since economic integration is crucial to success in the immigration country, more research in this area is important. • “Immigrant integration into the labour market has been insufficiently studied

Comparative studies on the labour market experience (employment, unemployment, labour force status, occupational and industry distribution) of various immigration categories (skilled migrants, unskilled migrants, refugees and dependants) would be useful in understanding processes of labour market incorporation. Research is needed on labour shortages in specific occupations and industries and the extent to which immigrants can and do fill them. It is important to study the labour market role of undocumented workers, including both illegal entrants and asylum seekers. Although these groups are not supposed to take up employment, they actually appear to meet specific needs within the UK economy. The growth of informal employment seems to be linked to immigration (as has been found in other European countries). A perennial issue in popular debates on immigration is whether immigrants take jobs from members of the existing labour force. Research is needed to find out if this is the case, or whether immigration in fact generates additional jobs through multiplier effects. Such analysis needs to be done both on specific occupations and industries, and at higher levels of aggregation. This leads on to the need for more sophisticated analysis of the costs and benefits of immigration, both for the economy as a whole and for particular groups (employers, wage-earners etc.). Although this may be seen as primarily relevant for immigration policy, it is also important for integration, as it helps shape public attitudes. A useful model is the research on this topic in the US, done by the National Science Council. Systematic and longitudinal research is required. It would be useful to examine the ethnic and gender division of labour in various industries. There is evidence that ethnic minority entrepreneurs may play a particular role in the employment of newer immigrants, which may have an impact on inter-group relations and integration. It would also be valuable to examine the role of trade unions in shaping immigrants’ employment patterns.

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It is important to research the economic characteristics of the geographical regions where immigrants settle. How do immigrants follow changes in industrial patterns and labour markets? Research is needed on the economic impacts of immigrants at the regional level on housing markets, availability and variety of goods and services, consumer demand and needs for social capital. Research should be carried out on immigrants’ skills, recognition of skills and training opportunities: is optimal use being made of the skills that immigrants bring with them? Research needed on skills levels and labour market participation of family reunion members and groups allowed work permits. Research required on skills levels and labour market participation of young people, that is, of teenagers as well as people in the their twenties. Here longitudinal research would be invaluable to follow employment trajectories. the effects of the ‘brain drain’ on developing countries and the long-term follow on effects of unwanted immigration in the developed countries needs systematic examination.

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4. Health Poor health can be a sign of social exclusion and a barrier to participation in health services. Little is known about health issues concerning recent immigrants, and research is needed on: • • • • • the health situation of specific groups, as shown by data on mortality, fertility, morbidity to specific diseases, accident rates and so on health research needs to be separate on immigrant children and adults as well as by gender research on the elderly is especially needed access to health services, and specific barriers linked to socio-economic and locational factors, social isolation, gender issues and language problems need to make sure that there is a differentiation between various ethnic groups according to ethnicity rather than just the national or regional background. For example, the terms ‘black’ or South Asian may not be appropriate when analysing some medical conditions for there may be the need to differentiate between Pakistanis and Bangladeshis and Jamaicans etc.

5. Housing

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Housing needs of children and teenagers need to be taken into account in research. Gender differences in housing research needs attention. For example, with regard to lone parents etc. Research needs to be carried out on the position of recently arrived migrants in relation to access to social housing, to employment, schooling, entry into established ethnic community. The impact on family reunion immigrants who are excluded from social housing.

6. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation Research on integration at the group or community level More research is necessary on various aspects of the integration process as they affect specific groups of immigrants. • Research is needed on ‘hidden communities’: for instance small recently-arrived groups; groups in which many members lack documents; poorly-organised groups. Research on the relationship between religion, community and identity is important for understanding integration. One researcher interviewed for the study suggested that there needs to be a shift away from emphasis on the ‘race’ (and associated racial discrimination) to cultural and religious integration and discrimination. For example, although there are differences between Muslim communities, all Muslims tend to be affected in certain ways by their religion. There is a rise in ‘faith groups’ or religious groups which cut across ethnic boundaries and where religion/faith is becoming more important as an organising feature of communities. There is a need for more research on definitions of ‘community’, ‘multiculturalism’ and ‘ethnicity’ in specific localities. It is would be useful to record changes over time, and to understand the politics of community between ethnic groups. Research is needed on the maintenance of language and culture amongst recent immigrants, and useful comparisons could be made with earlier immigrant groups. More research needs to be carried out on the second and third generations in terms of integration. It is often assumed that these groups are well integrated, but apparent ability to cope can often mask problems of education, language and identity. Possible ‘generation gaps’ and their effects on individuals and families should also be examined.

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There is a need for more research on the transnational linkages of various communities and how these affect the integration process. Many immigrant groups in the UK have links not only with their homelands, but also with coethnics in other countries. What consequences do these have for economic, social and political behaviour? How do these linkages affect the culture and identity of groups concerned? Very little work appears to have been done on the situation and experience of aged migrants who retire after working for some years in the UK or who enter through family reunion. The situation of ‘immigrant pensioners’ may be significant for integration of their descendants too. In some communities it is women who arrive as family reunion members. Little is known about their positions and expectations in the UK. What is the gender mix in the various communities which have high levels of family reunion? How does social policy deal with this phenomenon? The problems of immigrant youth and particularly immigrant children with regards to the relationship between recent community status and schooling (eg pedagogy, language, identity) is also under-researched. Culture

How have migrants expanded cultural choice through ethnic small businesses offering new goods and services; contribution to fashion, music, food industries, literature, design, theatre etc? Research is needed on the role of cultural interaction in community relations and the integration process.

7. Political area: organisation, self-initiatives and participation • Political organisation and participation of newly arrived groups as these groups can remain very isolated in the early years of migration. Do recently arrived migrants integrate into already established community organisations? Do the new groups have their special needs and experiences represented in the already established organisations? Are most of the leaders men as is often the case? What resources do recently arrived immigrants have to develop their own initiatives? How do community organisations cater for immigrant children and youth?

8. Women and gender Women form a large proportion and sometimes a clear majority of immigrants of all categories. Women’s and men’s experience of immigration and integration is often very different. Gender should therefore be seen as a key variable in all types of integration research. 197

Women are more likely than men to enter as ‘spouses’. Their immigration and residential status is dependent on that of their spouse. This may lead to vulnerability, especially in certain ethnic groups. Gendered research is needed on differences of access to and success in education between males and females. Why do boys of certain ethnic background tend to have lower educational participation and success than girls? What consequences does this have for occupational and social integration? Domestic workers and prostitution are a special category of predominantly female workers, who are often subject to exploitation and abuse. Special research is needed on this group. Research is needed on the position of immigrant women in the family and the community, including issues such as domestic violence and sexuality. Position of recently arrived immigrant women in the labour market. Women’s cultures in birthing practices and child-rearing; women and domestic work. Research on all aspects of domestic violence in immigrant communties

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9. Family and children • • • • all aspects of integration for recently arrived immigrants, including health issues and education. child rights in the family including how immigrant families in various communities deal with gay and lesbian children. adult couples and problems of integration; family break-ups and how these are dealt with within families and communities. the elderly.

10. Justice and legal system Work is needed on various aspects of the involvement of immigrants with the legal system: • • Statistical analysis of rates of victimisation of various immigrants’ groups, according to areas of settlement, socio-economic status and types of offence. Statistical analysis of rates of criminality of various immigrants’ groups, according to areas of settlement, socio-economic status and types of offence.

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Research on the extent to which various immigrant groups experience raciallymotivated violence, harassment or discrimination and how these are dealt with by legal institutions. Studies on the relationships between specific immigrant groups and the police, and law courts.

11. Welfare and social policy • In terms of policy input and output, systematic research required regarding the relationship between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome. Research on policy strategies and delivery of policies specific to immigrants. This is not simply a question of evaluation but has more to do with the construction of planning and delivery processes. The relationship between specific policies and integration for specific immigrant communities and groups such as immigrant youth and children. Research regarding the need for a systematic immigration policy which deals with labour migrants, undocumented immigrants, women migrants as head of families, family reunion migration etc. The role of public and social policies and immigration needs to be addressed. Research on harmonisation process with the European Union.

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12. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies There is a great deal of research on the manifestations and causes of racism towards ethnic minorities in the UK. However, it seems that there has been a displacement of racist attitudes in recent times to target asylum-seekers and other new immigrants. The race relations model may not be a suitable framework for understanding racism against these newer groups, and it may be useful to look at European research on racism and xenophobia. • • • Specific studies on the experience of newer immigrant groups with regard to racist violence harassment and discrimination are needed. Racism against immigrant children in schools should be a special focus for study. Research which deals with the relationship between class and ethnicity is needed in economically depressed local areas where ethnicity has become the main explanation for socio-economic problems.

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13. Citizenship and multiculturalism • • Research on the meaning of multiculturalism as policy and in regard to race relations policies. Systematic longitudinal research which deals with issues of citizenship, ethnic and national identity.

14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion • Social exclusion indicators applied to recently arrived immigrant communities, as this will help to develop social policy strategies.

15. Government documents/policy and evaluations • • Evaluation research on the effectiveness of integration policy implementation in various areas and sectors. Evaluation of strategies and delivery of policies with specific references to different groups of immigrants, eg recently arrived; family reunion members; children etc. Evaluation of Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy with specific reference to various neighbourhoods and recently arrived immigrant groups. Evaluation of anti-discrimination and race relations strategies. Research on the integration effects of immigration rules and other government policies The state does much to determine integration processes and their outcomes through differentiation between various immigrants on the basis of immigration rules and integration policies. Research is needed on: • • The impact of the 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act on the integration of various groups. The impact of UK family reunion policy on individuals, families and communities. For instance the requirement that family members may enter only if they will not become reliant on public funds may affect family reunion with parents and grandparents, who may be seen as an integral part of the family by certain groups. The impact of deportation on families and communities. For instance deportation of a parent may mean that a child has to be taken into care.

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Differing local modes of implementation of national policies, and their effects on integration. This could include such issues as availability of language services in areas with new or smaller ethnic communities. Systematic research needed on institutional research and integration Refugees

5.3.2

This mapping documents the lack of a systematic research strategy “There is a lack of a and plan for examining various aspects of integration of refugees at systematic research the national level, as well as at regional and local levels. In the follstrategy” owing sections we point to the main gaps in research about refugees pertaining to the categories developed for purposes of data-gathering and analysis of the collected material. The information presented is based on interviews with experts in the field (see Appendix 2) as well as on the ‘mapping’ of themes and topics presented in Chapter 4. 1. General Focus on specific groups of refugees and their differentiated needs This research revealed a lack of information and knowledge about the needs and problems confronted by different groups of refugees during their process of integration. Moreover, since it demonstrated the agreement among researchers and practitioners (i.e. the NGO sector) that integration is individualised and contextual, there is the need for ‘tailor-made’ integration programmes for different refugee groups. We can point to the following specific gaps in this type of research: • There is a lack of research about effect of age on integration. There is a need for exploration of generation gaps and problems associated with integration and adjustment of different age groups of refugees. There is a particularly large gap in research about elderly refugees, their specific situation and needs. There is a lack of research about gender aspects of refugee settlement, and particularly about refugee women and their special needs. There is a lack of research about differentiated adjustment needs of refugees with different levels of education and/or professional skills. There is a lack of research about the specific situation of refugees from different countries of origin. This type of research can reveal reception and integration problems, and needs of refugees coming from ‘politically-accepted’ sending countries, versus the situation and needs of refugees coming from countries treated with ‘suspicion’.

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The lack of empirical data concerning specific needs of different groups of refugees create difficulties in understanding and dealing with problems they confront in accessing mainstream social services, such as health, education, training, leisure, etc. Focus on immigration and integration processes There is a need for systematic research about links between immigration and integration processes, and the impact of the experience of the former on the process of integration. Important issues that need to be covered are: • How refugees chose the country of their destination, the role of refugee networks in the process, and the impact of expectations based on such information on adjustment of refugees and their strategies for integration. Experiences of refugees in the integration process and how they themselves assess their situation and future prospects in the UK. Focus on public attitudes This mapping project indicated agreement among researchers and those in the NGO sector involved in refugee work that refugees confront a set of barriers to their integration that are erected by the receiving society. Among those, the role of positive public attitudes in facilitating the process of integration of refugees has been emphasised as an important area that has to be addressed in research and policy. The following gaps in research has been identified: • Systematic monitoring of public attitudes across a range of issues, which would be able to map changes in public attitudes against various economic and social factors, which influence the attitudes towards refugees in the UK. The role and influence of the media in shaping public attitudes and the need for a systematic research about the media coverage of people seeking and granted asylum in Britain.

2. Education and training There is a lack of systematic research and knowledge about education and training of adults in general. Important topics that need attention are: • • Educational and training needs of refugees with different levels of education. Assessment of educational and training attainment of refugees in the UK, and usefulness of educational and training programmes in finding employment.

3. Labour market There is a lack of research and knowledge about the economic impact and potential of refugee populations settled in Britain. We point to the following gaps which we were able to identify:

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There is a need for nation-wide research on the skills and qualifications held by refugees in the UK, and their economic contribution to the UK. This type of research would document the scope and quality of cultural and social capital that refugees bring to the receiving society, as well as the extent to which this capital has been effectively utilised. There is a lack of research about the situation regarding skill recognition by professional and trade organisations. This type of research can contribute to a better understanding of the institutional barriers to integration in the UK. There is a need for research about income generation through self-employment, and its contribution to the national economy. There is a lack of research on illegal employment and its economic and social effects. This type of research could help estimate the extent of the ‘black’ market in the UK and its contribution to the national economy.

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4. Health This mapping project indicates that significant gaps do exist even in the areas such as health, which have been better researched than other areas. We identified the following gaps: • There is a lack of research about ‘post-migration’ stress and related psycho-social problems of refugees. Researchers and service providers in the area of health and socio-psychological counselling usually deal with problems relating to traumas before and during flight and often ignore a wide range of issues concerning often traumatic experiences involved in different phases of refugee settlement that affect their mental health. There is a lack of focus on the effects of detention on mental health and psychological wellbeing of refugees and its impact on integration. There is a lack of focus on nutrition, particularly with respect to poverty/vouchers or not being able to purchase/cook familiar food. There is a lack of focus on access to leisure/exercise facilities and its effect on the health of refugees. There is a lack of focus on refugees with special needs, particularly children with special needs, and their problems to access health services. There is a lack of focus on sexual health of refugees and teenage pregnancy.

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5. Housing The area of housing is yet another area identified as better researched than other areas pertaining to integration of refugees. However, we identified the following gaps: 203

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There is a lack of focus on different aspects of homelessness among refugee populations. In this respect, the following issues need to be addressed: The need for well-informed estimates about percentages of refugees among homeless in the UK. The phenomenon of hidden homelessness among refugees (i.e. those who are not on the street, but who need a home and may be sleeping on a friend’s floor).

6. Socio-cultural area: religion, community, language, identity, residential segregation and acculturation • Research is needed on the relationship between religion, community and identity. This type of research is critical for understanding integration, and individual as well as group adjustment to the receiving societies. There is a lack of research that focuses on the process of building bridges between refugees and the established community. This type of research has to examine how wider social interaction and participation is established at the level of lived relationships within a local community. It also has to explore the ways in which a need to maintain one’s language and cultural practices affects this process.

7. Political area: organisation, self-initiatives and participation As noted earlier in this report, the existing research about integration of refugees focuses primarily on practical or functional aspects of settlement. We identified the following gaps in research addressing other important aspects of the integration process: • • There is a lack of research about the scope and character of involvement of refugees in politics or local government. There is a general gap in research that examines the level of membership of refugees in civil society, and the connection between this and other aspects of integration such as employment.

8. Women and gender Research about gender aspects of the process of integration is generally lacking in the UK. There is a particular need to look into the following issues: • Differentiated needs and experiences of integration of women and men. Such research focus would be useful for empirically based and gender sensitive integration policies as well as social services for refugees.

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The role of gender in shaping politics of refugee communities, their programmes and activities. This type of research could shed more light on the internal dynamics of refugee communities and their impact on individual and group adjustment of refugees. The position of refugee women in the family and the community, including aspects of domestic violence as well as women’s self-organising. The position of refugee women who are single parents; assessment of their specific needs and adjustment experiences.

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9. Family and children This mapping indicates that more research is needed about the family life of refugees. The important topics to be included are: • The patterns of change in family life as the consequence of experiences of exile, particularly with respect to the structure of authority within the family, gender division of labour, and the changing status and role of children. Consequences of delayed or denied family reunification on psychosocial ability of refugees to adjust and integrate in the receiving society. Issues of intermarriage among the refugee population and the process of negotiation of cultural practices among family members.

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10. Justice and legal system More research is needed on various aspects of the involvement of refugees with the legal system: • Systematic analysis of rates of victimisation of various groups of refugees, according to areas of settlement, socio-economic characteristics and type of offence. Systematic analysis of rates of criminality of various groups of refugees, according to areas of settlement, socio-economic characteristics and type of offence. Relationships between specific groups of refugees and the police with particular focus on the extent to which they experience racially motivated harassment and discrimination.

11. Welfare and social policy

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Although this mapping pointed to the studies that assess specific social policy sectors and programmes developed to assist refugee settlement in housing, education and health, more systematic research is needed about • policy strategies and delivery of policy for refugees in order to assess the planning mechanisms and their ability to respond to differentiated needs of refugee population.

12. Discrimination, racism, race relations, migration and settlement policies This project revealed a need for a systematic evaluation of the current policies pertaining to asylum and refugee settlement, and the policy of dispersal in particular. This type of research is critical for assessing effects of policies on successful integration. Moreover, it can provide a basis for acknowledging the social implications of different policy objectives and approaches to integration, such as discrimination and racism, and help address these problems more effectively. We point to the issues identified as ‘missing information’ concerning research in this area: • • • • • Assessment of the integration services available to refugees in dispersal areas and what might genuinely encourage refugees to remain in such areas; Racial harassment in dispersal areas and its effect on integration; Examining the effects of prolonged separation from communities and families on the process of integration; The consequences of poverty, racism and isolation for integration; A comparative study of refugees in different dispersal areas, focusing on the more quantifiable measures such as rates of employment, incidents of racial violence, numbers returning to London etc.

13. Citizenship and multiculturalism In the area of citizenship and multiculturalism there is a need for research which would examine: • • different aspects of wider societal participation of refugees in British society, focussing on civil and social aspects of citizenship; multicultural experiences and practices of specific refugee groups and the ways in which they affect the process of self-identification of refugees with British society.

14. Neighbourhood renewal strategy and social exclusion More research is needed in this area to examine:

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refugee experiences of mechanisms of social exclusion in education, training, employment, as well as in non-institutional social interaction in the UK; refugee strategies for overcoming social exclusion in the places of their settlement.

15. Government documents and evaluations This mapping indicates that there is a need for a systematic evaluation of all government programmes and policies pertaining to refugee settlement, which would assess the validity of their original objectives by examining the social outcomes of different policies. 5.4. Conclusion The overview of major gaps in research about integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK, presented in this Chapter, indicates that there is a need for research on virtually every topic relating to integration. There is also a need for a systematic strategy for research on immigrant and refugee integration, “There is a need for and for enhanced co-operation between all players in the field, research on virtually i.e. researchers, practitioners, policy makers, as well as immigrants every topic relating to and refugees. The next Chapter examines the ways forward in integration.” research and policy development pertaining to the area of integration.

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Chapter 6 Conclusions
Chapter summary – This part of the Report concludes with a series of points concerning both the state of integration research and recommendations for further expansion and improvement of policy-related research. While the mapping project indeed surveyed a considerable amount of research on immigrant and refugee integration, overall work in this field is highly uneven, poorly co-ordinated and limited by inadequate data. There is a need for developing an agreed conceptual framework and set of research indicators to measure various aspects of integration. A quasi-autonomous ‘Immigration and Integration Research Bureau’, akin to that established in Australia, may be desirable. In any case, there is much to be gained by a greater research-policy partnership between academics, policy-makers, practitioners and immigrant and refugee groups themselves.

This mapping exercise has set out to explore the extent to which social scientific research has been done in recent times on topics relevant to integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK. The exercise has been limited in scope, focussing mainly on research done in the last five years. Limitations of time and resources have made it impossible to carry out exhaustive searches, so the Report makes no claim to being fully comprehensive. Above all it must be stressed that it was not in the terms of reference to read and review most of the reports and publications listed in Part II. This Report is not a literature review. This means that our assessment of ‘research gaps’ in Chapter 5 is indicative only: we may well have missed some contributions in various areas. Despite these limitations, it is possible to put forward with some confidence a number of conclusions on the basis of the mapping exercise. Moreover, the research team has set out to contextualise its findings through a discussion of current theory, concepts and approaches on integration research in the UK and elsewhere. Our conclusions are as follows: 1. The mapping report found that a considerable amount of research has been done over the last five years on topics relevant to integration of immigrants and refugees in the UK. However, this research is uneven, with good coverage of some areas and little or none of others. The research work is poorly co-ordinated, and is not based on any systematic attempt to cover all relevant topics or to prioritise work on policy-relevant topics. Existing research is therefore not adequate for evidence-based policy-making with regard to integration of immigrants and refugees. 2. Gaps in the research were identified with regard to concepts and theory, research methodology, and substantive issues in various integration areas (such as the labour market, health, media and public opinion and so on). These gaps are listed in Chapter 5 above. 3. A major conceptual issue arises from the dominance of the race relations model in UK research on integration. This model may be appropriate for longer established ethnic minorities, but its relevance for newer immigrant and refugee groups needs to be investigated. Clinging to this model may be a barrier to adaptive policymaking in the current situation.

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4. A major issue with regard to methodology is the lack of adequate data relevant to integration research. Existing data sets and collection methods often do not provide data that is adequately focussed and sufficiently fine-grained. It therefore seems necessary to look at possibilities of generating specific data-sets for integration research. A valuable instrument would be a longitudinal survey of immigrants and refugees in the UK. This might have to be preceded by a feasibility study. Sample surveys and databases for special purposes connected with integration research and policy would also be desirable. 5. The study identified a strong need for more detailed comparative research on integration policies in other immigration countries – both in Western Europe and elsewhere. Such research may bring important insights in view of the changing nature of immigration at the present time. 6. Research on the transnational linkages of new immigrant and refugee groups in the UK would also be important. This is a relatively new field of research, but is of growing importance in view of improvements in transport and communications technologies which question older models of integration. 7. The mapping exercise showed that the concept of integration is defined in varying ways by different groups. It is also seen as slippery and controversial by NGOs, academics and members of immigrant and refugee groups. A number of alternative concepts such as settlement, inclusion, insertion and participation were discussed. However, in the end it is not the label that matters, but the content given to it in social discourse. There is no harm in using the concept of integration as long as efforts are made to establish a comprehensive conceptual framework to define it, and to operationalise it for various areas of research and policy. 8. A first step towards developing an agreed conceptual framework for integration would be to involve all relevant groups (central government, local government, researchers, NGOs, representatives of immigrant and refugee communities) in discussions on the goals and approaches to be adopted in integration policies in various locations and sectors. A national Integration Commission (on the model adopted in Italy), or municipal advisory councils (as used in Germany) could play a useful part. However, it would also be possible to extend the functions of existing bodies, such as the CRE. 9. The mapping exercise looked at indicators of integration. Opinions differed widely among researchers, NGOs and community representatives about which indicators to use and how useful they are. Respondents warned that uncritical use of a limited range of indicators (such as figures on educational success, employment, or criminality) could have misleading and stigmatising effects. Again there is a need for public discussion by all relevant groups about the most appropriate indicators to use. This could lead to formulation of a comprehensive set of indicators that cover the most significnat aspects of integration, taking account of differing goals and priorities of various groups.

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10. Such a set of indicators could be developed as an ‘Integration Matrix’. This would be a tool for research planning, that would allow policy-makers to assess what type of research is needed in various areas. Existing research could then be fed into the Matrix. Gaps could be identified, making it possible to commission appropriate new research. Developing such an Integration Matrix would be a worthwhile task, but goes beyond the brief of this study. 11. Systematic planning of policy-relevant research on integration of immigrants and refugees requires new mechanisms. The Government should consider the establishment of a quasi-autonomous ‘Immigration and Integration Research Bureau’. This would link the Government with academic community researchers, but would include consultative mechanisms (such as an Advisory Board) to include other groups, such as NGOs working in the field, employers, unions and representatives of immigrant and refugee communities. Work commissioned by this body would be policy-relevant, but would be more objective and credible than work done directly by or for government departments. Models for this approach can be found in the Australian Government’s Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research (BIMPR, 1989-96) and the Canadian Government’s Metropolis Project. 12. Research on integration processes should be understood not as a top-down exercise by government and academics but as a four-way partnership, which also includes NGOs and communities. This also has consequences for research methodology: conventional approaches such as surveys and statistical analysis need to be complemented by qualitative research, community research and participatory research. 13. It is important that all research on integration issues should be published. This includes not only work done by the Government and by academic researchers, but also research carried out by community organisations. This is essential to achieve quality control through peer review and public debate. Publication should be linked to a dissemination strategy to ensure that research findings are made available in accessible forms to all participants in the integration process. This may mean publication in languages other than English.

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Appendix 1 Model/guide for collection of materials and bibliography 1996-2001

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Academic literature re migrant/refugee integ (separate out migrant and refugee lit where possible)

NGO material re migrant/refugee integ (separate out migrant and refugee material where possible) General

Both/overlapping areas (included here is migrant/refugee academic literature AND separately NGO migrant/refugee material) Relevant material into each of the following categories

General Theoretical/conceptual -definitions of integration Methodology Evaluations of policy Housing Education/training Labour market (incl. Labour migrants) Welfare/social policy Family Health/psychological Political organisation /participation Social/cultural/religious issues/organising/migrant belonging/identity/community Neighbourhood renewal strategy/social exclusion Justice/legal system Women Acculturalation/crosscultural/psychological Discrimination/racism racism - anti-discrimination - equal opportunity - race relations policies

Evaluations of policy Housing Education/training Labour market Welfare/social services Family life Health/psychological Political organisation /participation Social/cultural/religious issues/organising/migrant belonging/identity/community Community/self help initiatives/neighbourhood renewal strategy Justice/police/legal system Women Acculturalation/crosscultural/psychological Discrimination/racism racism - anti-discrimination - equal opportunity race relations policies

Citizenship – comparisons with Europe and the US Multiculturalism Multiculturalism 1) NB: Also include search for undocumented migrants 2) Pre-1996 Include here any relevant bibliographies on the UK and asterisk * any which we consider to be important/seminal etc 3) European/International literature Include here any relevant bibliographies and asterisk * any which we consider to be important/seminal etc

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Appendix 2 List of Experts interviewed and consulted
Academic Interviewees
Professor Alaister Ager, Director Centre for International Health Studies Queen Margaret University College Edinburgh Dr Muhammad Anwar Department of Sociology University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Dr Les Back Acting Head Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College University of London New Cross London SE14 6NW Dr. Alice Bloch, Department of Social Policy and Politics Goldsmiths College University of London New Cross London SE14 6NW Dr Mark R D Johnson Reader in Primary Care Mary Seacole Research Centre De Montfort University The Gateway Leicester LE1 9BH Dr Daniele Joly Director Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations Ramphal Building University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Professor Michael Keith Head Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College University of London New Cross London SE14 6NW Dr Khalid Koser Migration Research Unit Department of Geography University College London 26 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AP Dr David Owen CRER University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Professor Ceri Peach School of Geography and Environment University of Oxford Mansfield Road Oxford OX1 3TB Dr Annie Phizacklea Professor of Sociology Sociology Department University of Warwick Professor John Rex Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations Ramphal Building University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Professor John Salt Director, Migration Research Unit Department of Geography University College London 26 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AP Dr John Solomos Professor of Sociology Faculty of Humanities and Social Science South Bank University 103 Borough Road London SE1 0AA Sarah Spencer Director Institute of Public Policy Research 30-32 Southampton Street London WC2E 7RA

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Dr. Charles Watters, Director, European Centre for the Study of the Social Care of Minority Groups and Refugees University of Kent Canterbury CT2 7NZ Dr Stephen Wheatley-Price Department of Economics University of Leicester University Road Leicester LE1 7RH

Nick Hardwick Director, Refugee Council 3 Bondway London SW8 1SJ David Hudson Refugee Council (employment) 3 Bondway London SW8 1SJ Tessa Liebschner Migrants Resource Centre (community development) 24 Churton Street London SW1V 2LP Kamal Rusal MODA (migrants/community development) 4 Dean’s Court St Pauls Churchyard London EC4V 5AA Jill Rutter Refugee Council (children) 3 Bondway London SW8 1SJ Areti Siani Integration Policy Officer European Council on Refugees and Exiles Clifton Centre, Unit 12 110 Clifton Street London EC2A 4HT Deng Yai Refugee Council (training, employment) 3 Bondway London SW8 1SJ

NGO Interviewees
Theodros Abraham Praxis (general) Pott Street London E2 OEF Sandy Buchan Refugee Action (general/regional) 240a Clapham Road London SW9 OPZ Adrian Chapell London Arts (arts/community) 2 Pear Tree Court London EC1R ODS Alison Fenney Refugee Council (general) 3 Bondway London SW8 1SJ Don Flynn JCWI (Legal/justice/racism) 115 Old Street London EC1V 9JR Liz Fekete Institute for Race Relations (racism) 2−6 Leeke Street London WC1X 8HS Deborah Garvie Shelter (housing) 88 Old Street London EC1V 9HU Racheal Gosling Young Refugees Project (health) Community Health South London Rachael.gosling@chsltr.sthames.nhs.uk Andy Gregg RETAS/WUS (education/training/employment) 14 Dufferin Street London EC1Y 8PD

Consultants
Dr Bridget Anderson Sociology Department University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Professor Ceri Peach School of Geography and Environment University of Oxford Mansfield Road Oxford OX1 3TB Sarah Spencer Director Institute of Public Policy Research 30-32 Southampton Street London WC2E 7RA

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Appendix 3 Integration models in selected immigration countries
A.1 A conceptual framework

Most highly developed western countries in North America, Oceania and Western Europe have experienced large-scale immigration since 1945 and now have immigrant or ethnic minority population shares comparable with and often larger than the UK. Like the UK, none of these countries has consciously set out to build a multicultural society through immigration, yet that has been the long-term result of processes of immigration initiated for economic or political reasons. All such immigration countries have to face up to broadly similar challenges with regard to integration. But they have developed quite different approaches with regard to policies and goals. It is useful to compare these approaches with those used in the UK to encourage discussion of possible alternatives here. In making such comparisons it rapidly becomes obvious that a major determining factor is the historical experience of the various countries with immigrants and minorities during the process of nation-state formation. Such processes have been strongly shaped by territorial expansion, incorporation of minorities, recruitment of migrant labour, reception of refugees, processes of cultural homogenisation, and practices of discrimination and exclusion. European practices towards colonised peoples were also major influences in shaping later practices towards immigrants and minorities at home. Such historical elements need to be linked to current conditions, as outlined above. A convenient way of summarising the various aspects would be to analyse each national immigration-integration situation in terms of four groups of factors: • • History: Past experiences of the country with regard to immigration and minorities, and the laws, policies and attitudes based on this. State: immigration rules, legislation on the status of various groups of entrants, naturalisation and citizenship rules, integration policy, role of various agencies and sectors (health, education, welfare etc), anti-discrimination legislation, role of local government. Market: labour market opportunities, ethnic business, housing market, access to services, immigrants and refugees as consumers. Community: attitudes and behaviour of the majority population, emergence of ethnic communities, inter-group relations, multicultural neighbourhoods, political mobilisation and participation of immigrants.

• •

Obviously, these groups of factors have strong linkages, for instance community attitudes help shape legislation or labour market opportunities, the housing market influences needs for government services and so on. Government integration policy directly shapes the state sector, but government can also set rules that influence markets (for instance through anti-discrimination legislation) or the community (for instance through education and welfare policies).

However, in the context of globalisation it is no longer adequate to conceptualise immigration-integration processes simply at the nation-state level. It is necessary to add a fifth group of factors to the analysis: • Transnational factors: the links and networks which immigrants and refugees develop with their countries of origin and with co-ethnics in other parts of the world. Such networks have economic, political, social and cultural aspects, and may have considerable influence on the way in which people integrate in any given society.

In this Appendix we will look briefly at the integration models developed in six countries: Australia, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. For the purposes of this Report, detailed references are not given for these brief case studies. They are mainly based on the following accounts, which also give detailed sources: (Castles, 1998; Castles, 2000; Castles and Vasta, 2000; Koopmans, 2000, Joppke, 1999; OECD, 1999). However, to make the comparison more useful, we will start with a brief discussion of the principles underlying UK approaches. A2 United Kingdom

In the early stages of New Commonwealth immigration following the Second World War, UK academics and policy-makers generally supported the idea of individual assimilation. Immigrants from the Caribbean and the Indian sub-continent were seen as ‘dark strangers’ who had to acculturate – that is to give up their original languages and customs and individually adopt the UK culture and customs. Following the analysis of functionalist sociologists that played an important role at the time, the UK was assumed to be a harmonious and unitary society with a dominant culture and a universally accepted set of values. Racial prejudice in the white population was seen as a matter that could be dealt with through education. This model rapidly collapsed due to the race riots of 1958, growing anti-immigration mobilisation on the right, and mounting evidence of economic and social marginalisation of black and Asian immigrants. The integration model that emerged in the late 1960s and the 1970s was based on a high level of state intervention through anti-discrimination legislation and policies, and micromanagement of inter-group relations by social bureaucracies, police and local authorities and through bodies such as community relations councils. Integration thus meant recognising the existence of distinct groups, defined primarily on the basis of race. This race relations approach had its antecedents in British colonial experience, and it was no coincidence that it was now being applied to people who came from those very colonies. Moreover, there was general agreement among political leaders that integration and ‘good race relations’ in the UK was only possible on the basis of a restrictive immigration policy. Successful integration policies for those immigrants who had been admitted were thought to require exclusion of further entrants.

Therefore since the 1970s immigration has mainly been by way of family reunification among previous migrants as well as through a modest asylum regime (the mass influx of Ugandan Asians being a notable exception). Integration policy, if we wish to call it that, was directed towards migrants and their families who had already been in the UK for some time, not towards any real, ongoing stream of immigrants. The black youth riots of the 1980s were linked to growing racist violence, lack of economic opportunities, and failure of the police and social bureaucracies to respond to the needs of minorities. This led to increased measures to combat systemic racism, reduce ethnic disadvantage and improve race relations. By the 1990s, the UK largely perceived itself as a multicultural society, and black and Asian populations were defined as British albeit ethnic minorities with distinct cultural and social characteristics. Race relations policy was concerned with combating discrimination and managing and improving relations between minorities and the majority white population. Today, many observers argue that this approach has been broadly successful for New Commonwealth immigrants and their descendants. For instance, Bhikhu Parekh recently stated: Thanks to the efforts of ethnic minorities, anti-discrimination legislation and successive governments’ policies designed to reduce ethnic minorities’ economic, educational and other disadvantages, Britain is increasingly moving in the direction of becoming a relaxed and tolerant multi-ethnic and multicultural society (Parekh, 2000). This raises the question whether such policies will prove appropriate and effective for the new immigrants and refugees of the first decade of the 21st century. These differ from New Commonwealth immigrants in many ways. The latter entered the UK as British subjects from former colonies with full formal rights. The new entrants come from a wide range of places of origin, and mostly lack the colonial linkage with the UK. Of course, it would be wrong to make an absolute distinction between old and new immigrants in the UK. Throughout the post-1945 period there have been a variety of types of entrant. One of the largest groups, the Irish, has enjoyed full citizenship rights in the UK. Irish immigrants have included both temporary sojourners and permanent settlers. The UK has also had quite large numbers of entrants from EU countries and other European countries. These have included highly-skilled personnel, temporary workers for the catering industry, dependents of British citizens and others. Today, the majority of new immigrants are non-citizens and their rights to participate in various societal arenas are often limited. Indeed many have an extremely weak legal status, especially asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. It is quite unclear how many of the new immigrants and refugees wish to settle permanently, and whether they will in fact do so. In such respects, there are strong similarities with the immigration experience of continental European countries. A3 Australia

Australia has seen itself a country of immigration ever since the establishment of the British colony in New South Wales in 1788. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the government saw small population size as a barrier to economic development and a threat to security. A large-scale immigration policy was started in 1947, designed to bring mainly British immigrants in as settlers. It was believed that non-British immigration would undermine social cohesion, but the idea of acceptable settlers was gradually widened to include Eastern and Southern Europeans. The White Australia Policy kept out Asian immigrants until the 1960s, but eventually had to be dropped as economic and political ties with Asian neighbours developed. In the late 1970s, Australia began accepting refugees from Indo-China. By the 1980s, Asians made up about 40 per cent of new entrants, while the number of British and other European immigrants declined. In 1947, Australia had a population of 7.5 million of whom just 744,000 had been born overseas. As a result of constant flows of immigrants, the population had risen to 17.9 million at the 1996 Census, of whom 3.9 million were born overseas. Australia is now home to immigrants from virtually every part of the world, and has the largest immigrant share in population of any developed country (except Israel). Finding ways of integrating these highly diverse immigrants into a rapidly growing and changing society has been a challenge for successive governments and for society as a whole. The initial model adopted in the late 1940s was assimilationism: the idea that immigrants could be culturally and socially absorbed, and rapidly become indistinguishable from the existing Anglo-Australian population. The principle of assimilation became a 'common sense' view on how to deal with ethnic difference, which remains popular today. The key to assimilation, it was believed, was to treat immigrants just like everyone else. Once admitted, migrants were treated as future citizens: naturalisation could be obtained after five years of residence (later reduced to three years, and then two years). Migrants were to work and live among Australians, to avoid the formation of ethnic enclaves. The school was to have a key role in making the children of migrants into Australians; there should therefore be no special courses for migrant children, and they were to be forced to speak English from the outset. However, by the 1960s, the basic contradiction of assimilationism was becoming obvious: 'New Australians' were meant to speak English, live among Anglo-Australians and behave just like them, but at the same time labour market segmentation and social segregation were emerging — often as a result of discrimination. Government policies caused migrant workers to become concentrated in unskilled jobs. Even highly-skilled migrants were often forced into unskilled work by official refusal to recognise their overseas qualifications. Migrants settled in the industrial suburbs and the inner-city areas close to their work, where housing was relatively cheap, while Anglo-Australians moved out to new suburbs. Many migrants encountered racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviour by Anglo-Australians.

Studies found that many migrants were living in isolation and relative poverty. Migrant children were failing at school, often due to lack of support in learning English. Departure rates were increasing and it was becoming harder to attract new immigrants. The result was a series of policy changes between 1965 and 1972 designed to improve the social integration of immigrants and their children. Such measures, however, did not mean abandonment of the aim of assimilation. Immigration Minister Snedden stated: 'We ask particularly of migrants that they be substantially Australian in the first generation and completely Australian in the second generation'. By the 1970s, a new approach to managing ethnic difference began to emerge: multiculturalism. Australian Labor Party (ALP) leaders began to realise that NESB migrants represented a significant proportion of working-class voters. The ALP set out to woo the 'migrant vote', setting up Greek and Italian sections, paying attention to migrants' educational and welfare needs, advertising in the ethnic press and selecting a few migrants as candidates. The victory of the ALP in the 1972 election, after 23 years of conservative government, was partly attributable to this policy. In 1973, Immigration Minister Grassby spoke of multiculturalism in a speech on 'the family of the nation'. It is often argued that this speech marks the beginning of Australian multiculturalism, but in fact the emphasis in this period was not on cultural pluralism but on improving welfare and education systems — a typically social-democratic concern with social citizenship. The Australian Assistance Plan — the centrepiece of Whitlam's social policy reform — put special emphasis on migrant disadvantage. A Migrant Task Force was set up to consult with migrant groups. Measures included the right to invalid and widows pensions, migrant housing and low-interest loans, family health insurance, and work-based childcare programs employing workers of appropriate ethnic backgrounds. The involvement of migrant spokespersons in planning and implementation encouraged the formal constitution of ethnic organisations, such as the Australian-Greek Welfare Society and the Italian welfare agencies COASIT and FILEF. A migrant rights movement developed, leading to the formation of Ethnic Communities Councils (ECCs) in all states. When the Liberal-Country Party Coalition returned to power in 1975, many people thought that it would move away from multicultural policies, but Prime Minister Fraser had learnt the significance of the 'ethnic vote', and set out to win the support of ethnic community leaders. Fraser emphasised the value of multiculturalism as a way of maintaining social cohesion in an ethnically diverse society. The bodies set up to promote multicultural ideas included the Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs (AIMA), and the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), which was to provide multicultural television and radio services. The Adult Migration Education Program was expanded, and a Multicultural Education Program was developed for schools. Multiculturalism was redefined according to an ethnic group model in which Australian society was seen as consisting of a number of distinct ethno-cultural communities, held together by a set of 'overarching values'. The Government could use this notion of ethnicity as a justification for delegation of welfare functions to ethnic organisations, which could deliver services in a 'culturally appropriate' way. This made it possible to privatise parts of the welfare state and reduce government expenditure.

The election of an ALP Government in 1983 was to lead to a radical rethinking of multiculturalism as way of managing ethnic difference. At first, the Hawke Government treated the notion of ethnicity with some scepticism, and seemed likely to return to the traditional ALP focus on class-based social welfare. This trend was reinforced by signs of hostility to immigration, based on Australia's increasingly uncertain economic perspectives. In 1984, historian Geoffrey Blainey warned against what he called the 'Asianisation of Australia'. A plethora of racist statements and even attacks on Asians followed. Most politicians condemned Blainey's words, but some began to feel that there was considerable opposition to multiculturalism. In the 1986 Budget, the ALP Government abolished the Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs, and cut funding for English as a Second Language teaching and for the Multicultural Education Program. Plans were also made to merge the SBS with the ABC. But these cuts led to protests and demonstrations by migrant organisations. This ethnic mobilisation threatened the ALP hold on marginal seats in Sydney and Melbourne. In a rapid about-turn, many of the measures of 1986 were reversed in early 1987. The new direction was signalled by the establishment of an Office of Multicultural Affairs (OMA) within the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet; the appointment of an Advisory Council on Multicultural Affairs (ACMA) to advise the Prime Minister; and the dropping of the proposed SBS-ABC merger. ALP immigration policies were reshaped to encourage entry of highly-skilled immigrants. The Government used the concept of 'productive diversity' to argue that a multicultural population was better placed to respond to the challenges of international trade and communication, and above all to provide an opening to Asia. In social policy, the Government moved away from services for specific ethnic groups. The slogan of 'mainstreaming' was adopted as a principle for restructuring services. This implied that all government agencies should be aware of the needs of the various groups within the population, and plan their services so that they were accessible to everybody. All Commonwealth Government departments were required to produce annual 'Access and Equity Statements' designed to show that their services were responsive to the needs of a diverse population. The most significant statement of the ALP's new approach to multiculturalism was contained in the National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia. The National Agenda identified 'three dimensions of multicultural policy': • cultural identity: the right of all Australians, within carefully defined limits, to express and share their individual cultural heritage, including their language and religion; • social justice: the right of all Australians to equality of treatment and opportunity, and the removal of barriers of race, ethnicity, culture, religion, language, gender or place of birth; and • economic efficiency: the need to maintain, develop and utilise effectively the skills and talents of all Australians, regardless of background.

In the National Agenda, multiculturalism was portrayed as a system of rights linked to citizenship. These rights were limited by an overriding commitment to the nation, a duty to accept the Constitution and the rule of law, and the acceptance of principles such as tolerance and equality, English as the national language and equality of the sexes. Multiculturalism was not defined as cultural pluralism or minority rights, but as part of the cultural, social and economic rights of all citizens in a democratic state. The program contained in the document was based on the recognition that some groups were disadvantaged by educational and social factors, together with discrimination based on race, ethnicity and gender. The period from 1987 to 1996 was marked by an institutionalisation of multiculturalism. At the Federal level, OMA had a wide-ranging brief, which included monitoring bills and cabinet submissions, vetting departmental Access and Equity Statements, and publicly promoting multicultural policies. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs (DIEA) was responsible for a range of settlement services, including the Adult Migrant Education Program (mainly English courses); grant-in-aids to migrant welfare organisations; and the Telephone Interpreter Service (TIS), which provides interpreters for all languages throughout Australia. DIEA also funded a quasi-autonomous Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research (BIMPR). The Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET) ran a National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition (NOOSR). The Federal Government financed the Special Broadcasting Service, which provides radio and television broadcasts to meet the needs of ethnic communities, and to promote wider cultural understanding. Most state governments had a similar range of multicultural agencies. However, major shifts away from multiculturalism developed from the mid-1990s. Liberal and National Party Governments were elected in several states and, in 1996, at the Federal level. Anti-multicultural sentiments were major political factors during and after the Election, as shown both by the rise of the One Nation Party and by Prime Minister Howard’s obvious dislike for the notion. The early measures of the Howard Government seemed to indicate a rapid move away from multicultural policies. Federal agencies such as the Office of Multicultural Affairs (OMA) and the Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research (BIMPR) were axed. The August 1996 Budget contained cuts to mainstream services particularly important to immigrants, such as job training and employment schemes, health services, aged care and tertiary education. Fees for visas and English language courses for new immigrants were increased. The most serious change was the exclusion of new immigrants from a range of welfare benefits during their first two years in Australia.

However, opinion polls continue to show strong support for multiculturalism. By 1999 the National Multicultural Advisory Council (NMAC) was strongly recommending the retention and strengthening of multiculturalism. The Council was chaired by business leader Neville Roach (CEO of Fujitsu Australia) and its Report, Australian Multiculturalism for a New Century: Towards Inclusiveness, was launched by the Prime Minister, indicating something of a change of heart. The Report reasserted the principles of multiculturalism laid down in 1989, while seeking to redefine it as ‘Australian multiculturalism’ in order to emphasise ‘its unique Australian character’. The NMAC Report argued that multiculturalism was crucial for nationhood and for identity for all Australians. Importantly, it pointed to the need for including Australia’s indigenous people in any new approach to cultural difference and social justice. The current situation is contradictory. Many of the reform impulses of the 1980s and the early 1990s have been abandoned or reversed. Public involvement in issues of cultural diversity and social justice seems to have waned. Yet there is clearly no possibility of return to the policies of the immediate postwar period. Australia’s multicultural society received a great deal of praise during the 2000 Olympic Games, and was clearly seen as a source of pride by many Australians. All in all, the Australian experience appears as a positive example of successful government and community approaches in bringing about integration of large and diverse immigrant groups. A4 Germany

Germany is at the opposite end of the integration policy from Australia. From the late 1950s, Germany started recruiting ‘guestworkers’ from Southern Europe and Turkey. Family reunion and permanent settlement was never envisaged. This model had been initially developed in Germany between 1870 and 1914 as a way of recruiting and controlling Polish, Italian and other foreign workers during industrialisation. The approach can be called differential exclusion. It means accepting immigrants only within strict functional and temporal limits: they are welcome as workers, but not as settlers; as individuals, but not as families or communities; as temporary sojourners, but not as longterm residents. Immigrants are integrated (temporarily) into certain societal sub-systems such as the labour market and some aspects of the welfare system, but excluded from others such as political participation. Differential exclusion implies legal and administrative arrangements that enforce strict distinctions between temporary residents and citizens, and which make it very hard to move from one status to the other. Such arrangements are typical of countries which base their citizenship on ethnic descent according to the ius sanguinis model.

From about 1960, Germany was the largest European labour recruiter, with the best organised recruitment and control system, in which the state played a dominant role. On the basis of this guestworker system, German politicians and officials declared that ‘the German Federal Republic is not a country of immigration’. This declaration continued to be intoned by leaders until at least 1998, even though it had become obvious by the late 1970s that this was no longer true. The trigger for change was the 1973 Oil Crisis, which led to a ban on further labour recruitment in anticipation of the first significant postwar recession. According to the logic of the guestworker system, unemployed workers were expected to leave, along with those who had reached the end of their planned stay in Germany. Foreign employment would decline by natural attrition, leading to effective but painless export of unemployment. But this did not happen: some foreign workers did leave, but many remained. Moreover, processes of family reunion now gained momentum. By the late 1970s, Germany’s foreign population stabilised at over 4 million, while entry of spouses and children led to a gradual ‘demographic normalisation’: the predominance of young men was eroded, increasing demands for family housing, schooling and social amenities. The migratory chains established through guestworker recruitment continued in new forms: family reunion, irregular migration and asylumseeker flows. Germany’s legal and administrative framework had been designed to do two things: first to prevent large-scale permanent settlement; and second to prevent those who did settle from becoming full members of society and especially citizens. It failed in both these objectives. How could such a powerful and well-organised state prove incapable of controlling relatively powerless groups? The answer lies both in the dynamics of the migratory process and in the principles and institutional structures of the modern liberal democratic state. The system of temporary labour recruitment met the needs of all the main participants at the beginning of the migratory process. But over time these needs changed. Migrant workers found that their savings were insufficient to allow an early return, so they prolonged their stay in Germany. Others tried to set up businesses in their homeland, but found that conditions were not suitable, leading to poor returns or business failure. This encouraged re-migration. Longer stays abroad made life alone in the spartan conditions of worker hostels less bearable, generating pressure for family reunion. Spouses often came as workers themselves. Family reunion or family formation led to birth of children, and once these went to German schools return became far more difficult. As for German employers, they felt a continued need for foreign labour and were anxious to retain experienced employees. Mass recruitment of foreign workers led to structural dependence, with certain industrial sectors or occupations becoming heavily reliant on migrants. At the same time housing-market mechanisms brought about residential concentration in certain neighbourhoods. This is turn created the conditions for community formation and establishment of ethnic infrastructure, such as places of worship, cultural and social associations and ethnic businesses.

The German experience shows how difficult it is to prevent immigrant settlement in a liberal-democratic state. In the 1970s, the authorities tried the following measures at various times: preventing entry of dependents; prohibiting dependents from joining the labour force; deportation of unemployed persons or those who applied for social security benefits; financial incentives to leave Germany; and barring settlement in areas seen as having excessive immigrant populations. All these measures proved ineffective or unenforceable. In some cases, the courts interpreted rights laid down in the German Basic Law as providing protection for the rights of non-citizens, for instance with regard to the right to family life. In other cases it became clear that discriminatory measures might have damaging consequences for the population as a whole. From the late 1970s, German educational and welfare authorities began to develop a set of special measures that recognised immigrants’ special needs and sought to integrate them into mainstream society. These included remedial classes and intensive German courses in schools, special training courses for unemployed foreign youth, and multilingual social workers and interpreter services at the municipal level. By the 1980s, big cities like Berlin and Cologne were establishing offices for ‘foreign fellow-citizens’. In Frankfurt the office was even called the Office for Multicultural Affairs. Many cities set up Advisory Councils for ‘foreign fellow-citizens’. These were either appointed by the city government or directly elected by foreign residents. Such steps recognised and strengthened immigrant political and religious leaderships. By the late 1980s, Germany seemed to be well on the way to ‘de facto multiculturalism’, which gave long-standing foreign residents many of the civil and social rights of citizenship but stopped short of full political membership. Continuing restrictive rules on naturalisation made political citizenship unattainable for all but a small minority of immigrants. Instead they were being incorporated as ‘denizens’ (see Glossary). However, the situation in Germany was to change dramatically with the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. German Reunification was accompanied by an upsurge of nationalism. The most obvious sign was the rapid growth of extreme-right organisations and outbursts of racist violence. Such attacks had the effect of strengthening an enclave mentality, especially for Turkish youth. Protecting the community against racist attack was linked to militant forms of mobilisation around cultural and religious symbols. At the same time, the influx of ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union, Romania etc., and the westward migration of East Germans displaced by the collapse of socialist industries seemed to put the jobs of foreign immigrants at risk. The general climate of threatening change, the upsurge in asylum-seeker entries (peaking at 438,000 in 1992) and fears of further mass migration from the East and South led to a siege mentality on the part of many Germans, boding ill for the incorporation of immigrants.

Yet these changes also put citizenship for immigrants on the political agenda in a new way. Fears of an extreme-right revival generated an anti-racist mobilisation by the left, the unions and the churches. This was linked to a new understanding that long-term solutions to problems of ethnic divisions and social exclusion could only be achieved through recognition of the permanent nature of immigrant settlement. This required easier naturalisation for foreign residents, and the right to citizenship for children born to foreign parents in Germany. This was linked to the demand for dual citizenship, which was particularly important for Turks whose government did not permit them to renounce their previous affiliation. By the late 1990s, it was clear that the old model of claiming to be ‘not a country of immigration’ could no longer be maintained. The SPD-Green Coalition that was elected in 1998 announced a major reform of citizenship law, though strong opposition from conservatives forced the Schröder Government to water down the changes. Nonetheless the measures passed by the German parliament in the spring of 1999 represented a major change in citizenship rules. The previous law had given foreign immigrants legally resident in Germany for at least 15 years a claim to citizenship provided they gave up their previous citizenship; had not been convicted of a major felony; and were able to support themselves and their families. The new law (which came into force on 1 January 2000) reduced the period of legal residence required for a claim to citizenship to eight years. However, the same rather restrictive conditions applied. Most importantly, the new law still generally prohibited dual citizenship, although with a list of exceptions in cases where renunciation of the previous citizenship would cause hardship or unreasonable difficulties. The 1999 legislation also substantially improved access to citizenship for descendants of immigrants. From 2000, children born in Germany to foreign parents acquired German citizenship at birth if at least one parent had lived legally in Germany for a minimum of eight years. Children who acquired German citizenship in this way were allowed to hold dual citizenship until they reached maturity, but were required to chose between German and foreign citizenship by the age of 23. Children born to foreign parents before the new law who were under the age of 10 could claim German citizenship by virtue of birth in Germany. They had to make this claim within one year of the promulgation of the law, and also had to chose between German and foreign citizenship by the age of 23. A further important shift came with the appointment by the Federal Minister of the Interior of an Independent Commission on Immigration chaired by CDU politician Rita Suessmuth. In its Report, published in April 2001, the Commission declared that Germany needed immigrants for both demographic and economic reasons. For the first time, the Report called for a systematic immigration policy to include both skilled and unskilled workers. Permanent settlement was seen as essential to make up for Germany’s declining population.

By the turn of the century, Germany had thus abandoned the differential exclusion model. It had gone a long way towards abolishing the principle of ius sanguinis and ethnic descent hitherto intrinsic to the German concept of the nation. The combination of a written constitution conferring most basic rights to everyone (rather than just citizens), a strong legal system able to enforce laws even against the intentions of politicians and the bureaucracy, and an integrative welfare system had in the long run made differential exclusion untenable. Germany had taken major steps towards a multicultural society but there was still a long way to go. The legacy of many years of the officially-endorsed discrimination built into the guestworker system was a highly-segmented labour market, where immigrants remained highly concentrated in manual occupations. Unemployment rates for immigrants and their descendants were roughly double those of Germans. Laws and practices to prevent racism and discrimination were poorly developed, and racism remained a major factor. It had diminished somewhat in the period of settlement in the 1980s, only to take on a new virulence in the aftermath of Reunification. Discrimination and racist violence had led to a ‘disintegration’ of immigrants, reversing previous trends: occupational and residential segregation had actually grown in the 1990s and some groups of immigrants were more socially isolated than before. As a result of the restrictive naturalisation practices of the past and reluctance to accept dual citizenship, the great majority of immigrants remain non-citizens. Clearly, the important legal and policy changes of recent years were not sufficient to quickly eliminate the result of years of deliberate exclusion. A5 France

Foreign residents made up 6.4 per cent of France’s total population in 1990 (still the most recent census figures available). In addition there were over one million immigrants who had become French citizens, and up to half a million French citizens of African, Caribbean and Pacific Island origin from Overseas Departments and Territories. Official policies are based on individual assimilation of immigrants, through easy naturalisation and equal social rights. In reality, however, there is considerable differentiation. European Union citizens enjoy all basic rights, except the right to vote. Immigrants from non-EU European countries (such as Poland and former Yugoslavia) lack many rights, and many have an irregular legal situation. People of non-European birth or parentage (whether citizens or not) constitute the ethnic minorities. These include Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans, young Franco-Algerians, black Africans, Turks and settlers from the Overseas Departments and Territories. They may have formal rights as French citizens, but they still suffer socio-economic exclusion and racism.

The bidonvilles (shanty-towns) that developed around French cities in the 1960s have disappeared, but there is still residential concentration in inner city areas and in the public housing estates on the periphery of the cities. The work situation of ethnic minorities is marked by low status, insecure jobs and high unemployment rates, especially for youth. Racist discrimination and violence, especially against North Africans have been a problem for many years. In the 1970s, policies towards immigration (especially family reunion) became increasingly restrictive. Police raids, identity checks and deportations of immigrants convicted of even minor offences were common. In the early 1980s, the Socialist Government improved residence rights and granted an amnesty to illegals and allowed greater political participation. In the late 1980s, growing racism and serious social problems in areas of immigrant concentration led to a series of special programmes to improve housing and education and combat youth unemployment. But in the 1990s, the centre-right government became increasingly restrictive towards minorities. This was partly due to the increasing influence of the extreme-right Front National, which regularly got around 15 per cent of the votes in national elections, and which was able to controls the local authorities of several major cities. The 1993 Loi Pasqua tightened up immigration and nationality rules. Conditions for entry and family reunion became stricter, while deportation was facilitated. Rules on citizenship for children of immigrants tightened up. Fears about Islamic fundamentalism turned into near-panic when violence in Algeria spilled over into bomb attacks on the Paris Métro in 1995. Immigration rules were further tightened, and there were mass deportations of people in irregular situations. However, the Socialist Government elected in 1997 partially restored previous citizenship rights. The position of ethnic minorities in French society has become highly politicised. Immigrants have taken an active role in major strikes, and demanded civil, political and cultural rights. Second generation North African immigrants (known as beurs) and Muslim organisations are emerging political forces. Youth discontent with unemployment and police practices led to riots in Lyons, Paris and other cities in the 1980s. More recently, campaigns by the beurs have asserted the need for a new type of ‘citizenship by participation’, based on residence rather than nationality or descent. This means demanding a form of pluralism quite alien to the French republican model. Today, of all the highly developed immigration countries, France probably comes closest to the assimilation model (see Glossary). France introduced the notion of citizenship as a political community after the 1789 Revolution, and its policies towards colonised peoples were based on assimilation of those willing to conform to French cultural and political values. The essence of today’s republican model is to be found in the first report of the official Haut Conseil à I’Intégration (High Council for Integration) which was established in 1990:

French conceptions of integration should obey a logic of equality and not a logic of minorities. The principles of identity and equality which go back to the Revolution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and of Citizens impregnate our conception, thus founded on the equality of individuals before the law, whatever their origin, race, religion ... to the exclusion of an institutional recognition of minorities. The central idea was that immigrants could (and should) become integrated into the political community as French citizens, and that this would bring about cultural integration. There was therefore no room for long-term cultural or ethnic diversity. Exponents of the model saw France as temporarily multi-ethnic, but not as permanently multicultural. Citizenship was seen as essentially a political relationship, most simply expressed by the statement: ‘Celui qui vote est français et citoyen’ (‘a person who votes is French and a citizen’). Any granting of rights (such as local voting rights) to non-citizens means watering down this principle, and could lead to new identifications, not only by migrants but also by French people, on the basis of ‘origins, blood, race or culture’. In this view, rights for minorities lead directly to racism. Despite the emphasis on political integration, the implication of cultural homogenisation is very strong. The relationship between citizenship and cultural difference has become an area of struggle. In the 1980s, immigration organisations called for municipal voting rights, which were seen as a form of quasi-citizenship. The demand was rejected by the state, because it was seen as a threat to the supposedly unitary and egalitarian nature of citizenship. By the 1990s, new movements had developed out of struggles by secondgeneration immigrants against racism and for improvements in housing, education and vocational training. Their critique of the republican model had two aspects. Firstly, they pointed out that the concept of citoyen proclaimed by the 1789 the Revolution was based purely on residence on French territory, had nothing to do with culture and was granted even to non-nationals. Citizenship should therefore be automatically granted to all permanent immigrants, and dual citizenship should be accepted. Secondly, they argued that the ideal of equality of rights embodied in citizenship was a dead letter for people who are socio-economically marginalised and victims of racism. It was unrealistic to expect members of ethnic minorities to become culturally assimilated, when they need their communities for protection and as a political basis. The new demand is for a notion of citizenship based not on cultural belonging but on actual participation in society. A6 The Netherlands

In 1997, there were 7678,000 foreign residents in the Netherlands – 4.4 per cent of the total population. However, many immigrants have become citizens. The foreign-born population was 1.4 million in 1995, of whom 57 per cent were Dutch citizens. The top five countries of origin of the foreign born were Surinam (181,000), Indonesia (180,000), Turkey (166,000), Morocco (140,000) and Germany (131,000).

In the 1960s, Mediterranean, Surinamese and Antillean workers became concentrated in unskilled jobs in manufacturing and the services. In the period of economic restructuring, they bore the brunt of unemployment. By 1994, the unemployment rate stood at 19 per cent for the foreign-born, compared with 6.4 per cent for the Netherlands-born. Certain minority groups had extremely high rates: 30 per cent for Antilleans, 31 per cent for Moroccans and 36 per cent for Turks. The ethnic minority population became overwhelmingly concentrated in urban areas, where they often live in distinct neighbourhoods. In 1990, 38 per cent of Turks, 49 per cent of Moroccans, 52 per cent of Surinamese and 27 per cent of Antilleans lived in the four biggest cities, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. The revised Constitution of 1983 introduced municipal voting rights for resident noncitizens. The 1983 Minorities Policy was based on multicultural principles, declaring the need for social policies to integrate minorities as ethnic groups rather than as individuals. The Minorities Policy covered Mediterranean workers and their families, people of Surinamese and Antillean origins, Moluccans, refugees (but not asylum-seekers), gypsies and caravan dwellers. These groups were estimated to add up to 876,385 people in 1990. However, by the end of the 1980s, the Minorities Policy was being criticised on the grounds that it did little to overcome unemployment, poor educational performance and social disadvantage. In 1994, a new Integration Policy was introduced, covering persons of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean descent, as well as refugees. The new policy aims at reducing social and economic deprivation, and has two elements: a ‘newcomers’ or ‘reception policy’, and an ‘integration policy’. The newcomers policy consists of Dutch language courses, social orientation and vocational training, plus individual casemanagement to secure entry into further education or the labour market. Immigrants who fail to participate may be deprived of social security benefits. Integration policy is concerned with improving the educational and labour market position of minority youth, and ameliorating the safety and the living conditions of neighbourhoods. Citizenship is fairly easy to obtain, with a five-year qualification period. Dual nationality has been accepted since 1991, which led to a sharp rise in the number of naturalisations. The Netherlands has laws that prohibit racial defamation, incitement to racial hatred, discrimination and violence, and discrimination at work or in public places. Organisations that call for racial discrimination can be forbidden. Nonetheless racism and racist violence are still problems in The Netherlands. Extreme-right anti-immigrant groups, which blame unemployment on immigrants and carry out campaigns for repatriation, have been able to secure representation in parliament. . A7 Sweden

Until 1945 Sweden was a fairly homogeneous country, with only a small aboriginal minority - the Sami or Lapps (about 10,000 people today). After 1945, labour migration was encouraged. Foreign worker recruitment was stopped in 1972, but family reunion and refugee entries continued. In 1997, the 522,000 foreign residents made up 6 per cent of Sweden’s population. In fact about 1 million persons had been born abroad, but over half had acquired Swedish citizenship. Including children born in Sweden to at least one immigrant parent, the population of immigrant origin is 1.6 million – about 15 per cent of the population! A third of the foreign population are non-Europeans – mainly refugees from the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. Immigrant workers are over-represented in manufacturing, and in lower-skilled services occupations. They are under-represented in agriculture, health care and social work, administrative and clerical work, and commerce. In 1993, unemployment in Sweden reached an historical peak of 8 per cent. The rate for foreigners was 21 per cent, while for non-Europeans it reached 37 per cent. Immigrants have mainly settled in the cities, and people of the same nationality cluster in certain neighbourhoods, allowing linguistic and cultural maintenance. The waiting period for naturalisation is two years for Scandinavians and five years for everybody else, while children born to foreign resident parents can obtain Swedish citizenship upon application. In 1975, parliament set out an immigrant policy with three basic objectives: equality, which refers to giving immigrants the same living standards as Swedes; freedom of choice which means giving members of ethnic minorities a choice between retaining their own cultural identities or assuming Swedish cultural identity; and partnership, which implies that minority groups and Swedes benefit from working together. Since 1975, foreign residents have had the right to vote and stand for election in local and regional elections. It was planned to extend such rights to national elections, but it proved impossible to get the parliamentary majority required for a change in the constitution. In 1986, an Act Against Ethnic Discrimination came into force, and an Ombudsman Against Ethnic Discrimination was appointed. A new anti-discrimination law was passed by parliament in 1994. Immigrants enjoy the benefits of Sweden’s highly developed welfare state, as well as a number of special services. New immigrants have the right to 400 hours of Swedish instruction with financial assistance. Children of immigrants can receive pre-school and school instruction in their own language, within the normal curriculum. Other measures include translator and interpreter services, information services, grants to immigrant organisations and special consultative bodies. The increase in asylum-seeker entry in the late 1980s led to strains in housing and other areas. The extreme-right Sverigepartiet (SP – the Sweden Party) started anti-immigrant campaigns in 1986. In 1988, a referendum in the small town of Sjöbo decided to keep refugees out. This was followed by an increase in racist violence, including arson and bomb attacks on refugee centres. From 1989, the government introduced a series of measures to restrict the entry of asylum-seekers. In 1992 the inflow – particularly from former Yugoslavia – peaked at 84,000, but had declined to 9,000 by 1995.

A8

Switzerland

In 1997, the 1.3 million foreign residents made up 19 per cent of the total population of Switzerland – the highest immigrant quota in Europe (except for Luxembourg). In 1995, there were 734,000 foreign resident workers, compared with 670,000 in 1990. Workers from the Mediterranean basin have become concentrated in manual employment, while Swiss workers, and also immigrants from Germany, Austria and France, generally have white-collar and supervisory positions. Unemployment for workers from the Mediterranean countries is above the Swiss average, although very low compared with rates in other countries. Foreign residents have become concentrated in certain housing areas, but there are no areas of extreme social disadvantage. The Swiss authorities still declare that Switzerland is not a country of immigration, although most immigrants have been in the country for many years. All foreign residents are denied political rights, in particular the right to vote, and foreigners are kept under surveillance by the Fremdenpolizei (foreigners’ police). Employers and landlords have to report changes of job or residence to the authorities. Citizenship is extremely hard to obtain. The waiting period is 12 years, which must have been spent in the same canton, very high fees are charged in some cantons, and the authorities carry out rigorous examinations to ensure that an applicant is ‘sufficiently assimilated’. Children of immigrants born in Switzerland have no automatic right to citizenship and can be deported. In accordance with the Swiss laissez-faire tradition of leaving social issues to market forces and self-regulation, there are no special social policies for immigrants. Provision of support in emergency situations is left largely to voluntary efforts. Anti-racist and antidiscrimination legislation or affirmative action programmes have no place in the Swiss model. Latent racism is widespread, forming the basis for institutional and informal discrimination. One expression of hostility towards immigrants has been a series of referenda, starting in 1965, designed to combat Überfremdung (foreign penetration) by limiting immigration and the number of foreign residents. In 1982, a new Aliens Law that would have led to minor improvements in the legal status of foreign residents was narrowly defeated in a referendum. In 1992, Swiss voters rejected joining the European Economic Area (linking EU and European Free Trade Area countries) that would have meant free movement of citizens of member countries. A9 Discussion

Nearly all Western countries have experienced significant immigration since 1945, and in every case the integration of the newcomers has been perceived as a challenge to existing ideas on national culture and identity. In the early stages of post-1945 immigration, policy makers generally had the expectation that they could control such challenges either by using ‘guestworker’ models which prevented permanent settlement, or through policies of assimilation. In the long run, such policies proved largely unsuccessful for three main reasons. First, strong legal systems and the principle of equality before the law made policies of involuntary repatriation and of forced assimilation impossible. Second, welfare state systems found they had to recognise and accept cultural differences in order to achieve acceptable outcomes in education and social service delivery. Third, unequal access chances to labour and housing markets for newcomers created patterns of segmentation. The result in every country was the emergence of ethnic communities and a fairly high degree of cultural maintenance for a sizeable proportion of immigrants. Governments of immigration countries have had to face up to the reality of increasing ethnic and religious diversity. Their approaches to dealing with this situation have varied considerably, as shown in the country studies. However, there are some general trends. All the countries concerned have had to change their laws on immigration, settlement and citizenship. In some cases, laws have been reformed repeatedly and are still in a state of flux. Overall there has been a tendency towards multicultural models (albeit under a variety of labels). Such models are characterised by the combining of two key principles: recognition of the right to cultural difference, and acceptance of the duty of the state to create conditions for equal political, economic and social participation, irrespective of cultural difference. This process is uneven, with some countries making rather small steps (e.g. Switzerland) while others have undergone quite major change (Australia, Germany). Nor is the process uni-linear, as fluctuations in French citizenship law demonstrate. Analysis of such experiences would no doubt be helpful to UK policy-makers, since some of the new inflows to the UK have great similarities with overseas experiences. This short summary cannot hope to achieve the necessary comparative tasks, but it may point to the need for more detailed consideration.

PART

Data Set 1
Bibliography of Academic Works PART I. THEORIES AND METHODS [SELECTED READINGS]
1. Theories and Models of Integration, Multiculturalism and Citizenship 2. Theories of Ethnicity and Racism (Selected Readings) 3. Methods and Methodological Issues 18 4 17

PART II. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS
1. Immigrants – UK 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 19

General 19 Education and Training 21 Labour Market 23 Health 25 Housing Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity,

28

Residential Segregation and Acculturation 28 1.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation32 1.8 Women and Gender 33 1.9 Family and Children 34 1.10 Justice and Legal System 1.11 Welfare and Social Policy 1.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 1.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 1.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 1.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 2. Refugees – UK 41

35 35 36 38 39 39

2.1 General 2.2 Education and Training 2.3 Labour Market 2.4 Health 2.5 Housing

41 42 43 43 45

2.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 46

1

2.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 2.8 Women and Gender 2.9 Family and Children 2.10 Justice and Legal System 2.11 Welfare and Social Policy 2.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 2.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 2.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 2.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 3. Unspecified/Ethnic Minorities – UK 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Genera Education and Training Labour Market Health

46 46 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 51 51 52 55 59

2

3.5 Housing 3.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Belonging, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 3.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 3.8 Women and Gender 3.9 Family and Children 3.10 Justice and Legal System 3.11 Welfare and Social Policy 3.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 3.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 3.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 3.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 4. Immigrants – International 72 4.1 General 4.2 Education and Training 4.3 Labour Market 4.4 Health 4.5 Housing 4.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 4.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 4.8 Women and Gender 4.9 Family and Children 4.10 Justice and Legal System 4.11Welfare and Social Policy 4.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 4.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 4.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 4.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 5. Refugees – International 100 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

64 66 68 68 69 69 69 69 70 70 71

72 76 77 80 82 83 87 89 91 92 93 94 96 98 98

General 100 Education and Training 101 Labour Market 101 Health 102 Housing 103 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 103 5.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 103 5.8 Women and Gender 103 5.9 Family and Children 104 5.10 Justice and Legal System 104 5.11 Welfare and Social Policy 105 5.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 105 5.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 106 5.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 106 5.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 106

3

6. Unspecified/Ethnic Minorities – International 107 6.1 General 6.2 Education and Training 6.3 Labour Market 6.4 Health 6.5 Housing 6.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Belonging, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 6.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 6.8 Women and Gender 6.9 Family and Children 6.10 Justice and Legal System 6.11 Welfare and Social Policy 6.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 6.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 6.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 6.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 107 109 109 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 112 112 113

PART III. REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 [SELECTED READINGS] 114
1. Immigrants – UK 2. Refugees – UK 3. Unspecified/Ethnic Minorities – UK 4. Immigrants – International 5. Refugees – International 6. Unspecified/Ethnic Minorities – International 114 117 122 128 132 133

PART IV. ASYLUM SEEKERS 136
1. Asylum Seekers 2. Undocumented Migrants 136 139

4

5

PART I. THEORIES AND METHODS [SELECTED READINGS] 1. Theories and Models of Integration, Multiculturalism and Citizenship Alba, Richard. 1999. ‘Immigration and The American Realities Of Assimilation and Multiculturalism’. Sociological Forum, 14, 1, 3-25. Alba, Richard and Nee, Victor. 1997. ‘Rethinking Assimilation Theory For A New Era Of Immigration’. International Migration Review, 31, 4, 826-874. Aleinikoff, T.A. and Klusmeyer, D. (Eds). 2000. From Migrants To Citizens: Membership In A Changing World. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment For International Peace. Alibhai-Broan, Y. 2000. After Multiculturalism. London: The Foreign Policy Centre. Archibugi, Daniele, Held, David and Kohler, Martin. 1998. Re-Imagining Political Community: Studies In Cosmopolitan Democracy. Oxford: Polity. Bach, R. 1993. ‘Recrafting the common good: immigration and community’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 530: 155-70. Bach, R. et al. 1993. Changing Relations: Newcomers and Established Residents in U.S. Communities. New York: Ford Foundation. Banton, M. 2001. ‘National Integration in France and Britain’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27, 1, Jan: 151-68. Barbieri, William A. 1998. Ethics Of Citizenship: Immigration and Group Rights In Germany. Durham: Duke University Press. Baubock, Rainer. 1992. Immigration and The Boundaries Of Citizenship. Monographs In Ethnic Relations No.4. Coventry: Centre For Research In Ethnic Relations. Baubock, Rainer. 1994a. From Aliens To Citizens: Redefining The Status Of Immigrants In Europe. Aldershot: Avebury. Baubock, Rainer. 1994b. The Integration Of Immigrants. CMDG-Report. Strasbourg: Council Of Europe. Baubock, Rainer. 1994c. Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights In International Migration. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. Baubock, Rainer. 1996a. ‘Cultural Minority Rights For Immigrants’. International Migration Review, 30, 1, 203-250.

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Baubock, Rainer. 1996b. ‘Social and Cultural Integration in a Civil Society’. Rainer Baubock, Agnes Heller and Aristide R. Zolberg, (Eds.), The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, 67-132. Aldershot: Avebury European Centre. Baubock, Rainer. 1998. ‘The Crossing and Blurring Of Boundaries In International Migration: Challenges For Social and Political Theory’. In R. Baubock and J. Rundell (Eds). Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate. Baubock, Rainer, Heller, Agnes and Zolberg, Aristide R. 1996. The Challenge Of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism In Societies Of Immigration. Aldershot: Avebury European Centre. Baubock, Rainer and Rundell, J (Eds). 1998. Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate. Baumann, Gerd. 1996. Contesting Culture: Discourses Of Identity In Multi-Ethnic London. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baumann, G. 1999. The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic and Religious Identities. London: Routledge. Ben-Rafael, Eliezer. 1996. ‘Multiculturalism in Sociological Perspective’. Rainer Baubock, Agnes Heller and Aristide R. Zolberg, (Eds.), The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, 133-154. Aldershot: Avebury European Centre. Ben-Sira, Zeev. 1997. Immigration, Stress, and Readjustment. Westport, Conn. and London: Praeger. Berry, John. 1997. ‘Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 5-34. Berry, J.W. 1980. “Acculturation as varieties of adaptation”, in Acculturation: Theory, Models, and Some New Findings, A. Padilla (Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview. Bertrand, Didier. 1998. ‘Refugees and Migrants, Migrants and Refugees: An Ethnological Approach’. International Migration, 36, 1, 107-114. Bloommaert, Jan and Martiniello, Marco. 1993. ‘Ethnic Mobilization, Multiculturalism and The Political Process In Two Belgian Cities: Antwerp and Liege’. Innovation, 9, 1, Mar, 51-73.

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Blum, Lawrence. 1998. ‘Accounts of Multiculturalism’. Cynthia Willet, (Ed.), Theorizing Multiculturalism: A guide to the current debate, 73-99. Oxford: Blackwell. Body-Gendrot, Sophie. 1998. ‘ “Now you see, now you don’t”: Comments on Paul Gilroy’s Article’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 5, 848-858. Bourhis, Richaed Y, Moise, L.C., Perrault, S. and Senecal, S. 1997. ‘Towards An Interactive Acculturation Model: A Social Psychological Approach’. International Journal Of Psychology/Journal International De Psychologie, 32, 6, 369-386. Bousetta, Hassan. 1996. ‘The Destiny Of Immigrants. Assimilation and Segregation In Western Democracies’. New Community, 22, 2, Apr, 355. Bousetta, Hassan. 2000. ‘Institutional Theories of Immigrant Ethnic Mobilisation: Relevance and Limitations’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 4, 229-246. Brettell, Caroline B. and Holifield, James Frank (Eds). 2000. Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines. New York and London: Routledge. Brubaker, Rogers (Ed.). 1989. Immigration and The Politics Of Citizenship In Western Europe and North America. New York: University Press Of America. Carmon, Naomi (Ed.). 1996. Immigration and Integration In Post-Industrial Societies. London: Macmillan. Castles, Stephen. 1992. ‘The Australian Model Of Immigration and Multiculturalism: Is It Applicable To Europe?’ IMR, 26, 2, 549-567. Castles, Stephen. 1995. ‘How Nation-States Respond To Immigration and Ethnic Diversity’. New Community, 21, 3, 293-308. Castles, Stephen. 1998a. ‘Globalization and The Ambiguities Of National Citizenship’. In R. Baubock and J. Rundell (Eds). Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate. Castles, Stephen. 1998b. The Age Of Migration: International Population and Movements In The Modern World. 2nd Ed. London: Macmillan. Castles, S. 1999. ‘International Migration and the Global Agenda. International Migration’, 3, 1, 5-20. Castles, Stephen. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalisation: From Migrant Workers To Transnational Citizens. London: Sage.

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Castles, Stephen and Davidson, A. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and The Politics Of Belonging. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Castles, S. and Miller, M. 1998. The Age of Migration (2nd Ed.) London: Macmillan. CCC [Council for Cultural Co-operation, Council of Europe]. 1992. Town and Culture: Bremen Declaration, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, DECS-Cult, 92, 14. Cesarani, David and Fulbrook, Mary (Eds). 1996. Citizenship, Nationality and Migration In Europe. London: Routledge. CLRAE [Standing Conference of Regional Authorities of Europe] 1992. Europe 19902000: Multiculturalism in the City. The Integration of Immigrants, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Studies and Texts No. 25 Codagnone, Cristiano. 2000. ‘Introduction’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 2, 173-182. Cornell, Stephen. 1996. ‘The Variable Ties that Bind: Content and Circumstances in Ethnic Processes’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 2, 265-289. Council of Europe. 1994. The Role of the Media in Promoting Integration and Equal Opportunities for Immigrants, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, MG-EO,94, 56 rev. Council of Europe. 1997. Measurements and Indicators of Integration. Brussels: Council of Europe. Crowley, John. 1999. ‘The Politics of belonging: some theoretical considerations’. andrew Geddes and Adrian Favell, The Politics of Belonging: Migrants and Minorities in Contemporary Europe, 15-41. Aldershot: Ashgate. Delanty, Gerard. 1996. ‘Beyond The Nation-State: National Identity and Citizenship In A Multicultural Society - A Response To Rex’. Sociological Research Online http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk /socresonline/, 1, 3, Sept. Dewind, Josh and Kasinitz, Philip. 1997. ‘Everything Old Is New Again? Processes and Theories Of Immigrant Incorporation’. International Migration Review, 31, 4, 1096-1111. Dijkstra, Steven, Genijen, Karn and de Ruijter, A. 2001. ‘Multiculturalism and Social Integration In Europe’. International Political Science Review, 22, 1, 55-84.

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Doomernik, J. 1998. “The Effectiveness of Integration Policies towards Immigrants and their Descendants in France, Germany and the Netherlands.” in International Migration Papers. Geneva: International Labour Organisation. Dörr, S. and Faist, T. 1997. ‘Institutional Conditions For The Integration Of Immigrants In Welfare States: A Comparison Of The Literature On Germany, France, Great Britain, and The Netherlands’. European Journal Of Political Research, 31, 4, 401-426. Dustmann, Christian. 1994. Return Intentions of Migrants: Theory and Evidence. Discussion Paper/Centre for Economic Policy Research no. 906. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Entzinger, Han. 2000. The Dynamics of Integration Policies: A Multidimensional Model. Rood Koopmans and Paul Statham, (Eds.), Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics: Comparative European Perspectives, 97-118. New York: Oxford University Press. Faini, Riccardo. 1997. Globalisation and Migratory Pressures from Developing Countries: a Simulation Analysis. Development Studies Working Papers no. 104. Oxford: Queen Elizabeth House. www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP1660.asp. Faist, Thomas. 1997a. ‘From Common Questions to Common Concepts’. Tomas Hammar, Grete Brochmann, Kristof Tamas and Thomas Faist, (Eds.) International Migration, Immobility and Development: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 247-276. Oxford: Berg. Faist, Thomas. 1997b. ‘The Crucial Meso-Level’. Tomas Hammar, Grete Brochmann, Kristof Tamas and Thomas Faist, (Eds.) International Migration, Immobility and Development: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 187-218. Oxford: Berg. Faist, Thomas. 2000a. ‘Transnationalization In International Migration: Implications For The Study Of Citizenship and Culture’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 2, Mar, 189-222. Faist, Thomas. 2000b. The Volume and Dynamics Of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Favell, Adrian. 1997. ‘Citizenship and Immigration: Pathologies Of A Progressive Philosophy’. New Community, 23, 2, 173-195. Favell, Adrian. 1998a. ‘Multicultural Race Relations In Britain: Problems Of Interpretation and Explanation’. In Christian Joppke (Ed.). Challenge To The Nation State: Immigration In Western Europe and The United States, 319-345. Oxford: OUP.

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Zicone, Giovanna. 2000. ‘Documentation Note: A Model Of ‘Reasonable Integration’: Summary Of The First Report On The Integration Of Immigrants In Italy’. International Migration Review, 34, 3, 956-968. Zolberg, Aristide R. 1996. ‘Immigration and Multiculturalism in the Industrial Democracies’. Rainer Baubock, Agnes Heller and Aristide R. Zolberg, (Eds.), The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, 43-66. Aldershot: Avebury European Centre.

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2.

Theories Of Ethnicity and Racism [Selected Readings]

Anthias, F. and Yuval-Davis, N. 1993. Racialized Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and The Anti-Racist Struggle. London: Routledge. Baumgartl, Bernd and Favell, Adrian (Eds). 1995. New Xenophobia In Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Bonnett, Alastair. 1996. ‘Constructions of ‘Race’, Place and Discipline: Geographies of ‘Racial’ Identity’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 4, 864-883. Fysh, Peter and Wolfreys, Jim. 1998. The Politics Of Racism In France. Houndmills: Macmillan. Henwood, Karen and Phoenix, Ann. 1996. ‘“Race” in Psychology: Teaching the Subject’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 4, 841-863. Mason, David. 1996. ‘Themes and Issues in the Teaching of Race and Ethnicity in Sociology’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 4, 789-806. Peach, Ceri. 2000. ‘Discovering White Ethnicity and Parachuted Plurality’. Progress in Human Geography, 24, 4, 620-626. Piper, Nicola. 1998. Racism, Nationalism and Citizenship: Ethnic Minorities In Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate. Rex, John. 1986. Theories Of Race and Ethnicity. Cambridge: CUP. Rex, J. and Moore, R.S. 1967. Race, Community and Conflict. London: Oxford University Press. Wal, Jessika and Verkuyten, Maykel (Eds). 2000. Comparative Perspectives On Racism. London: Ashgate. Wieviorka, Michel. 1998. ‘Racism and Diasporas’. Thesis Eleven, 52-55, Feb, 69-81. Wimmer, andreas. 1997. ‘Explaining Xenophobia and Racism: A Critical Review Of Current Research Approaches’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 1, Jan, 17-41. Wrench, John and Solomos, John (Eds). 1993. Racism and Migration In Western Europe. Oxford: Berg.

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3.

Methods and Methodological Issues

Acquadro, Catherine, Jambon, Bernard, Ellis, David and Marquis, Patrick. 1996. ‘Language and Translation Issues’. In B. Spilker, (Ed.), Quality Of Life and Pharmacoeconomics In Clinical Trials, Chapter 63. 2nd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers. Ahearn, Frederick L. Jr. 2000. Psychosocial Wellness Of Refugees: Issues In Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Bardsley, M. and Storkey, M. 2000. ‘Estimating The Numbers Of Refugees In London’. Journal Of Public Health Medicine, 22, 3, 406-412. Bertrand, Didier. 1998. ‘Refugees and Migrants, Migrants and Refugees: An Ethnological Approach’. International Migration, 36, 1, 107-114. Billsborrow, R.E., G. Hugo, Oberai, A.S. and Zlotnik, H. 1997. International Migration Statistics: Guidelines For Improving Data Collection Systems. Geneva: ILO. Bloch, A. 1999. ‘Carrying Out A Survey Of Refugees: Some Methodological Considerations and Guidelines’. Journal Of Refugee Studies, 12, 4, 367-385. Ellis, Mark and Wright, Richard. 1998. ‘When Immigrants Are Not Migrants: Counting Arrivals Of The Foreign-Born Using The US Census’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 127-144. Herdman, M., Fox-Rushby, J. and Badia, X. 1997. ‘‘Equivalence’ and The Translation and Adaptation Of Health-Related Quality Of Life Questionnaires’. Quality Of Life Research, 6, 237-247. Herdman, M., Fox-Rushby, J. and Badia, X. 1998. ‘A Model Of Equivalence In The Cultural Adaptation Of HRQOL Instruments: The Universalist Approach’. Quality Of Life Research, 7, 323-335. Jerusalem, Mattias., Hahn, A. and Schwarzer, R. 1996. ‘Social Bonding and Loneliness After Network Disruption: A Longitudinal Study Of East German Refugees’. Social Indicators Research, 38, 3, July, 229-243. Kofman, Eleonore. 1997. ‘In Search Of The Missing Female Subject: Comments On French Immigration Research’. In M. Cross and S. Perry (Eds). Population and Social Policy In France. London: Pinter. McHugh, Kevin E. 2000. ‘Inside, Outside, Upside Down, Backward, Forward, Round and Round: A Case For Ethnographic Studies In Migration’. Progress In Human Geography, 24, 1, Mar, 71-89.

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Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A. 1998. ‘Undocumented Residents In The United States In 1990: Issues Of Uncertainty In Quantification’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 145-174.

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PART II. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS 1. Immigrants − UK 1.1 General Aspinall, P. 2000. ‘The challenges of measuring the ethno-cultural diversity of Britain in the new millennium’. Policy and politics, 28, 1, 109-118. Ballard, Roger. 1997. ‘The Construction of a Conceptual Vision: ‘ethnic groups’ and the 1991 UK Census’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 1, 182-194. Banton, Michael, Kymlicka, Will and Westin, Charles. 2000. ‘Report of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: UK, North American and Continental European Perspectives’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 4, 719738. Banton, Michael. 2001. ‘National Integration in France and Britain.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27, 1, 151-168. Berry, John. 1997. ‘Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 5-34. Bhopal, Kalwant. 1999. ‘Domestic Finance in South Asian Households in East London’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 1, 81-94. Bourhis, Richaed Y, L. C. Moise, S. Perrault and S. Senecal. 1997. ‘Towards an Interactive Acculturation Model: A Social Psychological Approach’. International Journal of Psychology/Journal International de Psychologie, 32, 6, 369-386. Champion, Tony. 1999. ‘Migration and British Cities in the 1990s’. National Institute Economic Review, 170, 4, 60-77. Chan, Yu Man and Chan, Christine. 1997. ‘The Chinese in Britain’. New Community, 23, 1, 123-132. Cicak-Chand, Ruzica. 1996. ‘Migration and Ethnicity: Main Characteristics of the South Asian Diaspora in Great Britain’. Migracijske teme, 12, 4, 289-309. Clark, Helen, Dick, Lorraine and Fraser, Basabi. 1996. Peoples of Edinburgh: our multicultural city: personal recollections, experiences and photographs. Edinburgh: City of Edinburgh Council, Dept. of Recreation, Museums and Galleries.

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Cohen, R. 1997. ‘Shaping The Nation, Excluding The Other: The Deportation Of Migrants From Britain’. Jan Lucassen and Leo Lucassen (Eds). Migration, Migration History, History, Old Paradigms and New Perspectives. Bern: Peter Lang. Dörr, S and Faist, T. 1997. ‘Institutional conditions for the integration of immigrants in welfare states: a comparison of the literature on Germany, France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands’. European journal of political research, 31, 4, 401-426. Dorsett, R. 1998. Ethnic Minorities in the Inner City. Bristol: Polity Press, in association with the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Faist, Thomas. ‘Transnationalization in International Migration: Implications for the Study of Citizenship and Culture’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 2, Mar, 189222. Favell, Adrian. 2001. ‘Multi-ethnic Britain: an exception in Europe?’. Patterns of prejudice, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp.35-58. Feher, Ferenc and Heller, Agnes. 1994. ‘Naturalization or “Culturalization”?’ Rainer Baubock,(Ed.) From Aliens to Citizens: Redefining the Status of Immigrants in Europe, 135-147. Public Policy and Social Welfare vol.17. Aldershot: Avebury. Fielding, Tony. 1997. ‘Migration and Poverty: A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Migration and Social Mobility in England and Wales’. IDS Bulletin, 28, 2, Apr, 48-57 Frow, M. 1996. Roots of the future: Ethnic diversity in the making of Britain. London: CRE. Grillo, Ralph D. 2000. ‘Plural Cities in Comparative Perspective’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 6, Nov, 957-981. Haskey, J. 1997. ‘The Ethnic Minority and Overseas-Born Population of Great Britain’. Population Trends, 88, 13-30. Israel, Mark. 1996. ‘The “Strangest of Minorities”: The Shifting Visibility of South African Post-War Migration to Britain’. New Community, 1996, 22, 3, 479-493. Joppke, Christian. 1999. Immigration and the nation-state: the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Oxford: OUP. Jowell, Roger et al., (Eds.)1998. National Centre for Social Research, British and European Social Attitudes - How Britain Differs - the 15th Report. 1998/99 Edition. NCSR.

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Jowell, Roger et al., (Eds.)1999. National Centre for Social Research, British and European Social Attitudes - How Britain Differs - the 15th Report. 1999/2000 edition. NCSR. Kagitcbasi, Cigdem. 1997. ‘Whither Multiculturalism?’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 44-49. Kershen, A.J (Ed.). 1997. London, the promised land? the migrant experience in a capital city. Aldershot: Avebury. MacRaild, D. M. 1999. ‘The Great Famine and Beyond: Irish Migrants in Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’. Immigrants and Minorities, 18, 2/3, 1-13. McEvoy, David. 1996. ‘Greater London in Britain’s First Ethnic Census’. Curtis C. Roseman, Hans Dieter Laux and Gunther Thieme. EthniCity: Geographic Perspectives on Ethnic Change in Modern Cities, 97-119. London: Rowman and Littlefield Inc. Panayi, Panikos. 1996. ‘The History of Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities: Britain Compared with the USA’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 4, 823-840. Panayi, P. (Ed.). 1999. The impact of immigration: a documentary history of the effects and experiences of immigrants in Britain since 1945. Manchester: Manchester University Press, Manchester. Parekh, Bhikhu. 2000. The Future of multi-ethnic Britain. London: Runnymede Trust/Profile Books. Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. 2000. ‘Globalization and Human Integration: We Are All Migrants’. Futures, 32, 5, June, 385-398. Pryce, W.T.R. 2000. ‘A Migration Typology and Some Topics for the Research Agenda’. Family & Community History, 3, 1, May, 65-80. Rees, P. H. and Duke-Williams, O. 1997. ‘Methods for Estimating Missing Data on Migrants in the 1991 British Census’. International Journal Of Population Geography, 3, 4, 323-368. Siddhisena, K.A.P. and White, P. 1999. ‘The Sri Lankan Population of Great Britain: Migration and Settlement’. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 8, 511-536. Skerry, Peter. 2000. ‘Do We Really Want Immigrants to Assimilate?’. Society, 37, 3(245), Mar-Apr, 57-62.

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Spencer, Ian R.G. 1997. British immigration policy since 1939: the making of multiracial Britain. London and New York: Routledge. Triandis, Harry C. 1997. ‘Where Is Culture in the Acculturation Model?’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 55-58. Ward, Collen. 1997. ‘Culture Learning, Acculturative Stress, and Psychopathology: Three Perspectives on Acculturation’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 58-62. White, Paul. 1998. ‘The settlement patterns of developed world migrants in London’. Urban studies, 35, 10, 1725-1744. Wieviorka, Michel. 1998. ‘Racism and Diasporas’. Thesis Eleven, 52-55, Feb, 69-81. 1.2 Education and Training Bryan, Beverley. 1996. ‘Learning School: Cross-Cultural Differences in the Teaching of English’. Changing English, 3, 2, Oct, 201-207. Chan, Yiu Man. 1997. ‘Educational Experiences of Chinese Pupils in Manchester’. Multicultural Teaching, 15, 3, Sum., 37-42. Chu, King Yuk. 1996. ‘Second Chance for Chinese Women’. Adults Learning (England), 8, 3, Nov., 64-65 . Crabb, Ruth. 1996. ‘Working with Hassan’. Multicultural Teaching, 14, 2, Spr., 22-25. Dodwell, Eithne. 1996. ‘Nahim and the New Trainers: Language Learning in a Bilingual Reception Class--Who Is Learning What from Whom?’ Multicultural Teaching, 15, 1, Aut., 18-22. Eslea, M. and Mukhtar, K. 2000. ‘Bullying and racism among Asian schoolchildren in Britain’. Educational Research, 42, 2, Summer, 207-217. Ghuman, P.A.S. 1997. ‘Assimilation or integration? A study of Asian adolescents’. Educational research, 39, 1, 23-36. Great Britain Department for Education and Employment. 1996. Guidance on the admission to maintained schools of children from overseas. London: Department for Education and Employment.

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James, Allison. 1998. ‘Imaging Children ‘At Home’, ‘In the Family’ and ‘At School’: Movement Between the Spatial and Temporal Markers of Childhood Identity in Britain’. Nigel Rapport and andrew Dawson, (Eds.), Migrants of Identity: Perceptions of Home in a World of Movement, 139-160.Oxford: Berg. Kahin, Mohamed H. 1998. ‘Somali Children: The Need To Work in Partnership with Parents and Community’. Multicultural Teaching, 17, 1, Aut., 4-16. Kiddle, Cathy. 1999. Traveller children: a voice for themselves. London: J. Kingsley. Kohli, Ravi. 2000. ‘Breaking the Silence’. Professional Social Work, June, 6-7. Leblond, Dominique and Trincaz, Jacqueline. 1999. ‘Pluriculturality in the French and British Education Systems: Cross Perspectives’. Eduation and Social Justice, 1, 3, 16-24. Levine, Josie. 1996. Developing pedagogies in the multilingual classroom: the writings of Josie Levine. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. McEachron, G. 1998. ‘Multilingual programs in England, Wales and the United States’. School field, 9, 3-4, 107-132. Modood, T. 1997. Qualifications and English Language. Research Report - Policy Studies Institute, 843, 60-82. Naylor, Sally and Wild-Smith, Kanta. 1997. Broadening horizons: education and travelling children. Chelmsford : Essex County Council Education Department. Parker-Jenkins, Marie and Haw, Kaye Francis. 1998. ‘Educational Needs of Muslim Children in Britain: Accommodation or Neglect?’ Steven Vertovec and Alisdair Rogers, (Eds.), Muslim European Youth: Reproducing Ethnicity, Religion, Culture. Research in Ethnic Relations Series, 193-215. Pithers, R.T. and Lim, Rosemary. 1997. ‘A Non-English-speaking Background in Adult Vocational Education: Breaking Through the Barriers’. Vocational Education and Training, 49, 4, 531-544. Rassool, Naz. 1999. ‘Flexible Identities: Exploring Race and Gender Issues among a Group of Immigrant Pupils in an Inner-City Comprehensive School’. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20, 1, Mar, 23-36. Sharma, Dev. 2000. ‘Educational Issues’. Annie Lau, (Ed.) South Asian Children and Adolescents in Britain: Ethno-Cultural Issues, 157-175. London: Whurr Publishers.

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Tatar, M. 1998. ‘Counselling immigrants: school contexts and emerging strategies’. British Journal Of Guidance and Counselling, 26, 3, 337-352. Tatar, M. and Horenczyk, G. 1996. ‘Immigrant and host pupils' expectations of teachers’. British Journal Of Educational Psychology, 66, 3, 289-300. Thompson, Linda. 2000. Young bilingual children in nursery school. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Warner, Rachel. 1999. ‘The Views of Bangladeshi Parents on the Special School Attended by Their Young Children with Severe Learning Difficulties’. British Journal of Special Education, 26, 4, Dec., 218-23. Wrench, J. and Hassan, E. 1996. Ambition and Marginalisation: A qualitative study of under-achieving young men of Afro-Caribbean origin. Research Studies RS31, Department for Education and Employment, London. Wrench, J. and Qureshi, T. 1996. Higher Horizons: A qualitative study of young men of Bangladeshi origin. Research Studies RS30, Department for Education and Employment, London. Wrench, J. 1998. “Towards an International Typology of Anti-Discrimination Training in Employment” Migration papers, No.26, Esbjerg: South Jutland University Press. Zoccatelli, Barbara. 1996. ‘Between Tolerance and Integration: Islamic Schools in Great Britain and the Netherlands’. La Critica Sociologica, 119, Oct-Dec, 53-67. 1.3 Labour Market Beaverstock, Jonathan and Smith, Joanne. 1996. ‘Lending jobs to global cities: skilled international labour migration, investment banking and the city of London’. Urban Studies, 33, 8, 1377-1394. Bell, B. D. 1997. ‘The Performance of Immigrants in the United Kingdom: Evidence from the GHS’. Economic Journal, 441, 333-344. Berthoud, R. 1999 Young Caribbean Men and the Labour Market: A comparison with other ethnic groups. Work and Opportunity Series No.16. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Berthoud, Richard. 2000. ‘Ethnic Employment Penalties in Britain’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 3, 389-411. Brown, Mark Simon. 2000. ‘Religion and Economic Activity in the South Asian Population’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 6, Nov, 1035-1061.

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Cantrell, David and Pilkington, Jane, 2000/01. ‘Economic Immigration in Modern Ireland in Comparison with the UK’. Immigration and Employment Law, 5, Winter, 1519. Clarke, Harry. 1998. ‘International trade, labour migrations and capital flows: Longterm evidence for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States’. International Migration, 36, 3, 383-408. Cox, R. 1999. ‘The Role of Ethnicity in Shaping the Domestic Employment Sector in Britain’. J. Momsen, (Ed.), Gender, Migration and Domestic Service. London: Routledge. Dhindsa, K. S. 1998. Indian immigrants in United Kingdom: a socio-economic analysis. New Delhi: Concept. Duvell, Franck. 1998. Undocumented Migrant Workers in the UK: ‘Researching a taboo’: An Interim Report. Exeter: University of Exeter. Edin, P.-A., Fredriksson, P. and Aslund, O. 2001. Ethnic Enclaves and The Economic Success Of Immigrants − Evidence From A Natural Experiment. Discussion Paper Series - Centre For Economic Policy Research London, 2729. Evans, S.L. and Bowlby, S. 2000. ‘Crossing boundaries: racialised gendering and the labour market experiences of Pakistani migrant women in Britain’. Women’s studies international forum, 23, 4, 461-474. Fitzgerald, Rory, Finch, Steven and Nove, andrea. 2001. ‘Black Caribbean Young Men’s Experiences of Education and Employment’. Labour Market Trends, 109, 2, 123-4. Gidoomal, Ram. 1997. The UK Maharajahs: Inside the South Asian Success Story. London: Nicholas Brealy Publishing. Glover, Stephen, Ceri Gott, Anais Loizillon, Jonathan Portes, Richard Price, Sarah Spencer, Vasanthi Srinivasan and Carole Willis. 2001. Migration: an economic and social analysis. RDS Occasional Paper No 67. London: Home Office, Communications and Development Unit, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. Holdaway, Simon. 1997. ‘Responding to Racialized Divisions Within the Workforce - the Experience of Black and Asian Police Officers in England’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 1, 69-90. Iredale, Robyn R. 1997. Skills transfer: international migration and accreditation issues: a comparative study of Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Wollongong: University of Wollongong Press.

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Kershen, Anne J. (Ed.). 2000. Language, labour and migration. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate. Khadria, Binod. 1999. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India’s Brain Drain. New Delhi: Sage. Letourneau, J. and Hallsworth, A. 1997. ‘The Migrant Economy in Canada and Britain’. British Journal Of Canadian Studies, 12, 1, 92-111. Lightbody, Pauline, Nicholson, Stephen, Siann, Gerda and Walsh, Dave. 1997. ‘A Respectable Job: Factors Which Influence Young Asians’ Choice of Career’. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 25, 1, Feb, 67-79. Metcalf, H., Modood, T. and Virdee, S. 1996. Asian Self-Employment: The interaction of culture and economics in England Policy Studies Institute, London. Mingione, E. 1999. ‘Immigrants and the informal economy in European cities.’ International Journal Of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 2, 209-211 Model, Suzanne. 1997. ‘Migration, Ethnic Stratification, and Aging, An Occupational Tale of Two Cities: Minorities in London and New York’. Demography, 34, 4, Nov., 539-550. Modood, T., Metcalf, H. and Virdee, S. 1998. “British Asian Entrepreneurs: Culture and Opportunity Structures” in P. Taylor-Gooby (Ed) Choice and Public Policy: the limits to welfare markets. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Ortega, J. 2000. ‘Pareto-Improving Immigration in an Economy with Equilibrium Unemployment’. Economic Journal, 110, January, 92-112. Penninx, R. and Roosblad, J. (Eds) 2000. Trade Unions, Immigration, and Immigrants, 1960-1993 Oxford: Berghahn. Prest, C. 1997. ‘Business Matters − Employing illegal immigrants’. Finishing, 21, 8, 1419. Rath, Jan. 1999/2000. Immigrant business: the economic, political, and social environment. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Robinson, Vaughn and Carey, Malcolm. 2000. ‘Peopling skilled international migration: Indian doctors in the UK’. International Migration, 38, 1, 89-108. Salt, John and Clarke, James. 1998. ‘Flows and Stocks of Foreign Labour in the UK’. Labour Market Trends, 106, 7, 372-85.

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Shields, M. A. and Wheatley Price, S. 1998. ‘The earnings of male immigrants in England: evidence from the quarterly LFS’. Applied Economics, 30, 9, 11571168. Shields, Michael A. and Wheatley Price, Stephen. 2001a. ‘Language Fluency and Immigrant Economics Prospects: Evidence from Britain’s Ethnic Minorities’. Applied Economics Letters, forthcoming. Shields, Michael A. and Wheatley Price, Stephen. 2001b. ‘The English Language Fluency and Occupational Success of Ethnic Minority Immigrant Men Living in English Metropolitan Areas’. Journal of Population Economics, forthcoming. Wallman, Sandra. 1996. ‘Ethnicity, Work and Localism: Narratives of Difference in London and Kampala’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 1, 1-28. Wheatley Price, Stephen. 2001a. ‘The Employment Adjustment of Male Immigrants in England’. Journal of Population Economics 14: 193-220. Wheatley Price, Stephen. 2001b. ‘The Unemployment Experience of Male Immigrants in England’. Applied Economics, 33, 201-215. Williams, Iestyn. 1996. Economic needs of the Irish community in Birmingham. Birmingham: Birmingham Irish Community Forum and Birmingham City Council. Wrench, J. 2000. ‘British Unions and racism: organisational dilemmas in an unsympathetic climate’. In R. Penninx and J. Roosblad (Eds.). Trade Unions, immigration, and immigrants. Oxford: Berghahn. Wrench, John, Hassan, Edgar and Qureshi, Tarek. 1999. ‘From School to the Labour Market in Britain: the Qualitative Exposure of Structures of Exclusion’. John Wrench, andrea Rea and Nouria Ouali, (Ed.), Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market: Integration and Exclusion in Europe, 54-71. London: Macmillan Press. 1.4 Health Anson, O., Pilpel, D. and Rolnik, V. 1996. Physical and psychological well-being among immigrant referrals to colonoscopy. Social Science and Medicine, 43, 9, 13091316. Baider, L., Kaufman, B., Ever-Hadani, P. and Kaplan De-Nour, A. 1996. Coping with additional stresses: Comparative study of healthy and cancer patient new immigrants. Social Science and Medicine, 42, 7, 1077-1084.

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Baraitser, Paula. 1999. Family Planning and Sexual Health: Understanding the Needs of South Asian Women in Glasgow. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 1, 133-150. Bedi, R. 1996. Betel-quid and tobacco chewing among the United Kingdom’s Bangladeshi community. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S73-S77. Callan, A. F. 1996. ‘Schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbean immigrants’. Royal Society Of Medicine, 89, 5, 253-256. Chan, Christine. 2000. ‘The Quality of Life of Women of Chinese Origin’. Health & Social Care in the Community, 8, 3, May, 212-222. Chaplin R.H., Thorp C., Ismail I.A., Collacott R.A. and Bhaumik S. 1996. ‘Psychiatric disorder in Asian adults with learning disabilities: Patterns of service use’. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 298-304, Part 4. Dean, G. and Elian, M. 1997. ‘Age at immigration to England of Asian and Caribbean immigrants and the risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis’. Journal Of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 62, 5, 565-568. Eade, John. 1997. ‘The Power of the Experts: The Plurality of Beliefs and Practices Concerning Health and Illness among Bangladeshis in Contemporary Tower Hamlets, London’. Lara Marks and Michael Worboys, (Eds.), Migrants, Minorities and Health: Historical and Contemporary Studies, 250-271. London: Routledge. George, S., Berth-Jones, J. and Graham-Brown, R. A. C. 1997. ‘A possible explanation for the increased referral of atopic dermatitis from the Asian community in Leicester’. British Journal Of Dermatology, 136, 4, 494-497. Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor. 1996. ‘Triple Marginality: The Case of Young African-Caribbean Women in Toronto (Canada) and London (England)’. Canadian Social Work Review/Revue canadienne de service social, 13, 2, Summer, 143-156. Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. 1996. ‘AIDS and HIV, Migrants and Refugees: International Legal and Human Rights Dimensions’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 50-69. London: Taylor and Francis. Haour-Knipe, M., Fleury, F. and Dubois-Arber, F. 1999. ‘HIV/AIDS prevention for migrants and ethnic minorities: three phases of evaluation’. Social Science and Medicine, 49, 10, 1357-1372. Haour-Knipe, Mary and O’Brien, Oonagh. 1996. ‘Programme Evaluation’. Mary HaourKnipe and Richard Rector (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 222-238. London: Taylor and Francis.

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Haour-Knipe, Mary and Rector, Richard. 1996. Conclusion: Shaping a Response. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 239-245. London: Taylor and Francis. Harding, S. 2000. ‘Examining the contribution of social class to high cardiovascular mortality among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi male migrants living in England and Wales (Analysis based on data from the 1991 Census and deaths in 1991−93)’. Health Statistics Quarterly, 5, 26-28. Harding, S.and Rosato, M. 1999. ‘Cancer Incidence Among First Generation Scottish, Irish, West Indian and South Asian Migrants Living in England and Wales’. Ethnicity and Health, 4, 1/2, 83-92. Harris, Queenie. 2000. ‘Psychological Problems in Asian Children’. Annie Lau, (Ed.) South Asian Children and Adolescents in Britain: Ethno-Cultural Issues, 195216. London: Whurr Publishers. Harrison, G., Glazebrook, C., Brewin, J., Cantwell, R., Dalkin, T., Fox, R., Jones, P. and Medley, I. 1997. ‘Increased incidence of psychotic disorders in migrants from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom’. Psychological Medicine, 27, 4, 799-806. Harrison, L. Sutton, M. and Gardiner, E. 1997. ‘Ethnic Differences in Substance Use and Alcohol-Use-Related Mortality among First Generation Migrants to England and Wales’. Substance Use and Misuse, 32, 7/8, 849-876. Haworth, E. A., Raleigh, V. S. and Balarajan, R. 1999. ‘Cirrhosis and Primary Liver Cancer Amongst First Generation Migrants in England and Wales’. Ethnicity and Health, 4, 1/2, 93-100. Hoggart, L., Sales, R., Raman, I. and Gunbey, A. 2000. Turkish Speaking Mothers in Hackney: an Investigation of Needs and Use of Health Provision and a Trial of a Volunteer Visiting Scheme for First-Time Mothers. London: Middlesex University Social Policy Research Centre. Littlewood, Roland. 1997. Aliens and alienists: ethnic minorities and psychiatry. 3rd (Ed.) London: Routledge. Lockie, Cameron et al. (Eds.). 2000. Travel medicine and migrant health. Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone. Louhenapessy, Maureen. 1996. Care Issues and Migrants. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 15466. London: Taylor and Francis.

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Marks, Lara and Hilder, Lisa. 1997. ‘Ethnic Advantage: Infant Survival among Jewish and Bengali Immigrants in East London, 1870-1990’. Lara Marks and Michael Worboys, (Eds.), Migrants, Minorities and Health: Historical and Contemporary Studies, 179-209. London: Routledge. Maxwell, R. and Harding, S. 1998. ‘Mortality of migrants from outside England and Wales by marital status’. Population Trends − London, 91, 15-22. Meadows, L. M., Thurston, W. E. and Melton, C. 2001. ‘Immigrant women’s health’. Social Science and Medicine, 9,1451-1458. Murray, R. M. and Hutchinson, G. 1999. ‘Psychosis in Migrants: The Striking Example of African-Caribbeans Resident in England’. Search For The Causes Of Schizophrenia, 4, 129-140. Narimani, Petra, Galle, Felix and Tovar, Jaime. 1996. ‘International Networking: Building Migrants’ Networks Across Europe’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 207-221. London: Taylor and Francis. Nellen, J. F. J. B., Smulders, Y. M., Frissen, P. H. J., Slaats, E. H. and Silberbusch, J. 1996. ‘Hypovitaminosis D in immigrant women: slow to be diagnosed’. British Medical Journal, 312, 7030, 570-571. Nikelly, A. G. 1997. ‘Cultural Babel: The challenge of Immigrants to the Helping Professionals’. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 3, 4, 221-234. O’Brien, Oonagh and Power, Robert. 1998. HIV and a migrant community: the Irish in Britain. London: Action Group for Irish Youth. Rait G. and Burns A. 1997. ‘Appreciating background and culture: the South Asian elderly and mental health’. International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 10, 973-977. Sabatier, Renee. 1996. ‘Migrants and AIDS: Themes of Vulnerability and Resistance’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 86-101. London: Taylor and Francis. Sharma, Anne. 2000. ‘Health Needs of Children from Asian Ethnic Minorities’. Annie Lau, (Ed.) South Asian Children and Adolescents in Britain: Ethno-Cultural Issues, 141-156. London: Whurr Publishers. Sharma, S., Cade, J., Riste, L. and Cruickshank, K. 1999. ‘Nutrient intake trends among African-Caribbeans in Britain: a migrant population and its second generation’. Public Health Nutrition, 2, 4, 469-476.

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University of East London. 1999. Case study materials: ethnic minorities and migrants Series. SOSTRIS working paper, no. 4. London: University of East London. White, Paul. 1998. ‘The settlement patterns of developed world migrants in London’. Urban studies, Vol.35, No.10, pp.1725-1744. Williams, Iestyn. 1996. Economic needs of the Irish community in Birmingham. Birmingham: Birmingham Irish Community Forum and Birmingham City Council. Wrench, J. 1996. ‘Undocumented workers in the UK: recent policy proposals’. Conference paper, given at KU Leuven Conference − Undocumented Immigrants on the Labour Market, Palace of Congress, Brussels. ESRC-funded research. Award No.YG00290002. Wrench, John. 1997. ‘New towns and racism: barriers to mobility for settled migrant populations in Great Britain’. In B.S.Bolaria and R.E.Bolaria (Eds). International labour migrations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zulauf, Monika. 1997. ‘Time Organization and the Integration of EU Migrant Professionals’. Time & Society, 6, 2-3, July, 151-170. Zulauf, Monika. 1996. ‘The occupational integration of female European Union migrants in Britain, Germany and Spain : a case study of the nursing and banking professions’. Ph.D. thesis. LSE. 3.4 Health Akinosi, B. and Ramaiah, S. 2000. ‘Ethnic minorities ill served by health service’. Lancet, 9238, 1354. Askham, J. 1997. ‘Ageing in black and ethnic minorities: a challenge to service provision’. British Journal Of Hospital Medicine, 56, 11, 602-604. Avlund, Kirsten, Luck, Mike and Tinsley, Rob. 1996. ‘Cultural Differences in Functional Ability among Elderly People in Birmingham, England, and Glostrup, Denmark’. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 11, 1, Mar, 1-16. Bahl, V. 1996. ‘Cancer and ethnic minorities: the Department of Health's perspective’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S2-S10 Bakhshi, Surinder S., Hawker, Jeremy and Ali, Shaukat. 1997. ‘The Epidemiology of Tuberculosis by Ethnic Group in Birmingham and Its Implications for Future Trends in Tuberculosis in the UK’. Ethnicity & Health, 2, 3, Aug, 147-153.

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Berthoud, R. and Nazroo, J. 1997. ‘The Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities’, New Community, 23, 3, 309-24. Bhopal, R. S. and Rankin, J. 1996. ‘Cancer in minority ethnic populations: priorities from epidemiological data’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, SUP//29. Bhugra, D. 2000. ‘Assessment of Psychiatric Problems in Ethnic Minorities’. Medicine, 28, Part 5, 89-90. Bhugra, D. and Bhui, K. 1998. ‘Psychotherapy for Ethnic Minorities: Issues, Context and Practice’. British Journal Of Psychotherapy, 14, 3, 310-326. Boneham, A., Williams, K. E., Copeland, J. R. M., McKibbin, P., Wilson, K., Scott, A. and Saunders, P. A. 1997. ‘Elderly people from ethnic minorities in Liverpool: mental illness, unmet needs and barriers to service use’. Health and Social Care In The Community, 5, 3, 173-180. van den Bosch, C. and Roberts, J. 2000. ‘Tuberculosis screening of new entrants; how can it be made more effective?’. Journal of Public Health Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 220-223(4). Bush H., R. Williams, H. Bradby H, A. Anderson, and M. Lean. 1998. ‘Family Hospitality and Ethnic Tradition Among South Asian, Italian and General Population Women in the West of Scotland’. Sociology of Health & Illness, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 351-380(30). Cole, A. 1996. ‘Double Jeopardy’, Health Visitor, 69, 4, 131-2. Congdon, Peter. 1996. ‘The Epidemiology of Suicide in London’. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A (Statistics in Society), 159, 3, 515-533. Dean, G. and M. Elian. 1997. ‘Age at immigration to England of Asian and Caribbean immigrants and the risk of developing multiple sclerosis’. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 565-568(4). De Cock, K. M. and Low, N. 1997. ‘HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: Is surveillance serving its purpose?’ British Medical Journal, 314, 7096,1747-1750. Eccles, Rosemary and Bhupinder, Kohli. 1996. Primary health care for black and minority ethnic people: a GP perspective. Leeds: NHS Ethnic Health Unit. Farren, C. and Naidoo, J. 1996. ‘Smoking cessation programmes targeted at black and minority ethnic communities’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S78-S80.

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Fassin, Didier. 2000. ‘The Politics of Ethnopsychiatry. The African Psyche, from African Colonies to Parisian Suburbs’. L’Homme, v.153, Jan-Mar, pp.231-250. Fenton, K. et al. 1997. ‘Race, ethnicity and sexual health’, British Medical Journal, 314: 1703-4. Fountain, A. 1999. ‘Ethnic minorities and palliative care in Derby’. Palliative Medicine, 13, 2161-2162. Free, C. 1998. ‘Some ethnic groups may have problems getting as far as consultation’. British Medical Journal, 317, 816. Gaffin, J., Hill, D. and Penso, D. 1996. ‘Opening Doors: Improving access to hospice and specialist palliative care services by members of the black and minority ethnic communities. Commentary on palliative care’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S51-S53. Gandhi, Pushpa. 1996. ‘When I’m Sixty-Four: listening to what elderly people from ethnic minorities need’. Professional Social Work, Feb., 12-13. Green, Gill S., H. Bradby, M. Lee and K. Eldridge. 1999-2000. ‘The mental health of Chinese women in Britain’. ESRC-funded research. Award No. R000222822. Harding, S. and Allen E.J. 1996. ‘Sources and uses of data on cancer among ethnic groups’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Supp. 29, S17-S21. Hayes, Debra. 1998. ‘Race, health and immigration control’. Applied community studies working papers. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. Hoare, T. 1996 ‘Breast screening and ethnic minorities’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S38-S41. Johnson, Mark. 1996. Good practice and quality indicators in primary health care: health care for black minority and ethnic people. Leeds: NHS Ethnic Health Unit. Johnson, Mark R. D. 2000. Black and minority ethnic groups in England: the second health and lifestyle survey. London: Health Education Authority. Kawachi, I. and Kennedy, B. 1997. ‘Health and Social Cohesion: why care about inequality?’, British Medical Journal, 314, 1037-1040. Kernohan, E. E. M. 1996. ‘Evaluation of a pilot study for breast and cervical cancer screening with Bradford's minority ethnic women; a community development approach, 1991-3'. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S42-S46.

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Khan, Furzana and Ditton, Jason.1998. Ethnic minority drug use in Glasgow. Glasgow: Glasgow Drugs Prevention Team. Kurtz, Zarrina and Bahl, Veena. 1997. The health and health care of children and young people from minority ethnic groups in Britain. London: National Children’s Bureau. Lago, Colin. 1996. Race, Culture and Counselling. Milton Keynes, OUP. Lai, C. 2000. ‘Reaching out to black ethnic minorities in Aberdeen: a voluntary sector perspective on mental health’. Practice, 12, 1, 17-28. Lau, Annie. 1996. ‘Family Therapy and Ethnic Minorities’. Kedar N. Dwivedi and Ved P. Varma, (Eds.), Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children: a Handbook for Professionals, 157-171. London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Lawrenson, Ross, Leydon, Geraldine, Freeman, George, Fuller, Jon, Ballard, Janet and Ineichen, Bernard. 1998. ‘Are We Providing for Ethnic Diversity in Accident and Emergency (A&E) Departments?’ Ethnicity & Health, 3, 1-2, Feb-May, 117-123. Lindesay, J. 1998. ‘Diagnosis of mental illness in elderly people from ethnic minorities’. Advances In Psychiatric Treatment, 4, 4, 219-226. Luke, K. 1996. ‘Cervical cancer screening: meeting the needs of minority ethnic women’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S47-S50. Maitra, Begum and Miller, Ann. 1996. ‘Children, Families and Therapists: Clinical Considerations and Ethnic Minority Cultures’. Kedar N. Dwivedi and Ved P. Varma, (Eds.), Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children: a Handbook for Professionals, 111-129. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. McCracken, C. F. M., Boneham, M. A., Copeland, J. R. M., Williams, K. E., Wilson, K., Scott, A., McKibbin, P. and Cleave, N. 1997. ‘Prevalence of Dementia and Depression among Elderly People in Black and Ethnic Minorities’. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, Sept, 269-273. McGovern, D. and Nazroo, James. 1999. ‘The Health of Britain’s Ethnic Minorities: Findings from a National Survey’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 2., 355. Mackintosh, Joan. 1999. Step by step guide to epidemiological health needs assessment for ethnic minority groups. Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health.

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Mehra, Harish. 1996. ‘Residential Care for Ethnic Minorities Children’. Kedar N. Dwivedi and Ved P. Varma, (Eds.), Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children: a Handbook for Professionals, 79-88. London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Molokhia, M. and Oakeshott, P. 2000. ‘Ethnic minorities have specific needs with regard to cardiovascular risk’. British Medical Journal, 321, 7253, 112. Moodley, R. 1999. ‘Psychotherapy with Ethnic Minorities’. Changes, 17, 2, 109-125. Moreno-Fuentes, F. J. and Nazroo, James Y. 2001. ‘The Health of Britain’s Ethnic Minorities: Findings from a National Survey’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24 Part 2, 342-343. Murray, Ulric and Brown, Derek. 1998. They look after their own, don’t they? inspection of community care services for black and ethnic minority older people. London: Social Care Group, Department of Health. Nazroo, J. 1997. Ethnicity and Mental Health Findings From A National Community Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute. Nazroo, J. 1998. ‘Rethinking the Relationship between Ethnicity and Mental Health’, Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 4, 145-148. Nazroo, James Y. 1998. ‘Genetic, Cultural or Socio-Economic Vulnerability? Explaining Ethnic Inequalities in Health’. Sociology of Health and Illness, 20, 5, Sept, 710730. NHS Ethnic Health Unit. 1996. Good practice and quality indicators in primary health care: health care for black and minority ethnic people. London: NHS Ethnic Health Unit. Littlewood, Roland. 1997. Aliens and alienists: ethnic minorities and psychiatry. 3rd ed. London: Routledge. O’Brien, Oonagh and Robert Power. 1998. HIV and a migrant community: the Irish in Britain. London: Action Group for Irish Youth. Odell, S. M., Surtees, P.G., Wainwright, N. W. J, Commander, M. J. and Sashidharan, S. P. 1997. ‘Determinants of General Practitioner Recognition of Psychological Problems in a Multi-Ethnic Inner-City Health District’. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, Dec, 537-541. Okuyiga, A. 1998. ‘Reaching ethnic minorities: A project in Birmingham’. Journal Of Dementia Care, 6, 3, 10.

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Olajide, D. and Cox, J. 1997. ‘Mental health services for people from black and other ethnic minorities’. Psychiatric Bulletin, 21, 5, 305. van Os, J., Castle, D.J., Takei, N., Der, G. and Murray, R. M. 1996. ‘Psychotic illness in ethnic minorities: clarification from the 1991 census’. Psychological Medicine, 1996, 26, 1, 203-208. Patel, N. and Mirza, N. 2000. ‘Care for ethnic minorities − the professionals’ view’. Journal Of Dementia Care, 8, 1, 26-27. Pearson, Geoffrey and Patel, Kamlesh. 1998. ‘Drugs, Deprivation, and Ethnicity: Outreach among Asian Drug Users in a Northern English City’. Journal of Drug Issues, 28, 1, winter, 199-224. Pfeffer, N. and Moynihan, C. 1996. ‘Ethnicity and health beliefs with respect to cancer: a critical review of methodology’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, Sup//29, S66S72. Rait, G. and Burns, A. 1998. ‘Screening for depression and cognitive impairment in older people from ethnic minorities’. Age and Ageing, 27, 3, 271-276. Raleigh, V. S. 1997. ‘Diabetes and hypertension in Britain’s ethnic minorities: implications for the future of renal services’. British Medical Journal, 314, 7075, 209-212. Roberts, A., Cullen, R. and Bundey, S. 1996. ‘The representation of ethnic minorities at genetic clinics in Birmingham’. Journal Of Medical Genetics, 33, 1, 56-58. Roderick, P. J., Raleigh, V. S., Hallam, I. and Mallick, N. P. 1996. ‘The need and demand for renal replacement therapy in ethnic minorities in England’. Journal Of Epidemiology and Community Health. 50, 3, 334-339. Selby, P. 1996. ‘Cancer clinical outcomes for minority ethnic groups’. British Journal Of Cancer, 74, SUP//29, S54-S60. Sheldon, Helen. 1996. Consulting with local black and minority ethnic groups. London: Health Services Research and Evaluation Unit, Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust. Silvera, Mike and Kapasi, Rukshana. 2000. Health advocacy for minority ethnic Londoners : putting services on the map? London: King’s Fund. Small, Claire and Hinton, Teresa. 1997. Reaching out: a study of black and minority ethnic single homeless people and access to primary health care. Lambeth Health Care NHS Trust. London: Health Action for Homeless People.

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Smith, Marcia Bayne.1999. ‘Primary Care: Choices and Opportunities for Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the USA and UK − A Comparative Analysis’. Ethnicity & Health, 4, 3, Aug, 165-188. Webb, E. 2000. ‘Health care for ethnic minorities’. Current Paediatrics,10, 3, 184-190. Wedderburn, C. 1996. ‘All talk and no action: The NHS fails to implement policies on ethnic minorities’. Nursing Management, 3, 5, 7 Welshman, J. 2000. ‘Tuberculosis and ethnicity in England and Wales, 1950–70’. Sociology of Health & Illness, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 858-882(25). White, C. 1997. ‘Minority ethnic groups have poor cancer care’, British Medical Journal, 314: 358. Williams, Lory and Russel Ecob. 1999. ‘Regional Mortality and the Irish in Britain: Findings from the ONS Longitudinal Study’. Sociology of Health and Illness, v.21, n.3, May, pp.344-367. 3.5 Housing Berthoud, R. and Beishon, S. 1997. People, Families and Households. Research Report − Policy Studies Institute, 843, 18-59. Blackaby, Bob and Chahal, Kusminder. 2000. Black and minority ethnic housing strategies: a good practice guide. Coventry: Chartered Institute Of Housing. Bowes, Alison, Dar, Naira and Sim, Duncan. 2000. ‘Citizenship, housing and minority ethnic groups: an approach to multiculturalism’. Housing, theory and society, 17, 2, 83-95. Bowes, Alison, Neale, Joanne and Sim, Duncan. 1997. The housing preferences and needs of minority ethnic commuters to Renfrew. Scottish Homes local research report, Edinburgh: Research & Innovation Services, Scottish Homes. Bowes, Elaine. 1998. A way from home: the housing and care needs of black and minority ethnic elders in Tower Hamlets. London: Labo Housing Association and Lemos&Crane. Brooker, Mark and Davies, Jean. 1998. Homes for all? minority ethnic groups in London’s care homes. London: London Research Centre. Brownill, S. and Thomas, H. 1998. ‘Ethnic Minorities and British Urban Policy: A Discussion of Trends in Governance and Democratic Theory’. Local Government Policy Making, 24, 1, 43-56.

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Buchanan, Ian. 1999. Survey of housing needs of minority ethnic communities in Kettering Borough. Report for Kettering Borough Council. Cameron, S. 2000. ‘Ethnic minority housing needs and diversity in an area of low housing demand’. Environment and planning A, 32, 8, Aug.,1427-1444. Carter, Sheron. 1998. Hidden crisis: a study of black and minority ethnic homelessness in London. London: Frontline Housing Advice Limited. Dalton, Mike and Hampton, Kay. 1996. Housing needs of ethnic minorities in Govanhill: a community perspective. Scottish Ethnic Minorities Research Unit research paper. Series 2 ; no. 3. Glasgow: Glasgow Caledonian University: Scottish Ethnic Minorities Research Unit. Dorsett, Richard. 1998. Ethnic minorities in the inner city. Bristol: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Dustmann, C. and Preston, I. 2001. ‘Attitudes to ethnic minorities, ethnic context and location decisions’. Economic journal,111, 470, Apr., 353-373. Franklin, Bridget and Passmore, Jon. 1998. Developing for diversity: the needs of minority ethnic communities. Cardiff: Taff Housing Association. Harrison, M. 1996. Black and minority ethnic housing associations: an evaluation of the Housing Corporation’s black and minority ethnic housing assocation strategies. Research series / Housing Management and Research Division of the Housing Corporation, 16. London: Housing Corporation. Harrison, M. 1998. ‘Minority ethnic housing associations and local housing strategies: an uncertain future?’ Local government studies, 24, 1, Spring, 74-89. Harrison, M. and Law, I. 1997. ‘Needs and empowerment in minority ethnic housing: some issues of definition and local strategy’. Policy and politics, 25, 3, Jul., 285298. Harrison, M. L., Robinson, David, and Gidley, Glen. 1999. Housing black and minority ethnic people in Sheffield: a research report. Sheffield: Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. Hawtin, Murray. 1999. Housing integration and resident participation: evaluation of a project to help integrate black and ethnic minority tenants. York : Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Housing Corporation Housing Management and Research Division. 1996. Black and minority ethnic housing needs: an enabling framework. London: Housing Corporation.

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Jones, Adrian and Mullins, David. 1999. Out of sight, out of mind: the assessment of and provision for black and minority ethnic housing needs in the South West. Housing research at CURS no.3. Birmingham: CURS. Karn, V. 1996. Ethnicity In The 1991 Census: Employment, Education, and Housing Among The Ethnic Minority Populations In Britain. Volume 4. London: HMSO. Karn, Valerie A. 1999. Tradition, change and diversity: understanding the housing needs of minority ethnic groups in Manchester. Source research no. 37. Manchester: Manchester University, Manchester Housing and The Housing Corporation. Karn, Valerie A. 1996. Housing design and management for ethnic minorities. Occasional papers in architecture and urban design (University of Manchester) no. 5. Manchester: School of Architecture, University of Manchester. Marsh, Alex and Sangster, Azra. 1998. Paving the way: supporting black and minority ethnic housing associations. Bristol: Housing Associations Charitable Trust. Owen, D. and Green, A.E. 2000. ‘Estimating commuting flows for minority ethnic groups in England and Wales’. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 26, 4, Oct., 581608. Peach, Ceri. 1997. ‘Contrasting patterns of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi settlement in Britain’. Migracijske teme, Vol.13, No.1-2, pp.15-36. Royce, Caroline. 1996. ‘Can Minority Associations Stand Alone?’ Inside Housing, 26 July 1996, 14-15. Third, Hilary, Wainwright, Sally and Pawson, Hal. 1997. Constraint and choice for minority ethnic home owners in Scotland: a report to Scottish Homes. Research report, Scottish Homes (Agency) 54. Edinburgh: Scottish Homes. Thomas, H. 1997. ‘Ethnic minorities and the planning system’: a study revisited. Town Planning Review, 68, 2, 195-212. Tomlins, Richard. 1999. Housing experiences of minority ethnic communities in Britain: an academic literature review and annotated bibliography. Bibliographies in ethnic relations no.15. Coventry: University of Warwick, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations. Winstone, Paul. 1996. ‘Managing a Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural City in Europe: Leicester’. International Social Science Journal, 48, 1(147), Mar, 33-41.

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3.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Belonging, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation Anwar, M., Roach, P. and Sondhi, R. (Eds). 2000. From legislation to integration?: race relations in Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Arrowsmith, Aidan. ‘Plastic Paddy: Negotiating Identity in Second-Generation ‘IrishEnglish’ Writing’. Irish Studies Review, 8, 1, Apr, 35-43. Asghar, M.A. 1996. Bangladeshi community organisations in East London. London: Bangladeshi community organisations in East London. Bastenier, Albert. 2000. ‘Secular Multiculturalism and the Muslims of Great Britain: Reflections on the Communication of T. Modood’. Social Compas, v.47, n.1, pp.57-60. Baumann, Gerd. 1996. Contesting Culture: Discourses Of Identity In Multi-Ethnic London. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bhopal, Kalwant. 1998. ‘South Asian Women in East London: Religious Experience and Diversity’. Journal of Gender Studies, v.7, n.2, July, pp.143-156. Bourne, S. and Kyriacou, S. (Eds). 1999. A ship and a prayer: celebrating a hundred years of the black presence in Hammersmith and Fulham. London: London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Bradley, Joseph. M. 1996. ‘Integration or assimilation? Scottish society, football and Irish immigrants’. International journal of the history of sport, Vol.13, No.2, pp.61-79. Bradley, Joseph M. 1998. ‘Sport and The Contestation Of Cultural and Ethnic Identities In Scottish Society’. Immigrants and Minorities, 17, 1. Busteed, M. 1999. ‘Little islands of Erin: Irish settlement and identity in midnineteenth-century Manchester’. Immigrants and minorities, Vol.18, No.2-3, pp.94- 127. Busteed, M. 1998. ‘Songs in a strange land − ambiguities of identity amongst Irish migrants in mid−victorian Manchester’. Political geography, Vol.17, No.6, pp.627-665. Chessum, Lorna. 2000. From immigrants to ethnic minority : making black community in Britian. Aldershot: Ashgate. Daley, P.O. 1998. ‘Black Africans in Great Britain: spatial concentration and segregation’. Urban studies, Vol.35, No.10, pp.1703-1724.

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Dhindsa, K. S. 1998. Indian immigrants in United Kingdom: a socio-economic analysis. New Delhi: Concept. Gazioglu, S. 1996. ‘Assimilation, English language proficiency and the earnings of the immigrant population in London’. Discussion paper, University of Aberdeen. Department of Economics, no.96/16. Aberdeen : University of Aberdeen. Dept. of Economics. Ghuman, Paul A. Singh. 1999. Asian adolescents in the West. Leicester: BPS Books. Glover, Stephen, Ceri Gott, Anais Loizillon, Jonathan Portes, Richard Price, Sarah Spencer, Vasanthi Srinivasan and Carole Willis. 2001. Migration: an economic and social analysis. RDS Occasional Paper No 67. London: Home Office, Communications and Development Unit, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. Jacobson, Jessica Liebe. 1996. ‘The persistence of religious and ethnic identities among second-generation British Pakistanis’. Ph.D. thesis. LSE. Karmi, Ghada. 1997. ‘The Egyptians of Britain: a migrant community in transition’. Occasional papers series, no.57. Durham: University of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern & Islamic Studies. Kothari, U. 1995-1996. ‘Migration, culture and identity: experiences of contemporary migrants to Britain’. ESRC-funded research. Award No.R000221611. Martin, Paul E. 1998. Black press, Britons, and immigrants: alternative press and society. Kingston, Jamaica: Vintage Communications. Neal, F. 1999. ‘The foundations of the Irish settlement in Newcastle upon Tyne: the evidence in the 1851 census’. Immigrants and minorities, Vol.18, No.2-3, pp.71- 93. Nesbitt, E. 2000. ‘Celebrating and learning in community: the perpetuation of values and practices among Hindu Punjabi children in Coventry, UK’. Indo-British review, Vol.XXI, No.1, pp.119-132. O’Leary, P. 2000. Immigration and integration: the Irish in Wales, 1798-1922. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Panayi, Panikos (Ed.). 1999. The impact of immigration: a documentary history of the effects and experiences of immigrants in Britain since 1945. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

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Parker, Kenneth. 1998. ‘Writing dis-location: Black writers and postcolonial Britain’. Social Identities, v.4, n.2, pp.177-199. Parolin, Gartano. 1998. ‘The Procession of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and the Italian Fiesta in London. An Anthropological Letter’. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, 35, 129, Mar, 99-125. Peach, Ceri. 1999. ‘Pluralist and assimilationist models of ethnic settlement in London 1991’. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, Vol.88, No.2, pp.120134. Peach, Ceri. 1997. ‘Contrasting patterns of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi settlement in Britain’. Migracijske teme, Vol.13, No.1-2, pp.15-36. Qureshi, K. and S. Moores. 1999. ‘Identity remix: tradition and translation in the lives of young Pakistani Scots’. European journal of cultural studies, Vol.2, No.3, pp.311-330. Raj, Dhooleka Sarhadi. 1997. ‘Partition and Diaspora: Memories and Identities of Punjabi Hindus in London’. International Journal of Punjab Studies, 4, 1, JanJune, 101-127. Richards, B. and YamadaYamamoto, A. 1998. ‘The linguistic experience of Japanese preschool children and their families in the UK’. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development, Vol.19, No.2, pp.142-157. Siddhisena, K.A.P. and Paul White. ‘The Sri Lankan Population of Great Britain: Migration and Settlement’. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, v.8, n.4, pp.511-536. Singh, Ramindar. 2000. Sikhs & Sikhism in Britain: fifty years on, the Bradford perspective. Bradford: Bradford Libraries. Taylor, I. 2000. ‘European ethnoscapes and urban redevelopment: the return of Little Italy in 21st century Manchester’. City, Vol.4, No.1, pp.27-42. White, Paul. 1998. ‘The Settlement Patterns of Developed World Migrants in London’. Urban Studies, 35, 10, Oct, 1725-1744. Zhang, Ling. 1997. ‘Factors affecting the acquisition of English as a second language of the first generation immigrants of Chinese origin’. Thesis (M.Phil.). University of Nottingham. 3.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation

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Anwar, Muhammad. 1998. Ethnic Minorities and The British Electoral System: A Research Report. Centre For Research In Ethnic Relations, The University Of Warwick. Azmi, Waqar U. 1996. Ethnic Socialisation and Political Behaviour: The Case Of South Asians In Britain. Southampton: Southampton Institute Of Higher Education. Baumann, Gerd. 1998. ‘Body Politic or Bodies of Culture? How Nation-State Practices Turn Citizens into Religious Minorities’. Cultural Dynamics, v.10, n.3, pp.263-280. Geddes, Andrew. 1998. ‘Race Related Political Participation and Representation In The UK’. Revue Europeenne De Migrations Internationales, 14, 2, 33-49. Hickman, Mary J. 1998. ‘Reconstructing Deconstructing ‘Race’: British Political Discourses about the Irish in Britain’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, v.21, n.2, pp.288-307. Rex, John and Yunas Samad. 1996. ‘Multiculturalism and Political Integration in Birmingham and Bradford’. Innovation, 9, 1, Mar, 11-31. Saggar, Shamit and Heath, Anthony. 1999. ‘Race: Towards A Multicultural Electorate?’ In G. Evans and P. Norris (Eds.). Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters In LongTerm Perspective. London: Sage. Saggar, Shamit. 1998. ‘British South Asian Elites and Political Participation: Testing The Cultural Thesis’. Revue Europeenne De Migrations Internationales, 14, 2, 51-69. Wrench, J. 2000. ‘British Unions and racism: organisational dilemmas in an unsympathetic climate’. In R. Penninx and J. Roosblad (Eds). Trade Unions, immigration, and immigrants. Oxford: Berghahn. 3.8 Women and Gender Barot, Rohit, Harriet Bradley and Steve Fenton. 1999. Ethnicity, gender, and social change. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Evans, S.L. and Bowlby, S. 2000. ‘Crossing boundaries: racialised gendering and the labour market experiences of Pakistani migrant women in Britain’. Women’s studies international forum, Vol.23, No.4, pp.461-474. Grant, Joan (Ed.). 1996. Women, migration and empire. Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England: Trentham Books. Green, Gill S., Bradby, H., Lee, M. and Eldridge, K. 1999-2000. ‘The mental health of Chinese women in Britain’. ESRC-funded research. Award No. R000222822.

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Hall, R., Ogden, P.E. and Hill, C. 1996. ‘Gender variations in the characteristics of migrants living alone in England and Wales 1991’. Conference paper for the British Society for Population Studies Conference, University of St. andrews. Sinha, Rachana. 1998. The cultural adjustment of Asian lone mothers living in London. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. Walter, Bronwen. 2001. Outsiders inside : whiteness, place, and Irish women. London : Routledge. Whiteford, Elaine A. 1996. Adapting to change: occupational pension schemes, women and migrant workers: an examination of the extent to which occupational pension schemes in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany enable women and migrant workers to accrue adequate pensions. The Hague and London: Kluwer Law International. 3.9 Family and Children Back, Les. 1996. New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racisms and Multiculture In Young Lives. London: UCL Press. Brooker, Mark and Jean Davies. 1998. Homes for all?: minority ethnic groups in London's care homes. London: London Research Centre. Chamberlain, Mary. 1999. ‘The Family as Model and Metaphor in Caribbean Migration to Britain’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, v.25, n.2, Apr, pp.251-266. Dosanjh, J.S. and Paul, A.S. Child-rearing in ethnic minorities. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Goulbourne, H. and Chamberlain, M. 1995-1997. ‘Living arrangements, family structure and social change of Caribbeans in Britain’. ESRC-funded research. Award No.L315253009. Lau, Annie (Ed.). 2000. South Asian children and adolescents in Britain: ethno-cultural studies. London: Whurr. Ralson, Helen. 1997. ‘Arranged, ‘Semi-Arranged’ and ‘Love’ Marriages among South Asian Immigrant Women in the Diaspora and Their Non-Migrant Sisters in India and Fiji: A Comparative Study’. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 27, 2, autumn, 43-68. Williams, Ned. 1996. Midland fairground families. Wolverhampton: Uralia. 3.10 Justice and Legal System

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Hatton, T. J. and Stephen Wheatley Price. 1998. ‘Migration, migrants and policy in the United Kingdom’. Discussion paper series for the Centre for Economic Policy Research, no. 1960. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Leigh, Leonard Herschel and Chaloka Beyani. 1996. Blackstone’s guide to the Asylum and Immigration Act 1996. London: Blackstone. Poulter, Sebastian. 1998. Ethnicity Law and Human Rights: The English Experience. Oxford: Claredon Press. 3.11 Welfare and Social Policy Cox, Simon et al. 1997. Migration and social security handbook: a rights guide for people entering and leaving the UK Edition. 2nd ed. London: Child Poverty Action Group. Dwivedi, Kedar Nath and Ved Prakash Varma (Eds). 1996. Meeting the needs of ethnic minority children: a handbook for professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley. 3.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies Favell, Adrian. 1998. ‘Multicultural Race Relations in Britain: Problems of Interpretation and Explanation’. Christian Joppke (Ed.). Challenge to The Nation State: Immigration in Western Europe and The United States, 319-345. Oxford: OUP. Fitzgerald, Marian and Sibbitt, Rae. 1997. Ethnic Monitoring In Police Forces: A Beginning. London: Home Office Research Statistics Directorate. Iganski, P. and Payne, G. 1996. ‘Declining Racial Disadvantage In The British Labour Market’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 1, 113-134. Jenkins, R. 1998. ‘Discrimination and Equal Opportunity In Employment: Ethnicity and ‘Race’ In The United Kingdom’ In Employment In Britain. Duncan Gallie, Editor. London: Basil Blackwell. Spencer, Ian R.G. 1997. British Immigration Policy Since 1939: The Making Of Multi-Racial Britain. London and New York: Routledge. Supperstone, Michael and O’Dempsey, Declan. 1996. Supperstone and O’Dempsey On Immigration and Asylum. 4th Ed. London: Pearson Professional Ltd. 3.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism Ahmad, A. 1983. ‘Out of the dust of idols’. Race and class, Vol.41, No.1-2, pp.1-22.

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Baumann, Gerd. 1998. ‘Body Politic or Bodies of Culture? How Nation-State Practices Turn Citizens into Religious Minorities’. Cultural Dynamics, v.10, n.3, pp.263280. Chilton, Tony and Peter Kilsby. 1999. ‘Persons granted British Citizenship – UK 1998’. Hansen, Randall. 2000. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gray, Peter. ‘‘Shovelling Out Your Paupers’: The British State and Irish Famine Migration 1846-50’. Patterns of Prejudice, 33, 4, Oct, 47-65. Jupp, J. 1998. ‘Creating multicultural societies: Australia, Britain, Sweden, and Canada’. International Journal, Vol.LII, No.3, pp.508-523. Kelly, D. 2000. ‘Multicultural citizenship: the limitations of liberal democracy’. Political quarterly, Vol.71, No.1, pp.31-41. Martiniello, Marco (Ed.). 1998. Multicultural policies and the state: a comparison of two European societies. Utrecht : European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Utrecht University. Mattausch, John. 19983. ‘From Subjects to Citizens: British East African Asians’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, v.24, n.1, pp.121-141. Rex, John and Yunas Samad. 1996. ‘Multiculturalism and Political Integration in Birmingham and Bradford’. Innovation, 9, 1, Mar, 11-31. Winstone, Paul. 1996. ‘Managing a Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural City in Europe: Leicester’. International Social Science Journal, v.48, n.1(147), Mar, pp.33-41. 3.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion Anwar, M., Roach, P., and Sondhi, R. (Eds). 2000. From legislation to integration?: race relations in Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Cabinet Office, 2000. Minority Ethnic Issues in social Exclusion and Neighbourhood Renewal. London: Cabinet Office, UK. Chau, R.C.M. and Yu, S.W.K. 2001. ‘Social exclusion of Chinese people in Britain’. Critical social policy, v.21, n.1, No.66-69, pp.103- 126. London Boroughs Grants Committee. 1997. Vision & visibility: regeneration and ethnic minority communities in London. London: London Borough Grants Unit.

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Richardson, L and Hills, J. 2000. View of the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, ESRC Research Centre, London School of Economics, UK. Walker, Alan and Walker, Carol. 1997. Britain Divided: The Growth Of Social Exclusion In The 1980s and 1990s. London: CPAG. 3.15 Government Documents and Evaluation Lord Chancellor’s Department Research Programme. 1997. Ethnic Monitoring Of Defendants Appearing At Leicester Migistrates’ Court 1995. Research Series No.11/97. London: Lord Chancellor’s Department Research Secretariat.

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4.

Immigrants – International

4.1 General Alba, Richard D. 1999. ‘Thomas J. Espenshade, Keys to Successful Immigration: Implications of the New Jersey Experience’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, 537. Alba, Richard. 2000. ‘Beyond the Melting Pot: 35 years later’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 243. Alba, Richard. 1999. ‘Immigration and The American Realities Of Assimilation and Multiculturalism’. Sociological Forum, 14, 1, 3-25. van Amersfoort, Hans and Cortie, Cees. 1996. ‘Social Polarisation in a Welfare State? Immigrants in the Amsterdam Region’. New Community 22, 4, 671-688. Andaya, Leonard. 1996. ‘From American-Filipino to Filipino-American’. Social Process in Hawaii, 37, 99-111. Anderson, B. 1997. ‘Western Europe’ in Minority Rights Group (Ed.) The World Directory of Minorities. London: MRG. Anderson, Elijah. 2000. ‘Beyond the Melting Pot reconsidered’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 262-269. Angelo, Michael. 1997. The Sikh Diaspora: tradition and change in an immigrant community. New York: Garland Pub. Barr, Jane, Myriam Mansour and Alan Nash. ‘Annotated Bibliography of Canadian Immigration Research, 1982-1992’ Bousetta, Hassan. 1996. ‘The Destiny of Immigrants. Assimilation and Segregation in Western Democracies’. New Community, 22, 2, Apr, 355. Bremer, Katharina et al. 1996. Achieving understanding: discourse in intercultural encounters. London: Longman. Brubaker, Rogers. 1998. ‘Research note: Migrations of ethnic unmixing in the New Europe’. International Migration Review, 32, 4, 1047-1065. Burgers, Jack and Engberson, Godfried. 1996. ‘Globalisation, migration and undocumented immigrants.’ New Community 22, 4, 619-636.

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Carmon, Naomi (Ed.). 1996. Immigration and Integration in Post-Industrial Societies. London: Macmillan. Coulson, Anthony (Ed.). 1997. Exiles and migrants: crossing thresholds in European culture and society. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Cronin, Mike and David Mayall (Eds). 1998. Sporting nationalisms: identity, ethnicity, immigration, and assimilation. London: F. Cass. Dale, Gareth and Mike Cole (Eds). 1999. The European Union and migrant labour. Oxford: Berg. Doomernik, Jeroen. 1997. ‘Adaptation Strategies among Soviet Jewish Immigrants in Berlin’. New Community, 23, 1, Jan, 59-73. Dörr, S. and Faist, T. 1997. ‘Institutional conditions for the integration of immigrants in welfare states: a comparison of the literature on Germany, France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands’. European journal of political research, 31, 4, 401-426. Espenshade, Thomas J. (Ed.). 1997. Keys To Successful Immigration: Implications Of The New Jersey Experience. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Favell, Adrian. Forthcoming. ‘Integration Policy and Integration Research In Europe: A Review and Critique’. Alex Aleinikoff and Doug Klausmeyer (Eds.). Citizenship: Comparisons and Perspectives. Washington DC: Brookings Institute. Feld, Serge. 2000. Active Population Growth and Immigration Hypotheses in Western Europe. European Journal of Population/Revue europeenne de demographie, 16, 1, Mar, 3-40. Fielding, T. 1997. ‘Migration and Poverty - a Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Migration and Social Mobility in England and Wales’. IDS Bulletin, 28, 2. Foner, Nancy. 2000. ‘Beyond the Melting Pot three decades later: recent immigrants and New York’s new ethnic mixture’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 255261. Geddes, andrew. 2000. Immigration and European integration: towards fortress Europe?. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Glazer, Nathan. 2000. ‘On Beyond the Melting Pot, 35 years after’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 270-279.

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Glytsos, Nicholas P. 1997. ‘Greek immigrants in Australia: Demographic developments and economic integration’. International Migration, 35, 3, 421-454. ter Haar, Gerrie. 1998. Halfway to paradise: African Christians in Europe. Fairwater, Cardiff: Cardiff Academic Press. van Hear, Nicholas. 1998. New Diasporas: the mass exodus, dispersal and regrouping of migrant communities. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Hing, Bill Ong. 1997. To be an American: cultural pluralism and the rhetoric of assimilation. Critical America Series. New York, London : New York University Press. Hudson, Robert and Reno, Fred (Ed.). 2000. Politics of identity: migrants and minorities in multicultural states. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Icduygu, Ahmet. 1996. ‘Becoming a new citizen in an immigration country: Turks in Australia and Sweden and some comparative implications’. International Migration, 34, 2, 257-272. Icduygu, A. and Sirkeci, I. 1998. Changing Dynamics of the Migratory Regime between Turkey and Arab Countries. Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 20, 3-16. Jamous, Haroun. 2000. ‘From integration to “imaginary homelands”’. Societes Contermporaines, 37, 71-88. Joly, Daniele. 2000. ‘Some structural effects of migration on receiving and sending countries’. International Migration, 38, 5, 25-40. Joppke, Christian. 1999. Immigration and the nation-state: the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Oxford: OUP. Joppke, Christian. 1998. Challenge to the nation-state: immigration in Western Europe and the United States. Oxford: OUP. Jupp, J. 1998. ‘Creating multicultural societies: Australia, Britain, Sweden, and Canada’. International journal, LII, 3, 508-523. Kamali, Masoud. 1999. ‘Distorted Integration: Problems of Monolithic Order’. Innovation, 12, 1, Mar, 81-97. Kasinitz, Philip. 2000. ‘Beyond the Melting Pot: the contemporary relevance of a classic?’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 248-254. King, Russell and Black, Richard (Eds). 1997. Southern Europe and the New Immigrations. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.

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King, Russell, Lazaridis, Gabriella and Tsardanidis, Charalambos (Eds). 2000. Eldorado Or Fortress? Migration In Southern Europe. London: Macmillan. Koopmans, Rood. 1999. ‘Germany and its Immigrants: an Ambivalent Relationship’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 4, 627-648. Koopmans, Ruud and Statham, Paul (Eds). 2000. Challenging immigration and ethnic relations politics: comparative European perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press. Koser, Khalid and Lutz, Helma (Eds). 1998. The New Migration In Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities. London: Macmillan. Koslowski, R. 1998. ‘European Migration Regimes: Emerging, Enlarging and Deteriorating’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24, 40, 735-750. Lobo, A.P. and Salvo, J.J. 1998. ‘Resurgent Irish Immigration to the US in the 1980s and early 1990s: A Socio-demographic Profile’. International Migration, 36, 2, 257-280. Martin, Denis and Guild, Elspeth. 1996. Free Movement Of Persons In The European Union. London: Butterworths. Martiniello, Marco. 1996. ‘The Existence of an Urban Underclass in Belgium’. New Community 22, 4, 655-670 Maynard, M. and Purvis, J. (Eds.) 1998. ‘The New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities’. London: Macmillan. Menahem, Gila and Shimon E. Spiro. 1999. ‘Immigrants in a Restructuring Economy: A Partial Test of Theories’. International Migration, 37, 3, 569-586. Muenstermann, Ingrid. 1997. ‘Is This the Price for Integration? Some Thoughts on the Limited Intergenerational Achievements of Second Generation Germans in Australia’. European Journal of Intercultural Studies, 8, 2, July, 135-149. Munz, Rainer. 1996. ‘A Continent of Migration: European Mass Migration in the Twentieth Century’. New Community 22, 2, 201-116. Nielsen, J.S. 1997. ‘Muslims in Europe: History Revisited or a Way Forward?’. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 8, 2, 135-143. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1998. Immigrants, integration and cities: exploring the links. Paris: OECD.

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Palidda, Salvatore, Agozino, Biko et al. 1997. Immigrant delinquency: social construction of deviant behaviour and criminality of immigrants in Europe. Luxembourg: EOOPEC. Peach, Ceri. 1997. ‘Postwar Migration to Europe: Reflux, Influx, Refuge’. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 2, June, 269-283. Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. 2000. ‘Globalization and Human Integration: We Are All Migrants’. Futures, 32, 5, June, 385-398. Phalet, Karen and Hagendoorn, L. 1997. ‘Personal Adjustment to Acculturative Transitions: The Turkish Experience’. International Journal of Psychology/Journal International de Psychologie, 31, 2, Apr, 131-144. Portes, A. 2000. ‘An enduring vision: The melting pot that did happen’. International Migration Review, 34, 1, 243-247. Raitz, K. 2000. ‘Rock fences and preadaptation’. Geographical review, 85, 1, 50-62. Rodriguez, Gregory. 1999. From newcomers to new Americans: the successful integration of immigrants into American society. Washington DC: National Immigration Forum. Roer-Strier, Dorit. 1997. ‘In the mind of the beholder: Evaluation of coping styles of immigrant parents’. International Migration, 35, 2, 271-288. Rumbaut, Ruben G. 1997a. ‘Introduction: Immigration and Incorporation’. Sociological Perspectives, 40, 3, Fall, 333-338. Rumbaut, Ruben G. 1997b. ‘Paradoxes (and Orthodoxies) of Assimilation’. Sociological Perspectives, 40, 3, Fall, 483-511. Samers, M. 1998. ‘Immigration, Ethnic Minorities and Social Exclusion in the European Union: a Critical Perspective’. Geoforum 29, 2, 123-144. Schuck, Peter and Munz, Rainer (Eds). 1998. Paths to inclusion: the integration of migrants in the United States and Germany. Migration and refugees series, v.5. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Seifert, Wolfgang. 1997. ‘Admission Policy, Patterns of Migration and Integration: The German and French Case Compared’. New Community, 23, 4, Oct, 441-460. Shah, Nasra M. and Menon, Indu. 1999. ‘Chain migration through the social network: Experience of labour migrants in Kuwait’. International Migration, 37, 2, 361382.

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Smith, David M., Wistrich, Enid and Aybak, Tunc. 1999. The Migrants’ Voice in Europe. London: Middlesex University Press. SOPEMI. 1998. Trends In International Migration. Annual Report Of Continuous Reporting System On Migration. Rome: OECD. Taslim, M.A. 1998. ‘Do migrants worsen the current account?’. International Migration, 36, 3, 409-426. Thranhardt, Dietrich. 1996. ‘European Migration from East to West: Present Patterns and Future Directions’. New Community 22, 2, 227-242. Townsend, Alan R. 1997. Making a living in Europe: human geographies of economic change. London: Routledge. Vermeulen, Hans (Ed.). 1997. Immigrant Policy For A Multicultural Society: A Comparative Study Of Integration, Language, and Religious Policy In Five Western European Countries. Brussels: Migration Policy Group/IMES. Vertovec, Steven. 1999. ‘Introduction’. In S.Vertovec. (Ed.), Migration and Social Cohesion. Cheltenham: Elgar Reference Collection. Webber, Frances. 1996. Crimes of arrival: immigrants and asylum-seekers in the new Europe. London: Statewatch. Weiner, Myron. 1996. ‘Determinants of immigrant integration: an international comparative analysis’. In Naomi Carmon (Ed.). Immigration and Integration in Post-industrial Societies: Theoretical analysis and policy-related research. Houndmills: Macmillan. Weiner, Myron and Hanami, Tadashi. 1998. Temporary Workers Or Future Citizens?: Japanese and US Migration Policies. Houndmills: Macmillan. Weiner, M. and Munz, R. 1997. ‘Migrants, refugees and foreign policy: Prevention and intervention strategies’. Third World Quarterly, 18, March, 1, 25-51. Young, Crawford (Ed.). 1998. Ethnic diversity and public policy: a comparative inquiry. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Zicone, Giovanna. 2000. ‘Documentation note: A model of ‘reasonable integration’: Summary of the first report on the integration of immigrants in Italy’. International Migration Review, 34, 3, 956-968. Zulauf, Monika. 1997. ‘Time Organization and the Integration of EU Migrant Professionals’. Time & Society, 6, 2-3, July, 151-170.

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4.2 Education and Training Bleich, Erik. 1999. ‘Re-imagined communities? Education policies and national belonging in Britain and France’. andrew Geddes and Adrian Favell, The Politics of Belonging: Migrants and Minorities in Contemporary Europe, 60-75. Aldershot: Ashgate. Bodi, Marianne. 1996. ‘Models of Multicultural Education. The Dynamics of Pluralistic Integration and Social Accommodation’. Rainer Baubock, Agnes Heller and Aristide R. Zolberg, (Eds.), The Challenge of Diversity: Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, 259-278. Aldershot: Avebury European Centre. Broeder, Peter and Extra, Guus. 1998. Language, ethnicity, and education: case studies on immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages. Multilingual matters Series. No. 111. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Bushell, Waveney. 1996. ‘The Immigrant (West Indian) Child in School’. Kedar N. Dwivedi and Ved P. Varma, (Eds.), Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children: a Handbook for Professionals, 37-48. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Cahill, Desmond. 1996. Immigration and schooling in the 1990s. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Glenn, Charles Leslie with de Jong, Ester J. 1996. Educating immigrant children: schools and language minorities in twelve nations. Garland reference library of social science Series, vol. 921. New York: Garland Pub. Gray, Maryann Jacobi, Rolph, Elizabeth and Melamid, Elan. 1996. Immigration and higher education: institutional responses to changing demographics. Santa Monica: Rand. Hudson, Dorothy and Debela, N.W. 1997. ‘Migrants’ Perceptions of Schools and Peers: Australia’. Education and Society, 15, 1, June, 69-79. Mcandrew, M and P. Lamarre. 1996. ‘The integration of ethnic minority students fifteen years after Bill 101: some issues confronting Montreal’s French language public schools’. Canadian ethnic studies, XXVIII, 2, 40-63. Mouw, T. and Yu, X. 1999. ‘Bilingualism and the academic achievement of first- and second- generation Asian Americans: accommodation with or without assimilation?’. American sociological review, 64, 2, 232-252.

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Portes, Alejandro and MacLeod, Dag. 1999. ‘Educating the Second Generation: Determinants of Academic Achievement among Children of Immigrants in the United States’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, 373-396. Rong, Xue Lan and Preissle, Judith. 1998. Educating immigrant students: what we need to know to meet the challenges. Thousand Oaks, Calif. and London: Corwin Press. Sagy, Shifra. 2000. ‘Factors Influencing Early Dropout: The Case of Russian Immigrant Students Attending an Israeli University’. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36, 3, Sept, 362-375. Sigsbee, David L., Speck, Bruce W. and Maylath, Bruce (Eds). 1997. Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Stolzenberg, R.M. and Tienda, M. 1997. ‘English proficiency, education, and the conditional economic assimilation of Hispanic and Asian origin’. Social science research, 26, 1, 25-51. Tabors, Patton O. 1997. One child, two languages: a guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Vermeulen, Hans and Perlmann, Joel. 2000. Immigrants, schooling and social mobility: does culture make a difference? Basingstoke: Macmillan. Zou, Yali and Trueba, Enrique T. (Ed.). 1998. Ethnic identity and power: cultural contexts of political action in school and society. Albany : State University of New York Press. 4.3 Labour Market Agiomirgianakis, G.M. 1996. ‘International Macroeconomic Interdependence and International Migration of Labour’. International Journal of Finance and Economics, 1, 2, 133-147. Anderson, B. 2000. Migrant Domestic Workers: a European Perspective. London: Zed Press. Anderson, B. and Phizacklea, A. 1997. Migrant domestic workers: A European perspective. Brussels: Equal Opportunities Directorate DG5.

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Avci, Gamze and McDonald, Christopher. 2000. ‘Chipping away at the fortress: unions, immigration and the transnational labour market’. International Migration, 38, 2, 191-214. Beijl, Roger Zegers de (Ed.). 2000. Documenting discrimination against migrant workers in the labour market: a comparative study of four European countries. Geneva: ILO. Bevelander, Pieter. 1999. ‘The Employment Integration of Immigrants in Sweden’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, 445-468. Blos, Michael, Fischer, Peter A. and Straubhaar, T. 1997. ‘The Impact of Migration Policy on the Labour Market Performance of Migrants: A Comparative Case Study’. New Community, 23, 4, Oct, 511-535. Bolaria, B. Singh and Bolaria, Rosemary von Elling. 1997a. ‘Capital, Labour, Migrations’. B. Singh Bolaria and Rosemary von Elling Bolaria, International Labour Migrations, 1-17. Delhi: OUP. Bolaria, B. Singh and Bolaria, Rosemary von Elling. 1997b. ‘Immigrants, Migrants and Labour Market Opportunities’. B. Singh Bolaria and Rosemary von Elling Bolaria, International Labour Migrations, 192-209. Delhi: OUP. Boubakri, Hassen. 1997. Self employment and the ethnic economy in immigrant communities in Western Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Broeck, Julien van den (Ed.). 1996. Economics of labour migration. Cheltenham: Elgar. Brooks, Clive. 1996. Understanding immigrants and the labour market. Canberra: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Burgers, Jack. 1998. ‘In the Margin of the Welfare State: Labour Market Position and Housing Conditions of Undocumented Immigrants in Rotterdam’. Urban Studies, 35, 10, Oct, 1855-1868. Chang, Grace. 2000. Disposable domestics: immigrant women workers in the global economy. Cambridge, MA: South End Press. Chen, Shyh-Jer. 1998. ‘Characteristics and assimilation of Chinese immigrants in the US labor market’. International Migration, 36, 2, 187-210. Cholewinski, Ryszard Ignacy. 1997. Migrant workers in international human rights law: their protection in countries of employment. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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CobbClark, D.A. 2000. ‘Do selection criteria make a difference? Visa category and the labour market status of immigrants to Australia’. Economic record, 76, 232, 1531. Colectivo Ioé: de Prada, Miguel Angel, Actis,Walter, Pereda, Carlos and Molina, R. Pérez. 1996. Labour market discrimination against migrant workers in Spain. International Labour Office, Geneva: Dale, Gareth and Cole, Mike (Eds). 1999. The European Union and migrant labour. Oxford: Berg. Edwards, John. 1997. ‘On What ‘Ought’ to Be: The Flaw in Employment Equality Practice for Minorities’. New Community 23, 2, 233-248. EU Commission. 1999. Employment in Europe. Brussels: European Commission. Fernandez, Marylin and K.C. Kim. 1998. ‘Self-employment rates of Asian immigrant groups: An analysis of intragroup and intergroup differences’. International Migration Review, 32, 3, 654-681. Gazioglu, Saziye (Ed.). 1996. Migrants in the European labour market. Aberdeen: JNet. Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. 1997. ‘The question of discrimination: skilled migrants’ access to Australian employment’. International Migration, 35, 3, 395-420. Iredale, Robyn R. 1997. Skills transfer: international migration and accreditation issues: a comparative study of Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Wollongong: University of Wollongong Press. Jones, F.L. 1998. ‘Recent Trends in Labour Market Disadvantage among Immigrants to Australia’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24, 1, 73-96. Kloosterman, Robert, van der Leun, Joanne and Rath, Jan. 1998. ‘Across the Border: Immigrants’ Economic Opportunities, Social Capital and Informal Business Activities’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24, 2, 249-268. Kossoudji, S.A. and CobbClark, D.A. 2000. ‘IRCA's impact on the occupational concentration and mobility of newly-legalized Mexican men’. Journal of population economics, 13, 1, 81- 98. Letourneau, J. and Hallsworth, A. 1997. ‘The Migrant Economy in Canada and Britain’. British Journal Of Canadian Studies, 12, 1, 92-111.

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Maquire, Joseph and Stead, D. 1998. ‘Border Crossings: Soccer Labour Migration and the European Union’. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 33, 1, Mar, 59-73. Marger, M. N. and Christine Dobbin. 1998. ‘Asian Entrepreneurial Minorities: Conjoint Communities in the Making of the World Economy’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 4, 799. Martens, Albert. 1999. ‘Migratory Movements: The Position, the Outlook. Charting a Theory and Practice for Trade Unions’. John Wrench, andrea Rea and Nouria Ouali, (Eds.), Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market: Integration and Exclusion in Europe, 219-228. London: Macmillan Press. McCormick, Barry and Wahba, Jackline. 2000. ‘Overseas Employment and Remittances to a Dual Economy’. Economic Journal, 110, April, 509-534. Miller, P.W. and Neo, L.M. 1997. ‘Immigrant Unemployment: The Australian Experience’. International Migration, 35, 2, 155-185. Mingione, Enzo. 1999. ‘Introduction: Immigrants and the Informal Economy in European Cities’. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 2, June, 209-211. Model, Suzanne. 1997. ‘Migration, Ethnic Stratification, and Aging, An Occupational Tale of Two Cities: Minorities in London and New York’. Demography, 34, 4, Nov., 539-550. Morokvasik, Mirjana. 2000. ‘“In and Out” of the Labour Market: Immigrant and Minority Women in Europe.’ Katie Willis and Brenda Yeoh, (Eds.), Gender and Migration. The International Library of Studies on Migration, 91-115. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Özcan, V. and Seifert, W. 2000. ‘Self-employment of immigrants in Germany: exclusion or path to integration?’. Soziale Welt, 51, 3, 289-302. Pendakur, Ravi. 2000. Immigrants and the labour force: policy, regulation, and impact. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Rath, Jan (Ed.). 2000. Immigrant business: the economic, political and social environment. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Rath, Jan and Kloosterman, Robert. 2000. ‘A critical review of research on immigrant entrepreneruship’. International Migration Review¸ 34, 3, 657-681. Reitz, Jeffrey G. 1998. Warmth of the welcome: the social causes of economic success for immigrants in different nations and cities. Boulder: Westview.

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Stasilius, D. 1997. ‘International Migration, Rights and the Decline of ‘Actually Existing Liberal Democracy.’ New Community, 23, 2, 197-214. Vertovec, Steven and Peach, Ceri. 1997. ‘Introduction: Islam in Europe and the Politics of Religion and Community.’ Steven Vertovec and Ceri Peach, (Eds.), Islam in Europe: The Politics of Religion and Community, 3-47. London: Macmillan Press. Waldron, Jeremy. 2000. ‘Cultural Identity and Civic Responsibility.’ Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman (Eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies, 155-174. Oxford: OUP. Williams, Melissa S. 2000. ‘The Uneasy Alliance of Group Representation and Deliberative Democracy’. Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman (Eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies, 124-152. Oxford: OUP. Zou, Yali and Enrique T. Trueba (Ed.). 1998. Ethnic identity and power: cultural contexts of political action in school and society. Albany: State University of New York Press. 4.8 Women and Gender Ackers, Louise. 1998. Shifting spaces: women, citizenship and migration within the European Union. Bristol: The Policy Press. anderson, B. and Phizacklea, A. 1997. Migrant domestic workers: A European perspective. Brussels: Equal Opportunities Directorate DG5. Anthias, Floya and Lazaridis, Gabriella (Eds). 2000. Gender and migration in Southern Europe. Oxford: Berg. Aswad, Barbara C. and Bilge, Barbara (Eds). 1996. Family and gender among American Muslims: issues facing Middle Eastern immigrants and their descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Bjeren, Gunilla. 1997. ‘Gender and Reproduction’. Tomas Hammar, Grete Brochmann, Kristof Tamas and Thomas Faist, (Eds.) International Migration, Immobility and Development: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 219-246. Oxford: Berg. Brinker-Gabler, G. and Smith, S. 1997. Writing new identities: Gender, nation and immgiration in contemporary Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Chang, Grace. 2000. Disposable domestics: immigrant women workers in the global economy. Cambridge, MA : South End Press.

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Kofman, E. 2000. ‘The Invisibility of Skilled Female Migrants and Gender Relations in Studies of Skilled Migration in Europe’. International Journal of Population Geography, 6, 1, 1-15. Kofman, E. and Sales, R. 1997. ‘Gender Differences and Family Reunion in the European Union: Implications for Refugees’. Refuge 16, 4, 26-31. Kofman, E. and Sales, R. 1998. ‘Migrant Women and Exclusion in Europe’. The European Journal of Women’s Studies, 5, 3-4, 381-398. Kofman, E. and Sales, R. 1999. ‘Migrant Women in Europe’. R. Rossilli, (Ed.), European Union Policy and Women’s Equality. New York: Peter Lang. Kofman, Eleonore, Phizacklea, Annie, Raghuram, Parvati and Sales, Rosemary. 2000. Gender and International Migration in Europe: Employment, Welfare and Politics. London and New York: Routledge. Lutz, H. 1997. ‘The Limits of European-ness: Immigrant Women in Fortress Europe’. Feminist Review, 57, 93-111. Miller, Matthei L. 1996. ‘Gender and international labor migration: A networks approach’. Social Justice, 23, 3, 38-53. Phizacklea, A. 1996. ‘Women, Migration and the State’. S. Rai and G. Lievsley, (Eds.), Women and the State: International Perspectives, 163-173. London: Taylor and Francis. del Rosariao, Virginia O. 1996. ‘Gina Buijs (Ed.), Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities’. New Community 22, 1, 168. Saharso, Sawitri. 2000. ‘Female Autonomy and Cultural Imperative: Two Hearts Beating Together’. Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman, Citizenship in Diverse Societies, 224-242. Oxford: OUP. Shachar, Ayelet. 2000. ‘Should Church and State be Joined at the Altar? Women’s Rights and the Multicultural Dilemma’. Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman, (Eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies, 199-223. Oxford: OUP. Sales, R. and Gregory, J. 1996. ‘Employment, Citizenship and European Integration: the Implications for Ethnic Minority Women’. Social Politics, 3, 2.3, 331-350. Truong, Thanh-Dam. 2000. ‘Gender, International Migration and Social Reproduction: Implications for Theory, Policy, Research and Networking’. Katie Willis and Brenda Yeoh, (Eds.), Gender and Migration. The International Library of Studies on Migration, 65-90. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

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Ralson, Helen. 1997. ‘ “Arranged,” “Semi-Arranged” and “Love” Marriages among South Asian Immigrant Women in the Diaspora and Their Non-Migrant Sisters in India and Fiji: A Comparative Study’. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 27, 2, autumn, 43-68. Roer-Strier, Dorit. 1997. ‘In the mind of the beholder: Evaluation of coping styles of immigrant parents’. International Migration, 35, 2, 271-288. Tabors, Patton O. 1997. One child, two languages: a guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Zhou, Min. 1997. ‘Growing Up American: The Challenge Confronting Immigrant Children and Children Of Immigrants’. Annual Review Of Sociology, 23, 63-95. Zhou, Min and Bankston, C.L. III. 1998. Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt To Life In The United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 4.10 Justice and Legal System Brochmann, Grete. 1999a. ‘Controlling Immigration in Europe’. Grete Brochmann and Tomas Hammar. Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of European Regional Policies, 297-334. Oxford: Berg. Brochmann, Grete. 1999b. ‘The Mechanisms of Control’. Grete Brochmann and Tomas Hammar. Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of European Regional Policies, 1-27. Oxford: Berg. Cicekli, Bulent. 1999. ‘The rights of Turkish migrants in Europe: Under international law and EU law’. International Migration Review, 33, 2, 300-353. Clarke, Harry. 1998. ‘International trade, labour migrations and capital flows: Longterm evidence for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States’. International Migration, 36, 3, 383-408. Dorr, Silvia and Faist, Thomas. 1997. ‘Institutional Conditions for the Integration of Immigrants in Welfare States: A Comparison of the Literature on Germany, France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands’. European Journal of Political Research, 31, 4, June, 401-426. Dutt, Mallika, Marin, Leni and Zia, Helen (Eds). 1997. Migrant women’s human rights in G-7 countries: organizing strategies. San Francisco, Calif.: Family Violence Prevention Fund and New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Women’s Global Leadership.

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Koslowski, Rey. 1998. ‘European Union Migration Regimes, Established and Emergent’. Christian Joppke, (Ed.) Challenge to the Nation-State: Immigration in Western Europe and the United States, 153-188. Oxford: OUP. Kurthen, Hermann, Fijalkowski, Jurgen and Wagner, Gert. 1998. Immigration, citizenship and the welfare state in Germany and the United States. Stanford, Conn: JAI. Kurthen, Hermann. 1997. ‘Conference report: Immigration and the welfare state in comparison: Differences in the incorporation of immigrant minorities in Germany and the United States’. International Migration Review, 31, 3, 721731. Martin, Michael T. 1999. ‘“Fortress Europe” and Third World Immigration in the PostCold War Global Context’. Third World Quarterly, 20, 4, Aug, 821-837. Poulter, S. 1997. ‘The Rights of Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities’. European Human Rights Law Review, 1997, 3, 254-264. Sales, R. and Gregory, J. 1999. ‘Immigration, Ethnicity and Exclusion: Implications of European Integration’. J. Gregory, R. Sales and A. Hegewisch, (Eds.), Women, Work and Equality: the Challenge to Equal Pay in a Deregulated Market. London: Macmillan. Sassen, Saskia. 1998. ‘The De Facto Transnationalizing of Immigration Policy’. Christian Joppke, (Ed.) Challenge to the Nation-State: Immigration in Western Europe and the United States, 49-85. Oxford: OUP. Simon, Rita J. and Lynch, James P. 1999. ‘A Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion toward Immigrants and Immigration Policies’. International Migration Review, 33, 2(126), Summer, 455-467. Ugalde, Antonio and Cardenas, Gilberto (Eds). 1998. Health and social services among international labor migrants: A comparative perspective. Austin: University of Texas Press, Centre for Mexican American Studies. Whiteford, Elaine A. 1996. Adapting to change: occupational pension schemes, women and migrant workers: an examination of the extent to which occupational pension schemes in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany enable women and migrant workers to accrue adequate pensions. The Hague and London: Kluwer Law International. 4.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies

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Fetzer, Joel S. 2000. ‘Economic Self-Interest or Cultural Marginality? Anti-Immigration Sentiment and Nativist Political Movements in France, Germany and the USA’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 1, 5-24. Green, N. 1999. ‘Le Melting-Pot: Made in America, Produced in France’ Journal of American History, 86, 3. Haegel, Florence. 2000. ‘Xenophobia on a Suburban Paris Housing Estate’. Patterns of Prejudice, 34, 1, Jan, 29-38. Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. 1997. ‘The question of discrimination: skilled migrants’ access to Australian employment’. International Migration, 35, 3, 395-420. Hayter, Teresa. 2000. Open borders: the case against immigration controls. London: Pluto Press. Jain, Rajendra K. 1997. ‘Fortifying the “Fortress”: Immigration and Politics in the European Union’. International Studies, 34, 2, Apr-June, 163-192. Kossoudji, S.A. and CobbClark, D.A. 2000. ‘IRCA’s impact on the occupational concentration and mobility of newly-legalized Mexican men’. Journal of population economics, 13, 1, 81- 98. Lloyd, Cathie. 2000. ‘Anti-Racist Responses to European Integration’. Rood Koopmans and Paul Statham, (Eds.), Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics: Comparative European Perspectives, 389-406. New York: Oxford University Press. Martiniello, Marco (Ed.). 1998. Multicultural policies and the state: a comparison of two European societies. Utrecht: European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Utrecht University. OOPEC. 2000. Towards employment for all: combating racism and promoting the integration of migrants : the ADAPT and Employment Community initiatives innovations. Employment and social affairs series, no.9. Luxembourg : OOPEC.

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Rathzel, Nora. 1997. ‘Migration and Articulation of Racism in Western Europe 1974-88’. B. Singh Bolaria and Rosemary von Elling Bolaria, International Labour Migrations, 18-42. Delhi: OUP. Rea, andrea, Wrench, John and Ouali, Nouria. 1999. ‘Introduction: Discrimination and Diversity’. John Wrench, andrea Rea and Nouria Ouali, Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market: Integration and Exclusion in Europe, 1-18. London: Macmillan Press Reitz, Jeffrey G., Frick, J.R., Calabrese, T. and Wagner, G.C. 1999. ‘The Institutional Framework of Ethnic Employment Disadvantage: A Comparison of Germany and Canada’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, July, 397-443. Samers, M. 1998. Immigration, ‘ethnic minorities’, and ‘social exclusion’ in the European Union: a critical perspective. Geoforum, 29, 2, May, 123-144. Seifert, Wolfgang. 1997. ‘Admission Policy, Patterns of Migration and Integration: The German and French Case Compared’. New Community, 23, 4, Oct, 441-460. Simon, Ratia J. and Lynch, James P. 1999. ‘Research note: A comparative assessment of public opinion toward immigrants and immigration policies’. International Migration Review, 33, 2, 455-467. Tracy, Marshall. 2000. Racism and immigration in Ireland: a comparative analysis. Dublin: Department of Sociology, Univiersity of Dublin, Trinity College. Vertovec, Steven. 1996. ‘Berlin Multikulti: Germany, “foreigners” and “worldopenness.”’ New Community 22, 3, 381-400. Westin, C. 2000. Settlement and Integration Policies towards Immigrants and their Descendants in Sweden. Geneva: International Labour Office. Wieviorka, Michel. 1998. ‘Racism and Diasporas’. Thesis Eleven, 52-55, Feb, 69-81. 4.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism Ackers, Louise. 1998. Shifting spaces: women, citizenship and migration within the European Union. Bristol: The Policy Press. Alba, Richard. 1999. ‘Immigration and The American Realities Of Assimilation and Multiculturalism’. Sociological Forum, 14, 1, 3-25. Aleinikoff, T. Alexander and Klusmeyer, Douglas (Eds). 2000. From migrants to citizens: membership in a changing world. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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Barbieri, William A. 1998. Ethics of citizenship: immigration and group rights in Germany. Durham: Duke University Press. Baubock, Rainer and Rundell, J. (Eds). 1998. Blurred boundaries: Migration,ethnicity, citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate. Bisogno, Enrico and Gallo, Gerardo. 2000. ‘The Acquisition of Citizenship, Instrument or Result of the Integration Process: A Comparison among Some European Countries in the Early 1990s’. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, 37, 137, Mar, 145-175. Bryant, Christopher G.A. 1997. ‘Citizenship, National Identity and the Accommodation of Difference: Reflections on the German, French, Dutch and British Cases’. New Community 23, 2, 257-172. Bousetta, Hassan. 1997. ‘Citizenship and Political Participation in France and the Netherlands: Reflections on Two Local Cases’. New Community 23, 2, 215-233. Castles, Stephen. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalisation: From Migrant Workers To Transnational Citizens. London: Sage. Castles, Stephen and Davidson, Alastair. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and The Politics Of Belonging. Houndmills: Macmillan. Cesarani, David and Fulbrook, Mary (Eds). 1996. Citizenship, Nationality and Migration In Europe. London: Routledge. Clarke, James, E. Van Dam and Gooster, Liz. 1998. ‘New Europeans: Naturalisation and Citizenship in Europe’. Citizenship Studies, 2, 1, Feb, 43-67. Crowley, John. 1998. What Does Multiculturalism Add to Citizenship? Implications of the French and British Cases. International Sociological Association (ISA). Delanty, Gerard. 1998. ‘Dilemmas of Citizenship: Recent Literature on Citizenship and Europe’. Citizenship Studies, 2, 2, July, 353-358. Delanty, Gerard. 1996. ‘Beyond the Nation-State: National Identity and Citizenship in a Multicultural Society-A Response to Rex’. Sociological Research Online http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk /socresonline/, 1, 3, Sept. Dijkstra, Steven, Genijen, Karn and de Ruijter, A. 2001. ‘Multiculturalism and social integration in Europe’. International Political Science Review, 22, 1, 55-84. Faist, Thomas. 2000. ‘Transnationalization in International Migration: Implications for the Study of Citizenship and Culture’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 2, Mar, 189-222.

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Favell, Adrian. 1997. ‘Citizenship and immigration: pathologies of a progressive philosophy’. New Community, 23, 2, 173-195. Favell, Adrian. 1998. Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain. London: Macmillan Press. Feldblum, Miriam. 1998. ‘Reconfiguring Citizenship in Western Europe’. Christian Joppke, (Ed.) Challenge to the Nation-State: Immigration in Western Europe and the United States, 231-271. Oxford: OUP. Feldblum, Miriam. 2000. Managing Membership: ‘New Trends in Citizenship and Nationality Policy’. T. Alexander Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer, (Eds.) From Migrants to Citizens: Membership in a Changing World, 475-499. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Fetzer, Joel S. 2000. ‘Economic Self-Interest or Cultural Marginality? Anti-Immigration Sentiment and Nativist Political Movements in France, Germany and the USA’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 1, 5-24. Guild, Elspeth. 1996. ‘The Legal Framework of Citizenship of the European Union’. David Cesarini and Mary Fulbrook, (Eds.), Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe, 30-54. London: Routledge. Hansen, R. 1998. ‘A European Citizenship or a Europe of Citizens? Third Country Nationals in the EU’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24, 4, 751-68. Houston, M. R. W. 2000. ‘Birthright Citizenship in the United Kingdom and the United States: A Comparative Analysis of the Common Law Basis for Granting Citizenship to Children Born of Illegal Immigrants’. Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law, 33, 3, 693-738. Ishtiaq, Ahmed. 1997. ‘Exit, Voice and Citizenship’. Tomas Hammar, Grete Brochmann, Kristof Tamas and Thomas Faist, (Eds.) International Migration, Immobility and Development: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 159-186. Oxford: Berg. Jacobson, David. 1996. Rights Across Borders: Immigration and the Decline of Citizenship. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Joppke, Christian. 1999. ‘How Immigration Is Changing Citizenship: A Comparative View’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22, 4, July, 631-652. Joseph, May. 1999. Nomadic identities: the performance of citizenship. Minneapolis, Minn. and London: University of Minnesota Press.

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Jupp, J. 1998. ‘Creating multicultural societies: Australia, Britain, Sweden, and Canada’. International journal, LII, 3, 508-523. Kagitcbasi, Cigdem. 1997. ‘Whither Multiculturalism?’. Applied Psychology: An International Review/Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, 46, 1, Jan, 44-49. Kelly, D. 2000. ‘Multicultural citizenship: the limitations of liberal democracy’. Political quarterly, 71, 1, 31-41. Koopmans, Ruud and Statham, P. 1999. ‘Challenging the nation-state?: postnationalism, multiculturalism, and the collective claims-making of migrants and ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany’. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 652696. Kurthen, Hermann, Fijalkowski, Jurgen and Wagner, Gert. 1998. Immigration, citizenship and the welfare state in Germany and the United States. Stanford, Conn: JAI. Labelle, M. and Midy, F. 1999. ‘Re-reading citizenship and the transnational practices of immigrants’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 25, 2, 213-232. Mackert, Jurgen. 1996. ‘Citizenship and Immigration: Heterogenization of the NationState and New Forms of Belonging: Recent articles on the Discussion of Citizenship’. Berliner Journal fur Soziologie, 6, 2, 261-275. Martiniello, Marco. 2000. ‘Citizenship of the European Union’. T.A. Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer (Eds). From migrants to citizens: membership in a changing world. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Outlaw, Lucius. 1998. ‘“Multiculturalism,” Citizenship, Education and American Liberal Democracy’. Cynthia Willet, (Ed.), Theorizing Multiculturalism: A guide to the current debate, 382-397. Oxford: Blackwell. Rex, John. 1996. ‘National Identity in the Democratic Multi-Cultural State’. Sociological Research Online, http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk /socresonline/, 1, 2, June. Rex, John. 1998. ‘Multiculturalism and Political Integration in European Cities’. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie, 105, July-Dec, 261-280. Rubio, Ruth. 2000. Immigration as a Democratic Challenge: Citizenship and Inclusion in Germany and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Solomos, John and Shuster, Lisa, K. 2000. ‘Citizenship, Multiculturalism and the Politics of Identity: Contemporary Dilemmas and Policy Agendas’. Rood Koopmans and Paul Statham, (Eds.), Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics: Comparative European Perspectives, 74-94. New York: Oxford University Press. Soorenson, Jens Magleby. 1996. The exclusive European citizenship: the case for refugees and immigrants in the European Union. Aldershot: Avebury. Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu. 1996. ‘Changing Citizenship in Europe: Remarks on Postnational Membership and the National State’. David Ceasarani and Mary Fulbrook, (Eds.), Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe, 17-29. London: Routledge. Stevens, C.A. 1999. ‘Selection and Settlement of Citizens: English Language Proficiency Among Immigrant Groups in Australia’. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 20, 2, 107-133. 4.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion Anthias, Floya and Lazaridis, Gabriella (Eds). 2000. Into the margins: migration and exclusion in Southern Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. Wrench, John, Rea, andrea and Ouali, Nouria (Eds.). 1999. Migrants, ethnic minorities and the labour market: integration and exclusion in Europe. Houndmills: Macmillan Press. 4.15 Government Documents and Evaluations Doomernik, Jeroen. 1998a. ‘Labour immigration and integration in low- and middleincome countries: towards an evaluation of the effectiveness of migration policies’. International Migration Paper #24 Geneva: International Labour Office. Doomernik, Jeroen. 1998b. ‘The effectiveness of integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants in France, Germany and the Netherlands’. International Migration Paper #27. Geneva: International Labour Office.

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5. Refugees – International 5.1 General Barnes, Diane. 1997. ‘Social Integration Of Refugees Into Countries Of Resettlement: Motivations, Goals, and Incentives − A Case Study Of Young Vietnamese Men In Australia’. Social Development Issues, 19, 2-3, 87-97. Bertrand, Didier. 1998. ‘Refugees and Migrants, Migrants and Refugees: An Ethnological Approach’. International Migration, 36, 1, 107-114. Bloch, Alice and Levy, Carl (Eds). 1999. Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy In Europe. London: Macmillan. Boyd, Monica. 1999. ‘Gender, Refugee Status and Permanent Settlement’. Gender Issues, 17, 1, Winter, 5-25. Carlier, Jean-Yves and Vanheule, Dirk (Eds). 1997. Europe and Refugees: A Challenge? The Hague and Boston: Kluwer Law International. Cronin, Deirdre. 1997. Refugees Are Welcome Here!: The Case Against Immigration Controls. Dublin: The Socialist Workers Party. Cullen, Paul. 2000. Refugees and Asylum-Seekers In Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press. Duke, Karen, Sales, Rosemary and Gregory, Jeanne. 1999. ‘Refugee Resettlement In Europe’. A. Bloch (Ed.). Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy In Europe. London: Macmillan. Haines, David W. 1996. ‘Patterns In Refugee Resettlement and Adaptation’. In D.W. Haines (Ed.). Refugees In America In The 1990s: A Reference Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood. 28-59. Irish Commission For Justice and Peace. 1997. Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Challenge To Solidarity. A Joint Policy Document Of The Irish Commission For Justice & Peace and Trocaire. Dublin: Trocaire/Irish Commission For Justice & Peace. Jacobsen, Karen. 1997. ‘Refugees’ Environmental Impact: The Effect Of Patterns Of Settlement’. Journal Of Refugee Studies, 10, 1, Mar, 19-36. Jerusalem, Mattias, Hahn, A. and Schwarzer, R. 1996. ‘Social Bonding and Loneliness After Network Disruption: A Longitudinal Study Of East German Refugees’. Social Indicators Research, 38, 3, July, 229-243.

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Joly, Danièle. 1996. Haven Or Hell? Asylum Policies and Refugees In Europe. London: Macmillan. Joly, Danièle. 1997. Refugees In Europe: The New Hostile Agenda. London: Minority Rights Group. Joly, Danièle.1999. ‘A New Asylum in Europe’. Francis Nicholson and Patrick Twomey, (Eds.), Refugees Rights and Realities, 336-357. Cambridge: CUP. Keely, Charles B. 1996. ‘How Nation-States Create and Respond To Refugee Flows’. International Migration Review, 30, 4, 1046-1066. Montgomery, J. Randal. 1996. ‘Components Of Refugee Adaptation’. International Migration Review, 30, 3(115), Fall, 679-702. Muus, P. (Ed.). 1997. Exclusion and Inclusion Of Refugees In Contemporary Europe. Utrecht: ERCOMER. Noll, Gregor and Vedsted-Hansen, Jens. 1999. ‘Non-Communitarians: Refugee and Asylum Policies’. In Philip Alston (Ed.). The EU and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. O’Flynn, M. 1999. ‘Overseas: On The Airlift Of The First Group Of Kosovar Refugees To Ireland’. World Of Irish Nursing, VOL 7, 6, 16-17. Potocky, Miriam. 1996. ‘Refugee Resettlement In The United States: Implications For International Social Welfare’. Journal Of Sociology and Social Welfare, 23, 1, Mar, 163-174. Refugee Trust. 1997. Ireland’s Link With The Global Refugee Crisis: Some Questions and Points Of View. Dublin: Stillorgan and Refugee Trust. Reilly, Rachael For UNHCR. 1997. The State Of The World's Refugees, 1997-98: A Humanitarian Agenda. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scott, H. and Bolzman, C. 1999. ‘Age In Exile: Europe’s Older Refugees and Exiles’. In A. Bloch and C. Levy (Eds.). Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy In Europe. London: Macmillan. Steiner, Niklaus. 2000. Arguing About Asylum: The Complexity Of Refugee Debates In Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Trocaire (Organisation). 2000. Human Rights and Refugees: New Revised Resource For Leaving Certificate Applied, Contemporary Issues. Dublin: Trocaire.

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Valtonen, Kathleen. 1998. ‘Resettlement Of Middle Eastern Refugees In Finland: The Elusiveness Of Integration’. Journal Of Refugee Studies, 11, 1, Mar, 38-60. Valtonen, Kathleen. 1999. ‘The Societal Participation of Vietnamese Refugees: Case Studies in Finland and Canada’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, 469-492. Wallace, Rebecca M. M. 1996. Refugees and Asylum: A Community Perspective. London: Butterworths. Waxman, Peter. 1998. ‘Service Provision and The Needs Of Newly Arrived Refugees In Sydney, Australia: A Descriptive Analysis’. International Migration Review, 32, 3(123), Fall, 761-777. Weiner, M. and Munz, R. 1997. ‘Migrants, refugees and foreign policy: Prevention and intervention strategies’. Third World Quarterly, 18, March, 1, 25-51. Whitaker, Reg. 1998. ‘Refugees: The Security Dimension’. Citizenship Studies, 2, 3, Nov, 413-434. 5.2 Education and Training Nil 5.3 Labour Market Bulic, Kamenko and Dongieux, Henri. 1999. ‘Meaningful and Satisfactory Work As A Pathway To Integration: Bosnian Refugees In The West’. Revija Za Sociologiju, 30, 1-2, Jan-June, 99-116. Refugee Council. 1999. ECRE Task Force on Integration, Refugees and Employment: the European Context, November. Stevens, Christine A. 1996. ‘The Labour Market Experience Of Cambodians: Policy Implications For Settlement Services’. Australian Journal Of Social Issues, 31, 3, Aug, 271-289. Sultan-Prnjavorac, Fardus. 1999. Report Of A Survey: Barriers and Needs Of Bosnian Refugee Women With Regard To Education, Employment and Social Inclusion. Dublin: Zena Project. Tress, Madeleine. 1998. ‘Welfare State Type, Labour Markets and Refugees: A Comparison Of Jews From The Former Soviet Union In The United States and The Federal Republic Of Germany’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 1, Jan, 116137.

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Vinokurov, A., D. Birman and E. Trickett. 2000. ‘Psychological and acculturation correlates of work status among Soviet Jewish refugees in the U.S.’. International migration review, 34, 2, 538-559. 5.4 Health Ahearn, Frederick L. Jr. 2000. Psychosocial Wellness Of Refugees: Issues In Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Oxford: Berghahn Books. Bennike, Margrethe. 1998. ‘Post-traumatic stress disorder: social work at a Danish rehabilitation centre for refugees’, Social Work in Europe, 5, 1, 24-28. Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. 1996. ‘AIDS and HIV, Migrants and Refugees: International Legal and Human Rights Dimensions’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 50-69. London: Taylor and Francis. Gushulal, B.D. 1998. ‘Tuberculosis control in refugees − policies and practices’, International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2, S87-93. Hyman, Ilene, Vu, N. and Beiser, M. 2000. ‘Post-Migration Stresses Among Southeast Asian Refugee Youth In Canada: A Research Note’. Journal Of Comparative Family Studies, 31, 2, Spring, 281-293. Jong, Joop T.V.M. De and Clark, Lucy. 1996. Mental Health Of Refugees. Geneva: World Health Organization. van der Kwaak, Anke and Wolffers, Ivan. 1996. Primary Health Care and Refugees. Amsterdam: VU University Press. Lucas, Sue. 1999. Refugees, Displaced People and Their Vulnerability To HIV/AIDS. London: UK NGO AIDS Consortium. Medicins Sans Frontieres. 1997. Refugee Health: An Approach To Emergency Situations. London: Macmillan. O’Flynn, M. 1999. ‘Overseas: On The Airlift Of The First Group Of Kosovar Refugees To Ireland’. World Of Irish Nursing, 7, 6, 16-17. Papadopoulos, R. 1998. ‘Destructiveness, Atrocities and Healing’, The Journal of Analytical Psychology, 43, 4, 455-478.

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Racine-Welch, T. and Welch, M. 2000. ‘Listening For The Sounds Of Silence: A Nursing Consideration Of Caring For The Politically Tortured’. Nursing Inquiry, 7, 2, 136-141. Smith, A., O’ Flanagan, D., Igoe, D., Cronin, J., Forde, D., McArdle, E. and Ko, D. 2000. ‘Outcome Of Medical Screening Of Kosovan Refugees In Ireland’. Communicable Disease and Public Health, 3, 4, 291-294. van der Veer, Guus. 1998 (1992). Counselling and Therapy With Refugees and Victims Of Trauma: Psychological Problems Of Victims Of War, Torture, and Repression. 2nd Ed. Chichester: John Wiley. van Velsen, C., Gorst-Unsworth, C., and Turner, S. 1996. ‘Survivors of Torture and Organised Violence: demography and diagnosis’, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 2, 181-194. 5.5 Housing Clann Housing Association Ltd. 1999. From Bosnia To Ireland’s Private Rented Sector: A Study Of Bosnian Housing Needs In Ireland. Dublin: Clann Housing Association Ltd. 5.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation, Acculturation Corcoran, F. 1998. ‘The Refugee Challenge For Ireland: Cultural Globalisation Or Identity Crisis?’. Media Development, 45, 3, 3-6. Korac, M. 2001. “Cross-ethnic networks, self-reception system, and functional integration of refugees from former Yugoslavia in Rome, Italy”. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2, 1. Mcdowell, C. 1996. A Tamil Asylum Diaspora. Oxford: Berghahn. 5.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation Valtonen, Kathleen. 1999. ‘The Societal Participation Of Vietnamese Refugees: Case Studies In Finland and Canada’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1999, 25, 3, July, 469-491. 5.8 Women and Gender

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Bhabha, J. 1996. ‘Embodied Rights: Gender Persecution, State Sovereignty and Refugees’. Public Culture, 9, 3-32. Bloch, Alice, Galvin, T. and Harrell-Bond, B. 2000. ‘Refugee Women In Europe: Some Aspects Of The Legal and Policy Dimensions’. International Migration, 38, 2, 169-190. Boyd, Monica. 1999. ‘Gender, Refugee Status and Permanent Settlement’. Gender Issues, 17, 1, Winter, 5-25. Giles, Wenona, Moussa, Helene, and van Esterik, Penny. 1996. Development & Diaspora: Gender and The Refugee Experience. Dundas, Ont.: Artemis Enterprises. Indra, D. (Ed.). Engendering Forced Migration: Theory and Practice. New York: Berghahn Books. Kofman, Eleonore and Sale, R. 1997. ‘Gender Differences and Family Reunion In The European Union: Implications For Refugees’. Refuge, 16, 4, 26-31. Kuttner, S. 1997. Gender Related Persecution as a Basis for Refugee Status: the Emergence of an International Norm. Refuge, 16, 4, 17-21. Neuwirth, Gertrud and Vincent, Christine (Eds). 1997. Women Refugees In International Perspective, 1980−1990: An Annotated Bibliography. Ottawa: Research Resource Division For Refugees, Centre For Immigration and Ethno-Cultural Studies, Carleton University. Osaki, K. 1997. When Refugees are Women: Emergence of the Issue on the International Agenda. Refuge, 16, 4, 9-16. Sultan-Prnjavorac, Fardus. 1999. Report Of A Survey: Barriers and Needs Of Bosnian Refugee Women With Regard To Education, Employment and Social Inclusion. Dublin: Zena Project. 5.9 Family and Children Almqvist K. and Brandell-Forsberg, M. 1997. ‘Refugee Children in Sweden: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Iranian pre-school children exposed to organised violence’, in Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 4, 351-66. Kofman, Eleonore and Sale, R. 1997. ‘Gender Differences and Family Reunion In The European Union: Implications For Refugees’. Refuge, 16, 4, 26-31.

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Montgomery, E. 1998. ‘Refugee Children from the Middle East’, Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Supp. l 54, 1-152. Okitikpi, T. and Aymer, C. 2000. ‘The Price Of Safety: Refugee Children and The Challenge For Social Work’. Social Work In Europe, 7, 1, 51-57. Zhou, Min and Bankston , C.L., III. 1998. Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt To Life In The United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 5.10 Justice and Legal System Bloch, Alice, Galvin, T. and Harrell-Bond, B. 2000. ‘Refugee Women In Europe: Some Aspects Of The Legal and Policy Dimensions’. International Migration, 38, 2, 169-190. Boyd, Monica. 1999. ‘Gender, Refugee Status and Permanent Settlement’. Gender Issues, 17, 1, Winter, 5-25. Brochmann, Grete. 1997. ‘Bosnian Refugees In The Scandinavian Countries: A Comparative Perspective On Immigration Control In The 1990s’. New Community, 23, 4, Oct, 495-510. Chakrabarty, Manik. 1998. Human Rights and Refugees: Problems, Laws and Practices. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications. Cronin, Deirdre. 1997. Refugees Are Welcome Here!: The Case Against Immigration Controls. Dublin: The Socialist Workers Party. Egan, Suzanne and Costello, Kevin. 1999. Refugee Law Comparative Study: A Comparative Study Of Irish Legislation and That Of Our E.U. Report Commissioned By The Department Of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. Dublin: Stationery Office. Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. 1996. The Refugee In International Law. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Koser, Khalid and Black, Richard. 1999. ‘Limits To Harmonization: The ‘Temporary Protection’ Of Refugees In The European Union’. International Migration, 37, 3, 521-543. Kourula, Pirkko. 1997. Broadening The Edges: Refugee Definition and International Protection Revisited. Refugees and Human Rights Series, V. 1. The Hague and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.

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Krieken, Peter J. Van (Ed.). 1999. Refugee Law In Context: The Exclusion Clause. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. Noll, Gregor and Vedsted-Hansen, Jens . 1999. ‘Non-Communitarians: Refugee and Asylum Policies’. Philip Alston (Ed.). The EU and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Selm-Thorburn, Joanne Van. 1998. Refugee Protection In Europe: Lessons Of The Yugoslav Crisis. The Hague and London: Martinus Nijhoff. Sitaropoulos, Nicholas. 1999. Judicial Interpretation Of Refugee Status: In Search Of A Principled Methodology Based On A Critical Comparative Analysis, With Special Reference To Contemporary British, French, and German Jurisprudence. Human Rights Series V. 2. 1st Edition. Athens: Baden-Baden. Whitaker, Reg. 1998. ‘Refugees: The Security Dimension’. Citizenship Studies, 2, 3, Nov, 413-434. 5.11 Welfare and Social Policy Bloch, Alice, Galvin, T. and Harrell-Bond, B. 2000. ‘Refugee Women In Europe: Some Aspects Of The Legal and Policy Dimensions’. International Migration, 38, 2, 169-190. Bloch, Alice and Levy, Carl (Eds.). 1999. Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy In Europe. London: Macmillan. Brinkman, Jannie. 1998. ‘Social Work with Refugees: Overcoming Trauma and Cultural Differences’. Social Work in Europe, 5, 1, 21-23. Faughnan, Pauline. 1999. Refugees and Asylum Seekers In Ireland: Social Policy Dimensions. Dublin: Social Science Research Centre, University College Dublin. Joly, D. 1996. Haven or Hell? Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe. London: Macmillan. Joly, D. With Nettleton, Clive and Kelly, Lynette. 1997. Refugees in Europe: the Hostile New Agenda. London: MRG Okitikpi, T. and Aymer, C. 2000. ‘The Price Of Safety: Refugee Children and The Challenge For Social Work’. Social Work In Europe, 7, 1, 51-57.

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Potocky, Miriam. 1996. ‘Refugee Resettlement In The United States: Implications For International Social Welfare’. Journal Of Sociology and Social Welfare, 23, 1, Mar, 163-174. Thorning, I. and Sinding, G. 2000. ‘A management plan for an Intercultural Center for immigrants and refugees’. European Journal Of Pain, 4, Supp/A, S40-S41. Tress, Madeleine. 1998. ‘Welfare State Type, Labour Markets and Refugees: A Comparison Of Jews From The Former Soviet Union In The United States and The Federal Republic Of Germany’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 1, Jan, 116137. 5.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies McVeigh, Robbie and Binchy, Alice. 1998. Travellers, Refugees and Racism In Tallaght. Dublin: West Tallaght Resource Centre.

5.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism Bloch, Alice and Levy, Carl (Eds.). 1999. Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy In Europe. London: Macmillan. 5.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion Koser, K. 1997. ‘Social Networks and The Asylum Cycle: The Case Of Iranians In The Netherlands’. International Migration Review, 31, 3, 591-611. 5.15 Government Documents and Evaluations Stevens, Christine A. 1996. ‘The Labour Market Experience Of Cambodians: Policy Implications For Settlement Services’. Australian Journal Of Social Issues, 31, 3, Aug, 271-289.

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6. Unspecific/Ethnic Minorities – International NB: As mentioned earlier, empty categories, marked nil, do not mean there is no research represented in the categories. International literature was not sought out during our searches for this project but has been included as it has arisen in the course of the project. 6.1 General Alba, Richard D., Logan, J.R. and Crowder, K. 1997. ‘White Ethnic Neighbourhoods and Assimilation: The Greater New York Region, 1980-1990’. Social Forces, 75, 3, 883-912. Archibugi, Daniele, Held, David and Kohler, Martin. 1998. Re-Imagining Political Community: Studies In Cosmopolitan Democracy. Oxford: Polity. Bade, Klaus and Myron Weiner. 1997. Migration Past, Migration Future: Germany and The United States. Providence: Berghahn. Bankson, Carl L., III and Zhou, Min. 1997. ‘The Social Adjustment Of Vietnamese American Adolescents: Evidence For A Segmented Assimilation Approach’. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 2, 508-523. Banton, Michael. 1999. ‘National Integration and Ethnic Violence In Western Europe’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 1, Jan, 5-20. Blotevogel, H.H and Fielding, A.J. (Eds). 1997. People, Jobs and Mobility In The New Europe. Chichester: Wiley. Body-Gendrot, Sophie and Martiniello, Marco (Eds). 2000. Minorities In European Cities: The Dynamics Of Social Integration and Social Exclusion At The Neighbourhood Level. London: Macmillan. Boyle, Paul, Halfacree, Keith and Robinson, Vaughan. 1998. Exploring Contemporary Migration. London: Longman. Brubaker, Rogers. 1998. ‘Research Note: Migrations Of Ethnic Unmixing In The New Europe’. International Migration Review, 32, 4, 1047-1065. Castles, Stephen. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalisation: From Migrant Workers To Transnational Citizens. London: Sage. Castles, Stephen and Miller, Mark. 1998. The Age Of Migration: International Population and Movements In The Modern World. 2nd Edition. London: Macmillan.

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Cesarani, David and Fulbrook, Mary (Eds). 1996. Citizenship, Nationality and Migration In Europe. London: Routledge. Cohen, Robin. 1997. Global Diasporas. London: UCL Press. Coughlan, James E. 1998. ‘Occupational Mobility In Australia’s Vietnamese Community: Its Direction and Human Capital Determinants’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 175-202. Dewind , Josh and Kasinitz, Philip. 1997. ‘Everything Old Is New Again? Processes and Theories Of Immigrant Incorporation’. International Migration Review, 31(4)1096-1111. Faist, Thomas. 2000a. The Volume and Dynamics Of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Faist, Thomas. 2000b. ‘Transnationalization In International Migration: Implications For The Study Of Citizenship and Culture’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 2, Mar, 189-222. Fleras, Augie and Elliott, Jean Leonard. 1996. Unequal Relations: An Introduction To Race, Ethnic and Aboriginal Dynamics In Canada. Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice Hall. Gans, Herbert J. 1997. ‘Toward A Reconciliation Of ‘Assimilation’ and ‘Pluralism’: The Interplay Of Acculturation and Ethnic Retention’. International Migration Review, 31, 4, 875-892. Gearty, Conor A. 1999. ‘The Internal and External ‘Other’ In The Union Legal Order: Racism, Religious Intolerance and Xenophobia In Europe’. In Philip Alston (Ed.). The EU and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geddes, andrew and Favell, Adrian. 1999. The Politics Of Belonging: Migrants and Minorities In Contemporary Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. Hammar, Tomas, Brochmann, Grete, Tamas, Kristof and Faist, Thomas (Eds). 1997. International Migration, Immobility and Development. Oxford: Berg. Hansen, Randall and Weil, Patrick (Eds). 2000. Towards A European Nationality? London: Macmillan. Herbert, Alicia and Kempson, Elaine. 1996. Credit use and ethnic minorities. PSI research report 818. London: Policy Studies Institute.

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Modood, Tariq and Werbner, Pnina (Eds). 1997. The Politics Of Multiculturalism In The New Europe: Racism, Identity, and Community. London: Zed Books. Phinney, J.S. 1996. ‘When we talk about American groups, what do we mean?’ American Psychologist, 51, 9, 918-927. Piper, Nicola. 1998. Racism, Nationalism and Citizenship: Ethnic Minorities In Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate. Rex, John. 1996. Ethnic Minorities In The Modern Nation State: Working Papers In The Theory Of Muticulturalism and Political Integration. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Rumbaut, Rubén G. 1997. ‘Paradoxes (and Orthodoxies) Of Assimilation’. Sociological Perspectives, 40, 3, 483-511. Sassen, Saskia. 1999. Guests and Aliens. New York: New Press. Thalhammer, Eva, Zucha, V., Enzenhofer, E., Salfinger, B. and Ogris, G. 2001. Attitudes Towards Minority Groups In The European Union: A Special Analysis Of The Eurobarometer 2000 Survey. Vienna: European Monitoring Centre On Racism and Xenophobia. Waldinger, Roger David and Bozorgmehr, Mehdi (Eds). 1996. Ethnic Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage. Werbner, Pnina and Modood, Tariq. 1997. Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and The Politics Of Anti-Racism. London: Zed Books. Wiener, Antje. 1998. ‘European’ Citizenship Practice: Building Institutions Of A NonState. Boulder: Westview Press. Wrench, John, Rea, andrea and Ouali, Nouria (Eds). 2000. Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and The Labour Market. London: Macmillan. Zhou, Min. 1997. ‘Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research On The New Second Generation’. International Migration Review, 31, 4, 9751008. 6.2 Education and Training Bulmer, Martin and Solomos, John. 1996. ‘Introduction: Race, Ethnicity and the Curriculum’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 4, 777-788.

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German, Gerry. 1996. ‘Anti-Racist Strategies for Educational Performance: Facilitating Successful Learning for All Children’. Kedar N. Dwivedi and Ved P. Varma, (Eds.), Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children: a Handbook for Professionals, 49-62. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Green, Judith M. 1998. ‘Educational Multiculturalism, Critical Pluralism and Deep Democracy’. Cynthia Willet, (Ed.), Theorizing Multiculturalism: A guide to the current debate, 422-447. Oxford: Blackwell. Zoccatelli, Barbara. 1996. ‘Between Tolerance and Integration: Islamic Schools in Great Britain and the Netherlands’. La Critica Sociologica, 119, Oct-Dec, 53-67. 6.3 Labour Market Blotevogel, H.H. and Fielding, A.J. (Eds). 1997. People, Jobs and Mobility In The New Europe. Chichester: Wiley. Castles, Stephen. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalisation: From Migrant Workers To Transnational Citizens. London: Sage. Castles, Stephen and Davidson, Alastair. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and The Politics Of Belonging. Houndmills: Macmillan. Coughlan, James E. 1998. ‘Occupational Mobility In Australia’s Vietnamese Community: Its Direction and Human Capital Determinants’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 175-202. Eddy, S.W. Ng and Tung, Rosalie L.. 1998. ‘Ethno-Cultural Diversity and Organizational Effectiveness: a Field Study’. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9, 6, December, 980-995. Liff, Sonia, 1997. ‘Two Routes to Managing Diversity: individual differences or social group characteristics’. Employee Relations , 19, 1, 11-26. Oc, T. and Tiesdell, S. 1999. ‘Supporting ethnic minority business: a review of business support for ethnic minorities in city challenge areas’. Urban studies, 36, 10, Sep., 1723-1746. Phizacklea, Annie and Ram, Monder. 1996. ‘Being Your Own Boss: Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurs in Comparative Perspective’. Work, Employment and Society, 10, 2, June, 319-339. Reitz, Jeffrey G., Frick, J.R., Calabrese, T. and Wagner, G.C. 1999. ‘The Institutional Framework of Ethnic Employment Disadvantage: A Comparison of Germany and Canada’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 3, July, 397-443.

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Valentine, Sean R. 2001. ‘A Path Analysis of Gender, Race and Job Complexity as Determinants of Intention to Look for Work’. Employee Relations, 23, 2, 130145. Wrench, John, Rea, andrea and Ouali, Nouria (Eds). 2000. Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and The Labour Market. London: Macmillan. 6.4 Health Avlund, Kirsten, Luck, Mike and Tinsley, Rob. 1996. ‘Cultural Differences in Functional Ability among Elderly People in Birmingham, England, and Glostrup, Denmark’. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 11, 1, Mar, 1-16. Bhugra, Dinesh. 1997. ‘Setting Up Psychiatric Services: Cross-cultural Issues in Planning and Delivery’. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 43, 1, spring, 1628. Chapman, N. 1999. ‘Cardiology − Hypertension: diagnosis and management in ethnic minorities’. Geriatric Medicine, 29, 11, 43-47. van Duifhuizen, Rinske. 1996. ‘HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes for Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Europe: A Challenge for Policy Makers, NGOs and Health Educatiors’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.), Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 118-135. London: Taylor and Francis. Gill, P. and Adshead, D. 1996. ‘Teaching cultural aspects of health: a vital part of communication’. Medical Teacher, 18, 1, 61-4. Loewenthal, K. M. and Bradley, C. 1996. ‘Immunization uptake and doctors’ perceptions of uptake in a minority group: implications for interventions’. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 1, 2, 223-230. O’Brien, Oonagh and Khan, Shivananda. 1996. ‘Stigma and Racism as they Affect Minority Ethnic Communities’. Mary Haour-Knipe and Richard Rector, (Eds.) Crossing Borders: Migration, Ethnicity and AIDS, 102-117. London: Taylor and Francis. Smith, Marcia Bayne. 1999. ‘Primary Care: Choices and Opportunities for Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the USA and UK − A Comparative Analysis’. Ethnicity & Health, 4, 3, Aug, 165-188. Zenilman, J. M. 1998. ‘Ethnicity and sexually transmitted infections’. Current Opinion In Infectious Diseases, 11, 1, 47-52.

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6.5 Housing Nil 6.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Belonging, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation Castles, Stephen and Davidson, Alastair. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and The Politics Of Belonging. Houndmills: Macmillan. Geddes, andrew and Favell, Adrian. 1999. The Politics Of Belonging: Migrants and Minorities In Contemporary Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. Modood, Tariq and Werbner, Pnina (Eds). 1997. The Politics Of Multiculturalism In The New Europe: Racism, Identity, and Community. London: Zed Books. Vertovec, Steve and Peach, Ceri (Eds). 1998. Islam In Europe: The Politics Of Religion and Community. London: Macmillan. Werbner, Pnina and Modood, Tariq. 1997. Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and The Politics Of Anti-Racism. London: Zed Books. 6.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation Bousetta, Hassan. 1997. ‘Citizenship and Political Participation In France and The Netherlands: Reflections On Two Local Cases’. New Community, 23, 2,.215-232. Fennema, Meindert and Tillie Jean. 1999. ‘Political Participation and Political Trust In Amsterdam: Civic Communities and Ethnic Networks’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25,4, 703-726. Rex, John. 1996. Ethnic Minorities In The Modern Nation State: Working Papers In The Theory Of Muticulturalism and Political Integration. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Togeby, Lise. 1999. ‘Migrants At The Polls: An Analysis Of Immigrant and Refugee Participation In Danish Local Elections’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 4, 665-684. 6.8 Women and Gender Ackers, Louise. 1998. Shifting Spaces: Women, Citizenship and Migration Within The European Union. London: The Policy Press.

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6.9 Family and Children Nil 6.10 Justice and Legal System Gearty, Conor A. 1999. ‘The Internal and External ‘Other’ In The Union Legal Order: Racism, Religious Intolerance and Xenophobia In Europe’. In Philip Alston (Ed.). The EU and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Waldrauch, Harald and Cristoph Hofinger. 1997. “An Index To Measure The Legal Obstacles To The Integration Of Migrants”. New Community, 23, 2, 271-285. 6.11 Welfare and Social Policy Nil 6.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, and Migration and Settlement Policies Fysh, Peter and Wolfreys, Jim. 1998. The Politics Of Racism In France. Houndmills: Macmillan. Gearty, Conor A. 1999. ‘The Internal and External ‘Other’ In The Union Legal Order: Racism, Religious Intolerance and Xenophobia In Europe’. Philip Alston (Ed.). The EU and Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Modood, Tariq and Werbner, Pnina (Eds). 1997. The Politics Of Multiculturalism In The New Europe: Racism, Identity, and Community. London: Zed Books. Piper, Nicola. 1998. Racism, Nationalism and Citizenship: Ethnic Minorities In Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate. Wal, Jessika and Verkuyten, Maykel (Eds). 2000. Comparative Perspectives On Racism. London: Ashgate. Waldrauch, Harald and Hofinger, Cristoph. 1997. “An Index To Measure The Legal Obstacles To The Integration Of Migrants”. New Community, 23, 2, 271-285. Vasta, Ellie and Castles, Stephen (Eds). 1996. The Teeth are Smiling: perspectives on racism in Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

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6.13 Cirtizenship and Multiculturalism Ackers, Louise. 1998. Shifting Spaces: Women, Citizenship and Migration Within The European Union. London: The Policy Press. Baubock, Rainer and Rundell, John (Eds). 1998. Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity and Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate. Bousetta, Hassan. 1997. ‘Citizenship and Political Participation In France and The Netherlands: Reflections On Two Local Cases’. New Community, 23, 2, 215-232. Castles, Stephen. 2000. Ethnicity and Globalisation: From Migrant Workers To Transnational Citizens. London: Sage. Castles, Stephen and Davidson, Alastair. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and The Politics Of Belonging. Houndmills: Macmillan. Cesarani, David and Fulbrook, Mary (Eds). 1996. Citizenship, Nationality and Migration In Europe. London: Routledge. Hansen, Randall and Weil, Patrick (Eds). 2000. Towards A European Nationality? London: Macmillan. Piper, Nicola. 1998. Racism, Nationalism and Citizenship: Ethnic Minorities In Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate. Torpey, John. 2000. The Invention Of The Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and The State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Weiner, Myron and Hanami, Tadashi. 1998. Temporary Workers Or Future Citizens? Japanese and US Migration Policies. Houndmills: Macmillan. Werbner, Pnina and Modood,Tariq. 1997. Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and The Politics Of Anti-Racism. London: Zed Books. Wiener, Antje. 1998. ‘European’ Citizenship Practice: Building Institutions Of A Non-State. Boulder: Westview Press. Vasta, Ellie. 2000. Citizenship, Community and Democracy, London: Macmillan. 6.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion

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Body-Gendrot, Sophie and Marco Martiniello (Eds). 2000. Minorities In European Cities: The Dynamics Of Social Integration and Social Exclusion At The Neighbourhood Level. London: Macmillan. 6.15 Government Documents and Evaluation Nil

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PART III − REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 [SELECTED READINGS] 1. Immigrants − UK Aldrich, H., Cater, J., Jones, T. and McEvoy, D. (1981) “Business development and selfsegregation: Asian enterprise in three British cities” in C. Peach, V. Robinson and S. Smith (Eds) Ethnic Segregation in Cities Croom Helm, London. Almas, T. 1992. ‘After Recruitment: putting the preparation and training of Asian carers on the agenda’, Adoption and Fostering, 16, 3. anderson, Bridget. 1993. Britain’s Secret Slaves: An Investigation Into The Plight Of Overseas Domestic Workers In The United Kingdom. London: Anti-Slavery International. Baker, C. and Arseneault, A.M. and Gallant, G. 1994. ‘Resettlement without the support of an ethnocultural community’ in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20: 1064-72. Baker, P., Hussain, Z. and Saunders, J. 1991. Interpreters in Public Services. Birmingham: Venture Press. Ballard, Roger (Ed). 1994. Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain. Hurst. Banton, M. 1994. Discrimination. Buckingham: Open University Press. Berry, J.W. 1980. ‘Acculturation as varieties of adaptation’, A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, Models, and Some New Findings. Boulder, CO: Westview. Bhachu, Parminder. 1993. ‘Identities Constructed and Reconstructed : Representations of Asian Women in Britain’. Gina Buijs (Ed.), Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, 99 - 117. Oxford: Berg. Bhatti, N. et al. 1995. ‘Increasing incidence of TB in England and Wales: a study of the likely causes’, British Medical Journal, 310: 967-9. Bhavnani, R. 1994. Black Women in the Labour Market: A Research Review. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission. Bloch, A. 1994. Refugees and Migrants In Newham: Access To Services. London: London Borough Of Newham. Booth, H. 1992. Migration Processes In Britain and West Germany. Aldershot: Avebury.

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Brewin, C. 1980. ‘Explaining The Lower Rates Of Psychiatric Treatment Among Asian Immigrants To The United Kingdom: A Preliminary Study’. Social Psychiatry, 15, 17-19. Byron, M. 1994. Unfinished Cycle: Post-War Caribbean Migration To Britain. Avebury: Edward Elgar. CARF/SR. 1981. Southall: The birth of a black community. IRR and Southall Rights, London. Cesarani, David and Kushner, Tony (Eds). 1993. The Internment of Aliens in Twentieth Century Britain. London: Frank Cass & Co Ltd. Cheng, Yuan. 1994. Education and Class: Chinese In Britain and The United States. Aldershot: Avebury. Cochrane, R., Hashmi, F. and Stopes-Roe, M.. 1977. ‘Measuring Psychological Disturbance In Asian Immigrants To Britain’. Social Science and Medicine, 2, 157-164. Cohen, S., Hayes, D., Humphries, B. and Sime, C. 1995. The Report of a Survey of NHS Trusts and GP Practices in Greater Manchester and Inner London, on the Implementation of the NHS (Overseas Visitors) Rules. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. Coleman, David. 1994. ‘The United Kingdom and International Migration: A Changing Balance’. Heinz Fassmann and Rainer Munz, (Eds.) European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century: Historical Patterns, Actual Trends, and Social Implications, 37-66. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. Connolly, P. 1995. ‘Racism, masculine peer-group relations and the schooling of African/Caribbean infant boys’. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16, 1, 75-92. Corsellis, A. and Crichton, J. 1994. ‘Crossing the language and culture barrier: why we need a training scheme for specialist skills’. Psychiatric Care, Nov/Dec. Cross, M. and Wilpert, C. 1988. ‘Ethnic Minority Youth In A Collapsing Labour Market: The UK Experience’. C.Wilpert (Ed.). Entering The Working Worlds: Following The Descendants Of Europe's Immigrant Labour Force. Aldershot: Gower. D’Alessio, V. 1993. ‘Culture Clash: young Asian women commit suicide more than three times as often as young women of British origin’. Nursing Times, 89, 38, 16-17.

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Dummett, Ann. 1994. Acquisition of British Citizenship. From Imperial Traditions to National Definitions. Rainer Baubock, (Ed.) From Aliens to Citizens: Redefining the Status of Immigrants in Europe, 75-84. Public Policy and Social Welfare vol.17. Aldershot: Avebury. Dummett, Ann. 1995. British Migration Policy in the Twentieth Century. David Lowe, (Ed.) Immigration and Integration: Australia and Britain, 97-103. Carlton and London: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research (Australia) and Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies (London). El-Solh, Camillia Fawzi. 1993. ‘Be True To Your Culture: Gender Tensions Among Somali Muslims In Britain’. Immigrants & Minorities, 12, 1, 21-46. Fielding, Anthony J. 1995. ‘Migration and Social Change: A Longitudinal Study of the Social Mobility of Immigrants in England and Wales’, European Journal Of Population, 11, 107-121. Freeman, Gary. 1992. ‘The Consequences Of Immigration Politics For Immigrant Status: A British and French Comparison’. In A. Messina et al. Ethnic and Racial Minorities In Advanced Industrial Democracies. London: Greenwood Press. Gilbert, Victor Francis and Tatla, Darshan Singh. 1986. Immigrants, Minorities and Race Relations: A Bibliography Of Theses and Dissertations Presented At British and Irish Universities, 1900-1981. London: Frank Cass. Gilroy, P. 1982. ‘Steppin’ out of Babylon − Race, Class and Autonomy’. CCCS The Empire Strikes Back Hutchinson, London. Gordon, Paul. 1985. Policing Immigration: Britain’s Internal Controls. London: Pluto Press Ltd. Halfacree, K., Flowerdew, R.T.N. and Johnson, J.H. 1992. ‘The Characteristics Of British Migrants In The 1990s’. Geographical Journal, 158, 2, 157-169. Hall, Peter et al. 1993. ‘Release For The Captives: Report Of A Conference On The Detention Of Immigrants and Asylum-Seekers In Britain’. Westminster: Churches Commission For Racial Justice. Hawkes, Nicolas. 1966. Immigrant Children In British Schools. London: Institute Of Race Relations. Heisler, Barbara Schmitter. 1992. ‘The Future of Immigrant Incorporation: Which Models: Which Concepts?’ International Migration Review, XXVI, 2, 623-645. Holmes, Colin. 1991. Tolerant Country: Immigrants, Refugees and Minorities In Britain. London: Faber.

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Johnson, M.R.D. and Shaw, A. 1995. ‘Centres and Archives For The Study Of Communities Of Migrant Origin In Britain’. Migrance, 16. Joly, Danièle. 1987. ‘Associations Amongst The Pakistani Populations In Britain’. In John Rex (Ed.). Immigrant Associations In Europe. Aldershot: Gower. Kelly, A.J.D. and Liebkind, K. 1989. ‘Ethnic Identification, Association and ReDefinition: Muslim, Pakistanis and Greek Cypriots In Britain’. In K. Liebkind (Ed.). New Identities In Europe: Immigrant Ancestry and The Ethnic Identity Of Youth. London: Gower. King, Russel. 1978. ‘Work and Residence Patterns of Italian Immigrants in Great Britain’. International Migration, XVI, 2, 74-82. Lambeth Council. 1988. Forty Winters On: Memories Of Britain’s Post War Caribbean Immigrants. Lambeth. Layton-Henry, Zig. 1985. ‘Great Britain.’ Tomas Hammar, (Ed), European Immigration Policy: A Comparative Study, 89-126. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Macdonald, Ian A. and Blake, Nicholas J. 1991. Immigration Law and Practice In The United Kingdom. 3rd Ed. London: Butterworths. Miles, Robert. 1989. ‘Migration Discourse in Post−1945 British Politics’, Migration, 6, 29-53 Miles, Robert and Cleary, Paula. 1994. ‘Britain : Post-Colonial Migration In Context’. In Thranhardt, D. (Ed). Europe - A New Immigration Continent, 120-144. Lit Verlag Books. OPCS. 1993. 1991 Census: Ethnic Group and Country of Birth (Great Britain). HMSO, London. Ormerod, L.P. 1990. ‘Tuberculosis screening and prevention in new immigrants 198388’. Respiratory Medicine, 84, 269-71. Peach, Ceri. 1991. The Caribbean in Europe: Contrasting Pattern of Migration and Settlement in Britain, France and the Netherlands. Research Paper in Ethnic Relations 15, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick. Raftery, J., Jones, D.R. and Rosato, M. 1990. ‘Mortality Of First and Second Generation Irish Immigrants In The UK’. Social Science and Medicine, 31, .5, 577-584. Rex, John. 1992. ‘The Integration Of Muslim Immigrants In Britain’. Innovation In Social Science Research, 5, 3, 91-108.

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Rex, John and Tomlinson, Sally. 1979. Colonial Immigrants In A British City: A Class Analysis. London: Routledge. Roberts, K., Connolly M. and Parsell, G. 1992. ‘Black Youth in the Liverpool Labour Market’. New Community, 18, 2 . Rocheron, Y. and Dickinson, R. 1990. ‘The Asian Mother and Baby Campaign: A Way forward in Health promotion for Asian Women?’ Health Education Journal, 49, 3, 128-33. Salt, John. 1995. ‘Foreign Labour Immigration and the UK’. David Lowe, (Ed.) Immigration and Integration: Australia and Britain, 133-154. Carlton and London: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research (Australia) and Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies (London). Spencer, Sarah (Ed.). 1994. Strangers and Citizens: A Positive Approach To Migrants and Refugees. London: IPPR. Stopes-Roe, M. and Cochrane, R. 1980. ‘Mental Health and Integration: A Comparison Of Indian, Pakistani and Irish Immigrants To England’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 3, 3, 316-341. Strachan, D.P., Leon, D.A and Dodgeon, B. 1995. ‘Mortality From Cardiovascular Disease Among Interregional Migrants In England and Wales.’ British Medical Journal, 310, 423-427. Summerfield, Hazel. 1993. ‘Patterns Of Adaptation: Somali and Bangladeshi Women In Britain.’ Gina Buijs (Ed.). Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities. Berg. 83-98. Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth M. 1994. Impact Of Migration In The Receiving Countries: The United Kingdom. Geneva: Committee For International Cooperation In National Research In Demography and International Organisation For Migration. Troyna, B. and Siraj-Blatchford, I. 1993. ‘Providing support or denying access? The experiences of students designated as ESL and SN in a multi-ethnic secondary school’. Educational Review, 45, 1, 3-11. Watson, James L. (Ed.). 1984. Between Two Cultures: Migrants and Minorities In Britain. Blackwell Weil, Patrick and Crowley, John. 1994. ‘Integration in Theory and Practice: A Comparison of France and Britain’. West European Politics, 17, 2, 110-126.

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Werbner, P. 1990a. ‘Renewing An Industrial Part: British Pakistani Entrepreneurship In Manchester.’ Migration, 8,90, 1-39. Werbner, Pnina. 1990b. The Migration Process: Capital, Gifts and Offerings Among British Pakistanis. New York and Oxford: Berg. Werbner, P. and Donnan, H. 1991. ‘Factionalism and Violence In British Pakistani Politics’. H. Donnan and P. Werbner (Eds). Economy and Culture In Pakistan: Migrants and Cities In A Muslim Society. London: Macmillan. Wong, Grace and Raymond Cochrane. 1989. ‘Generation and Assimilation As Predictors Of Psychological Well-Being In British-Chinese’. Social Behaviour, 4, 1, 1-14. Zegers de Beijl, R. 1991. Although equal before the law... The scope of antidiscrimination legislation and its effects on labour market discrimination against migrant workers in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden. Geneva: International Labour Office. 2. Refugees − UK Al-Rasheed, M. 1994. ‘The Myth of Return: Iraqi Arab and Assyrian Refugees in London’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 7, 2/3: 199-219. Asylum Aid. 1993. Who Are We?: Experiences Of Iraqi Refugees In The UK and The Government’s Official Response. London: Asylum Aid. Awiah, J. 1992. Refugees and The National Health Service. Health and Ethnicity Programme. London: North West and North East Thames Regional Health Authorities. Balloch, S. 1993. Refugees In The Inner City: A Study Of Refugees and Service Provision In The London Borough Of Lewisham. London: Centre For Inner City Studies, Goldsmith College, University Of London. Bang, Suzanne and Finlay, Rosalind. 1987. Working To Support Refugees: A Report Of A Training Project To Prepare Vietnamese & Chinese Field Staff To Work With People From Vietnam Resettled In The UK. Oakwood, Derby: Refugee Action. Bloch, A. 1994. Refugees and Migrants In Newham: Access To Services. London: London Borough Of Newham. Bracken, P. and Gorst-Unsworth, C. 1991. ‘The mental state of detained asylum seekers’ Psychiatric Bulletin, 15: 657-9.

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British Refugee Council. 1988a. Refugee Agencies Call For a Fair and Just System For People Seeking Asylum in Britain. London: Bondway House. British Refugee Council. 1988b. Working For Success: a Unique Training and Workexperience Scheme For Refugees in Britain. London: BRC. Browne, Ann. 1979. ‘Latin American Refugees : British Government Policy and Practice’. In Britain and Latin America: An Annual Review Of British-Latin American Relations, 28-49. Latin American Bureau. Buckley, Colin. 1993. Safe Havens: What Housing Associations Can Do To Assist Asylum Seekers. A Report for The London Federation Of Housing Associations. London: London Federation Of Housing Assocations. Chile Democratico. 1991. A Proposal for the Resettlement of Chilean Refugees (Over 50s) Living in Britain. Chile Democratico and Committee for the Return to Chile. Clinton-Davis, L. and Fassil, Y. 1992. ‘Health and social problems of refugees’, Social Science and Medicine, 35, 4, 507-13. Cohen, R. 1994. Frontiers Of Identity: The British and The Others. London: Longman. Connelly, Maureen. 1983. Refugees and Asylum-seekers: Proposals For Policy Changes. United Kingdom Immigrants Advisory Service (UKIAS) Refugee Unit. Cross, M., Wrench, J., and Barnett, S. (1990) Ethnic Minorities and the Careers Service: An Investigation into Processes of Assessment and Placement. Department of Employment Research Paper No.73, London. Dalglish, Carol. 1989. Refugees From Vietnam. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Dane, Penny. 1987. Lessons For a New Beginning: Report of an Education Programme For Refugee Adults in a UK Reception Centre. Refugee Action. Department of Employment. 1992. Ten Point Plan for Employers. Department of Employment, London. Dick, B. 1984. ‘Diseases of Refugees − Causes, effects and control, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 78: 734-41. Duke, K. and T. Marshall. 1995. Vietnamese Refugees Since 1982. London: Home Office. Edholm, Felicity, Roberts, Helen and Sayer, Judith. 1983. Vietnamese Refugees in Britain. London: Commission For Racial Equality.

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Elbedour, S., Bensel, R. and Bastien, D. 1993. ‘Ecological Integrated Model of Children of War’ in Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 805-819. Elliott, Charles. 1982. Real Aid: a Strategy For Britain: Report of The Independent Group on British Aid. London: the Independent Group on British Aid. Etchegaray, Roger. 1992. ‘Refugees: A Challenge To Solidarity, Briefings: The Bishops’ Conferences Of Great Britain, 22, 20, 8-14. Finlay, Rosalind and Reynolds, Jill . 1987. Social Work and Refugees: A Handbook On Working With People In Exile In The UK. Cambridge: National Extension College and Refugee Action. Forbes-Martin, S. 1992. Refugee Women, London, Zed Press. Grosser, Kate and Sakho, Helen. 1970. Educating Nita: Education For Refugees In The UK. Third World First. Hale, Samantha. 1993. ‘The Reception and Resettlement Of Vietnamese Refugees In Britain’. In V. Robinson (Ed.). The International Refugee Crisis: British & Canadian Responses, 273 - 292. Macmillan. Hassan, Mohamed Rashid. 1986. Study On Unemployment Of African Refugees In Britain and The Role Of The Community Programme Sponsored By The British Refugee Council. World University Service UK. Hitchcox, L. 1986 ‘Some thoughts on assimilation and the resettlement of Vietnamese refugees in Britain,’ Amnesty International 2,1, 18-27. Hoch, P.K. 1985. ‘No Utopia: Refugee Scholars in Britain, History Today, November, 53-56. Holmes, Colin. 1991. Tolerant Country : Immigrants, Refugees and Minorities In Britain. London: Faber. Home Office. 1986. Home Office Statistical Bulletin: Refugee Statistics, United Kingdom, 1985. Home Office Statistical Department. Home Office. 1989. Refugee Statistics, United Kingdom, 1988. London: Government Statistical Service. House Of Commons. 1989a. Foreign Affairs Committee Hong Kong Winter Supplementary Estimates 1989-1990: Vietnamese Boat People. Minutes Of Evidence, Wednesday 13 December 1989. HMSO.

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Glazer, Nathan and Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. 1963. Beyond The Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish Of New York City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gordon, Milton M. 1964. Assimilation In American Life: The Role Of Race, Religion and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press. Gould, M. 1991. ‘The Reproduction of Labour-Market Discrimination in Competitive Capitalism’ in Zegeye, A., Harris, L. and Maxted, J. (Eds) Exploitation and Exclusion: Race and Class in Contemporary US Society. Hans Zell, London. Grice, S. and Humphries, M. 1993. ‘Managing Diversity. A wolf in sheeps clothing?’ in J. Collins (Ed) Confronting Racism in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Volume 1. Sydney: University of Technology, Faculty of Business. Gross, andrew B. and Douglas S. Massey. 1991. ‘Spatial Assimilation Models: A MicroMacro Comparison’. Social Science Quarterly, 72, 2, 347-360. Jenkins, R. and Solomos, J. 1987. Racism and Equal Opportunity Policies in the 1980s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Katz, J. 1978. White Awareness: Handbook for anti-racism training. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory Of Minority Rights. Oxford: Claredon Press. Layton-Henry, Zig (Ed.). 1990. Political Rights Of Migrant Workers In Western Europe. London: Sage. Levinson, David. 1994. Ethnic Relations: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. MacEwen, M. 1995. Tackling Racism in Europe. Oxford: Berg. Mason, D. 1994. ‘Employment and the Labour Market’ New Community, 20, 2. Massey, Douglas. 1985. ‘Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Theoretical Synthesis and Empirical Review’. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 3. Modgil, Sohan et al. 1986. Multiculturalism: The Interminable Debate. London: Falmer.

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Nairn, Tom. 1994. ‘Is “Black” An Exportable Category To Mainland Europe?: Race and Citizenship In A European Context’. In John Rex and B. Drury (Eds). Ethnic Mobilisation In A Multicultural Europe. Aldershot: Avebury. Nozick, R. 1974. Anarchy, the State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books. Padilla, A. 1980. ‘The role of cultural awareness and ethnic loyalty in acculturation’, A. Padilla (Ed.) Acculturation: Theory, Models, and Some New Findings. Boulder, CO: Westview. Portes, A. and L. Jensen. 1989. ‘The Enclave and The Entrants: Patterns Of Ethnic Enterprise In Miami Before and After Mariel’, American Sociological Review, 54, 6, 929-949. Rex, John. 1996. Ethnic Minorities In The Modern Nation State. London: Macmillan. Rex, John and Beatrice Drury (Eds). 1994. Ethnic Mobilisation In A Multi-Cultural Europe. Aldershot: Avebury. Sassen, Saskia. 1991. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Smith, S.J. 1989. The Politics of ‘Race’ and Residence, Cambridge: Polity. Spinner, Jeff. 1994. The Boundaries Of Citizenship: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality In The Liberal State. Baltimore: Johns Jopkins University Press. Soininen, M. and Graham, M. 1995. Persuasion Contra Legislation: Preventing Racism at the Workplace. European Foundation for Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin. Thomas, R.Roosevelt Jnr. 1990. ‘From Affirmative Action to Affirming Diversity’. Harvard Business Review, March/April. Waldinger, R. 1993. ‘The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited’, International Journal Of Urban and Regional Research, 17, 3, 444-452.

185

PART IV. ASYLUM SEEKERS [selected readings] 1. Asylum Seekers Ayotte, Wendy. 1998. Supporting Unaccompanied Children In The Asylum Process. London: Save The Children. Bamford, Terry. 1998. Asylum is a Dirty Word. Professional Social Work, September, 6. Bank, R. 2000. ‘Reception Conditions For Asylum Seekers In Europe: An Analysis Of Provisions In Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and The United Kingdom’. Nordic Journal Of International Law, 69, 3, 257-288. Barer, Robin et al. 1999. Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Studies In London. London: London Research Centre. Bartlett, Peter and Wright, David. 1999. Outside The Walls Of The Asylum: The History Of Care In The Community 1750-2000. London: Athlone Press. Blake, Nicholas and Fransman, Laurie. 1999. Immigration, Nationality and Asylum Under The Human Rights Act 1998. London: Butterworths. Brewin, Michael and Demetriades, Athy. 1998. Raising The Profile Of Invisible Students: Practical and Peer-Led Approaches To Enhancing Educational and Emotional Support For Refugee and Asylum Seeking Children In Schools. London: Children Of The Storm. Bunce, C. 1997a. ‘Doctors complain about treatment of asylum seekers in Britain’. British Medical Journal, 314, 396. Bunce, C. 1997b. ‘Psychiatrists plan network to help asylum seekers’, British Medical Journal, 314, 535. Burnett, A. and Peel, M. 2001a. ‘Asylum Seekers and Refugees In Britain: Health Needs Of Asylum Seekers and Refugees’. British Medical Journal, 322, 7285, 544-547. Burnett, A. and Peel, M. 2001b. ‘Asylum Seekers and Refugees In Britain: The Health Of Survivors Of Torture and Organised Violence’. British Medical Journal, 322; 7286, 606-609. Burnett, A. and Peel, M. 2001c. ‘Asylum Seekers and Refugees In Britain: What Brings Asylum Seekers To The United Kingdom?’. British Medical Journal, 322; 7284, 485-488.

186

Carter, Mary. 1996. Poverty and Prejudice: A Preliminary Report On The Withdrawal Of Benefit Entitlement and The Impact Of The Asylum and Immigration Bill. London : Commission For Racial Equality and Refugee Council. Chapman, Nigel. 1999. Detention Of Asylum Seekers In The UK: The Social Work Response. Social Work Monographs Series. Norwich: School Of Social Work, University Of East Anglia. Cohen, Steve. 1996. Another Brick In The Wall: The 1996 Asylum and Immigration Bill. Manchester: Greater Manchester Immigration Aid Unit. Coker, Jane et al. 1996. Asylum Seekers: A Guide To Recent Legislation. (Includes A Directory Of London-Based Services For Refugees and Asylum Seekers.) London: Resource Information Service. Crawley, Heaven. 1997. Women As Asylum Seekers: A Legal Handbook. London: Refugee Action. Dunstan, Richard. 1996. Slamming The Door: The Demolition Of The Right To Asylum In The United Kingdom. London: Amnesty International. Ellery, Simon, 1996. ‘Ruling plunges asylum law into chaos’. Inside Housing, 11 October 1996, 1 Ellery, Simon and Combes, Rebecca. 1996. ‘High Court’s Double Blow to Asylum Policy’. Inside Housing, 28 June 1996, p. 2. Ellis, Rachael. 1998. Asylum-Seekers and Immigration Act Prisoners: The Practice Of Detention. London: Prison Reform Trust. Feria-Tinta, M.and Doebbler, C. F. 1999. ‘Surviving The Asylum Process In The United Kingdom: Destitute Asylum Seekers and Their Rights Under International Human Rights Law’. Tolleys Immigration and Nationality Law and Practice, 13, 2, 5062. Ferriman, A. 1997. ‘Justice Denied: The Plight Of Asylum Seekers In The UK’. CJM, 29, 26. Fiddick, Jane. 1999. ‘Immigration and Asylum’. Research Paper, No.99/16. London: House Of Commons Library. Garvie, D. 2001. ‘Welcome to Britain? One In Five Asylum Seekers Is Living In Slum Conditions’. Chartered Institute Of Housing, Feb., 22-24. Grimes, A. and Tennant, V. 1999. ‘Immigration and Asylum Issues In Northern Ireland’. Tolleys Immigration and Nationality Law and Practice, 13, 3, 92-95.

187

Hansen, Randell (Ed.). 1996. The Decline Of Asylum: Citizenship, Migration and Statelessness In Contemporary Europe. Oxford International Review, Special Issue. Oxford. Hargreaves, S. 1999. ‘Health-Care Provision For Asylum Seekers and Refugees In The UK’. Lancet. 9163, 1497. Harvey, C. 1997. ‘Restructuring Asylum: Recent Trends In United Kingdom Asylum Law and Policy’. International Journal Of Refugee Law, 9, 1, 60-73. Harvey, Colin. 2000. Seeking Asylum In The UK: Problems and Prospects. Law In Context Series. London: Butterworths. Hassan, L. 2000. ‘Deterrence Measures and The Preservation Of Asylum In The United Kingdom and The United States’. Journal Of Refugee Studies, 13, 2, 184-204. Havinga, Tetty and Bocker, A. 1999. ‘Country Of Asylum By Choice Or By Chance: Asylum-Seekers In Belgium, The Netherlands and The UK’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25, 1, Jan, 43-61. Henderson, Mark. 1997. Best Practice Guide To Asylum Appeals. London: Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association. Hudson, D. 1996. ‘Persecuted At Home: Excluded In The UK: The Impact Of The Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 On The Education, Training and Employment Prospects Of Asylum Seekers and Refugees’. Language Issues, 8, 2, 22-23. Jobbins, D. 1997. ‘The Impact of the Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 on the health of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK’, Share, 16, 5-6. Johnston, P. 2000. ‘Welcome To Britain Not. In Opposition, Labour Appeared To Consider Any Laws Controlling Asylum To Be Unreasonable and Racist.’ Public Finance, 27 Apr. 2000, 18-21. Joly, D. 1996. Haven or Hell? Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe. London: Macmillan. Joly, Danièle, 1997. ‘An Analytical Framework for Decisions on Asylum’. Goran Rystad, (Ed.), Encountering Strangers, 39-73. Lund: Lund University Press. Joly, Danièle. 1998. ‘Temporary Protection within the Framework of a New European Asylum Regime’. The International Journal of Human Rights, 2, 2, 49-76

188

Kaye, Ron. 1998. ‘Redefining the Refugee: the UK Media Portrayal of Asylum Seekers’. Khalid Koser and Helma Lutz, (Eds.), The New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities, 163-182. London: Macmillan. Kaye, R. 1999. ‘The Politics Of Exclusion: The Withdrawal Of Social Welfare Benefits From Asylum Seekers In The UK’. Contemporary Politics, 5, 1, 25-46. Kelly, E. 2000. ‘Asylum Seekers In Scotland: Challenging Racism At The Heart Of Government’. Scottish Affairs, 33, 23-44. Khan, P. 1999. ‘Asylum-Seekers In The UK: Implications For Social Service Involvement’. Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 8, 2, 116-129. Koser, Khalid. 1998. ‘Out of the Frying Pan and Into the Fire: A Case Study of Illegality amongst Asylum Seekers’. Khalid Koser and Helma Lutz, (Eds.), The New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities, 185-198. London: Macmillan. Lassalle, D. 2000. ‘The Right To Asylum In UK: Changes and Perspectives In The European Context’. Population, 55, 1, 137-168. Moore, R. 2000. ‘Access To Banking Services and Credit For UK Ethnic Minorities, Refugees and Asylum Seekers’. Radical Statistics, 75, 16-24. Nicholson, Frances and Twomey, Patrick. 1998. Current Issues Of UK Asylum Law and Policy. Aldershot: Ashgate. Pirouet, M. L. 2000. ‘The Vulnerability of East-African Asylum Seekers in Britain’. International Review Of Mission, 89, 354, 313-319. Pourgourides, C. 1979. ‘A Second Exile: The Mental Health Implications Of Detention Of Asylum Seekers In The UK’. Psychiatric Bulletin − Royal College Of Psychiatrists, 21, 11, 673-674. Qureshi, R. 2001. ‘How Scotland Is Failing Asylum Seekers’. Roof, 26, 1, 12. Roberts, K. 2000. ‘Lost In The System? Disabled Refugees and Asylum Seekers In Britain’. Disability and Society, 15, 6, 943-948. Shah, Prakash A. 2000. Refugees, Race and The Legal Concept Of Asylum In Britain. Cavendish. Shah, Prakash and Curtis Francis Doebbler (Eds). 1999. United Kingdom Asylum Law In Its European Context. London: Platinium.

189

Shah, Sneh (Ed.). 1996. Refugees and Asylum Seekers and Higher Education: The Context Of Re-Settlement. Aldenham: Centre For Equality Issues In Education, University Of Hertfordshire. Silove, D., Sinnerbrink, I., Field, A., Manicavasagar, V. and Steel, Z. 1997. ‘Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum seekers: associations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 170: 351-7. Stanton, Richard. 1998. Refugees and Asylum Seekers In London: Financial Impact Of Social Services and Housing Duties. London: London Research Centre. Taylor, G. 1998. ‘Health care for refugees and asylum seekers in Britain.’ Papadopoulos, I, Tilki, M. and Taylor, G. Transcultural Care: A guide for health care professionals, Dinton: Quay Books. Travers, M. 1999. ‘How Britain Imprisons Asylum-Seekers’. CJM, 35, 25-26. Watson, M. and Danzelman, P. 1998. Asylum Statistics United Kingdom 1997. Statistical Bulletin − Home Office Research and Statistics Directorate, 14. Watson, M. and Hooper, N. 1997. Asylum Statistics United Kingdom 1996. Statistical Bulletin − Home Office Research and Statistics Directorate, 15. Watson, M. and Mcgregor, R. 1999. Asylum Statistics United Kingdom 1998. Statistical Bulletin − Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate, 10. Webber, F. 1997. ‘UK: Asylum-Seekers: Caught By The Act’. Race and Class, 38, 3, 73-75. Zetter, Roger and Pearl, Martyn. 1999a. Managing To Survive: Asylum Seekers, Refugees and Access To Social Housing. Bristol: Policy Press. Zetter, R. and Pearl, M. 1999b. ‘Sheltering On The Margins: Social Housing Provision and The Impact Of Restrictionism On Asylum Seekers and Refugees In The UK’. Policy Studies, 20, 4, 235-254. Zetter, R. and Pearl, M. 2000. ‘The Minority Within The Minority: Refugee Community-Based Organisations In The UK and The Impact Of Restrictionism On Asylum-Seekers’. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 4, 675-698. 2. Undocumented Migrants Burgers, Jack. 1998. ‘In The Margin Of The Welfare State: Labour Market Position and Housing Conditions Of Undocumented Immigrants In Rotterdam’. Urban Studies, 35, 10, Oct, 1855-1868. 190

Burgers, Jack and Engberson, Godfried. 1996. ‘Globalisation, migration and undocumented immigrants’. New Community 22, 4, 619-636. Duvell, Franck. 1998. Undocumented Migrant Workers in the UK: ‘Researching a taboo’: An Interim Report. Exeter: University of Exeter. Engbersen, Godfried and van der Leun, Joanne. 1998. ‘Illegality and Criminality: The Differential Opportunity Structure of Undocumented Immigrants’ Khalid Koser and Helma Lutz, (Eds.), The New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities, 199-223. London: Macmillan. Leman, Johan. 1997. ‘Undocumented Migrants In Brussels: Diversity and The Anthropology Of Illegality’. New Community, 23, 1, Jan, 25-41. Powers, Mary G. and Seltzer, William. 1998. ‘Occupational Status and Mobility Among Undocumented Immigrants By Gender’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 21-56. Salt, John and Stein, Jeremy. 1997. ‘Migration As A Business: The Case Of Trafficking’. International Migration Review, 35, 4, 467-494. Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A. 1998. ‘Undocumented Residents In The United States In 1990: Issues Of Uncertainty In Quantification’. International Migration Review, 32, 1, 145-174.

191

Data Set 2 Publications and reports by NGOs and statutory bodies PART I. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS – United Kingdom 1. Immigrants and Migrants (including ethnic minorities) 4 1.1 General 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 1.4 Health 1.5 Housing 1.6a Social /Cultural/Religious 1.6b Community/Self-Help 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation 1.8 Women 1.9a Family Life 4 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 11

192

1.9b Children 12 1.10 Police/Justice/Legal System 14 1.11 Welfare and Social Policy 15 1.12 Racism/Discrimination 15 1.14 Neighbourhood Renewal strategy and social exclusion 1.15 Evaluation 17 2. Refugees 2.1 General 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 2.4 Health 2.5 Housing 2.6a Social /Cultural/Religious 2.6b Community/Self-Help Initiatives 2.7 Political Organisation/Participation 2.8 Women 2.9a Family Life 2.9b Children 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 2.12 Racism/Discrimination 2.15 Evaluation 3. Both Refugees and Migrants 3.1 General 3.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 3.4 Health 3.5 Housing 3.8 Women 3.9a Family 3.9b Children 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 3.12 Racism 18 18 20 21 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 30 31 31 33 33 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33

16

193

PART II. REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 – United Kingdom 1. Immigrants and Migrants 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 42

1.1 General 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 1.4 Health 1.5 Housing 1.6a Social/Cultural/Religious 1.6b Community/Self-Help Initiatives 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation 1.8 Women 1.9a Family Life 1.9b Children 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 1.12 Racism 1.15 Evaluation 2. Refugees 2.1 General 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 2.4 Health 2.5 Housing 2.6a Social/Cultural/Religious 2.6b Community/Self-Help Initiatives

194

2.8 Women 2.9b Children 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 2.15 Evaluation 3. Both Refugees and Migrants 3.1 General 3.8 Women 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 3.12 Racism

43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 45

PART III. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS – International 1. Immigrants and Migrants 1.1 General 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 1.4 Health 1.6a Social/Cultural/Religious 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation 1.8 Women 1.9a Family Life 1.9b Children 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 1.12 Racism 1.15 Evaluation 2. Refugees 2.1 General 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 2.4 Health 2.5 Housing 2.6b Community/Self-Help 2.8 Women 2.9a Family Life 2.9b Children 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 2.15 Evaluation 3. Both Refugees and Migrants 3.1 General 3.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 52 52

195

PART IV. REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 – International 1. Immigrants and Migrants 1.1 General 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment 1.5 Housing 1.8 Women 1.9a Family Life 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 1.12 Racism 2. Refugees 2.4 Health 2.8 Women 2.9a Family Life 2.9b Children 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 3. Both Refugees and Migrants 3.1 General 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 55 53 53 53 53 53 53 56 56 56

196

PART I. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS – United Kingdom 1. Immigrant and Migrants 1.1 General Coleman, D. and Salt, J. (Eds), 1996, Ethnicity in the 1991 Census, Volume One, Demographic Characteristics of the ethnic minority populations, OPCS, HMSO. Dorsett, Richard, 1998, Ethnic Minorities in the Inner City, P.P. Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Ethnic Response and Office of Fair Trade, 1999, Qualitative Research into Ethnic Minorities and Financial Services: Report of Focus Group Studies. Findlay, Allan M. 1999, The Economic Impact of Immigration to the UK: trends and policy implications, Applied Population Research Unit, Glasgow University. Modood, Tariq and Berthoud, R. 1997, Diversity and Disadvantage: Ethnic Minorities in Britain. The Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, Policy Studies Institute. Office for National Statistics, 1996, Social Focus on Ethnic Minorities, London, HMSO. Runnymede Trust, 1996, The Multi-Ethnic Good Society: Vision and Reality, London, Runnymede Trust. Runnymede Trust, 2000, Commission on the Future of Multiethnic Britain, London, Profile Books/Runnymede Trust. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, 2000, Researching Ethnic Minorities in Scotland, SECRU. Storkey, Marian, 1999, Ethnic Minorities in London: one city, many communities, London Research Centre. The Scottish Office, 1999, Study of the Impact of Migration on Rural Scotland, The Scottish Office. 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Berthoud, Richard, 1998, Incomes of Ethnic Minorities, University of Essex/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

197

Adand, T. and Azmi, W. 1998, ‘Expectation and reality: ethnic minorities in higher education’, in Madood, T. and Adand T. (Eds) Race and Higher Education, Policy Studies Institute. Bank of England, 1999, The Financing of Ethnic Minority Firms in the United Kingdom: A Special Report, London, Bank of England. Berthoud, R. 1999, Young Caribbean Men and the Labour Market: A Comparison with Other Ethnic Groups, York Publishing Services for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Bhavni, Reene, 1997, Black and Minority Ethnic Women in the Labour Market in London: First Major London Review, London, Fair Play. Blackaby et al., 1998, White/ethnic minority earnings and employment differentials in Britain: evidence from the LFS, University of Wales and Manchester Metropolitan University. Carr-hill et al., 1996, Lost Opportunities: the language skills of linguistic minorities in England and Wales, London, The Basic Skills Agency. Chatrik, B., 1999, New Deal − Fair Deal? Black Young People in the Labour Market, Barnardo’s/Children’s Society/Youth Aid, 1997 in SEU Bridging the Gap: New Opportunities for 16−18 year olds not in Employment, Education or Training, TSO. Commission for Racial Equality, We Regret to Inform You: Testing for Racial Discrimination in the North of England and Scotland, London, CRE, 1996 Connor, H. et al., 1996, Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degree, IES Report 309. Department for Education and Employment/Pathak, Shalini, 2000, Race Research for the Future: Ethnicity in Education, Training and the Labour Market, DfEE Research Topic Paper. Duvell, F., 1998, Undocumented Migrant Workers in the UK Report No.1, Department of Social Work and Probation Studies, University of Exeter. Fitzgerald, R., Finch, S. and Nove, A. 2000, Black Caribbean Young Men’s Experiences of Education and Employment, London, DfEE Research Report. JCWI, 1998, A Guide to Studying in the UK as an International Student, London, JWCI. London Development Partnership, 1999, From the Margins to the Mainstream, London, LDP.

198

London Skills Forecasting Unit, 1999, Strength through diversity: ethnic minorities in London’s economy. Maxey, Kees, 2000, International Student Mobility in the Commonwealth, UKCOSA. McCollin, S., 1997, ESOL research project: a dissertation on ESOL speakers in Kensington and Chelsea. Metcalf, H. and Forth, J., 2000, Business Benefits of Race Equality at Work, DfEE Research Report 177. National Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux, 1996, CAB evidence: prevention of illegal working − response to the Home Office consultation document, London, NACAB. Oc, Taner, Teisdell, Steven and Moynihan, David, 1997, Urban Regeneration and Ethnic Minority Groups: Training and business support in City Challenge Areas, The Policy Press. Owen, David, et al., 2000, Minority ethnic participation and achievements in education, training and the labour market, CRER and Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, DfEE, Research Report 225. Parker-Jenkins, M. et al., The Career Service: gatekeeper to career opportunities for Muslim women, DfEE, Forthcoming Research Report Platt, Lucinda and Noble, Michael, Race, 1999, Place and Poverty: ethnic groups and low income distributions, YPS/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Policy Studies Institue/Metcalf, Hilary, Modood, Tariq and Virdee, Satnam, Asian SelfEmployment − The Interaction of Culture and Economics in England, date? Reda, G. Survey on the Educational Needs of Ethiopian and Eritrean Women in London, London, Africa Educational Trust, date? Refugee Council, 1996, Response to Home Office consultation on ‘prevention of illegal working’, London Social Services Select Committee, London, Refugee Council. Runnymede Trust, 2000, Moving on Up: Racial Equality and the Corporate Agenda: a study of FTSE 100 Companies, London, Runnymede Trust/Schneider-Ross. Shropshire, J., Warton, R. and Walker, R., 1999, Unemployment and Jobseeking: the experience of ethnic minorities, DfEE Research Report No. 106. Sly, F. et al., 1999, Trends in the Labour Market Participation of Ethnic Minority Groups, Labour Market Trends.

199

TUC, 1999, Qualifying for Racism: How Racism is Increasingly Blighting Career Prospects, London, TUC. TUC, 1996, Unfair and Unworkable − the case against workplace race checks, London, TUC. UKCOSA, 2000, Student Mobility on the Map: Tertiary Education Interchange in the Commonwealth on the Threshold of the 21st Century, UKCOSA/Council for Education in the Commonwealth. Wrench, J. and Hassan, E., 1996, Ambition and Marginalisation: A Qualitative Survey of Underachieving Young Men of Afro-Caribbean Origin, London, DfEE Research Series No 31. Wrench, J. and Qureshi, T., 1996, Higher Horizons: A Qualitative Study of Young Men of Bangladeshi Origin, London, DfEE Research Series No 30. 1.4 Health Acheson, D., 1998, Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report, The Stationery Office. Ahmed, Waqar et al., 1998, Deaf people from minority ethnic groups: initiatives and services, P.P. Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Akram, Y., Anjum, I. and Ahmed, W., 1998, Improving Uptake of Respite Services by Learning Disabled Asian Adults, Manchester Social Services Department. Alexander, Z./DoH, 1999, Study of Black, Asian and Ethnic Minority Issues, Department of Health. Bariso, E.Y.U., 1997, The Horn of Africa Health Research Project: An assessment of the accessibility and appropriateness of health care services to Horn of Africa (Eritrean, Ethiopian, Oromo & Somali) communities in Camden and Islington, London, Healthy Islington and Camden & Islington Health Authority. Butt, Jabeer and Bignall, Tracey, 2000, Between Ambition and Achievement: the views of young black disabled people on independent living, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Butt, Jabeer, Bignall, Tracey and Stone, Emma, 2000, Directing Support: Report from a workshop on direct payments and black and minority ethnic disabled people, YPS/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Chamba, Rampaul et al., 1999, On the Edge: Minority ethnic families caring for a severely disabled child, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 200

Clark, C., 1997, Childbirth choice in a multi-cultural area, project final report, London, Brent and Harrow Health Authority. Commission for Filipino Migrant Workers, 1997, An assessment of the health experiences and needs of overseas domestic workers in London and the South East of England, London, CFMW. Department of Health, 2000, Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity, Centre for Research in Primary Care, University of Leeds/DoH. Griffiths, P., 1998, Qat use in London: A study of qat use among a sample of Somali living in London, London, Home Office Central Drugs Prevention Unit. Hayward, A., 1998, Tuberculosis Control in London: the need for change − A report for the Thames Regional Directors of Public Health, NHS Executive. Health Education Authority, 2000, Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in England: The second health and lifestyles survey, London, Health Education Authority. Katbamna, S. et al., 1998, Practice Guidelines for Primary Health Care to Meet the Needs of Carers from Asian Communities, NCCSU. Leather, C. and Wirz, S., 1996, The Training and Development Needs of Bilingual Support Workers in the NHS in Community Settings, Centre for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health, NHS Executive, London. Lindsay, J. et al., 1997, Knowledge, ‘Uptake and Availability of Health and Social Services among Asian Gujarati and White Elderly Persons’, in Ethnicity and Health, 2 (1/2), pp.59−69. London Black Women’s Health Action Project, 1996, Silent Tears, London, LBWHAP. Marray, U. and Brown D., 1998, They Look After Their Own, Don’t They?, London, Department of Health. Mental Health Media, 1998, Time for Change: Black and Asian People with Learning Difficulties, London, Mental Health Media (video) Mugisha, R. and Nansukusa, S., 1998, ‘The African refugee experience’, in Rawaf, S. and Bahl, V. (Eds), Assessing health needs of people from ethnic minority groups, London, Royal College of Physicians. Nas Farah, Asian Counsellors Working with the Asian Community, unpublished thesis, date?

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National Health Service Ethnic Health Unit, 1996a, Health care for Black and Minority Ethnic People, Directory 1994/5, Leeds NHSEHU. National Health Service Ethnic Health Unit, 1996b, Good practice and quality indicators in primary health care. Health care for black and minority ethnic people, Leeds, NHS Ethnic Health Unit, NAHAT, Kensington, Chelsea and Westminster Health Authority. Nazroo, J., 1997, The Health of Britain’s Ethnic Minorities: Findings from a National Survey London, Policy Studies Institute. Netto, Gina et al., 2001, A Suitable Space: Improving counselling services for Asian people, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Newham Asian Women’s Project, 1998, Growing up, Young, Asian and Female in Britain: A Report on Self-harm and Suicide, London, Newham Asian Women’s Project. Painter, M., 1997, The Medical Role with Regards to Immigrants: Health and Immigration Control, Manchester, Greater Manchester Immigration Aid Unit/Manchester Metropolitan University. Patel, N., 1999, ‘Black and Minority Ethnic Elderly Perspectives on Long Term Care’, Royal Commission on Long Term Care for the Elderly: With Respect to Age, Chaper 8 and Research Vol. 1, London, HMSO. PRIAE, Care Needs of black and minority ethnic elders in Wales, Report to the Wales Office, forthcoming, PRIAE (Policy Research Institute on Ageing and Ethnicity) Radia, K., 1996 Ignored, Silenced, Neglected: Housing and mental health care needs of Asian people, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Shokai, Sara, 1997, Needs Assessment: communication and access to health services: the case of Sudanese women in Leeds, dissertation, Leeds Metropolitan University. Small, C. and Hinton, T., 1997, A study of black and minority ethnic single homeless people and access to primary health care, London, Health Action for Homeless People and Lambeth Health Care NHS Trust. Steele, B. Sergison, M. et al., 2000, Improving the Quality of Life of Ethnic Minority Children with Learning Disabilities, Huddersfield, Huddersfield NHS Trust. Tai, Kausher, Privacy, Dignity and Respect of Cultural and Religious Beliefs: A Patient’s Standard Charter, Mancunian Community Health NHS Trust/South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, date? Tait, T. et al., 1998, A Study to Consider the Accommodation Support and Care Needs of Individuals with Learning Disabilities from the Asian Community in the City and County of Leicester, Leicester, deMontfort University/The Housing Corportation.

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Van den Bosch, C. and Brecker, N., 1997, ‘East London’s New Arrivals − Securing effective health care’ in East London & The City Health Authority, Health in the East End, Annual Public Health Report 1997−8, London, East London & The City Health Authority. Williams, L. et al., 1998, Experiences, Attitudes and Views of young, single Somalis living in London, London Black Women’s Health Action Project and London School of Tropical Hygiene. 1.5 Housing ASRA Greater London Housing Association Ltd., 1998, The Housing and Care Needs of Asian Elders in London, ASRA Greater London Housing Association. Bate, Richard, Best, Richard and Holmans, Alan, 2000, On the Move: The housing consequences of migration, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Bowers, Alison, Dar, Naira and Sim, Duncan, 1998, Too white, too rough, and too many problems: Pakistani housing strategies in Britain, University of Stirling/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Chahal, Kusminder, 2000, Ethnic Diversity, Neighbourhoods and Housing, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Davies, J. et al., 1996a, Discounted Voices: homelessness amongst young black and minority ethnic people in England, University of Leeds. Davies, J. et al., 1996b, Homelessness amongst young black and minority ethnic people in England, School of Sociology and Social Policy, Leeds University. Dhooge, Yvonne and Barelli, Jill, 1996, Racial Attacks and Harassment: the response of social landlords, HMSO. Goodby, Gill, 1996, The case for sheltered housing for black and ethnic minority elderly communities in West London, London, Inquilab Housing Association. Hawtin, Marray et al., 1999, Housing Integration and Resident Participation: Evaluation of a project to help integrate black and ethnic minority tenants, London, YPS/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Housing Corporation, 1997, A Housing Plus Approach to Achieving Sustainable Communities, Housing Corporation.

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Housing Corporation, 1996a, Black and Minority Ethnic Housing Associations: an evaluation of the Housing Corporation’s Black and Minority Ethnic Housing Association Strategies, Housing Coporation. Housing Corporation, 1996b, Black and Minority Ethnic Housing Needs: an enabling framework, Housing Corporation. Howes, Eileen and Mullins, David, 1998,Dwelling on Difference: Housing and Ethnicity in London, London, London Research Council. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1996, Set up to fail? The experience of black housing associations, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Kilpatrick, Alyson, 1997, Discrimination in Housing, Arden’s Housing Library. London Federation of Housing Associations, 1996, Flair in the community: added value housing services provided by black and minority ethnic housing associations, London Federation of Housing Associations. London Research Centre, 1997, Asian Housing Needs in London, London, London Research Centre. Marshall, Dawn et al., 1998, A Level Playing Field?: Rents, viability and value in black and minority ethnic housing associations, Housing Management/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. National Housing Federation, 1998a, Equality in Housing: Guidance for tackling racial discrimination and promoting equality, National Housing Federation. National Housing Federation, 1998b, Race Equality is Access to Housing Services: A Good Practice Guide, National Housing Federation. Radia, K., 1996, Ignored, Silenced, Neglected: Housing and mental health care needs of Asian people, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, 2001, Housing Scotland’s Black and Ethnic Minority Communities, SECRU. Small, C. and Hinton, T., 1997, A study of black and minority ethnic single homeless people and access to primary health care, London, Health Action for Homeless People and Lambeth Health Care NHS Trust. Tait, T. et al., 1998, A Study to Consider the Accommodation Support and Care Needs of Individuals with Learning Disabilities from the Asian Community in the City and County of Leicester, Leicester, deMontfort University/The Housing Corporation.

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1.6a Social/Cultural/Religious

1.6b Community/Self-Help Ahmed, I., 1998, Feeling Exclusion: A Survey of the Somali Community in Lewisham, Commissioned by the London Borough of Lewisham. Asghar, M.A., 1996, Bangladeshi community organisations in East London, Bangladeshi community organisations in East London, London. Farah, Leila Hassam and Smith, Matthew, 1999, Somali Support Initiative, Somalis in London, 147pp. Iraqi Community Association, 1996, Now We Are Here: a survey of the profile, structure, needs, hopes and aspiration of the Iraqi community in Britain, London, Iraqi Community Association. London Borough Grant Unit, 1996, Research into the Requirements of Migrant Organisations in Relation to a Secondary Body, London, LBGU. McLeod, Mike, Owen, David and Khamis, Chris, 2001, Black and minority ethnic voluntary and community organisations: Role in England and Wales, Policy Studies Institute/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Newham Language Shop, 1999, The Information Needs of Gujerati Speakers in Newham, Newham, Newham Language Shop. Nesbitt, Steven and Neary, David, 2000, Ethnic minorities and their pensions: A study of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white men in Oldham, London, YPS/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation Anwar, Muhammad, 2000, Ethnic Minorities and the British Electoral System, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick. Operation Black Vote, 1999, EU Parliamentary Elections Poll: hopes and fears of ethnic minorities in Britain, Hothouse Market Research. Owen, David and McLeod, Mike, 2000, Black and Asian Voters and the London Mayoral Elections (confidential draft), Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick.

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1.8 Women Barseghian, Joanne (Ed.), 2001, Daughters of Dispersal: Armenian Women’s Experiences from Diaspora, Budden. Bhavni, Reene, 1997, Black and Minority Ethnic Women in the Labour Market in London: First Major London Review, London, Fair Play. Clark, C., 1997, Childbirth choice in a multi-cultural area, project final report, London, Brent and Harrow Health Authority. Dattani, Bina, Devadason, Ranji, Kandola, Sunny and Raj, Thara, 2000, Collective Identities, Diverse Lives: British Asian Women Speak, South Asian Women’s Lives and Experiences Course Planning Group, Nottingham Women’s Centre. Kelly, Liz and Regan, Linda, 2000, Stopping Traffic: Exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK, Policy Research Series, paper 125, Home Office. London Black Women’s Health Action Project, 1996, Silent Tears, London, LBWHAP. Newham Asian Women’s Project, 1998, Growing up, Young, Asian and Female in Britain: A Report on Self-harm and Suicide, London, Newham Asian Women’s Project. Parker-Jenkins, M. et al., The Career Service: gatekeeper to career opportunities for Muslim women, DfEE, Forthcoming Research Report Rai, D.K. and Thiara, R.K., 1997, Redefining Spaces: The needs of Black women and children in refuge support services and Black workers in Women’s Aid, Bristol, Women’s Aid. Reda, G., Survey on the Educational Needs of Ethiopian and Eritrean Women in London, London, Africa Educational Trust, date? Southall Black Sisters, 1996, A Stark Choice: domestic violence or deportation, London, Southall Black Sisters. 1.9a Family Life Beishon, Sharon, Modood, Tariq and Virdee, Satnam, 1998, Ethnic Minority Families, Policy Studies Insitute/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Berridge, David, 2000, Where to Turn?: Family support for South Asian communities, National Children’s Bureau/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

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Bowes, A. and Dar, N., 1997, ‘Social work service and elderly Pakistani people’, in Bowes and Sim (Eds) Perspectives on Welfare, Ashgate. Bowes, A., Dar, N. with Srivastava, A., 2000, Family Support and Community Care: A Study of South East Asian Older People, University of Stirling/Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Bowes, A. and MacDonald, C., 2000, Support for Majority and Minority Ethnic Groups at Home: Older Peoples’ Perspectives, University of Stirling/Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Churches Commission for Racial Justice, 1997, Breaking up more families: case studies of families awaiting deportation, London, CCRJ. Lam, T., 1996, Parent−Children Communication Barriers and Mother Tongue Education for Vietnamese Children in London, London, South Bank University. Lindsay, J. et al., 1997, Knowledge, ‘Uptake and Availability of Health and Social Services among Asian Gujarati and White Elderly Persons’, in Ethnicity and Health, 2 (1/2), pp.59−69. Marray, U. and Brown D., 1998, They Look After Their Own, Don’t They?, London, Department of Health. National Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux, 1996, Failing the Test: CAB clients’ experience of the habitual residence test in social security, London, NACAB. Pankaj, Vibja, 2001, Family Mediation Services for Minority Ethnic Families in Scotland, Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Patel, N., 1999, ‘Black and Minority Ethnic Elderly Perspectives on Long Term Care’, Royal Commission on Long Term Care for the Elderly: With Respect to Age, Chaper 8 and Research Vol. 1, London, HMSO. Patel, Naina/PRIAE/Age Concern, 1999, Ageing Matters: Ethnic Concerns. Scottish Office: Central Research Unit, 1996, Pathways to Welfare for Pakistani Elderly People in Glasgow, Social Work Research Findings No. 8, SOCRU. Warnes, T., 1996, ‘The age structure and ageing of the ethnic groups’ in Coleman, D. and Salt, J. (Eds) Ethnicity in the Census, Vol. 1, London, HMSO. Yu, Wia Kam, 2000, Chinese Older People: A need for social inclusion in two communities, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 1.9b Children

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Barn, R., Sinclair, R. and Ferdinand, D., 1997, Acting on Principle: an examination of race and ethnicity in social services provision for children and families, BAAF. Bourne, J. and Blair, M., 1998, Making the Difference: teaching and learning strategies in successful multi-ethnic schools, London, DfEE Research Report No 59. Butt, Jabeer and Bignall, Tracey, 2000, Between Ambition and Achievement: the views of young black disabled people on independent living, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Cline, Tony and Shamsi, Tatheer, 2000, Language Needs or Special needs? The assessment of learning difficulties in literacy among children learning English as an additional language: a literature review, London, DfEE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1996, From Cradle to School: a practical guide to racial equality in the early years, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 2000, Learning for All: standards for racial equality in schools, London, CRE. Department for Education and Employment, 2000a, National Literacy Strategy: Supporting Pupils Learning English as an Additional Language, London, DfEE. Department for Education and Employment, 2000b, Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils, DfEE. Dyson, A., Lin, M. and Millward, A., Effective Communication between Schools, LEAs, and Health and Social Services in the Field of Special Educational Needs, DfEE Research Report 60, Newcastle, Special Needs Research Centre, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Gillborn, D. and Gipps, C., 1996, Recent Research on the achievements of Ethnic Minority Pupils, London, OFSTED, HMSO. Kahin, M., 1997, Educating Somali Children in Britain, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Lam, T., 1996, Parent−Children Communication Barriers and Mother Tongue Education for Vietnamese Children in London, London, South Bank University. Lane, J., 1996, Acting on the race relations and the Children Act in Travelling the AntiRacist Road, London, Early Years Trainers Anti Racist Network. .Lane, J., 1998, Planning for Excellence: Implementing the DfEE guidance for the Equal Opportunity Strategy in Early Years Development Plans and introducing a framework for Equality, Early Years Trainers Anti Racist Network.

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Leung, C. et al., 1997, The Idealised Native-Speaker, Reified Ethnicities and Classroom Realities: Contemporary Issues in TESOL, Slough, CALR Occasional Paper in Language and Urban Culture, Centre for Applied Linguistic Research, Thames Valley University. Loftman, P. and Beazley, M., 2000, Race and Regeneration, LGIU, 1999 in SEU Report of Policy Action Team 12: Young People, TSO. London Borough of Camden, 1996a, Analysis of 1995 Key Stage, GCSE and London Reading Test Result by Ethnic Group, London, London Borough of Camden. London Borough of Camden, 1996b, Raising the Achievement of Bangladeshi Pupils, London, London Borough of Camden. Maxey, Kees, 2000, International Student Mobility in the Commonwealth, UKCOSA. NALDIC, 1998, Provision in Literacy Hours for Pupils Learning English as an Additional Language, NALDIC Literacy Paper, London, NALDIC. NASUWT, 1999, Education and Race, Birmingham, NASUWT. Ofsted, 1999, Raising the Attainment of Minority Ethnic Pupils: School and LEA Responses, London, Ofsted. Richardson, R. and Wood, A., 1999, Inclusive Schools, Inclusive Society: Race and Identity on the Agenda, Race on the Agenda in partnership with Association of London Government and Save the Children, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Runnymede Trust, 1997, Black and Ethnic Minority Young People and Educational Disadvantage, London, Runnymede Trust. Runnymede Trust, 2000, Equality Assurance in Schools, London, Runnymede Trust. Runnymede Trust, 1998, Improving Practice: A Whole School Approach to Raising the Achievement of African Caribbean Youth, London, Runnymede Trust/Nottingham Trent University. Social Work Inspectorate for Scotland, 1998, Valuing Diversity: Having Regard to the Racial, Religious, Cultural and Linguistic Needs of Scotland’s Children, SWIS. Steele, B. Sergison, M. et al., 2000, Improving the Quality of Life of Ethnic Minority Children with Learning Disabilities, Huddersfield, Huddersfield NHS Trust. UKCOSA, 2000, Student Mobility on the Map: Tertiary Education Interchange in the Commonwealth on the Threshold of the 21st Century, UKCOSA/Council for Education in the Commonwealth.

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1.10 Police/Justice/Legal System Barclay and Mhlanga, 2000, Ethnic differences in decisions on young defendants dealt with by the Crown Prosecution Service, Section 95 Findings No. 1. Bland, Miller and Quinton, 2000, Upping the PACE? An evaluation of the recommendations of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry on stops and searches, Police Research Series, Paper 128. Dilton, Jason, 1999, Attitudes towards crime, victimization and the police in Scotland: a comparison of white and ethnic minority views, The Scottish Centre for Criminality, The Scottish Office. FitzGerald and Sibbitt, 1997, Ethnic Monitoring in the Police Forces: A beginning, Home Office Research Study No. 173. HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2001, Without Prejudice? A thematic inspection of police relations in Scotland, SECRU. HM Inspectorate of Probation, 2000, Towards Race Equality: Thematic Inspection Report, Home Office. Home Office, 1997, Campsfield House Detention Centre: Report of an unannounced short inspection 13−15 October 1997, London, HM Inspectorate of Prisons. Home Office, 2000a, Race and the Criminal Justice System: joining up to promote equality and encourage diversity, Criminal Justice Consultative Council Race Subgroup/Home Office. Home Office, 2000b, Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System, Home Office/National Statistics. Leicester Ethnic Monitoring Project Board, 2000, Ethnic appearance monitoring of defendants at Leicester Magistrates’ Court 1997−1998, LEMPB. Maynard and Read, 1997, Policing Racially Motivated Incidents, Crime detection and prevention series, Paper 84. National Association of Probation Officers, 1997, Working with Racially Motivated and Racist Offenders, NAPO. NACAB, 2000, A Person before the Law: the CAB case for a statement of rights for people with limited leave in the UK, London, NACAB.

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NACRO, 1996, Black People and the Criminal Justice System, Race Issues Advisory Committee. NACRO, 2000, Let’s Get it Right − Race and Justice, NACRO. Percy, 1998, Ethnicity and Victimisation: Findings from the 1996 British Crime Survey, Home Office Statistical Bulletin 6/98. The Stationery Office, 1999, The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry − Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, The Stationery Office. Rison Erif, 2000, A person before the law: the CAB case for a statement of rights for people with limited leave in the UK. National Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux. London: NACAB. Shutter, Sue, 1997, Immigration, nationality & refugee law handbook: a user's guide. London: JCWI. 1.11 Welfare and Social Policy Barn, R., Sinclair, R. and Ferdinand, D., 1997, Acting on Principle: an examination of race and ethnicity in social services provision for children and families, BAAF. Butt, J. and Mirza, K., 1996, Social Care and Black Communities: a review of recent research studies, Race Equality Unit/HMSO. Scottish Office: Central Research Unit, 1996, Pathways to Welfare for Pakistani Elderly People in Glasgow, Social Work Research Findings No. 8, SOCRU. 1.12 Racism/ Discrimination Arshad, Rowena, 1999, Anti-racist Community Work − A radical approach. Cohen, Steve, 1996, Another brick in the wall: the 1996 Asylum and Immigration bill. Manchester: Greater Manchester Immigration Aid Unit. Commission for Racial Equality, 1996a, From Cradle to School: a practical guide to racial equality in the early years, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1996b, Roots for the Future, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1996c, We Regret to Inform You: Testing for Racial Discrimination in the North of England and Scotland, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1997, Race, Culture and Community Care: an agenda for action, London, Commission for Racial Equality. 211

Commission for Racial Equality, 2000, Learning for All: standards for racial equality in schools, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, 1997, Islamophobia: a challenge for us all, The Runnymede Trust, London. Dhalech, Mohammed, 1999, Challenging Racism in a Rural Idyll − Final Report of the Rural Race Equality Project Cornwall, Devon and Somerset/NACAB. FitzGerald and Hale, Ethnic Minorities, victimisation and racial harassment, Home Office Research Findings, No. 39 Home Office, 1999, Race Equality − Developing Minority Representation within the Probation Service, Home Office. Institute of Race Relations/LBG/Bourne, Jenny, 2000, Counting the Cost: racial violence since Macpherson, London, Institute of Race Relations. Lane, J., 1996, Acting on the Race Relations and the Children Act in Travelling the AntiRacist Road, London, Early Years Trainers Anti Racist Network. Lane, J., 1998, Planning for Excellence: Implementing the DfEE guidance for the Equal Opportunity Strategy in Early Years Development Plans and introducing a framework for Equality, Early Years Trainers Anti Racist Network. Leeser, Richard et al., 2000, Without Prejudice: Exploring Ethnic Differences in London, GLR. Liberty/1990 Trust, 2000, Joint Submission by NGOs to the UN Committee of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), London, Liberty/1990 Trust. Maynard and Read, 1997, Policing Racially Motivated Incidents, Crime detection and prevention series, Paper 84. Metcalf, H. and Forth, J., 2000, Business Benefits of Race Equality at Work, DfEE Research Report 177. National Association of Probation Officers, 1997, Working with Racially Motivated and Racist Offenders, NAPO. Richardson, R. and Wood, A., 1999, Inclusive Schools, Inclusive Society: Race and Identity on the Agenda, Race on the Agenda in partnership with Association of London Government and Save the Children, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books.

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Runnymede Trust, 1997, Islamophobia: A Challenge for us All, London, Runnymede Trust. Runnymede Trust, 2000, Moving on Up: Racial Equality and the Corporate Agenda: a study of FTSE 100 Companies, London, Runnymede Trust/Schneider-Ross. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, 2000, Equality in Scotland − Ethnic Minorities, SECRU. Sibbett, Rae, 1997, The Perpetrators of Racial Harrassment and Racial Violence, Home Office Research Study 176. The Stationery Office, 1999, The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry − Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, The Stationery Office. TUC, 1999, Qualifying for Racism: How Racism is Increasingly Blighting Career Prospects, London, TUC. 1.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion Brownhill, Sue and Darke, Jane, 1998, Rich Mix: Inclusive Stategies for Race and Gender in Urban Regeneration, P.P Marston Books/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Cabinet Office Social Exclusion Unit, 2000, Minority Ethnic Issues in Social Exclusion and Neighbourhood Renewal: A Guide to the Work of the SEU and the Policy Action Teams so far, London, Cabinet Office. 1.15 Evaluation ARVAC (Association for Research in the Voluntary and Community Sector), 2000, Conference Paper Evaluation, ARVAC. Bell, Michael and Gibson, Peter, Methodology for evaluating secondary advice services, Scottish Homes, Thistle House, 91 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh, EH12 5HE Health Action for Homeless People for Kensington, Chelsea and Westminster Health Authority, 1999, An Evaluation of a Pilot Peer Education Project. LBG A guide to user feedback methods Migrants Resource Centre, 1999, Voices for Change evaluation project. Meyrick, Jane and Sinkler, Paige, 1999, Healthy Living Centres: An Evaluation Resource, Health Education Authority.

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Scottish Community Development Centre, 1998 Measuring Community Development: a handbook for practitioners. (0141 248 1924) Woolf, Felicity, 1999, Partnerships for Learning: a guide to evaluating arts education projects, Regional Arts Boards/Arts Council of England.

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2. Refugees 2.1 General Amnesty International, 1997, Refugees: Human Rights have no Borders, AI International Secretariat. Amnesty International, 2000, UK Foreign and Asylum Policy: Human Rights Audit, AIUK. Asylum Rights Campaign, 2000, Out of Sight, Out of Mind: A report on the dispersal of asylum seekers in the UK, London, ARC. Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales, 2000, A New City: supporting asylum seekers and refugees in London, a briefing. Audit Commission, 2000, Another Country: implementing dispersal under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, London, Audit Commission. Barer, Robin et al., 1999, Refugees and asylum seekers, studies in London, London Research Centre, London. Bell, Micheal, Buchan, Sandy and Lukes, Sue, 1999, The Needs of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the London Borough of Hillingdon, London, Refugee Action/MBA Consultancy and Research. Bloch, A., 1997, Refugee Migration and Settlement: A case study of the London Borough of Newham, London, Dept of Social Policy and Politics, Goldsmiths College. Carey-Wood, J., 1997, Meeting Refugees’ Needs in Britain: the role of refugee-specific initiatives, London, Home Office. Green, Roger, 1996, Marginal Inclusion? A survey of refugees in the London Borough of Redbridge, Essex, Redbridge Refugee Forum. Haringey Council, 1997, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Haringey: report of the refugee research and development project, London, Haringey Council. Home Office, 2000a, Asylum Statistics 1999, London, Home Office. Home Office, 2000b, Full and Equal Citizens: A strategy for the integration of refugees into the United Kingdom, London, Home Office. Humm, Jayne, 1996, Settling in Cambridge: The Refugee Experience, London, Refugee Action/Community Development Foundation.

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ILPA/Resource Information Service, 2001, Asylum Seekers: a guide to recent legislation, London, ILPA/Resource Information Service. Jesuit Refugee Service, 1996, Keeping hope alive: Who finds refuge in Britain?, London, Andes Press. Kelly, Lynette and Joly, Daniele, 1999, Refugees’ Reception and Settlement in Britain: A Report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, London, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Knox, Katharine, 1997a, A Credit to the Nation: A study of Refugees in the United Kingdom, London, Refugee Council. Knox, Katharine, 1997b, Changing Lives: stories of exile, London, Refugee Council. London Borough Grants Committee, 1996, Building a lifeline for asylum seekers, London, LBG. London Research Centre, 1998, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in London: Financial Impact, London Research Centre. Lukes, Sue, Bell, Michael, and Lloyd, Hywel, 1997, Developments to assist refugees and asylum seekers towards earlier self sufficiency: a report for Refugee Action, London, Michael Bell Associates with Refugee Action. Mercorios, Diana (Ed.), 1999, Refugee resources in the UK 1999: a nationwide directory of services for asylum seekers and refugees, Refugee Council. Newham Community Renewal Programme, 1996, Strategies for Refugee Work in the London Borough of Newham: Report, London. Oxfam/T&G/Refugee Council, 2000, Token Gestures: the effects of the voucher scheme on asylum seekers and organisations in the UK, Oxfam/T&G/Refugee Council, (www.oxfam.org.uk). Redshaw, Jill and Wilson, Ruth, 1996, Research into Attitudes of Newly-Arrived Asylumseekers towards a possible Reception Centre in Derby, London, Refugee Action. Refugee Council, 1996a, Refugee resources in the UK: contacts and addresses, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1996b, The State of Asylum: a critique of asylum policy in the UK, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1997a, An Agenda for Action: challenges for refugee settlement in the UK, London, Refugee Council.

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Refugee Council, 1997b, Just Existence: a report on the lives of asylum seekers who have lost entitlement to benefits in the UK, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1997c,Update on the new government's policies relating to refugees and asylum seekers, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1999a, Information Service: The Information Survivor Kit for Public and Voluntary Sector Employees, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1999b, Unwanted Journey: Why Central European Roma are fleeing to the UK, London, Refugee Council, (funded by Christian Aid). Refugee Development Project, Justice and Peace Commission, 1997, Living in Limbo: Asylum Seekers in Global and Local Context, Brentford, JPC. Sianni, Areti, 1997, The development of a refugee settlement policy in the UK, Refugee Council. Stanton, R., 1998, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in London: Financial Impact of social services and housing duties, London, London Research Centre. Waissbein, C., 1998, Report of Refugee Populations in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham, London, Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Health Authority. 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment a) Research Africa Educational Trust, 2000, Do Study Grants Help Refugees Find a Job?, AET. Africa Educational Trust, 1998a, Employment Issues Facing Young Refugees in Haringey, commissioned by Strategic Planning Unit, Haringey Council. Africa Educational Trust, 1998b, Refugee Education, Training and Employment in Inner London: a baseline study, commissioned by FOCUS Central London for The Refugee Training Partnership. Ahipeaud, M.J., 1998, A Study of the Pan-London Refugee Training and Employment Network: A survey analysis. Allen, John Williams, 1998, The educational performance and employment expectations of young Vietnamese who have received substantial British education. Bloch, A., 1996, Beating the Barriers: The Employment and Training Needs of Refugees in Newham, London, London Borough of Newham and the University of East London.

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Brophy, M., Bird, P. and Omona, M., 1997, Vocational Training for Refugees from the Horn of Africa, London, Africa Educational Trust. Canadappa, M., 1999, Employers’ Experience of Job-Related Training Provided to Refugees (Report to the Pan-London Refugee Training and Employment Network), Thomas Coram Research Unit, University of London. Cohen, Steve, 1996, Another Brick in the Wall, Manchester, Greater Manchester Immigration Aid Unit. Department of Health/Overseas Doctors Sub-group, 2000, Report of the Working Group on Refugee Doctors and Dentists, DoH. Gillet, L. and Gregg, A., 1999, Volunteering as a Route to Employment, London. Gordon, Steve, 1998, On the Horizon: Refugees Learning and Earning, School of Education Studies, Guildford Institute, University of Surrey. Grosser, K. and Sakho, H. Educating Nita: Education for Refugees in the UK, Knowing Women (Links), date? Harker, A. and Gamaledin-Asham, M., 1996, Study of the Needs of Young Male Refugees in London with Particular Reference to their Education and Training Needs, London, City Parochial Foundation. Information Forum and Refugee Mentoring Project, 2000, 16+ finder: helping young refugees and asylum seekers access education, training and employment opportunities in the UK, Information Forum and Refugee Mentoring Project and Africa Educational Trust. Little, David and Lazenby Simpson, Barbara, 1996, Meeting the Language Needs of Refugees, Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College, Dublin. MbA, 1999, The London Borough of Greenwich Refugee Employment and Training Study, London. North of England Refugee Service/DfEE, 1996, Refugees: Real Assets (video). Peabody Trust/London Research Centre, 1999, Refugee SkillsNet: the employment and training of skilled and qualified refugees, London, Peabody Trust. Refugee Council/MbA Training Research and Development Ltd, 1999, Creating the conditions for Refugees to Find Work, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council Employment Working Group, Refugee Employment and Training: A Positive Policy for the 1990s, London, Refugee Council, date?

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Refugee Council/Shiferaw, Demedssew and Hagos, Hailu, Refugees and Progression Routes to Employment, forthcoming 2001 Refugee Education and Training Working Group, Refugee Education Policy for the 1990s, London, Refugee Council/World University Service, date? Refugee Women’s Association/Ayşe Bircan, 1998, IT Skills Audit: The Demand for Information Technology Skills in Clothing and Cultural Industries in Hackney, London, Refugee Women’s Association. Salinas, Corinne/World University Service, 1997, Refugee Engineers in the UK: A study of engineering employers and refugees qualified as engineers, London, World University Service (RETAS). Shuttle, A., 1996, Report on the Training, Guidance, and Employment Needs of Refugees in West London, Focusing on Ealing, London, Refugee Employment Advice. The Industrial Society, 1999, Turning Refugees into Employees: Research into the Barriers to Employment perceived by Women Refugees in London, London, The Industrial Society (in association with Fair Play). Thomas Coram Research Unit/Candappa, M., 1998, Employers’ Experiences of Vocational Training Provided to Refugees in London, Institute of Education/Refugee Council. Walters, N. and Egan, E., 1996, Refugee Skills Analysis (Brent and Harrow), Harrow, Middlesex, North West London TEC. b) Guides/Manuals Peters, Helen/University of North London, Portfolio Building for the Purpose of AP(E)L: A self-access pack for qualified and/or experienced refugees and asylum seekers in the UK, Refugee Assessment and Guidance Unit, UNL, 1997 (revised 2001) Prince, Baden (with Rutter, Jill and Kerrigan, Marie), 2000, Handbook on Education for Refugees in the UK, Refugee Education and Training Advisory Service/WUS. Rosenkranz, Hernan, 2000, A Concise Guide to Refugees’ Education and Qualifications, London, World University Service/RETAS. 2.4 Health a) Research

219

Ahearn, Frederick, L., 1997, Psychological Wellbeing of Refugees: the issue of measurement, conference report from Refugee Studies Programme, 29 January 1997, Oxford, RSP. Aldous et al., 1999, Refugee Health in London: Key issues for public health, Health of Londoners Project. Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales, 2000, A New City: supporting asylum seekers and refugees in London, a briefing. Croydon Community Health Council/Linx Social Policy Consultancy, 1997, Health needs and experiences of refugees in Croydon, CCHC. Davies, M. and Webb, E., 1998, The Health and Social Care of Somali Refugees in Cardiff. Dean, R., 2000, The Mental Health Status of Refugees from Kosovo at the London Park Hotel, Kings College, University of London. Department of Health/Schwartz, 2001, M. Survey of the Experience of three Refugee Communities in Camden and Islington in accessing Health Care, DoH . Directorate of Public Health/Croydon Health Authority, 1999, Refugee Health in Croydon. Directorate of Public Health, 1999, Health Needs of Refugees from Kosovo (various materials), (copies obtained) Elyas, Safwat. M., 1997, Psychological consequences of seeking asylum: a survey conducted on the Sudanese Coptic refugees in East Sussex, Brighton, SCA. Enfield and Haringey Health Authority, 1999, Report on the health implications of the new Asylum and Immigration Bill, London, Enfield and Haringey Health Authority. Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 1997, Guidelines for providers of counselling and training to refugees and Guidelines for refugee community organisations providing counselling services, London, Evelyn Oldfield Unit. Gosling, Rachael, 2000, The Needs of Young Refugees in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham, Community HealthSouth London NHS Trust. Hargreaves, Sally/Hammersmith Hospital Infectious Disease Department, 1999, Infectious Diseases and Health Issues of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in London. Health Education Authority/ILPA/Refugee Health, 1998, Consortium Promoting the Health of Refugees.

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Healthy Islington, 2000, Islington Zairean Refugees Survey Report, Healthy Islington, London. Jobbins, D., 1997, New Arrivals Screening Information Pilot Project, Refugee Council (unpublished). Johnson, Mark R. D. and Akinwolere, Oladele, Augustin, 1996, Refugees and Primary Health Care in the West Midlands, University of Warwick (Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations)/Midlands Refugee Council. London Borough of Lewisham, 1999, Addressing the needs of HIV and asylum seekers, London Borough of Lewisham Social Services Conference, London. Maharaj, K., Warwick, I. and Whitty, G., 1996, An Assessment of HIV Prevention and Intervention with Refugees and Asylum Seekers, Institute of Education. McAfee, Buffy, 1998, ‘… instead of medicine’: report of the Bosnian mental health pilot project, London, Refugee Action. McCallin, Margaret (Ed), 1996, The Psychological Wellbeing of Refugee Children: research, practice and policy development, International Catholic Child Bureau. Mental Health Foundation, 1999, Mental Healthcare for Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Guide for Advisory Workers, Mental Health Foundation. Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 1996, Facing Persecution at Home or Destitution in the UK, London, MF. Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 1997a, Past Misery, Present Muddle: council-by-council survey of assistance to asylum seekers, one year on, London, MF. Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 1997b, Survivors of Torture − Hungry but not Starving, London, MF. Migrants and Refugee Communities Forum, 1996, Refugees and the use of mental health services in Kensington and Chelsea, Migrant and Refugee Communities Forum. Mugerwa, F., 1997, Refugees in Hackney: a study of health and welfare − summary of findings and recommendations, London, Public Policy Research Unit/Queen and Westfield College. Murshali, H. K., 1996, Sudanese Refugees’ Health Education/Promotion in the UK, MA dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London.

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Muzaffar, Saeher, Haque, Obaidul and Sugden, Judith, 1999, An Evaluation of the Physical and Mental Health Standards at Campsfield Detention Centre, Kiddlington, Oxford, Refugee Studies Programme. Newham Refugee Centre, 1996, Refugees, torture and the health services − identifying and treating refugee victims of torture, London, Newham Refugee Centre. NHS Ethnic Health Unit, 1997, Report on the refugee and asylum seekers health project, Barking and Havering Health Authority. NHS Ethnic Health Unit/Midlands Refugee Council, 1996, Health Promotion Project. Papadopoulos, R. Working with Bosnian Medical Evacuees and Their Familities: Therapeutic Dilemmas, date? Pourgourides, Bracken and Sashidharan, 1996, A Second Exile: The Mental Health Implications of Detention of Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom, North Birmingham Mental Health Trust. Rojas-Jaimes and Webster, Mental Health Needs of Refugee Communities in Lambeth: Results of a consultation exercise with refugee community organisations, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, Community Health South London NHS Trust Refugee Advisers Support Unit (RASU), 1996, Refugees and Access to Health Services, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1997, TB/Health Screening Project for newly arrived asylum seekers, Progress report, Refugee Council, (unpublished). Refugee Support Service, 1997, An Assessment of Refugee Mental Health Needs in Waltham Forest, London, Refugee Support Service. Richman, N., 1996, They Don’t Recognise Our Dignity: A Study of the Psychosocial Needs of Refugee Children and Families in Hackney, London, City and Hackney Community NHS Trust. Routledge, John, 1996, Refugee Needs in Employment, Education, Health and Housing − a preliminary investigation for Hackney, London, LBH. Savcic-Sanders, D. and Dionisio, K., 1997, Psychological Needs of the Bosnian Refugee Community in London − Initial Findings, London, Traumatic Stress Clinic. Shackman, J. and Reynolds, J., 1996, Working with Refugees and Torture Survivors: Help for the Helpers, Mental Health Matters

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Shakya, D. and Wardell, J., 1999, Report on Medical Interviews of Displaced Young Persons, CHSL. SIREN/Roberts, Keri, 2000 Disabled Refugees Network, Disabled Refugees: Making Contact, conference proceedings, Social Policy Research Unit, University of York. Tavistock Clinic Series, 1997, Is Home Where the Heart Is?, Narratives of Oppositional Discourse in Refugee Families (in Multiple Voices), Tavistock Clinic Series. Vaskovic, Vesna, 1998a, Bosnian Refugees Health Project, final report, NHS Ethnic Health Unit/Southern Derbyshire Health Authority. Vaskovic, Vesna, 1998b, Bosnian Refugees’ Health, NHS Ethnic Health Unit/Southern Derbyshire Health Authority. Wilson, Ruth, 1998, Health in Exile: the experiences of refugees and evacuees in Leeds, Leeds, Refugee Action. Woodhead, David, 1999, The Health and Wellbeing of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in the UK, Kings Fund. b) Guidelines/Manuals Levenson, R., 1999, The Health of Refugees: A Guide for GPs, Kings Fund. Levenson, R. and Sharma, A., The Health of Refugee Children: Guidelines for Paediatricians Kings Fund and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Mental Health Foundation, 1999, Mental Health Care for Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A guide for advisory workers: London. Mugerwa, F., 1995, An information pack for primary health care staff working with refugees and asylum seekers, ELCILA. Refugee Council, 1999, Refugee Council Health Directory. 2.5 Housing Garvie, Deborah, 2001, Far from Home: The housing of asylum seekers in private rented accommodation, London, Shelter. Latin American Welfare Group, 1996, The Housing Situation of Latin American Refugees Living in London, LAWG. London Research Centre (LRC), 1998, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in London: Financial Impact of Social Services and Housing Duties, London, LRC. 223

Refugee Council, 1998, Rent-in-advance Guarantee Scheme, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council/Association of London Government, 1996, No Place to Call Home: Report and recommendations for London local authorities on the implementation of new legislation affecting refugees and asylum seekers, London, Refugee Council/ALG. Routledge, John, 1996, Refugee Needs in Employment, Education, Health and Housing − a preliminary investigation for Hackney, London, LBH. Tamil Community Housing Association, 1998, New Arrivals, New Communities: a research report into the housing and support needs of Tamil people in London, London, Tamil Community Housing Association. Zetter, Roger and Pearl, Martyn, 1999a, Guidelines for Registered Social Landlords on the Provision of Housing and Support Services for Asylum Seekers, Housing Corporation. Zetter, Roger and Pearl, Martyn, 1999b, Managing to Survive: asylum seekers, refugees and access to social housing. 2.6a Social/Cultural/Religious Duke, K., 1996, ‘Refugee Community Groups in the UK: The role of the community group in the resettlement process’, paper presented to the British Sociological Association Conference, University of Reading. Raddan, 1998, Rosemary/British Library Report, Information Needs of Refugee Groups, BLB. Social and Pastoral Action, 1997, Interfaith Refugee Network: Review and Strategy. Social and Pastoral Action, 1996, Towards a co-ordinated strategy: the voluntary sector’s response to the withdrawal of social security benefits. 2.6b Community/Self-Help Initiatives Active Community Unit (Home Office), 1999, Community Self-Help, Report of PAT 9, ACU, Home Office. Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 1997, Unity is Strength: Somali Conference Report, London, EOU. Field, Yvonne and Harrow, Marietta, 1999, Routes Across Diversity: developing the arts of London’s Refugee Communities, London, London Arts. London Arts, 2001, Arts and Refugees Directory, London, London Arts.

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Lukes, Sue, Bell, Michael, and Lloyd, Hywel, 1997, Developments to assist refugees and asylum seekers towards earlier self-sufficiency: a report for Refugee Action, London, Michael Bell Associates with Refugee Action. Maric, Tomislav, Refugees from Bosnia and their Support Network in the UK (unpublished), date? Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 1996, Lives under Threat: A study of Sikhs coming to the UK from the Punjab, London, MF. OXFAM/RSC, 1996, Refugee Participation: a tool for empowerment, Oxford, OXFAM/RSC, (video). Refugee Council, 1997a, Caught in the Crossfire: Colombian asylum seekers and the UK, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1997b, Protection Denied: Sri Lankan Tamils, the Home Office and the forgotten civil war, London, RC. Refugee Council, 1998, From Bosnia to Britain − A report by the Bosnia Project on the resettlement of Bosnian refugees in West Yorkshire, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1999, Unwanted Journey: Why Central European Roma are fleeing to the UK, London, Refugee Council, (funded by Christian Aid). 2.7 Political Organisation/Participation Amnesty International, 1997, Respect my Rights: Refugees Speak Out, London, Amnesty International. 2.8 Women Ahmed, Manal, 1996, Refugee Women in East Sussex: a report into the experiences of refugee women in East Sussex, London, Refugee Action. Crawley, H., 1997 Women as Asylum Seekers: A Legal Handbook, London, ILPA/Refugee Action/Refugee Women’s Legal Group. Jesuit Refugee Service, 2001, War Has Changed Our Life, Not Our Spirit: Experiences of Forcibly Displaced Women, London, JRS. ILPA/Refugee Action, 1998, Women Asylum Seekers: A legal handbook, London, ILPA/Refugee Action.

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The Industrial Society, 1999, Turning Refugees into Employees: Research into the Barriers to Employment perceived by Women Refugees in London, London, The Industrial Society (in association with Fair Play). Praxis, 1998, Research on childcare provision in refugee community organisations in selected London boroughs, London, Praxis. Rai, Dhanwant K. and Thiara, Ravi K., 1999, Strengthening Diversity: Good practice in delivering domestic violence services to Black women and children, Bristol, Women’s Aid. Refugee Council, 1997, Women Refugees: The Challenge of Being Recognised as a Refugee Woman, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1998, Refugee Women’s Directory 1998: a directory of resources across the UK for women asylum seekers and refugees, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Women’s Association/Ayşe Bircan, 1998, IT Skills Audit: The Demand for Information Technology Skills in Clothing and Cultural Industries in Hackney, London, Refugee Women’s Association. Refugee Women’s Legal Group, 1998a, Gender guidelines for the determination of asylum claims in the UK, London, Refugee Women's Legal Group. Refugee Women’s Legal Group, 1998b, ‘Refugee women and asylum seekers: challenging for change in the UK’, Briefing paper, 5th February 1998, London, Refugee Women’s Legal Group. 2.9a Family Life Chile Democratico, 1991, A proposal for the resettlement of Chilean refugees (over 50s) living in Britain, Chile Democratico and Committee for the Return to Chile (UK). Kirby, P., 1999, Deptford Vietnamese Research Report into the needs of Vietnamese parents, families and young people in Deptford, Commissioned by SCF and the Deptford Vietnamese Family Support Project, (draft obtained). Lam, T., 1996, Parent−Children Communication Barriers and Mother Tongue Education for Vietnamese Children in London, London, South Bank University. Papadopoulos, R. Working with Bosnian Medical Evacuees and Their Families: Therapeutic Dilemmas, date? Praxis, 1998, Research on childcare provision in refugee community organisations in selected London boroughs, London, Praxis.

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Tavistock Clinic Series, 1997, Is Home Where the Heart Is?, Narratives of Oppositional Discourse in Refugee Families (in Multiple Voices), Tavistock Clinic Series. Refugee Action, 1987, Last Refuge: Elderly People from Vietnam in the UK, London, Refugee Action. Refugee Council/Wilson, Ruth, 1988, Age in Exile: a report on elderly exiles in the UK, London, Refugee Council. Richman, N., 1996, They Don’t Recognise Our Dignity: A Study of the Psychosocial Needs of Refugee Children and Families in Hackney, London, City and Hackney Community NHS Trust. 2.9b Children Aden, M., 1996, Somali Refugee Youth Development Project: Report, London. Allen, John Williams, 1998, The educational performance and employment expectations of young Vietnamese who have received substantial British education. Arshad, R., Closs, A. and Stead, J., 1999, Doing our Best: Scottish School Education, Refugee Pupils and Parents − a strategy for social inclusion, Edinburgh, Centre for Education in Racial Equality in Scotland. Ayotte, W., 1998, Supporting Unaccompanied children in the Asylum Process, Save the Children. Berhane, T., 1998, The Involvement of Young Refugees in the Lambeth Youth Refugees Development Project, Lambeth Council, unpublished. Blackwell, D. and Melzak, S., 2000, Far from the battle but still at war: Troubled Refugee Children in School, London, The Child Psychotherapy Trust. Brewin, M. and Demetriades, A., 1998, Raising the Profile of Invisible Students: practical and peer-led approaches to enhancing educational and emotional support for refugee and asylum seeking children in schools, Children of the Storm, London. Camden and Islington Council, 1997, Meeting the Needs of Refugee Children: a checklist for all staff who work with refugee children in schools, London, Camden Education. Camden Education, 1996, Refugee Education Policy, London, Camden Education. Davies, M. and Webb. E., 2000, Promoting the Psychological Well-being of Refugee Children, in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Sage Publications, Vol 5, Number 4.

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Daycare Trust, 1998, Refugee Children and Childcare: A Guide to help childcare staff support refugee children in childcare and educational services, Daycare Trust. Department of Health,2000, Guidance on the Education of Children being Looked After by Local Authorities, Circular LAC, 13, London, Department of Health/DfEE. Genc, Ufuk and Baycan, Feride, 1998, Hear Our Voice, Health Advocacy and Counselling Services for Turkish and Kurdish Speaking Communities (HACS) (video). Gosling, Rachael, 2000, The Needs of Young Refugees in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham, Community Health South London NHS Trust. Hamilton, Caroline and Mann, Nathalie, 1998, The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children in Kosovo, Children in Armed Conflict, Essex University. HAYS and SCF, 1998, Let’s Spell it Out: peer research on the educational support needs of young refugees and asylum seekers living in Kensington and Chelsea, London, HAYS/SCF. Islington Council, 1997, Policy and Practice Guidelines for Unaccompanied Refugee Children, London, Islington Council Levenson, R. and Sharma, A. The Health of Refugee Children: Guidelines for Paediatricians Kings Fund and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Lewisham Education and Community Services, 1998, Receiving asylum seeking and refugee children: a resource booklet for schools, youth services and adult education, London, LECS. Massoud, R. and Dowling J., 1998, Report on a study into the Needs of Refugee Pupils at North Westminster Community School (Marylebone Lower House) and Arrangements to meet those needs, London, Westminster Psychological Service. McCallin, Margaret (Ed), 1996, The Psychological Wellbeing of Refugee Children: research, practice and policy development, International Catholic Child Bureau. Mynott, E. and Humphries, B. The experiences of young separated asylum seekers in Greater Manchester, Unpublished report for a national project sponsored by Save the Children Fund (currently in second draft) National Information Forum, 2001, Signposts: A guide for young asylum seekers and refugees, London, NIF. Norton, Ros and Cohen, Brian, Out of Exile: developing youth work with young refugees, Youth Work Press, date?

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Platt-Macdonald, S. and Smalling, B., 1998, The BEL Programme: A Study of Refugee and Asylum seekers in Lambeth 0−5 year olds, Lambeth Healthcare NHS Trust. Praxis, 1998, Research on childcare provision in refugee community organisations in selected London boroughs, London, Praxis. Refugee Council, 1996, Planning for children’s needs: asylum seeking children and childcare policy, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1997, Section 11 and Refugees: a policy paper on how section 11 funding should be used to meet the educational needs of refugee children, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1998a, Refugee Community Schools Directory, London, Refugee Council. Refugee Council, 1998b, Supporting Refugee Children: A policy for the next millennium. Richman, N., 1998, In the Midst of the Whirlwind: a manual for helping refugee children, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Richman, N., 1996, They Don’t Recognise Our Dignity: A Study of the Psychosocial Needs of Refugee Children and Families in Hackney, London, City and Hackney Community NHS Trust. Routledge, John, 1996, Refugee Needs in Employment, Education, Health and Housing − a preliminary investigation for Hackney, London, LBH. Russell, Simon, 1999, Most Vulnerable of All: Unaccompanied child asylum seekers in the UK, London, Amnesty International UK. Rutter, J., 2001, Supporting Refugee Children in the 21st Century, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Rutter, J. and Jones, C., 1998, Refugee Education: Mapping the Field, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Rutter, J. and Hyder, T., 1998, Refugee Children in the Early Years: Issues for policy makers and providers, Refugee Council and SCF. Save the Children, Looking Forward: the Story of Young Refugees in Oxfordshire, Oxford, Save the Children, date? (video) Shakya, D. and Wardell, J., 1999, Report on Medical Interviews of Displaced Young Persons, CHSL.

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Stone, R., 2000, Children First and Foremost: Meeting the needs of unaccompanied, asylum-seeking children, Barnardo’s. Tarshish, Sally, 1997, The Care of Detained, Unaccompanied Children whose Age is Disputed, London, Association of Visitors to Immigration Detainees (AVID). Thomas Coram Research Unit/Candappa, M., 1998, Extraordinary Childhoods, Institute of Education/ESRC. Thomas Coram Research Unit/Candappal, M., 1999, The Social Lives of Refugee Children, Institute of Education/ESRC. Tolfree, D., 1996, Restoring Playfulness: different approaches to assisting children who are psychologically affected by war or displacement, Stockholm, Radda Barnen. 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System Amnesty International, 1996, Slamming the Door: the demolition of the right to asylum in the UK, London, AI. Amnesty International UK, 1996, Cell Culture: the Detention and Imprisonment of Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom, London, Amnesty International. Amnesty International UK, 1997, Dead Starlings: An update to the AIUK report ‘Cell Culture’, London, AI. Asylum Aid, 1999, Still No Reason At All: Home Office decisions on Asylum Claims, London, Asylum Aid. Asylum Rights Campaign, 1996, The Short Procedure: an analysis of the Home Office scheme for rapid initial analysis of asylum claims, London, ARC. Asylum Rights Campaign and Churches Commission for Racial Justice, 1996, Why Detention? Report of Conference, 6 November 1996, London, ARC. Churches Commission for Racial Equality/Asylum Rights Campaign, 1997, ‘Why Detention?’ 1996 Conference Report, London, CCRE/ARC. Crawley, Heaven, 1997, Women as asylum seekers: a legal handbook, London, ILPA/ Refugee Action/Refugee Women’s Legal Group. Harvey, Alison, 1996, “The risks of getting it wrong”: the Asylum and Immigration Bill session 1995/6 and the determinations of special adjudicators, London, Asylum Rights Campaign.

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Henderson, M., 1997, Best Practice Guide to Asylum Appeals, London, ILPA, Law Society, Refugee Legal Group. Hornsby-Smith, Andrew et al., 1997, How Britain Imprisons refugees: Information on Campsfield, Campaign to Close Campsfield. ILPA/Crawley, Heaven, 1999, Breaking Down the Barriers: A report on the conduct of asylum interviews at ports, London, ILPA. ILPA/Refugee Action, 1998, Women Asylum Seekers: A legal handbook, London, ILPA/Refugee Action. Jagmohan, J., 1996, The Short Procedure: An Analysis of the Home Office Scheme for Rapid Initial Decisions in Asylum Cases, London, Asylum Rights Campaign. Justice/ILPA/ARC, 1997, Providing Protection: towards fair and effective asylum procedures, London. Kent County Constabulary, 2001, Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Policing Guide, Kent, Kent County Constabulary. Law Society, 2000, Community Legal Services Contracted Suppliers: A Survey of Asylum Seekers and Completion of SEFs, London, Law Society. Morrison, John, 1998, The cost of survival: the trafficking of refugees to the UK, Refugee Council. Refugee Legal Centre, 1997, Reviewing the Asylum and Determination Procedure − A Casework Study, Parts 1 and 2, London, Refugee Legal Centre. Turner, S., 1996, Discrepancies in histories presented by asylum seekers: implications for assessment. 2.12 Racism/Discrimination Carter, Mary, 1996, Poverty and Prejudice: a preliminary report on the withdrawal of benefit entitlement and the impact of the Asylum and Immigration Bill, Commission for Racial Equality/Refugee Council (funded by Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust and Barrow Cadbury Trust). Fekete, Liz, 2000, The Dispersal of Xenophobia: report on the UK and Ireland, London, Institute of Race Relations. 2.15 Evaluation

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Carpenter, Evelyn, 2000, Refugees and the Arts: external evaluation report on LBTH ‘Look Ahead Housing and Care and East London Somali Consortium Project’, London, London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Chatwin, Mick (Ed.). 1999. Immigration, Nationality & Refugee Law Handbook: A User’s Guide. London: JCWI Compass Partnership, 1997, The Bosnia Project: Stage 2 Evaluation: An External Evaluation of Stage 2 of the Inter-agency Bosnia Project carried out by Compass Partnership from September − December 1996, Compass Partnership. Graessle, Lois and Gawlinski, George, 1996, Responding to a Humanitarian Emergency: An evaluation of the UK’s Bosnia Project to offer ‘temporary protection’ to people from Former Yugoslavia 1992−1995, Kings Lynn, Planning Together Associates. Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants. 1997. Immigration, Nationality and Refugee Law Handbook. A User's Guide. London: JCWI Leigh, Leonard Herschel and Beyani, Chaloka. 1996. Blackstone’s guide to the Asylum and Immigration Act 1996. London: Blackstone. Refugee Education and Training Advisory Service/Redbridge Signposting Service/Charities Evaluation Services, 2000, What Worked For Us?: Empowerment through Joint Evaluation, RETAS. Refugee Council. 1998a. Briefing on the Government's Immigration & Asylum White Paper. London: Refugee Council. Refugee Council. 1998b. Response to ‘Fairer, faster and firmer − a modern approach to immigration and asylum’. London: The Council. Rison, Erif. 2000. A person before the law: the CAB case for a statement of rights for people with limited leave in the UK. National Association of Citizens Advice Bureaux. London: NACAB Scottish Refugee Council, Evaluation of the Bosnian Reception Centre in North Berwick. Shutter, Sue. 1997. Immigration, nationality & refugee law handbook: a user’s guide. London: JCWI.

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3. Both Refugees and Migrants

3.1 General London Borough Grants, Balancing the Act: a cross sectoral response to the Immigration and Asylum Bill, 1999. London Borough Grants, Review Report on LBG funding strategies for refugees, migrants and asylum seekers, 1997−2002, London, LBG, 1997. 3.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Eversley, John and Watts, Helen, Refugee and Overseas Qualified Nurses Living in the UK: Research Report April−December 2000, London, Praxis/Queen Mary, University of London, 2000. 3.4 Health Karmi, G. ‘Refugees’, in Rawaf, S. and Bahl, V. (Eds), Assessing Health Needs of People from Minority Ethnic Groups, London, Royal College of Physicians and Faculty of Public Health Medicine, 1998. Migrant and Refugee Communities Forum, 1999, A Shattered World: Mental Health Needs of Refugees and Newly-Arrived Communities, London, CVS Consultants. 3.5 Housing London Housing Unit, 1996, Housing Asylum and Immigration, London, LHU. 3.8 Women Kainth, A. K., 1997, The childcare experiences and needs of refugee women and other black minority ethnic women whose first language is not English who live in Islington, London, Women’s Equality Unit, Islington Council. 3.9a Family NACAB, 1996, A right to family life: CAB clients’ experience of immigration and asylum, London, NACAB. 3.9b Children Hirson, Judith, 1998, New to Schooling: A Survey of Practice: Educational provision for refugee and other students who come to England new to education or with very fractured

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prior educational experience, Refugee Education Initiative, International Centre for Intercultural Education, Institute of Education, London University. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service, Working with Refugee and Immigrant Children: Issues of Culture, Law and Development, New York, LIRS, date? Minority Rights Group, 1998, Forging new identities: Young refugees and minority students tell their stories; views from London and Amsterdam, London, Minority Rights Group. 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System ACLEC, 1998, Improving the Quality of Immigration Advice and Representation: A report, London, ACLEC. Asylum Rights Campaign, 1998, Campsfield Report, London, ARC. Ghose, K., 1996, The Asylum and Immigration Act 1996: a compilation of ministerial statements made on behalf of the government during the Bill’s passage through Parliament, London, ILPA. ILPA, 2000, The Amsterdam Proposals: The ILPS/MPG proposed directives on immigration and asylum, London, ILPA. JCWI, 1997, Manifesto for Change, basic principles for a just immigration policy, London, JCWI. JCWI, 2000, Immigration, Nationality and Refugee Law Handbook: A user’s guide, London, JCWI. 3.12 Racism Commission for Racial Equality, 1998a, A Culture of Suspicion: the impact of internal immigration controls, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1998b, Racial Equality and the Asylum and Immigration Act 1996, London, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1996, ‘Immigration Survey Research Report’ carried out in Dec.

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PART II. REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 – United Kingdom 1. Immigrants And Migrants 1.1 General Amin. K with Oppenheim, 1992, C. Poverty in Black and White: Deprivation and Ethnic Minorities, CPAG in association with Runnymede Trust. Runnymede Trust, 1994, Multi-Ethnic Britain: Facts and Trends, London, Runnymede Trust. 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Akinwale, J.D. and Tjiueza, 1992, M.I. Ethnic Minorities in Further Education, Brighton Polytechnic. Bird, P.W., 1994, African Experiences of Education in the UK, MSc Dissertation, South Bank University. Education and International Development/Carr-Hill, Prof. R. A., 1995, English Language Needs Amongst Linguistic Minority Populations, London, Institute of Education/Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit. Home Office, 1995, Prevention of Illegal Working: consultation document, London, Home Office. National Association for Citizens Advice Bureau, 1994, Unequal Opportunities: CAB evidence on discrimination in employment, London, NACAB. 1.4 Health Balarajan, R. and Soni Raleigh, V., 1993, Ethnicity and Health: A Guide for the NHS, London, Department of Health. Beliappa, Jayanthi, 1991, Illness or Distress? Alternative Models of Mental Health, CIO. Dorkenoo, E. and Elworthy, S., 1994, Female Genital Mutilation: proposals for change, Minority Rights Groups International. Dorkenoo, Efua, 1995, Cutting the Rose: Female genital mutilation, the practice and its prevention, London, Minority Rights Group. Fenton, S., 1993, The sorrow in my heart … sixteen Asian women speak about depression, London, Commission for Racial Equality. 235

Health Education Authority, 1994, Health related resources for black and minority ethnic groups, London, Health Education Authority. McIver, Shirley, 1993, Obtaining the Views of Black Users of Health Services, London, King’s Fund. Mental Health Foundation, 1995, Mental Health in Black & Minority Ethnic People: The Fundamental Facts, Mental Health Foundation. MIND/Fernando, 1991, Suman, Mental Health, Race & Culture, MIND. MORI, 1994, Evaluation of bilingual health care schemes in East London, London, MORI. Pharoah, C., 1995, Primary Health Care for Elderly People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities, London, HMSO. Shah, R., 1995, The Silent Minority: children with disabilities in Asian families, National Children’s Bureau. Smaje, 1995, C. Health, Race and Ethnicity: Making Sense of the Evidence, London, King’s Fund Institute. Webb-Johnson/CIO, 1991, A Cry for Change: An Asian Perspective on Developing Quality Mental Health Care, CIO. Williams, S., Watt, I. and Fong, C.L., 1992, Report of Conference on Chinese Health Care in Britain, Leeds, Leeds Health Promotion Service. Winn, L. and Chotai, N., 1992, ‘Community Development: Working with Black and Ethnic Minority Groups’ in Winn, L. (Ed.) Power to the People: The Key to Responsive Services in Health and Social Care, London, King’s Fund Centre. 1.5 Housing Anchor Housing Trust, 1994, The Numbers Game: black and minority ethnic elders and sheltered accommodation, Anchor Housing Trust. Bell, W.S., 1998, Put in your place: Race and Council Housing in Enfield, London Borough of Enfield Community Relations Council. Commission for Racial Equality, 1991, Accounting for Equality: A handbook on ethnic monitoring in housing, CRE.

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Commission for Racial Equality, 1993a, Housing Associations and Racial Equality: report of a formal investigation into housing associations in Wales, Scotland and England, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1993b Room for All: tenants’ associations and racial equality, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1987, Living in Terror: a report on racial violence and harassment in housing, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1990, ‘Sorry it’s gone’: Testing for racial discrimination in the private rented housing sector, London, CRE. Drivers, Jonas, 1995, Communities within Communities: the role of black housing associations in London, London Federation of Housing Associations. Forbes, Duncan, 1988, Action on Racial Harassment: Legal Remedies and Local Authorities, Legal Action Group and London Housing Unit. Hackney Council, 1984, Race and Council Housing in Hackney: Report of a formal investigation, CRE. Harrison, M. and Davies, J., 1995, Constructing Equality: housing associations and minority ethnic contractors, SAUS, Bristol University. Kensington and Chelsea Race and Housing Action Group, 1989, Behind the Façade: Migrant Workers and the Private Rented Sector in Kensington and Chelsea, KCRHAG. LVSC (London Voluntary Sector Council, Migrant Services Unit), 1987, Migrants: the invisible homeless: report on migrants’ housing needs and circumstances in London, LVSC. Mullins, Beverley, 1991, The Colour of Money: the impact of housing investment decision making on black housing outcomes in London, Runnymede Trust. National Federation of Housing Associations, 1994, Places Round the Table: Equal Opportunities and Housing Association Committees, NFHA. North Housing Trust, 1993, Accommodating Diversity: the design of housing for minority ethnic, religious and cultural groups, London, North Housing Trust. Phillips, Deborah, 1986, What Price Equality? A report on the allocation of FLC housing in Tower Hamlets, GLC Housing Research and Policy Report No. 9. Smith, Susan J. and Hill, Sara, 1991,‘Race’ and Housing in Britain, London, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

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1.6a Social/Cultural/Religious Ahmed et al., 1990, Social work with black children and their families, childcare policy and practice, Batsford in Association with BAAF. Barn, R., 1993, Black Children in the Public Care System, Batsford in Association with BAAF. Butt, J., Gorbach, P. and Ahmed, B., 1994, Equally Fair? A report on social services departments’ development, implementation and monitoring of services for the black and minority ethnic community, NISW/HMSO. Butt, J., 1994, Same service or equal service? The second report on social services deparments’ development, implementation and monitoring of services for the black and minority community, NISW/HMSO. Commission for Racial Equality, 1995, Report of Joint CRE/BA pilot study into the provision of income support to Asian and non-Asian claimants in two local benefits offices, London, CRE. Jones, A. and Butt, J., 1995, Taking the Initiative: the report of a national study assessing service provision to black children and families, NSPCC/REU/NISW. Waters, H., 1993, Resource directory on ‘race’ and racism in social work, London, Institute of Race Relations. 1.6b Community/Self-Help Action Group for Irish Youth, 1990, Over here: young Irish migrants in London, London, AGIY. Bhatt, A. and Dickinson, R., 1993, A report on a survey of South Asian, Chinese and Caribbean communities, Leicester, Centre for Mass Communication Research/University of Leicester. Winn, L. and Chotai, N., 1992, ‘Community Development: Working with Black and Ethnic Minority Groups’ in Winn, L. (Ed.) Power to the People: The Key to Responsive Services in Health and Social Care, London, King’s Fund Centre. 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation Amin, K. and Richardson, R., 1992, Politics for All, London, Runnymede Trust, 1992 1.8 Women

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Beheno, Belgrave, 1995, Beaten but not defeated: A report on Asian women and domestic violence in Leicestershire, Leicester. Dorkenoo, Efua, 1995, Cutting the Rose: Female genital mutilation, the practice and its prevention, London, Minority Rights Group. Fenton, S., 1993, The sorrow in my heart … sixteen Asian women speak about depression, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Greenwich Women’s Equality Unit, 1995, Asian Women and Domestic Violence: Information for Advisors, London, London Borough of Greenwich. Smith, P. and Berridge, D., 1994, Ethnicity and Childcare Placements, National Children’s Bureau. Southall Black Sisters, 1993, Domestic Violence and Asian Women: Collection of Reports and Briefings, London, SBS. Women Acting in Today’s Society, 1995, Freedom from Abuse: Domestic Violence in the Asian, African Caribbean and Arab Communities, Birmingham, WAITS. 1.9a Family Life ASHIA/Age Concern, 1992, Time for Action: consultation document on the needs of Asian elders, ASHIA/Age Concern. Askham, J. et al., 1995, Social and Health Authority Services for Elderly People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities, London, HMSO. Bhalla, A. and Blakemore, K., 1981, Elders of the Minority Ethnic Groups, AFFOR. Hall, S., 1988, Forty Winters On: memories of Britain’s post war Caribbean immigrants, London, Lambeth Council. JCWI, 1990, Target Caribbean: the rise in visitor refusals from the Caribbean, London, JCWI. Jones, A. and Butt, J., 1995, Taking the Initiative: the report of a national study assessing service provision to black children and families, NSPCC/REU/NISW. Norman, A., 1985, Triple Jeopardy: Growing old in a second homeland, Centre for Policy on Ageing. Patel, Naina, 1990, A ‘Race’ Against Time? Social services provision to Black Elders, London, Runnymede Trust.

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Pharoah, C., 1995, Primary Health Care for Elderly People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities, London, HMSO. PRIAE Care Needs of black and minority ethnic elders in Wales, Report to the Wales Office, forthcoming, PRIAE (Policy R esearch Institute on Ageing and Ethnicity) Smith, P. and Berridge, D., 1994, Ethnicity and Childcare Placements, National Children’s Bureau. 1.9b Children Action Group for Irish Youth, 1990, Over here: young Irish migrants in London, London, AGIY. Ahmed et al., 1990, Social work with black children and their families, childcare policy and practice, Batsford in Association with BAAF. Barn, R., 1993, Black Children in the Public Care System, Batsford in Association with BAAF. Caesar, G., Parchment, M. and Berridge, D., 1994, Black perspectives on services for children in need, London, National Children’s Bureau and Barnardos. Commission for Racial Equality, 1992, Set to Fail? Setting and Banding in Secondary Schools, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Commission for Racial Equality, 1995, Young and Equal: a standard for racial equality in services working with young people, London, CRE. Early Years Trainers Anti-Racist Network, 1994, Children without Prejudice: A Video Pack, EYTARN. Edwards, V., 1995, Speaking and Listening in Multilingual Classrooms, Reading, University of Reading, Reading and Language Information Centre. Jones, A. and Butt, J., 1995, Taking the Initiative: the report of a national study assessing service provision to black children and families, NSPCC/REU/NISW. Minority Rights Group, 1993, Voices from Eritrea, Voices from Somalia, Voices from Kurdistan: autobiographical writings by secondary school children, London, Minority Rights Group. Shah, R., 1995, The Silent Minority: children with disabilities in Asian families, National Children’s Bureau.

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Siraj-Blatchford, I., 1994, The Early Years: laying the foundation for racial equality, Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books. Smith, D.J. and Tonlinson, S., 1989, The School Effect: A Study of Multi-Racial Comprehensives, London, Policy Studies Institute. Smith, P. and Berridge, D., 1994, Ethnicity and Childcare Placements, National Children’s Bureau. Swann, Lord, 1985, Education for All: Final Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, Cmnd 9453, London, HMSO. Warner, Rachel, 1992, Bangladesh is my Motherland, London, Minority Rights Group. 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal System National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders, 1989, Race and Criminal Justice: A Way Forward, NACRO. Nuffield Interpreter Project, 1993, Access to Justice: Non-English Speakers in the Legal System: A Report, London, The Nuffield Foundation. 1.12 Racism Commission for Racial Equality, 1985, Positive Action and Equal Opportunities in Employment, CRE. Commission for Racial Equality, 1995, Young and Equal: a standard for racial equality in services working with young people, London, CRE. Early Years Trainers Anti-Racist Network, 1994, Children without Prejudice: A Video Pack, EYTARN. Runnymede Trust, 1994, A Very Light Sleeper: The persistence and dangers of antisemitism, London, Runnymede Trust. Siraj-Blatchford, I., 1994, The Early Years: laying the foundation for racial equality, Stoke on Trent, Trentham Books. Waters, H., 1993, Resource directory on ‘race’ and racism in social work, London, Institute of Race Relations. 1.15 Evaluation

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Feuerstein, Marie Therese, 1986, Partners in Evaluation: Evaluating Development and Community Programmes with Participants, London, Macmillan. Guba, Egon G. and Lincoln, Yvonna S., 1989, Fourth Generation Evaluation, London, Sage Publications. Theis, Joachim and Grady, Heather M., 1991, Participatory Rapid Appraisal for Community Development: a training manual based on experiences in the Middle East and North Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development/Save the Children/Ford Foundation, [used for Bosnian Programme evaluation].

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2. Refugees 2.1 General Balloch, S., 1993, Refugees in the Inner City: A Study of Refugees and Service Provision in the London Borough of Lewisham, London, Centre for Inner City Studies, Goldsmiths College, University of London. Barnet Borough Voluntary Service Council, 1994, Refugees in Barnet, London, BBVSC. Brent and Harrow Health Agency/Brent and Harrow Refugee Groups/Training and Enterprise Council, 1995, Brent and Harrow Refugee Survey, London. British Refugee Council, 1982, Programmes for Refugees, contribution from the British Refugee Council to seminar on Action and Social Progress − the UK experience, Brighton, BRC. British Refugee Council, 1990, Refugees − where do Britain’s political parties stand? London, BRC. British Refugee Council, 1991, Statistics on Refugees and Asylum Seekers, United Kingdom, 1989−1990, Extracted from Home Office statistics, London, BRC. British Refugee Council, 1994, Refugees in Brent, London, BRC. Baxter, Susan, 1992, Refugees in Hounslow, Prepared for Hounslow Equal Opportunities Committee. CAFOD, 1995, Refugees − a survey of the general public, London, CAFOD. Carey-Wood, J., Duke, K., Karn, V., and Marshall, T., 1995, The Settlement of Refugees in Britain, London, Home Office Research Study 141. Chile Democratico, 1991, A proposal for the resettlement of Chilean refugees (over 50s) living in Britain, Chile Democratico and Committee for the Return to Chile (UK). Connelly, Maureen, 1983, Refugees and asylum-seekers: proposals for policy changes, UK Immigrants Advisory Service (UKIAS), Refugee Unit. Field, Simon, 1985, Resettling Refugees: the lessons of research, Home Office Research Study 87. Gambell, John et al., 1993, Welcome to the UK? The experiences of asylum seekers in London, London, NACAB.

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Goldsmiths College, 1992, Centre for Inner City Studies Refugees in the Inner City: A study of refugees and service-provision in the London Borough of Lewisham, Report prepared by the Lewisham Refugee Network. Groupwork/Reynolds, J. and Shackman, J., 1994, Partnership in Training and Practice with Refugees, Groupwork. Islington Refugee Working Party, 1991, Report on Questionnaire Survey, London, Islington Refugee Working Party. Majka, Lorraine, Into the 90s: the needs of refugee-based organisations and refugees in Britain, place, publishers, date Mentesnot, Mengesha, 1995, Responding to Refugees’ Needs: a challenge for voluntary agencies and churches in the London Borough of Newham, Newham Community Renewal Programme/Refugee Support Centre. MORI on behalf of CAFOD, 1993, ‘Refugees − A survey of the General Public’. Newham Community Renewal Programme, 1995, Responding to Refugees’ Needs: The Challenge for Voluntary Agencies and Churches in the London Borough of Newham. Refugee Advisors Support Unit, 1995, Refugee resources in the UK: contacts and addresses, Refugee Council. UKIAS Refugee Unit, 1998a, Referral of asylum seekers to UKIAS refugee unit, UKIAS. UKIAS Refugee Unit, 1998b, UKIAS Refugee Unit: a report for 1987, UKIAS. 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Bravo, Maria/Refugee Council, 1993, The Special Training Needs of Refugees, Refugee Council, London. British Refugee Council, 1988, Working for success: a unique training and workexperience scheme for refugees in Britain, British Refugee Council, London. Clark, G., 1992, Refugees and the Greenwich Labour Market, London, Local Economy Policy Unit, South Bank Polytechnic. Dane, Penny, 1987, Lessons for a new beginning: report of an education programme for refugee adults in a UK reception centre, Refugee Action. Fraser, Linsay/Refugee Action, 1988, Research into the Employment, Training and Educational Needs of Refugees from Vietnam in Leeds and Bradford (commissioned by Manpower Services Commission), Leeds, Refugee Action. 244

Hartnall, E., 1993, Refugee Educational and Training Needs, a Survey of Adult Refugees in Brent, NES. Hassan, Mohamed Rashid, 1986, Study on unemployment of African refugees in Britain and the role of the community programme sponsored by the British Refugee Council, World University Service UK, London. Marshall, T., 1992a, Guidance with Refugees, Refugee Training and Education Centre. Marshall, T., 1992b, Refugee Issues: The Cultural Aspect of Job-Hunting, Refugee Council, London. Shawcross, V., Grosser, K. and Goldsmith, J., 1987, Women in Mind: the education needs of women refugees in the UK, World University Service. Shirwa, A., 1994, Adult Community Education and Refugees, MA dissertation, Birkbeck College. World University Service, UK, 1989, The invisible students: Refugees and Further Education, London, WUS UK.

2.4 Health a) Research Awiah, J., 1992, Refugees and the National Health Service, Health and Ethnicity Programme, London, North West and North East Thames Regional Health Authorities. Bernard-Jones, S., 1993, Qualitative Needs Assessment Study of Somali and Eritrean Refugee Women in Haringey, London, Haringey Health Authority. Gammell, Henrieta et al., 1993, Refugees, service provision and access to the NHS, Newham Health Authority. Grant, C. and Deane, J., 1995, Stating the Obvious: factors which influence the uptake and provision of primary health care services to refugees, Brixton Challenge and LSL Health Authority. Karmi, G., 1992, Refugees and the National Health Service, The Health and Ethnicity Programme, North West/North East Thames RHAs. Michael, T., 1994, Health needs of Refugee Children Symposium on refugee health issues, Selby Centre, Tottenham, London.

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Newham Health Authority, 1993, Refugee (political asylum seekers) Service Provision and Access to the NHS: a study by the College of Health for Newham Health Authority, London. Tang, My, 1994, Towards a Healthy Future: Vietnamese Refugees, Save the Children/Optimum Heath Services. Traumatic Stress Clinic, 1993, Access to NHS Services for Refugees and Asylum Seekers, Traumatic Stress Clinic. UNHCR, 1994, Guidelines on the Evaluation and Care of Victims of Trauma and Violence, Geneva. 2.5 Housing Bell, J. and Clinton, L., 1992, The Unheard Community: a report on the housing conditions and needs of refugees from Vietnam living in London, Community Development Foundation. Citron, K.M, Southern, A. and Dixon, M., 1995, Out of the Shadow, London, CRISIS. Housing Associations Charitable Trust, Housing Issues facing Refugee Communities in London: 2.6a Social/Cultural/Religious Bang, Suzanne, 1983, We Come as a Friend: Towards a Vietnamese Model of Social Work, Refugee Action. Finlay, Rosalind and Reynolds, Jill, 1987, Social work and Refugees: A handbook on working with people in exile in the UK, National Extension College and Refugee Action, Cambridge. 2.6b Community/Self-Help Initiatives Asylum Aid, 1993, Who are we?: Experiences of Iraqi Refugees in the UK and the government’s official response, Report, London, Asylum Aid. Bang, Suzanne and Finlay, Rosalind, 1987, Working to Support Refugees: a report of a training project to prepare Vietnamese & Chinese field staff to work with people from Vietnam resettled in the UK, Refugee Action, Oakwood, Derby.

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Committee for the Return to Chile (UK) and Chile Democratico, 1989, Report of a survey of the Chilean exile community in Great Britain (GB) to evaluate the demand for returning to Chile. Edholm, Felicity, Roberts, Helen and Sayer, Judith, 1983, Vietnamese Refugees in Britain, Commission for Racial Equality, London. Graessle, Lois and Ung, Van Ly, Methods of Managing: a handbook for community groups of refugees from Vietnam, Refugee Action, date? Home Office Research and Statistics Department/Duke, K. and Marshall, T., 1995, Vietnamese refugees since 1982, Research Findings No. 18, HMSO. Jones, Peter, 1982, Vietnamese Refugees: a study of their reception and resettlement in the United Kingdom, Research and Planning Unit Paper 13, London Home Office. Lam, T. and Martin, C., 1994, The Settlement of the Vietnamese in London: official policy and refugee responses, London, Refugee Action. London Borough of Tower Hamlets, 1993, Somali Refugees in Tower Hamlets, Research Paper, LBTH. Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 1995, Zairean Asylum Seekers: their experiences in two countries, London, MF. National Democratic Front of Iran, 1990, Iranians in the UK: an appeal, NDFI. Refugee Action, 1991, A guide to living in Britain for refugees from Vietnam, Refugee Action, Oakwood, Derby. Save the Children, 1994, Wales Division, The Somali Community in Cardiff, Cardiff, Save the Children. 2.8 Women Shawcross, V., Grosser, K. and Goldsmith, J., 1987, Women in Mind: the education needs of women refugees in the UK, World University Service. Women’s Education Group, 1988, Refugee women in Britain. 2.9b Children Daycare Trust, 1995, Reaching First Base: Guidelines on good practice on meeting the needs of refugee children from the Horn of Africa, London, Daycare Trust.

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Department of Health, 1995, Practice Guidance and Training Pack on Working with Unaccompanied Asylum-seeking Children, Department of Health. Finlay, R. and Reynolds, J. (Eds), 1987, Children from Refugee Communities, London, Refugee Action. ILPA, 1992, Unaccompanied refugee children, ILPA conference report. Macdonald, I., 1989, Murder in the Playground: the Burnage Report, London, Longsight Press. McDonald, J., 1995, Entitled to Learn? A report on young refugees experiences of access and progression in the UK education system, London, World University Service UK. Melzak, S., 1994, You can’t see your reflection when the water is always full of soap suds: some considerations of the development of an integrated identity in refugee children, Medical Foundation for the Care and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture. Melzak and Warner, 1992, Integrating Refugee Children into Schools, Minority Rights Group, London. Michael, T.,1994, Health needs of Refugee Children, Symposium on refugee health issues, Selby Centre, Tottenham, London. Save the Children, 1994, Directions UK: Working with Refugees, Save the Children, 1989 a survey, London, HACT. 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal systems Amnesty International British Section, 1990, United Kingdom: deficient policy and practice for the protection of asylum seekers, London, AI. Amnesty International British Section, 1992, Towards a credible asylum process: a model for fair and practicable procedures, London, AI. Amnesty International UK, 1994, Prisoners without a Voice: asylum seekers detained in the United Kingdom, London, Amnesty International. Amnesty International British Section, 1995, Playing Human Pinball: Home Office practice in ‘safe third country’ cases, London, AI. Amnesty International UK/Asylum Rights Campaign, 1991, A Duty Dodged: The Government’s Evasion of its Obligations under the 1951 Convention on Refugees, AI. British Refugee Council, 1988, Refugee agencies call for a fair and just system for people seeking asylum in Britain, British Refugee Council, London.

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Lindsley, F., 1994, Best Practice Guide to the Preparation of Asylum Applications from Arrival to First Substantive Decision, ILPA (second edition in preparation). Stanley, A., 1997, ‘Political asylum interviews: the role of clerks and independent interpreters’ Immigration and Nationality Law and Practice. Wiltcher, D., 1982, Compulsory Deportations: the case of Cypriot refugees living in the UK, Cypriot Community Workers Action Group.

2.15 Evaluation Dane, Penny, 1987, Lessons for a new beginning: report of an education programme for refugee adults in a UK reception centre, Refugee Action. McFarland, Elaine, 1993, Bosnian Families in Glasgow: a report for the Bosnaian coordinating group, Glasgow Caledonian University. 3. Both Refugees and Migrants 3.1 General Bloch, A., 1994, Refugees and migrants in Newham: Access to services, London Borough of Newham, London. Spencer, S. (Ed.), 1994, Strangers and Citizens: a positive approach to migrants and refugees, London, IPPR. 3.8 Women Bhabha, J. and Shutter, S., 1994, Women’s Movement: Women under immigration, nationality and refugee law, London, Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants. Islington and Hackney Women’s Equality Units, 1991, The Effects of 1992 and the Single European Market on Black, Migrant and Refugee Women, London. 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System Detention Advice Service, 1993, Britain’s Forgotten Prisoners, London, DAS. JCWI, 1993, Detained Without Trial: A Survey of Immigration Act Detention, London, JCWI. 3.12 Racism

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Commission for Racial Equality, 1985, Immigration Control Procedures: Report of a Formal Investigation, CRE.

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PART III. REFERENCES DATING FROM 1996 ONWARDS – International 1. Immigrants and Migrants 1.1 General Council of Europe, 2000a, Diversity and Cohesion: new challenges for the integration of immigrants and minorities, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Council of Europe, 2000b, Framework of Integration Policies, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Council of Europe, 2000c, Strategies for Implementing Integration Policies proceedings (Prague 4−6 May 2000), Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Doomernik, Jeroen, 1998, ‘The effectiveness of integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants in France, Germany and the Netherlands’, International Migration Papers, no. 27, Geneva, IOM. Hix, S. and Niessen, J., 1996, Reconsidering European Migration Policies: The 1996 Intergovernmental Conference and the Reform of the Maastricht Treaty, Migration Policy Group, Brussels. International Organization for Migration, 1996, Round Table on Effective Respect for the Rights and Dignity of Migrants: New Needs and Responses, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1998a, Gains from Global Linkages: Trade in Services and Movements of Persons, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1998b, Huddled Masses and Uncertain Shores: Insights into Irregular Migration, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1998c, Migration Potential in Central and Eastern Europe, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1999, The Dynamics of Migration Seen from the Perspective of Countries of Origin and Countries of Destination, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 2000a, International Migration Policies and Programmes, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 2000b, Migrant Trafficking in Europe: A review of migrant trafficking and human smuggling in Europe with case studies from Hungary, Poland and Ukraine, Geneva, IOM.

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International Organization for Migration, 2000c, Overview of International Migration, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 2000d, Perspectives on Trafficking of Migrants, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 2000e, World Migration Report 2000, Geneva, IOM, 2000 International Organization for Migration, 2001, Return Migration: Journey of Hope or Despair? Geneva, IOM. Migration Policy Group, 1996, The Comparative Approaches to Societal Integration Project, Brussels, Migration Policy Group. Odysseus Network, 2000, Regularizations of illegal immigrants in the EU, Belgium, Odysseus Network. Papademetriou, D., 1996, Converging Paths to Restriction: French, Italian and British Responses to Immigration, Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Salt, J., 1997, Current trends in international migration in Europe, Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Smith, David, Wistrich, Enid and Tunc, Aybak, 1999, The Migrants’ Voice in Europe, Middlesex University Press/Runnymede Trust. United Nations, 2000, ‘Replacement Migration: Is it a solution to declining and ageing populations?’, United Nations. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1998, ‘Managing Migration in the wider Europe’ presentation to a Council of Europe Seminar, Strasbourg. 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Council of Europe, 1996a, Temporary Migration for the Purposes of Employment and Training, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Council of Europe, 1996b, The Role of Management and Trade Unions in Promoting Equal Opportunities in Employment, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Council of Europe, 1999, Initiatives by Employers to Promote Employment and Integration of Immigrants, Strasbourg, Council of Europe.

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Employment and European Social Fund, 2000, Towards Employment for All: Combating racism and promoting the integration of migrants, Brussels, European Commission. Hodges-Aeberhard and Raskin, C., 1997, Affirmative Action in the Employment of Ethnic Minorities and Persons with Disabilities, ILO. 1.4 Health International Organization for Migration, 1996, Report on Workshop on Medical Screening of Migrants, Geneva, IOM. 1.6a Social/Cultural/Religious Council of Europe, 1999, Religion and the Integration of Immigrants, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1.7 Political Organisation/Participation Council of Europe, 1999, Political and Social Participation of Immigrants through Consultative Bodies, Strasbourg, Council of Europe.

1.8 Women Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women/Foundation Against Trafficking in Women, Netherlands, 1997, Trafficking in Women: Forced labour and slavery-like practices in marriage, domestic labour and prostitution, Bangkok. International Organization for Migration, 1996, Trafficking of Women to the European Union: Characteristics, trends and policy issues, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1998, Trafficking in Women: A review of the statistical data in Europe, Geneva, IOM. National Network on Immigrants and Refugee Rights, 2000, Hands that Shape the World: Report on the Conditions of Immigrant Women in the US: 5 years after the Beijing Conference, US. 1.9a Family Life

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Patel, N., Mirza, N. et al., 1998, CNEOPSA study: Dementia and Minority Ethnic Older People: Managing Care in the UK, Denmark and France, Lyme Regis, Russell House Publishing. Patel, N. and Mertens, H. (Eds), 1998, Living and Ageing as a Minority in Europe: Profiles and Projects, Netherlands (NIZW and CCETSW), London. 1.9b Children Cummins, J., 1996, Negotiating Identities: Education for Improvement in a Diverse Society, Ontario, USA, California Association for Bilingual Education. 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal System Council of Europe/Greonendyk, Kess, Guild, Elspeth and Dogan, Halil, 1998, Security of residence of long-term migrants − A comparative study of Law and Practice in European Countries, Council of Europe. Guild, Elspeth, 1999, The European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant Workers 1977: an analysis of its scope and benefits, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1.12 Racism Employment and European Social Fund, 2000, Towards Employment for All: Combating racism and promoting the integration of migrants, Brussels, European Commission. European Year Against Racism, 1998, Projects in Practice, European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs. 1.15 Evaluation Council of Europe, 1997, Measurement and Indicators of Integration, Council of Europe.

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2. Refugees 2.1 General Black, R., Koser, K. and Walsh, M., 1997, Conditions for the return of Displaced Persons from the European Union: Final Report, Luxembourg, European Commission. European Commission, 1997, Budget Line B3-4113: Integration of Refugees: Report on the Implementation and Selection of Projects in 1997, EC. European Council of Refugees and Exiles, 1997, Position of the European Council on Refugees and Exiles on temporary protection in the context of the need for a supplementary refugee definition, London, ECRE. European Council of Refugees and Exiles, 1999, Position on the Integration of Refugees in Europe, London, ECRE. ECRE Task Force on Integration, 1998, Report from the Conference on the Integration of Refugees in Europe, Antwerp 12−14 November 1998, ECRE Task Force on Integration. EU Networks on Integration of Refugees, 2000, Refugee Integration and Networking: European Seminar Report. France Terre d’Asile, 1996, Reception and Accommodation of Asylum Seekers in Europe: summary and analysis, European Seminar on the Reception of Asylum Seekers. Inter-governmental Consultations (IGC), 1997, Summary Description of asylum procedures in states in Europe, North America and Australia, Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Consultation of asylum, refugees and migration policies in Europe, North America and Australia. International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), 1994, The Key to Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Entry and Asylum Policies in Western Countries, Report prepared by the ICMPD for the Swedish Parliamentary Immigrant and Refugee Commission, Stockholm, Swedish Government Official Reports. Joly, Daniele, 1996, Haven or Hell? Asylum Policies and Refugees in Europe, Centre of Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick, Macmillan. Joly, Daniele, Kelly, Lynette and Nettleton, Clive, 1997, Refugees in Europe: The Hostile New Agenda, London, Minority Rights Group International. Liebaut, Fabrice, 2000, Legal and social conditions for asylum seekers and refugees in Western European countries, Copenhagen, Danish Refugee Council and European Commission.

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Liebaut, F. and J.Hughes, 1997, Legal and social conditions for asylum seekers and refugees in Western European countries, Copenhagen, Danish Refugee Council. PERCO/Red Cross/EU Liaison Bureau, 1998, Traumatised Refugees: Lessons to be learnt from the process from the pre-asylum period to integration in society, PERCO/Red Cross/EU Liaison Bureau. Refugee Trust, 1997, Ireland’s link with the global refugee crisis: some questions and points of view, Dublin, Stillorgan and Refugee Trust. Valtowen, Kathleen, 1999, The Integration of Refugees in Finland in the 1990s, Finland Ministry of Labour. 2.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Kjeller, Johansen (Ed), 1998, Assessment and Recognition of Refugees’ Qualifications in the European Community, Danish Refugee Council. Lazenby Smith, Barbara, 1997, Refugee Language and Training Project: report on pilot course and supported vocational training placements, Dublin, Refugee Agency. McGivern, Alicia, 1997, Evaluation of English Provision for Asylum Seekers as provided by the Irish Refugee Council, Dublin, IRC. Refugee Council/ECRE, 1998, Background Information for Employment Working Group: Employment Questionnaire on National Situations with Responses from Individual EU States, ECRE/Refugee Council. Refugee Council/ECRE Task Force on Integration, 1999a, Good Practice Guide on Employment of Refugees in the European Union, ECRE/Refugee Council, London. Refugee Council/ECRE Task Force on Integration, 1999b, Refugee Perceptions of Employment (Report of Refugee Employment Working Group in Dalfsen), ECRE, Brussels. Refugee Council/ECRE Task Force on Integration, 1999c, Refugees and Employment: the European Context, ECRE, London. 2.4 Health Magumu, Moustapha, 2000, The Refugee Situation and the WHO Philosophy. 2.5 Housing France Terre d’Asile, 1997, The Reception and Accommodation of Asylum Seekers in Europe, Paris, FTA.

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2.6b Community/Self-Help O’Regan, Cathal, 1998, Report of a survey of the Vietnamese and Bosnian refugee communities living in Ireland, Dublin, The Refugee Agency. 2.8 Women ECRE, 1997, Position on Asylum Seeking and Refugee Women, London, ECRE. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1996, Female Genital Mutilation: position paper, Geneva, UNHCR. 2.9a Family Life ECRE, 1999, Survey of provisions for Refugee Family Reunion in the European Union, London, ECRE. Scott, H. and Bolzman, C., 1999, ‘Age in Exile: Europe’s older refugees and exiles’, in Bloch, A. and Levy, C. (Eds) Refugees, Citizenship and Social Policy in Europe, Macmillan. 2.9b Children Center for Social Policy Initiatives/Swedish Save the Children, 1998, Unaccompanied Children in Exile, Zagreb, Center for Social Policy Initiatives/Swedish Save the Children. Inter-Governmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee and Migration Policies, 1997, Report on Unaccompanied Minors: Overview of policies and practices in IGC participating states, Geneva, IGC. Omega Health Care Centre, 2000, European Guidelines on Empowerment and Integration Programs for Refugee Children and Adolescents, Omega Health Care Centre, Graz. Ruxton, Sandy, 2000, Separated Children Seeking Asylum in Europe: A programme for action, London, Save the Children and UNHCR. Swedish Save the Children, 1997, Renewing Home Country Links: An Account of the Journey of Five Unaccompanied Refugees back to the Horn of Africa, Stockholm, Swedish Save the Children. Swedish Save the Children, 1998, Separated Children and Voluntary Return: Ways of Surviving, Swedish Save the Children.

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UNHCR/Save the Children/European Commission, 1999, Separated Children in Europe Programme: Statement of Good Practice, UNHCR/Save the Children/European Commission. Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2000, Untapped Potential: adolescents affected by armed conflict, a review of programmes and policies, WCRWC.

2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System ILPA/Refugee Council, 1998, Mind the Gap! Ineffective member state implementation of European Union asylum measures, London, ILPA/Refugee Council. Morrison, John and Crosland, Beth, 2000, The trafficking and smuggling of refugees: the endgame in European asylum policy, Geneva, UNHCR. 2.15 Evaluation Berliner Institut fur Verleichende Sozialforschung, 1999, Measures to Assist Refugees within The European Union (Budget Line B3 4113) Evaluation Report to the European Commission, DGV, Berlin.

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3. Refugees And Migrants 3.1 General Papademetriou, D., 1996, Coming Together or Pulling Apart? The European Union’s Struggle with Immigration and Asylum, Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 3.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Walters, N. (Ed.), 1996, On the Horizon: European Refugees and Migrants: Advice and Guidance into Employment, HORIZON/University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey. 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal System ILPA, 2000, The Alternative Scoreboard for EU Immigration and Asylum Law: Human Rights and Basic Principles, London, ILPA.

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PART IV. REFERENCES DATING FROM BEFORE 1996 – International 1. Immigrants and Migrants 1.1 General Baubock, Rainer, 1994, The Integration of Immigrants, CMDG Report, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Centro Italiano Di Formazione Europea, 1993, Migrants Integration Policies in some European Countries, Final Report, Rom, CIFE. Council of Europe, 1995, Parliamentary Assembly Report on Clandestine Migration: Traffickers and Employers of Clandestine Migrants, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. European Council for Refugees and Exiles, 1998, Research Paper on the Social and Economic Rights on Non-Nationals in Europe, London, ECRE. International Organization for Migration, 1995a, International Migration Pressures, Challenges, Policy Response and Operational Measures: An outline of the Main Features, Geneva, IOM. International Organization for Migration, 1995b, Profiles and Motives of Potential Migrants from Albania, Geneva, IOM. OECD, 1998, Immigrants, Integration and Cities: Exploring the Links, OECD. Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, 1995, Foreigners in an Illegal Situation in Europe, PCPCMI. Salt, J., 1994, Europe’s International Migrants: data sources, patterns and trends, London, HMSO. Salt, J. and Findlay, Allan, 1989, International Migrations of a highly skilled labour force: theoretical and evolutionary considerations, in OECD, Development Centre: The Impact of International Migration on Developing Countries, OECD. 1.2/3 Adult Education, Training and Employment Fillmore, L., 1989, ‘Teaching English through Content: Instructional Reform in Programs for Language Minority Students’, in Esling, J (Ed.) Multicultural Education and Policy: ESL in the 1990s, Ontario, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Stalker, Peter, 1994, The Work of Strangers: A Survey of International Labour Migration, Geneva, International Labour Office.

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Werner, Heinz, 1994, Integration of Foreign Workers into the Labour Market: France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, Geneva, International Labour Office, World Employment Programme, Working Paper. 1.5 Housing (Pre-1996) HABITAT International Coalition/European Union, 1993, Project coraux for (better) immigrants’ housing policy, European Union.

1.8 Women Cator, Julie (Ed), 1995, Immigrant Women and Integration: Towards Equal Opportunities, Churches Commission for Migrants in Europe (CCME). Council of Europe, 1995, Immigrant Women and Integration, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. European Women’s Lobby, 1995, Confronting the Fortress: Black and Ethnic Minority Women in the European Union, Brussels, EWL. International Organization for Migration, 1995, Trafficking and Prostitution: the growing exploitation of migrant women, IOM. 1.9a Family Life JCWI, 1993, The Right to Family Life for Immigrants in Europe, London, JCWI. 1.10 Justice/Police/Legal Systems (Pre-1996) Council of Europe, 1994, Police training concerning migrants and ethnic relations, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1.12 Racism Council of Europe, 1995, Tackling Racism and Xenophobia: practical action at the local level, Council of Europe. De Jong, Deny and Zwamborn, Marcel, 1991, Equal Treatment and Discrimination in Europe: Feasibility Study on Co-operation of Organisations working in Europe concerned with improving the position of migrants and ethnic minorities.

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2. Refugees 2.4 Health World Health Organisation, 1993, Mental Health of Refugees, Geneva, WHO. 2.8 Women United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1990, The Special Needs of Refugee Women, Geneva, UNHCR. 2.9a Family Life International Social Service, 1995, Accommodating Ex-Yugoslavs in Europe: Settlement or Return: The Issue of Reuniting Families, Paris, International Social Service. 2.9b Children Ayotte, Wendy and Lown, Judy, 1992, Children or Refugees: A survey of west European policies on unaccompanied refugee children, London, Children’s Legal Centre. Jockenhovel-Schieke, Helga (Ed.), 1990, Unaccompanied Refugee Children in Europe: Experiences with protection, placement and education, International Social Services, German Branch. Norstorm, Eva, 1992, ‘Children in space and time’ in Child Refugees in Europe: Report from the European seminar on protection of refugee children, Swedish Refugee Council Report Series, Stockholm. Pearl, D. and Lyons, C., 1994, ‘The treatment by the European Union of unaccompanied minors’, Immigration and Nationality Law and Practice, vol 8(4). UNHCR, 1994, Refugee Children: Guidelines on protection and care, Geneva, UNHCR. Williamson, Jan, 1993, Bosnian Children of War: The adoption question, International Social Services and the US Committee for Refugees, New York. 2.10 Justice/Police/Legal System Care, G., 1995, A guide to asylum law and practice in the European Union, London, ILPA.

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Gillespe, J., 1993, Report on the immigration and asylum procedure and appeal rights in the 12 Member States of the European Community, London, ILPA. JCWI, 1995, Shifting responsibility: carriers’ liability in the Member States of the EU and North America, London, JCWI.

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3 Both Refugees And Migrants 3.1 General Bethlenfalvy, P. von, 1987, Specific Problems of Integration and Re-integration of Ethnic Minorities and Refugees in Europe, European Programme to Combat Poverty. JCWI, 1989, Unequal Citizens: the European Community’s Unequal Treatment of Migrants and Refugees, London, JCWI/Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations. 3.10 Justice/Police/Legal Systems Stevens, J., 1992, The case law of the European Convention on Human Rights relating to immigration, asylum and extradition, London, Law Society.

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Data Set 3 Recent And Current Research Since 1996
Research – UK
1. Immigrants – UK 1.1 General 1.2 Education and Training 1.3 Labour Market 1.4 Health 1.5 Housing 1.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 1.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 1.8 Women and Gender 1.9 Family and Children 1.10 Justice and Legal System 1.11 Welfare and Social Policy 1.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 1.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 1.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 1.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 2. Refugees – UK 2.1 General 2.2 Education and Training 2.3 Labour Market 2.4 Health 2.5 Housing 2.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation 2.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 2.8 Women and Gender 2.9 Family and Children 2.10 Justice and Legal System 2.11 Welfare and Social Policy 2.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 2.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 2.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 2.15 Government Documents and Evaluations 3. Asylum Seekers – General 4. Ethnic Minorities − General 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 24

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Research - International
1. Immigrants − General 2. Refugees − General 3. Ethnic Minorities − General
40 46 50

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1. Immigrants 1.1 General
Project: ‘International Migration and the UK Economy since 1950’ Project description: To examine the causes and economic effects of international migration to and from Britain in the last 50 years. The study will bring together existing data sources for Britain and abroad to produce a deeper analysis of underlying factors than has previously been possible. It will use economic methodology and quantitative analysis to address several key questions: (1) What are the major forces influencing the volume and composition of migration to and from Britain in the short run and the long run? (2) What are the effects of British immigration policy on the numbers and types of immigrants to Britain and how have such effects changed over time? (3) What are the economic effects of changing patterns of migration? Among these are effects on industry, on the welfare state, and on the migrants themselves. Researcher: Tim Hatton Funders: Project dates: 2001− Contact information: Tim Hatton Essex University Hatton@essex.ac.uk Project: ‘At the margins of the Chinese world system: the fuzhou diaspora in Europe’ Researcher: F.N. Pieke Funders: ESRC Transnational Communities Programme Project dates: 25 November 1998 − 24 February 2002 Contact information: Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology University of Oxford 53 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 6JF Email: frank.pieke@anthropology.ox.ac.uk Website: http://www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Thematic Network on Migrants and Minorities in European Cities’ aka ‘MigCities Network’. Project aim: The network has the following five objectives: to draw together what is known on the social integration and social exclusion of migrants and minorities in European cities from previous research through supporting five ‘state-of-the-art’ scientific meetings and to disseminate this information through books, articles and other means. Network Members: Dr M. Cross (Centre for Ethnic and Migration Studies); Dr M. Martinello (University of Liege); Professor S. Body-Gendrot (Sorbonne); Professor G. Martinotti (Milan); Professor R. Moore (Liverpool); Professor C. Sole (Barcelona); Dr M. Rocha Trindade (Lisbon) Contact information: Dr M. Cross Centre for Ethnic and Migration Studies PO Box 4 Torpoint PL11 3YN Email: director@cemes.org Project: ‘Rights and controls in the management of migration: Germany, Italy and Britain’

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My argument is that the politics of migration in the EU is best understood in terms of a set of contradictory dynamics. Against a more open policy on immigration stand concerns about the national management of welfare and the labour market; while encouraging entry there is continuing demand for labour at both ends of the class spectrum, and a commitment to human rights which can be restricted by rarely completely denied. In the face of these contradictory dynamics, and a common rhetoric of denial, most member states are now developing strategies for the management of migration. Researcher: Lydia Morris Funders: Hansewissenschaftskolleg Project dates: 1998 − 2000 Contact information: Dr Lydia Morris Dept of Sociology University of Essex Wivenhoe Park Colchester CO3 4SQ Email: morri@essex.ac.uk Project: ‘Globalisation and Regional Development: the case of Bangladeshis’ Researcher: Sally Westwood and John Eade Funders: ESRC Project dates: 2001 − 2003 Contact information: John Eade Professor of Sociology and Anthropology School of Sociology and Social Policy Southlands College University of Surrey Roehampton 80 Roehampton Lane London SW15 5SL, UK Tel: 00-44-(0)20-8392-3198 Project: ‘Directory of research in migration being carried out in Britain’ Researchers: KERSHEN, Anne J. and Shompa LAHIRI (eds) Project dates: 1998 Contact information: Dr Anne Kershen Director Centre for the Study of Migration Department of Politics Queen Mary and Westfield College University of London Mile End Road London E1 4NS Tel: 020 7882 5009 (direct) Email: a.kershen@qmw.ac.uk Project: ‘Migration in Australia and Britain: Levels and trends in an age-period-cohort framework’ Researcher: Rees, P.H. Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1998 − 2000 Award No.000237375. 1.2 Education and Training Project: ‘Pupil Mobility in Schools’ (emphasis on immigrant children)

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Project description: Main aim is to identify the nature and causes of pupil mobility in schools and the implications of high mobility for strategies to raise achievement through: • Reviewing the current state of knowledge on child migration (international and internal), other causes of children moving between schools and the experience of public mobility by LEAs and schools • Establishing what is currently known about the implications of high mobility for the functioning of schools and strategies to raise achievement • Developing a better understanding of the incidence of high mobility in different types of LEA, the policy issues arising from it and the precise scale of ‘high’ and ‘low’ mobility at school level • Developing a detailed picture of the scale and nature of pupil mobility in some schools and its implications for strategies to raise achievement. Researchers: Janet Dobson, Kirsty Henthorne www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/mru/hemthorne.html www.geog.ucl.uk/mru/dobson.html Commissioned by: Department for Education and Employment (DfEE); http://www.dfee.gov.uk Funders: Nuffield Foundation Project date: October 1999 – June 2000 Contact: Migration Research Unit Department of Geography University College London Website: http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/mru/pupil.html 1.3 Labour Market Project: ‘Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Manufacturing: The Garment Industry’ (in Amsterdam, London, Birmingham, Paris, New York, Miami and Los Angeles) Project Co-ordinator: Dr Jan Rath Contact information: Dr Jan Rath University of Amsterdam Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) Rokin 84, 1012 KX Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tel. +31 20 525.3623/3627 Fax +31 20 525.3628 Email: rath@pscw.uva.nl Website: http://home.pscw.uva.nl/rath/imment/projects.htm

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for the case of London, England: Dr Prodromos I. Panayiotopoulos University of Swansea School of Social Sciences & International Development Singleton Park Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales Tel. +44 1792 20.5678 x 4361 Fax +44 1792 29.5682 Email: m.pany@swansea.ac.uk Project: ‘A Longitudinal Study of Training, Employment and Migration in the London Borough of Hackney’ Researchers: Institute of Employment Research, Warwick Funder: London Borough of Hackney Project dates: 1997 − 2002 Contact information: Institute of Employment Research University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK Tel: (44) 24 76524127, Fax: (44) 24 76524241, Email: ier@warwick.ac.uk Project: ‘Borders, migration and labour market dynamics in a changing Europe’. Researchers: Vickerman, R.W. and Papapanagos, H. Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1999 − 2001 Award No.L213252042. Website: http://www.ukc.ac.uk/economics/1europe Project: ‘Undocumented immigrant workers in London’ Project description: A qualitative study of undocumented immigrant workers from Turkey and Eastern Europe in London, this project explores how they have come here, how they survive, and what they plan to do in future. It will also investigate the policies and practices of the Home Office and support agencies in the light of the increased focus on undocumented work in the new Asylum and Immigration Act and the responses of public services to the issue Researcher: W.J.O. Jordan Project dates: 01 July 1997 − 30 June 1999 Funders: ESRC Contact information: Dr W.J.O. Jordan University of Exeter Department of Social Work Exeter Project: ‘Kinship, Entrepreneurship and the transnational circulation of assets’ Project description: A three-way comparison of the dynamics of the transnational networks sustained by members of the Mirpuri/Pakistani, Jullunduri/Indian and Sylheti/Mipuri communities in Britain. Researchers: Dr Roger Ballard and Dr Katy Gardner (University of Sussex) Funder: ESRC (Transnational Communities Programme) Project dates: 1999 − 2001 Contact information: Dr Roger Ballard Centre for Applied South Asian Studies Department of Religions University of Manchester Manchester M13 9PL Tel: 0161-303 1709

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Fax: 0161-303 1694 Email: R.Ballard@man.ac.uk Website: www.art.man.ac.uk/casas 1.4 Health 1.5 Housing 1.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation Project: ‘Strangers, Aliens and Asians 1600 − 2000: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields’ Project description: A book which has a thematic format and explores the integration and merger process experienced by the three groups. The themes explored are: religion; economic activity and achievement; welfare and society; language; racism (or xenophobia, anti-alienism and racism). The book seeks to define the timeless similarities in the migrant experience as well as the differences that time, knowledge and technology may make. Researcher(s): Anne Kershen Project dates: Publication, late 2003/early 2004 Funders: Barnet Fine Foundation, Dorset Foundation and Queen Mary, University of London Contact information: Dr Anne Kershen Director Centre for the Study of Migration Depart. of Politics Queen Mary, University of London Mile End Road London E1 4NS Tel: 020 7 882 5009 Email: a.kershen@qmw.ac.uk Project: ‘Effectiveness of National Integration towards second generation Youth in a Comparative European perspective’ (EFFNATIS) Coordinators: Dr J. Doomernik and Dr M. Crul UK Researchers: Dr Roger Penn, Dr Janet Perret and Dr P. Lambert LUCAS Lancaster University Fylde College Lancaster LA1 4YE Tel: 01524-594914 Email: r.penn@lancaster.ac.uk Funders: European Commission Project dates: January 1998 − December 2000 Contact information: Dr J. Doomernik Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies University of Amsterdam Rokin 84 Amsterdam 1012KXA Tel: 20-5353627 Fax: 20-5253628 Website: http://www.uni-bamberg.de/projekte/effnatis/pgitps.htm Project: ‘West African Methodists in London’ Researchers: Dr Matt Wood and John Eade Funders: Methodist Church

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Project dates: 2000 − Dec 2001 Contact information: Dr John Eade Professor of Sociology and Anthropology School of Sociology and Social Policy Southlands College, University of Surrey Roehampton 80 Roehampton Lane London SW15 5SL, UK Tel: 00-44-(0)20-8392-3198 Email: J.Eade@roehampton.ac.uk 1.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation Project: ‘Diaspora Politics of immigrants and refugees from Turkey residing in Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Denmark’ Researcher: Eva Ostergaard Nielsen Funder: ESRC Transnational Communities Program Project dates: January 1999 − December 2000 Contact information: Dr Ostergaard Nielsen International Relations LSE Houghton Street London WC2 A2AC Tel: 0207-9556009 Email: e.ostergaard@lse.ac.uk 1.8 Women and Gender Project: ‘The maternal health needs of Turkish speaking women in Hackney’.

Project description: An examination of the experience of the maternal health service of Turkish-speaking mothers in Hackney.

Researchers: Rosemary Sales and L. Hoggart, I. Raman (Middlesex University) and Hackney Community Psychology Team. Project dates: Start date January 1998 (Two and a half years). Funders: North Thames NHS Inner City Research and Development Initiative Contact information: Dr Rosemary Sales Reader in Social Policy School of Social Science Middlesex University Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, EN3 4SF London, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 8411 5497 Fax: +44 (0)20 8362 6404 Email Rosemary5@mdx.ac.uk Project: 'Immigration and Integration of East European migrants in Bradford’ (The project was directed particularly towards a study of gender and ethnicity.)

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Researchers: Dr Peter Jackson, Dr Colin Holmes, Dr G. Smith Funders: Leverhulme Trust Project dates: 1997 − 1998 Contact information: Migration and Ethnicity Research Centre Dept. of Geography, University of Sheffield 387 Glossop Road, Sheffield S1O 2TN Tel.: ++44 114 2222000/22227908 Fax: ++44 114 2788304 Email: p.a.jackson@sheffield.ac.uk

1.9 Family and Children Project: ‘The Impact of Legal Status and Children on transnational Household Strategies of Migrant Domestics’ Researchers: Professor Annie Phizacklea and Dr Bridget Anderson Funders: ESRC Transnational Communities Programme Project dates: September 1998 − August 2001 Contact information: Professor Annie Phizacklea Sociology Department Warwick University Coventry CV4 7AL Email: phizac@zetnet.co.uk Project: ‘A Chance By Right: Forced Marriages among Pakistanis and Bangladeshis in the UK’ Researcher: Dr Yunas Samad (Bradford University) and John Eade (University of Surrey) Funders: Foreign/Commonwealth Office Project dates: April – October 2001 Contact information: Dr John Eade Professor of Sociology and Anthropology School of Sociology and Social Policy Southlands College University of Surrey Roehampton 80 Roehampton Lane London SW15 5SL, UK Tel: 00-44-(0)20-8392-3198 Project: ‘The Impact of the 1996 and 1999 immigration control legislation on families in Manchester’ (i) Policies of Manchester City Council (report completed 2000) (ii) Experiences of families Researchers: Dr Ed Mynott, Manchester Metropolitan University (research assistant) Dr Beth Humphries, Lancaster University (project director) Project dates: 1998 − 2001 Funders: Manchester Metropolitan University Contact information: Dr Ed Mynott Dept of Applied Community Studies Manchester Metropolitan University 799 Wilmslow Road Manchester M20 2RR Tel: 0161 247 2152 Dr Beth Humphries Dept of Applied Social Science

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Cartmel College Lancaster University Lancaster LA1 4YL Tel: 01524 594125 1.10 Justice and Legal System Project: ‘The Migration of Romanian Roma to the UK: A Study of Law and Policy’ Researcher: Dr Dallal Stevens, School of Law, University of Warwick, UK, Eugen Baican, Dept of Social Work, University of Cluj Napoca, Romania Project description: The project aims to: • Examine the reasons for the legal and illegal migration and return of the Roma people from the region of Transylvania in Romania to the UK • Examine the political and media reaction to their arrival in the UK • Examine the treatment of the Roma in the UK • Examine the international and national law relating to the Roma Provide a voice to the Roma on the issue of migration. Project dates: April − September 2001 in first instance (the plan is to broaden it at a later stage) Funders: University of Warwick Contact information: Dallal Stevens School of Law, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL Tel: 024 765 23289 Fax: 024 765 24105 Email: Dallal.Stevens@warwick.ac.uk 1.11 Welfare and Social Policy 1.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies Project: ‘Future of UK migration policy’ Project description: Series of 6 seminars to explore the implications for UK immigration and asylum policy, including post-entry integration policies, of recent research evidence on the impact of migration. Papers are presented by government and EU officials and by academics. Seminar topics include the fiscal, labour market and social impact in the UK of skilled, unskilled and illegal migration, the impact on developing countries, and the impact which the EU will have on the future of migration to the UK and on the development of UK policy. Seminars provide a forum for debate between officials, academics, employers, trades unions, NGOs, think-tanks and international organisations. Researcher(s): Sarah Spencer (project director), plus various contributors Project dates: April − December 2001 Funders: Home Office and Barrow Cadbury Trust Contact information: Sarah Spencer Institute for Public Policy Research 30−32 Southampton Street London WC2E 7RA Email: s.spencer@ippr.org.uk Website: www.ippr.org Project: ‘Civic Stratification, Exclusion and Migratory Trajectories in Three European States (UK, France and Italy)’ Researchers: Dr E. Kofman, R. Sales, C. Lloyd Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1999 − 2001 Contact information:

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Eleonor Kofman Dept. of International Relations Nottingham Trent University Burton Street Nottingham NG1 4BU Email: eleonore.kofman@ntu.ac.uk 1.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism Project: ‘Migration, Citizenship and In/Exclusion: A Comparison of Trends in European Societies’ Project description: This research examines the interplay between policies relating to citizenship, migration and the in/exclusion of minority groups and migrants in Europe. The project will review the main theoretical debates surrounding these issues, as well as exploring the debates occurring within migrant, minority, refugee/asylum seeker groups and pressure groups involved with this issue. A key concern of the research is the significance of the acquisition of different bundles of rights – economic, social and political – for the inclusion of migrant and minority groups, as well as the exclusion and racism experienced by these groups. It will focus on a comparison of four European states (Britain, Germany, France and Italy) and the ways in which new agendas on citizenship and immigration are emerging in all of them. It will also explore policy developments and strategies relating to these areas at the level of the European Union. Researcher: Dr Lisa Schuster and Dr John Solomos Funder: Nuffield Foundation, Southbank University, LSE Project dates: 1999 − present Contact information: Department of Sociology LSE Houghton Street London WC2A 2AE Tel: 0207 955 7648 Email: L.K.Schuster@lse.ac.uk 1.14 .Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 1.15 Government Documents and Evaluations

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2. Refugees − UK
2.1 General Project: ‘The Mobilisation and Participation of Transnational Exile Communities in Post-conflict Reconstruction: A Comparison of Bosnia and Eritrea’ Researchers: Dr Richard Black, Dr Khalid Koser, Dr Nadje Al-Ali Funder: ESRC Transnational Communities Programme Project dates: 1 October 1998 to 30 September 2000 Contact information: Dr Richard Black Sussex Centre for Migration Research University of Sussex Arts C, Falmer Brighton BN1 9SF Tel: 01273 877090 Fax: 01273 623572 Email: r.black@sussex.ac.uk Internet: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/CDE/research/migrate.html Project: ‘Policy and practice in relation to refugees’ Project description: ‘This study will concentrate on Britain's absorption of refugees and will consider their patterns of integration and alienation, particularly in relation to the legal and political institutions. Researcher: Joly, Daniele Funders: ESRC Contact information: D. Joly Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 4869, Resources Centre Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3605. Fax: +44 (0)24 7652 4324 Email: crer.resources@warick.ac.uk Project: ‘Refugees and Asylum Seekers: Research Priorities in an era of policy transformation’ Researcher: R. Zetter Funders: ESRC Project dates: 2001 − 2003 Professor R. Zetter Deputy Head School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Oxford OX3 0BP Tel: 01865-483925 Fax: 01865-483559 Email: rwzetter@brookes.ac.uk Web: www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/dates Project: ‘Refugee Resettlement in Scotland − a challenge doomed to fail?’

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Project description: Previous attempts to settle substantial numbers of refugees outside London and the South East have not been particularly successful. This research grows out of the need to assess the experiences of those asylum seekers who are currently being dispersed to Scotland and to examine whether long-term resettlement is a realistic possibility. Firstly, this research examines the actual experiences of asylum seekers and refugees as they go through the social care and welfare process and the retraining and employment process. Secondly, a study will be made of the agencies which work with refugees to assess how these bodies are adapting to new demands from both government and refugees, how innovative they are, and how refugees and organisations are empowered in resettlement. The final stage is to examine the local refugee strategy and how local authorities and other statutory agencies are developing policies, partnership arrangements, and social inclusion strategies aimed at the retention and resettlement of refugees. Researcher: Dr David Walsh Funder: Scottish Ethnic Minority Research Unit Project dates: Oct 1999 − present Contact information: Dr David Walsh Dept. of Social Science Glasgow Caledonian University Cowcaddens Road Glasgow G4 0BA Email: D.Walsh@gcal.ac.uk 2.2. Education and Training Project: ‘Employment and training amongst refugees in the UK’ Researcher: Keri Roberts Contact information: Professor Richard Jenkins Department of Sociological Studies Migration and Ethnicity Research Centre University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TN Tel: +44 114 222 6443 Fax: +44 114 276 8125 Email: R.P.Jenkins@Sheffield.ac.uk Project: ‘Beating the Barriers: The employment and training needs of refugees in Newham’ Researcher: Alice Bloch Funders: European Commission and Stratford Development Partnership Project dates: September 1995−August 1996 (fieldwork 1996) Contact information: Alice Bloch Department of Social Policy and Politics, Goldsmiths College, University of London, New cross, London, SE14 6NW Email: a.bloch@gold.ac.uk Project: ‘Refugees: Opportunities and Barriers to training and Employment’ Researcher: Alice Bloch

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Project description: To determine whether the training and employment support for forced migrants, who are eligible to work, is sufficient and appropriate. The average level of unemployment among people from ethnic minority groups is over twice that of the white population. Very little is known about the labour market experiences of refugees and asylum seekers though the little information that exists shows that they experience much higher levels of unemployment than their ethnic minority counterparts. This research examines in detail the various barriers to employment and training needs of refugees and asylum seekers, in relation to the following key variables: qualifications, employment experiences, language skills, migration patterns, immigration status, age, household composition, region of residence, gender, knowledge and understanding of the UK system, cultural aspects of job seeking and cultural differences. Comparison will be drawn with ethnic minority groups, and the impact of the dispersal policy will be reviewed. Will use multiple approach to data collection, including national survey of 500 refugees and asylum seekers. Funders: Department for Education and Employment Project dates: April 2001−October 2002 Contact information: Alice Bloch Department of Social Policy and Politics, Goldsmiths College, University of London, New Cross, London, SE14 6NW Email: a.bloch@gold.ac.uk 2.3. Labour Market 2.4. Health Project: ‘The Ethiopian Migrants, their Beliefs, Refugeedom, Adaptation, Calamities, and Experiences in the UK' (EMBRACE UK)and how these impact on the refugees' health and social welfare’ Project description: The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the health and social care needs of Ethiopian refugees in the UK in the context of their ethno and migration histories and the impact of these factors on their culture, values and beliefs. This will provide the information needed for policy makers and service providers to begin to address the needs of this marginalised group. The research will be carried out in close collaboration with Ethiopian refugee community groups and will follow a participatory research approach. It will provide information to identify risk groups, common health and social needs and involve the group in determining and expressing their own needs, all of which are important processes contributing towards empowerment and capacity-building. Semi-structured and individual interviews with around 100 people. Researchers: Dr Rena Papadopoulos from the Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health in collaboration with the Ethiopian Refugee Association of Haringey (ERAH), Funders: National Lottery Charities Board. Project dates: 2000−2002 Contact information: Dr Rena Papadopoulos The Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health Middlesex University 10 Highgate Hill London N19 3UA Tel: 0181 362 6626 Fax: 0181 362 6106 E-mail: r.papadopoulos@mdx.ac.uk Web site: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/rctsh/embrace.htm

2.5. Housing Project: ‘Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Housing Management for Housing Associations’ Researchers: R. Zetter and Martin Pearle

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Funders: Housing Corporation and Housing Associations Charitable Trust Project dates: 1997−1998 Contact information: Martin Pearl School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Email: mspearl@brookes.ac.uk Project: ‘Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Housing Management for Housing Associations. Phase II, Final stage and dissemination of findings’ Researchers: R. Zetter and Martin Pearle Funders: Housing Corporation Project dates: 1999 Contact information: Martin Pearl School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Email: mspearl@brookes.ac.uk Project: ‘Housing and welfare needs of the Vietnamese refugee-origin community in London’ Researchers: Centre for Comparative Housing Research and Warwick University Sponsor: An Viet Housing Association (£15,000) Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes Mary Seacole Research Centre School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University Tel: 0116.201 3878 Fax: 0116.270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘Social Housing Provision for refugees and asylum seekers in the UK’ Researcher: Professor Roger Zetter, Martyn Pearl, Dr Azim El-Hassan and David Griffiths Funders: Housing Corporation and the HACT Project dates: 1997−2000 Contact information: Professor R. Zetter Deputy Head School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Oxford OX3 0BP Tel: 01865-483925 Fax: 01865-483559 Email: rwzetter@brookes.ac.uk Web: www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/dates 2.6 Socio-Cultural Area: Religion, Community, Language, Identity, Residential Segregation and Acculturation Project: ‘Monocultural communities and their effect on asylum seekers and refugees in Humberside’ Researcher: Andrew Dawson Funders: Save the Children Project dates: June 2000 Contact information: Dr Andrew Dawson Sociology and Anthropology University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX

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Tel 01482 466213 Fax 01482 466366 Email a.dawson@cas.hull.ac.uk 2.7 Political Area: Organisation, Self-Initiatives and Participation 2.8 Women and Gender Project: ‘Refugee Women's Resource Project’ Project description: Research information available at www.asylumaid.org.uk. Research has been undertaken on Kenyan women asylum seekers and human rights in Kenya. Current research includes work on Roma refugee women and the impact that dispersal has had on their lives. Other issues includes asylum seekers and domestic violence. Researchers: Sophia Ceneda, Clare Palmer and Helen Smith, Research Assistant Funders: The National Lottery Funding Board Project dates: April 2000 −March 2002 Contact details: Sophia Ceneda, 28 Commercial Street, London E1 6LS Tel: 0207 377 5123 Fax: 0207 247 7789 Email: rwrp2000@hotmail.com Project: ‘Refugee Women’s Resource Project’ Project description: Examining the issue of domestic violence in selected countries. It considers the prevalence of domestic violence, the availability and adequacy of legislation to protect women from domestic violence, and the realities of women accessing such protection. Researchers: Sophia Ceneda, Clare Palmer and Helen Smith Funders: National Lottery Board Project dates: Contact details: Sopia Ceneda Research and Information Officer Refugee Women’s Resource Project Asylum Aid 28 Commercial Street London E1 6LS Tel: 020 7377 5123 Fax: 020 7247 7789 Email: Rwrp2000@hotmail.com 2.9 Family and Children Project: ‘The Impact of the 1996 and 1999 immigration control legislation on families in Manchester’ (i) Policies of Manchester City Council (report completed 2000) (ii) Experiences of families Researchers: Dr Ed Mynott, Manchester Metropolitan University (research assistant) Dr Beth Humphries, Lancaster University (project director) Project dates: 1998 − 2001 Funders: Manchester Metropolitan University Contact information: Dr Ed Mynott Dept of Applied Community Studies Manchester Metropolitan University 799 Wilmslow Road Manchester M20 2RR

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Tel: 0161 247 2152 Dr Beth Humphries Dept of Applied Social Science Cartmel College Lancaster University Lancaster LA1 4YL Tel: 01524 594125 Project: ‘Looking at the experiences of traumatized refugee children and their Families’ Project description: Includes: • Welfare professional responses towards refugee children and their families • To attempt to highlight the plight of these children within the existing children and family and childcare framework and • Looking at the shortfall in social work education and in teacher-training courses and to consider how well prepared practitioners are in working with this group of people. Although we have concentrated on African children and their families, our discussion is broader and our ideas applicable to all refugees and asylum seekers. Researchers: Toyin Okitikpi and Cathy Aymer Funders: Brunel University’s brief award scheme Project dates: 1999−2001 Contact information: Toyin.Okitikpi@brunel.ac.uk Centre for Black Professional Practice Brunel University 300, St Margaret’s Road Twickenham, TW1 1PT Tel: 0208-891-0121 ex 2282 Email: swsttto@brunel.ac.uk Project: ‘Extraordinary childhoods: social roles and social networks of refugee children’ Researcher: Dr M. Candappa Funders: ESRC Project dates: 02 December 1996 − 01 April 1998 Contact information: Dr M. Candappa Thomas Coram Research Unit University of London Project: ‘Young Seperated Refugees in Yorkshire and Humberside’ Researcher: Andrew Dawson Funders: Save the Children and Diana Foundation Project dates: September 2000 − February 2001 Contact information: Dr Andrew Dawson Sociology and Anthropology University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX Tel: 01482 466213 Fax: 01482 466366 Email: a.dawson@cas.hull.ac.uk 2.10 Justice and Legal System 2.11 Welfare and Social Policy Project: ‘Meeting the resettlement needs of refugees: the role of social services' Researchers: R. Sales, J. Dutton, R. Kohli, L. Hoggart

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Funders: NFFR Funding Project dates: Start date January 1999 − 2000 Report: Sales, R. Hoggart, L and Hek, R. (2001) Meeting the resettlement needs of refugees: the role of social services Report of a research project funded by Middlesex University (in press) Contact information: Dr Rosemary Sales Reader in Social Policy School of Social Science Middlesex University Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, EN3 4SF London, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 8411 5497 Fax: +44 (0)181 362 6404 Email: Rosemary5@mdx.ac.uk Project: ‘Disabled Refugees in Britain: entitlements to and needs for social and welfare services’ Project description: The Refugee Council and researchers at the University of York have come together to conduct a study of disabled refugees living in Britain. Disabled refugees constitute a largely invisible population whose social needs and circumstances are largely unknown. The research aims to redress this through a mixed methods approach incorporating a quantitative survey, qualitative interviews and an ongoing review of legislative changes. The quantitative survey has produced a minimum estimate of the numbers of disabled refugees and asylum seekers in Britain (c. 6,000) and indicated that disabled refugees are a heterogeneous group, for instance with regard to impairments, causal factors, and immigration status. Eight first language interviews are currently interviewing c.40 disabled refugees and asylum seekers from the Tamil, Sorani, Somali and Vietnamese communities about their experiences/needs of social services. Interviews will also be held with 16 service providers. Researchers: Keri Roberts, Jennifer Harris, Patricia Sloper (in collaboration with The Refugee Council) Funders: National Lottery Charities Board, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Project dates: September 1999 to April 2002 Contact information: Keri Roberts Social Policy Research Unit University of York York YO10 5DD Tel: 01904 433608 Fax: 01904 433618 Email: kr5@york.ac.uk 2.12 Discrimination, Racism, Race Relations, Migration and Settlement Policies 2.13 Citizenship and Multiculturalism 2.14 Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy and Social Exclusion 2.15 Government Documents and Evaluations

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3. Asylum Seekers − General
Project: ‘Dissemination of information about destination countries to potential asylum seekers in their countries of origin/transit countries’ Project description: This study builds on previous research on social networks among asylum seekers, which concluded that there are increasing similarities in the way that all migrants receive, evaluate and use information in their decision whether and where to move, and which highlighted the growing role of smugglers and other migration agents. Researcher(s): Khalid Koser Funder: Home Office Project dates: draft report submitted 2001 Contact information: Dr Khalid Koser Migration Research Unit University College London 26 Bedford Way London WC1H OAP Email: Kkoser@geog.ucl.ac.uk Project: ‘Asylum policy and process in Britain: mapping the field’ Researchers: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, Lynette Kelly Funders: Home Office Project dates: completion April 2001 Contact information: Lynette Kelly Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Email: Errbr@snow.csv.warwick.ac.uk Project: ‘The experiences of young separated asylum seekers in Greater Manchester’ Researchers: Dr Ed Mynott, Manchester Metropolitan University Dr Beth Humphries, Lancaster University Miranda Kauning, Save the Children Fund (North West) Funders: Save the Children Fund Project dates: 1 September 2000 − 31 May 2001 Contact information: Dr Ed Mynott Dept of Applied Community Studies Manchester Metropolitan University 799 Wilmslow Road Manchester M20 2RR Tel: 0161 247 2152 Dr Beth Humphries Dept of Applied Social Science Cartmel College Lancaster University Lancaster LA1 4YL Tel: 01524 594125 Project: Currently being commissioned from Central Office of Information by the Lord Chancellor’s Department: To help our understanding of effective communication of the asylum process Project description: Main aims: • To provide a baseline of attitudes, knowledge and image of asylum process for on-going monitoring and evaluation

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To highlight misinformation and knowledge gaps among key audiences which need to be addressed To identify any key local trends or issues, and differences between age, gender, race and socioeconomic class • To test within focus groups general public and stakeholder understanding of the key messages and appropriateness of communication lines. Researcher: Central Office of Information Funders: Lord Chancellor’s Department Project dates: currently being commissioned Contact information: Rachel Atkinson Lord Chancellor’s Department Selbourne House 54−60 Victoria Street London SW1E 6QW Tel: 020 7210 8830 Email: Rachel.atkinson@lcdhq.gsi.gov.uk Project: Home Office/NASS/IND review of services for asylum seekers in the dispersal process (health and social care) Researcher: Dr Mark R. D. Johnson Funders: Home Office Project dates: April 2001 − ongoing Contact information: Dr Mark R. D. Johnson Reader in Primary Care Director, Evidence Based Centre on Ethnicity and Health Mary Seacole Research Centre 266 London Road De Montfort University Leicester LE2 1RQ Tel: 0116 201 3906 Email: johnsons@cv77dq.freeserve.co.uk Project: ‘Monocultural communities and their effect on asylum seekers and refugees in Humberside’ Researcher: Andrew Dawson Funders: Save the Children Project dates: June 2000 Contact information: Dr Andrew Dawson Sociology and Anthropology University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX Tel: 01482 466213 Fax: 01482 466366 Email: a.dawson@cas.hull.ac.uk Project: ‘Anthropologists as expert witnesses: the case of South Asian asylum seekers’ Project description:

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Aims: (1) Assessing the role of anthropological expert evidence in legal processes; (2) Comparing the status and role of social scientific and medical evidence in legal decision-making; (3) Exploring the professional and ethical dilemmas posed by such work; (4) Analysing legal use of key concepts such as ‘race’, ‘nationality’ and ‘particular social group’ in deciding asylum claims. The research will examine the role of anthropologists and other expert witnesses in asylum appeals by South Asian asylum seekers in the UK, especially Sri Lankan Tamils, and assess the role of both anthropological and medical evidence in these legal processes. It will involve direct ethnographic observation of appeal hearings where expert evidence is used; interviews with expert witnesses, solicitors, barristers, presenting officers, appeal adjudicators, and tribunal chairs; and will make use of documentary and electronic legal archives. Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1 November 2000 − 31 October 2001 Researcher: Dr Anthony Good Contact: Dr Anthony Good Department of Social Anthropology University of Edinburgh Edinburgh EH8 9LL Tel: 0131 650 3941 Fax: 0131 650 3945 Email: A.Good@ed.ac.uk agood@bluenote.demon.co.uk (home/travel) Project: ‘The Impact of Asylum Policies in Europe: a Feasibility Study’ Researchers: Professor R. Zetter, Martyn Pearl, Dr David − and Silva Ferretti Funders: Home Office (Research Development and Statistics Directorate) Project dates: 2000 − 2001 Contact information: Professor R. Zetter Deputy Head School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Oxford OX3 0BP Tel: 01865-483925 Fax: 01865-483559 Email: rwzetter@brookes.ac.uk Web: www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/dates Project: ‘Asylum Seeker Dispersal and Community Relations’ an analysis of development strategies’ Project description: This ESRC-funded project which commenced in January 2001 addresses some of the problems facing asylum-seekers and the communities to which they are being dispersed. Intended to provide a practical guide to strategies that have been used to shape positively local community responses to the presence of asylum seekers newly arrived in their midst, the project will examine both good and bad practice nationally. It will produce a practical overview of current practice intended to be of use to local authorities and other agencies involved in the distribution and settlement process. Funder: ESRC Researchers: Dr Roger Hewitt, Dr Saulo Cwerner Project dates: 2001 − 2003 Contact: Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College New Cross London SE14 6NW Tel: 0207-919717 Ext 4434 Fax: 0207-9197383 Email: S.Cwerner@gold.ac.uk

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Web page: http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/cucr/asylumres.html Project: ‘Surviving Asylum’ (working title) Project description: Research uses unstructured interviews, drawing on issues that the interviewee identifies as top priority. Researchers: Jennifer Monahan, Caroline Howard, Katharine Flether, Angela Chatko Funding body: Churches’ Commission for Racial Justice Project dates: Jan − Sept 2001 Contact information: Jennifer Monahan 8, Sydney House, Woodstock Rd, London W4 1DP. Tel: 020 8742 1617 Fax: 020 8995 5298 Email: jmonahan@netcomuk.co.uk Project: ‘Asylum Policy and Practice in European States’ Project description: This research examines the links made and assumed in public and political discourse between asylum seekers and welfare. Factors include racism and xenophobia, political opportunism and political and economic ideologies. Researcher: Dr Lisa Schuster and Dr John Solomos Funder: Nuffield Foundation, Southbank University, LSE Project dates: 1999 − present Contact information: Lisa Schuster Department of Sociology LSE Houghton Street London WC2A 2AE Tel: 0207 9557648 Email: L.K.Schuster@lse.ac.uk Project: ‘The Meaning of Asylum in Britain’ Project description: Examines changes in the interpretation of asylum seeking in post-war Britain through consideration of three particular agencies involved. The first part identifies parliamentary discourses through an analysis of the record of debates and parliamentary questions. The second part reports on in depth interviews with members of two particular asylum groups – Somalis and Bosnians. The third part reports on interviews with ‘professionals; in asylum issues – immigration lawyers, Home Office officials, MPs and lobbyists. Researcher: Kate Day, Completed PhD thesis Funders: ESRC Contact information: Professor Paul White Department of Geography University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TN Tel: 0114 222 7948 Fax: 0114 279 7912 Email: P.White@sheffield.ac.uk Project: ‘A Review of Current Approaches to the Provision of Country of Origin Information in the Asylum Determination Process’ Researchers: Dr Gareth A Jones, Laurence Vagassky Funders: The Home Office, Immigration Research and Statistics Service Project dates: March − May 2001 Contact information: Dr Gareth A Jones Department of Geography London School of Economics

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Houghton Street London WC2A 2AE United Kingdom Tel: UK+ 020 7955 7610 Fax: UK+ 020 7955 7412 Email: G.A.Jones@lse.ac.uk Project: ‘Guide for Registered Social Landlords and Local Authorities on the Provision of Housing Support for Asylum Seekers’ Researchers: Professor Roger Zetter and Martyn Pearl Funder: Housing Corporation Project dates: 1999 – 2000 Contact information: Professor R. Zetter Deputy Head School of Planning Oxford Brookes University Oxford OX3 0BP Tel: 01865-483925 Fax: 01865-483559 Email: rwzetter@brookes.ac.uk Website: www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/dates Project: 'The relationship between asylum policy and immigration movement in Canada and the UK' Researcher: Dr M. Gibney, Dr E. Colson Funders: Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and the Foundation for Canadian Studies UK Project dates: January 2000 − December 2001 Contact information: Dr M. Gibney Refugee Studies Centre Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford St Giles Oxford OX1 3LA Tel: (0) 1865 270722 Email: matthew.gibney@qeh.ox.ac.uk

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4. Ethnic Minorities − General
Project: ‘Racialised Gendering, Locality and Youth Employment Opportunities’ Project description: This research is a comparative investigation of processes of racialised gendering affecting young people in urban labour markets. The examination of these processes will focus on the role of social linkages within different types of urban areas. The research proposed will investigate and compare the employment situation of Afro-Caribbean, Pakistani Asian and White young men and women, from a variety of class backgrounds, in three areas along the M4 Corridor (Reading, Slough and West London) differing both in their position within the metropolitan region and the size of the minority communities involved. We plan to (i) compare the racialised and gendered experience of both different ethnic groups and of men and women, (ii) study the interaction of processes of racialised gendering in the home and ‘community’ setting and in the more formal institutions of the labour market and (iii) assess the importance of local specificities to these processes. Researchers: Funders: ESRC CITIES project Project dates: Contact information: Dr Sophie Bowlby Department of Geography University of Reading PO Box 227 Whiteknights Reading RG6 6AB Tel: 0118 931 8733 Project: ‘Best Practice in School−Business Mentoring for Ethnic Minority Pupils’ Project description: Working with 6 established schemes that service ethnic minority pupils in general or specifically. We have employed qualitative and quantitative methods to question the following participants: the mentoring project co-ordinators, the school co-ordinators, mentees, mentors and form tutors. Researchers: Funders: Runnymede Trust Project dates: Handbook to be published end 2000 Contact information: Runnymede Trust 133 Aldersgate Street London EC1A 4JA Tel: 020 7 600 9666 Fax: 020 7 600 8529 Email: runnymedetrust@trt.demon.co.uk Website: www.runnymedetrust.org Project: ‘Beyond Fragmentation and Exclusion: Realising innovative and cohesive economies in Inner North East London’ Project description: The project is focused on Inner North East London, made up of Islington, Tower Hamlets, Haringey and Hackney. Perceptions of the area might suggest that it is suffering from social fragmentation. The project will challenge such a view by examining aspects of social differentiation in INEL which already contribute positively to economic competitiveness and social cohesion and which can be built upon for future policy. The project will describe and analyse particular local instances of economic and social activity which have countered the processes of social fragmentation and economic inactivity, focusing on three facets: the community sector, minority ethnic and cultural industries and pathways into employment initiatives. Researchers (include): Prof Norman Ginsburg, Dr Jane Lewis, Stephen Thake, Dr Jo Foord (School of Social Sciences, University of North London); Prof Paul Joyce, The Business School, UNL; Josephine Ocloo, School of Community Health, Psychology and Social Work, UNL Funders: ESRC

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Project dates: not given Contact information: Normal Ginsburg School of Social Sciences University of North London 62−66 Highbury Grove London N5 2AD Tel: 0207 753 3282 Email: n.ginsburg@unl.ac.uk Project: ‘Living arrangements, family structure and social change of Caribbeans in Britain’ Researchers: Professor Mary Chamberlain, (Oxford Brookes University) and Professor Harry Goulbourne (South Bank University) Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1.1.1996 − 31 Dec 1998 Contact information: Professor Mary Chamberlain, School of Humanities, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP Tel: 01865 484130 Email:mcchamberlain@brookes.ac.uk Professor Harry Goulbourne Division of Sociology and Social Policy South Bank University 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA Tel: 020 78158063 Email: goulbohd@sbu.ac.uk Project: ‘The Sri Lankan Community in Britain’ Project description: Considers the growth of the Sri Lankan community in Britain since the second world war, highlighting its distribution within London, and its demographic and economic characteristics. The community is shown to be distinctive from the other South Asian groups present. Recent growth in the numbers of those with a Sri Lankan birthplace reflects a change in the migration stream away from traditional supplies of the educated and business people towards refugees. Researcher: Paul White (plus colleague at the University of Colombo) Contact information: Professor Paul White Department of Geography University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TN Tel: 0114 222 7948 Fax: 0114 279 7912 E-mail: P.White@sheffield.ac.uk Project: ‘The changing labour process, trade unions and equal opportunity policies’ Project description: This study will examine how black workers are affected by economic restructuring and technological change with particular reference to how trade unionism and equal opportunity policy is responding to their demands. Researcher: Wrench, J. Funders: ESRC Contact information: J. Wrench Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 4869 Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3605 (Resources Centre)

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Fax: +44 (0)24 7652 4324 Project: ‘Handling Double Disadvantage: Minority Ethnic Women and Trade Unions’ Project description: Investigate the role of trade unions in promoting employment opportunities for ethnic minority women, and the women’s perception and experience of such initiatives and practices. Recent research has highlighted diversity between women of different ethnic groups in terms of employment status and occupational grouping, but many non-white women continue to report ‘double disadvantage’ of ethnicity and gender in the labour market and to experience discrimination at work. Case studies of 4 unions will provide information about unions equality policies and their impact on empowering women and minority members in a range of occupational groups. Researchers: Harriet Bradley and Geraldine Healy (University of Hertfordshire) Funders: ESRC Contact information: Prof Tariq Modood (Centre Director) Department of Sociology Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: (+44 117) or (0117) 928 8218 Fax: (+44 117) or (0117) 970 6022 Email: t.modood@bris.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy in the US and UK’ Project description: The aim is to identify under what conditions racialised minorities and racialised immigrant groups make socio-economic progress. The intention is to explore factors such as differential racism, ethnic networks, educational opportunities, family support and intermarriage, class, political power, religion and residential segregation by bringing together the leading scholars in their field at conferences in Bristol and Boston and to publish the results in an edited volume in 2000. Researches: Tariq Modood, Glenn Loury and Steven Teles (Institute of Race and Social Division, University of Boston) Funders: Kellog Foundation Project dates: 1999 Contact information: Prof Tariq Modood (Centre Director) Department of Sociology Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: (+44 117) or (0117) 928 8218 Fax: (+44 117) or (0117) 970 6022 Email: t.modood@bris.ac.uk Project: ‘The mental health of Chinese women in Britain’ Researchers: Green, Gill S, H. Bradby, M. Lee and K. Eldridge. Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1999 − 2000 Award No. R000222822 Project: ‘Ethnic Minorities In Higher Education’ Project description: The Department of Sociology has carried out research into the under-representation of ethnic minorities in academic and related grades in HE in England, Scotland and Wales. Researchers: Tariq Modood, Steve Fenton, and John Carter Funders: consortium of the Association of University Teachers, the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education, the Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals, the Commission on University Career Opportunity, the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, the Higher Education Funding Council for England and the Commission for Racial Equality. A final report has now been published.

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Contact information: Prof Tariq Modood (Centre Director) Department of Sociology Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: (+44 117) or (0117) 928 8218 Fax: (+44 117) or (0117) 970 6022 Email: t.modood@bris.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnicity, Class and Health’ Project description: The project examined the relationships between ethnicity and social class, with a view to refining our understanding of the health-class nexus and the health-ethnicity nexus. The study was based on social anthropological investigations in Bristol and Leeds which were designed to uncover relations between ethnicity and economic position, especially where the nature of the ethnicity-class linkage may be obscured in quantitative studies. This required locally based exploration of forms of employment, selfemployment and domestic economies. The longer term aim of the study was to incorporate findings of a qualitative kind into quantitative measures of economic position, with particular attention to potential differences between ethnic populations. The research included a survey study of ethnicity class and health in Leeds. Researchers: Steve Fenton, George Davey Smith, Waqar Ahmad and Helen Lambert Funders: ESRC Research Project under the Health Variations (Inequalities in Health) Programme Project dates: February 1997 – 2000 Contact information: Steve Fenton Department of Sociology 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: 0117 928 7689 Email: steve.fenton@bristol.ac.uk Project: ‘Health Survey for England Research’ (sub-set on mental health and minority ethnic groups) Funders: National Centre for Social Research Contact information: Steve Fenton Department of Sociology 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: 0117 928 7689 Email: steve.fenton@bristol.ac.uk ` Project: ‘Cancer Relief Ways to improve Palliative Care for Minority Ethnic Groups in Birmingham’ Funders: Birmingham Specialist Community Health Trust & Macmillan Cancer Relief Collaborative project with Ashram Group, Birmingham Project dates: 2000 Contact information: http://www.macmillan.org.uk/ Project: ‘The social mobilities of immigrant minorities in England and Wales 1971−1991’ Project description: This is a detailed quantitative analysis of the changing social (occupational) positions of members of immigrant ethnic minorities based upon a seriously under-used data source − the ONS Longitudinal Study. Overall conclusion: one cannot be satisfied with conceptualisations that (i) equate immigrant ethnic minorities with the blue-collar proletariat (or worse still sub-proletariat; (ii) deny convergence of social class structures with the host society; or (iii) fail to indicate stable middle class presence and strong signs of upward mobility of specific ethnic minority groups. Researcher: Tony Fielding Funders: None

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Project dates: 1995 − 98 Contact details: Prof. A. J. Fielding University of Sussex Brighton, BN1 9SN Email: a.j.fielding@sussex.ac.uk Project: ‘New and established political elites with a focuses on women and ethnic minorities’ Researcher: Professor John Scott Funders: ESRC Contact information: John Scott Dept. of Sociology University of Essex Colchester, CO4 3SQ Tel: 01206 873333 Fax: 01206 873333 Website: http//:www.essex.ac.uk Project: ‘European Chinese, Chinese Europeans: strategies and identities’ Project description: Ethnic identification is the principal focus of this project, which develops a comparative perspective on Chinese identity, integration, assimilation, and alienation in different European settings. The project assumes that the particular structure of each Chinese community in Europe is born of a complex interaction between Chinese and the European receiving society. The project also seeks evidence of a pan- European Chinese spirit. Its central thrust is to understand Chinese ethnic identity in Europe, and its links to immigrants’ native places. Chinese immigrants transcend Europe’s established national boundaries; they must be viewed in a transnational perspective, as (arguably) the first and best “Europeans”. It looks, too, at the economic role of these influential but largely unremarked communities. These communities represent an economic asset whose potential is barely recognised by their host societies, and form a bridge to the booming economies of East Asia. The project links together existing research expertise in a broad range of European centres of East Asian studies and of anthropology and acts as a focus for programmes of research across Europe. Award type: Substantive research contract Researchers: Benton, Gregor, Christiansen, Flemming, Hook, B and Rimmington, D Funders: ESRC Part of the ‘Pacific Asia’ ESRC Research Project Project dates: 01 October 1995 − 30 September 1997 Contact information: Dept of East Asian Studies University of Leeds Website: http://www.dialspace.dial.pipex.com/gsegal/pap.htm Project: ‘Ethnic Diversity and Public Policy’ Project description: To develop elements of an applied political theory grounded in a British ethnic relations context and developed explicitly to provide a framework for discussing and resolving some of the political problems that are arising in that context. The specific focus of the project was to identify how disadvantaged groups may be justly and effectively assisted; to clarify what aspects of ethnicity and religion may legitimately be incorporated into policy; and to consider how the demands of multiculturalism can be reconciled with the concept of citizenship. An initial publication from this work is ‘AntiEssentialism, Multiculturalism and the ‘Recognition’ of Religious Groups’, Journal of Political Philosophy, Dec, 1998. Researchers: Tariq Modood Contact information:

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Prof Tariq Modood (Centre Director) Department of Sociology Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: (+44 117) or (0117) 928 8218 Fax: (+44 117) or (0117) 970 6022 Email: t.modood@bris.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnic Minority Families’ Project description: The researchers revisited a number of respondents from the Fourth Survey of Ethnic Minorities (T. Modood et al. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage, PSI, 1997) to get behind the statistical differences between white families and some ethnic minority groups through in-depth interviews with a range of people in different kinds of families. The evidence gathered suggests that ethnic minorities have values and norms which are sometimes different from those prevailing among the white population, and these are partly behind the differences in household sizes and family formations found amongst the minority groups. Some minority groups are perhaps more inclined than whites to favour shortterm, flexible relationships, female economic independence and single mothers. Other minorities are just the opposite. The findings are published in Ethnic Minority Families, PSI, 1998. Researchers: Tariq Modood, Sharon Beishon (Office of National Statistics) and Satnam Virdee (Strathclyde University) Funders: Joseph Rowntree Foundation Contact information: Prof Tariq Modood (Centre Director) Department of Sociology Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship 12 Woodland Road Bristol BS8 1UQ Tel: (+44 117) or (0117) 928 8218 Fax: (+44 117) or (0117) 970 6022 Email: t.modood@bris.ac.uk Project: ‘Social Exclusion and the Policies of New Labour’ The project on New Labour and Social Exclusion (formally called ‘Discourses of Social Exclusion and Integration in Emergent Labour Party Policy’). The project identifies three different discourses of social exclusion − a redistributionist model typical of critical social policy, a social integrationist model focused on paid employment, and a moral integrationist model embedded in discourses about the underclass. It examines the implications of these different models, especially for the reduction of inequality and the recognition of unpaid work. It looks at the development of Labour Party policy and rhetoric since Blair assumed leadership in 1994, and the dominance of social and moral integrationist themes − and raises questions about how much, and what kind of, social inclusion Labour’s new ‘Social Exclusion Unit’ will deliver. The results will be published as The Inclusive Society? (Macmillan, 1998). Researchers: Ruth Levitas and Gail Hebson Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1996 − 1997 Contact information: Project: ‘Review of the Family Visit Appeal System’ Researcher: To be commissioned (review to be completed in December 2001) Project description: To research the following: • Identify why failed applicants had not appealed • Information on the reasons for visits (i.e. for specific event or a general visit/holiday) as an indicator of the extent to which the underlying policy objective of promoting family life was being achieved • Data on the number of visitors who applied to stay in the UK and ideally the numbers who stayed illegally. Funders: Lord Chancellor’s Department

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Contact information: Rachel Atkinson Lord Chancellor’s Department Selbourne House 54−60 Victoria Street London SW1E 6QW Tel: 020 7210 8830 Email: rachel.atkinson@lcdhq.gsi.gov.uk Project: ‘Asian Elders in Leicestershire’ Researchers: Nick Jewson, Syd Jeffers and Virinder Kalra (University of Leicester) Funders: Leicestershire Social Services Project dates: 2000 Contact information: Syd Jeffers, Director Ethnicity Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH Tel: 0116-252-2768 Fax: 0116-252-5259 Email: saj6@le.ac.uk Project: ‘Respite Care for Ethnic Elders’ Project description: The project has a number of objectives. It will highlight the contribution made by Asian carers to the welfare of elders as well as assess their current and future needs for respite care. It will seek to identify problems encountered by members of Asian communities in accessing respite care and assess whether provisions reflect the cultural needs of different ethnic groups. It is intended that models of good practice will be identified and disseminated, thereby enhancing future strategic planning of health care and other support services for Asian elders and carers. Researchers: at the Ethnicity Research Centre, University of Leicester Comissioned by: Ethnic Elders 2000 Project dates: 2000 Funders: Leicestershire Health Authority and Leicester Social Services Contact information: Syd Jeffers, Director Ethnicity Research Centre University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH Tel: 0116-252-2768 Fax: 0116-252-5259; Email: saj6@le.ac.uk Project: ‘Survival strategies among black men in Canada and the UK’ Researcher: Wanda Thomas Bernard, doctoral student (Sociological Studies) Contact information: Professor Richard Jenkins Department of Sociological Studies Migration and Ethnicity Research Centre University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TN Tel: +44 114 222 6443 Fax: +44 114 276 8125 Email: R.P.Jenkins@Sheffield.ac.uk Project: ‘State Policies towards Muslim Minorities in the European Union’

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Project description: Islam has become the third largest religious community in the European Union. Although most European states have a strong interest in integrating Muslim communities into society, there continue to be many obstacles at various levels of the political system, which are mostly due to the deeprooted traditions of European nation state formations. The aim of the project is to bring together national, regional and local administrations, Muslim institutions, Islamic associations etc. in order to analyse the different state traditions and policies as well as the multitude of concrete measures directed towards Muslim communities in the three participating countries, namely Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany. By doing so, the project seeks to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of exclusion on the basis of religion and ethnicity. Policy recommendations will be formulated on the local, regional, national and European level in order to develop a joint European policy of anti-discrimination and integration of Muslim minorities into the social, religious and political life of the different Member States in the European Union. Researchers: Prof. Åke Sander, Prof. Muhammad Anwar Funding: European Commission Project dates: current Contact information: Prof. Åke Sander Centre for the Study of International Migration and Cultural Contact Göteborg University Box 200 S - 40530 Göteborg Tel: +46 31 773 1561 Fax: +46 31 773 1560 Or Prof. Muhammad Anwar Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations (CRER) University of Warwick Arts Building GB - Coventry CV4 7AL Tel: +44 24 76 5248 70 Fax: +44 24 76 5243 24 Project: ‘Facilitating ‘Break-Out’: Ethnic Minority Business Development in an Inner-City Context’ Researchers: Professor Monder Ram (Leicester Business School, De Montfort University) and Dr Balihar Sanghera (University of Central England Business School, Birmingham) Project description: Research examines how different ethnic minority communities engaged in entrepreneurial activities are attempting to grow their businesses. Working with 24 companies and key enterprise support agencies in Birmingham, the project will provide practical encouragement for the management, social and urban processes involved in the development of ethnic minority firms. A key concern is the reliance of many ethnic minority firms on co-ethnic consumers for their survival; it is argued that growth is only likely to be achieved by lessening reliance on co-ethnic trading patterns and moving into wider markets. In short, ‘break-out’ is critical to ethnic minority firms’ continued development. The research will provide a qualitatively-grounded longitudinal assessment of the ways in which ethnic minority firms in Birmingham are attempting to operationalise the process of ‘break-out’. Funders: ESRC ‘CITIES’ Project Project dates: 1998 − 2000 Contact information: Professor Monder Ram De Montfort University Leicester Business School Business School The Gateway Leicester LE1 9BH Tel: 0117 257 7912 Email: mram@dmu.ac.uk Website: http://cwis.livjm.ac.uk/cities/ Project: ‘Migration, Residential Preferences and the Changing Environment of Cities’

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Project description: The main aim is to improve understanding of the factors which bind, attract and repel residents in the larger cities and their inner areas, in the context of official projections indicating an extra 4 million households in England by 2016. The project approaches this task from the perspective of migration and residential mobility, including the recognition of the importance of studying residential preferences and the factors constraining personal choice and action. An underlying goal is to discover how far the anticipated household growth will automatically support attempts at urban regeneration and identify types of policy intervention that could reinforce this process. Researchers: Tony Champion and Tania Ford Funders: ESRC ‘CITIES’ Project Project dates: June 1998 – 31 August 2000 Contact information: Professor Tony Champion and Ms Tania Ford Department of Geography Newcastle University Newcastle NE1 7RU Tel: +44 191 222 6437 and 6436 Fax: +44 191 222 5421 Email: tony.champion@ncl.ac.uk or t.l.ford@ncl.ac.uk Website: http://cwis.livjm.ac.uk/cities/ Project: ‘Managing social cohesion and young people’s entry into the labour market in a multi-ethnic city’ Researchers: Professor Charles Husband (The Ethnicity and Social Policy Research Unit, University of Bradford), Philip Baldwin (Economic Initiatives Division, City of Bradford Metropolitan Council), Andrew Gell (Bradford and District Training and Enterprise Council) and Dr Stephen Siimpson (Principal Research Officer, City of Bradford Metropolitan Council). Funders: ESRC ‘CITIES’ Project Project dates: 1998 − 2000 Contact information: Professor Charles Husband The Ethnicity and Social Policy Research Unit University of Bradford Richmond Road Bradford West Yorkshire BD7 1DP Tel: 01274 733466 Email: C.H.Husband@bradford.ac.uk Website: http://cwis.livjm.ac.uk/cities/ Project: ‘Towards segmented assimilation of second generation Bangladeshis’ Researcher: Martin Smith, doctoral student, 1997 − Continuing Contact information: Martin Smith Nuffield College Oxford Project: ‘Emergent Citizens? African-Caribbean and Pakistani Young People in Birmingham and Bradford’ Project description: Our concern is to explore how, amidst structure of inequality and power, young people can feel a sense of control and exert their sense of belonging through their own networks and in the wider society. The research will explore the relationship between unemployed African-Caribbean and Pakistani young people, the local state, and other social structures and networks in Birmingham and Bradford. It will record 80 life histories of unemployed minority ethnic young people, women and men, aged 19−25 using qualitative methods such as life history interviews, other biographical material and focus group discussions. Forty key personnel from services with specific responsibilities for young people in the two cities will also be interviewed, including local authority education, youth and social services, TECs, health authorities, police and probation services. Researchers: Dr C.C.C. Harris (Department of Cultural Studies and Sociology, University of Birmingham) Mr P. Roach (Department of Cultural Studies and Sociology, University of Birmingham) Dr R.K. Thiara, (Department of Cultural Studies and Sociology, University of Birmingham) Funders: ESRC

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Project dates: 1 April 1999 − 31 March 2001 Contact information: Dr C.C.C. Harris Department of Cultural Studies and Sociology University of Birmingham Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: 0121 414 6220 Fax: 0121 414 6061 Email Harriscc@css.bham.ac.uk Website: http://www.tsa.uk.com/YCSC/P3.html Project: ‘Spatial re-ordering and the growth of welfare dependency’ Project description: This is a study to examine the consequences of increased welfare dependency by ethnic minorities through such factors as unemployment, the significance of the population age-structure etc. and to examine the degree and the effectiveness of official provision as well as looking at the extent of minority community response through self-help and other care agencies. Researcher: Dr M.R.D. Johnson Funder: ESRC Contact information: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry, CV4 7AL General Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 4869 Resources Centre Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3605. Fax: +44 (0)24 7652 4324. Project: ‘Industrial change, ghettoization and urban policy’ Researcher: Dr M. Cross Project description: This is a study to investigate the extent to which economic restructuring adversely affected ethnic minorities and how urban policy can help prevent their marginalization. Funder: ESRC Contact information: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. General Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 4869 Resources Centre Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3605 Fax: +44 (0)24 7652 4324 Project: ‘The provision of Section 11 funds’ Project description: This project investigates the provision of social services to the ethnic minorities with reference to ‘Special Needs’, the level of provision and the administration of Section 11 funds. Researchers: Cross, M., Johnson, M.R.D., Cox, B Funders: ESRC and Home Office Contact information: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK General Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 4869 Resources Centre Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3605 Fax: +44 (0)24 7652 4324 Project: ‘Career Aspirations of Ethnic Minorities’/‘Career Trajectories and Ethnicity’ Funders: Manpower Services Commission and the Department of Employment Researcher: Dr R. Penn Project dates: 1992 − 1996 Contact information: Dr R. Penn

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Ethnicity Research Group Department of Sociology Lancaster University Fylde College Lancaster LA1 4YF Tel: 01524- 593064 Email: R.Penn@lancaster.ac.uk Project: ‘Let’s talk about cancer: An exploration of cancer beliefs and values of people from various ethnic groups’ Researchers: A collaborative study involving Middlesex University’s Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, North Middlesex Hospital NHS Trust, Barnet & Chase Farm Hospital NHS Trust, Whittington Hosptial NHS Trust, Cancer Black Care & St Joseph’s Hospice. Project dates: 2000 − 2001 Funders: Jointly funded by all collaborators and the King’s Fund. For further information visit the Project’s website: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/rctsh/cancer/homepage.htm Project: ‘Researching (alcohol) drinking prevalence in minority ethnic communities’ Researchers: Mary Seacole Research Centre, Aquarius Alcohol Projects, Birmingham and Dept. Psychology, Birmingham University Sponsor: Alcohol Concern England (Total value £55,00) Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes Mary Seacole Research Centre School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University. Tel: 0116 201 3878 Fax: 0116 270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘The Health Needs of Greek Cypriots living in London’ Project description: This study aimed to identify the health needs of Greek Cypriots living in London by investigating their health, their beliefs about health and health behaviours and comparing them with existing studies of the indigenous population. Health workers were also interviewed to discover whether they were able to meet these needs in a culturally sensitive and competent manner by assessing the level of information in their possession and their understanding of the Greek Cypriot culture and lifestyle, and its impact on health. Researcher: Papadopoulos, R. Funders: The Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health Middlesex University Contact information: Dr Rena Papadopoulos The Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health Middlesex University 10 Highgate Hill London N19 3UA Tel: 0181 362 6626 Fax: 0181 362 6106 Email: r.papadopoulos@mdx.ac.uk Website: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/rctsh/grkcyp.htm Project: ‘Evaluating black and ethnic minority management development’ Researchers: Mark Johnson, Naomi Watson, Asha Pawar, with CHESS, University of Warwick Funders: NHS Executive and BaSE Consortium, North Birmingham Community Health Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes Mary Seacole Research Centre

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School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University Tel: 0116 201 3878 Fax: 0116 270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘Black Achievers in Practice’ Researchers: Mel Chevannes and Naomi Watson Funders: Department of Health Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes Mary Seacole Research Centre School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University Tel: 0116 201 3878 Fax: 0116 270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘An investigation into the needs of Irish men aged 45-64 living in London’ Researcher: M. Tilki Funders: Irish Government Project dates: 1996 − present Contact information: The Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health Middlesex University 10 Highgate Hill London, N19 3UA Tel: 020 8411 6626/7 Fax: 020 8411 6106 Project: ‘Scoping study of the needs of ethnic minorities with visual impairment’ Researcher: M. Johnson Funders: The Gift of Thomas Pocklington Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University. Tel: 0116 201 3878 Fax: 0116 270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘Meeting needs of Black and Minority Communities through Registered Social Landlords’ Researchers: Collaborative project between Centre for Comparative Housing Research DMU and University of Warwick through De Montfort Expertise Funders: Housing Corporation Contact information: Professor Mel Chevannes Mary Seacole Research Centre School of Nursing and Midwifery at De Montfort University Tel: 0116 201 3878 Fax: 0116 270 9722 Email: vhreid@dmu.ac.uk Project: ‘Commuting Patterns and labour markets for minority ethnic groups’ Researchers: Dr David Owen and Anne Green (IER; University of Warwick) Project dates: April 1998 to September 1999 Funders: ESRC Contact information: Dr David Owen Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL

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Tel: 024 76524259 Fax: 024 76524324 Email: D.W.Owen@warwick.ac.uk Website: http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~erac Project: ‘Data Analysis for Widening Participation of people from minority ethnic groups in further education in Birmingham and Solihull’ Researchers: Dr David Owen and Anne Green (IER; University of Warwick) Funders: Birmingham and Solihull Partnerships Contact information: Dr David Owen Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Tel: 024 76524259 Fax: 024 76524324 Email: D.W.Owen@warwick.ac.uk Website: http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~erac Project: ‘Cataloguing rise of racism and fascism towards ethnic minorities in Europe’ Researchers: Institute of Race Relations Funders: Joseph Roundtree Charitable Trust Contact information: Institute of Race Relations King’s Cross Road London WC1 X91S Tel: 020 7833 2010 Email: info@irr.org.uk Project: ‘Ethnic minorities, party politics and voting behaviour’ Researcher: Shamit Saggar and A. Heath Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1997 − 1999 Contact information: Shamit Saggar Reader in Politics Department of Politics Queen Mary-University of London London E1 4NS Tel: (+44) 020 7882 5003 (office) Tel: (+44) 020 7882 3399 (direct) Fax: (+44) 020 7882 7855 Email: S.Saggar@qmw.ac.uk Project: 'Hindu Nationalism and Religious Education in the UK' Researcher: Mary Searle-Chatterjee Research dates: 2000 − present Contact information: Mary Searle-Chatterjee Department of Applied Community Studies Manchester Metropolitan University 799, Wilmslow Road Manchester M20 2RR Tel: (+44) 0161-247-2000 Email: M.Searle-Chatterjee@mmu.ac.uk Project: ‘Unavoidable Costs of Ethnicity’

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Project description: This project aims to develop a methodology for estimating the likely additional costs to Health Authorities in England for providing services resulting from the minority composition of their populations. Researchers: Dr David Owen (CRER Univ. of Warwick), Mark Johnson (CRER) and Ala Szcepura and Mike Clark (CHSS, University of Warwick). Funder: Department of Health Contact information: Dr David Owen Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL Tel: 024 76524259 Fax: 024 76524324 Email: D.W.Owen@warwick.ac.uk Website: http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~erac Project: ‘Finding the way home: Young People, Community Safety and Racial Danger’ Researchers: M. Keith and Phil Cohen Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1996 − 98 Contact information: Phil Cohen Centre for New Ethnicities Research University of East London Longbridge Road Dagenham, Essex RM8 2AS Email: P.A.Cohen@UEL.ac.uk Michael Keith Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College University of London Email: m.keith@gold.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnic Enterprise, Class, and the State: Chinese in Britain, Southeast Asia and Australia’ Researchers: Professor G. Benton, Dr E. Gomez Funders: ESRC, Transnational Communities Programme Project dates: April 1999 − March 2002 Contact information: Professor G. Benton School of History and Archaeology University of Cardiff PO Box 909 Cardiff CF1 3XU Tel: 01222 874000 Email: Benton@cardiff.ac.uk Project: ‘Gender and the Construction Industry’ Project description: The research will provide a qualitative analysis of the barriers to the inclusion of women, particularly lone parents and women from black and minority ethnic communities and women returners, in the construction industry manual trades. It will examine the attitudes and practices which maintain the gender imbalance in the construction industry. The research will make practical recommendations on the measures to overcome the current exclusion of women from the construction industry labour force. Researcher: Dr Les Back, Alison Rooke Funders: Women’s Education in Building Project dates: 2001 − 2003

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Contact information: Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College University of London New Cross London SE14 6NW Direct line: 020 7919 7390 Outside UK: +44 20 7919 7390 Fax: +44 20 7919 7383 Email: cucr@gold.ac.uk; Website: http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/cucr/asylumres.html Project: ‘Democratic Governance and Ethnic Minority Participation’ Project description: A joint CUCR/South Bank University ESRC funded project will address the question of the changing forms of political participation among ethnic minority communities in contemporary Britain. This project will study the participation of ethnic minorities in conventional forms of democratic activity and the role of participation within the alternative public sphere of ethnic minority civil society. The research will be focussed on three localities: two in London and one in Birmingham. The team will also investigate the role of organisations and movements that have emerged within minority communities to give voice to specific interests or concerns. Researchers: Professor Michael Keith, Professor John Solomos, South Bank University, Dr Kalbir Shukra, Dr Les Back, Azra Khan Funders: ESRC Project dates: 2000 − 2005 Contact information: Centre for Urban and Community Research Goldsmiths College University of London New Cross London SE14 6NW Direct line: 020 7919 7390 Outside UK: +44 20 7919 7390 Fax: +44 20 7919 7383 Email: cucr@gold.ac.uk; Website: http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/cucr/asylumres.html Project: ‘Community, area polarisation and regeneration’ Research description: What factors - individual, social and institutional - contribute to an area of change leading to areas starting with similar levels of deprivation ending up on different trajectories? How do physical and social conditions in marginal areas affect family life from the perspective of the families themselves? To understand and answer these questions, we are following 12 areas closely over 5 years, and interviewing 200 families every 6-9 months. This part of the Centre’s work includes the activities carried out by the research and consultancy group, LSE Housing. Current research includes work on community cycling projects (funded by the Ashden Trust); looking at how to raise levels of basic skills (funded by the Basic Skills Agency); work on ethnic minority housing and integration in Bradford (funded by Bradford City Council); and a pilot study looking at how to involve people with the Government’s new Tenants Compacts. As part of its work, the Centre is collaborating with the National Tenant Resource Centre at Trafford Hall, near Chester, to support and evaluate community initiatives in low income neighbourhoods throughout the country. Researchers: Prof A. Power, Prof H. Glennerster, Ms H. Bowman, Prof D. Downes, Mr J. Elster, Dr M. Kleinman, Mr A. Lee, Ms R. Lupton, Ms K. Mumford, Ms C. Paskell, Ms M. Ravenhill, Ms E. Richardson, Ms R. Tunstall Funders: ESRC Contact information: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion LSE, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE Tel: +44(0)20 7955 6679 Fax: +44(0)20 7955 6951,

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Website: http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case Project: ‘Multiculturalism versus the Melting Pot’ Project description: The research proposal relates to immigration, assimilation, multiculturalism and segregation of ethnic minority populations in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. The object of the research is to establish whether national policies with regard to assimilation or multiculturalism have any discernible effect on the levels of segregation of similarly defined ethnic minority populations. The aim of the project is to take an identical set of ethnic groups in three countries with contrasting policies (UK, USA and Canada) and to establish whether their levels of segregation differ in different settings. The set of ethnic groups comprises the Black, Indian, Chinese, Irish and Italian populations. The study is largely computer but partly field based. Researcher: Ceri Peach Funders: Canadian Government Project dates: 1.7.99 − 1.3.2001 Contact information: Ceri Peach School of Geography University of Oxford Mansfield Road, Oxford Email: ceri.peach@geog.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnicity Analysis: Competitive seminar competition’ Researcher: Ceri Peach Funders: ESRC Project dates: 1.6.98 − 31.5.2000 Contact information: Ceri Peach School of Geography University of Oxford Mansfield Road Oxford Email: ceri.peach@geog.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Ethnicity and Cultural Landscapes: Temples, Mosques and Gurdwaras in England and Wales’ Project description: The project has 3 main aims: (1) practical empirical cataloguing of the officially recorded Muslim Mosques, Sikh Gurdwaras and Hindu Temples in England and Wales, in order to produce an illustrated historic document on CD; (2) to register the main factual information about these buildings as institutions (date of origin, sect, congregation size etc.); (3) to explore the wider social and cultural significance of these religious buildings by placing them in the theoretical context of the ‘new’ cultural geography. It will focus on three of the purpose-built religious edifices, including the Saddam Hussein Mosque in Birmingham, the Swaminarayan Temple in Neasden and the Sri Guru Singh Sabha Gurdwara in Southall. Through an examination of these conflicts and negotiations surrounding the evolution, construction and use of these buildings, it will explore the contested nature of urban and suburban ethnic identity in England and Wales. Method: largely survey work. Researchers: Ceri Peach, Dr James Ryan Funders: Leverhulme Foundation Project dates: 1.10.97 − 31. 3. 2001 Contact information: Ceri Peach School of Geography University of Oxford Mansfield Road Oxford Email: ceri.peach@geog.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Evaluation of an intervention with self-harming Bangladeshi girls using personal and group counselling’ Researcher: Rahki Hoque

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Contact: S.M.Hillier Email: S.M.Hillier@mds.qmw.ac.uk

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Research − International
1. Immigrants - General
Project: ‘Demographic behaviour of 19 migrant groups in the Netherlands’ Project description: Research focused on settlement patterns, partnership and the process of family formation. Researcher(s): Rob van der Erf, Helga de Valk Project dates: June 2000 − April 2001 Funders: NIDI Contact information: Rob van der Erf, Helga de Valk NIDI Lange Houtstraat 19 2511 CV Den Haag Tel: 070 3565275 Website: www.nidi.nl Project: ‘Long-term impact of migration networks on the socio-economic position of migrants in the host society’ Project description: This work is based on data from a large international comparative research on the push and pull factors of migration carried out by NIDI/Eurostat in the period 1994−1999 (see NIDI website). Researcher(s): Rob van der Erf, Helga de Valk Project dates: ongoing Funders: NIDI Contact information: Rob van der Erf, Helga de Valk NIDI Lange Houtstraat 19 2511 CV Den Haag Tel: 070 3565275 Website: www.nidi.nl Project: European directory of migrant and ethnic minority organizations Researchers: European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Utrecht Project dates: 1996 and ongoing Published for Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants by European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations Contact information: European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Utrecht Project: ‘Outside the protection of the law: the Situation of Irregular Migrants in Europe’ (summary report and recommendations) Researcher: Dr Matthew Gibney Funders: Jesuit Refugee Service, Europe Project dates: 1998 − 2000 Contact information: Dr M. Gibney Refugee Studies Centre Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford St Giles Oxford OX1 3LA Tel: (0) 1865 270722 Email: matthew.gibney@qeh.ox.ac.uk

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Project: ‘Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Manufacturing: The Garment Industry’ (in Amsterdam, London, Birmingham, Paris, New York, Miami and Los Angeles) Project Co-ordinator: Dr Jan Rath Contact information: Dr Jan Rath University of Amsterdam Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) Rokin 84, 1012 KX Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tel: +31 20 525.3623/3627 Fax: +31 20 525.3628 E-mail: rath@pscw.uva.nl Website: http://home.pscw.uva.nl/rath/imment/projects.htm For the case of London, England: Dr Prodromos I. Panayiotopoulos (aka Mike Pany) University of Swansea School of Social Sciences & International Development Singleton Park Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales Tel: +44 1792 20.5678 x 4361 Fax: +44 1792 29.5682 E-mail: m.pany@swansea.ac.uk Project: ‘Multicultural Policies and Modes of Citizenship in European Cities’ (MPMC); Sponsor/Funder: UNESCO Project dates: March 1999 − March 2000 Contact information: Dr Nadia Auriat UNESCO-MOST Programme 1, rue Miollis F-75732 PARIS Cedex 15 France Tel: +33 1 45 68 38 62 Fax: +33 1 45 68 57 24 Email: n.auriat@unesco.org Website: http://www.unesco.org/most/p97.htm#description Or Prof. Dr. Rinus Penninx Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) 1012 KX Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 20-525 3627 Fax: +31 (0) 20-525 3628 Email: penninx@pscw.uva.nl Project: ‘International Comparative Studies of Ethnocultural Youth’ (ICSEY) Project description: This is an international comparative study of ethnocultural youth, ethnic identity, and acculturation. Studies will be carried out in Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. Coordinator: Prof. Charles Westin Funders: Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations − CEIFO Contact information: Charles Westin Ceifo, Stockholm University S-106 91 Stockholm SWEDEN Email: charles.westin@ceifo.su.se UK Researcher: Dr Lena Robinson The University of Birmingham, U.K.

306

Email: ROBINSOE@bss1.bham.ac.uk Project: ‘Immigrant political and social participation in the integration process’ Project aim: This project is a part of the Council of Europe’s activities in the field of Community Relations. It includes a theoretical study on aspects of political participation and consultation of immigrants as well as a number of case studies carried out in six European countries: France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Researchers: Professor H. Entzinger, Dr M. Bloomesteijn Funders: Council of Europe, Strasbourg Project dates: 1.4.97 − 31.12.97 Contact information: Professor H. Entzinger Professor of Migration and Integration Studies Erasmus University Rotterdam The Netherlands Project: ‘Migration, Immigration and Labour markets in EU countries’ Researchers: Dr Philip Muus, Professor Carl-Ulrik Schierup Project dates: 15/9/2000 − 15/12/2000 Funders: National Institute for Working Life, Unit Work and Culture, Norrkoping, Sweden Contact information: Dr Philip Muus Co-Director ERCOMER ERCOMER - Utrecht University Heidelberglaan 2 3584 CS Utrecht The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 4166 (secretary) Fax: +31 30 253 4733 Email: ERCOMERsecr@fss.uu.nl Project: ‘Models of immigrant incorporation in Europe. Harmonizing national ideas of citizenship and immigration policy within the European Union’ Researcher: Han Entzinger Funders: European Commission Project dates: 01/05/97 − 01/05/99 Contact information: Professor H. Entzinger Professor of Migration and Integration Studies Erasmus University Rotterdam The Netherlands Project: ‘Immigration Politics, Citizenship and the Mobilization of Ethnic Difference’ Researchers: Drs T. Duyvené de Wit, M. Fennema, H. Semetko and R. Koopmans Project dates: 1997 − 2002 Funders: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) Contact information: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies University of Amsterdam Rokin 84 Amsterdam 1012KXA Tel: 20-5353627 Fax: 20-5253628 Project: ‘Identification of Legal Elements for European Integration Strategies’

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Project description: Presentation on the identification of legal elements – in particular relating to security of residence – of a strategy for a successful integration of immigrants and ethnic minorities and for protection from discrimination and violence on ethnic and racial grounds. Researcher: Dr Elsbeth Guild Funders: Council of Europe Project dates: May 1999 − 2000 Contact information: Dr E. Guild Centre for Migration Law University of Nijmegen Th. V. Aquinostraat 8 6500 KK, Nijmegen The Netherlands Tel: 31-24-3612087 Email: E.Guild@jur.kun.nl Project: ‘Asian immigrants and entrepreneurs in the European Community’ Project description: The focus of the research project is the labour market participation of recent South-, Southeast and East Asian migrant communities in the European Union. The extent to which Asian immigrants gain access to labour markets, the sectors in which they are active, the factors fostering and sustaining their socio-economic incorporation within the recipient countries, will be researched. A particular focus will be on immigrant entrepreneurship and economic strategies including the mobilisation of social and business networks. Attention will be paid to illegal migrants and the gender aspects of these processes. Current and past policies at EU and national level pertaining to Asian immigrants and their labour market participation/ entrepreneurship are to be reviewed. Researchers: Dr Ernst Spaan (NIDI), Dr Ton vanNaerssen (School of Environmental Studies/Centre for Border Research, University of Nijmegen), Dr Felicitas Hillmann (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, Hans Böckler Stiftung, Düsseldorf, Germany), Dr David McEvoy (Centre for Social Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom), Dr Natalia Ribas (Centre d’Estudis Internacionals i Interculturals, Departament de Sociologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) and Dr Daniele Cologna, Centro de Richerche Synergia, S.R.L., Milano, Italy). Project dates: 2001 − 2003. Contact information: Dr Ernst Spaan Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute P.O. Box 11650 2502 AR The Hague The Netherlands Tel: 31 70 3565250 Email: spaan@nidi.nl Project: ' Working on the fringes, immigrant businesses, economic integration and informal practices' Project description: The objective of this programme is to establish an international network to compare informal economic activities by taking immigrant entrepreneurship as the strategic starting point. The project entails a comparison of the role of immigrant businesses in the underground economy as well as an assessment and evaluation of rules and regulations and existing policy approaches related to informal and criminal economic activities in European Union member stated and an affiliated member. By initiating a thorough cross-border comparison, the general underlying dynamics as well national specifics with regard to the role of immigrant businesses in the underground economy and the relationship with the formal economy will be analysed. Project dates: 1999 − 2002 Researcher: Dr J. Rath Funders: European Community (TSER-programme), the European Social Foundation, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. (NWO)

308

Associated: Delft University of Technology − the Netherlands, Centre for Social Innovation − Austria, Université de Poitiers − France, Technical University of Berlin − Germany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem − Israel, Fondazione Bignaschi −Italy, Liverpool John Moores University − United Kingdom. Furthermore, the Catholic University of Leuven −Belgium and the South Danish University − Denmark participate in this project. Contact information: Dr J. Rath Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies University of Amsterdam Rokin 84 Amsterdam 1012KXA Tel: 20 5353627 Fax: 20 5253628 Project: ‘The contract clothing industry. An international comparative study of immigrant business in the clothing contract industry’ Researcher: Dr J. Rath Funders: Social Research Fund, University of Amsterdam Project dates: 1994 − 1999 Contact information: Dr J. Rath Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies University of Amsterdam Rokin 84 Amsterdam 1012KXA Tel: 20 5353627 Fax: 20 5253628 Project: ‘Comparative Immigration Law of the EU Member States in the Perspective of a European Immigration Law’ Project description: Comparative study of (a) conditions for entry and residence of third country nationals; (b) illegal immigration and residence (including voluntary and involuntary repatriation); (c) rights/conditions under which a Member State grants third nationals legally residing in another Member State the right of residence; (d) asylum provisions (i.e. regarding the qualification of nationals of third countries as refugees, standards on reception of asylum seekers and procedures for granting or withdrawing refugee status; (e) provisions on displaced persons (i.e. standards for giving them temporary protection, Researcher: Marion Schmid Project dates: Funders: Contact information: Marion Schmid King’s College London Hampstead Campus Kidderpore Avenue London NW3 7ST Email: marionschmid@gmx.net Project: ‘Effectiveness of National Integration towards second generation Youth in a Comparative European perspective’ (EFFNATIS) Coordinators: Dr J. Doomernik and Dr M. Crul UK Researchers: Dr Roger Penn, Dr Janet Perret and Dr P. Lambert LUCAS Lancaster University Fylde College Lancaster LA1 4YE Tel: 01524 594914 Email: r.penn@lancaster.ac.uk

309

Funders: European Commission Project dates: January 1998 − December 2000 Contact information: Dr J. Doomernik Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies University of Amsterdam Rokin 84 Amsterdam 1012KXA Tel: 20 5353627 Fax: 20 5253628 Website: http://www.uni-bamberg.de/projekte/effnatis/pgitps.htm Project: ‘Obstacles to Immigrant Integration’ Project Directors: Demetrios Papademetriou and Kathleen Newland Sponsor: International Migration Policy Program To take further advantage of comparative research and study of policies and practices which facilitate (or hinder) successful immigrant integration, the Program is applying the results of its research on citizenship policies to the United States experience. The Program seeks to identify obstacles to successful integration —in consultation with immigrants and the community-based and non-governmental organizations that serve and represent them—and to develop recommendations for the most important steps toward facilitating the successful incorporation of future Americans. Contact information: Demetrios Papademetriou and Kathleen Newland International Migration Policy Program 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 Tel: 202 483 7600 Fax: 202 483 1840 Email: demetri@ceip.org Email: knewland@ceip.org Project: ‘Comparative Citizenship Project’ Project description: With immigration benefits having become increasingly obscured behind law-and-order fiscal concerns, the long-neglected part of the immigration policy agenda that deals with the successful integration of immigrants demands renewed attention. The Comparative Citizenship Project seeks to improve understanding of such concepts as economic and social integration, “membership” and “citizenship” − always in the context of a country's unique history or traditions. Project Directors: T. Alexander Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer Sponsor: International Migration Policy Program Contact information: International Migration Policy Program 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 Tel: 202 483 7600 Fax: 202 483 1840 Email: aaleinikoff@ceip.org Website: http://www.ceip.org/files/projects/imp/CtiznProject.htm

310

2. Refugees − General

Project: The Ethnics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democratic States and Responding to Refugees (book project) Researcher: Dr Matthew Gibney Funders: Commonwealth Scholars and Fellowship Plan Project dates: Forthcoming publication 2002 Cambridge University Press Contact information: Dr M. Gibney Refugee Studies Centre Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford St Giles Oxford OX1 3LA Tel: 01865 270722 Email: matthew.gibney@qeh.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Mental health care for refugees and asylum seekers’ Project description: This project investigates mental health service provisions for refugees and asylum seekers in the Netherlands, paying special attention to the cultural appropriateness of the services provided and the misunderstandings which can arise through culture-related differences in expectations. The project comprises three phases: 1. Mapping of mental health services 2. A study of cultural differences in the interactions between mental health workers and refugees/asylum seekers 3. In-depth studies of (a) the role of political factors in the way refugees experience problems, (b) service provision for refugees in the context of provisions for other migrants Researcher(s): Prof David Ingleby, Prof Arie de Ruijter, Sander Kramer, Rinske Boomstra Project dates: 1996 − 2000 Funders: University of Utrecht Contact information: David Ingleby Professor of Intercultural Psychology Department of Cross-Cultural Studies Utrecht University, Postbus 80.140 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands Direct line: +31 30 253 2979 Fax: +31 30 2534733 Email: d.ingleby@fss.uu.nl Website: www.ercomer.org/research/39.html Project: ‘The Relationship between Asylum Policy and Immigration Movements in Canada and the UK’ Researchers: Dr Matthew Gibney, Prof. Guy Goodwin-Gill, Dr Randall Hansen, Ms Sharon Rusu Funders: Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in Association with the Foundation for Canadian Studies in the UK Project dates: January 2000 − June 2001 Contact information: Dr M. Gibney Refugee Studies Centre

311

Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford St Giles Oxford OX1 3LA Tel: (0) 1865 270722 Email: matthew.gibney@qeh.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘Communication in the Dutch Asylum Procedure’ Project description: In an observational study, the way the Immigration and Naturalization Department and lawyers communicate with asylum applicants is analysed. During the procedure the applicants’ account is transformed into a statement that complies (or doesn’t comply) with the Geneva Convention criteria. The impact of communication processes on decisions is examined. Researcher: Drs. N. Doornbos (Nienke) Contact information: Drs. N. Doornbos Instituut voor Rechtssociologie Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen Postbus 9049 6500 KK Nijmegen Tel: 31 (0) 24 3615533 b.g.g. 3612087 Fax: 31 (0) 24 3611423 Email: N.Doornbos@jur.kun.nl Project: ‘Asylum Statistics in the Netherlands’ Project description: In the Netherlands, the Secretary of State estimated that 20% of all asylum applicants receive a status. In the public debate it is often assumed that the other 80% concern ‘bogus asylum seekers’. However, these figures are highly biased. They are based on the number of decisions taken in a certain year, while in most cases more than one or two decisions are taken. In a longitudinal cohort-based analysis the outcome of procedures of over 84,000 asylum seekers who entered the Netherlands in 1995, 1996 and 1997, was examined. By June 2000, not 20%,but 44% of these applicants had already received a temporary or a permanent status. Some cases were still under study. The distortion in the use of statistics is not typically Dutch. In other EU countries the same misconceptions about ‘bogus asylum seekers’ occur as a result of a wrong analysis of statistics. Researcher: Drs. N. Doornbos (Nienke) Contact information: Drs. N. Doornbos Instituut voor Rechtssociologie Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen Postbus 9049 6500 KK Nijmegen Tel: 31 (0) 24 3615533 b.g.g. 3612087 Fax: 31 (0) 24 3611423 Email: N.Doornbos@jur.kun.nl Project: ‘Refugees on their way to Europe’ Project description: Small research carried out during one week in Beirut, Lebanon. 21 Iraqi and Sudanese refugees were interviewed about their motives for travelling to Europe, their choice for a specific country of destination, their knowledge and expectations of the asylum procedures and their (expected) travel routes. Researcher: Drs. N. Doornbos (Nienke) Contact information: Drs. N. Doornbos Instituut voor Rechtssociologie Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen Postbus 9049 6500 KK Nijmegen Tel: 31 (0) 24 3615533 b.g.g. 3612087 Fax: 31 (0) 24 3611423 Email: N.Doornbos@jur.kun.nl

312

Project: Constructions of ‘Home’ amongst Bosnians (Bosniac and Serb) at home and abroad (exYugoslavia, Netherlands, and UK) Funders: Toyota Foundation Researchers: Andrew Dawson, Stef Jansen Project dates: July 2000 − December 2001 Contact information: Dr Andrew Dawson Sociology and Anthropology University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX Tel: 01482 466213 Fax: 01482 466366 Email: a.dawson@cas.hull.ac.uk Project: ‘Roma Migration to the EU (refugee status and treatment of Roma in EU)’ Researcher: Cristian Urse Contact information: Cristian Urse Visiting Researcher Institute for the Study of International Migration Georgetown University Email: cristi74_99@yahoo.com Project: ‘Persecution by Third Parties’ Project Description: A study into the legal concept of persecution in the context of refugee protection by reference to the source of persecution, whether state or non-state. The study considers the position in law in eight states: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK and draws specific conclusions about the meaning of persecution in this context. Researchers: Roel Fernhout, Thomas Spijkerboer, Ben Vermeulen, Karin Zwaan Funders: WODC/Ministry of Justice, the Netherlands Project dates: November 1997 − May 1998 Contact information: Centre for Migration Law University of Nijmegen Th. V. Aquinostraat 8 6500 KK, Nijmegen The Netherlands Tel: 31-24-3612087 Project: ‘Protection and Promotion of Human Rights in Acute Crisis’ Researchers: Geoff Gilbert, Nigel Rodley, Francoise Hampson, Kate Mackintosh Funders: Department for International Development Project dates: 1997 − 1998 Contact information: Human Rights Centre University of Essex Wivenhoe Park Colchester CO4 3SQ Email: geoff:essex.ac.uk Project: ‘Torture Reporting Handbook’ Researchers: Geoff Gilbert, Nigel Rodley, Camille Giffard Funders: Foreign and Commonwealth Office Project dates: 1999 − ongoing Contact information:

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Human Rights Centre University of Essex Wivenhoe Park Colchester CO4 3SQ Email: geoff:essex.ac.uk Project: Current Issues in the Application of the Exclusion Clauses (Global Consultations Project) Researcher: Geoff Gilbert Funder: UNHCR Project dates: 2000 − ongoing Contact information: Human Rights Centre University of Essex Wivenhoe Park Colchester CO4 3SQ Email: geoff:essex.ac.uk Project: ‘Refugee Voices in Europe: Refugees from Former Yugoslavia in Italy and the Netherlands Experiences of Integration’ Project description: The main aim of this research is to explore their experiences of integration with a special focus on the role of gender in the process of refugee settlement. By focusing on exile communities from former Yugoslavia in Italy and the Netherlands, the project addresses in a comparative way the following issues: (1) the social conditions of refugees from former Yugoslavia in the two EU countries; (2) the ideas of ‘successful integration’ as desired by the refugees themselves; (3) the policy contexts and their relation to the needs and expectations of refugees. Researcher(s): Dr Maja Korac Project dates: June 1999−December 2001 Funders: Lisa Gilad Initiative, European Commission through ECRE, The British Council, Oppenheimer Fund, Hayter Travel Fund Contact information: Dr Maja Korac Lisa Gilad Senior Research Officer Refugee Studies Centre Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford 21 St Giles Street Oxford OX1 3LA Email: maja.korac@qeh.ox.ac.uk Project: ‘The role of assisted return programmes in facilitating the return of rejected asylum seekers’ Project description: This study evaluates existing programmes for the return of rejected asylum seekers and other irregular migrants across five EU states. It develops a framework for policy evaluation, a series of policy recommendations and a research agenda. This study compares the experiences of asylum seekers in the Netherlands, France and Switzerland. Researcher: Khalid Koser Funder: International Organization for Migration (IOM) Project dates: draft report submitted 2001 Contact information: Dr Khalik Koser Migration Research Unit University College London 26 Bedford Way London WC1H OAP Email: Kkoser@geog.ucl.ac.uk

314

3. Ethnic Minorities − General
Project: ‘State Policies towards Muslim Minorities in the European Union’ Project description: Islam has become the third largest religious community in the European Union. Although most European states have a strong interest in integrating Muslim communities into society, there continue to be many obstacles at various levels of the political system, which are mostly due to the deeprooted traditions of European nation state formations. The aim of the project is to bring together national, regional and local administrations, Muslim institutions, Islamic associations etc. in order to analyse the different state traditions and policies as well as the multitude of concrete measures directed towards Muslim communities in the three participating countries, namely Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany. By doing so, the project seeks to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of exclusion on the basis of religion and ethnicity. Policy recommendations will be formulated on the local, regional, national and European level in order to develop a joint European policy of anti-discrimination and integration of Muslim minorities into the social, religious and political life of the different Member States in the European Union. Researchers: Prof. Åke Sander, Prof. Muhammad Anwar Funding: European Commission Project dates: current Contact information: Prof. Åke Sander Centre for the Study of International Migration and Cultural Contact Göteborg University Box 200 S - 40530 Göteborg Tel: +46 31 773 1561 Fax: +46 31 773 1560 Or Prof. Muhammad Anwar Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations (CRER) University of Warwick Arts Building Coventry CV4 7AL Tel: +44 24 76 5248 70 Fax: +44 24 76 5243 24

Project: ‘CITNET Citizens Organise Networks Against Discrimination’ Project description: At the moment the realm of activities which are employed in citizens’s mobilisation for integration- and anti-discrimination aspects is characterised by a growing need for co-operation and networking on the regional, national and European level. CITNET aims at serving this need. Therefore, existing co-operation networks are to be re-activated and enlarged. Above that, the aim of CITNET is to initiate a basic dialogue on different models of integration, which are exemplified through the respective models typical for Berlin, Paris, Birmingham and Milan. These models are to be discussed at a special conference. Via this debate innovative approaches to integration which are characteristic for different regions should be made public and applicable throughout Europe. Funders: European Commission Contact information: see website: http://www.emz-berlin.de/e/project/pj02_1.htm

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Cooperating partners: Agence pour le Développement des Relations Interculturelles Executive Director Marie Poinsot Email: mpoinsot@adri.easynetbox.net Website: http://www.adri.fr
Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations University of Warwick, U.K. Prof. Dr Muhammad Anwar Email: CRER@Warwick.ac.uk Website: http://www.csv.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/CRER_RC/

316

Current Research projects – information drawn from interviews* *Note: Information about the current projects provided in this section is drawn from interviews only, and therefore, it is incomplete. Nonetheless, the information is still valuable, because it points to additional areas and topics covered. Project: study about asylum seekers, use of social networks, and levels of control they have on choosing their final destination. Potential funder: Nuffield Foundation (still at the proposal stage). Contact: Dr Alice Bloch, Goldsmiths College, University of London.
Projects: 1. Study of black and ethnic minorities voluntary sector in the west Midlands – capacity building for the voluntary sector. 2. Study of black and minority organisations and community organisations – a survey in England and Wales. 3. Study about needs of black organisations and how they network together to obtain funding (with Mike McLeod). Contact: Dr David Owen, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick. Projects: 1. Study focuses on identity and citizenship with special reference to the UK, France, Germany and Belgium. The study explores the political mobilisation and participation of Muslims, particularly the role of community organisations in the process. 2. Study about ethnic minorities and the British electoral system. This is a longitudinal research, began in 1997, it includes survey of candidates, survey of electors, survey of voting patterns, survey of turn out patterns. 3. European Community projects consisting of: i) a qualitative study about experience of discrimination of Muslim women in five countries – UK, Germany, Spain, Italy, Denmark; ii) study about mobilisation of citizens to deal with social exclusion; iii) study about state policies pertaining to Muslims in UK, Sweden and Germany. Contact: Dr Muhammad Anwar, Department of Sociology, University of Warwick. Project: Study about the relationship between migrant youth, ethnic minority youth and refugee/asylum youth. Contact: Dr Les Back, Goldsmiths College, University of London.

Data Set 4

317

Research Centres Research Centres – UK
Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism (ASEN, London School of Economics and Political Science, http://www.lse.ac.uk/depts/european/ASEN/ Centre for European Migration and Ethnic Studies, Torpoint http://www.cemes.org Centre for Migration and Policy Research, University of Oxford http://www.anthro.ox.ac.uk Centre for New Ethnicities Research, University of East London http://www.uel.ac.uk/cner/index.htm Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick http://www.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/CRER_RC/ Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship, University of Bristol http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Sociology/main/frset.htm Centre for the Study of Migration, Department of Politics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London http://www.politics.qmw.ac.uk/centre.htm Electronic Immigration Network http://www.ein.org.uk/ ERaM - Ethnicity, Racism and the Media Programme, Bradford, UK http://www.brad.ac.uk/bradinfo/research/eram/eram. ESRC Transnational Communities Programme, University of Oxford http://www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk Ethnicity Research Centre, Leicester University http://www.le.ac.uk/sociology/ethnic/ Ethnicity Research Group, University of Lancaster R.Penn@Lancaster.ac.uk European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), London http://www.ecre.org Institute of Race Relations http:// www.irr.org.uk Migration and Ethnicity Research Centre, University of Sheffield http://www.shef.ac.uk/merc/ Migration Research Unit (MRU), Department of Geography, University College London (UCL), http://geog.ucl.ac.uk/mru Migration Unit, Department of Geography, University of Wales Swansea

318

http://ralph.swan.ac.uk/pgrdinfo/migratn.htm Minority Rights Group, London http://www.minorityrights.org Race Relations Research Unit, University of Bradford Ranjita@bik.ac.uk Refugee Education Initiative; Institute of Education, University of London http://www.ioe.ac.uk Refugee Studies Centre, QEH, Oxford http://qeh.ox.ac.uk Sussex Centre for Migration Research http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/CDE/research/migration#cr

319

Selected Research Centres - International
European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations (ERCOMER), Utrecht University http://www.ercomer.org/research European forum for migration studies Institute, University of Bamberg http://www.unibamberg.de:80/~ba6ef3 Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, (Ceifo), Stockholm University, http://www.ceifo.su.se Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES), University of Amsterdam http://pscw.uva.nl Centre for Migration Law, University of Nijmegen http://www.jur.kun.nl/rit/cmr/home.html European Migration Centre (EUROFOR), Berlin http://www.emz-berlin.de The Migration Policy Group (MPG), Brussels http://www.migpolgroup.com/ International Center for Migration, Ethnicity and Citizenship, New School University, New York http://www.newschool.edu/icmec/ Centre for Migration and Development, Princeton University http://opr.Princeton.edu/cmd Centre for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego http://www.ccis-ucsd.org Bevölkerungswisenschaft, Humboldt University, Berlin http://www.demographie.de

Data Set 5 Key Periodicals/Websites/Data Sets/Organisations
1. Key Periodicals
Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Citizenship Studies Communal/Plural Diaspora Ethnic And Racial Studies Ethnicities Ethnicity and Health European Journal of Intercultural Studies Forced Migration Monitor Forced Migration Review (Formerly Refugee Participation Network) Global Networks Identities

320

Immigrants And Minorities
In Exile: The Refugee Council Magazine Innovation in Social Science Research International Journal Of Intercultural Relations International Journal Of Refugee Law International Journal Of Urban And Regional Research International Migration International Migration Review Journal Of Ethnic And Migration Studies (Formerly New Community) Journal Of International Migration And Integration Journal Of Multilingual And Multicultural Development Journal Of Refugee Studies Link Up: Refugee Training & Employment Centre’s Newsletter Migration Migration News Migration Report Nationalism And Ethnic Politics Nations And Nationalism Patterns Of Prejudice Population And Development Review Public Culture Race And Class Refugee Survey Quarterly Revue Européenne Des Migrations Internationales Social Identities Urban Studies West European Politics

2. List of Relevant Websites
UK Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (CARF) http://www.carf.demon.co.uk/ Cashbah Project http://www.casbah.ac.uk/ Centre for New Ethnicities Research, University of East London http://www.uel.ac.uk/cner/index.htm Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick http://www.warwick.ac.uk/CRER Centre for the Study of Migration, Department of Politics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London http://www.politics.qmw.ac.uk/centre.htm> Electronic Immigration Network (EIN) http://www.ein.org.uk/

321

Ethnopolitics Mailing List Archive. Encourage scholarly research and exchange between academics on issues related to (non-immigrant) ethnic minorities, minority rights, and the origin, development and settlement of ethnic conflicts http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/ethnopolitics.html Home Office http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ Home Office – Immigration and Asylum http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/immigration1.html House of Commons http://www.parliament.uk/commons/ House of Commons. Up-to-date. Health Committee http://www.parliament.uk/commons/selcom/hlthhome.htm Immigration Appellate Authority http://www.iaa.gov.uk/ Immigration Advisory Service (IAS) http://www.vois.org.uk/ias/ Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants (JCWI) http://www.jcwi.org.uk/ Local Government Association (LGA). http://www.lga.gov.uk/lga/kosovo/index.htm Migration and Ethnicity Research Centre, University of Sheffield http://www.shef.ac.uk/merc/ Migration Research Unit, UCL, London http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/mru Migration Unit, Department of Geography, University of Wales Swansea http://ralph.swan.ac.uk/pgrdinfo/migratn.htm National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns (NCADC) http://www.ncadc.org.uk/ New Vision (refugee journalists examine issues of refugees and media) http://www.newvision.org.uk/ Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner http://www.oisc.org.uk/ Refugee Council http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk Refugee Legal Centre http://www.refugee-legal-centre.org.uk/index.html Refugee Studies Centre (RSC), University of Oxford http://www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/rsc/

322

Refugees Online (UNHCR resource) http://www.refugeesonline.org.uk/ Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, Middlesex University http://www.mdx.ac.uk Scottish Refugee Council. http://www.scottishrefugeecouncil.org.uk/ Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/CDE/research/migration.html ESRC Transnational Communities Research Programme, University of Oxford http://www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk

Selected European/International
CEMES - Centre for European Migration and Ethnic Studies http://www.cemes.org Centre for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego http://www.ccis-ucsd.org/ Centre for Refugee Studies (CRS), York University, Toronto, Canada http://www.yorku.ca/crs/ Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO), Sweden http://www.ceifo.su.se/ European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations (ERCOMER), Utrecht http://www.ercomer.org European Council for Refugees and Exiles http://www.proasyl.de/ecre-e.htm European Council on Refugees and Exiles www.ecre.org European Migration Information Network www.emin.geog.ucl.ac.uk European Union Networks on Integration of Refugees www.refugeenet.org European Refugee Fund http://www.european-refugee-fund.org/ Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Amsterdam (IMES) http://www.pscw.uva.nl/imes Inter-governmental Consultations for Asylum, Refugee and Migration Policies (IGC) http://www.igc.ch/

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ILODOC. International Labour Organization’s searchable database. http://ilis.ilo.org/ilis/ilodoc/ilintrid.html Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement (CERIS), Canada. http://ceris.metropolis.net/index_e.html Metropolis - Research and Policy on Migrants in Cities http://international.metropolis.net Migration Dialogue, UC-Davis, California http://www.migration.ucdavis.edu Migration Policy Group, Brussels http://www.migpolgroup.com Stichting VADA (Dutch multiculturalism site with many links) http://www.vada.nl UNESCO-MOST project, Multicultural Policies and Modes of Citizenship in European Cities www.unesco.org/most/p97.htm UNHCR RefWorld (Refugee Research Network) http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/

3. List of Relevant Data Sets
British Election Panel Study (immediaTel:y after every general election since 1964; Ethnic Minority Survey in 1997) British Social Attitudes Survey (almost every year since 1983) Ethnic Minorities and the Police Survey, Leeds, 1987 (UK Data-archive N.2740) Eurobarometer 30: immigrants and out-groups in Western Europe, 1988 (UK Data-archive N.2857) European Election Study 1994 (UK data-archive No.3726) Labour Force Surveys (biennially from 1973 until 1983; annually from 1984 until 1991; quarterly since 1992) National Surveys of Ethnic Minorities (1966, 1974, 1982 and 1993/4) UK Census (decennial)

4. List of Relevant, UK-based Organisations
AIRE Centre (Advice on Individual Rights in Europe) 74 Eurolink Business Centre, 49 Effra Road, London, SW2 1BZ Tel: 020 7924 0927 (Mon-Thurs 2pm-5pm) Fax: 020 7733 6786 Email: aire@btinternet.com African Churches Council for Immigration and Social Justice (ACCIS) Unit 108, 159-163 Marlborough Road, London, N19 Tel: 020 7272 2774 Fax: 020 7272 2765

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Amnesty International UK 99-119 Rosebery Avenue, London, EC1R 4RE Tel: 020 7814 6200 Fax: 020 7833 1510 Email: information@amnesty.org.uk Association of Visitors to Immigration Detainees (AVID) C/o Sally Tarshish, Bartemas House, Oxford, OX4 2AJ Tel: 01865 727795

Asylum Aid
28 Commercial Street, London, E1 6LS Tel: 020 7377 5123 244 Upper Street, London, N1 1RU Tel: 020 7359 4026 Email: info@asylumaid.org.uk website: www.asylumaid.org.uk Asylum Rights Campaign 46 Francis Street, London, SW1P 1QN Tel: 020 7798 7027 Fax: 020 7798 9010

Asylum Welcome
276a Cowley Road, Oxford, OX4 1UR Tel: 01865 722082

Avon Immigration and Nationality Advice Centre
118 Church Street, Bristol, BS5 9HH Tel: 0117 955 1149 Bail for Immigration Detainees (BID) 28 Commercial Street, London, E1 6LS Tel: 020 7247 3590 Fax: 020 7247 3550 Email: bailforimmigrationdetainees@yahoo.co.uk Bellenden Neighbourhood Advice Centre, Coplestone Centre Coplestone Road, Peckham, London, SE15 4AN Tel/Fax: 020 7639 8447 Blackfriars Advice Centre 44-46 Nelson Square, London, SE1 0QA Tel: 020 79289521 Fax: 020 7620 1409 Bosnian Information & Refugee Centre 60-62 Mill Lane, London, NW6 1NJ Tel: 020 7433 3834 British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF) Skyline House, 200 Union Street, London, SE1 0LX Tel: 020 7593 2000

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Fax: 020 7593 2001 Websiste: www.baaf.org.uk Campaign to Close Campsfield c/o 111 Magdalen Road, Oxford, OX4 1RQ Tel: 01865 558145/726804 Email: suke.wolton@sant.ox.ac.uk Website: www.closecampsfield.org.uk Cellmark Diagnostics P O Box 265, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1YX Tel: 01235 528609 Fax: 01235 528141 Website: www.cellmark.co.uk Central London Advice Service Derry House, Penfold Street, London, NW8 8HJ Tel: 020 7402 6750 Fax: 020 7224 8264 Children's Legal Centre University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex, CO4 3SQ Advice: 01206 873820 Admin: 01206 872466 Fax: 01206 874206 Website: www2.essex.ac.uk/clc Chinese Information Advice Centre 1st Floor, 53 New Oxford Street, London, W1V 7DF Tel: 020 7692 3471 Fax: 020 7692 3476 Christian Action for Justice in Immigration Law c/o Iona Community Peace Institute, Govan, Glasgow, G51 3UU

Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia
C/o Uniting Britain Trust, Elliot House 10−12 Allington Street, London, SW1E 5EH Tel 020 7932 5368 Fax 020 7932 5436 Commission for Racial Equality Elliot House, 10-12 Allington Street, London, SW1E 5EH Tel: 020 7828 7022 Fax: 020 7630 7605 Website: www.cre.gov.uk CORE LAG Newham Refugee Council, 728 Romford Road, Manor Park, London, E12 6BT Tel/Fax: 020 8478 1382

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Detention Advice Service 308 Seven Sisters Road, London, N4 2AG Tel: 020 8802 3422 Fax: 020 8802 0684 East European Advice Centre Room 12c, 238-240 King Street, London, W6 0RF Educational Grants Advisory Service 501 Kingsland Road, London, E8 2DY Tel: 020 7254 6251 Fax: 020 7249 5443 Electronic Immigration Network The Progress Centre, Charlton Place, Ardwick Green, Manchester, M12 6HS Tel: 0161 273 7515 Fax: 0161 274 3159 Email: info@ein.org.uk Website: www.ein.org.uk Ethnic Minorities Advice Project Ethnic Minorities Representatives Council (EMRC), c/o Brighton Islamic Mission, 8 Caburn Road, Hove, Sussex, BN3 6EF Tel/Fax: 01273 722438 European Commission London Office, 8 Storey’s Gate, London, SW1P 3AT Tel: 020 7973 1992 Fax: 020 7973 1900 Website: www.europe.org.uk Foundation for Public Service Interpreting 1 Clements Court, London, EC4N 7HB Tel: 020 7626 0220 Fax: 020 7283 3678 Website: www.nisuk.co.uk Free Representation Unit Peer House, 8-14 Verulam Street, London, WC1X 8LZ Tel: 020 7831 0692 Fax: 020 7831 2398 Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group 225 Three Bridges Road, Three Bridges, Crawley, RH10 1LG Tel: 01293 434 350 Fax: 01293 434 351 Ghana Union/Islington African Project 431 Caledonian Road, London, N7 2LT Tel: 020 7700 5634 Fax: 020 7700 3225 Greater Manchester Immigration Aid Unit 400 Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester, M8 9LE Tel: 0161 740 7722

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Fax: 0161 740 5172 Email: gmiau@ein.org.uk Haslar Visitors Group Windmill House, Hambledon Road, Denmead, Hampshire, PO7 6PF Tel/Fax: 02392 2231848

Home Office
Immigration & Nationality Directorate, Block C, Whitgift Centre, Wellesley Road, Croydon CR9 1AT. National Asylum Support Service (NASS). Voyager House, 30/32 Wellesley Road, Croydon CR0 2AD Helpline: 0845 602 1729 Human Rights Watch 2nd Floor, 33 Islington High Street, London, N1 9LH Tel: 020 7713 1995 Fax: 020 7713 1800 Website: www.hrw.org

Immigration Appeals Advisory Service
190 Great Dover Street, London, SE1 4YB Tel: 020 7357 6917 or 020 8814 1559

Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association
1st Floor Lindsey House, 40-41 Charterhouse Street, London, EC1M 4JH. Tel: 020 7251 8383 Fax: 020 7251 8384 Email: info@ilpa.org.uk Independent Immigration Support Agency (formerly JCWI West Midlands) 3rd Floor, Spencer House, Digbeth, Birmingham, B5 6DD Tel: 0121 622 7353 Institute of Race Relations 2-6 Leeke Street, London, WC1X 9HS Tel: 020 7837 0041 Fax: 020 7278 0623 Website: www.irr.org.uk Interights Lancaster House, 33 Islington High Street, London, N1 9LH Tel: 020 7278 3230 Fax: 020 7278 4334 International Social Service of Great Britain Cranmer House, 39 Brixton Road, London, SW9 6DD Tel: 020 7735 8941 Fax: 020 7582 0696 Email: issuk@charity.vfree.com

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Islington People’s Rights 2 St Paul’s Road, London, N1 2QN Tel: 020 7704 2844 (admin) 020 7359 2010 (advice: 2pm - 4.30pm Monday to Friday) Fax: 020 7354 3803 Email: advice@i-p-r.demon.co.uk Website: www.islingtonpeoplesrights.co.uk

Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants
115 Old Street, London, EC1V 9JR Tel: 020 7251 8706 Justice 59 Carter Lane, London, EC4V 5AQ Tel: 020 7329 5100 Fax: 020 7329 5055 Website: www.justice.org.uk Kalayaan St Francis Centre, 13 Hippodrome Place, Pottery Lane, London, W11 4SF Tel: 020 7243 2942 Fax: 020 7792 3060 Law Centres Federation Duchess House, 18-19 Warren Street, London, W1P 5DB Tel: 020 7387 8570 Fax: 020 7387 8368 Law For All PO Box 230, Brentford, TW8 9FL Tel: 020 8758 0668 Fax: 020 8758 0669 Legal Action Group 242 Pentonville Road, London, N1 9UN Tel: 020 7833 2931 Fax: 020 7837 6094 Email: lag@lag.org.uk Liberty National Council for Civil Liberties 21 Tabard Street, London, SE1 4LA Tel: 020 7403 3888 Fax: 020 7407 5354 Website: www.liberty-humanrights.org.uk

London Asylum Seekers’ Consortium
Westminster City Hall, Victoria Street, London, SW1E 6QP. Tel 020 7641 3469 London Detainee Support Group 77 Holloway Road, London, N7 8JZ Tel: 020 7700 0606 Fax: 020 7700 4433

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Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture 96-98 Grafton Road, London, NW5 3EJ Tel: 020 7813 7777 Fax: 020 7813 0011 Website: www.torturecare.org.uk Merseyside Immigration Advice Unit 34 Princes Road, Liverpool, L8 1TH Tel: 0151 709 8360 Fax: 0151 709 4996 Migrants Resource Centre 24 Churton Street, London, SW1V 2LP Tel: 020 7834 6650 Fax: 020 7931 8187 Minority Rights Group 379 Brixton Road, London, SW9 7DE Tel: 020 7978 9498 Fax: 020 7738 6265 Website: www.minorityrights.org

Migrant Service Unit
6-20 John’s Mews, Holborn, London, WC1 2XN Tel: 020 7916 1646 National Association of Citizens' Advice Bureaux Myddleton House, 115-123 Pentonville Road, London, N1 9LZ Tel: 020 7833 2181 Fax: 020 7833 4371 Website: www.nacab.org.uk National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns 110 Hampstead Road, Birmingham, B20 2QS Tel: 0121 554 6947 Fax: 0870 055 4570 Website: www.ncadc.org.uk National Union of Students 461 Holloway Road, London, N7 6LJ Tel: 020 7272 8900 Fax: 020 7263 5713 Newham Rights Centre 285 Romford Road, London, E7 9HJ Tel: 020 8555 3331 Fax: 020 8519 7348 North of England Refugee Service 1st floor, 19 Bigg Market, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 1UN Tel: 0191 222 0406 Fax: 0191 222 0239 Nucleus Advice Centre 298 Old Brompton Road, London, SW5 9JS

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Tel: 020 7373 1379 Fax: 020 7835 1555 Website: www.nucleus.org.uk Porishad - Justice for Over Age Children 31 Cornwall Road, Bradford, BD8 7JN Tel: 01274 722069 Fax: 01274 729228 Praxis 1 Pott Street, London, E2 0EF Tel: 020 7729 7985 Fax: 020 7729 0134 Refugee Arrivals Project 41b Crosslances Rd, Hounslow, TW3 2AD Tel: 020 8607 6888/6900 Fax: 020 8607 6851 (Room 2005, 2nd floor, Queen’s Building, Heathrow Airport, TW6 1DL Tel: 0181-759-5740) Refugee Council 3 Bondway, London, SW8 1SJ Switchboard: 020 7820 3000 Tel: 020 7820 3085 Fax: 020 7582 9929 Email: info@refugeecouncil.demon.co.uk Website: www.refugeecouncil.org.uk Panel of Advisors for Unaccompanied Refugee Children: Tel: 020 7582 4947 Refugee Legal Centre Sussex House, 39-45 Bermondsey Street, London, SE1 3XF Tel: 020 7827 9090 (administration) Tel: 020 7378 6242 (advice) Tel: 0831 598057 (emergencies) Tel: 0800 592398 (detention) Fax: 020 7378 1979 Regional Refugee Forum for the North East Contact: Georgina Fletcher North of England Refugee Service, 2 Jesmond Road West, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4PQ Tel: 0191 245 7311 Fax: 0191 245 7320 Email: gf@refugee.org.uk Website: www.refugee.org.uk Royal College of Nursing Immigration Advisory Service Immigration Dept., 20 Cavendish Square, London, W1M 0AB Tel: 020 7647 3874 Website: www.rcn.org.uk Runnymede Trust 133 Aldersgate Street, London, EC1A 4JA Tel: 020 7600 9666

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Fax: 020 7600 8529 Website: www.runnymedetrust.org Scottish Refugee Council Edinburgh Office, 1st Floor, Wellgate House, 200 Cowgate Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1NQ Tel: 0131 225 9994 Fax: 0131 225 9997 Glasgow Office, 98 West George Street, Glasgow G2 1PG Tel: 0141 333 1850 Fax: 0141 333 1860 Southall Black Sisters 52 Norwood Road, Southall, Middlesex, UB2 4DW Tel: 020 8571 9595 Fax: 020 8574 6781 Email sbs@leonet.co.uk Stonewall Immigration Group C/o Central Station, 37 Warfdale Road, Islington, London, N1 9SE Tel: 020 7713 0620 Fax/Admin: 020 7713 8864 Email info@stonewall-immigration.org.uk Turkish Education Group 2 Newington Green Road, London, N1 4RX Tel: 020 7226 8647 Fax: 020 7704 6506 UK Anti-Detention Network (contact via Campaign to close Campsfield - details above) UKCOSA, The Council for International Education 9-17 St Alban’s Place, London, N1 0NX Tel: 020 7226 3762 Fax: 020 7226 3373 Website: www.ukcosa.org.uk

United Kingdom Council for Overseas Student Affairs
60 Westbourne Grove, London, W2 5SH Tel: 020 7229 9268 United Nations High Commission for Refugees 21st floor, Millbank Tower, 21-24 Millbank, London SW1P 1QP Tel: 020 7828 9191 Fax: 020 7630 5349 Email gbrlo@unhcr.ch

United Nations High Commission for Refugees
7 Westminster Palace Gardens, Artillery Row, London, SW1P 1RR Tel: 020 7222 3065 University Diagnostics Ltd LGC Building, Queens Road,

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Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0NJ Tel: 020 8943 8400 Fax: 020 8943 8401 Website: www.udlgenetics.com World University Service (Refugee Education and Training Advisory Service) 14 Dufferin Street, London, EC1Y 8PD Tel: 020 7426 5800 Fax: 020 7251 1314

Produced by the Research Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office This document is available only through the RDS website Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Communication Development Unit Room 275 50 Queen Anne’s Gate London SW1H 9AT Tel: 020 7273 2084 (answerphone outside of office hours) Fax: 020 7222 0211 Email: publications.rds@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk ISBN 1 84473 063 8 ©Crown copyright 2003

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