Agrofol'estry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for

producing food, materials, timber and other pwducts. [t can range from planting trees in pastlires providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, sluubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x Ist class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy ~ncluding postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to ' Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the ohject to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results tlu'ough booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Volume 7 Number 1

October 1998

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 7 Number 1

October 1998

Contents
2 3 11 News Nut profile: The Butternut Blackberries
14 18 20 21 30 Training systems Diseases Pests Cultivars Propagation

31 36 40

Propagation : Hardwood cuttings Pest & disease series: Apple powdery mildew Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed dearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust , 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6Jr. UK Email: AgroResTr@aol.com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 1

News
Health benefits of hazelnuts
Nuts have been shown to possess substances which significantly reduce the risk of coronary heart disease , atherosclerosis and some types of cancer , amoung other diseases . Compounds identified with p.ositive health benefits include Vitamin E for its antioxidant properties, Vitamin B·6, monou·nsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) , sterols (especially p-sitosterol) and dietary fibre (especially pe ctins) . It is very likely that higher rates of nut c onsumption in Mediterranean diets are a big factor in their health-promoting effects . Hazelnuts contain higher amounts of Vitamin E and Vitamin B6 than other common nuts and eating just 25 9 (1 az) per day gives 100% of the recommended daily allowan ce (RDA) for Vitamin E and 25% of the RDA for Vitamin B6. Source : The Health benefits of Eating Hazelnuts, D G Ric hardson. Acta Hart. 445 ISHS 1997.

Eucalyptus for floristry and fodder
Paul Macpherson grows over 30 species of Eucalypts and several other species of trees and shrubs on his 20 acre hillside site near Bovey Tracey in South Devon. His main business comes from selling the cut foliage to florists (mostly via London wholesalers); he also supplies several European zoos with Eucalyptus foliage to feed koalas , and runs a nursery selling large pot-grown Eucalyptus to the landscaping trade. Started by hi s father-in-law , Paul took over the business 16 years ago and has vastly expanded the range and volume of plants grown. The original Eucalypts were grown from seed collected from hardy trees in Australasia, and some of these have been grown on as mother trees for seed production . All their trees are grown from seed of UK provenance and must be amoung the hardiest available . The Eucalypts for foliage production are grown in rows about 2 m (6 tt ) apart with plants 1 m (3 tt) in the row. Young trees are allowed to establish for 3 years before cutting begins ; each spring , they are cut back to about 1 m (3 ft) high to allow for plenty of new shoots . The new shoots are hardened enough for the floristry trade by September or October. Shoots for koalas need not be so hardened . All the cutting back is done by hand , so the venture is labour intensive - and hard work on the fairly steep site, some of which is terraced . Weekly deliveries are made to wholesalers . There are plan s to use the waste wood to heat poly tunnels growing more tender species. Rabbits are a moderate pest (though much of the site is now rabbit-fenced) - they will nibble off new shoots they can reach in the spring. The main insect pest is a species of psyllid (Ctenaryaina eucalypti) for which Paul sprays, otherwise the foliage is too damaged to be of value. Other problems are aphids and silverleaf disease (Stereum purpureum - the same disease as plums can suffer from) . Winter dieback also occurs with some of the less hardy species and higher up the hillside site where winter winds can be severe . If plants die back and do not resprout (most do) , they are replanted . Paul rates the hardiest and most exposure tolerant species as Earcheri, Edebeuzevullei, Eglaucescens , Egunnii, Ekybeanensis, Eniphophifa and Eparvifolia. Other very hardy species include Ecoccifera , Ejohnstonii, Eperriniana , Esimmondsii and Eurnigera. Other species which Paul grows for the floristry trade include Arbutus unedo, Fatsia japonica , Griselinia spp., Piltosporum spp, Phormium spp., Rubus tricolor, Stepanandra spp ., and Viburnum spp . (inc .

V.linus) .
Mac Foliage , Knapmore Hill, Nr Liverton , Newlon Abbot , Devon , TQ12 6LB. Tel : 01626-821006 .

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The butternut
Introd uction
The butternut (also called the oilnut or white walnut) (Juglans cinerea) IS a member of the walnut family naUve to North America , where its large edible nuts have been long relished. It is the hardiest member of the walnut family, with a range which extends well into Canada. It is considered by some as the best of all nuts , but it remains little known in most parts of the world.

Description
Butternuts can reach 30 m (100 ftl high in American forests, but are more usually spreadingtopped medium size trees (18 m, 60 ttl with a straight trunk which can reach 60-100 em (2-3 ftl in diameter.

The bark is lighter , greyer and smoother than that of black walnut (J.nigra).
All the young twigs, petioles, leaves, buds and fruit are covered with a fine hairy down which exudes a sticky substance. Leaves are 35-60 cm (14-24 ~ ) long, compound with 11 - 19 leaflets , each serrated and pointed (much like the black walnut) . Leaflets are 5- 12 cm (2-5") long and up to 5 cm (2") wide, yellowishgreen and turning yellow or brown before falling in the early autumn. Like other walnuts, the male flower is a catkin, light yellowish-green, 1-10 cm ( Yz -4") long ; the female flowers are borne in clusters from leaf axils, each with two stigmas which open to reveal a striking red surface . Flowering usually occurs in Mayor June, and the male and female flowers , though borne on the same tree, usually i mature at different times hence single trees \ \ crop poorly. Cross pOllination occurs with , all other members of the walnut family. The nut is light brown , pointed and oblong with 8 very deep rough, sharp ridges funning lengthwise along the shell. The kernel, white to cream in colour, is thin and difficult to removed without extensively cracking the shell. The nuts are enclosed in a thick sticky hairy husk, and are borne in clusters of 2- 5. Each fruit is 3-6 cm (1.2-2 .5") or more in length by 25 mm (1 ") or more in diameter. The shell , though hard, can generally be broken without difficulty (as many of the cultivars have thinner shells) and the kernel easily separated . On wild trees , the shell cracks only after a considerable blow. Fruits usually ripen in October , and seedling

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

trees start bearing at a fairly young age (5-8 years from planting) . The butternut is native to the Eastern parts of the USA (south to Georgia and West to the Dakotas and Arkansas) and Canada (New Brunswick to Manitoba). Some selections are known to be hardy to zone 3 t-35°C) , though most can be assumed to be hardy to zone 4 (-25 to -30°C). It lives to a lesser age than many walnuts - 80-90 years. Buartnuts (butternut heartnut hybrids) are vigorous trees of similar habit and uses.

Uses

,

The nuts are sweet, very oily and fragrant, with a rich agreeable buttery flavour. They are eaten fresh, roasted or salted ; for flavouring; and are particularly popular used in cooking (pastries) and in confectionery manufacture (like black walnuts, Jug/ans nigra). One traditional use in New England was in combination with maple sugar in making maple-butternut candy. Kernels form roughly 20% of the weight of the total nut. They contain, on average, per 100g: 25 9 protein (very high), 64 g fat , 8.7 g carbohydrate , 7.1 mg Iron. Young butternuts are sometimes pickled like green walnuts after being rubbed smooth. They are harvested in early summer (when a pin can still be thrust through the nut without "any marked resistance), soaked in a mild brine for 3 weeks , then scalded and the outer skin rubbed off; the nuts are then covered with a 'syrup' of water, vinegar, sugar and spices . The oil pressed from nuts can be used as a cooking oil. The sap can be tapped and made into a syrup much like maple syrup. The inner bark (usually of the roots) is used medicinally , containing jug lone, juglandin and juglandic acid. It is alterative, cathartic . laxative , rubefacient , stimulant, ton ic and vermifuge ; traditionally used for cancer , dysentery. epithelioma , fevers , liver ailments , mycosis , tapeworms and warts. The sticky substance exuded from the downy covering contains a well-known dye. The green nuts and bark were widely used as a dye source - they are boiled to produce yellowish-orange (nuts) and brown (bark) dyes, which were widely used 200 years ago rbutternut jeans " became a sort of uniform for many Confederate soldiers in the Civil War). The wood from butternut is highly prized, being satiny, warm-coloured, warpless and enduring. The heartwood is medium dark chestnut-brown, but not as dark as black walnut which it otherwise resembles. It is straight grained with a coarse but soft texture, moderately strong and heavy, and weighs about 450 Kg/m 3 (28 [b/tt 3 ) . It is easily worked with both hand and power tools and there is little resistance to cutting edges. The wood nailS, screws and glues well and can be stained and brought to an exce ll ent finish. It is not durable outdoors and is moderately resistant to preservative

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treatment. It is a favourite of wood carvers and interior decorators. used for high class joinery, interior trim for boats , superstructures , cabinet fitments , furniture, boxes and crates. It is sliced as a decorative veneer and used in place of black walnut for furniture and wood panelling . It makes a good fuel wood. Apart from North America, it is cultivated as a timber tree in Denmark and Romania .

Cultivation
Like other walnuts , the butternut likes a deep, fertile, well-drained and moist soil. preferabty slightly acid or neutral; and a position in full sun. limestone soils are tolerated. Where native , rainfall varies from 54-123 cm (22-49 ~ ) per year and annual temperature from B.4 to lB .O°C (47 to 64°C) ; cold winters and hal summers, Ie a continental climate. It is often found on river bottoms and tolerates a high water table. Although very winter hardy, the tree is less hardy in mild temperate regions like the UK, because the cooler summers do not properly ripen the new growth, which is then susceptible to late spring frost damage. The tree has never been noted as a good cropper in the UK, but this may largely be due to ornamental plantings of a single seedling tree - never likely to crop well in any climate . Cultivation has been successful in British Columbia , so with good selection of cultivars there is potential as a cropping tree ;n Britain. For nut production, trees should be planted at 8-12 m 26-39 tt) apart ; for timber production , a much closer spacing of about 5 m (16 tt) is appropriate . Trees produce a deep taproot and are best transplanted as young plants - older plants may take a year or two to recover. At least two cultivars or seedlings from different parents should be grown to ensure cross poillination. Trees can be expected to grow about 3 m (10 ft) in 10 years in British conditions , rather more in a warmer climate. A substance which is toxic to some plants, Juglone, occurs in roots and is washed into the soil from decaying leaves (it is not present in living leaves.) Jugbne is quickly detoxfied by the soil , but in some circumstances and soils it may rise to concentratbns which are detriTlental to apples in parti:::ular, also to Ericaceae, Pofentlfa sp, Pinus strobus and P.resinosa, potatoes and tomatoes, and French beans. These species should be avoided in planting schemes. Seedling butternut stock inherit the leafing characteristics of their parents, hence for late leafing seedlings, seeds from a late leafing aJltivar 6ke Creghton shouk:l be used if possible . Several cultivars are knOIMl to have good timber form , and seedlings from these are much more likely to be useful timber trees than random seed from unknOIMl trees.

Harvesting and yields
Grafted trees take 3-6 years to start bearing; seedling trees usually take about 6-B years. Yields are smaller than those of walnuts, perhaps 30-50% at most (ie around 14-23 Kg I 30-50 Ib of inshell nuts) . Nuts are harvested after they drop by picking up from the ground. The fruits can also be knocked off the tree when ripe (they turn from greenish-bronze to greenish-brown when ripe) . The husks are gummy and result in gummy hands and gloves . Any husks still attached must be removed - requires some effort with butternut , as the shells have 15-20 linear spiny ridges projecting into the husks; American growers recommend throwing them In a concrete mixer with some chunks of concrete! Leather gloves should be worn to protect fingers from these sharp ridges when removing

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the dried husks with a knife andlor brush. They are easiest to remove when at an early stage of ripeness (still soft) . The nuts should be allowed 10 dry for a few weeks by spreading them in a warm airy room, stirring occasionally. They should be stored in a well-ventilated, dry, cool, mouse and rodent-proof place. Kerne ls are removed by cracking nuts: a heavy duty nutcracker is usually required (eg . an American version made for black walnuts); a hammer and anvil or block of hard wood is good; alternatively, nuts can be covered with hot water, soaked until the water cools then they will crack easily. The kernels can be stored dried. salted or frozen.

Section through showing shell (pericarp) and kernel

Pests and diseases
Wal nut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. jugfandis) does not atta ck butternut.

Butternut canker
A serious disease in North America caused by Ihe fungus Sirococcus cfavigignentijugfandacearum. Symptoms are dying branches , discoloured bark , and cankers on twigs, branches and trunk. Young cankers appear sunken, dark and elongated and ooze a thin black liquid in spring . Older cankers are large and may be covered with shredded bark . Several cankers may coalesce and girdle a tree ca using its death. This disease is decimating much of the butternut population in its native range, but resistance is occasionally occurring.

Walnut bunch
Caused by a mycoplasma-like (virus-like) organism , this causes witches brooms (clusters of wiry twigs on branches). Butternuts are quite susceptible in North America.

Dieback
Ca used by the fungus Mefanconis jug/andis , this is ch iefly a butternut disease (though other walnuts are sometimes affected). It causes a slow dieback of branches , with no well-defined symptoms (no wilting of leaves or cankers). Trees growing weakly are more susceptible.

Walnut leaf blotch
Caused by the fungus Gnomons leptoslyfa. Also known as Walnut anthracnose. and common feaf spot fungus; synonyrrs Marssonina jugfandis, Marssoniella juglandis. Less serious on butternut than velnut. This occurs throughout Europe and North America on black and common walnuts and butternut; it is widespread in Britain. and common in nursery conditions. The fungus causes brown blotches on leaves and young fruits : severe attacks result in defoiatiQn and the beckening of the young green nuts......nich fal

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

prematureo/. The disease appears in late May - early June and is favoured by wet weather. Spores overwinter on dead leaves on the ground. Control is fairfy good by mowing over or raking up fallen leaves and buming or composting at high temperatures. In wet seasons when infedion is bad, copper-ba~d sprays such as Bordeaux mixture give effective control. Resistance varies widely in cullivars.

Insects
North American minor insect pests include the walnut caterpillar (Datuna integerrima) and fall webworm caterpillar which attack leaves; and the butternut curculio or walnut weevil (Conotrache/us jug/andis) , whose larvae feed on young siems , branches and immature fruits , and which is sometimes serious in Canada. Walnut husk flies (a problem on walnuts) do not usually attack butternut. In Europe and Brita in, minor pests include the red spider mite (Panonychus ulm/) and the European fruit lecanium (Lecanium corni). These are also found in North America.

Birds
In North America , the purple grackle can be a pest. orten destroying immature fruits by pecking al the green husks. In Britain and Europe , Crows may dig up seed nuts and attack nuts on trees. Seed beds should be well netted. Sharp noSes will repel birds bul de"';ces must be S1ifted frequent~; the onlt other oplon is shooing.

Grey squirrels
These are a serious pest in Britain and North America, and may take nuts from trees. It is illegal in Britain to trap grey 9:juirrels and release them elsewhere. Poison baits in hopper systems are commonly used, but the dra'Abacks - spilt bait can be eaten by other animals and the poison may enter the food chain - make them unacceptable to many. A squirrel contraceptive pill is being developed which may make humane control possible in the near future. The only other options for dired control are to reduce numbers by shootng or trappng. If squirrels are a problem , it is vital to keep the ground cover short beneath trees

Cultivars
Improved varieties , chosen for larger size andlor with improved shelling (cracking) qualities, have been selected from wild trees over the past century or so and maintained by grafting; but the species hasn't been seriously commercialised. Most selection took place between the two world wars , primarily as a result of enthusiasm by the Northern Nut Growers Association (NNGA). Many of these selections have probably been lost - only a few are available from commercial nurseries now. Most of these cultivars crack out about 20% kernels (of whole nut) and those which crack very well will mostly crack out quarters after one cracking. Aiken: Origin: New Hampshire. Alverson: Origin: Michigan. Ayers: Nuts medium sized , high % of kernel. Tree upright , vigorous, late flowering . resistant to walnut leaf blotch. Origin: Michigan . Baker: Origin: Massachusetts. Bear Creek: Nuts crack very well, medium sized .

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~Beckwith: Nuts medium sized, crack quite welL Tree a prolific cropper , moderately vigorous , resistant to walnut leaf blotch. Bliss· Superior nut. Origin : Vermont. Bohn: Origin : Wisconsin . Booth: Nuts crack well, medium sized . Tree vigorous , moderately susceptible to walnut leaf blotch Origin: Ohio . Bountiful ( Syns. Loumis , Stark' s Bountiful) : Nuts mild flavoured , easily cracked and shelled. Tree a heavy cropper, self fertile, flowers are frosHesislant. Origin : Missouri.

Buckley: Nuts are very large . crack quite well . and kernels are of good quality. Tree very vigorous , has some resistance to walnut leaf blotch . Origin : Iowa.
Chamberlin : Nuts medium-large , crack moderately well ; kernels moderately well filled , good quality. Tree moderately vigorous, susceptible to walnut leaf blotch and dieback. Origin: New York. Craxezy: Nuts medium sized, easily cracked , well·filled and kernels are of good quality. Tree yields well, has some resistance to walnut leaf blotch . moderately susceptible to dieback. Origin : Michigan. Creighton: Nuts small·medium sized, crack very well and well·fllled; late ripening . Tree vigorous, late to leaf out and lose leaves in autumn; resistant to walnut leaf blotch. Origin: Michigan. Deming: Origin : Connecticut. Ooud: Origin : Indiana . Edge: Good cracker . Origin:

Be.

Fort Wood : Nuts hard to crack. Tree productive , easily grafted. Origin: Mi ssouri. George Elmer : Nuts of medium size, rounded , good quality. crack well. Tree vigorous, susceptible to walnut leaf blotch. Gray Road: Nuts large , crack moderately well. Origin: Indiana. Helmick Henderson #1 : Tree has very good timber form . Origin: Illinois. Henderson #2: Tree has very good timber form. Origin: Illinois. Henick Hergert: Nuts superior . Origin: Minnesota. Herrick: Nuts large. Origin: Iowa . Irvine: Origin : Wisconsin . Ivanhall : Nuts superior . Origin: New York. Johnson: Nuts crack well. Origin : New York. Kenworthy: Nuts large, crack well, good flavour. Tree small, a heavy bearer , precocious, resistant to walnut leaf blotch. Origin: Wisconsin . May be a buartnut. Kinneyglen : Nuts medium sized , crack very well , well filled . Origin : New York . Lingle: Origin: Pennsylvania. Love: Nuts small . crack well, good quality. Tree vigorous , precocious , resistant to walnut leaf blotch. Origin : Michigan . Luther: Origin : Michigan.

L
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Mandeville: Nuts superior, crack well . Origin : New York . My Joy: Nuts medium sized , crack v ery well, well filled . New Discovery: Nuts crack well. Origin : Minnesota . Painter: Nuts very large. Origin: Pennsylvania. Robinson : Origin: Illinois. Sherman : Nuts superior . Origin: Massachusetts. Sherwood: Nuts are well-filled and kernels are of good quality. Precocious tree . Origin : Iowa. Simonson: Origin: Wiscon sin. Smith : Origin : Michigan. Thede: Origin : Michigan. Thrill: Origin : Wisconsin. Utterbach : Origin: Iowa. Van der Poppen : Origin : Michigan Wesch eke: Nuts medium-large size, crack well, well-filled and kernels are light coloured and of good quality. Yields well. Origin: Wisconsin . Wright: Origin : Vermont.

Buartnut cultivars
Buartnuts (Juglans x bixbyi) are hybrids between the butternut and the heartnut (Jugfans ailantifolia var. cordiformis). They combine the adaptability , cold tolerance and sweet flavour of butternut with the high yields , easily cracked shell s, and shapely branches of heartnut. They are vigorous trees growing to 25 m (60 ft) high and were first bred in British Columbia in the early 1900's. Barney: Nuts large , difficult to crack ; early ripenin9 . Tree vigorous , productive. Origin : British Columbia . Butterheart: Nuts heart-shaped, crack well, kernels rich . Tree precocious . Coble's No 1: Nuts large, quite hard to crack. Tree a slow bearer. Origin : Pennsylvania . Corsan: Nuts round. Tree vigorous , productive . Origin : Ontario . Dooley Dunoka: Nuts variable in size, 25% kernels. Tree an annual cropper of light crops. Origin : Ontario. Fioka: Nuts small , crack out well , to 24% kernel , butternut flavour. Tree vigorous , an annual cropper. Origin : Ontario . Hancock: Nuts of average flavour. Large spreading tree . Origin : Massachusetts. Mitchell: Nuts medium sized , crack well, good flavour. Tree a good bearer, precocious, often selffertile . Origin : Ontario. Van Syckle : Nuts large , cracks well in halves. Tree a heavy bearer . Origin : Michigan . Walllick: Nuts of good flavour. Origin : Indiana.

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Propagation
Cultivars are propagated by grafting , usually onto black walnut (Jug/ans nigra) rootstock (which is reported to encourage earlier bearing than butternut stock) . Grafting is quite difficult and may require the use of a hoi grafting pipe; techniques used include splice grafts, chip budding and greenwood tip grafts . The Beineke side graft has been used with some success. Seeds require 3-4 months of cold stratification , and germination may be improved by carefUlly cracking the shells before sowing . Autumn sowing is also effective , but make sure that rodents can 't gel at the seeds . A 50% germination rate is pretty good. Seedlings of named varieties will inherit many of their good qualities, for no breeding work has been done on butternuts and cultivars are just superior wild trees . There are on average 66 seeds/Kg (30 seedsllb) .

Suppliers
Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Dartington, Totnes, Devon , T09 6JT, UK. Seedlings from named cu/tivars. Nutwood Nurseries, 2 Millbrook Cottages, Helston, Cornwall , TR13 OBZ . Grafted cultivars. Grimo Nut Nursery, 979 Lakeshore Rd, R.R. 3, Niagara·on·the-Lake, Ontario, CANADA LOS 1JO . Grafted cultivars and seedlings. Nolin River Nut Tree Nursery, 797 Port Wooden Rd, Upton, KY 42784 , USA. Tel: 502-369-8551, Grafted cullivars - largest selection in the world! Pampered Plant Nursery, POBox 3, Bourbonnais, IL 60914-0003, USA. Tel: 815-937-9367. Grafted cultivars.

References
Bean, W: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Vol 2 . John Murray, 1974. Duke, J: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press , 1969 . Facciola , S: Cornucopia . Kampong Publications, 1990. Howes, F N: Nuts. Faber & Faber, 1946. Jaynes, R: Nut Tree Culture in North America . NNGA, 1979. Krussmann , G: Manual of Broadleaved Trees and Shrubs . Batsford , 1966 . Lincoln , W : World Woods in Colour. Siobart , 1966. Millikan, D & Stefan , S : Buttering up the Butternut. NNGA Annual Report 74 (1963) , 48-53. Millkan , D et al: Butternuts worth Propagating. NNGA Annual Report 76 (1965),103-105 . Millikan , D et al : Recent Observation s on Butternuts in Missouri. NNGA Annual Report 77 (1986) ,

106-11 O.
Millikan , D et al : Selection and Preservation of Butternut. NNGA Annual Report 81 (1990) , 22-25 . Moore, J N & Balington...r, J R: Genetc Resources of Tefll)erate Frul and Nut Crops Vol 2. ISHS. Reed , C & Davidson , J : The Improved Nut Trees of North America. Devin-Adair, 1954. Spurgeon , C : 1995 Butternut Observations. NNGA Annual Report 86 (1995) , 131-132. USDA: Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA, 1974. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

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Blackberries
Introd uction
Blackberries and hybrid berries like loganberries are an important fruit crop both commercially and in home gardens in many parts of the world. In Britain, most commercial production is located in Kent, Eastern England and the West Midlands (with about 400 hectares I 1000 acres of blackberries and 150 hectares I 360 acres of loganberries) , although PYO (Pick Your Own) farms are now quite common throughout the country. Most plantations are small (0.4-1 hectares I 1-2 .5 acres) and form one of several crops grown. In the USA, the Pacific coast states of Oregon and California are the most important growing regions . The majority of blackberries and hybrid berries grown commercially are destined for the process ing ind ustry (includ ing freezing); the demand for blackberries for the dessert trade is very limited and only the fi rst few picks meet the quality requirements . One of the serious problems for commercial growers has been the thorniness I spinyness of standard varieties, however in the last few decades numerous spineless va rieties have been bred which make training , picking and management of the c rop much easier.

Descri pti on
Blackberry varieties have been derived from several Rubus species native to Britain and other temperate climates . There are several thousand species of blackberry now recognised from all regions of the world, and Rubus fruticosus, the wild bramble, is divided into thousands of 'microspecies '. In North America, dewberry is the nam e used for the trailing species native to the eastern states; there are also erect·growing species and these are called high-bush or erect blackberries. All blackberry plants have fairly flexible woody siems , usually with spines or thorns and compou nd toothed leaves; pink or white clustered flowers in mid -la te summer are followed by the characte ristic fruits.

Blackberries are excellent pioneer species, quickly colonising aband oned and burnt land. Once a thicket is established, trees can grow through the brambles untroubled by browsing animals. They have high wildlife value as a source of food and shelter. The most important domesticated European blackberry is Rubus lac;niatus , the 'cut-leaf', 'parsleyleaf' or 'eve rgreen' blackberry . Seed li ngs from this species are almost identical to the paren t. This

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species is the main blackberry grown on the North American Pa cific coast (as the variety ' Evergreen Thornless' = 'Oregon Thornless '). Important North American domesticated species include R.allegheniensis, the eastern N.American erect blackberry with stout thorns; R.baileyanus, the American dewberry; and R.ursinus, the Pacific dewberry. The lalter is involved in many of the recent hybrid selections released. In blackberries, like all Rubus species, the real fruits are actually separate miniature drupes or drupelets each with a sing le seed; these drupelets adhere to one another to form what is called as -aggregate fruW .

,

Uses
Blackbe rri es are high in Vitam in s A and C , with an average nutritional composition (per 1 DOg) of: 12.9 g Carbohydrate 200 I.U. Vitami n A 32 mg Calcium 170 mg Potassium 1.2 g protein 0.4 mg Vitamin B 19 mg Phosphorus 1 mg Sodium 0 .9 g fat 21 mg Vitam in C 0.9 mg Iron 58 Calories The fruits can be eaten in many ways - fresh, cooked, in preserves , as juice, in j ams, in puddings, compotes, syrups, ice creams and yoghurt , in wines and liqueurs etc . They are good added to breakfast cereals and are traditionally cooked with apples. They can also be added 10 home made soft drinks, eg lemonades. Fresh fruits are best eaten at room temperature - cooling them in a fridge causes a deterioration in fl avour and sweetness . Fruits freeze quite well , although a loss of colou r often occurs when the frozen berries thaw out. The flower petals are edible - usually added to salads for a visual effect. Young shoots. peeled of their thorns, are edible, but often astringent. The young roots can be eaten if boiled for a long time as a famine food. The leaves have medicinal properties. being mildly astri ngent, bactericidal, antidiarrhoeal and diuretic; the dried leaves are used as an infusion for cystitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and stomach disorders (and are found in several proprietary medicines); and for sore throats, mouth ulcers and gum inflammations; they also stimulate the metabolism and are therefore used for metabolic disorders. They contain 9-14% tannins and are high in Vitamin C. The dried and also fermented leaves are used in tea mixtures, for examp le with raspberry leaves and sweet woodruff tops . Dyes can be obtained from several parts: the fruits dye woo l grey and silk slate blue; and a greyish-black dye from the shoots (with alum mor.dant). The stems (canes) of flexible species/varieties are strong and can be used for basketry - thorny canes must be despined, for example by pulling them through a hole made in a metal can. They have also been processed in the past and used to make a fibre and twine. Blackberries are good bee plants (both hive and wild bumble bees). providing nectar and honeydew (if aphids are present) . Thorny varieties and species make an excellent secure barrier against animals (including humans). They can be trained around and up tree trunks to deter two-legged climbers . Prunings burn well and make very good kindling.

Cultivation
A blackberry plantation should remain productive for at least 15 years; smaller areas of planting on a garden sca le can remain productive for 20-30 years or more. Most trailing types are hardy down

to
about -18°C (O°F) , with the very hardy ones surviving down to -24°C (-11 °F) and the less hardy ones to around -13°C (9°F) ; while a few of the erect spiny types in N.America are hardy to as low as -

26°C (-15°F).

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Siting
Blackberries and hybrid berries are tolerant of a wide range of soil types and tolerate quite poor drainage, but do best on light and medium textured soils high in organic maUer . Blackberries grow well in a soil of pH 5.0-7 .0, hybrid berries in soils of pH 5.5-7.0 ; a slightly acid soil (pH 6.0-6.5) is ideal. Canes shou ld be sited away from frost pockets and with shelter from cold Northerly and Easterly winds. Winter frosts and cold drying winds can damage the immature tips of canes.
For even fruit ripening, rows are best oriented North-South. Fruiting is best in full sun , but blackberries do tolerate deep shade and cont inue to fruit in moderate shade , albeit in lesser amounts. Hybrid berries are less tolerant of shade. Fruits are sweeter in a sunny site.

Recommended compan ion plants for blackberries include Allium spp., marigolds (Tagetes spp.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and sting ing nettles (Urfica dioica) . Blackberries should not be planted near any of the wa ln ut family as exudations from roots of the latter inhibit their growth.

Planting
It is important to plant new canes into clean land free of pernicious perennial weeds, as these can e a serious problem, causing a considerable reduction in cane growth and cropping. One year old plants are normally planted in rows between Novembe r and early March (preferab ly in early Autumn in mild temperate climates, and spring in areas with cold winters); rooted tips are best planted in spring. During the next summer, new canes will grow but they will not fruit; the following year, these canes become fruiting canes and new canes grow from a naturally produced stool. For trail ing types, rows are generally spaced 1.8-3 m (6-10 tt) apart (the larger spacing for mechanised access), with varieties of moderate vigour and semi-erect varieties at a lesser spacing and vigorous plants at a greater. If in doubt it may be wise to choose a greater spacing. Within rows, spacing between plants is 2.1-2.4 m (7-8 tt) for weak or moderate growing varieties, rising to 3-4 m (10-13 ft) for vigorous plants. Erect growing types in N.America need less space than trailing types and do not require the support of wires; they are planted at 60-90 cm (2-3 tt) apart within rows, the lesser distance for root cuttings and the larger for rooted suckers. Rows are usually 3 m (10 tt) apart. Spacing table Use th is in comb ination with the vigour and type of a cultivar (as displayed in the cultivar table later) to find suitable planting distances between plants in rows. Vigour Type Trailing {-7} Semi-erect {71} Erect very vigorous 4.5 m (15 ft) 3.3m(11ft) 1.2m(4ft) vigorous 3.6 m (12 ft) 2.7 m (9 ft) 0.9 m (3 ft) moderate 2.7 m (9 ft) 2.1 m (7 ft) 0.6 m (2 ft)

!1:1

On planting, it is important to take care to maintain the original depth of planting and to spread out the roots evenly and horizontally. Immediately after planting, canes are cut down to within 20-30 cm (8-12") of the ground to encourage the development of new growth from basal buds. If frosty conditions lift the plants after plantin g, they should be firmed back in position . Mulching with an organic mu lch wi ll improve establishment especially if irrigation is unavailable.

Training and pruning
New growth needs frequent tying in during its growing season and these ties need to remain for the following year when it is a fruiting cane - to prevent breakage and damage by wind , machinery and pickers and to prevent the frui t becoming soiled. The on ly pruning required is the cutting out of all the

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 13

old fruiting ca nes in autumn or winter; early removal (as picking fini shes) helps to prevent the spread of cane diseases to the new canes and helps to ripen the wood of the new canes as they are exposed to more light and air. Prunings should be removed and/or burnt or shred ded and composted . Blackberries and hybrid berries (apart from the erect types) do not sucker like raspberries, but form a natural stool. hence appearance of sucker between rows is not a problem . However, if a spiny cane appears on a thornless variety, it should be removed as soon as possible . There ar.e many different ways of training and supporting fruiting canes, either individually or in groups. Canes may be tied to wires fastened between posts or tied in groups around individual posts, although it is normal to provide a permanent post and wire support. The most common system is a post and wire framework creating a vertical wall; 4 such systems are illustrated below. A n alternative is the 'ta ble ' system . Posts should be durable enough to last the lifetime of the plantation - typically 10-15 years in commercia l plantings. Similar arrangements of wires can be fixed with vine eyes to walls or fences. The end posts of long rows will take a major part of the strain on the wires so these need to be particularly stout and well-braced: a minimum length of 2.6 m (8 ft 8"), of 'Nhich 80 cm (2 ft 8") is buried , and a top diameter of at least 125 mm (5") is advisable. Three methods of securing end posts are illustrated here; note that 2. has the disadvantage of obstructing the end of the row.

<

"2.. .'+-"3.0 .......

1. End post anchored by use of a second
post with a top bar (prefera bly round for strength , 10-12 cm / 4-5" diameter).

2. End post anchored by use of a wire and small diagonal anchor.

3. End post is anchored by a diagonal strut or buttress post.

For the first four training systems below, intermediate post spacing depends on the diameter of the posts - 5-6 cm (2-2'h") top diameter posts need to be about 6 m (20 ft) apart, but stronger posts can be spaced more widely. Three or four lengths of heavy galvanised wire or high ten sile wire are strained along each row and fixed with staples . In all training methods, the new canes that arise in spring and early summer must be trained out of the way, so that access to the older fruiting canes is not impeded. New canes growing rapidly in late May and June can be broken off by strong winds unless secured to te supports at an early stage. The simplest co urse of action would be to lay the canes along the row at ground level or looped below the bottom wire; however, this means that the canes are subject to damage during picking , and fungal spores from diseases on the fruiting canes can be washed down to infect the new canes . New canes can be trained if (if necessary in the system) as soon as the old ones are removed (eg o after picking) , but in cold exposed areas it is better to wait until late winter to allow for some dieback. The main objective is to distribute the ca nes equally over the framework to allow space for cropping , ripening and ease of picking. The long canes are more easily handled by two people working together. The canes are tied in with jute , polypropylene string or plastic covered wire at the necessary intervals; hand tying machines using plastic tape can be used to save time. Vigorous cultivars produce 8-15 new canes per year (less with Himalaya and weaker hybrid cultivars). Note: In the following 5 training systems, young growth is shown as dotted lines ; older , fruiting ca nes are shown as solid lines .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

-

-

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(a) Two-way rope system

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Four wires are placed at 1, 1 .3, 1.6 and 1.9 m high (3, 4, 5 and 6 ft). New canes are trained vertically up from the stool to an upper wire, along which it is tied temporarify for the summer months . In autumn the old fruiting shoots are cut out and the new shoots untied , untangled, and re ~ tied to the lower wires. This method keeps new canes well out of the way for pi ck ing b ut involves more labour in tying.

(b) One-way rope system

Three wires are placed at 1 , 1.3 and 1.6 m (3, 4 and 5 ft). Each year, new ca nes are trained to one side of the stool, while the fruiting canes crop on the other side. In autumn . the old fruiting canes are cut out and no re·tying is necessary. This method reduces the labour involved but plants may need a slightly wider spacing as they are only given half the width of the spacing to fruit in.

(c) Fan system
C:"5,-, 0_ 3M

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Four wires are placed at 1, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.9 m high (3 , 4, 5 and 6 ft). New canes are trained vertically up from the stool to an upper wire, along which it is tied temporarily for the summer months. In autumn the old fruiting shoots are cut out and the new shoots untied , untangled , and retied in a fan pattern to the lower wires. This method keeps new canes well out of the way for picking but involv es more labour in tying ; it also gives the plant more fruiting area .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 15

(d) Weaving system
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Four wires are placed at 1, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.9 m high (3, 4 . 5 and 6 ft). New canes are trained vertically up from the stool to an upper wire, along which it is tied temporarily for the summer months. In autumn the old fruiting sh oots are cut out and the new shoots untied , untangled, and woven in between the lower wires - little tying may be needed. This method keeps new canes well out of the way for picking and involves some labour sorting out canes.

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(e) Table system

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In this system, a horizontal table is formed. over which canes are trained , so that picking is at a conven ient height (though slow). Posts and a top bar (50 x 75 mm , 2 x 3-) are erected at 4 m (1 3 tt) spa cings, with a wire stained down each side of the row. Baler twine is zig-zagged between the wires to make a lattice framework. The new canes are trained in one direction while the fru iting canes lie in the other. In autumn the twine is cut down along with the old fruiting canes and a new twine lattice is tied up . Pruning is fast with this system but it is only suitable for spiny/thorny varieties. Many American growers use a two-wire tre ll is system , consisting of wires at 1 m (3 fI) and 1.5 m (5 ft) . The fruiting canes are trained up and woven & looped between the two wires. The new canes are laid along the ground. Plants in this system can be planted at much closer spacings . This system is not suitable where fungus di seases are a threat (ie Britain and many other area s). O lher pos sibilities for training include archways and pergola s - blackberries are quite easily trained ove r these, spacing the canes about 15 cm (6 apart. The new canes are bundled loosely alongside the fruiting canes and replace them after fruiting.
M )

~~

Note Ihat erect blackberries , only available in N.America , grow as a suckering plant much like

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

raspberries and the training of them is similar to raspberries - canes are allowed to fill the entire row space. Suckers which come up between rows are pulled out and new canes are tipped at 1 m (3 ft) to make them branch. After fruits have been picked. cut out all the old canes and remove. In winter, cut laterals of new canes to 30-40 cm (12-16'") and remove dead and weak wood. leaving about 20 canes/m (6 caneslft) of row.

Flowering
Flowering occurs from late May through June, so frost damage is rarely a problem. Blackberries and hybrid berries are self-fertile and set fruit with their own pollen, hence a single variety can be grown on its own. Pollination is grealy aided by bees (both hive and wild).

Weed control
Weed competition can severely check. cane growth, reduce fruit yield and reduce the life of the plantation. Unfortunately, most commercia l growers keep plantations entire ly free of weeds by using herbicides over the whole area. Cu lti vation is not an alternative apart from very shallow hoeing . as cultivation witl damage the roots of the blackberry plants. Organic mulches, ego of straw, offer th e best organic method for controlling weeds. Short g rass can be grown in a strip down the centre of alleys . but should be mown frequently to reduce competiti on for water. A possible alternative to grass wou ld be wh ite clover. also regularly mown: this will introduce nitrogen into the plantation, and by utilising a strip some 25% of the width of the rows (ie 60-75 em, 24-30") may supply enough nitrogen for sustained croppi ng. Controlling the spread of the clover could be difficult, though.

Feeding and irrigation
Fruits are borne on one year old canes, Ihus high yields are dependent on the annual production of a satisfactory number of canes of reasonable vigour. It is very beneficial to increase the waterholding capacity of soils by adding manures or other bulky organic mailer before planting. Nitrogen is needed in moderate amounts to stimulate growth . Normal recommendations for moist temperate climates are to supply 50 Kg/ha/year (44 Ib/acre/year or 5 g/m 2Jyr) to newly established plantations, reducing to 25 Kg/halyear (22 Ib/acre/year or 2.5 g/m 2 Jyear) for moderately vigorous plants and reducing to zero for vigorous plants . This equates to using approximately 8.3 tonnes of manure or compost fha/year (0.8 Kg/m 2/year or 1.5 Ibfyd 2/year) on new plantations, reducing to 4.1 lonnes ma nure or compost fha/year (0.4 Kg/m 2 /year or 0.8 Ib/yd 2fyear) or less. Apply in the spring. Potass ium is essential for fruiting and has an important effect on fruit yie ld s. Normal recommendations are to add 70 Kg of K fha/year (62 Ib/acrefyear or 7 g/m 2/year). The compost or manure adding for nitrogen will supply around a third of the amount requ ired; a top up with (say) 2.5 tonnes of seaweed meal /hafyear (equates to 0.25 Kg/m 2/yea r or 0.5 Ib /~d2/yea r), O f alternatively with 0.7 tonnes of wood ash fha/year (equates to 70 g/m 2 /year or 2 oz/yd /year) would be appropriate . Phosphorus requirements are relatively low (up to 40 Kg/haJyear - 35 Ib/acrefyear or 4 gfm 2/year) and shou ld be supplied by the manure or compost used for supplying nitrogen. Irrigation throughout the growing season will stimulate cane growth. but this can be a disadvantage where the more vigorous varieties are grown. Excessive growth can cause ripening fruits to chafe and damage, and the tall growth obscures the ripe berries. If irrigation is to be u sed, a better technique is to give a single application equivalent to 25-75 mm (1-3") of rain at the start of ripening when the f ruits begin to turn pink . A trickle irrigation system used for several weeks is more suitable than sprinklers, as the latter can cause soil splash (spreading fungus spores) and can wash disease spores from old canes to new canes. In a wet summer, even this irrigation may be superfluous.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 17

Diseases
Blackberries can suffer from many diseases and pests. but only a fe w are likely to occur in any

given area . General precautions are to prune our diseased canes and old canes after harvest and
remove them from the vicinity to burn or bury them ; seriously diseased plants should be removed.

1l is best to purchase virus-free stock. Much less breeding wo rk on resistant cultivars has been undertaken than for raspberries. Organic growers may sometimes be able to use copper fungicides
like Bordeaux mixture (e9 as a single winter application) to control fungus diseases . Blackberries are most affected by grey mold and purple blotch. Loganberries and hybrid berries are most affected by grey mOld. cane spot and spur blight. Commercial growers use numerou s application s of fungicides t o control these diseases. A ll species are also susceptible to honey fungus (Armillaria meffea) so do not plant near any source of infection of this. Grey mold (of fruit) (Botrytis cinerea): Can cause a serious loss of fruit. especially when wet or humid weather occurs during flowering and fruit ripening, under which conditions grey spore masses are produced on affected flowers and fruits and the disease spreads rapidly . It sometimes attack s fru iting canes and kill canes in autumn and early winter. Most primary infection occurs during flowering. Cuitivars with a tough skin and firm texture are generally more resistant. Remove infected parts promptly . Spur blight (Didymeffa appfanata): an important disease of loganberries and hybrid berries . Signs of infection appear on leaf nodes or ca nes , purple at first. then the lesion s exlend along the cane and become greyish-white . within which black fruiting bodies are formed which can themse lves release spores and infect other canes Leave s can brown and shrivel. The buds in the infected area are frequently killed or weakened but the cane itself remains alive . Especially serious in wet springs, where plants are overcrowded or where nitrogen appl ication is too high . A ll seriously affected canes should be cut out and burned . Preventative measures includ e good spacing of plants and low application of nitrogen . Purple blotch (Speloeyla ramealis) produces large purple blotches on the canes which in severe actions coalesce to envelop the whole of the base of the cane. In severe attacks the canes are weakened but not killed , but where blotches occur at leaf nodes, the buds may fail to develop. Symptoms are generally more severe after a hard winter or when the plantation is in a frost pocket. Severely affected canes shou ld be cut out and burned . No cultivars have known resistance . Preventative measures include good siti ng of plants , not in a frost pocke t. Also, be su re to train new canes above older ones to minimise cross-contamination . Cane spot or Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta): ,can occasionally occur on some blackberries and hybrid berries , especially loganberries and layberries. Sunken spots appear on canes, initially purple then turning grey ; these enlarge and crack and girdle canes , sometimes killing them ; fruit can be infected and distorted. and a tip die-back is also common. Canes showing severe spotting or cracking should be cut out and burned. Crown gall (Agrobacterium lumefaciens) can be an important disease of blackberries , and occasio nall y of loganberries and hybrid berries . II causes ca nkerou s growths on affected canes and cane death. Infection occurs on young canes from soi l sp lashes . Worst where soil is poorly drained or waterlogged. Infected canes should be cut oul and young canes trained vertically upwards to minimise infection risk . Plants should not be sited where drainage is poor.

Minor diseases
Blackberry rust ('S/by rust') (Phragmidium vio/aceum): can affect blackberries in Europe and N.America. and lead to early defoliation. Cane & leaf rust ('Ca ne rust') (Kuehneo/a uredinis) : A seriou s disease in some parts of N.America . Canes are affected, spl itting and leading to premature defoliation. Orange rust (Gymnoconia peckiana) : Important in N.Ameri ca, where it attacks blackberries but not

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

hybrid berries. Sma ll brown spots on leaves spread and infection of tips and roots follows. Root rot (Phytophthora spp.) : causes rool damage and death. Double blossom or Roselle (Cercosporella rubl): A serious disease in Southern N.America. Infects buds and flowers, with no fruit developing. Leaf spot (Sphaerulina rubi): Serious only in SE. N.America, causing premature defoliation. Verticillium wilt ('Vert will') (Verticil/ium spp.): causes root damage, leaf damage, then death. Downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa): a minor disease of blackberries, associated with high rainfall areas. Causes druplelets of fruits to become dry and hard. Blackberry cane canker (Botryosphaeria dothidea): a serious disease of spineless blackberries in eastern USA. Causes reddish-brown canke rs and death of canes at fruit ripening time. Several virus diseases can also affect blackberries and hybrid berri es, but genera ll y with minor results. Loganberries , Parsley leafed and Oregon Thornless are susceptible to Rubus stunt which causes nu merous dwarf, spindly shoots to arise from the stool. Infected plants shou ld be removed . The following table li sts known cultivars with known resistance to minor diseases: I Immune, VR = Very reSistant , R Resistant, SR Slightly resistant, SS Slightly Susceptible, S = Susceptible, VS = Very susceptible.

=

=

=

=

B lackberry cultivar Rubus laciniatus cvs Rubus procerus cvs Rubus ursinus cvs Arapaho Black Butte Black Satin Boysenberry Brainerd Brazos Brison Carolina Cascade Chehalem Cherokee Cheyenne Choctaw Comanche Dirksen Douglass Ebony King Eldorado Flordagrand

Cane spot R
R R R R

B/by rust

Cane Orange Root Double Leaf Vert Downy rust rust rot blossom spot wilt mildew R R R R R
R R R R R S R VS

R R R R R SR R SR R R R R I R R SR R S SR R R R R R R R R I R R S S S R SR

Gem
Himalaya Giant Humble ll ii ni Hardy Kiowa Kolata Lawton Loganberry
S

R

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 19

Blackberry Cane B/by cultivar spot rust Lowberry Lucretia 5 R Marion Merton Thornless Navaho 5R Ola lH e Orego n Jhornless (Evergreen)R
Phenom~nal

Shawnee Silvan Tayberry Waldo Youngberry

5R R 5 R R

Cane Orange Root Double Leaf Vert rust rust rot blossom spot wilt R VR R R 55 R V5 R R R R 5

Downy mildew

R R 5 R R V5

Pests
Blackberry and hybrid berry pests of importance include several aphids, raspberry beetle and raspberry midge; however, no cultivars are known to be resistant to these , and in any case the damage caused is not usually as severe as with raspberries . Aphids are often responsible for transmitting viruses which can weaken plants and reduce their life. General measures to reduce aph id populations include planting predator-attractant plants and encourag ing a diversity of plant species nearby. Aphids can be sprayed with soft soap for control if necessary. Main aphid species are the Rubus or blackberry aphid (Amphorophora rubl) on blackberries ; the Small raspberry aphid (Aphis idaei) on loganberries - can ca use severe leaf curling; and the Blackberry-cereal aphid (Sitobion (ragariae) on blackberries. Raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) is a serious pest of all berry crops and is responsible for maggoty fruits. The raspberry fruitworm (B.unico/or) causes similar damage in North America. Female beetles, 5 mm long and brownish, lay their eggs in the flowers and the young grubs tunnel into fruits, eating as they go . When fully grown , grubs drop to the soil and pupate before hatching into adults which hibernate in the soil over winter. Running poultry beneath plants in autumn, winter and spring is likely to be a good control. Organic growers can use a single derris spray when the flowers are first open (but in evening to avoid bee exposure.) Recent research in Switzerland has shown that the use of white non-U V reflective sticky traps are effective in trapping beetles. Regular winter shallow cultivation swill help expose beetles to predators. The recent discovery of beetle larvae parasitized by Tetrastichus halidayi (a ' parasitic wasp) raises the possibility of biological control. Sources of res istance are found in Rubus occidentalis and R.phoenicofasius. Blackberry mite or red berry mite (Acalitus essigl) is a minute colourless mite which hibernates under bud scales of blackberries , emerging in spring to feed on the young leaves and later the flowers and fruit. The pest is local and infestations worse in hot dry summers. Wild blackberry can be a source of infection. Birds may eat the ripening fruits. They tend to prefer raspberries and other red berried fruits , but if these are not available they may eat the blackberries . Netting is the only practical solution, though most blackberries are so prolific that it is easier just to share your crop. Other minor pests include Raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) on loganberries - feeds in cracks in canes, keeps wounds open , and allows funga l infection - larvae pupate in soil over winter so running poultry beneath will help; and Raspberry leaf and bud mite (Phy/focoptes gracilis) on blackberries - feeds on leaves, causing distortion of leaves and fruits. These pests will be worse is raspberries are grown nearby.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Harvesting and yields
The fruiting season in Britain extends from early July through to late August, with late blackberries continu ing to crop into September. Fruits are picked when glossy black (blackberries) or dark red (hybrid berries). It is easy to harvest hybrid berries too soon when they are raspberry-coloured : leaves until they are darker when they have a fuller and sweeter flavour. For an individual variety. harvesting continues over about 4-5 weeks, some times more. Erect type va ri eties in N.America harvest ovef a period of 2-3 weeks. Annual fruit yields can average 5-10 Kg (11-22 Ib) per plant with very heavy croppers sometimes reaching 14 Kg (30 Ib) (for erect types in N. America average yields are about 2 .5 Kg (6 Ib) per plan!.) Commerci al yields fo r blackberries are typically 5-15 tonnes I hectare (2-6 tons I acre ; 0 .5-1.5 Kg I m 2 ; 1-31b I yd 2 ); for loganberrie s 5-7 tonnes I hectare (2-2.8 Ions I acre; 0.5-0 .7 Kg 1 m 2 ; 1-1.5 Ib I yd 2 ). Irrigation can increase these yie lds signifjcantly. Blackberries are sometimes grown in poly tunnels in some Northern regions for an early crop. Yields for these plants average aboul 3 Kg I m 2 (6 Ib I yd 2 ). Commercial plantings require adequate labour for picking, usually 1 picker for 400-800 m 2 of crop. Frequent picking is essential for high quality: once berries are ripe and ready for picking , they will not remain in good condition for long . Picking at least every two days, every day for high quality dessert fruit, is necessary. Pick with care as any damage increases the risk of grey mold; try nol to handle the be rry itself. The fruit shou ld be firm and dry; a slight twist of the fruit is the best way of separating it from the plant. Blackberries and hybrid berries, unlike raspberries , are picked with th e plug intact. The erect blackberries are suitable for machine harvesting, which is practised in the USA. Picked berries cannot be stored for any length of time unless frozen - cool storage is only useful for very short-term periods (up to 5 days at 2-3°C, 36-37°F).

Cultivars
The erect type American varieties are not generally available in Europe but are widely grown in North America. They tend to be less sweet than trailing types and the fruits do not bruise so easily. Spineless (Thornless) cultivars are often planted these days , for obvious reason s - picking and pruning thorny varieties can be painful work. They are much the best choice in forest gardens where wifd blackberries are likely to be a weed species, so that these thorny invaders can easify be identified and pulled out. Be aware, though , that thornlessness may have disadvantages particularly in that canes will slip more easily along wires , especially when bearing fruits , so the y may need more tying than thorny varieties. Suitable for commercial planting in Britain : Ashton Cross, Bedford Giant, Himalaya , Loganberry (LY 59), Oregon Thornless, Parsley-leafed, Sunberry, Tayberry, Thornless Loganberry (LY 654). Of these, Bedford Giant and Himalaya are suitable for canning and jam production and Loganberry and Thorn less Loganberry for canning.

Key to cultivar table
Cane characteristics . Use the vigour and type to work out planting distances as described in 'planting ' above . Cane vigour - mod = moderate , vig = vigorous, v.vig = very vigorous. Type - -7 means trail ing , 71 means semi-erectlsemi-upright , l' means erect spineless ('slless') - 4 means canes are spineless. X means spiny. brought forward into June or even May. E = early, M = mid, L = late . Late ripening cu itivars will cease fruiting at the first frosts which may be before midllate October in some areas .

)

J Ripening times are average tim es for the UK. In regions with hotter summers, these dates will be

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

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Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Cultivar yld Katata Lawton Laxtonberry Loch Ness Loganberry (L Y 59) Lowberry Lucretia Mahana Mapua Marion Merton Early Merton Thornless I Murrindindi Navaho Nectarberry No Thorn Oklawaha Olallie Oregon Thornless Parsley-Leafed Perron's Black Phenomenal Pink Crysta l Ranui Riwaka Tahi Rosborough Shawnee Silvan Smooth stem Snyder Sunbe rry Taranaki Tasman Tayberry Thornfree Thornless Boysenb 'y Thornless Loganberry

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 23

Cultivar list
Adrienne: Canes moderately vigorous, stout, spineless. Fruits medium-large, glossy black. firm, long-con ic , excellent flavour . early ripening. Easily harvested, high yielding . Origin: Hybrid including Silvan ; UK. Arapaho: Erect type. Canes spineless, moderately vigorous, very erect. Fruit medium size, short. conic, ftrm, bright glossy black , good flavour, early ripening. Stores well, good fresh and proce~sed. Very cold hardy , requires medium-high winter chilling. Origin : USA (Arkansas) . Ashton Cross : Canes thin, very vigorous and prolific, many spines , resistant to virus diseases . Fruits small-medi um size, round, black. good flavour, borne in heavy cluste rs : good for freezing and processing (particularly canning). Mid season ripening ; very heavy cropping. Origin: UK. Bedford Giant: Canes vigorous , long , many spines . Fruit large to very large with large drupelets , bright black, fairly soft, round, juicy, very sweet but with no pronounced blackberry flavour; borne in large clusters, making picking easy. Ripens early (and ripens one berry in each bunch ahead of the others), crops heavily. Widely grown commercially for processing (canning & freezing) and fresh fruit sales . Frozen fruits lose a lot of colour when they thaw out. Not particularly hardy. Origin: UK. Black Butte: Canes very vigorous, spines small, open habit , resistant to cane spot. Fruits extremely large, cylindrical, firm, attractive, black, good flavour, early ripening, ripens over a long period. Good for fresh use but not suited to processing. Heavy yielding and hardy. Origin : USA (Oregon). Black Loganberry: Fruits cylindrical. Plant slow to establish and crop. Origin: New Zealand. Black Satin: Canes spineless, semi-erect, vigorous, resistant to cane spot. Fruits large , oblong, glossy black , firm, acid, mid-late season ripening, keeps well. Productive , very hardy . Origin : USA. Boatsberry: Canes spiny. Fruits dark red, good flavour, mid-late season cropping . Origin : Hybrid including Loganberry from the UK. Boysenberry: Canes vigorous, slender, spiny, resistant to cane spot. Fruits dark reddish-purp le , very large, soft, very juicy, small seeded, slightly acid, excellent flavour, mid season ripening; easily picked, when ripe, drops from cane at slightest touch. Good for fresh use or processing. High yielding; tolerates dry conditions. Not particularly hardy. Origin: hybrid from California. Brazos : Erect type. Canes vigorous, semi-erect, spiny. Fruits large , quite firm, acid , ripen very early. Productive, moderately co ld hardy , requires low to medium winter chilling. Origin : USA (Texas). Brison: Erect type. Canes very erect, spiny. Fruits large, firm , sweet-acid flavour. Adapted to Texas conditions .
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Carolina: Canes vigorous , spiny. Fruit sweet, good flavour, early ripening. Hardy , very productive. Origin: a dewberry from the USA. Cherokee: Erect type . Canes very erect, vigorous . Fruits small-medium sized, glossy black, firm, sweet , very good flavour, mid-season ripen ing. Hardy, requires medium-high winter chilling. Productive. Suited to machine harvesting. Derived from R.alfegheniensis. Origi n: USA (Arkansas). Chester Thornless: Canes spineless, vigorous. Fruits medium-large, black, excellent flavour when fully ripe , very firm. Late ripening. Plant hardy and productive . Origi n: USA. Cheyenne: Erect type . Canes spiny, erect (but need some lateral support). Fruits medium size, firm, good flavour , very good for processing; mid season ripeni ng. Hardy, require s medium-high winter chilling . Origin: USA (Arkansas). Choctaw: Erect type. Canes very spiny , very rigid and erect, vigorous , spiny. Fruits medium-large size, conic, glossy black, sma ll seeded, firm, mild flavour, very early ripening over a short period . High yielding . Cold hardy , requires medium winter chilling. Origin: USA (Arkansas). Comanche : Erect type . Canes vigorous, erect, spiny . Fruits large, glossy blaCk , quite firm , very good flavour. Good processed , canned and frozen. Hardy and productive . Origin : USA (Arkansas).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Darrow : Erect type. Canes spiny , vigorous, very erect. Fruits large, blunt-conical. glossy black , Fi rm , sweet, good flavour, mid season ripening. Very hardy, has a high winter chilling requirement. heavy yielding . Derived from R.allegheniensis. Origin: USA (New York). Dirksen (Dirksen Thornless) : Canes spineless, m oderalely vigorous, erect, resistant to cane spot. Fruits large, glossy black, sweet , good flavour. Very hardy, very productive. Origin : USA . Douglas 6alsg : Canes semi-erect , spineless, easily managed . Fruits medium-large , bla ck, round , Slcid flavour, produced in tight clusters making harvest easy. Medium-high yielding . Very hardy. ::>rigin: Sweden . Douglass : Canes vigorous , small inci pient spines tend to disappear as canes grow, resistant to :ane spot. Fruits medium-large , glossy black , firm , conic-cylindrical. excellent flavour mid season -ipening , easy to harvest. Good fresh and processed. Origin : USA (Oregon). Ebano : Canes spineless, vigorous . Fruits glossy black , medium-large , firm , good fresh and )rocessed . Plant productive , adapted to mild climates. Origin : Brazil - a hybrid involving trailing SInd erect blackberries. Ebony King: Erect type. Canes upright, slurdy, spiny . Fruit large , long , purple-black , good flavour, 3arly season ripening. Fairly hardy. Origin : USA. Eldorado: Erect type. Canes upright, spiny. Fruits large , glossy black , firm, good flavour, ripens 3arly-mid season over a long period. Hardy and productive. Origin : USA, derived from ~ . allegheniensis. Evergreen (Thornless): Synonym for Oregon Thornless . Fantasia: Canes vigorous, widely-spaced spines, susceptible to red spider mite. Fruits large , deep )Iack , firm , good flavour, keeps well, easily harvested, mid-late seaso n ripening over a long period. very high yielding. Origin: England (from a chance seedling on an allotment). Fertodi Botermo: Ca nes moderately vigorous, semi-erect , spiny. Fruits large , dark red, long , acid 'Iavour, early ripening . Productive . Origin: a hybrid including Loganberry from Hungary. Fertodi Hungaria: Canes very tall , spiny. Fruits larg e , light red , mild sweet flavour, early ripening. ::> rigin : a hybrid including Loganberry from Hungary. Flordagrand : Erect type. Canes vigorous, evergreen , spiny . Fruits farge , oblong , glossy black, i Oft, acid but good flavour, very early ripening. Plant produ ctive , adapted to dry soils and hot lumid summers, not particularly cold hardy, requires cross pollination . Origin: USA (Florida). 3ardena: Canes almost spineless , moderate vigour. Fruits larg e. glossy black , good sweet flavour, lery early ripening; easy to pick. Origin : a dewberry from the USA. ::iem: Erect type . Canes spiny, vigorous . Fruits large , firm , good flavour, early ripening . Plant Jroduclive, not cold hardy. Origin : USA (Georgia). 3eorgia Thornless : Canes )roduclive , nol cold hardy. spineless. Fruits larg e. good flavoured , early ripening . Plant

30dshill Goliath : Canes spiny. Fruit very large , black . Origin: UK. -ielen : Canes spineless . Fruits large, black, very good fla vou r, ripens very early. -iildaberry: Canes spiny. Origin: hybrid. riimalaya (Himalayan Giant): Canes long , stout and brittle , extremely vigorous with very many ipines. Fruit medium size with medium-size drupelets , produced on large trusses; black, juicy, lloderate flavour; mid-season ripening . A moderate cropper - fruits best for processing; mid-late ·ipening . Origin: a R.procerus se lection. Usefu l to make barriers or windbreaks. It will fruit on :anes old er than one year .

-iull ( Hull Thornless ): Canes vigorous, semi-erect. spineless . Fruit medium-large , cylindrical. JurpJe , firm , good sweet-acid fla vour when fully ripe , ve ry good quality, keeps well; high yields, -ipens late over a very long season . Hardy. Origin: USA.

4GROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Humble: Erect type. Canes of medium vigour, spiny. Fruits small , purple-bla ck, soft, sweet, ripen ea rly-mid season. Yields moderate. Moderately cold hardy , requires low to medium winter chilling . Origin: old cultivar from USA (Texas). lIIini Hardy: Erect type . Canes spiny , erect , very vigorous . Fruit medium size, elliptical. shiny black , good flavour and quality, late ripening . Plant extremely cold-hardy , has a high winter chilling requirement. Origin : USA (Illinois) . John Innes: Canes spiny , vigorous. Fruits large . black , sweet, good flavour, very late ripening . Heavy croppe r. It wi ll fruit on canes olde r than one year. Origin : old variety from UK. Kait;ri: Canes of moderate vigour, spiny. Fruits medium size , wine red , very soft (especially when overripe) , strong acid flavour , ripens early-mid season; suitable for processing . Origin : Hybrid from New Zealand . King's Acre Berry : Canes moderately vigorous, spiny. Fruits large, dark shiny reddish -black , small drupe lets, sweet fa ir flavour, ripens mid season . Core removes easily. Cropping good. Origin : old selection of an American blackberry. Kiowa: Erect type. Canes spiny, fairly erect , moderately vigo rous. Fruits oblong , very large, glos sy black, firm , excellent flavour, stores well, ripen over a long period. medium-high yielding. Very cold hardy, requires medium-high winter chilling . Origin : USA (Arkansas). Kotata : Canes very vigorous , spiny, resistant to cane spot. Fruits large, firm, glossy black , very good flavour, early ripening, store well, easily detached ; very good for jam and canning . Early ripe ning. Very heavy yielding . Fairly hardy. Orig in: USA (Oregon). lawton: Erect type . Canes v igorous, erect , very spiny. Fruits medium-large , blaCk, soft, large core, ve ry sweet , good flavour, good for processing. Ripens mid-late season; productive. Origin: USA. laxtonberry: Canes very vigorous , spiny . Fruits medium size , red , large drupelets, sweet, tends to crumble when picked, sweet, mid-season ripening . Cropping good - needs cross pollination . Origin: Hybrid involving Loganberry from the UK. loch Ness: Canes stout, spineless, sem i-erect, moderately vigorous, compact. Fruits large , black , fair flavour , easily picked , mid-late season. Crops well. Origin: Scotland . loganberry (LY 59): Canes vigorous, spiny. Fruit large , conical-blunt , claret-red, firm , juicy , exce llent sharp fla vour. Mid-season ripening , crops heavily. Origin: a natural hybrid from California of a native dewberry and a red raspberry. lowberry (Mammouth Berry): Canes very vigorous, spiny . Fruits large, long-oblong , glossy black , sweet, good flavour, mid-season ripening. ~ropping good. Orig in: Hybrid. lucretia: Canes vigo rous, slender , spiny. Fruit medium-large , round, black , sweet, has large drupelets , core soft , quite acid but good flavour, mid season ripening. Moderately hardy , high yielding. Derived from R. baifeyanus. O rigin : a dewberry from the USA.
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Mahana: Ca nes vigorous , numerous. spiny . Fruits very large , wine to dark red, soft, strong flavour, ripens early-mid . Ve ry high yielding plant. Origin : Hybrid including loganberry from New Zealand . Mammouth Berry : Syno n ym for Lowberry. Mapua: Canes vigorous, spine l ~ss, easily managed. Frui ts dark red, very large, excellent flavour , easily harvested , good for fresh use , mid season ripening . High yie ld ing , adapted to machine harvest. Origin : Boysenberry sport from New Zealand. Marion: Canes very vigorous with small spines . Fruit larg e, cylind rical , soft , black , ve ry good flavour, early and mid season ripening. Moderate yielding . Good for canning and freezing (good flavour and texture). Hardy; not particularly good in Britain. Origin: USA (Oregon) . Merton Earl y : Canes of moderate g rowth, compact, spi n y. Fruits large , round , black , soft, very sweet, few seeds , flavour good , early ripening. Heavy cropping. Origin: UK. Merton Thornless : Canes compact , spineless , moderately vigorous . Fruits large, black. round , large drupelets, good flavour , mid season ripening . Yields moderate - needs a good soil. Hardy . Origin: UK .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Murrindindi : Canes moderately vigorous , spineless. Fruits large , shiny purpie -black, good flavour , early ripening , good for fresh use. Origin : Hybrid including Silvan from Australia . Navaho: Erect type . Canes spineless , very erect, little suckering . Fruit small-medium sized , conic, glossy bla ck, very firm , excellent flavour, small seeded , stores well , late ripening ; good fresh or processed . Cold hardy, requires medium winter chilling Origin : USA (Arkan sas) . Nectarberry: Canes vigorous , spiny . Fruits similar to loganberries but more rounded with large drupelets; large , dark reddish-black , very small seeds , fair acid flavour , early ripening . Origin: hybrid (may be a Youngberry seedling) from USA. No Thorn: Canes vigorous , spineless . Fruits large, good flavour . Oklawaha : Erect type. Canes vigorous , semi-evergreen, spiny . Fruits medium sized, reddish-black, soft, good flavour, very early ripening . Plant not particularly cold hardy, not self-fertile. Origin: USA (Florida) . Olallle: Canes vigo rous , spiny. Fruits large, long, glossy black, firm, sweet mild flavour, exce llent for processing. Productive, fairly hardy. Origin: USA (Oregon) . Oregon Thornless (Syn. Evergreen Thornless): Canes of moderate vigour, spine less, easily trained; sem i-evergreen in Brita in , resistant to cane spot. Fruit medium sized, roundish-oval , with large drupelets, shining black, sweet with a good flavour ; firm , travels weil , good for processing and dessert. Mid-late season ripening, bears good crops ; best grown in good soil ; hardy. The spiny form of this is Parsley-Leafed. Widely grown commercially in N.America for its high yields and fruit quality. Origin: USA. Parsley-leafed (Cut-leaf) : Canes of moderate vigour, spiny . Fruit medium sized, roundish-oval , with large drupelets, shining black , sweet with a good flavour ; firm, travels well. Mid season ripening , bears moderate crops ; best grown in good soil. The spineless form of this is Oregon Thornless . Perron's Black (Perron Thornless) : Canes spineless , vigorous . Fruits large , bla ck , slightly conical , sweet, aromatic . Origin : R.canadensis selection from Canada . Phenomenal : Canes spiny, vigorous. Fruits large, long , dark red , firm, sweet. mid-season ripening. Heavy cropping . Origin: a raspberry-blackberry hybrid. Pink Crystal : Erect type . Canes erect, spiny. fruits medium sized , pink (almost transparent when ripe), delicate sweet flavour, very early ripening. Not self-fertile. Origin : USA (Michigan) . Raoul: Canes moderately vigorous, spiny . Fruits medium-large, long-cylindri cal . red, fairly firm. very good flavour, early ripening, good for fresh use. low to moderate yielding. Origi n : Hybrid including Marion from New Zealand. Riwaka Tahi: Canes moderately vigorous, spiny. Fruits medium size, wine-red, firm, exce llent flavour, ripens early-mid. good for fresh use. Medium-high yield in g . Origin: Hybrid including Boysenberry from New Zealand. Rosborough : Erect type. Canes erect, spiny. Fruit large. glossy black , sweet , firm , good flavour. ripening early season over a long period. Heavy cropper, fruit easily picked . Not very cold hardy. but adapted to dry conditions . Origin : USA (Texas). Shawnee (Stark Jumbo): Erect type . Canes spiny . vigorous , very erect . need some lateral support. Fruits very large , shiny black, firm , excellent flavour, late ripening over a long period . A heavy yielder , ripening over a long period. Very cold hardy, requires medium-high winter chilling. Origin: USA (Arkansas) . Silvan (Silvanberry) Canes densely spiny , stiff, vigorous , resistant to cane spot. Fruits large , cylindrical, shiny purple·black , softens soon after harvest. excellent sweet-acid flavour, ripens ve ry early to mid season over a long period. High yield ing. Origin : Austra lia , involving Marion. Smoothstem: Canes spineless , upright, sturdy and inflexible , very vigorous , few in number. Fruits large, black, short-conic, bright black . firm, acid, good flavour , easi ly picked, late season ; good for jam. Very heavy cropper, very hardy. Origin: USA (Maryland) .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

- WI

Snyder: Erect type. Canes vigorous. erect. spiny . Fruits small, black becoming reddish 4black . firm . sweet. poor flavour, ripens mid 41ate season . Hardy, adapted to poor light soils. Origin: old cultivar from USA (Indiana). Stark Jumbo: Synonym for Shawnee. Sunberry (Mailing Sunberry); Canes extremely vigorous and stout with large spines. Fruit medium 4 large. conical, purplish 4black , bright. attractive. pleasant sweet flavour. Early ripening. very heavy cropping. Makes good jam . Origin: UK (EMRS), a hybrid of R.ursinus and a form of the raspberry Mailing Jewel.

Tara~aki: Canes moderately vigorous, spiny ; foliage often shows genetic chlorosis. Fruits medium size, dark black when ripe, very firm, early4mid ripening , good flavour, good for fresh use. Mediumhigh yie lding. Origin: New Zealand.
Tasman : Canes vigorous, spineless, slow to establish. Fruits dark red, very large, excellent flavo ur, mid-season ripening, over a long period. High yielding. Origin: Boysenberry sport from New Zealand. Tayberry: Canes moderately vigorous, branching, very spiny, semi-erect at first but becoming more prostrate over the season; may send up suckers which require removal. Fruit very la rge, firm, juicy, long-conic , dark purple-red when ripe , quite attractive, very good sweet-acid flavour; easily picked; good for canning, freezing , jam and fresh use. Very early ripening (from early June in Eng land ) and high yielding , not very cold hardy. Makes very good wine. Origin; Scotland, a hybrid between an American blackberry and a raspberry . Thornfree: Canes spineless , vigorous, semi 4erect. Fruits medium -large , blunt-conic , black , firm, good sweet-acid flavour; adheres firmly; late season ripening. Very heavy cropping, very hardy. Origin: USA (Maryland). Thornless Boysenberry: Canes very vigorous , spineless. Fruits dark reddish-purple, soft , larg e, very juicy , slightly acid , excellent flavour, mid season ripening; when ripe, drops from ca ne at slightest touch. Good for fresh use or processing. Moderate yielding; tolerates dry conditions. Origin: thornless form of Boysenberry. Thornless loganberry (L Y 654); Canes of moderate vigour, light green , smooth and spineless. Fruit large , conical-blunt , claret-red, juicy, excellent sharp flavour. Quite good for canning and freezing (slight acidic flavour) . Mid-season ripening , crops heavily, hardy. Origin; hybrid spineless form of Loganberry. Thornless Nectarberry: Canes of moderate vigour, spine less . Fruits similar to loganberries but more rounded with large drupelets; large, .dark reddish-black, very small seeds, fair acid flavour . Origin: hybrid from USA. Thornless Tayberry (Buckingham) : Canes moderately vigorous, branching, spineless, semi-erect at first but becoming more prostrate over the season; may send up suckers which require removal. Fruit very large, firm , juicy , long-conic , dark purple-red when ripe , quite attractive , very good sweet-acid flavour; easily picked ; good for canning , freezing, jam and fresh use. Very early ripening (from early June in England) and high yielding, not very cold hardy. Makes very good wine. Origin: thornless form of Tayberry. Thornless Youngberry; Canes vigorous, spineless . Fruits very larg e, roundish , sweet, wine to black coloured, fair flavour 4 used fresh or processed. Mid season ripening . Moderately productive . Not particularly good in Britain. Not as good as Young berry. Origin: h ybrid. Origin; USA. Triple Crown: Canes vigorous, sp ineless. Fruits large, glossy black , firm, excellent sweet-acid aromatic flavour, late ripening in UK. Medium-high yielding . Origin: USA. Tummelberry: Canes moderately vigorous with numerous small thorns, semi-erect. Fruits large , dark red, very firm , rounded , good acid flavour, core woody, good for jam ; very early ripening (from mid June in England) . A good cropper. Origin: a Tayberry hybrid from Scotland; hardier than Tayberry .

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A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

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Veitch berry: Canes quite upright. stout, spiny, vigorous. Fruits medium - large, roundish-oblong , purple-black, good flavour, mid-season ripen ing. Cropping good. Origin: UK. Waldo: Canes spineless, moderately vigorous, semi-erecl , resistant to cane spot. Fruits large, firm , glossy black, good flavour, small seeded, store well, mid season ripening, easily picked. Heavy yielding. Good for fresh use and processing. Origin: USA (Oregon). White: Erect type. Canes very vigorous. Fruits small-medium, creamy-white coloured when ripe, large drupelets, soft, sweet delicate flavour. Productive, nol self-ferUle. Origin: USA.
Womack: Erect type. Canes very erect, spiny. Fruits large, firm, sweet-acid flavour. Adapted to Texas conditions; very hardy. Orig in: USA (Texas). Youngberry (Young Dewberry): Canes very vigorous, spiny, resistant to cane spot. Fruits very large, roundish, sweet, wine to black coloured, mulberry flavour - good fresh or processed. Mid season ripeni ng. Cropping very heavy. Not particularly hardy. Not particu larly good in Britain. Origin: hybrid. Origin: USA.

Propagation
Blackberries and hybrid berries can be propagated by several methods. Varieties do no come true from seed, so vegetative methods are used, mainly the first two below: Tip layeri ng (in the field) Softwood cuttings using mist Root cuttings and suckers - used for erect blackberries Micro propagatio n Tip layering involves laying growing tips of canes into and out of holes wh ich are refilled with soil. New growth shou ld be layered in July or August. The hole shou ld be 12-15 cm (5-6~) deep with a sloping side towards the parent plant to allow the cane tip to lie against it. To set up a propagation bed, plant out hea lt hy plants in autumn, 2.5-3.5 m (8-12 ft) apart each way, and cut plants down to 22 cm (9"). Layeri ng of tips of new canes start in July and August, and the canes thus layered soon start formi ng lateral shoots wh ich in turn can be tip-layered when about 1 m (3 ft) long. Rooted tips can be lifted the following autumn, the canes of the parent plant are cut back to ground level and the bed cleared and manured. A parent plant can produce 12-15 tips in the first year, and 60 or so in subsequent years - propagation beds last for several years. Softwood cuttings are taken in late summer to early autumn (July to October) from well developed, ha lf-ripened shoots of the current year. Soft growth at the tip is discarded , and shoots are cut into lengths, one or two leaf nodes long. Rooting is best ach ieved under mist and cuttings should be dipped in a hormone rooting compound or willow rooting substance (See Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 4, page 34 for how to make this). Bottom heat of about 2PC (70°F) is ideal, and as soon as rooting takes place (usually after 6-8 weeks) , the cuttings should be potted up and hardened off. If mist is not available, cuttings can be rooted (though with some difficulty) in co ld frames, which must be kept humid and shaded on sunny days. Root cuttings of erect blackberries are a standard form of planting material. Roots 6-12 mm (0.250.5") across are cut into 10-15 cm (4-6") lengths and planted in permanent positions in early spring - they are dropped horizontally into 5-7 cm (2 - 3~) deep furrows, then covered with soil. Rooted suckers of erect types are easily dug and tra n splanted.

Suppliers
U.K. suppliers

J C Allgrove Ltd, The Nursery, Middle Green, Langley, Bucks, SL3 6B U. Tel: 01753-520155.
Chris Bowers & Sons, Whispering Trees Nu rseries, Wimbotsham , Norfolk, PE34 80B.

Te l; 01366-388752.
Buckingham Nurseries, Tingewick Rd, Buckingham, MK18 4AE . Tel: 01280-813556.

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Deacons Nursery, Godshill , Isle of Wight, P038 3HW . Tel : 01983-840750 . The Garden of Scotland , Tweed Horizons, Newtown St Boswells, Roxburghshire , T06 OSG . Tel : 01835-822122. Highfield Nurseries , Whitminster , Gloucester, GL2 7PL. Tel: 01452-740266 . Ken Muir, Honeypot Farm , Rectory Rd , Weeley Heath, Clacton-on-Sea , Essex , C016 9BJ. Tel : 01255-830181. Scotts Nurseries (Merriott) Ltd , Merriott, Somerset , TA16 5PL. Tel : 01460-72306 . J Tweedie Fruit Trees , Maryfield Road Nursery, Nr. Terregles , Dumfries , DG2 9TH . t Tel : 01387-720880 . Welsh Fruit Stocks , Bryngwyn , Kington , Hereford , HR5 30Z. Tel: 01497-851209. Other European suppliers The Ark Nursery, Burdautien , Clones , Co . Monaghan , IRELAND. Tel : 047-52049. Baumschulen Herr, Baumshulenweg 19-25, 53340 Meckenheim/ Rheinl.1 , GERMANY. Tel: 02225-9208-0 North American suppliers Numerous suppliers are listed in the Fruit , Berry and Nut Inventory. The following stock a good range of varieties : Boston Mountain Nurseries, Rt,2 , Box 405-A, Mountainburg , AR 72946, USA. Tel: 501-369-2007 . L E Cooke Co., 26333 Road 140, Visalia, CA 93292 , USA. Wholesale only. Country Heritage Nursery, POBox 536, Hartford , MI 49057 , USA. Tel: 616-621-2491 . Garland Simmons Plant Farm, Rt,l Box 252-A, Mountainburg, AR 72946 , USA. Tel : 501-369-2345 . Pense Nursery, Rt.2 Box 330-A, Mountainburg , AR 72946, USA. Tel: 501-369-2494 . L J Rambo's Wholesale Nursery, 10495 Baldwin Rd , Bridgman , MI 49106 , USA. Wholesale only.

References
Arbury, J : Breeding brambles . The Garden , AU9ust 1998, 578-583 . Baker , H : The Fruit Garden Displayed. CasselllRHS , 1998. Bown , 0 : The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, 1995. Cane Fruit. ADAS Reference Book 156; Grower Books, 1983. Crandall, Perry C: Bramble Production . Haworth Press , 1995. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T., 1997. Cummins , J : Registers of New fruit and Nut Varieties. HortScience. List 35 (Vol 26 ,8) , List 36 (Vol 29,9) , Lis1 37 (Vol 30 ,6), List 38 (Vol 32 ,5) . Duke , J : Handbook of Edible Weeds. CRC Press , 1992. Fa cc iola, S: Cornucopia. Kampon9 Publications , 1990. Finn , C & Lawren ce , F: ' Black Bulte' Trailing Blackberry. HortScience 33 (2) : 355-357 . 1998 . Flowerdew, Bob : Bob Flowerdew's Complete Fruit Book. Kyle Cathie, 1995. Gordon , S, Woodford , J & Birch, A : Arthropod pests of Rubus in Europe : Pest statu s, current and fulure control strategies. Journal of Horticultural Science (1997) 72 (6) 831-862 . Hummer, HK et al: Cold Hardiness in Rubus. Fruit Varieties journal 49(1): 52-58 1995. Jennings , D : Raspberries and Blackberries: Their Breeding , Diseases and Growth. Academic Press, 1988 . MAFF Leaflet P932: New Varieties of Cane Fruits. MAFF, 1985. MAFF Leaflet P3147 : Black and Hybrid Berries . MAFF, 1988. MAFF Leaflet P3192 : Cane fruits; pest and disease control. MAFF, 1989. Poling , E : Blackberries . Journal of Small Fruit & Viticulture , Vol. 4, No. 1/2 , 1996 , 33-69 . Simmons , A : Simmons Manual of Fruit. David & Charles, 1978. W estwood , M: Temperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press , 1993. Whealy , K & Demuth , S: Fruit , Berry and Nul Inventory. Seed Saver publications , 1993 .

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Propagation:

Hardwood cuttings
Introduction
Hardwood cuttings of decidu ous species are those made of mature, firm . dormant wood after leaves have fallen. Hardwood cuttings can also be taken of narrow-leaved evergreen species , tho ugh these need different treatment (see evergreen section below): deciduous species are treated in the main text here.
Hardwood cuttings are easy to prepare and transplant after rooting , and form one of the cheapest and easiest methods of vegetative propagation.

Timing
Hardwood cutti ngs are prepared during the dormant season - late autumn , winter , o r early spring. Generally, cuttings can be taken from when the leaves ca n be removed without tearing the bark , though usua lly waiting until the lea ves have fallen saves work .

Autumn planting : In regions with mild winte rs (eg. most of Britain) ca n be made in the autumn and planted immediate ly in nursery during the dormant season, or the formation of roots and shoals following spring. The low and declining soil temperalures mean that

or refiable snow cover. cuttings beds. Rooting may take place may occur simultaneous ly Ihe rooting takes some time.

Spring planting: With easy to root species , the cuttings can be gathered during the dormant season, and wrapped in newspaper o r slightly damp peat in a polythene bag, and stored at 0-4.5"C (32-40" C) until spring - in a fridge for examp le . The cuttings must not be allowed to dry out or be come too wet during storage; if buds start to grow then the cuttings must be planted immediately. In spring , cuttings are plan ted directly into nursery beds. Rising soil temperatures may make rooling quick.

The cuttings
These are usually taken from wood of the previous season ' s growth. although a few species (eg. fig , olive, some plums) can be rooted from two-year or olde r wood. Cuttings shou ld be laken from healthy, moderately vigorous stock plants growing in full sun. The wood se lected should not be from very vigorous growth with abnorma lly long internodes (distance between buds) , or from small weakly growing interior shoots . The cuttings need an ample supply of carbohydrates to nourish the developing roo ts and shoals unlil the new plant becomes selfsusta ining ; tip portions of a shoot , which are usually low in carbohydrates. are discarded . Central and lower parts generally make the best cuttings. Hardwood cuttings vary in length from 10-76 cm (4-30") - the longer lengths sometimes used for fruit rootstocks - but are usually 20-30 cm (8-12 ") long . The diameter may range from 6-50 mm (114-2 " ) but are usually 6-12 mm (114-%"). They need a minimum of two buds; the basal cut is made jusl below a bud, and the top cut 13-25 mm (%-1") above a bud . Stra ight (normal) hardwood cuttings are normally used , though heel and mallet cuttings are both appropriate for some species (see 'Softwood cuttings ', Vol 6 No 3 for illustration). Heel cuttings have some old wood attached, while mallet cuttings have a small piece of attached older wood like a mallet. With straight cuttings , where it is difficult to tell between the top and base of the cutting , the top cut is usually made al a slant and the basal cut straight across .

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Hardwood cuttings will desiccate, so it is important that they don't dry out during handling and storage . Dipping the top s in wax is practised by some, which reduces drying and also indicates the orientation of the cutting. Many hardwood cuttings do not require hormone treatment to root, though use of a hormone rooting compound sometimes increases the success rate; these often contain a fungicide which reduces cutti ng mortality. Alternatively, or in addition to bought in hormones , a willow rooting substance (WRS) can easi ly be home made and can significantly improve rooting of some plants. To make WRS , cut current year's willow stems into small pieces, pack into a conta ine r, cover with water for 24 hours , then drain off the water and store . Cuttings shou ld be pla ced upright in the WRS for 24 hours before planting. Refrigerated WRS is stable for several years . Warm temperature pre-treatment : Cuttings taken in autumn can have root in itiation stimulated by being treated with hormone rooting compound, then being stored in moist warm conditions (1821 °C, 65-70°F) for 3-5 weeks . The cuttings are then planted out (mild climates) or stored in cold conditions until spring planting.

Evergreen hardwood cuttings
Cuttings of narrow-leaved (needle) eve rgreens must be rooted under moist conditions to prevent excessive drying , as they are usually slow to root (several months or more). Easier species to root inctude Chamaecyparis spp., Thuja spp, low-growing Junipers (Juniperus spp.) and yews (Taxus spp.) . Cuttings taken from young stock plants root much more readily than those taken from older plants . They are made 10-20 cm (4-8") long, with all leaves removed from the lower half. Mature terminal shoots of the previous season's growth are usually used. Basal wounding often helps. Cuttings are best taken between late autumn and late winter, and must be handled quickly. They are best rooted in a greenhouse or poly tunnel with high humidity or light misting and bottom heat of 24-27°C (75-80°F). Rooting hormone is greatly beneficial.

Cuttings media & containers
Hardwood cuttings can be rooted in any media providing good air/water relationships - 25-40% air space in ideal. Use of nursery beds is fine with a we ll-drai ned soil. For containers, composted bark , cOir, peat, perlite , vermicu lite and sand can be combined in many ways. Simple mixes which work with most species include 2 parts perlite 'or vermicu lite with 1 part peat or bark or coif. Most hardwood cuttings which are propagated in containers are not transplanted, but are allowed to grow on in the media for at least a season. Hence composts sho uld contain enough nutrients to facilitate growth.
E

The rooting container shou ld be at least 10-15 cm (4-6 -) deep to allow for reasonable drainage. Large 'Rootrainers' are idea l , but ordinary deep pots work well. Evergreen needle species root well in pure sand or a mixture of 1:1 perlite/vermiculite:peat.

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Conditions for rooting
Hardwood cuttings of deciduous species do not usually require bottom heat (though see 'Th< cuttings' , above). However, for container-grown cuttings, the cuttings must either be stored co l( and spring-planted, or if autumn-planted they often need bottom heat because winter ai temperatures drop much more quickly than soil temperatures. In this case, placing the container' on heated beds initially at 13· 16°C (55-60°F) for a few weeks, then reducing temperature over period of weeks , will help stimulate rooting .

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Using protected nursery beds , either in greenhouses , poly tunnels, or frames , should improve success rates by raising soil temperatures in autumn . However, there is also a risk of cuttings drying out more quickly in the warmer air conditions. so it may be worth waxing the lop of these cuttings . Needle evergreens require bottom heat for hardwood cuttings to root, ideally 18-24°C (65-75 F). Because they are taken in winter, when light conditions are low, little or no shading is required.
D

Mist systems
Leaves of needle evergreen hardwood cuttings wilt and die if not kept moist in some way. and intermittent mist has become the standard (though there are small-scale alternatives described below.)
An electrically timed system provides a film of water over the leaves which lowers leaf temperature. increases humidity. reduces transpiration and respiration. The timing between mistings can gradua lly be lengthened to ha rden off the cuttings Alternatives to misting on a small sca le include covering pots or trays with a tight plastic bag or thin polythene sheet cover, keeping the atmosphere moist inside . The rooting time for needle evergreen hardwood cuttings is often 12 weeks or more . A simple tug test (pull the cutting upward with a gentle pressure) indicates the cutting has rooted. At this time it is wise to reduce or turn off the mist , and improve ventilation .

Aftercare
Hardwood cuttings grown in nursery beds are allowed to grow for at least one season before digging and transplanting. Needle evergreen hardwood cuttings are potled*up after rooting has taken place and grown on for a season or two before planting out.

Species
Fruit species propagated commercially by hardwood cuttings include quince (Cydonia oblonga) , fig (Ficus carica) , mulberry (Morus spp.), olive (Olea europaea) , currants (Ribes rubrum , R.nigrum), gooseberries (Ribes uva*crispa), grape (Vilis spp.),) and occasiona lly apples (Malus spp.) , pears (Pyrus spp. ) and plums (Prunus spp.) .

Key
XXX

TTT

Indicates cuttings can be taken and planted immediately. Indicates cuttings , which have been taken in autumn and cold*stored , can be planted now.

Comment notes (1) Can use older wood (2 year or older) (2) Evergreen broadleaved species : all leaves are removed before striking. (3) Only successful with se lected cuitivars. (4) Needle evergreen species (see above). (5) Heel cuttings root beller than straight. (6) Hormone rooting compound treatment essential. r (7) Warm temperature pre*treatment greatly helps. (8) Boltom heat greatly helps . Species Abies spp . Actinidia spp .

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb
X X X

XXX XXX

I

XXX ! XXX
XXX XXX

I I
TTT

Mar

Comments Dwarf cvs. (4) (6) (7)

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Species Alnus spp. Amorpha fruticosa Arbutus spp. Aristotelia chilensis Aronia spp. Atriplex spp. Aucuba japonica Azara microphylla Berberis spp . (deciduous) Berberis spp. (evergreen) Brachyglottis spp . Broussonetia papyrifera Buddleia spp. Callicarpa spp . CaHuna vulgaris Ceanothus spp. Chaenomeles spp. Chamaecyparis spp. Cistus spp. Coprosma spp . Cornus alba Cornus capitata Cornus kousa chinen sis Cornus mas Coronilla emerus Cudrania tricuspidata X Cupressocyparis spp. Cupressus spp . Cydon ia oblonga aid Cytisus scoparius Drimys winter; Elaeagnus spp . (deciduous) Elaeagnus spp . (evergreen) Empetrum spp. Escallonia spp . Euonymus europaeus Ficus carica Garrya elliptica Gaylussacia brachycera Genista spp. Ginkgo biloba Hebe spp. Hibiscus syriacus Hippophae spp. Hovenia dulcis Hypericum calycinum Juniperus spp. Laburnum spp . Laurus nobilis Ledum spp. Ligustrum spp. Lindera benzoin Lonicera spp . (shrubby)

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Xxx l xxX XXX XXX X X X XXX XXX X XX XXX XXX IX X X XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

TTT TTT TTT

TTT TTT TTT
XXX

TTT XXX TTT XXX XXX TTT TTT XXX XXX TTT XXX TTT X X X XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX TTT XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX TTT TT X XXX X XXX TTT XXX XXX XXX TTT XXX XXX XXX X X XX TTT
XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

TTT

Comments Difficult. (6) Slow. Difficult. Easy. Heel/Mallei. (7) Easy. Easy . Heel helps. Slow. Difficult. Heel helps . Heel helps. (6) (8) Easy .
(6) (8) Heel may help . Easy. Heel may help . (7) Difficult. Easy. (4) (6) (8) Heel may he lp.

Easy. Heel may help. With heel. Diff. (6) With heel. Diff. (6) Heel may help.

a.easy .

Heel

may

TTT

TTT TTT
XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX X X X XXX XXX X X XXX X XXX XXX XXX

T TT l

Slow, difficult. (6) (8) With heel. Shade. Easy Easy Large diameters . (1 ) Heel may help. Woundi ng helps. With heel. Easy. Difficult. Easy. Difficult. Difficult. With heel. Easy. Low spp easy. (4) (6) Heel may help . (6) Easy. Heel may help . Easy .

TTT TTT
XX TTT

I
T TT l TTT


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Species Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Lycium barbarum XXX XXX XXX TTT Maclura pomifera XXX XXX XXX TTT Mahonia spp. XXX X X X Malus spp. XXX Mespilus germanica XXX Metasequoia glyptostroboides XXX XXX XXX Morus spp. XXX XXX TTT Myrica spp. XXX X X X Myrtus communis X X X XXX Nandina domestica XXX XXX TTT Olea europaea XXX Parthenocissus spp. XXX XXX Philadelphus spp. TTT I X X X XXX XXX Picea spp. XXX Populus spp. XXX XXX XXX T T T T T T T T T PotentiJla spp. TTT IX X X XXX Prunus domestica XXX XXX Prunus dulcrs XXX XXX Prunus laurocerasus XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Prunus lusita nica XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Pseudotsuga menziesii XXX XXX Pterocarya spp. XXX T TTT Punica granatum XXX Pyrus spp. XXX XXX Rhamnus spp. XXX TTT Ribes spp. XXX XXX XXX TTT Ribes nigrum XXX XXX XXX TTT Ribes rubrum XXX XXX XXX TTT Ribes uva-crispa XXX XXX XXX TTT Rosa spp. XXX XXX Salix spp. XXX XXX XXX XXX T T T TTT Salvia officina lis XXX XXX XXX XXX Sambucus spp. XXX XXX TTT T T T Skimmia japonica XXX XXX TTT Spiraea spp. XXX XXX TTT Symphoricarpos spp. XXX XXX Tamarix spp. XXX XXX Taxus spp. XXX XXX Thuja spp. XXX Tsuga spp. XXX XX Vaccinium corymbosum TTT Vaccinium macrocarpon TTT Viburnum trilobum XXX XXX Vinca spp. XXX XXX Vitex agnus-castus XXX XXX TTT Ziziphus jujube XXX XXX XXX TTT

Comments Easy. (6) (8) (6) Difficult. (3 ) (6) Difficult. Easy. (6) (8) Heel may help. Heel may help. Heel may help.

I

(1). (2)
Quite easy. Heel may help. (6) Difficult. (4) Easy for most spp. Difficult. (3) Difficult. Quite easy. (6) (8) Quite easy. (6) (8) Difficult. (6) (8) (6) (8) Difficult. (3) Difficult. Easy Easy Easy Quite easy .

Very easy . Heel helps. Easy . Heel may help. Quite easy. Easy. Heel helps . Easy. Use 1ge siems. Fairly easy. (4) (5) Easy. (4) Difficult. (4) (8) Quite easy (6) Quite easy . Quite easy.

References
Din, M & Heuser, C: The Reference manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Varsity Press, 1987. Hartman, H, Kester, 0 et al: Plant Propagation - Principles and Practices. Prentice Hall , 1997. Thompson, P: Creative Propagation . Batsford, 1992.

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Pest & Disease series:

Apple powdery mildew
I ntrpduction
mildew of apples is caused b y the fungus Podosphaera leucotricha , and is present in all apple growing regions of the world. Once considered mainly a disease of nursery stock , it is now a major apple disease of commercial orchards , particularly in semi -arid areas.
Powd~ry

Symptoms
Powdery mildew attacks foliage, flowers , fruit , and growing shools . Like other powdery mildew fungi , Podosphaera produces a white , felty , loose layer of mycelium on the surface of the host. Infection on leaves appears as whitish lesions. typically on the lower leaf surface, and often

accompanied by mild chlorosis in the corresponding pos ition on the upper surface. Lesions expand
into whitish or greyish felt-like patches , often covering much of the leaf and spreading down the stalk to the shoot. Infection of young leaves causes curling, crinkling, reduction in leaf width and folding. Severely infected leaves become brittle and sometimes fall from trees in mid-season. Older leaves are less susceptible to infection than young lea ves . Flower infection is less common than leaf infection. Infected flowers sh ow pale yellow or green petals which are covered with mycelium . The flowers shri vel , may fail to set fruit, and are more susceptible to spring frosts. The effects on fruit depend on the severity and timing of infection. Severely infected flowers emerging from infected buds may give rise to small, severely russetted fruit ; less severe blossom infection occurring later results in little damage, sometimes some milder , net-like russetting. Shoot infection occurs on young current-season growth . Infected shoots are stunted with shortened internodes (distance between buds). and are covered with greyish patches of mycelium, the colour of which may persist until the following season . Terminal and lateral buds are infected during the season they are produced . Infected buds and twigs are more sus ceptible to winter injury , resulting in poor tree form , particularly of young non-bearing trees . Severe infection can reduce the amount of bloom and almost eliminate the crop the following season. In nurseries , mildew stunts tree growth and causes poorly-formed , misshapen trees. Economic damage from powdery mildew in bearing orchards results from reduction in tree vigour and blossom bud production , aborted flowers, and fruit russetting . Infection can also result in reduced trunk growth, fruit size and crop yield .

Conditions for infection and spread
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The fungus overwinters as mycelium in dormant terminal and lateral sh oot buds , and in flower buds produced and infected the previous season . Spores are produced and released from emerging leaves from infected buds. These spores germinate in relatively high humidity (70-100% relative humidity) at 4-30°C (39-86°F) ; the optimum temperature for the germination and growth of spores on leaves is 19-23" C (66 -73" F) . The early season infection is dependent more on warm temperatures than by humidity. Germination is much reduced in very wet conditions (spores hardly germinate at all in drops of water), hence (for example) the higher incidence of mildew in the drier East of Britain than in the wetter West. Abundant sporulation from overwintering shoots and secondary lesions on young foliage leads to a rapid build-up of inoculum , and secondary infection cycles may be repeated as long as new shoot


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growth occurs. There is some evidence that winter temperatures below -12"C can kill mycelium in buds and allow them to produce healthy leaves in spring. Temperatures below -24"C severely damage mycelium in all sites and leads to very little infection the following year .

Hosts
Apart from apples, pears are sometimes attacked, as are medlars, quinces (Cydonia) and ornamen tal Photinia species; but none of these other hosts is often seriously affected . Particularly susceptible apple cultivars include Cortland , Cox' s Orange Pippin , Granny Smith , Gravenstein, Id ared, Jonafree, Jonared , Jonathon, Paulared and Rome Beauty. These sho uld be avoided jf at all possible . There are numerous apple varieties which are resistant or very resistant to mildew and these are listed below; there are enough here to enable most tastes and requirements to be fulfilled. Pears are not generally so susceptib le as apples to powdery mildew. Beurre d'Anjou fruits are very suscepti ble .

Control
A good degree of control on infected trees can be achieved by winter pruning in January-February. Cutting out a ll shoots (to 3 bud s beneath vis ibl e infection) noticeably infected with mildew reduces subsequent secondary infection by half; cutting out all shoot tips longer than 15 cm (6") reduces the early summer mildew level by 80-90%. A further examination of the tree can be made in April and affected shoots picked off or pruned out again (taking care not to contaminate healthy shoots). The drawbacks of such treatment include decreased yields the following year and interference with the tree structure. Make sure to burn all infected prunings and disinfect tools . Most commercial apple growers spray for this and other fungus diseases at regular intervals throughout the growing season, often using environmentally-damaging and systemic fungicid es 1520 times a year. Copper (Bordeaux mixture) and sulphur fungicides are reasonably effective and were formerly used ; they still can be occasionally by organic growers - make sure the variety is not su lphur-shy. More re ce ntly, a new generation of fungi cides has been produced which originate from a common woodland mycorrhizal fungus , Strobilurus tenacellus, found in temperate regions including Britain and Europe: this fungus contains the natural antibiotic slrobilurin A, from which the new fungicides have been produced . These may be less harmful 10 the environment. but if used extensively then it is on ly a matter of time until resistant strains of Podosphaera emerge. Presumably, powdered Slrobifurus mushrooms, if made avai lab le, could be used as a low-tech powdery mildew control. Various alternative substances and mixtures have been tested in their effectiveness against powdery mildew. Baking soda (Sod ium bicarbonate) gives slight contro l, which is improved with the addition of a mineral oil. Another fungus, Cicinnobolus cesatiJ, is parasitic on Podosphaera and shows good potential for biological control of powdery mildew.

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Alexis Bamack Beauty Beauty Belle de Boskoop Boun.tiful David Discovery Discovery Spur Type Early Mcintosh Ellison's Orange Fairy Golden Hornet Gloster

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Apple Gultivars very resistant to mildew
Haralson Henry Kohankie Hibernal Hunter Spartan Isle of Wight Pippin Jamba Jester Joan Lord Lambourne Malus baccata jackii Malus floribunda Malus robusta Maluszumi Malus zumi ca/ocarpa McShay Nova Easygrow Ozark Gold Primula Quinte Red Delicious Red Ellison Red Sentinel Robusta 5 Spartan Spartan Compact Splendour Starkrimson Tydeman's early Wealthy White Angel White Winter Calville Winslon Winston Sport Worcester Pearmain Yellow Siberian

Apple Gultivars resistant to mildew
Abbondanza Aldenham Blenheim Alfri ston Allington Pippin Sport Ananas Berzenicki Anis Annie Elizabeth Antonovka Ariwa Arkansas Ashmeads Kernel Atwood Spur Baker's Delicious Baukro Belrene Bisbee Red Delicious Black Oxford Black Twig Blairmont Blenheim Orange Blushing Golden Bovey Bramley's Seedling Brown Russet Brownlees' Russet Captain Kidd Cella Chehalis Cidor Close Cockle Pippin Court Pendu Plat Courtagold Cox's Pomona Empress Spur Enterprise Exeter Cross Fameuse Filippa Fior di Cassia Firmgold Fisher Fortune Florina Fortune Francesca Franklyn's Golden Pippin Frazier's Spur Freedom Fulford Gala Gala Gala Must Gardner Gavin Geneva Early Generos Gilda Gold Spur Golden Auvilspur Golden Delicious Golden Glory Golden Morspur Golden Noble Golden Nugget Golden Reinette Golden Russet Goldensheen Goldenspur Goldrush King David ReineUe Ontz King of the Pippins Renetta Grigia di Torriana King Red Jonathon Resi King Russet Reverend W.Wilks Lagree Richared Delicious Lalla Richelieu Laxton's Superb Rings Wealthy Lired (Roosje) Rockingham Red Ladi Rome Spur Lord Derby Rosamund Rose d'Osta Lutz Maxton Rosemary Russet Mcintosh Rate Goldparmane Melrose Roxbury Russet Merrigold Royal Gala Merton Charm Rubinette Merton Worcester Rubinola Morspur Ruby Nero Russet Superb Newtosh Saint Edmund's Pippin Norfolk Beauty Sam Young Norfolk Royal Sandow Norfolk Royal Russet Sanspareil Satu rn Northern Spy Oberlander Himbeerapfel Scarlet Gala Okanoma Senshu Orleans Reinette Shay Shotwell Pagsup Spur Type Simon's Russet Penco Perla Przybrodzka Sir Prize Perleberg Siava Pobeditelam Perrine Yellow TransparentSmoothee Pine Apple Russet of Devon Snooorift Pixie Splendour

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Crawley Beauty Crimson Bram ley Crimson Grieve Crimson King Crimson King Crimson Superb Crispin D'Arcy Spice Dayton Decio Delbard Delicious Democrat Derman Delicious Dianaspur Oolgo Ooud Golden Delicious Dulcet Dunizza Giallo Rosa Early Bird Early Crimson Ed Gould Golden Edward VII Egremont Russet Egri Piros Elektra Elliot Spur Elton beauty Emneth Early

Goldstar Graham's Jubilee Graniwinkle Greensleeves Grenadier Helios Hillieri Honey Sweet Hoople's Antique Gold Howgale Wonder Hudson's Golden Gem Imperial Gala Ingrid Marie James Grieve Jefferies Jester John Standish Jonadel Judaine Judeline Judor Juliana June Wealthy Jupiter Jurelia Kent Kerry Pippin Kidd's Orange Red Kim

Pixie Red Sport Stark Earliest Poelman's Rd James Grieve Starkspur Golden Del. Porn ella Verde Brisca Starkspur Red Powell's Russet Suislepper Prima Sundale Primicia Sunset Prinz Albrecht von Preussen Suntan Pristine Tasman Pride Rajka Testerspur Golden Del. Ralph Shay Topaz Raritan Turner Red Ananas Twenty Ounce Red Astrakhan Tydeman's late Orange Red Blenheim Ultrared Gala Red Devil Upton Pyne Red Fortune Vance Red Hook Yanda Vistabella Red Ingrid Marie Red James Grieve White Transparent Red Melba Williams' Pride Red Prince Wolf River Red Superb Woolbrook Pippin Red Wealthy Yarlington Mill Redcoat Grieve Yellow Delicious Redfield Yellowspur York Imperial Redfree Redsleeves Reine d. Reinettes Rouge Reinette Favalle

Pear cultivars resistant to mildew
Hessle Turnbull

Reducing susceptibility
Grow trees in un crowded co ndition s to all ow free air fl ow through the bran ches. If trees are grown in multi-layer systems, ego forest gardens, where conditions a~ more crowded, then be sure to choose resistant varieties . When pruning trees , try to ensure there are no crowded branches , and maximise airflow through the tree . Do not over-feed. Excess nitrogen causes sappy growth which favours not on ly these diseases but others too as well as aph id attack . Poor soils low in organic matter in crease tree susceptibil ity, so add plenty of low-nitrogen organic matter (which can form a mUlch). here is evidence that introducing a diversity of ground covers beneath orchards red uces mildew mfections. Bare soi l beneath orchards leads to higher nitrogen and potassium levels and an 'ncreased incidence of mi ldew.

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Dry soi l condition s seem to increase susceptibil ity; trees shoul d be mu lched in lale spri ng, when

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; AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 1

Page 39

Biodynamic growers recommend the use of mare' s tail (Equiselum arvense) preparations against a range of fungal diseases includ ing powdery mildew. A 'tea ' is made by boiling 20 g (314 oz) of the dried herb in 1 titre (2 pints) of water for 30 mins , then allowing the mixture to stand for 24 hours . The mix is then strained , made up with water to 4 .5 litres (1 gallon) and sprayed on leaf surfaces at 10·14 day intervals. Mare's tai l and this extract contain silica which is believed to strengthen cell walls and thus give a measure of immunity. Another substance which seems 10 increase resistance to fungal disease is seaweed . Trees can be spr~ yed with dilute seaweed solution (concentrates are readily available) as a preventative measure in sprin g.

References
Beresford, R M : Slaked lime , baking soda and mineral oi l for black spot and powdery mildew control in app le s. Proceedings of the 49th NZPPC, 1996, 106·113. Brown, M W : Impact of ground cover plants on pest management in West Virginia, USA. apple orchards . Zahradnictvi , 1997. 24: 2, 39·44. Crawford , M: Directory of App le Cultivars. A.R.T., 1994. Creemers, P : Strobilurins . Fruil·Belge, 1997,65: 467, 87·95 . Greenwood , P & Halstead , A: The RHS Pests & Diseases. Dorling Kindersley, 1997 . Jordan, M: The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe . David & Charles , 1995. Kumar, J et al: Plant Diseases of International Importance, Vol 3. Prentice Hall, 1992. Ogawa, J & English , H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops . University of California, 1991. Pedersen, H L et al: Susceptibility of 15 Apple Cultivars to Apple Scab , Powdery Mildew, Canke r and Mites . Fruit Varieties Journal 48 (2) : 97-100 1994. Pitera , E : Field Susceptibi lity of Apple Cultivars to Apple Powdery Mildew. Erwerbsobstbau 1994 , 36 : 13-15.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No '

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Tmst four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Tmst', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Tolt'les, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No.1 007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

1

Agroforestry News

Volume 7 Number 2

January 1999

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 7 Number 2

January 1999

Contents
2 4 9 14 17
21

News Bacterial canker of Plum and Cherry Propagation: Layering (1) Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees Bamboo Agroforestry in China Book reviews: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of
Garden Plants I Lupins as Crop Plants I Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus I People and the Land through Time I British Plant Communities I Caring for Small Woods I Botany and Healing I Dictionary of Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management

26 30 37

Nut profile: The Heartnut Medicinal Plants: Overview Forest Gardening: Polycultures and matrix planting

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common fonnat. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford . Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Talnes, Devon, T096JT. U.K. Email : AgroResTr@ aol.com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.htmt

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Page 1

News
Chickens in agroforestry
A chicken-based agroforestry system is being developed in SW England based on a new breed, the Ixworth Cross, that thrives on free range. The free range provided is a plantation of fast growin~ short rotation willow coppice. This provides ideal she lter for the birds, together with wood that can be chipped and used for litter for the chickens in their mobile arks. In return , the chickens fertilise the plantation, keep it weed-free and eat the insect pests on the willow. AI the end of a year, the arks and birds can easily be moved onto new areas of the plantation to avoid a build-up

of chicken parasites in the soil.
Source: Letter in Organic Farming, 59 (Autumn 1998)

British Hardwoods Improvement Programme
Th e SHIP is an association of landowners. professionals and researchers who hope to achieve a significant improvement in the quality and performance of various trees in Britain: Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Wild cherry (Prunus av;um), Oak (Quercus petraea & Q.robur) and Walnut (Jug/ans regia). The stages are similar for each species: firstly, to identify supe rior trees from throughout Britain (and elsewhere in the world if appropriate); then to propagate these by cuttings or grafting onto mother trees. Trials or seed orchards of propagated trees are then set up. In addition, research on economic propagation techniques (mostly micropropagation) is proceeding . The wild cherry project is furthest ahead, with the likelihood of comme rcial release of several clones in the next couple of years. The ash, oak and walnut projects are continuing to search for superior trees.

Own-root fruit trees
Hugh Ermen, formerly in charge of the nursery at the Brogdale National Fruit Trials, has for many years been working on · own-root" trees - a technique which has great potential for future organic fruit growers. He is convinced thai trees are healthier and crop at least as well. if not better, without the intervention of a rootstock . The problems with many varieties are that they don't easily root from cuttings, and that their vigour on their own roots is such that they become large trees which are difficult to maintain and harvest. Using natural selection methods, his breeding programme aims to find varieties that are : naturally compact resistant to pests and diseases able to grow on their own roots of good flavour and keeping quality self-fertile frost resistant Some of Hugh's seedling trees are being grown at Yalding Organic Garde ns (part of the HDRA). These are showing good resistance to most of the major diseases, particularly scab and mildew , even though Yalding is at the heart of an intensive fruit-growi ng area. The main cha llenge is to produce a tree of a workable commercial height. The idea l solution would be a naturally compact variety - but this may not have the other desired characteristics. so techniques

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

for controlling vigour are being developed. One method is to bring the tree into early cropping , thus reducing vegetative growth. But the main way of overcoming juvenile vigour involves removing the top 15 cm (6 ") of the tree and grafting it onto the base 10 cm (4 ~ ) above the roots , disposing of the interslem in between . This is done when the tree starts to produce 'non-juvenile ' shoots (which have larger leaves , thicker shoots are less 'spiky' laterals) - about 2 years for apples and 5 years for pears . If there is still too much vigour in the tree after this procedure has been carried out, the grafting process can be repeated with a longer scion (30-45 cm, 12-18" long) or a two-year old scion with some fruit buds attached. Other methods to reduce vigour include root pruning, ring barking, tying down branches , festooning and close planting . The challenge will be to come up with a system which is simple and not time consuming . Source: Growing Organically , 154.

Rapid bamboo estabishment through polycultures
A major hurdle is establishing bamboo in grassland in temperate regions is competition from the grasses for water and nutrients. Typically, to prevent competition , extensive mulches are used with frequent weeding until the bamboo establishes a closed canopy, after which weeding can take place periodically when culms (canes) are harvested (the later weeds mostly being species brought in by birds , ego blackberry) . Rick Valley in Oregon has been using comfrey (Symphyfum spp.) as a ground cover in new bamboo plantings, and chickens in established groves for the benefit of both birds and bamboo . Chickens will not eat growing comfrey and can be used to aid the establishment of comfrey in grass (comfrey will suppress grasses once established , but finds it hard to compete at first). The comfrey can at times be cut and wilted or dried, when chickens will eat it. Comfrey will not persist long-term in a bamboo planting, but is helpful as a source of ready mulch and is not attractive to bamboo-loving rodents . Comfrey 's root system is quite different from that of bamboo: comfrey can intercept nutrients at depth or which are being lea ched from the soil and bring them back to the surface . Bamboo roots form a shallow mat. There are many choices of chicken breed for a free-range flock . Bantams are hardy and good at raising their own chicks, but can fly better than larger birds, making control sometimes difficult. Gamecock breeds or Hamburgs are examples of breeds with aggressive roosters that may do better where predators are a problem . In summary, bamboo can supply shelter and preferred habitat for chickens. Comfrey can supply some feed and nutrients for chickens and bamboo by accumulating soil nutrients and intercepting nutrients being leached from the shallow levels of the soil. Chickens eat some weeds and. with constant scratching . disturb the mulched surface which minimises weed germination. Nutrient from chicken feed is passed on to the bamboo as manure . Rick Valley suggests that other species to investigate in such systems include black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbel/afa), both of which have seeds that chickens will eat, and both of which are good nitrogen fixers.

Source: "A Polyculture for Rapid Grove Establishment of Bamboo", Rick Valley . In Proceedings 1997 Pacific Northwest Bamboo Agro-Forestry Workshop . See also the "Bamboo in Chinese Agroforestry" article in this issue.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Page 3

Pest & Disease Series:

Bacterial canker of plum and cherry
Introd uction
Bacterial canker (also called gummosis and bacterial blast) of stone fruit crops is caused by three pa'thovars of the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae : P.s. pv. syringae attacks all stone fruit species grown commercially; P.s. pv . morsprunum attacks cherry and plum ; and P.S. pv. persicae attacks peach trees in France. This article focuses on the first two of these in relation to plums and cherries : since the essential features of the disease caused by each pathovar are essentially the same, they are henceforth treated together.

P.syringae is a common epiphyte (ie living on the surface without harming the host) that occurs on many plant species including deciduous fruit trees. Bacterial canker develops when the host is stressed or dormant, and the subtle nature of the predisposing factors and the intimate association of the canker organism with symptomless trees makes disease management complicated . Disease damage varies from subtle, almost undetectable effects to death of trees in some nurseries and orchards. It is a serious limiting factor for the cultivation of stone fruit crops in the UK.

Symptoms
The symptoms displayed depend on many variables: the host cultivar , rootstock, age of the tree , plant part invaded, strain of pathogen, horticultural practices etc , Cankers usually develop at the bud union, in pruning wounds , and at the base of infected spurs . New cankers are typically formed in late winter or early spring and are roughly elliptical , shallow and depressed , the branches showing a characteristic flattening on one side . Gum is often exuded from cankers , especially in cherries and early in the growing season . Under the outer bark, pale, water-soaked reddish-brown steaks and flecks are common in the phloem, extending from the upper and lower edges of the canker. When a branch is completely girdled , a watery exudate commonly appears , the sour smell of which accounts for the term ~ sour- sap -. Cankers are usually limited in size by a host reaction so there may be some malformation and outgrowth of the surrounding bark. Cankers on cherries are most often located at the crotch and the angles between branches. Terminal shoots or twigs of cankered trees sometimes die back ; a diseased lateral or trunk girdled by canker could die within weeks . Root systems of diseased trees usually remain functional , thus allowing suckers to develop in the crown region . Infection of extension shoots and fruit are rare and of little economic importance. The canker organism may be present in dormant leaf and flower buds . Infected , dormant buds are often killed , but some invaded buds open normally in spring , only to collapse in early summer. Leaves from these buds are often yellow, narrow and curled and may wilt in summer; fruit tends to dry out, yet leaves and flowers arising from other infected buds frequently remain symptomless. Blossom infections in followed by development of cankers on twigs and spurs . Dead flowers remain attached to trees. Leaf infections, especially on cherry , appear as water~soaked spots which later become brown and dry. Shot holes may be seen later. Symptoms on leaves are apparently limited to some cultivars growing in regions with wet summers and high humidity, but do not directly cause economic damage.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Conditions for infection and spread
The disease cycle of bacterial canker is complex due to the excellent ability of P.syringae to adapt to various hosts. Like most bacterial diseases, it is favoured by wet weather: teaf spots are most prevalent following wind -d riven rains towards the end of flowering . whilst periods of wet windy weather in autumn are conducive to high leve ls of leaf scar in fection on cherry. Optim um tempera ture for growth is 2S-30°C (77-86°F ) , but some strains are able to reproduce at temperatures as low as 4"C (3g ~ F) . The disease is generally of minor importance where winter temperatures are too low for the bacteria to multiply.

P.syringae overwinters in cankers, buds and systematically in side other symptomless host tissue . In addition, it can survive epiphytically on weeds in orchards . Epiphytic populations establish and thrive on the surface of symptom less leaves. The bacteria are present in the buds and colonise new leaves as they emerge in spring. Population levels ca n fluctuate wildly in a matter of hours ; infection and dispersal are favoured early in the season by frequent rainfall, high humidity, cool temperatures and wind. Bacterial activity declines in hot dry summer periods and then increases in the autumn; trees are immune to canker infection during the summer.
Pathogen multiplies on surface of primary, symptondess leaves

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Necros of tissue at base of buds

EpIphytic populatIOns establish on wecd foliagc

Infection through stomata, systematic spread to veins, petioles and axillary buds

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Transmissioo by pruning shears or insertion of infected buds onto healthy rootstocks

Cankers develop, [wigs~ and branches die

The trunks and laterals of trees are usually infected in autumn and winter; pruning cuts and other injuries , including leaf scars, provide points of entry . Cankers subsequently appear at the base of invaded buds. Canker development slows during winter but recommences at the beginning of the

,

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

g~thOgens in cankers decline during summer and cankers usually become completely inactivated rWith the infected tissues being effe~tivel y walled off, by callus) or, if the pathogen has not been
contained effectively, they can occasIonally be perennial. Most factors which reduce tree vigour probably promote disease development. Stress factors that favour bacterial canker include : freezing injuries wounds nematode damage simultaneous infection with other pathogenic fungi such as Cytospora and Nec/ria ,

owing season, only to be arrested later in spring when callus tissue forms; populations of the

Hosts
Cherries and plums are the two most affected stone fruits , but bacterial ca nker can affect others such as peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds elc, II can cause a blister spot on apples, a blossom blight on pears, and leaf spotting and shoot dieback on many trees including species of Acer, Betula, Crataegus, Juglans, Magnolia, Populus, Prunus laurocerasus, Quercus, Salix and Ulmus. Sour cherries are le ss susceptible than sweet cherries. Several of the popular cherry varieties are very susceptible· ego Merton Bigarreau, Napoleon, Van. Several popular plum varieties are very susceptible, including Czar, Ontario and Victoria . Most bullaces, damsons and mirabelles are hardy and resistant to bacterial canker.

Control
Chemical control is based prim ari ly on protective sprays with fixed copper or Bordeaux mixture (which may be acceptable 10 organic growers) in autumn and in spring betore blossoming. However, there are reports of coppeHesistant strains ot the disease emerging , hen ce this might not be a viable control for much longer. In general , only limited success in controlling the disease has been achieved by the use of copper sprays: one or two applications of Bordeaux mixture at leaf tall may reduce the number of cankers by 25·50 %. Such sprays may be phytotoxic to some cultivars. There is considerable potential for using essential plant oils as natural bactericides against bacterial canker organisms . Recent research has shown that lavender oil (distilled from Lavandula angustifo/ia) has a significant inhibitory effect on P.syringae. Infected branches can be cut back to healthy wood in early summer while cankers are sti ll enlarging, but note that bacterial canker organisms usually die off in cankers during the summer , hence unless the canker is threatening to girdle a branch , this may be unnecessary.

Plum cultivars very resistant to bacterial canker
Denniston's Superb Marjorie's Seedling Utility

Plum cultivars resistant to bacterial canker
Most bullaces, damsons & mirabelles are hardy and resistant. Blaisdon red Bodi Szilva Bush Jefferson Opal Oullins Gage Pershore Purple Pershore Stan ley Thames Cross Warwickshire Drooper

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Cherry cultivars very resistant to bacterial canker
Sour cherries Surefire Triaux

Sweet cherries Altenburger Melonenkirsche Badeborner Gr. Schwarze Knorpel Bianca Harlemer Bowyer Heart Kiewljanka Carlotta Kordia Cleveland Bigarreau Kristin Krupnopfodnaja Debanka Lambert Dun (Mazzard) Large Black (Mazzard) Durone di Vignola II

Maibigarreau Solmari Merton Crane Scinscereszyne Mona Cherry Strawberry Heart Nalina Transportabelnaja Namosa Upright Preserving (Mazzard) Valeska Querfurther Konigkirsche Vinka Small Black (Mazzard) Viscount Smoky Dun

Cherry cultivars moderately resistant to bacterial canker
Sour cherries Cae's Late Carnation Sweet & Duke cherries Alba Heart Bada Baumann's May Belle Agathe Belle deChatenay Benedetta Bigarreau Jaboulay Black Cluster Black Elton Black Oliver Black Tartarian E Buttners Rate Knorpel Carcon B Colney Corniola Corum CryaJl's Seedling Dangler Durone di Verona Early Birchenhayes Early Burcombe Early Burlat Early Richmond Morello

Early Cluster Early Rivers Fice Frogmore Early Grossa di Pistoia Grylls Guige d'Annonay Halton Black Ham Green Black Hedelfinger Heidi Hertford Hollander Hudson Huldra Kassins Fruhe Kastanka Kentish Red Lambert Lambert Compact Lapins Lester

Linda Rodmersham Seedling Longley' s Black Eagle Royal Duke Ludwig's Bigarreau Schmahlfields Lulsley Early Black Sealand 2nd E'ly Black Meckenheimer Fruhe Smutts Merchant Sodurs Merla Somerset Mermat Sparkle Merpet Summit Merton Glory Sunburst Merton Heart Suttons Prol ific Merton Marvel Suttons Purple MerIon Reward Teickners Nabigos Ulster Namare Valera Nanni Valerij Tschkalov Noir de Schmidt Vernon Norbury' s Early Black Vic Olivet Victor Ord Viltoria Rainier Wellington B Reidern Second E'ly Black White Heart Windsor

Reducing susceptibility
Several measures can be taken to reduce susceptibility and prevalence of the disease: 1. Care at planting. Newly planted trees should not be allowed to get stressed: water in drought conditions. Plums trees are most susceptible when young for the first 5-6 years after planting. Plums are very susceptible to infection via injuries caused by the ties of staked trees - make sure ties do not chafe or restrict growth .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Page 7

1.

Avoidance of marginal conditions. New orchards established under margina l condilions are at risk. Trees are parti cu larly susce ptibl e in some sandy soils . in waterlogged soi ls that drain poorly, and in shallow soils above a hardpan. Soil pH shou ld be kept at 6 .5 or above. Pruning . This should be undertaken in summer rather than autumn or winter: keep pruning to a minimum. Secateurs should be disinfected between each cut. Rootstock choice. This can be sig nificant· ego in California. plum s on Love ll and French prune on Love ll and Nemagaurd suffer less damage than those on Myrobalan or Marianna. In Brit ain, Myrobalan B and Pixy are resistant plum rootstocks and Colt is a resistant cherry rootstock : in wetter parts of the country . the framework (scaffold) of plum trees can be grown using Myroba lan rootstocks . with the cultivar grafted after several years onto branches : sim ilarly cherries can be grafted onto scaffolds of the rootstock F12 / 1 (to lerant to bacterial canker) (this techniq ue is not good for dwarfing roots tocks , though , as it is unproductive with them.) Feeding. Both lack of. and too mu ch , nitrogen may fa vour the disease, so make sure that a suffi cient quantity is available . The re is some evidence that low soi l potassium leve ls may favour the disease - again , provide enough - perhaps mulch with comfrey leaves. Cultivar choice . Resistant cultiva rs should be chosen if possible. This is especially important in forest garde ns where humidity levels are high.

2. 3.

4.

5.

A positive footnote
Pseudomonas syringae is one of a group of bacteria - many of them common plant pathogens that have a talent known as ice-nucleating abi lity . These organisms grow ice crysta ls around their bodies by exuding certain chemicals in conditions where the air is be low freezing but still contains water. Microbiologists believe these pathogens evolved this ab ility to promote frost damage on leaves, but the re may be a different explanation - they may be using the atmosphere for their own dispersal. As they are minute , they have less of a problem getting aloft than in dropping back down aga in. Hamilton and Lenton , in their recent paper inspired by the Gaia Hypothesis. sugge st that these creatures use their ice-nucleating ability to seed clouds with ice crystals , which eventually fall as rain , bringing their living nuclei down with them. Such organisms may thus play an integral part in the world 's weather and climate systems and be vitally important in climate regulation .

References
Crawford , M: Cherries . Production & Cultu re . A .R.T., 1997 . Crawford , M: Plums, Production , Culture & Cultivar Directory. A.R.T ., 1996. Fischer, M & Hohlfeld , B: Tests on resistance in sweet cherries , part 6 . Erwerbsobstbau 40 . 69-73 (1998) . Greenwood, P & Halstead, A: The RHS Pests & Diseases. Dorling Kinde rsley, 1997. Hamilton, W & Lenton, T: Spo ra and Ga ia : mi crobes fl y with their clouds. Ethology , Ecology and Evolution , 1998. Hattingh , M & Roos, I: Bacteria l Canker of Stone Fruits. In Kuma r, J et al: Plant Diseases of International Importance , Vol 3. Prentice Hall, 1992. Hunt, Lynn: Send in the Clouds . New Scie ntist , No. 2136 (30 May 1998). 28-33 . MAFF Leaflet 592: Bacterial canke r of cherry and plum. MAFF, 1982. Maxwell. P et al : Antibacteri al properties of essential oils on Pseudomonas syringae pV. syringae and Pseudomonas sofanacearum . In Rudo lph , K (Ed): Pseudomonas syringae pathovars and related pathogens. Kluwer, 1997. Ogawa, J & Engl ish , H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. University of Ca li fornia, 1991.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Propagation:

Layering (1)
Introd uction
Layering is a method of vegetative propagation where stems are induced to form adventitious roots while still attached to the parent plant , to be eventually severed and grown on as separate individuals.
Some plants have a natural tendency to la yer themselves, particularly climbing plants (eg. Hedera, ivy) when allowed to trail along the ground: roots will quickly develop from the stems , forming a dense blanket of vegetation . Others such as blackberries produce long trailing growth often arching down to the soil, where the growing lip is able to produce roots , again forming dense thickets of vegetation. By using different modification of the layering technique , a wide range of plants can be multiplied through layering without the need for complex propagation facilities .

Soil and site
The quality of the soil, in which la yering normally takes place, is important. It should be light in structure, deep, well-drained , moisture·retentive, stone free , with an appropriate pH , and free from debilitating pests , diseases and perennial weeds. Before layering takes place , soils should be amended to provide the best possible conditions. Note that wherever soli is mentioned to mound up in the various below, other materials can be used successfully - for example , sawdust, a soil· sawdust mix , coir etc. A flat she ltered site is also an adva ntage.

Methods
Stooling or mound layering
This is the most widely used commercia l method, used especially for the production of clonal rootstocks. Roots are stim ulated by blanching young shoots during their growth by heaping soil around their bases. Plants suitable for this technique must be able to tolerate hard annual pruning to ground level and root effectively from blanched stems only . Rootstocks propagated this way include apple stocks M9 and MM106, and plum stock SI Julien A; the process for growing these is mechanised to a high degree . Well-maintained stool beds have an indefinite life , but producers of clonal rootstocks often grub up stools after 15 years or so to maintain disease-free stocks. There is a

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

risk of replant diseases building up and if the stool declines it is best to replant new rooted layers in a new site rather than use soil disease treatments . New stool beds are established by obtaining young parent plants which are true to name and not grafted (because the rootstock of a grafted plant may itself sucker). Planting should be in prepared soil in winter and the young plants grown on for one season to become well established. During March of the following year, the stems are cut back (stooled) to about 25-50 mm (1_2H) above soil level. The annual process is then: Newshoots are produced : 2-6 in the first year, increasing to a maximum after about 5 years. Once these are 125-150 mm (5-6 ~ ) high, moist fine soil is carefully mounded up around them , leaving the shoot lips visible. This procedure is normally carried out 3 times , the final mounding done just after midsummer; at least 20 cm (6") of stem should now be buried. (With some easily rooted stools, ego MM106, just one mounding up when shoals are 350-375 mm (14-15~) high will suffice.) Difficult to root species may be encouraged to root by girdling the bases of the shoots with thin copper wire about 6 weeks after they begin to grow. The stool bed should be mulched with an organic mulch free of weed seeds . which will need to be pulled off mounds before they are heightened, then spread back on. Bark mulches are ideal. Other maintenance during the growing season may include irrigation in very dry weather, and any necessary pest and disease control. By late autumn, layers will be well rooted . When they are fully dormant, the soil mound s are broken down to expose the rooted layers which are then harvested by cutting back to the original stool. Any mulch can be raked aside before organic matter is added to maintain fertility. The mulch can then be rein stated. During exceptiona lly cold winters it is advisable to protect the stool stems with straw or a similar mulch. Stooling can be undertaken in containers. as shown here on the right. The mother plant is planted in a large pot , and a second bottomless pot placed on top to facilitate mounding. This system produces small quantities of layers (4-6 per plant) but is sometimes useful as there are no weed or replant problems. Mound layering is commonly used for the following species: Rootstocks : Apple - BUD-490 , BUD-491, Jork 9 , M series, MM series, MAC1 , MAC9, P series. Plum - St Julien A. Other species: Amelanchier, Ribes (currents), Salix, Syringa.

Trench layering or etoliation
This method is used for plants that need to be propagated on their own roots but which do not tolerate continued stooling - ego the cherry rootstock F12/1 and walnuts. A well-cared for mother bed should last for 15-20 years . Buds are encouraged to develop and extend on layered shoots in darkness, causing the cells to become elongated , without foliage and practically devoid of pigmentation - hence etoliation. Such shoots have a remarkable capacity to produce adventitious roots . Etoliation layering differs from

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cze-·
stooling in that in stooling the buds are allowed to develop and produce extension growth in the light before being blanched by mounding soil around the shoots. Mother plants are obtained with a single shoot about 60 cm (2 ft ) long and planted at an angle of 30·45°. Spacing is about 60 cm (2 tI) in the row, with rows 1.5-3 m (5-10 ft) apart. Plants are allowed to establish for a season . The annual procedure is then: During very early spri ng an even-depth trench is made about 5 cm (2") deep by 30 cm (12 ") wide along the row . Soil is removed from just beside the base of the angled stem, making it easy to bend horizontally to the trench , where it is held firmly in place with a stout peg; further light pegging is required along the shoots .

... ,.'

The bed should be mulched with an organic mulch free of weed seeds , which will need to be pulled off mounds before they are heightened, then spread back on. Bark mulches are ideal. When the buds begin to swell, they should be covered with 2.5 cm (1") of fine soil; as the shoots appear through this. a further covering of the same depth is made . The procedure is repeated up to 3 times. When the shoots reach 15 mm (0 .6") above the soil level , soil can now be mounded up , leaving the tips visible. This can be repeated a second time . Other maintenance during the growing season may include irrigation in very dry weather, and any necessary pest and disease control. Rooted layers can be harvested in early winter , when the soil mounds can be broken down and the layers gathered. One strong and healthy shoot is retained every 30-60 cm (1-2 tt) along the row to maintain production . Any mulch can be raked aside before organic matter is added to maintain fertility. The mulch can then be reinstated. Note : In some cases. for example with walnuts , plants can be placed horizontally in the trench and the developing shoots layered during the first year. Trench layering is commonly used for: Rootstocks : Apple - M7 , M9 , M16 , M27 , BUD·9, Northern Spy , Ottawa 3, Robusta No 5. PearQuince A, Quince C, Quince Adams. Plum - Brompton, Mussel. Myrobalan B. Pershore , Pixy , St Julien A. Cherry· F1211, Kentish . Grape clonal selections . Other species: Cydonia (quince), Jug/ans (walnut) Malus (apple), Morus (mulberry ).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Tip layering
Plants of the Rubus family (b lackberry, boysenberry , loganberry, tayberry) are able to regen erate from the shoot tip when the long arching shoots lodge in moist soil. Suitable parent plants are planted in winter at 3 m (10 ft) spacing each way and allowed to establish for a year . During the following early spring , plants are cut back to 15-20 em (6-S-) above soil level. The annual procedure is then:
When thp new growth has reached 60 em (2 tt), each shoot is tipped to stimulate side growth .

Once the side laterals ha ve produced 1-1 .5 m (3-5 ft) of growth, layering can take place . For each shoot. the position where it can be buried is found and a hole dug about 15 em (6- ) deep with a sloping side towards the parent plant and a vertical side opposite - this allows the shoot tip to be placed in the hole without bending it acutely and encourages the shoot to grow vertically . The shoot tip is placed in the hole with the tip bent upwards , is then secured with a peg or staple, and is then cove red with soil. Rooting should take place within 3 weeks , with the shoot appearing afterwards . The bed should be mulched with an organic mulch free of weed seeds . Ba rk mulches are ideal. The rooted layer can be lifted in early winter, severed , and grown on . The parent plant is pruned back to 15-20 em (6-S").

Simple layering
This method succeeds with many more species than other methods , mainly because it is less demand ing on the parent plant. Vigorous one-year-old shoots are encouraged to develop close to the soil, mainly by hard pruning . The shoots are then bent down and buried , ensuring that the shoot tip is exposed well above the soil. When the layer has rooted sufficiently. it is severed from the parent plant, lifted and grown on , each stem producing only one new plant. Young mufti-stemmed plants are planted and estab li shed for at least one year. Some plants cannot be cut back low to the soil and require the maintenance of a framework (eg. Kalmia, Rhododendron) and these should be planted at an acute angle with the branches touching the soil to allow ease of layering. Planting distances vary with the size and vigour of the subject: from 60 cm (2 ft) for shrubs of low vigou r to 3 m (10 ft) for vigo rous trees . Mulching is a good idea . The layering cycle is then : Parent plants are pruned appropriately. Species that can be cut low (eg. Coryfus, Magnolia, Syringa) are cui to 25-50 mm (1-2~) above soil level; those which cannot are cut back to the first whorl of foliage. Subsequent growth should be encouraged with the application of manure or compost. and irrigation jf necessary. Layering will occur when the shoots are in a suitable condition for the particular species - which may be the following spring , summer or autumn. Spring is the most usual. as the sap begins to rise . The soil around parent plants should be cultivated to produce a tilth. Then each shoot is pulled down to locate where it will be buried. A hole is dug about 15 cm (6- ) deep with a sloping side towards the parent and a vertical side opposite .

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==
The shoot is then wounded where it bends at the bottom of the hole ; a dab of hormone rooting powder appli ed to the wound may aid rooting . Wounding is achieved by either bending or twisting rupture the tissue ; to

cutting a tongue about 3 cm (1.2") long and exposing the cambium ; girdling by removing a ring of bark about 5 mm (0.2~) wide; girdling by twisting thin copper wire into the stem tissue . The shoot is then bent down into the trench with the shoot tip against the vertical side. ensuring that it is exposed above the soil by 10· 15 cm (4-6 ~ ) ; it is secured with a peg or staple. then covered with soil. The shoot tip may need to be tied to a small cane to ensure vertical growth . Later. the growing point may need to be pinched to encourage side branches . Other maintenance during the growing season may include irrigation in very dry weather, and any necessary pest and disease control. Layers will take one or two years to root. When suffiCiently well rooted they can be severed and lifted in winter and grown on . Replacement layers are normally produced during the rooting year from the centre of the parent plant and the process repeats. Note: layers can be produced using quite large side branches of established trees or shrubs in a garden. Such branches are bent down and pegged to the soil surface, and a mound of soi l built up above ground level. Older and larger branches take longer to root than young vigorous shoots . Simple layering is generally successful for many trees and shrubs including the following:

Acer (maple), Actinidia (kiwi), Akebia, Amelanchier, Arbutus (strawberry tree), Cal/una (heather). CaJycanthus (spice bush), Carpenteria, Celastrus, Cercidiphyllum, Chimonanthus, Clematis, Clethra, Comus (dogwood), CoryJopis, Corylus (hazel), Cotinus, Daphne, Davidia, Disanthus, Drimys, Elaeagnus , Enkianthus , Erica , Eucryphia , Euonymus , Fothergilla, Gaultheria, Halesia , Hamamelis (witch hazel), Hedera (ivy), Hoheria, lIex, Kalmia, Laurus, Ligustrum, Lonicera (honeysuckle), Magnolia, Mespilus (medlar), Nyssa, Osman thus, Parthenocissus, Pernettya, PhyJJodace, Pieris, Platanus, Prunus (almond, apricot, pea ch, plum), Rhododendron, Rhus, Salix (willow), Schisandra, Schizophragma, Stachyurus, Stephenandra, Stuartia, Syringa, Thuja, Trachelospermum , Vaccinium (blueberry), Viburnum, Vilis (grape), Wisteria .

Layering (2) in the next issue wi ll cover further techniques including French, compound and air layering .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees
Chris Evans
In re(afforestation) work we usually talk about the planting of trees. Lois of 'em. But there ' s a fundamental limitation in this ethic that planting trees is what we need to save the planet. We should be rather talking about planting forests. Until our planting site has in it the components of the Mother of all plantations' the climax forest system - the U trees~ we plant will always be weak and prone to exposure, disease and drought.

Guilds and diversity
This is illustrated by a tale of connections in the North American Pacific Coast Forests. between Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), soil mycorrhizae and a certain Red Tree Vole . The vole was found to transplant spores of the mycorrhizae , needed by the fir for its uptake of soil nutrients within the soil of these forests. On clearfell sites, the habitat of the vole was destroyed and thus it would disappear. As a result, survival of fir seedlings was severely reduced. These components survive logether and benefit each other in a symbiotic association known in Permaculture circles as guilds. In design , we work to create guilds, or rather to place the right species in such a way that they can create themselves. This illustrates the importance of diversity in our plantations.

Soil life
Thus we are not just looking at planting trees, but accommodating the soil life which is the foundations of healthy biological systems, be they forests , wetlands or prairie grasslands . Roots of plants growing in undisturbed soils form associations with the soil micro-organisms - the latter make nutrients available for the former, and the micro-organisms gain carbon in particular. Up to 80% of Carbon fixed in photosynthesis goes into below ground processes. While this ca rbon is U lost to the plant, it is not lost to the system , of which the plant is only a part. The soil organisms improve plant growth through effects on nutrient cycling, pathogens . soil aeration and water holding capacity. Giving priority to feeding and supporting the life in the soil makes caring for plants growing there a much easier task.
H

Succession
A further lesson from Nature we would be wise to apply is the principle of succession - the redevelopment of the climax system following · disturbance. In forests, this may occur naturally in landslides or the toppling of aged trees, creating clearings in the forests. The human causes are well known - clear felt , livestock pressure etc. In either situation, if allowed, Nature will recolonise sites using biological systems specifically adapted to the situation. If soil is poor and soil moisture low, She will establish plants which can survive . These can be called ~pioneer" ground covers, followed by pioneer shrubs and trees. Often they are nitrogen-fixing legumes , able to synthesise nutrients from the air when they aren't available in the soil. Such plants have the chief purpose of preparing the ground for the next stage - covering and protecting the soil, giving natural water and nutrient cycles a jump-start, and thus giving species which would not otherwise have survived a suitable niche in which to thrive. This process continues, each stage leading to a more fertile one, where the ability for a greater range and diversity of species to thrive increases until the climax stage is reached once more . Throughout this process the annidated nature of the system becomes evident, with multi-storey & stacking" producing crops and system yields in a vertical dimension as well as in the K conventional" horizontal dimensions.

Limiting factors and total yield
For vital growth of biological systems, such processes and conditions are dependent on a few crucial factors mainly in the soil surface areas - mOisture , air (oxygen), organic matter, temperature , the

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presence of symbiotic relationships etc. When anyone of these factors is growth is impaired even if other needs are in abundance .

s ub~optimal

or missing,

Medicinal herbs, spices , dyes , fibre plants , bee forage plants , root crops and wildlife habitat are all part of the total yield . In forestry these · Non~Timber Forest Products· are often ignored especia lly when we 're not treating our planting site as a complete ecological system.

Designing in imitation of nature
So the simple planting of trees is changed to creating, or allowing , complex interactions based on what happens naturally. We design to imitate this because iI's efficient - nature does it using only su nlight ~ and successful. Design is also about reducing the limiting factors for optimum productivity . Our designs need to incorporate as many of the above principles when looking at forest plantations . We have a series of design options , for which we need to understand factors such as: Natural characteristics of the plant species Niches in time & space the plant occ upies - is it a pioneer , shade loving , drought tolerant, fast to establish, light demanding , frost tolerant etc . Size of the plant above and below ground (wide canopy, deep tap root etc.) Companions to the plant ~ birds , insects, other plants etc . Human-used products of the plant When we have an idea of such criteria , we select and place the elements to work together, sat isfying human and ecological needs of the site . The following design pattern illustrates how we can make optimum use of these characteristics and relationships .

, • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • .~: • , •• • •~ • • • •• • ,:$' • • , ,• , • • , •, • • • • • • • , ,, , , •, ,• , • • •,:.'fl., • , • • • • , t' • • , • • • , • • , , , $ ,, • , •, • , • 4\. • .4p •• • , • • • • • • • • " • ,• • • • • •• • • , , • • •• • •,. • • • • • • • • • L _ _ I-___ 11-0,12.<11

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• •:. • • • • •• • • • • •
High canopy climax

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mid canopy

low canopy

sh rub

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Planting Plants distance per Ha. 10·12 m 65-100 years 5·6 m 225-300

Examples Walnut, chestnut Oak, ash, honey locust, alder Apple, pear, peach, apricot, cherry, plum, persimmon, damson Alder, honey locust, Robinia

Time to production 4·12 years 40-100

,
2.5·3 m 1·1.5 m 800-1200 3400·8400

3· 5 years 10·25 years

Dwarfed fruits, hazel, sea buckthorn, mulberry, elder 3·5 years Alder, willow 5·1 0 years Currants, gooseberries, blueberries etc. Caragana Raspberry 1·2 years 2·3 years 1 year

0.5-0.75 m 13-30,000

We can then fit additional functions in and around our plantation with the following examples: Ground covers Climbers Thorny fences clover, comfrey, alfalfa, lupin , wild garlic, perennial grasses, mints hardy kiwis, grapes sea buckthorn, honey locust, Berberis, hawthorn, gorse

The conventional method of mono·crop tree planting at 2.5 m spacing ignores all the opportunities of working with the diversity, succession and stacking principles of natural systems. Similarly, to plant climax·type trees at such spacing can be a waste when they'll need selecting anyway. The above design template allows for diversity, succession, stacking, rapid covering of the ground and quick production too. The latter is important for example when farmers are foregoing grazing needs by protecting the site· but within 3·6 months, fodder can be harvested from the developing understorey. We certa inly don't need to be afraid of overplanting. Where sites are very poor or if the right planting materials, time or labour is in short supply, then the establishment does not have to happen at the same time. Pioneers can be broadcast in the first year and the next year, following cut and mulching of these, estab li sh the next layer. Eventually, the most valuable, long lasting climax species can be added. Any tree species planted as seedlings wi ll benefit from a nurse crop of pioneer I green manure I legume·type plants sown close around, which grow quickly and provide shelter as well as fixing nitrogen to bump·start the soil life processes . The design can va ry in terms of products over horizontal and vertical dimens ions , for example layers of fruit at all levels (ve rtically), or clumps of fruit at mid·canopy level, fodder at ground level , timber trees at upper canopy level etc. We can play with succession by cutting (thinning) to maintain clearings at ground level , thus a high degree of edge diversity around the clearing. So design can vary as succession contin ues. Contour planting within cultivated fields are not excluded from such applications· the design is rather squashed into contour lines and horizontal planting distances can be redu ced to leave space up or down the slope for annual cropping to continue. When all these facets (horizontal, vertical, time, relationships) are varied at once, we have the traditional way of forest farming· the Cavite (Philippines), Chagga (Tanzania) and the Western Ghats (Goa, India) are living examples.

Chris Evans is a Technical Advisor to the Jajarkot Permaculture Programme in Nepal.

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Bamboo Agroforestry in China
Cao Qungen 1 & Zhang Qingmei 2

I ntrod uction
Bamboo agrofores lry (BAF) has a long history in Chi na and has been further developed in recent yea rs . Agroforestry diversification is providing remarkable social, econom ic and environmental benefits. Bamboo stands . characterised by fast growth , short harvestin g cycles, wid e distribution and high utilisation form an important com ponent of the Chinese forest resources. About 400 million hectares (1000 million acres) of bamboo forests exist in Chin a; these tend to be either primarily bamboo or of mixed tree-bamboo composition. Management of bamboo forests may be rough , intensive or highly intensive; as demand for bamboo products increases , the more intensive manageme nt practices are being widely adopted. BAF , then , assumes a high level of management and is an important part of Chinese agroforestry systems .

Development of Chinese agroforestry systems
Cu ltivating bamboo has a long hi story in China as part of a diverse ag riculture; bamboo has long been cu ltivated along with oth er trees, crops, and/or animals, fishery , pasture etc. The ·Si Shi Ch uan Yao" of the Tang Dynast y says that tea can be grown und er trees or together with mu lberry and bamboo . "Zh u Ji Yu Tang~ is an important trad itional farming model which produces bamboo shoots, timber and fish . These trad itio na l techniques differ from modern agroforestry in focusing on ly on econom ic production , while agroforestry now comb ines focus on both economic and envi ronmental benefits, and encom passes wider standards such as higher production yields, sustainable development and adaptability. The bamboo specie s most used in Chinese BAF are divided into two types: monopodia l and sympodial: Monopods (mostly running spec ies) Phyllostachys edulis (Syn. P.pubescens) Phyflo stachys fimbriliguJa Phyllostachys gfauca Phyllostachys heterocfada Phyllostachys praecox f.pervernafis Phyllostachys prominens Phyllostachys propinqua Phyllostachys vivax Sympods (mostly clumping species) Bambusa spp. Oendroca/amus spp.

(Note: see comment at end of article for suggestions of mono pod & sympod species for mo re temperate regions) Typically, mo nopods are grown primarily for timber while sympods offer both shoots and timber. The spread ing or ru nnin g cha ra cteristics of monopod s result in management practices related primarily to density and distribution of cu lm s for timber. Efforts are made to minimise compe tition between species and influence amo ung species. Sympods, clumping bamboos, tend to stay with in more manageable and predictable areas without extens ive maintenance .

Agro-Silvicultural Systems
1. Bamboo + Crops
A common model. When estab li sh ing afforestation , seasona l crops such as rice , beans , melons

and

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potatoes are interp lanted within widely separated bamboo stands as well as in between stands and/or clumps .
jnt~rcropping

During the years before the bamboo canopy closes and production consists of shoots and timber, possibilities exist. For larger bamboo species, a 4 m x 4 m spacing is common. For medium and smaller bamboo species, a 3 m x 2 m spacing is good.

2. Bamboo + Vegetables
Also a c;ommon situation around a family yard. Cabbage, rape, radish , beans and taro are planted seasonally within or between bamboo stands to meet family or local market needs.

3. Bamboo + cash crop (fruit tree, mulberry, tea)
This model is associated with sympodial (clumping) bamboos prevalent in Southern China. A very flexible model within which growing space is maintained amoung components to increase production and improve quality. This model is still essentially a family or community model which focuses on fruit trees such as citrus or bananas. In this model. with tea as the example, sympodial bamboos are spaced on a grid of 6 m x 4 m, and tea plants on a grid of 2 m x 5 m. During the first few years after planting, additional intercrops such as soybeans or vegetables can be planted seasonally until the space is claimed by the bamboo and the tea .

4. Bamboo + needle and/or broad-leaved trees
Moving beyond family and community focus, this is a larger scale model. The primary bamboo species tends to be moso (P.edulis = P.pubescens). Principal conifers are pines and Chinese firs. Broad-leaved trees tend to be oak and camphor. Naturally occurring combinations are adjusted and interplanted with bamboo for both shoots and timber production. The trees help to stabilise the system an assist in the sustainability of the managed areas. This model is appropriate for both an existing forest and for a newly established plantation. In the case of the semi-naturally occurring forest, thinning opens appropriate relationships amoung the plants. For broad-leaved trees, grids may be either 7 m x 3 m or, better, 8 m x 2 m. A bambootrees-conifer grid will be 6:1:3 or 7: 1 :2. New plantations may want to use a 6 m x 4 m grid '(bamboo tree). In the earlier years of establishment, intercropping with seasonal plantings of melons. soybeans, sweet potato, sugar cane and vegetables can provide economic benefit.

Silva-Pastoral systems
1. Bamboo + Fishery + Poultry
A typical traditional Chinese BAF model. In the area along the Chanjiang River, monopodia I bamboos farmed for shoots predominate. In Guangong and Guangxi Provinces, sympodial species are farmed for shoots and timber. This model produces more products with higher economic and environmental benefits. In flat areas, especially in lower or wet fields, a fish pond should be built around which 1-3 rows of bamboo should be planted on a 3 m x 3 m grid. Various other crops can be interplanted in these areas. The food chain is enhanced by providing fodder for fish or poultry. Fish and poultry wastes enhance the pond. In the winter or dry seasons, the pond bottom can be dug out as fertiliser for bamboo. In this system, a rotation of new planting for the bamboo should be 8-10 years or when they are evidently degraded.

2. Bamboo as a pastoral system
This is a new BAF model. tn Mountainous Southern China, goats and cattle are pastured under and around the bamboos. Farmed primarily for timber production, the presence of goats and cattle added nutrients and generally improved system soi l conditions resulting in higher combined production .

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i#

Special BAF types
1. Bamboo + Edible Fungi
The areas under bamboo are good for edible fungi , for example: Auricularia auricula-judae (Wood ear)

Dic/iophora spp. Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom)
Edible fungi are high in vegetable proteins . Areas for intercropping bamboos and fungi should have a well-drained deep and fertile soil. The fungi prefer warm , wet and shady conditions . Dictiophora spp. and Pleura/us ostrea/us likes decayed bamboo leaves and cotton seed meal evenly spread on the beds with 10 cm of sand. With normal temperatures , Dictiophora is sown in September in the northern hemisphere (Mayor June with high temperatures) . It can be harvested in 8 months. P.ostreatus is sown in March and harvested in 2 months. Auricularia auricula-judae is grown in cultivation bags hung in the bamboo .

2. Bamboo + Medicinal Plants
The areas under bamboo are good for several well-known Chinese medicinal plants, and medicinal plants grown in association with bamboo can be of better quality. This model is suited to hilly or mountainous areas - often sub-tropical areas where rains are plentiful , warm in winter and hot in summer. The medicinal plants are sensitive to typography and selection various accordingly. Plants with high adaptability can be planted in most areas : Cayratia japonica - Leaves & roots used medicinally . Iris japonica (Japanese iris) - rhizome & herb used medicinally . Premna microphylla - flowers used medicinally . Tetrapanax papyrifer (Rice paper plant) - pith used to make rice paperl surgical dressings Prefer valley locations:

Curcuma longa (turmeric) - roots used as a spice and medicinally . Daiswa polyphylla (Syn . Paris p.) - roots used medicinally
Prefer south-facing slopes :

Alizzia kalkora Mentha hapfocalyx (mint) - herb used.
Prefer north-facing slopes:

Amorphophallus rivied (Devit's tongue) - edible corms - cooked . Flowers , corms used
medicinally. Herb insecticidal.

Holbollita coriacea Mahonia japonica - Leaf, seed , root and plant all used medicinall y.
Thrive on hill or mountain ridges : Miflettia pachycarpa - plant is insecticidal.

Rhododendron simsii

3. Bamboo bonsai & Yard Bamboo Gardening
Bamboo is an important horticultural plant , too . Bamboo bonsai and bamboo plants are often found in homes, yards and community parks .

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Features of Chinese BAF systems
Age difference of bamboo plants The BAF model is composed of different-aged individual bamboo plants sprouted from one or more mother rhizomes. This core component of the system is both complex and stable. Complexity of BAF System Management Structure Diversity of destination products • The diversity of the bamboo itself also results in a diversity of products: shoots, timber, " environmental beauty and protection. Management thus helps to determine productivity and utilisation .

Complexity of the BAF System Management The diversity of product possibifities leads to complexity of management processes.
High return from management sophistication With improved management. productivity is also improved . Bamboo management techniques and the benefits associated with it are becoming better known. As a result the overall scale of bamboo cultivation in China is increasing .

Results from increased attention to BAF As bamboo productivity improves and since bamboo provides a higher va lue product in shoots as well as timber, in comparison with ag roforestry , bamboo can provide greater economic benefit. Bamboo agroforestry , by participating in the human food chain, is more complex than agroforestry.

Benefits of BAF Systems
Ecological benefits The large areas of P.edulis (=P.pubescens , moso) combined with Chinese firs common in Fujian , Hunan & Jiangxi Provinces not only provides timber and forest products but also play important roles in water and soil conservation while contributing significantly to overall ecosystem balances . Stands combining bamboo and firs contribute more positively to water conservation than either bamboo or firs alone. Economic benefits Models based on P.praecox f.pervernafis + crops are being widely adopted in Unan, Oequing , Fuyang, Anji county and Zhejiang Provinces , especially in Unan where professional bamboo shoot growers are estab li shing themselves. Concentrating on bamboo shoot production with some intercropping is paying off. Unan has an established bamboo shoot market with an associated supportive infrastructure. A bamboo+medicinal plant model incorporating P.edufis (moso) and Gaslropodia e/ala has grown within Huitong and Hunan Provinces 10 an estimated 344 hectares (860 acres). Social benefits By adopting various BAF models , peoples of the mountain areas have found new opportunities for work while increasing income and improving living conditions . Nearly every family in Unan Count y has a bamboo area and 32% of average income in Unan is attributed to bamboo shoot cultivation . Infrastructure elements such as transportation, processing, marketing and related services have grown in proportion . Reprinted (in edited form) from Proceedings 1997 Pacific Northwest Bamboo Agro·Forestry Workshop . 1. Subtropical Forestry Institute, Fuyang 311400 , Zhejiang, P .R.China. 2. Shixian Forestry Committee, Shixian , Fujian , P.R.China.

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Comment
Many of the principles and models described in this article can be adapted for use in temperate regions of Europe , America and Australasia. Bamboo may not be such a common crop in these areas but there is a large and growing demand for bamboo products including furniture , canes for garden use, and shoots to eat , not to mention plants for ornamental use.

The sympods most commonly used in southern China are subtropical or tropical species which won't tolerate even British winter temperatures. However, because of the lack of hot summer temperatures, many bamboos behave rather differently in temperate climates, with some running bamboos running so slowly that they can in effect be treated as clumping types . A list is given here which includes running and clumping types which grow well in temperate climates and have the potential for utilising for food or cane uses: Running - cane + edible use PhyUastachys angusta P. viridiglaucescens fastuosa P.vivax Pleiablastus simoni, Pseudosasa japanica Running - edible use Phyllostachys aureosulcata P .bambusoides P.dulcis P.edulis (Syn. P.pubescens) P.flexuosa P .glauca P.nidularia P.nigra P.nuda P.rubromarginata P.sulphurea viridis Running - cane use Phyllostachys violascens Semiarundinaria Yushania anceps Yushania maculala Yushania maling Clumping - edible use Phytrastachys nigra henonis Phyllostachys nigta f.punctata

Book Reviews
Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Stefan Buczacki & Keith Harris
HarperCaliins, 1998 (2nd Edition); 640 pp ; £19.99 (hardback) . ISBN 0-00-220063-5 . This book has been completely revised since the first edition in 1981 , with the addition of several new pests and diseases that have become important in the last decade. Also added is an impressive new colour photograph section with over 640 photographs illustrating most of the common pests and diseases. The introduction provides general information about garden hygiene , plant care and other control methods. Although pesticides and other chemicals are detailed, it is good to see a large section on sounder methods of control, including rotations, using resistant plants . barriers , repellents and biological controls . The second major section of the book is an A-Z of symptoms. Here are listed all the common garden plants a key of leaf, shoot. flower, fruit and bud problems , with references to the detailed disease/pest entries later in the book . This section is easy to use and allows a rapid identification of the likely problem .

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==-The remainder of the book is taken up with descriptions of pests, diseases and disorders. For each these is a description of the symptoms caused, the biology of the pest or disease, and recommended treatment. Chemicals are often recommended here. and I would have liked to see more discussion of alternative treatments including feeding and biological controls. As an identification guide to pests and disea ses that one might find in the garden. whether on trees, shrubs, perennials or vegetables, this has to rank as one of the most useful available . The descriptions are excellent , and often accompanied by a photograph which are often more useful than the words. Comprehensive and authoritative, it is an essential guide for all gardeners and horticulturalists.

Lupins as Utilization

Crop

Plants:

Biology,

Production

and

J S Gladstones, CAtkins & J Hamblin (Eds)
CAB International, 1998; 465 pp; £75.00 (hardba ck) . ISBN 0-85199-224-2. Lupins have until recently remained wild or semi-domesticated species of minor interest to agriculture, although their value as a green manure rotation crop was noted 2,000 years ago (Virgil noted the benefits of rotating lupins with wheat) . At the beginning of the twentieth century, though , full domestication of Lupinus species for use as crops was begun, by selecting for desirable characteristics such as low alkaloid content , non-shattering pods and soft seeds . As a result , several lupin species have now become an important part of temperate farming systems as a high protein crop for both animal and human consumption. This book gives an account of the history and description of Lupinus species and the current knowledge of all aspects of their agronomy and impact on agriculture. It will be especially useful for anyone interested in lupins as an alternative protein crop for human or animal consumption.
L./uteus and L.a/bus were the first species to be modified - in response the pressures of World War I and the need for high protein crops , L.angustifofius was domesticated much later. In these cases genes for low alkaloids (sweetness) were combined with non-shattering pods (to allow for harvesting) and soft seeds (to enable even germination). A further four species have been domesticated in the last few decades - L.mutabilis, L.cosentinii, L.atlanticus and L.piJosus. In the 30 years since the release of the first sweet L.angustifofius variety in Australia (Uniwhite), production there has grown to 1.4 million tonnes per annum.

Species of lupins have been used for food for over 3000 years around the Mediterranean and for as much as 6000 years in the Andes, but until sweet varieties were bred this century, the drawback was always that the seeds contained toxic alkaloids which had to be washed from the seeds in running water before the seeds were cooked and eaten. Lupin seeds contain 30-40% protein, similar to many other legume crops . The seeds of bitter va rieties are safe to eat once the alkaloids have been removed. They have been shown to be an excellent substrate for both bacterial and fungal fermentations and are used for making foods such as temper , miso and traditional soy sauces . Breads and pasta can have up to 10% lupin flour added to make them more nutritious. A lupin-based milk is used in some parts of Chile. Oebiltered and sweet varieties are widely used as a source of animal feed. This book is a valuable reminder of the huge potential that the lupin family offers as a source of food and other materials, while being a friendly nitrogen-fixing crop.

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-

Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus

David M Richardson (Ed)
Cambridge University Press , 1998;527 pp; £95.00 (hardback) . ISBN 0-521-55176-5 . The pines distribution vegetation wide range are a remarkable family comprising at least 111 tree species with a very large range in the northern hemisphere. Where they occur, pines usually form the dominant cover and are extremely important components of ecosystems . They also provide a of products for human use including timber and seeds for food, amongst others.

The origins and evolution of pines in different regions are examined in detail right up to the present day - the recent history of the Pinyon pines in the American Southwest including human interactions specifically linked with pine nut usage. Other aspects covered include fire in pine ecosystems, genetic variation, seed dispersal, mycorrhizal status, soils, insect-pine interactions and diseases. A global view and history of pines in cultivation is given. Pine timber was used at least 8000 years ago for building , and other uses with a long history include extraction of resin and turpentine; the burning of rosin (the hard fraction of the resin) in religious and ceremonial practice - still common; and pine seeds as a food source in the Mediterranean, Europe, Siberia, Asia and the USA and Mexico. This book presents a definitive view of pine ecology and biogeography. It is an essential source of reference for all those concerned with the management of natural and planted pines .

People and the Land through Time:
Emily W B Russell

Linking Ecology and History

Yale University Press, 1997; 306 pp; £11.95 (paperback) , £30.00 (hardback) . ISBN 0-300-07730-0 (paperback), 0-300- 06830-1 (hardback) . In Britain, due to the high population density, we are quite aware of human impact though history on the land , but in many parts of the world this is not the case . Emily Russell believes that all ecosystems have a history of past human impacts , some obvious, others subtle. To understand the fingering consequences of human history on current ecosystems and landscapes , and conversely to understand the role that changing environments have played in human history, the author examines several research methods. Written records can be useful, but they represent only a small portion of reality seen through inevitably biased eyes . Field studies can be used to relate documentary evidence to evidence on the ground. Sedimentary records, particularly of pollen , give some of the best evidence of past plant communities . Human impacts of ecosystems are similarly varied. Fires have long been manipulated by humans to mimic natural fire. Species ranges have been extended: for millennia , people have wittingly and unwittingly transported species from one region of the world to another (which begs the question, why is it convention to regard plants or animals introduced by humans, as opposed to other species, as non native?) Forests have long been used as a resource for hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation , agricultural and latterly commercial uses . The discovery of agriculture had profound effects and may, in ecological terms, have been the worst mistake in the history of the human race. Patterns of human settlement had their own profound ecological consequences. The integration of human history in ecological studies and ecology in historical studies has great potential for both and must be continued if we are to deal responsibly with our role in the biosphere. This book breaks makes important new ground in pointing the way.

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IT

British Plant Communities. Volume 1: Woodland and Scrub
J S Rodwell (Ed)
Camb ridge University Press, 1998; 395 pp ; £27.95 (paperback), £80 .00 (hardback - 1991).

ISBN 0·521·62721·4 (pb) . 0·521·23558·8 (hb) .
British Plant Communities is the first systematic and comprehensive account of the vegetation types of Britain, covering arl natural, semi-natural and major artificial habitats. This volume covers all wooqrand and scrub communities.

For each plant community there is a discussion of its features - composition and structure; associated trees , shrubs , climbers, ferns , perennial plants, lichens etc; sub-communities; lines of succession etc. A floristic table lists all associated species. and maps show the sites in Britain where the community has been located.
While the book is clearly aimed at those involved in ecology and conservation , it may be of considerable use to those trying to create diverse agroforestry systems, like forest gardens, which mimic forests: by focusing on the community type which would naturally develop on a site , many insights can be discovered which would greatly aid the design process of an agroforest, and species can be chosen to mimic components of the natural community with the aim of creating a more resilient and sustainable system.

Caring for Small Woods
Ken Broad
Earthscan Publications, 1998; 233 pp ; £16.95 (paperback).

ISBN 1 85383 454 8.
The author has "spent the best part of a lifetime caring for state-owned woodlands and providing management advice for private woodland owners· . He managed the Oxfordshire Woodland Project between 1991 and 1997. His stated intentions for the book are: to promote a greater understanding of the need to manage small woods and to provide practical help and encouragement to improve them; to sift and interpret the important facts regarding the day-to-day management of small woods and to present them in a form that can be easily digested and applied by the non-specialist; the emphasis is on the management of existing ~oods rather than the creation of new ones; the book is written primarily with the novice in mind. The book deals solely with the subject area of the title; there are no references to agroforestry systems. Importantly and unusually it has a section on woodland ponds. An introductory diagrammatic overview of the subject andlor a procedural flow-chart might have aided rapid access to the subject and it would have been useful to have selected references at the end of each section for those wanting more detailed info rmation . The section on Management Options though well-formatted could have been more prominent and detailed, especially with regard to their selection, as this is such a pivotal aspect of woodland management. The book is a good attempt at the difficult task of outlining the complex multi-disci plinary subject of woodland management. It is suit able for students or prospective managers and owners of small woodlands requiring an introdu cto ry overview of the essential aspects of the subject and a starting point for its practical application . Chapters on: Management Planning; Timber Production and Wood Products ; Restocking and Establishment ; Landscape and Visual A menity ; Wildlife Conservation; Recreation ; Sporting; Shelter.

Page 24

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,.
Appendices include: Recognising Ancient Woodlands ; Pu rchasing and Dispos ing of Woods; Useful Addresses ; a comprehensive Further Reading list. There is a Glossa ry of Woodland Term s. Mark Mackay, forester. Greenla.nds Sustainable Land Use , Devon .

Botany and healing Medicinal Plants of New Jersey and the Region
Cecil C Still
Rutgers University Press. 1998; 264 pp: £17.50. Distributed by The Eurospan Group. ISBN 0-8135-250a·X (paperback). New Jersey, while hea vily industriali sed and densely populated . is extraordinarily rich in plant resources. Thi s book describes nearly five hundred species of plants found in and nearby New Jersey that have been used medicinally . Initial sections explain the history and present status of the uses of herbal medicines , what makes a plant medicinal (or poisonous), how herba l medicines are prepared for use , and why they shou ld be used with care. Plants are listed by family and. within each family. by genus and species, to underscore the close relationships amoung medicinally val uabl e species . For each entry , both the natural history and the historical and modern medicinal uses of the plant are discussed : common names , description , habitat, range, and preparation and applications in Native American. European, African and Asian herbal tradition s. Most species are illustrated with the author's line drawings. As we ll as a comprehensive index it contains an index by category of medicinal use .

Botany and Healing is a usable , accurate and interesting source book of medicinal plants of northeastern North America ; it will be of interest to all who grow and use medicinal plants .

Dictionary of Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management J Coombs & K E Hall
CPL Press , 1998 (2nd edition); 196 pp; £40.00 (paperback) . ISBN 1-872691-76-5 This new edition is revised and expanded , and contai n s over 5500 descriptions and definitions for Latin and common names of beneficial and pest organisms , as well as the plants and animals they protect, infect or infest. It cove rs in sect s, mites, nematodes and micro-organisms (bacteria. fungi and vi ruses), as well as pheromones and other chemica ls with biologica l activity. The dictionary focuses for methods of controt on biopesticides , bioherbicides and bene f icial organisms, as well as other agrobiological products . The information covers agricultura l . horticultural, forestry. amenity , garden and house plants of commercial importance, their pests and disease-causing organisms and other organisms which may be beneficial in their control or provide natural chemi cal substances that can be used in such control. Organ ic growers , as well as an increasing number of conventional growers, are finding t hat biologica l controls can be environmentally safe. pleasant to use, and effective against pests or diseases as we ll. This book is a great help in cross referencing pests or diseases to possible biological control agents , and wi ll be valuab le to all working with plants, crops and trees who want to reduce their dependence on environmentally dangerous chemicals.

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Page 25

Nut profile:

The heartnut
Intr9duction
Since (its introduction into North America from Japan in the 1800' s, the heartnut (Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis, Syn . J.cordiformis) has been largely considered a curiosity and at best a substitute for the English walnut (Jugfans regia) to plant where the latter were nol hardy enough . Work in recent decades has improved cracking quality (for a long time a problem ) and the potential as a commercial and garden nut tree is very good . It also makes a beautiful ornamental tree , with large compound leaves giving it an almost tropical appearance .

Description
The heartnut is a medium sized tree growing to 15 m (50 ft) high or more , with a broad crown and dense canopy . The bark is light grey with dark vertical cracks. Young branches and leaf stalks are clothed with glandular hairs . The leaves are large and compound : 40·60 cm (18·24 ") long or more· sometimes 1 m (3 ft) long . They have 11·17 leaflets , oblong or elliptic , 7·15 cm (3-6 ") long by 3-4 c m (1.2 - 1.6 ~ ) wide , densely serrated . They are downy on both surfaces, especially beneath. Male flowers (catkins) are very striking yellowish green, 10- 30 cm (4·12") long . Fruits are formed in long strings of up to 20; they are roundish-oval, with a sticky downy husk. Nuts are thin-shelled , 3 cm (1 .2") long (more in some cultivars) , flattened, smooth , with a broad heart-shaped base , and quite different from the type (Juglans aifantifolia, Syn. J.sieboldiana Japanese Walnut) which has nuts more like English walnuts . Heartnuts are generally hardy in winter down to temperatures of -23° C (_10° F) - ie hardiness zone 5, though some selections are hardy to zone 4. They originate from Japan but are now not known in the wild .

Fruit cluster (50% size)

Uses
Heartnut kernels are every bit a walnut in flavour and quality. They have a gentle walnut flavour, without the bitter aftertaste of English walnuts - in taste tests, a majority of people preferred the taste to that of English walnuts . They can be used in place of English walnuts in all situations · for baked goods , candies , ice cream and fresh eating. Nuts are ri ch in oil· sometimes as high as 60% of kernel weight. The shells are also high in oil and burn well.

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In-shell heartnuts have a long storage life - 3-4 years or more. The nuts, in the soft green stage before the shells harden (when English walnuts are sometimes pickled) , are very rich in vitamin C. At this stage the whole nuts can be pickled or blended whole and have honey added as a sweetener, the used as a nut marmalade . The bark has been used medicinally , being anthelmintic, astringent. diuretic, Jith ontripi c, pectoral, and a kidney tonic . It and the nut husks are rich in tannins and can both be used for dyeing a brown colour without the use of a mordant.

Heartnut - front & side view (full size)

The wood is dark brown, light , soft , not easily cracked or warped, not strong or very valuable; it is used in Japa n for ca binet making, utensils and gun stocks.

Cultivation
Heartnut s are easy tre es to grow, with few pe sts or diseases. It grows vigorously in a variety of soils and conditions. A moist , well drained soil and sun are essential, though. They originate from Japan and are we ll suited to temperate maritime regions with regular summer rainfall; unlike most wa lnut family members, they grow and crop better in coo ler regions than warme r one s. They are more tolerant of late frosts than English walnuts are more winter hardy . Branches are strong, atlached to the trunk at wide angles and not susceptible to breakage in high winds . The re is ve ry littl e ca re needed after trees are planted - the re are few pests or diseases, and littl e pruning needed. Heartnut trees are Quite likely to produce jug lone from roots and leaves , like other members of the walnut family, which has an allelopathic effect on some other plants (notably apples and white pines) . Planting is usually at a spacing of 10 m (33 ft) between trees , giving 100 trees per hectare or 40 trees per acre. For faster comme rcial production , init ial planting could be at twice this density, with the aim of thinning the trees after 12- 15 years. Growth is quite fast - 30 cm (1 tt) per year in Britain is quite common .

Pests and diseases
Heartnuts are resistant to walnut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. jugJandis) ,leaf spot or walnut anthracnose (Gnomonia feptostyJa), butternut canker and walnut husk flies (Rhago/etis compfeta). In warm cl imates they can be susceptible 10 bunch or broom disease - a mycoplasma-l ike organism which causes 'witches brooms' or dense clumps of branches to form on limbs.

Flowering
Heartnuts are wind pollinated, so adequate pollination is dependent on good weather condit ions. Flower initiation also depends on suitabl e cond itions during the prev iou s summer. Self-fertility appears to be more common in he artnuls than in Eng lish wa lnuts . Floweri n g overlaps with that of English wa lnuts and butternuts, and cross pollination between the different species does occur. Like other wal nut s, the male and female ffowers on a p art icu lar t ree are often fertile at different times, making the tree either protandrous (male flowers shed pollen before female flowe rs are fertile)

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or protogynous (female flowers are fertile before male flowers shed pollen). For this reason, two or more selections should be planted to ensure good cropping . Flowering occurs freely in Britain in June.

Harvesting
The nuts fall 10 the ground when ripe in autumn , usually with Ih ~ husks sti ll intact. Harvesting is similar to that for English walnuts. Machinery designed for commercial walnut harvesting can be used. The fallen nuts should be picked up quickly to prevent maggot infestation and the husks removed. The nuts can then be dried (for one week at room temperature in forced dry air) and stored. Easier cracking occurs about 1 month tater , when halves crack easier at the seam (suture) .

Yields
Nuts are produ ced in the terminals of the new growth in clusters of 5-14. As the tree grows , more terminals are formed and the crop quickly increases. Nut sile in a particular yield is related to the moisture levels when the young nullets are starting to expand in late summer. Typical yields from grafted trees are: Year Average crop per tree 2.3 Kg (Sib) 23 Kg (50 Ib) 34 Kg (75 Ib) Average crop at 100 trees/hectare (40 trees/acre) 230 Kg/ha 200 Ib/acre 2300 Kg/ha 2000 Ib/acre 3400 Kg/ha 3000 Ib/acre

5
10 15+

These are average yields - mature trees can sometimes yield double these figures in a good year. In general, though, heartnut productiveness and kernel quality is more constant from year to year than many other nut trees. Even an average yield of 3.4 tonnes/ha (1.5 tons/acre) has the potential to be highly profitable because of the low maintenance costs required. Trees can remain highly productive for 75 years or more.

Interplanting
The wide spacing which trees require leaves gaps ideal for interplanting other, faster-yielding, crops which will yield well for 7 -10 years before the heartnuts start to shade them out.

Cultivars
When choos ing cultivars, ease of nut cracking is a major factor to take into account. Good cracki ng varieties have nuts which fracture reliably on the suture line , internal shell cavities with four smooth open lobes which easily release the kernel, and the kernel should fall from the shell in one or two pieces as it falls from the cracker. Commercial crackers designed for English walnuts work well with good varieties of heartnuts. Flavour and eating quality does not differ very much between cultivars. With good cultivars , kernel percentage is usually 30-35% of the whole in-shell nUl, and the nut count is 132-176 per Kg (60-S0 per Ib). For commercial production , kernels are best straw-yellow in colour. Most of the recent heartnut selections have been made in the Great Lakes region of North America - from Ontario in Canada , and New York and Pennsylvania in the USA. They have been made by se lecti ng the best va rietie s from seedlings of the olde r varieties. The A.R.T. has a seedling collection

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

in Devon (UK) for the same purpose. Some older selections were made a few decades ago in British Columbia.

Most promising cultivars
Brock Cailandar Campbell CWl Campbell CW3 Campbell CWW Etter Fodermaier Grima Manchu rian 1m shu Muriel Pike Crackabi lity Nut size Good Large Good Medium Average Large Good Medium Medium Good Good Small Good Medium

% crack High High Average High Average High High Average
Average

Good Good

Sma ll
Medium

Productivity Comments High Not so hardy; kernels dark Moderate Tree prolandrous High High High Moderate Parent of Campbell sels Moderate Hardy Very hardy Moderate Moderate

Other cultivars of value
Campbell CW2 Ebert Frank Okanda Rhodes Rival Schubert Stranger Walters Westfield Crackabllltv Nut size Average Medium Good Large Medium Good Good Small Good Large Medium Good Good Medium Good Medium Large Good Medium

% crac k Average

High High

Productivity: Comments Moderate High Late leafing High High Self fertile, late flowering High High Parent of Imshu & Pike High Not so hardy; early·ripen'g High

Ave rage

Older cultivars with poor cracking qualities include Bates, Caloka , Canoka , Faust , Marvel , Stewart , Wright.

Propagation
Propagation of cultivars is usually by grafting, normally onto seedling heartnuts, butternuts (Jugfans cinerea) or black walnut (Jug/ans nigra) seedlings . Like olher walnuts, grafting is quite difficult and needs warm temperatures around the graft union . In spring, the use of a hot grafting pipe can be useful. Chip budding and greenwood tip grafting in early summer can also be successful. Established trees can be top worked by spring bark grafting and ch ip budding; also by cleft grafting. Heartnuts can be layered· ie propagated on their own roots· if there is a convenient low branch. Seedling propagation is quite easy· seeds are best sown in winter and allowed to be cold chilled . Protect against rodents. Seedling trees usually bear nuts about 5 years after planting. Nuts from seedling trees are often heart·shaped, but occasionally they may revert to the type (Jugfans aifantifofia) which ha s nuts similar in shape to English walnuts.

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wert

-

=

Suppliers
Agroforestry Research Trust , 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totnes, Devon, Ta9 6JT , UK. Supplies seedlings of named cultivars. Nutwood Nurseries, 2 Millbrook Cottages, Lowertown , Helston , Cornwall , TR13 OBZ. Tel: 01326-564731 . Supplies seedlings of named cultivars. Burnt"Ridge Nursery, 432 Burnt Ridge Rd, Onalaska , WA 98570, USA. Tel: 206-985-2673. May supply a few cultivars. Louis Gerardi Nursery, 1700 E.Highway 50 , O'Fallon , IL 62269 , USA. Supplies a good selection of older cu/tivars. John Gordon Nursery, 1385 Campbell Blvd ., Amherst, NY 14226-1404, USA. Supplies a good selection of newer cu/tivars. Grima Nut Nursery, 979 Lakeshore Rd, R.R.3, Niagara-on-the-Lake , Ontario , CANADA LOS 1JO. Supplies a very good selection of grafted and seedling plants. Nolin River Nut Tree Nursery, 797 Port Wooden Rd ., Upton , KY 42784 , USA. Tel: 502-369-6551. Supplies a good selection of older cultivars.

References
Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Volume II. John Murray, 1974. Campbell , R D: Harnessing Heartnut for Production. NNGA 64th Annual Report (1993) , 193-194. Campbell, R D: Heartnuts for Profit. NNGA 74th Annual Report (1983) , 99-101. Duke, J A: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press , 1989. Gellatly, J U: Heartnuts - Outstanding Selections and Some of Their Best Hybrids. NNGA 57th Annual Report (1966), 103- 110. Grima, E: The Heartnut - Untapped Potential. NNGA 88th Annual Report (1997) , 15-20. Jaynes, R A: Nut Tree Culture in North America. NNGA, 1979. Krussmann , G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford, 1985. Moore, J N & Ballington Jr, J R: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops . ISHS , 1990. Papple, E: Heartnuts: A Fifty Year Passion. NNGA 80th Annual Report (1989), 155. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit , Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

Medicinal plants: overview
Introduction
Healing with plants probably dates back to the evolution of Homo sapiens, and consequently medicinal plants are amoung those which have been cultivated and utilised for longer than most. In spite of this, the cultivation of medicinal plants is still a rarity in most western countries - one reason being that the gathering , perparation and application of medicinal plants was associated with religious cults and magic for a very long time . Medicinal plants have great potential in agroforestry systems . The range of medicina l plants includes many trees, shrubs and perennials , which span the requirements for light from sun to shade. Forest farms could cultivate shade-to lerate species beneath canopy trees, whilst silvoarable systems could utilise a number of species for cultivating in alleys between lines of trees - more shade tolerant species near the tree rows and more sun demanding species in the centre of the alleys.

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Medicinal plants have the following features: They are cultivated and used because they contain accumulated, bi ologically active materials which have various effects. These ingredients are produced by biological syntheses in the plant and are accumulated in the plant in very small concentrations ~ sometimes less than 1% of the dry material content of the plant. Only those portions of the plant containing the active ingredient are used (eg. leaves, fruits or roots) and not the whole plant. The desirable plant parts are often processed by drying, extracting , extraction of essential oil etc prior to utilisation. Many medicinal plants are often also spice plants - plants used for seasoning, spicing, flavouring and colou ring foods, drinks and other products. They are often also essential oil plants - plants which accumulate essential oi ls in some of their parts, which can be used for the production of essentia l oils.

Role, uses and importance
Nearly 50% of medicines on the market world-wide are made of natural basic materials. This is a huge quantity and the figures from 'developed' countries are similarly impressive: American and Western European countries use 25-37% of plant~based medicines, while Eastern European countries use 32- 42% of plant~based medicines. Italy, for example, contains in its list of drugs over 2800 species in the form of raw plant material which represents 28% of all the drugs in use . The international trade in medicinal and botanical products is la rge and growing. To summarise the main uses of medicinal plants: Culinary uses Herbs are widely used in cooking in their fresh state, and even more widely when dried. They can also be frozen immediately and used within a period of months. Most commercially available herbs are suppl ied dried, and where herbs are available in the wi ld they are mainly supplied by countries where the cost of labour is fow. Mechanised production of a relatively small number takes place in some countries. Herbal drinks Scented and herbal teas are increasingly popular. Herb teas are the simplest form of herbal medicine and alleviate some ailments. Natural flavourings - essential oils There is a large demand for natural flavourings and despite the chemical synthesis of many flavour compounds, it is clear that these cannot be simply repla ced by a chemical compound - many essential oils contain dozens of aromatic compounds and the complexity of these is never reproduced by synthesised flavours. The food industry uses a lot of plant-based materials for flavouring, seasoni ng and colouring. More and more people are realising the advantageous effects of natural spices on the digestive system.

Perfumery. Cosmetics, Chemical industries - essential oils Essential oils are still widely used in the perfumery industry , although there is widespread use of synthesised chemicals in many products. Botanical products have traditionally been used in the skin care - cosmetic field, due to biological activ ities ascribed to them such as anti-irritation, anti-microbial and skin protection.

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po

In areas of the chemical industry (cosmetics , household chemicals) . the essential oils extracted from plants cannot be replaced. The demand is increasing as the public demand more ' natural' products.

Aromatherapy· essential oils Essential oils from plants are a vital part of this increasingly popular therapy (where aroma is rather more important than the massage part).
Pharmaceutical uses Extracts from medicinal plants are widely used in pharmacology. Because of their unknown features and complexity , these active ingredients cannot be prepared synthetically or the process is 100 expensive. The use of plant-based drugs is more sophisticated than the simple uses of some synthetic materials - they can include the application of essential oils for healing , flavouring and seasoning . Medicinal plants are sources of biologically active ingredients which cannot be ignored by advanced medical practice, owing to their healing effects - ie they work .

Centuries of experience is increasingly being backed up by recent scientific research. Examples of recent developments are Gin kgo leaves (used to improve brain blood circulation); Yew leaves (used to produce taxol, an anti-cancer drug) ; and Narcissus bulbs (used to produce galanlhamine, used to treat Alzheimer's disease) . There are certain plants (ego Solanum) which contain some special materials which cannot be used directly for healing but are used as the basis for synthesising processes in the pharmacological industry. Phytothera py In phytotherapy (herbalism), the whole plant part which contains the active ingredients is used (as opposed to extracts in pharmacology). There is a growing demand for medicinal plants for herbalism (for instance, in Germany 30% of prescriptions are for herbal medicines). Dye plants Many medicinal plants have long been used as dye plants (often the active medicinal ingredient being the dye part as well) - ego woad, madder and weld have been used for thousands of years as sou rces of dyes of blue, red and yellow. Novel uses Allelopathy - many medicinal plants produce substances which inhibit the growth of nearby plants - may be scope for essential oils from these species to be used as weed suppressants. Pest and disease control - many essentia l oils show antifunga l, antibacterial and anti-insect effects and there is huge potential for their use in place of more dangerous chemical pesticides . Antioxidants - essential oils often have an antioxidant effect which improves health. Some food manufacturers are using rosemary and thyme oils as antioxidants and food preservatives.

Active substances in medicinal plants
The main groups of active substances found in medicinal plants, and their action, are reviewed briefly here: Alkaloids These rank amoung the most efficient and therapeutically important plant substances. They are a chemically very diverse group of organic nitrogen compounds. In general , they are extremely toxic and are used medicinally in minute quantities. Pure isolated plant alka lo ids are used as basic medicina l agents world -wide for their ana lgesic, antispasmodic and bacte ricidal effects - examples are atrop in e (from deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna) and vincristine (from Vinca rosea).

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Glycosides These are complex organic substances which oflen have a pronounced physiological action. Cardiac glycosides have a direct action on the heart and are significantly diuretic (stimulate urine flow) - examples are the foxglove family (Digitalis spp.) Cyanogenic glycosides are based on cyanide - a potent poi son - and have a sedative and muscle relaxant effect in sma ll doses. Volatile oils Volatile oils (which are extracted from plants to produce essential oils) are important components of medicinal plants. A volatile oil may contain dozens of different volati le components, making them complex mixtures. Saponins Steroidal saponins are similar to the human body's own steroid hormones. and many plants contain these; they ha ve a marked hormonal action - an example is liquorice (G/ycyrrhiza g/abra). Triterpenoid saponins are oflen strong expectorants (ie stim ulates coughing and clearance of phleg m) and may aid in the absorption of nutrients. Bitters These are a varied group of substances linked on ly by their pronounced bitter taste . The bitterness itself stimu lates secretions by the saliva ry glands and digestive organs, which can improve the appetite and strengthen the digestive system. Phenols These are antiseptic in action and red uce inflammation when taken internally, yet have an irri tant effect when applied to the ski n . An example is salicylic acid (the forerunner of aspirin) , found in wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) and white willow (Salix alba). Tannins Tannins are produced to a greater or lesser degree by all plants : the astringent taste makes plants unpa latable to insects and grazi ng animals. Tannins are used as astringents to reduce bleeding etc . An example is oak ba rk (Quercus rabur). Flavo noids These are found in many plants and have an anti-inflammatory elreci; they are useful in mainta ining healthy circula tion.

Anthocyanins These pigments . which give flowers and fruits their blue, red or purple colour, help to keep blood vessels healthy. Most dark fru its conta in them, ego blackberries (Rubus (ruticosus) & grapes (Vilis vinifera). Minerals and vitamins Some herbs are particularly rich in minerals andlor vitam ins . Examples include horsetail (Equisetum arvense) whi ch is high in silica and dandelion (Taraxacum officina/e) which is high in potassium. Fruits are oflen high in vitamin C.

Medicinal plants
The most importa nt medicinal plants come from mostly temperate zone families - Apiaceae, Cruciferae, Cupressaceae . Helleboraceae . Pa pa veraceae. Rosaceae, Ranu ncula ceae and Va lerianaceae. Other significant medicinal plant families are widespread in warm zones (Med iterranean and tropics), nota bl y Apocynaceae, Labiatae , Leguminosae, Malvaceae , Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae. Solanaceae and Tiliaceae.

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The tables below list the main medicinal trees , shrubs and perennials ('main ' here indicating that there is a significant trade in the fresh or dried plant material) which are either gathered wild or cultivated in temperate regions .

Trees
Latin name Abies ba/samea Abies sibirica Wild/Cultivated Common name J, Parts used Balsam fir C Needles Siberian fir C Needles Horse chestnut W Seed, leaves Silver birch W Leaves

Aesculus hippocastaneum
Betula pendula Cedrud deodara

Deodar Cedrus libani atlantica Atlas cedar Crataegus monogyna & C.oxyacantha Hawthorn Cupressus sempervirens Italian cypress Eucalyptus spp. Eucalypts Gingko biloba Gingko Juniperus virginian a Pencil cedar Pinus syfvestris Scots pine Populus nigra Black poplar

W Needles W Wood W C C C C C W W W W W W W

Main usage Essential oil for perfumery Essential oil for perfumery Medicine Tea blends, cosmetics , household industry Essential oil for perfumery Essential oil for perfumery

Quercus rabur & O.petraea Robinia poseudoacacia Salix alba Taxus baccata TWa cordata & T.platyphyllos Ulmus rubra

Oaks Black locust While willow

Yew
Umes Slippery elm

Fruit. flowering shoots Medicine, herb teas Leaves, cones Essential oil for perfumery Leaves Medicine, cosmetics Leaves Medicine Wood Essential oil for perfumery Needles, cones Essential oil for cosmetics Leaf buds Herb tea . cosmetics , household industry Bark Medicine, leather & paint industries Flowers Herb tea, spice, perfumery Bark Medicine Leaves Medicine Flowers Herb teas, tea blends. sweets Inner bark Medicine

Shrubs
Latin name

Berberis vulgaris Eleutherococcus senticosus Gaultheria procumbens Hamamelis virginiana Hyssopus officinafis Jasminum grandifforum Juniperus communis Laurus nobilis Lavandufa angustifofia cosmetics Lavandufa intermedia cosmetics Lavandufa latifolia Myrica cerifera Myrica pensylvanica Myrtus communis Prunus spinosa Rhamnus frangula

Wild/Cultivated Common name 1- Parts used 8arberrry W Bark, fruit Siberian ginseng C Root Wintergreen C Leaves Witch hazel W Leaves, twigs, Hyssop C Herb

Jasmine Juniper Bay laurel Lavender Lavendin Spike lavender Bayberry Bayberry Myrtle Sloe Alder buckthorn

C C C C C

Flowers Leaves Flower head Flower head Flower head Root bark Root bark Leaves Flowers Bark

W Fruit

Main usage Medicine, dyeing Medicine Essential oil in perfumery bark Medicine Tea blends, spice, medicine , cosmetics, liqueurs Medicine, perfumery Medicine, herb teas. liqueurs Flavouring, medicine Medicine,perfumery,

Medicine,perfumery, Essential oil for perfumery Medicine, perfumery Essential oil in perfumery Essential oil in perfumery Herb teas Medicine, herb tea , extracts

W W W W W

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e
Wild/Cultivated Com mon name J. Parts used Main usage Cascara sagrada W Bark Medicine Blackcurrant CLeaves Herb teas , food industry Dog rose W Fruit Tea & herb teas Cabbage rose C Petals Essential oil for perfumery Damask rose C Petals Essential oil for perfumery Apothecary rose C Petals Essential oil for perfumery Rugosa rose C Petals Essential oil for perfumery Rosemary CLeaves Flavouring ,cosmetics,medicine Dewberry W Leaves Tea blends , tea Raspberry W Leaves Medicine , herb teas Sage C Herb, Leaves Culinary, medicine Elder C,W Flowers , Fruit Herb teas, food industry Winter savory C Herb Cosmetics , flavouring Magnolia vine C Fruit Medicine Cramp bark W Bark Med icine Periwinkle C Herb Medicine Agnus castus W Fruit Medicine Prickly ash C,W Bark , seed Medicine

Shrubs (cont)
Latin name Rhamnus purshiana Ribes nigrum Rosa canina Rosa centifolia Rosa damascena Rosa gaffica Rosa rugosa Rosmarinus officinafis

Rubus caesius Rubus idaeus Salvia officinalis Sambucus nigra Safureja montana Schisandra chinensis Viburnum opulus Vinca minor Vitex agnus-castus Zanthoxylum americanum

Perennials
Latin name Achillea miffefofium WildlCultivated Common name .l- Parts used Ya rrow W Flowers
W

Main usage Medicine,essential

oil ,

herb

tea
Acorus calamus Sweet flag W Adonis vernalis Spring adonis W Agrimony W Agrimonia eupatoria Couch grass W Agropyron repens Lady's mantle W Afchemifla xanthochlora Marsh mallow W Althaea officinafis Armoracia rusticana Horseradish C Wormwood W Artemesia absinthium Tarragon C Artemesia dracunculus Deadly nightshade W Atropa belladonna Bl ue cohosh W Caulophyflum lhalictroides False unicorn root W Chamaefirium luteum Roman chamomile C Chamaemelum nobile cosmetics ,perfumery Chefidonium majus Greater cela nd ine W Chrysanthemum cinerariaefofium Pyrethrum C Cichorium intybus Chicory W Cimicifuga racemosa Black cohosh W Colchicum autumn ale Autumn crocus W Convaflaria majafis lily of the valley W Echinacea anguslifofia Coneflower C Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower C Equisetum arvense Horsetail W Filipendula ulmaria
Meadowsweet W Leaves Root Herb Herb Rhizome Herb, root Leaves, root Root, leaves Herb, leaves Herb Leaves, root Root Root Herb Spice, medicine liqueurs Medicine, herb tea Herb tea, extracts Tea blends Medicine Medicine, tea blends Culinary, medicine Herb tea, viticulture, liqueurs Spice , medicine , perfumery Medicine Medicine Medicine Medicine,

Herb, root Medicine, extracts Flower head Insecticide Herb, root Food, herb teas , medicine Root Medicine Seed, bulb Medicine, plant breeding Leaves , flowers, root Medicine Root,flowers Medicine, herb teas Rool,flowers Medicine, herb teas Herb Tea blends , household & chemical industry Herb Tea blends

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Perennials (cant)
Latin name Foeniculum vulgare

-W Herb C Root W Root W Herb W Root C Strobile C,W Herb, root W Herb W Root C Roots C Root

&&
Main usage Flavouring , spice, medicinal , cosmetics Viticulture, spice, tea Medicine, liqueurs Medicine Medicine Extracts, medicine, food Brewing, medicine Medicine , dyeing Herb teas , spice , medicine Medicine , herb tea Essential oil in perfumery Flavouring , medicinal,

Wild/Cultivated Common name J.. Parts used Fennel C Fruit

Galium odoratum Genliana lutea Geranium maculatum Gfechoma hederacea G/ycyrrhiza gfabra Humulus lupufus Hydrastis canadensis Hypericum perforatum Inuta helenium Isia germanica Levisticum officinalis liqueurs , Marrubium vulgare Matricaria recutita perfumery Melissa officinafis

Sweet woodruff Yellow gentian Cranesbill Ground ivy Liquorice Hops Golden seal St John 's wort Elecampane Orris Lovage

Hoarhound Chamomile

W Herb C Flowers

perfumery , cosmetics Medicine, extracts Medicine, herb teas ,

Lemon balm C Herb Flavouring,medicinal,perfumes Mentha arvensis v.piperascens Japanese mint C Herb Mentha arvensis v .sachalinensis Sakhalin mint C Herb Mentha x piperUa Peppermint C Herb Flavouring ,medicine ,cosmetics

Essential oil for medicine Essential oil for medicine

Mentha pulegium Mentha spicata v . crispa

Pennyroyal C Herb Spearmint C Herb Flavouring ,medicine ,cosmetics

perfumery , household industry Medicine

Menyanthes trifoliata Nepeta cataria Origanum vulgare Panax ginseng Panax quinquefof;um Passiflora incarnata Plantago lanceo/ata Potenlilla anserina Primula veris Pulmonaria officinalis Rheum officina/e Rheum palmatum Ruta graveolens Salvia lavandulifolia Scutellaria lateriflora Solidago virga urea Symphytum officina/e Tanacetum parthenium Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officina/a Thymus vulgaris Trifolium pratense Tussi/ago farfara Urtica dioica

perfumery, household industry Bogbean W Leaves , stem Herb teas, tea blends Catnip, Catmint W Herb Medicine Oregano C Herb Flavouring, perfumery Ginseng CRoat Medicine American ginseng CRoat Medicine Maypop C,W Herb Medicine Ribwort plantain W Leaves Medicine, herb tea, extracts Tea blends Silverweed W Herb Cowslip W Flowers , root Tea blends, medicine lungwort W Leaves Tea blends , medicine Medicine Medicinal rhubarb CRoat Chinese rhubarb CRoat Medicine Rue C Herb Tea blends , medicine Spanish sage W Leaves Essential oil for perfumery Skullcap W Herb Medicine Medicinal preparations Goldenrod W Herb Comfrey W Leaves, root Medicine , cosmetics Feverfew W Herb Medicine Tansy W Flowers Herb teas , extracts Dandelion W Herb, root Extract tea blends , tincture Garden thyme C Herb Flavouring,medicine,cosmetics Red clover W Flower heads Medicine Coltsfoot W Flowers , leaves Herb tea , medicine Stinging nettle W Leaves, root Confectionary, cosmetics,

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Perennials (cont)
Latin name Valerian a officina/is

Wild/Cultivated Common name l. Parts used Valeria n C Root
Ve rva in Mis tle toe
W He rb

Main usage Medicine,

flavouring ,perfumery
Verbena officinafis

Viscum album

W Sta lk

Medicine, spice , cann ing industry Extracts, tea blends, medicine

References
A report on the potential uses of plants grown for extracts in cluding essential oils and factors affecting their yield and composition. MAFF Alte rn ative Crops Un it, 1996. Chevall ier, A: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . Darli ng Kindersley, 1996. Hamblede n Herb s Cata log ues - 1998. Hornak , L: Cu lti vation and Process ing of Medicinal Plants . Jo hn Wi ley, 1992. Sellar , W: The Directory of Essen tial Oils. C W Daniel Company, 1992. Weiss,E A: Essential Oil Crops. CAB In ternationa l , 1997.

This series on medicinal pla nts will continue with an article on thei r cultivation in the next issue .

Forest Gardening:
Polycultures and Matrix planting
Introduction
There has been a recent surge of interest in 'm ainstream' gardening literature in ~ matrix planting W which is being promoted as a 'greener' way of gardening and a way of making gardens more se lfsustai ning. On investigation, it becomes clea r that matrix pla nti ng is basically plan ti ng m ixt ures of plants - polycultures - which will grow together in a co mpatible way : the very basis of small sca le and sustainable agriculture and ag roforestry systems . This article looks matrix planting and how it can help in the design of producti ve sm all-scale agroforestry systems.

Key aspects of matrix planting
Match the place with the plant. The assets and limitations of a planting space within a garden are assessed, and then plants are chose n which are most likely to do we ll in the cond itions on offer. Aim to design commu nities of plants for each site whi ch are: => Ordered - plants exist in relationships based on competition through which they establish balanced comm un ities from which each plant derives its support, she lter or protection . => Pred ictabl e - the situation will define what range of plants can be grown .

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=
=>

¥

=

Persistent - aim to grow plants which will delay or prevent the evo lution of one type of vegetation into another. (But of course, such an evolution may be desirable in some agrororestry situations) . => Stable - the mixture of species in the community should remain virtually the same for long periods. => Self-sustaining based on a matrix (polyculture) of roots , siems, foliage and flowe rs , which provides protection for its members and resists invasion by outsiders . M1itrix planting aims to use plants as all ie s that occup y ground and the space above it so effectively that intruders cannot find a way in - ie a big emphasis on gro und covering polycultures. Ground is best pre pared for planting not by digging over, which merely exposes millions of new weed seeds to the light, but by other methods such as m ul chi ng . Afte r plants ha ve established , there is little requirement for any digging or hoeing operations (wh ich only expose more weed seeds to the light and more bare soil for colonisation by new weed seeds). The need for fertilisers and any pest control substances is much less or reduced to zero. Rather than trying to maintain a cordon sanitaire around each species, as in traditional gardening , matrix pl anting aims to reproduce conditions that impose similar limits , re placing control by the gardener with control by the plants themselves, via: =:) The plant mix· species and cultivars that can share space compatibly within limits set by the soi l , climate, exposure etc of t he situation. =:) Time · during which plant communities grow together and form a matrix of roots , stems, leaves etc. =:) Competition - through which species and individuals iII·suited to the conditions are eliminated, and the surv iv ors establish a harmonious and balanced comm unity. Reduce and virtually el iminate weeding by aimi ng for a complete ground cover, mulching any ba re spaces to reduce weed germination . Pest con trol is ach ieved by the natural balance between predators and prey which es la blishes in a diverse system . A matrix is encourage d to form via positive management. not just by planting and walk ing away. Put simply , plants which are · not wanted are discouraged and plants wa nted are encouraged . This is achieved by manipu lating conditions so that the wanted pla nts can out compete successfu lly with the unwanted plants. A n excess of some plants may need to be thinned out or selectively cut back at intervals, while others may need some feeding or int roducti on of fu rther plants to surv ive. The strongest matrices are not only 3·dimensional (made up of layers of vegetation through wh ich sun li ght filters) but also 4·dimensional in the sense th at different plants contribute to th e matrix at different times. Matrices can be domi na ted by grasses, or be open communities of grasses and broad leaved plants ; they can be wetland areas or ponds ; more self-sustaining are those which have a shrub layer above the gro und cover layer , wh ile most self·sustain ing are those with trees as well as other small er la yers· woodland or fo rest gardens . Woodland com munities form exce ptiona ll y rob ust matrices due to their tiered constru ction, in which trees, sh ru bs, climbers, perennials , ferns, mosses and bulbs not on ly exist as success ive layers, but often form secondary tiers within themselves. Trees are managed in such a way as to: =:) Maintain or increase organic matter levels beneath trees· fallen leaves are allowed to lie a nd organic m ulche s are used beneath trees. =:) Reduce shadi ng effects while maintaining shelter· the canopy is trained as high as possible.

**'

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=>

Make full use of the woodland edge effect.

Tree management also entails: => Choosing suitable trees - those with open foliage and deep roots comb ine much more easily with shrubs and other plants. Apples , plums , cherries etc . are not the most su itable from this aspect. => Appropriate pruning by removing lower branches to lift the crown , and by thinning out upper branches if necessary. => Planting in appropriate ways - usually in groups, not as isolated trees . Shrubs can be divided into those deemed 'sociable ' (with upright shoots, thin leaf canopies , deep roots and usuall y deciduous - so that other plants growing near or beneath them are not deprived of light, water and nutrients): 'unsociable ' (usually evergreen, compact, seldom forming close matrices but occupying its own ground) and 'gregarious' (which grow naturally in extensive communities over large areas). All three types have their place but each must be treated differently when designing communities including th em . Perennia ls are planted in such a way as they will completely cover the ground in time. Plants with different growth forms are mixed together to form a matrix - upright Clump-formers , [ow carpeting (mostly evergreen) species that fill the space between clumpers, and exp lorers (often with intrusive rhizomes) which seek out and occupy spaces and repair holes in the matrix as they arise. The latter must be used with care , matching their potential against space available and the vigour of their companions. Bulbs add to the variety and interest of communities by occupying space above ground when other plants are largely leafless. Ephemera l plants - annuals , biennials and short-lived perennials - also have roles to play, either planted or sown in situ. Once a planting is establis hed , they take on the role of explorers , finding and filling incidental spaces in the matrix.

Examples of plants recommended for matrix planting
These examples are using plants which also have practica l uses and thus are more likely to be useful in a forest garden or intensive agroforestry system. Deciduous trees Arnelanchier spp. (Juneberries) - tree forms ; Asimina tri/oba (pawpaw) ; Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) ; Cercis spp .; Comus kousa chinensis; Diospyros spp. (persimmons): E/aeagnus angustifolia (RUSSian olive), Ptelea trifoliata (hop tree). Evergreen small trees/shrubs Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree). Cordyline australis (cabbage tree), Laurus nobilis (bay). Woodland edge shrubs Gaultheria shallon (salal), To/miea menziesii, Vinca major (peri wink le) . Gregarious shrubs Calluna vulgaris (heather) , Erica carnea (spring heath), Gaultheria (Pernettya) mucronata , Potentilla fruticosa , Vaccinium vitis-idaea (cowberry). Sociable shrubs Aralia e/ata (Japanese angelica tree), Fuchsia magellanica, Hibiscus syriacus (mallow), Rosa moyesii (Moyes rose), Spartium junceum (Spanish broom), Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree) . Unsociable shrubs Laurus nobilis (bay) , Lavandu/a stoechas (lavender) , Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) .

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Woodland perennials Asarum europaeum (wild ginger) , Comus canadensis (dwarf cornel), flower) .

Tiarelfa cordifofia (foam

Woodland edge perennials Lamium maculatum, Tradescantia virginiana.
Clump-forming perennials Acanthus spinosus, Hemerocaflis spp. (daylilies).

Peren~ial carpeters
Alchemilfa moflis (Lady's mantle). Asarum canadense (wild ginger), Campanufa laWaba, Duchesnea indica (false strawberry), Fragaria vesea (woodland strawberry), Viola Gomuta (horned
violet).
Perennial explorers Acanthus moflis (Bears breech), Campanula poscharskyana , Hemerocallis (u/va (lawny daylily) , Physalis alkekengi (strawberry tomato), Tanacetum vulgare (tansy). Woodland bulbs Aflium triquetrum (three cornered leek), TrilJium grandiflorum (snow trillium).

Ephemerals Ajuga replans (bugle), Angelica archangelica (angelica). Malva moschala (musk mallow).

Comment
Matrix planting has much in common with the design process needed when designing a polycultural forest garden or small intensive agroforeslry system. One obvious lack in matrix planting is the knowledge and deliberate use of nitrogen-fixing plants and mineral accumulators . Nitrogen-fixers are generally quite easy to fit inlo a community of other plants . and can significantly improve the health and fertility of the community and larger system . Mineral accumulators will be present in matrix plantings. as these favour the use of deep rooting plants , and all such are mineral accumulators to one degree or another. A further missing component of the matrix is the fungal layer, mostly of mycorrhizal species. These will appear in time, but deliberate introduction can speed this considerably, and improve the health of the system; and species with good edible mushrooms can also be introduced for a further crop.

References
Thompson, P: The Self-Sustaining Garden. Batsford, 1997 .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 2

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agl"oforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Volume 7 Number 3

April 1999

t!

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 7 Number 3

April 1999

Contents
2 4 11 14 18 23 39 40 News Edible hawthorns Medicinal plants: cultivation Propagation: Layering (2) Pest & Disease series: Brown rot Raspberries Book review: Ecology and Management of Central
Hardwood Forests Video review: The Synergistic Garden

The vie'NS expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed dearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, jf unknown to the reader. should be lested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally anergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford . Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial , Advertising & Subscriptions: Ag roforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totnes , Devon , Tag 6JT. U.K. Email: AgroResTr@aol.com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTrfhomepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

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News
Comprehensive Integrated Agroforestry
This is a system of sustainable agriculture which Tom Wahl and Kathy Dice have established on their farm in Iowa , USA. It combines a number of agroforestry practices including forest farming , shelterbelts, riparian buffer strips, silvopasture, and others yet to be named . The project consists of plantings of fruit and nut trees arranged in 0.1 acre (0.04 hectare, 400 m 2 ) blocks, one species to a block. Adjacent blocks contain different and preferably unrelated species . Thus up to 10 species of trees may be planted on each acre. This arrangement plus the natural vegetative ground cover results in high biodiversity which prevents serious outbreaks of pests and diseases and provides excellent habitat for wild plants and animals . The pla ntings are on level ridge tops, 1·3 acres in size . Between the ridges are steep·sloped drainages left in native timber. The drainages serve several pu rposes, including shelterbelts for the tree plantings, riparian buffer strips, and wildlife travel corridors. High·value medicinal plants such as ginseng (Panax spp .), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and Echinacea spp . are interplanted under and between the trees on ridge tops and drainages. The soil is kept covered by vegetation and mulch. The ground cover is initially managed by mowing: as the trees mature, rotational grazing may be used. Fertilisation is by animal manure and wood ashes. Most of the tree species produce valuable wood , and are managed for both fruit/nut production and for timber/veneer. The intensive management yields crops at four levels : underground (medicinal roots), ground level (med icinal plant tops and livestock forage), in the trunks of trees (fuel. timber, veneer), and at the tips of the branches (fruits, nuts, leaves). Tree species included in the system so far are black wa lnut (Jug/ans nigra), hazelnut (Coryfus spp.), chestnut (Castanea spp .), pecan (Carya iflinoensis) , shellbark hickory (Carya /aciniosa), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) , heartnut (Jug/ans ailantifolia cordiformis), nut pines (Pinus spp.) , Ginkgo biloba, persimmon (Oiospyros virginian a) and pawpaw (Asimina triloba) . Some species which may be added in the futu re are kiwi (Actinidia spp.), med lar (Mespilus germanica), maypop (Passiflora incarnata). passionflower (Passiflora spp .) and grapes (Vilis spp.) The agroforestry system has several advantages over conventional agriculture : negligible soil erosion little or no use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides no need for expensive high·tech equipment high biodiversity excellent habitat for wild plants and animals produces a positive balance between energy produced and energy consumed it is a carbon sink (C0 2 removed from the atmosphere and put in long term storage) it is a durable system requiring little or no human intervention once established diversified income sources

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high profit potential from a small area of land (potentially more than $20 ,000 f £12 ,500 per acre per year at maturity) creates a healthier, more aesthetically pleasing environment for humans. The system has some major disadvantages. A large investment in capital, labour and time are needed for establishment. There is a long time lag between the initial investment and the first returns , the break-even point, and the mature level of production. In spite of these , Tom and Kathy are confident that this system will prove to be a viable alternative to conventional agriculture . Source : Inside Agroforestry, Fall/Winter 1996

Alder agroforestry in India
Farmers in the Nagaland and Sikkim region in the northeastern hills of India have developed an indigenous agroforeslry system over centuries based on alder, Alnus nepa/ensis , which has the capacity 10 supply them with enough food, fuel. fodder and timber on a sustainable basis . Some 22 ,000 ha of land is under alder-based agroforestry. Alnus nepalensis is a large , sparsely branched, deciduous tree which is cold hardy and grows well at altitudes of 1000-2000 m (3280-6550 tt) and flourishes in damp (and sometimes dry) red clay soil, uncurtivable rocky banks of streams and river banks, and on exposed soils . Farmers have found over time that crops do better under alder than in the open . They grow alder in their fields with primary food crops of maize, Job' s tears (Coix lacryma) , millet , potatoes and wheat; and with secondary crops such as chillies, pumpkin and taro. The farmers establish alder in their fields at a wide spacing , at 6-10 m (20-33 tt) or more, which allows crops to grow with least competition. The leaves which drop in autumn curl on drying and form a natural mulch. The alders are pollarded 6-8 years after planting by cutting off all growth at a height of 2-2.5 m (6-8 tt) above ground level in winter . Profuse regrowth the next season is thinned to 5-6 shoots at the top of the trunk; these new shoots grow very fast and may reach 5-6 m (16-20 tt) and 10-15 cm (4-6 ") in diameter within 4 years, when they can be pollarded again . The felled branches are cut and used for firewood - alder wood is easy to split and burns well even when not fully dry. Apart from benefiting crops via nitrogen input, the alders provide shade for cattle , the young leaves are used as fodder , and the timber is used for con struction and furniture. Scientific findings have confirmed the wisdom of traditional farmers. Alnus nepalensis grows fast (25 mJ/ha/year) , coppices and pollards well, and yields good quantities of firewood (38 t1ha). The large amounts (6.4 tfha) and high qua li ty (1.5-3% nitrogen content) of leaf litter are important for companion and annual crops, because this nutri ent-rich li tter decomposes rapidly and releases nutrients quick ly - releasing an estimated 249 kg nitrogenfhalyear (100 kg/acre/year) in intercropped plantations. Source : Tribal alders , S K Dhyani. Agroforestry Today, Vol 10 No 4.

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Edible hawthorns
Introd uction
The genus Crataegus or hawthorn family is a very diverse genus, containing over 200 species ranging from small shrubs to large trees, originating from many temperate and subtropical regions of the world . It is part of the Rosaceae family which includes apples , pears, plums. cherries etc., with the disadvantage that many of the same pests and diseases can attack hawthorns; however, most hawthorns are hardy and resilient species which are easy plants to grow, tolerating most sites and conditions. Most, jf not all, of the hawthorns have edible fruits , which vary in quality from dull (for example, the native British species c.monogyna and G.faevigata) to delicious (eg. C.jonesiae and C.schraderiana). Several species are also used medicinally . The wood is very hard and strong and useful for tool handles and other small items . Hawthorns are an ancient plant of folk medicine - the pharmacological properties were described in the first century AD . The flowers and fruits are used to treat cardiac functional disorders, and the drugs involved reduce blood pressure and act as a sedative. Hawthorn leaf extracts stimulate heart activ ity and increase blood pressure. Hawthorns are most ornamental when flowering or bearing fruit , and several species are noteworthy for their brightly-coloured leaves in autumn.

Fruits
Fruits are rather like small apples, usually round or broadly elliptical, with a thin skin covering a fleshy pulp , and with one to five seeds in a clump at the centre, often stuck together. Fruit colou rs range from yellow to green, red and dark purple. Fruit size ranges from 5 mm (0.2 ") to over 40 mm (over 1%"). The texture varies with some being hard , dry and powdery, some mealy , some crisp and juicy and others soft and juicy , Some taste bitter, other dull and some are delicious; the better flavoured fruits often have an apple-like flavour . For most species fruits ripen from summer to autumn (July to October). In general. the more persistent fruits that hang on the tree into the winter are less palatable to humans as well as wildlife. The fruits can be eaten raw or cooked in pies , made into preserves etc. Fruits can be dried for storage and use later. They can also be made into wine and vinegar. The fruits are perishable and only keep in a fridge for a few days , so use th em quickly. Hawthorn fruits are rich in minerals , eg o Crataegus pinnatifida fruits are moderately high in Phosphorus, high in Calcium and very high in Potassium and Iron.

Cultivation
Hawthorns generally tolerate most so ils , including chalk and heavy clay, with the optimal being a well-drained but moist loam . Once established they are quite tolerant or drought and waterlogging some species grow in marshes and swamps in their native habitat and thrive in such situations . Ma n y species are tolerant of exposure, even to salt-laden winds , and can be used in hedges although fruiting will be much reduced in exposed situations. They are also tolerant of atmospheric pollution. Most species are hardy to -20°C (_4°F) or more.

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Different species range from small shrubs 1.5 m (5 ttl high to medium sized trees over 9 m (30 ttl high. Most form large shrubs or small trees 4-8 m (13-26 tt) high. Most bear thorns on the branches. Tree forms should be spaced at 7.5 m (25 ttl apart for maximum fruit production, but closer spacings are possible. Flowers are produced in early to late spring, usually before the leaves open, and are usually white. The trees are particularly ornamental during flowering . Trees are self-fertile, with pollination carried out by insects , particularly wild and honey bees. Fruit production is highest in sunny sites, although trees will tolerate a semi-shaded position. Fruits are produced mainly on the outside of the tree and ripen 6-8 weeks after flowering (this short period between flowering and fruit ripening reduces chances of pest and disease damage). Because hawthorns are nearly always thorny, fruits are ofte n easier to harvest by gently shaking the branches over a sheet than by picking ind ividual fruits. Fruits should be harvested every other day to minimise bird damage . Pruning is best kept to a minimum as the thorny branches make it tiresome, although hawthorns are very tolerant of pruning. Remember that most species naturally form a rounded head, and will not easily grow to central leader form. Some formation pruning of young trees may be desirable to remove low branches and form a decent framework of branches, otherwise just cut of dead, diseased or excessively crowded branches in winter. Flowers and fruit are borne on one and twoyear-old wood.

Pests and diseases
Pests are not generally a problem. Birds and other wildlife may take the ripe fruits and if this occurs, some protective measures may be necessary. The only disease of note is fireblight (Erwinia amy/ovora) to which some species are susceptible, includ ing the UK native C.monogyna. The symptoms on hawthorns are similar to those on apples blossoms and leaves become blighted, blackening and wilting but remaining hanging on the tree. The bacterium can spread down along shoots which start rapidly dying back. Hawthorns are rarely kifled and often only show mild signs of the disease, but can be a source of infection for other trees. The disease is still fairly uncommon in the UK but is widespread in parts of North America. Many hawthorns are resistant to fireblight, including C.coccinea and C.prunifo/ia.

Species
The following is only a selection of the hundreds of species which exist. These are species with fruits of known good quality either raw or cooked (or both) - the exceptions being the British native species which are included for comparison. Doubtless the re will be other species not yet evaluated wh ich can be added to this list. Other species with large fruits of unknown quality include C.arkansana, C.X dippefiana, C.dunbarii, G.henryi, and G.peregrina.

Crataegus aestivalis - see C. opaca. Crataegus anomala Eastern N .America Grows to 5 m (16 tt) tall. Fruits 20 mm (0.8~) in diameter with a good flavour. Crataegus aprica Southeastern N .America Shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 ft) tall with long spines. Fruits orange-red , 12 mm ('/:n in diameter, sweet and juicy; 3-5 seeds.

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Crataegus armena Fruits 10 mm (0.4") in diameter; flesh mealy, slightly sweet. Crataegus arnoldiana - Arnold Thorn Northeastern N.America Grows 4-6 m (13-20 ft) tall by 4 m (13 ft) wide. Fruits ripen mid September in England; bright red , 20 mm (0 .8") in diameter with a good sweet flavour ; flesh soft, juicy and mealy ; 3-4 seeds. Crataegus azarolus - Azarole Mediterranean Grows to 6 m (20 tt) ta ll and wide with few spines; sometimes cultivated in the Mediterranean for its fru it. Fruits orange-yellow (occasionally white or red) 25 mm (1") in diameter with a pleasant sweet-acid apple flavour. In cooler climates the fruit does not always ripen well and is best cooked or used in preserves. Some improved cultivars have been selected in Mediterranean countries . Crataegus baroussana Mexico Shrub , growing to 2 m (6 rt) tall. Fruits 15-18 mm (0 . 6-0.75~) in diameter, sweet. pleasant . Fruits produced in abundance in S.England. May not be hardy in cold.areas . Crataegus caesa Shrubby species. Fruits of a good size, sweet, pleasant. Crataegus calpodendron - Black thorn Eastern N.America Erect tree, grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall; few thorns. Fruits yellow-red, 10 mm succulent.

(0.4 ~ )

in diameter, sweet ,

Crataegus canadensis Eastern N.America Grows to 9 m (30 ft) tall. Fruits to 16 mm (O.T) in diameter. best used cooked. Crataegus champ/ainensis Northern N .America Grows to 6 m (20 tt) high with large thorns . Fruits bright red , 15 mm (0.6 ") in diameter. nice sweet flavour. Crataegus coccinoides - Kansas hawthorn Central N.America. Grows to 6 m (20 ft) high with large thorns. Fruits bright red . firm, sub -acid . best used cooked: 5 seeds. Crataegus columbiana Western N.America Shrub or small tree to 5 m (16 tt) tall with large thorns . Fruits red or purple, 10 mm (0.4") in diameter, sweet , mealy. very pleasant flavour. Crataegus cuneata - Nippon hawthorn China. Japan Shrub to 1.5 m (5 tt) tall with small thorns. Fruits red, of pleasant fla vour; sold in local markets in China and Japan and eaten raw or made into wine or jelly. Crataegus dilatata Eastern N.America Grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall. Fruits to 20 mm (0 .6-) in diameter, sweet. Crataegus douglas;; - Black haw Western N.America Grows to 9 m (30 tt) tall with large spines. Fruits black , 8-15 mm (0.3-0.6") across, sweet . ju icy, good flavour.

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Crataegus X durobrivensis Northea stern N .America A multi-stemmed shrub growing 3-4.5 m (10-15 ft) tall with large thorn s . Fru it s, ripening in September in England , crimson , 15-16 rnm (0 .6-0 .75 ") in diameter, sweet , fairl y jui cy when ripe , flavour apple-like. Crataegus ellwangeriana Eastern N.America Tree or multi-stemmed shrub to 6 m (20 tt) tall and wide , with few but large spines . Fruits , ripening in September in England , red, 15-16 mm (0.6-0.75") in diameter, juicy, acid , very good ; heavy yielding ; fruits fall from tree just before full ripeness. Crataegus elongata Fruits make pleasant eating. Crataegus festiva

Eastern N.America ture I Chinese hawthorn culture . Pomona, Vol. xxv No.1 ,ery good.
Crataegus fJabellata Eastern N.America Grows to 6 m (20 tt) tall. Fruits to 15 mm ( 0.6") in diameter, sweet , mealy , good. Crataegus flava " Summer haw, Yellow haw Southeastern N .America Grows to 6 m (26 ft) tall with moderately large thorns. Fruits greenish-yellow, to 15 mm (0.6 ") in diameter, dry and mealy but used in N.America for making fine-flavoured preserves .

Crataegus heterophylla Europe - E.Asia (Spain to China) Shrub or small tree to 5 m (16 ft) tall with few thorns. Fruits red , to 15 mm (0.6 ~ ) in diameter, best used cooked. Crataegus hupehensis" Hupeh haw W.China Grows to 5 m (13 tt) high with moderately large thorns . Fruits dark red, 25 mm (r) in diameter, mild flavour. Crataegus iIIinoensis Grows 4-6 m ( 13-20 tt) tall. Fruits 20 mm (0.6 ") in diameter with a good sweet flavour; flesh soft , juicy and mealy. Crataegus jonesiae Northeastern N.America Shrub growing to 1.5 m (5 ft) high , occasionally a small tree to 6 m (20 ft) tall. Fruits bright red, 1516 mm (0 .6-0.75") in diameter, sweet, mealy, good flavour; borne abundantly; 2-3 seeds . Crataegus kansuensis China Fruits are acid and sour, mostly used in China for making wines and vinegars .

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Crataegus Jaciniata (Syn. C.orientaUs) South estern Europe to China - naturalised in UK. Grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall, sparsely thorned . Fruits orange-red , downy, 15 mm (0.6 in diameter, good flavour.
W )

Crataegus Jaevigata (Syn. C.oxyacantha) - Midland Hawthorn Europe Grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall. Fruits dark red , 10 mm (0.4 *) in diameter, dry, mealy , poor ra w - best cooked . See C.monogyna for medicinal uses. Crataegps macrosperma Eastern N.America Grows to 8 m (26 ft) tall with large thorns . Fruits red, 15-20 mm (0.6-0.8 -) in diameter, fair flavour . Crataegus missouriensis Southeastern N.America Shrub or small tree to 6 m (20 ft) tall and 4 m (13 ft) wide, with long slender thorns . Fruits ripen late September in England; red , 15-25 mm (0.6-1 ") in diameter; flesh sweet, soft , fairly juicy, good flavour. Crataegus moWs - Red haw Eastern & Central N.America Grows to 9 m (30 tt) tall and wide with a spread ing crown. Fruits red , 20-25 mm in diameter, subacid , dry, mealy, pleasant flavour - best used for preserves . Crataegus monogyna - Hawthorn Europe Grows to 6 m (20 tt) tall. Fruits red , 10 mm (0.4 -) in diameter, poor flavour - best used cooked in preserves. The flower clusters and leaves of our native hawthorns are used as a tonic to improve the circulation and normalise blood pressure, as well as for specific heart afflictions . These and drugs from them are mild and non-toxic in action (unlike many drugs which act on the heart) and safe for home use. Crataegus opaca - Western mayhaw Southern N.America Also Crataegus aestivalis - Eastern mayhaw These two species are now considered distinct but were formerly treated together . They are sim ilar in tree and fruit characteristics and so are described together here.

Trees grow to 6-9 m (20-30 ft) tall and found in the wild in low wet areas along streams and in swamps; tolerant of very acid conditions. Flowers in early spring (very frost re sistant) are followed in May (in S . USA) by yellow or red, fragrant, juicy, acid fruits with a pleasant apple-like flavour; frequently used in N.American for making jal!ls and jellies (the re are now at least 8 commercia l manufacturers of mayhaw jelly in the Southeastern USA and over 300.000 trees planted in commercial orchards). Several cultivars have been selected (mostly from the wild) with red fruits 18-25 mm (0.75-1 H ) in diameter; these includ e Big Red, Big Sandy #4 , Big 'V', Golden Farris , Heavy (South land Heavy). Royalty , Super Berry , Super Spur , Texas Star , the Gem , Turkey Apple and Warren's .
Crataegus pedicel/ata - Scarlet haw Northeastern N .America Grows to 7 m (23 ft) tall and wide, with small thorns . Fruits ripen mid October in England , bright red , 10-20 cm in diameter, sweet, dry and mealy - best used cooked. Unusually, the fruits sto re well for up to 2 months. Crataegus pensylvan;ca Eastern N.America Grows to 9 m (30 ft) tall though more commonly to 6 m (20 ttl with a similar spread. Fruits ripen over a month from mid September in England; to 25 mm (1~) or more in diameter, sweet-acid. very good flavour .

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e
Crataegus pinnatifida major - Chinese haw China Grows to 7.5 m (25 ft) tall with few thorns. Fruits deep glossy red, 25-40 mm (1-HSn in diameter, pleasant flavour - used raw, dried, candied,

=

cooked and made into drinks. Selections of this
are grown commercially in China including the variety 'Big Golden Star' which is available in the UK ; other cuUivars include Autumn Golden Star , Big Ball, Uttle Golden Star, Purple Jian.

Crataegus pantie a

C.Asia

Fruits are of a good size and good flavour somewhat Citrus-like.

Crataegus pruniosa - Frosted hawthorn
Northeastern N.A merica Grows to 6 m (20 ft) high with large thorns. Fruits dark red . 10-16 mm (0.4-0 .6-) in diameter , sweet, best used cooked .

Crataegus pinnatifida

Crataegus pubescens - Manzanilla Mexico Grows to 10 m (33 fI) high . Fruits mealy , juicy, best cooked; also used for flavouring drinks.
Crataegus punctata - Dotted hawthorn Eastern N.America Grows to 10 m (33 fI) tall with large thorns. Fruits deep red , 25 mm (1 - ) in diameter, apple-like texture and appearance , good flavour. Crataegus rotundifolia Eastern N .A meri ca Grows to 6 m (20 ft) high . Fruits to 15 mm (0.6-) in diameler, sweet, mealy, pleasant flavour. Crataegus rufula - Rufus or Florida mayhaw Southeastern USA. Round-headed small tree . Fruits ripen in early summer and are 12 mm (%") or more in diameter, dry, mealy , and borne in profusion ; best used in preserves. Crataegus scabrifolia China Fruits are yellow or white and ealen raw or processed in China . Crataegus schrader;ana mountains of Greece Grows to 6 m (20 tt) tall and 5 m (16 ft) wide. Fruits ripen in late September or October in England , hanging on the tree for a further 4 weeks; 12-18 mm ( 0.5-0.75 ~) or more in diameter , soft, juicy , melting, with a delicious flavour. Crataegus songor;ca Fruits small, mealy, juicy , quite pleasant.
E.Asia

Crataegus submollis Northeastern N.America Grows to 7.5 m (25 tt) high and wide; thorny. Fruits pale red , 20-25 mm (0.8-1") in diameter, sweet, juicy, mealy , pleasant flavour ; 5 seeds . Crataegus subvillosa Fruits have an agreeable flavour.
E.Asia, N.America

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Crataegus succulenta - Succulent haw Eastern N .America Grows to 6 m (20 ft) tall with large thorns. Fruits deep red, 30·40 mm (1.2-1.5 ") in diameter; flesh sweet, juicy, pulpy . Crataegus tanacetifofia - Tansy leaved thorn, Syrian haw W.Asia Grows 6-9 m (20·30 ft) tall and simi lar in width . Fruits ripen early October in England, yellowish, 20·25 mm (0.8·1") in diameter, firm , juicy with a distinct good apple flavour.

Propagation
Seed Hybridisation is common when plants of more than one species are grown together, so to ensure the true species from seed . the different species must be noted to flower at a different time or else have their flowers bagged. Plants are self-fertile and seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. Hawthorn seed in deeply dormant and require s stratification for at least one winte r, sometimes two or three, before it germinates. Germi nati on is often slow and erratic and may be spread over several spring seasons. Make sure seed is protected from rodents . If seed is harvested green (just before it is fully ripe, when the embryo has developed but before the seed coat hardens) and sown immediately then it often germinates the following spring . Grafting Rare species and superior fruiting forms are usually propagated by grafting onto seedling rootstocks (usually C.monogyna in Britain, but any Crataegus species will do) . Simple whip and tongue grafts in spring succeed quite easily. Grafted plants usually start fruiting within a coup le of yea rs.

Suppliers
U.K.
Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington , Tolnes , Devon, TQ9 6JT Clive Simms, Woodhurst, Essendine , Stamford, lincs, PE9 4LQ. Tel: 01780·755615 . Thornhayes Nursery, SI Andrew's WOOd. Dulford , Cullompton. Devon , EX15 2DF Tel: 01884

266746. U.S.A.
Hidden Spri ngs Nursery, 170 Hidden Springs Lane , Cookevi ll e, TN 36501. Tel : 615·266·9689. Louisiana Nursery, Rt.7 , Box 43 , Opelousas, LA 70570. Tel : 318·948·3696. Sherwood's Greenhouses, POBox 6, Sibley , LA 71073. Tel : 318·377·3653. Southmeadow Fruit Gardens, Box SM, Lakeside , MI 49116 . Tel : 616-469-2865.

References
Burmistrov , L: Underexploited Fruits and Nuts of Russia. WANATCAYea rbook 18 (1994), 3-19. Crawford, M: Fireblight. Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 1 (October 1997), 30-35 . Duke, J & Ayensu , E: Medicinal Plants of China . Reference Publications, 1985. Facciola , S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications , 1998. Fern, K: Plants for a Future . Permanent Publications , 1997 . Harrington , J: Mayhaw industry development. Pomona, Vol. xxvii No.2, 39·40 . Moore, Bill: Mayhaw cultu re I Chinese hawthorn culture. Pomona, Vol. xxv No.1, 44-46. Payne, J et al: Neglected Native Fruit Trees and Sh rubs . NNGA 81s1 Annua l Report (1990),76·92. Plants for a Future: Crataegus Species · The Hawthorns. Warren, T: T 0 Warren on Mayhaws. Tips Journal , Vol. 1, No. 3, 43~47 .

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Medicinal plants: cultivation
Location in agroforestry systems
Agroforestry systems have the advantage over sta nd ard agricultura l systems in that there are a wide range of microclimates ranging from near full sun (in the centre of wide aUeys in alley cropping systems) to partial sun (the edges of alleys , between trees in orchards or forest gardens . on the northern side of clearings in forest gardens forest farms) to full shade (in the understorey of forest gardens and farms , or on the north side of a plantation or E-W alJey tree line) . A specific crop should thus be able to be located in near ideal conditions as close to its natural habitat as possib le.

Planting
On a field sca le, planting may present some problems. Sowing of seed is possible for some species (usi ng precision drills used in vegetable production) , but leads to almost certain use of undesi rable herbicides. For planls propagated by slolons (roo l cuttings - ego mints) , planting machines must be adapted . The simplest method is to machine plant young plants grown in blocks .

Weed control
Good weed control for low-growing species is essential to ensu re tha t the harvested product is pure and not conlaminated wit h weeds . Mos l growers of medicina l plants do not f oll ow organ ic principles and apply numero us doses of herbicid es for weed control. Instead of th is we advocate the use of mulches, which is more labou rintensive and more expensive , but leads to unco ntaminated plants and soils . There is an increasi ng market for organically-grown he rb s with higher returns to offset increased costs . For trees and shrubs , permanent mulches of leaves , bark or other organic matter are easily used and wilt maintain optimal soil conditions. For herbaceous perennials , if they are to be cut high enough to be quite clear of any mulch , permanent mulches sho uld also be used unless they are notab ly susceptible to slug and snail damage, when seasonal mulches from late spring to autumn are a better idea. Low growing perennials are difficult to mulch without the mu lch itse lf contaminati ng the aerial parts of the plant. It is best not to use high-nitrogen materials for mulching. Othe r methods of weed conlrol used by organic growers incl ude the use of brush hoes , growing plants through porous polythene mulches, and using ridges as for potato growing .

Use of varieties
Several of the more common perennial medicina l plants (eg . mints) have had varieties selected for higher amo un ts of medicinal compounds or purer ratios of essential oils . Most of the selection has been made by medicinal plant growers themselves and few of them are eas ily avai lable on the market, but th ey are worth cons idering if a sou rce can be found.

Ecological factors affecting yields
With many ag ricultural crops , increasing yields through biomass production is the this princip le does not trans late di rectly to seco nd ary plant products <ie medicinal plants) . increasing the plant biomass per unit area does not necessarily increase these compounds per unit area . The following factors should be taken into account the ecological influen ces on medicinal plants: main aim , but compounds in the amount of to understa nd

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The generation of active substances is basically connected to the metabolism of the plant. Differences of ecological requirements occur between species and often within species , leading to differences in the active compounds . The influence of ecological factors on the generation of active substances is complicated by the fact that the amounts and ratios of active substances change over time during the growing year and the life of the plant.

Light
The ini ensity and duration of light available has a pronounced effect on the production of active substances. In general, for species which are naturally sun-demanding, reduced light intensity (eg . by being part shaded) or duration (eg. by cultivating further North than naturally found) reduces yields of active substances and can also alter their relative amounts in the plant. [ for example, in peppermint , yields of essential oils fall in proportion to the light intensity. Cultivating it in 50% shade conditions will still yield significant quantities of oils but not enough for economic viability). This has important consequences for agroforestry systems in which medicinal plants are being grown: sun-demanding medicinal plants are best situated either in the upper canopy layer - ie tree crops - or should be grown in the sunniest siles, in the centre of alleys between trees or in sunny clearings. For shade-tolerant medicinal plants the situation is quite different. In these, the active substances are produced in conditions of low light intensity and the duration of light is less important. Increasing the light available to these plants may increase the proportion of active substance, but. it will also stress the plants and may well reduce biomass production, so that overall active substance production may not increase in addition to the plant being more prone to pests and diseases. It obviously makes sense to site shade-tolerant plants in situations to which they are adapted. These plants, then, can be used more widely in agroforestry systems in the shrub and perennial layers and in shadier sites such as the edge of alleys and the northern edges of clearings.

Temperature
The influence of temperature is relative , depending on the optimum temperature of a given species. Above or below that temperature, amounts of active substances are likely to fall. The assumption that herbs of Mediterranean ori~jn will only produce high quality essential oils under stressed conditions (ie high temperatures, drought , low fertility) is unfounded.

Water
The connection between active substances and the water supply depends strongly on the species. Deep rooted species likes trees and comfrey, and plants of dryland origin like many Mediterranean herbs, do not respond greatly to irrigation . A good site for dryland plants may be a sunny southern edge where tree roots make it a dry location. Other plants, especially those which need a moist site , may require irrigation depending on the climate and season. In continental Europe , most commercial medicinal plant cultivation uses irrigation but in British or other temperate regions it will not be so necessary. Shade-tolerant plants grown in agroforestry systems are unlikely to require irrigation.

Soil
The soil has a complex influence on plants through its physical , chemical and biological properties. A healthy soil usually leads to healthy plants and this adage can be applied to medicinal plants too. Soils should be tended to raise and maintain organic matter levels and to be able to supply sufficient nutrients for the plants. Nitrogen applications increase biomass yields, but effects on the essential oil quality and content are much small or negligible; the therapeutic strength of many medicinal plants is reduced by feeding.

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Exposure
Some plants, mostly of Mediterranean origin, are prone to damage from exposure to cold winds in early spring especially. If growing such plants, then shelter from the north east is vitaL

Harvesting
Medicinal plants are harvested for use fresh , for drying or for the extraction market - mainly the latter two. Commercia l growers need to co rrectly time harvest to gel both abundant and quality crop yields. Different species have specific stages of growth at wh ich they should be harvested, and the content and compos ition of essential oils and other active ingredients varies during plant development. Oil content is usually highest in the morning , depending on the light and temperature conditions. For most species, peak oil content coincides with flowering. Plant materials for drying shou ld be harvesled on dry warm days after any dew has evaporated. Avoid crushing harvested materials. Foliage is harvested by ha nd with sickles/scythes or in larger fi eld s with mechanical cutters (eg. sickle bar mower or disc mower) then raked Up . For most species, leaves are harves ted before the flowers are fully open; they should be clea n and free of pests. W hen harvesting perennials or small shrubs , it is best to leave some basal leaves to help them recover and enable a further crop later in the season. Flowers are usually picked by hand or some tim es with a simple hand ha rvester of the type used for picki ng berries . They are best harvested when first open full y and placed loosely in an ope n basket. Fruits or berries require harvesting when fully ri pe but not over-ripe ; they should be dry and free from bits of bark or leaf. Seed crops are usua lly harvested with a combine when ripe. Some species , with seed pods that shatter, must be harvested slightly under-ripe. Roots can harvested with a hand fork or by using a mechanical digger such as a potato digger. They are usually harvested in the autumn, when the top of the plant is dying down. If collecting medicinal pla nt s from the wild make sure that you have the landown er's permissio n, that you have correctly identified the species, and never gather all the specimens of the species in a given loca lity - leave enough to ens ure its continued survival in the area. Gather only from healthy, visibly undamaged pla n ts and never from areas where herbicides or pesticides may have been used.

References
A report on the potential uses of plant s grown for extracts incl ud ing essential oils and factors affecting their yield and composition. MAFF Alte rnative Crops Unit, 1996. Bown , 0: The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs . Darling Kindersley, 1995. Brownlow, M: Herbs and the Fragrant Garden. Darton , Longman & Todd, 1978. Cheva ll ie r, A: The Encyclopedia of Medicina l Plants. Dorling Kindersley, 1996. Halva S & Craker, L: Manua l for Northern Herb Growers. HSMP Press, 1996. Hay, R & Waterman , P (Eds): Volatil e O il Crops. Longman, 1993. Hornak , L: Cu ltivation and Processing of Medicinal Plants. John Wi ley, 1992. Launert, E: The Hamlyn Guid e to Edible & Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn, 1989. Slary , F: The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books , 1991. Wijeseke ra , R (Ed): The Medicinal Plant Industry. CRC Press, 1991. Processing of medicinal plants wil l be covered in Agroforestry News Vol ume 7 No 4.

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Propagation:

Layering (2)
Introduction
This article follows on from last issue and covers other layering methods.

,

Soil and site
The quality of the soil, in which layering normally takes place, is important. It should be light in structure, deep, well-drained, moisture-retentive, stone free, with an appropriate pH, and free from debilitating pests, diseases and perennial weeds. Before layering takes place, soils should be amended to provide the best possible conditions. Note that wherever soil is mentioned to mound up in the various below, other materials can be used successfully - for example, sawdust, a soilsawdust mix, coir etc. A flat sheltered site is also an advantage.

Methods
French or continuous layering
This technique has in common with stooling that the rooting of young shoots is stimulated by blanching. The buds along selected shoots are first encouraged to develop at right angles to those shoots and are then stimulated to root along the stem to produce up to 6·8 young plants· hence the term continuous layering. This method is labour·intensive, not only in the pre·training requirements of the shoots to be layered, but also in the method of covering the shoots with soil.

Mother plants are established for one growing season at 2-3 m (6-10 tt) spacing, depending on the vigour of the plant. In the following spring they are cut back to 25-50 mm (1-2") above soil level and will produce 2-6 shoots which are allowed to develop fully during the second growing season. The annual procedure is then: During late winter, long, healthy and ideally unfeathered (unbranched) shoots are selected (if there are any side shoots, cut them off) and pegged down onto the soil surface, arranged radially, pushing aside temporarily any mulch. Thin , weak shoots and any surplus to requirements should

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be cut back hard to the centre of the mother plant. The centre shoots are encouraged to develop fully as these will be the replacement layers for the following season . When growth from the pegged shoals has reached 10-15 cm (4-6 ~ ) in height, the pegs are removed and a trench made to allow the shoots to be dropped in so that the growing paints of the new shoots are just above soit level. Further mounding up over the summer is usually unnecessary. The soil surface should be mulched to prevent weed growth and retain moisture. An alternative to digging a trench is to earth up the pegged sIems , drawing soil over them from each side. Rooted layers are usually ready for lifting by early winter - avoid lifting 100 early. The layered shoals are cut off as close 10 the mother plant as possible , lifted , cut into sections and grown on . Dead and weak shoots are removed from the parenl plant and the soil prepared for new layers . Planls suitable for French layering must be able to root effectively by blanching only, and also should produce long unbranched shoots and be tolerant of hard pruning . Suitable species include Acer saccharinum cvs , Chimonanthus praecox , Comus alba cvs , Corylus avellana cvs , Cotinus coggyria cvs, Euonymus spp., Hydrangea paniculata, Viburnum spp . (deciduous) .

Compound or serpentine layering
This is an extension of simple layering which utilises the trailing shoots of climbing plants. Stem blanching and constriction techniques are applied at intervals along the trailing stems.

Parent are established for at least a year at a spacing of about 2 m (6 tt) apart. The following spring, all growth is cut back to 30 cm (1 ft) above soil level. Subsequent growth for a year is trained to a central support. The annual procedure is then: During early spring, vigorous shoots are selected and positioned on the soil surface in preparation for layering - a circular or spiral pattern can be used to make better use of the space. Starting at the basal end of the first shoot , a constriction is made (cutting a shallow longue in Ihe stem is the best method here so that translocation of sap along the shoot is not prevented) , then

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a hole is made about 10 cm (4") deep and the shoot is carefully bent into it . the stem secured with a peg, and the hole back filled with soil. This procedure is repeated along the shoot, then for other shoots, making sure that vegetative buds are looped above the soil between each layer. The soil should now be mulched to prevent weed growth and maintain moisture levels. New growth developing from the buds above soil should be pinched back once or twice during the wowing season to prevent excessive shoot growth at the expense of root development. Shollts arising from the parent plant should be encouraged and trained to the central support· these provide the layers for the following season. When the la yers are sufficiently rooted, the main stem can be severed close to the base of the parent plant. During the dormant season they can be lifted, sectioned up into separate plants and grown on. A variation of thi s technique is to layer into pots· the parent plant could also be established in a pot· which reduces weed problems and can be useful in nursery production :

Compo und layering works with most climbers, and is most suitable for climbers that are shy rooting from cuttings. Suitable species include Actinidia spp., Akebia spp., Ampe/opsis spp .. Clematis spp, Hydrangea anomala petio/aris, Lonicera spp. (climbers) , Parthenocissus spp ., Passiflora spp., Schizophragma spp ., Vilis spp, Wisteria spp.

Air layering
This method , also called Chinese layering , pot layering or marcottage, is useful for making new plants from the upper growth of plants which cannot easily be brought into contact with the ground . The procedure is as follows: Select a lignified shoot, preferably not more than 2 years old. Either cut and remove a ring of bark about 1 cm (0.4~) wide , or make a slit about 25 mm (1~) long into the stem from below upwards, into which a sliver of wood can be pushed to keep it open. Apply a rooting hormone paste to the wounded area and up to 2 cm (0.8 ") above the wound . Bind a handful of moist sphagnum moss in a and around the cut with a few turns of thread .

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Next surround the bound moss with a piece of thin pla stic film or aluminium foil, overlapping it we ll and tying firm ly top and bottom (e lectrical insulation tape works well for this). If using plasti c it is best to use either alumi nised plastic or co-extruded film (ie black one side and white the other) with the white side outwards ; black plastics can lead to potentially lethal temperatures building up inside. When roots have developed sufficiently, cut the stem below the moss ball and grow on the new plant. The old stem should be cut back to vegetative buds to prevent stem dieback and to encourage new growth.

Air layering works well with Ghimonanthus spp., Comus spp., Gotinus spp., Magnolia spp., and Rhododendron spp.; it is used commercially for Mahonia aquifolium cvs. It can in fact be use d for a wide va riety of woody plants (eg. figs , pers immons, apples, blueberries, plums), sometimes succeed in g with normally very difficu lt to root plants like walnuts.

Dropping
The sim ple layering tech nique is no rmally carried out on small bushy woody plants. The annual procedu re is: Young bushy plants are selected during spri ng and the lower leaves removed where rooti ng is expected to take place. A trench or pit is dug and the plants placed in with the shoots evenly splayed out. The soil is replaced, ensu ring that the shoot tips are above so il leve l. The soil shou ld now be mulched to prevent weed growth and retain moisture. W hen the shoots have rooted (wh ich may take 1-2 years) , the parent plants are lifted , and the rooted layers are removed and grown on as requi red. The old parent plant is discarded and new young bushy plants selected to repeat the cycle. Dropping is often used for layering Berberis spp., Buxus spp., Gal/una spp., Erica spp. and dwarf conifer cultiv ars.

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...
Pest & Disease Series:

Brown rot
Introduction
The brown rot fungi , Monifinia fructico/a, M.fructigena and M.laxa (all sometimes called by the synonym $clerotinia) cause considerable damage to cultivated fruit trees, particularly apples, pears and stone fruits , in the temperate regions of the world.

Symptoms
The brown rot fungi infect aerial parts of host plants to give a variety of symptoms. which include blighting of blossoms and leaves , cankers on woody tissues , and rotting of fruits . The main symptoms on important commercia l species are summarised below:

Mfructigena
Range

Mlaxa

Europe , Asia, S.America

All areas . f.ma/i in Europe only_

M. fructicofa N. & S.America , Australasia

Host
Apple Fruit rot very common and destructive - sometimes fungus spreads into branches from fruit & gives rise to cankers. Black apples . Fruit rot - occasionally severe . Fruit rot not important. Mlaxa f.mali causes blossom wilt , sometimes severe, & cankering of branches may develop. Black apples . Fruit rot occasionally. Blossom wilt sometimes seen but usually confined to spurs . Fruit rot but not serious ; blighting of spu rs sometimes occurs. Black apples.

Pear

Fruit rot occasionally on injured I ripe fruit.

Plum

Fruit rot often causes considerable losses; often present along with Mlaxa.

Severe fruit rot ; leaves can Severe fruit rot; twig blight be infected & fungus can & blossom wilt also severe. extend into terminal shoot which withers (wither tip); spur blight & sma ll cankers ; blossom wilt sometimes severe. Stain whic h attacks plums does not attack apples. Blossom wilt often leads to Severe blossom wilt & fruit severe fruit rot; other rot; other symptoms less symptoms uncommon. important. Fruit rot , blossom wilt, twig Fruit rotting , blossom wilt , blight & cankers often twig blight & cankers often severe. seve re ; leaves also

Cherry

Fruit rot which appears just before ripening; blossoms not attacked . Fruit rot but not usually severe .

Peach & Nectarine
infected .

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[
M.fructigena
Apricot
Fruit rot but not ofte n severe.

M.laxa

M. fructicofa

Fruit rot, blossom witt , twig Fruit rot , blossom wilt and blight and cankers some- cankers severe ; twig blight. times very destructive. but less common than on peach .

Quince twig

Fruit rot common in

Fruits , blossoms , leaves,
twigs can be affected.

Fruit
blight.

rot

ca n

be

severe;

Europe .

Blossom blight
When flowers are attacked there may be extensive crop losses. Blossom blight is the first infection of the spring and develops when spores land on and penetrate flowers of sus ceptibl e plants. Blighting of flowers reduces the fruit set and results in infection of fruitlets which may nol become apparent until later in the season. The infected flowers show a brown spotting of the petals which turn dark brown and wither to give a typical blighted appearance; willing usually occurs about 2 weeks after coming into blossom. Some infected blossoms fall to the ground but others can stay attached for along time and be a source of further infection in moist weather.

Twig & leaf blight
Twig blight & cankers often follow blossom blight, when the fungus grows from the floral parts into the twigs where infected tissues are seen as brown collapsed areas. These gradually extend up and down the twig and gum accumulates on the surface of infected tissues. On most trees , leaf infection is uncommon , except from blighted twigs, when leaves turn brown, shrivel and die with a blighted appearance. This damage doe not significantly reduce fruit yields. On plums (and sometimes cherries), leaves on young shoots can be infected directly, often through an injury, resulting in a 'wither tip ' symptom .

Stem cankers
When these develop it is nearly always from the spread of the fungus via mycelium from blighted twigs or fruit spurs into larger limbs . A sunken canker develops with gum exuded in the area , but most cankers heal up in the same season. Active cankers can be a further source of infection via spores .

Fruit rot
This is the most destructive phase of the brown rot life cycle. Infection of young fruits can take place in spring following blossom blight or at any stage during fruit development. Immature fruits are more resistant to the fungi than those approaching ripening . Damaged fruits (wounded by insects , storm damage etc.) are at much greater risk of infe ctio n. Rotting can set in after harvest when fruits are in store and cause considerable losses. The first indication of fruit infection is the development of a small soft circular brown spot which gradually expands outwards (at a rate of up to about 12 mm, Yl" per day) until the whole fruit is discolou red; raised creamy-white pustules appear on the rotted areas in roughly co ncentric rings ; water is lost so that a shrivelled , wrinkled, 'mummy' is formed. Infected fruits often spread the infection to those in the same clu ster, and infe cted touching fruits often turn into firmly joined mummies . Mummies remain hanging on the tree until spring, or sometimes mummified fruits fall to the ground where the y remain through the winter .

Black apple
Thi s term refers to another form of rot which sometimes develops after apples (usually in store) are

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infected by brown rot; the colour of the rot turns jet black as rotting progresses.

Conditions for infection & spread
The fungi overwinter mainly in or on diseased mummified fruil s and fruit stalks, also in infected tissues on trees. The mycelia within mummified fruits can survive long periods of adverse winter conditions. Spores are produced in the spring during moist weather. Spores germinate and mycelia develop best at 2D-25°C (68-77°F) although germinated and very slow growth occurs at temperrtures as low as 0-2°C (32-36°F). Spores are spread by wind, rain and insect vectors. Blossom blight is most severe during moist, moderately warm weather in spring. Later in the season. during moist weather. infected blossoms, leaves and cankers can themselves produce spores to infect other parts of nearby trees.

Hosts
The main commercial hosts are apples, pears, quinces , peaches , nectarines , apricots, plums. sweet and sour cherries. and almonds. Other hosts of lesser importance include medlar. hazel (develops nut drop), grape, blackberries , strawberries, hawthorns (Crataegu s spp.) and rose s.

Control
Most commercial fruit growers use broad-spectrum fungicides against brown rot and other fungal diseases. However, careful hygiene and handling are much more effective than che mical control even though they are more labour intensive.
General hygiene The most important control measure is to remove fruit mummies and fruit stalks remaining on the tree at pruning time (late summer for stone fruit, midwinter for pome fruit); a short section of the spur to which they are attached is best cut out as well. The prunings I mummies should be burnt or deep buried. Clean tools after each cut by dipping into a disinfectant. Fallen mummies should also be collected and disposed of or cultivated into the soi l. Any infected twigs or cankers should be pruned out and burnt or deep buried ; treat pruning cuts with a wound sealant or a paste of the biological control Trichoderma viride.

Fruit should be picked with the stalk intact, in dry weather and into containers which do not lead to abrasion of the fruit skins. Care should be taken in packing and storing fruit because the fungus can pass from one fruit to another in contact. Damaged fruit should not be stored and old re-used storage boxes thoroughly disinfected. There is good potential for biological control measures against the brown rot fungi. Several species of bacteria are known to be antagonistic to brown rot fungi and often attack it in orchards. Antibiotic compounds against brown rot fungi are produced by severa l Baciffus spp and by Sporobacterium fungostaticum. Fruit mummies are often attacked by Trichoderma viride in Britain and by Ciboria aestivalis. Various insects may also have a role in the destruction of fruit mummies. Numerous plants have been noted for their actions against brown rot fungi including Garlic (Allium sativum), Fat hen (Chenopodium album), Chicory (Cichorium intybus), Woodbine (Clematis virginiana), Musk melon (Cucumis me/a), Handkerchief tree (Davidia invofucrala) , Evodia daniellii, Ginkgo biloba, Hosta minor, Creeping lilyturf (Liriope spicala), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), Peas (Pisum sativum), Konara oak (Quercus glandulifera), Japanese pagoda tree (Sophorajaponica) (also S.tetraptera and S.tomentosa), Red clover (Trifolium pratense). White wake robin (Trillium grandiflorum), Nasturtium (Tropaeo/um majus), Faba bean roots (Vicia faba), and Maize (Zea mays). Infusions of leaves & stems of most of these species have a antifungal action on brown rot.

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Cultivar resistance and susceptibility
Resistance of fruits to infection is associated with a number of factors . These include:

Low sugar content High acid conte nt Short floweri ng period Fruits borne in smaller clu sters Thicker skin especiall y in plums & cherries Low susceptibility to splitting in wet weathe r Low susceptibility to sca b fungi Lack of ru ssetting on fruit surface Firmer texture in plums & cherries High phenol (tann in) content in cide r apples & perry pears
Hence cooking varie ti es of fruil are generally more resistant than dessert va rieties .

Resistant almonds (to Mlaxa)
Bu rban k Nonpareil

Resistant apples (to Mfructigena)
Beauty of Boskoop Edwa rd V II Giafrapn yi Kinula Pepin Titovka Blai rm ont Evening Gold Gruner Furster Krasni ka t'vil Ro te Jungfer Tsigana Blenheim Orange Fiesta Jonathon La Claimanteuse Se rinka Bram ley's Seed ling (to Lmali) Kekhu ra Norsdorf Kitaika Slavyanka

+ bittersweet & bittersharp cider apples

Resistant apricots (to Mlaxa)
Addedi Ama l Blanchet Charhoud Dam avand Hamidi Kecske meter Rose Mon iqu i Paviot Sa lah Ben Salem SunGem Valvenosta Alberge Precoce de Tours Ampuis Aoued el Kef Boccuccia Cacak' s Flat Chemiran Chi nese Derby Royal Ezzine Hatif Colomer Ivonne Li verani King Luiz!! Montedoro Moor Park Precoce d'irn oia Peche de Nancy San Caslrese Sayeb Tard if de Bordaneil Tonda di Toss ignan o Veecot Ve lvaglo Amabile Vecchioni Arengi II Cacak's Gold Core Piccioni Fakouss i Jaube rt Foulon Monaco BelJo Nugget Puget Gold StelJa Va lnur Viceroy

In general the 'European ' cultivars are more resistant.

Resistant cherries (to Mfructicola or Mlaxa)
Ad riana Cleveland Biga rreau Krassa Severa Some rset Visco unt Beste Werdersche Dalbastija Lotovka Tragana Edessis Viva Bigarreau Burla t Griotte du Pays Merto n Heart Umbra Burbanc Ham Green Black Nabella Valera

In gene ral , swee t cherries are more res istant tha n sour cherries .

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# Resistant peaches & nectarines (to Mfructico/a or M.fructigena)
Belle (of Georgia) Cuberland Harblaze Harrow Beauly La Gem NectaRed 3 Red Bird ~ Som Mor
4

Bolinha Elberta Harcrest Harrow Diamond La Premiere Newhaven Red Gold Stark Late Gold

Cavalier Flameprince Hardired Jefferson Mericrest Pocahontas Redchief

Cherokee Globerla Harko JonBoy NectaRed 2 Pullars Cling Scarlet Robe

Resistant pears (to M.fructigena)
Bere gri
4

Khechechuri

Williams Bon Chretien

Zamtris Klerzho

+ most perry pears

Resistant plums (to Mfructico/a or M/axa)
Bluefree Czar Giant Prune Jefferson Marjorie's Seedling Red Magnum Bonum Sergeant Victory Bonne de Bry De Bordeaux Imperi al Epineuse Jori's Plum Precoce di Giugno Red Claude Verte Stanley Vision Borssumer Zwetsche De Montfort Iroquois Lantz President Red Claude Violette Sugar Casselman French Prune Italian Prune Late Santa Rosa (to blossom infection) Seneca Tuleu Timpuriu

Most damson s, especially French and Shropshire .

Reducing susceptibility
Spring frost can increase blossom infection , so site orchards I trees out of frost pockets. Control pests which cause wounds on fruits eg . codling moth , wasps . Prune to avoid excessive overcrowding of branches , so that there is better air circulation and more rapid drying of fruits after rain. Avoid excessive applications of nitrogen, which increases susceptibility. Keep trees mulched to retain soil moisture and reduce stress conditions.
4

Biodynamic growers recommend the use of mare's tail (Equisetum arvense) preparations against a range of fungal diseases including brown rot. A 'tea ' is made by boiling 20 g (3/4 oz) of the dried herb in 1 litre (2 pints) of water for 30 mins , then allowing the mixture to stand for 24 hours. The mix is then strained, made up with water to 4.5 litres (1 gallon) and sprayed on the tree at 10 14 day intervals from August until harvest. Mare's tail and this extract contain silica which is believed to strengthen cell walls and thus give a measure of immunity.
4

Another substance which seems to increase resistance to fungal disease is seaweed. Trees can be sprayed with dilute seaweed solution (concentrates are readily available) as a preventative measure in spring and later in the summer.

References
Buczacki, S & Harris, K : Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants . HarperCollins, 1998. Byrde , R J W & Willetts, H J : The Brown Rot Fungi of Fruit. Pergamon Press , 1977. Crawford , M: Fruit V arieties Resistant to Pests and Disease. A .R.T. , 1997 . Greenwood , P & Halstead, A: Pests & Diseases . Darling KindersJey , 1997. Okie , W R: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties (Brooks and Olmo) . HorlS cien ce , Vol 32 (5) , August 1997 , 785-805.

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Raspberries
Introduction
Ra spberries are frequently cultivated in temperate regions of the world for their ed ible fruit . They were first cultivated in medieval monasteries , and over many years have been highly bred , main ly from the following specie s: Rubus idaeus - European red raspberry Rubus idaeus ssp . slrigosus - North American red raspberry Rubus occidentafis - Black or blackcap raspberry.

Description
Raspberries are suckering shrubs growing to 2 m (7 ttl high, with a perennial root system, so that new canes are produced each year and live for just two years before dying. In summer-fruiting cultivars , the new canes produce fruit in the following year (ie they are kepi for 2 years ), whereas in autumn-fruiting cultivars, the new canes fruit in the same year and are only kept for a season . Plants produce both deep roots as well as masses of fibrous surface roots . Most raspberries are hardy , tolerating winter temperatures of -20 to -25°C (zone 4 or 5) .

Uses
The fruits are eaten raw or cooked in desserts, in salads, compotes, jams, syrups and juices. Wine and liqueur can also be made from them . Raspberries contain up to 13% fruit sugars (fructose , glucose and saccharose) , up to 6 % pectin s, citric acid , salicylic acid (the fever-reducing compound also found in willows and the basis of Aspirin) ; also up to 20 mg vitam in C per 100 g , provitamin A, Vitamins 81 and 82 . iron. potassium . phosphorus , calcium and high levels of copper. Wild fruits are usually higher in most nutrients than cultivated ones. Oth er parts of the plant which have been eaten in times of shortage are the root (cooked for a long time); and the young shoots - pee led and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus. Neither of these are very palatable and are not recommended . The fruits improve the digestion , are antfscorbutic , have a diuretic effect and are recommended medicinally for rheumatism . A decongestant face-mask made from the fruit is used cosmetically to soothe reddened skin . Raspberry leaves have well known medicinal properties (being antiinflammatory, astringent , decongestant, ophthalmic and stimulant) and are particularly useful in aiding women with period problems and in pregnan cy to tone the uterus. They are often taken in the form of a herb tea made with the dried leaves . Externally, the leaves are used to treat tonsillitis , mouth inflammations, sores , conjunctivitis , minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers . The roots have the same properties as the lea ves. The fruit yields a purple' dull blue dye. A fibre obtained from the stems can be used in making paper. The stem s are harvested in the summer after the fruit has been eaten, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be stripped . The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand beaten with mallets or ball milled for 3 hours. The paper is light brown in colour. The flowers , produced between May and July depending on the cultivar, are a good nectar source for bees .

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Siting and planting
Raspberries need shelter from strong winds, which can damage fruiting laterals (especially in cultivars with long laterals such as 'Mailing Admiral'). A sunny position is optimum , although plants grow quite well in partial shade as long as the soi l does not become too dry.
The optimum soil is well drained , retentive of moisture in summer, and slightly acid (pH 6.5-6 .7). Poorly drrined clay soils and chalky soils are not suitable .

It is important to begin with health y plants , preferably certified as virus-free, because raspberries are prone to many virus diseases carried by aphids and they will almos t inevitably decline in health over the years. Planting can take place al any time between early winter and early spring when the soil is in a suitable condition .
Plants are usually planted in rows which are 1.8 m (6 ft) apart, with plants spaced at 38 cm (15 ") in the row. The canes should be planted shallowly about 5-7.5 cm (2-3") deep, and roots spread out horizontally to encourage suckers . Over-deep planting inhibits suckering and produ ction of new canes . After planting, canes should be cut to a bud at 22-30 cm (9-12") above soil level. If possible, mulch the row to a width of 30 cm (1 tI) with a layer of organic material.

Training and supports
Canes must be supported (unless planted in a forest garden with good shelter) to prevent wind damage to the canes and fruits. The are several methods of providing support , most of these relying on posts (at 3-3.6 m , 10-12 tI apart, driven 45 cm , 18" into the ground) and wi res :Fence: Canes can be planted along a sold fence line. and merely tied in with sing le wires against the fence . Single wire system : a single row of posts (2.3 m, 7Yz ft long) has three wires strained at 0 .75 , 1 and 1.6 m (2'h, 3!4 and 5Yz ft) above the ground . Canes can easily be tied in and are well spaced for light and air. Parallel wire system : Two sets of wires are stretched at 75 cm and 1.5 m (2!4 and 5 tt) from the ground, the sets 60 cm (2 tt) apart . The wires are fixed to posts along ea ch side of the rows , or to crossbars 75 cm (2!4 tt) long naIled to posts down the centre of the row . The canes are kept upright by tying wires or twine across the wires at 60 cm (2 tt) spacing. Support is not as firm as with the single wire system, and this system is not suitable for exposed positions or for vigorous cultivars . Scandinavian system : Two parallel rows of posts (1 .5 m , 5 ft long) are placed 90 cm (3 tI) apart. Each row has a single wire strained at 90 cm (3 tt) above the ground. The canes are not tied but are woven around the wires. This is a good system for preventing young canes being trampled during picking , but takes more space than other systems and leaves fruiting laterals at greater risk of breakage during picking. Single post: A useful sys tem for a small garden or a com pact cropping area in a forest garden. A single post is driven in leaving 1.8 m (6 ft) above ground, and 2-3 canes planted around the base . The canes are secured by tying them to the post with strong twine .

Cultivation - summer fruiting cultivars
In the first season, while the next year's fruiting canes are produced , keep the canes weeded and remove any flowers which form on the origina l canes.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Established plants should also be kept weed free by mulching - hoeing can damage the shallow roots and suckers. Cultivation is nol an alternative apart from very shallow hoeing , as cultivation witl damage the rools of the plants . Organic mulches , eg o of straw , offer the best orga nic method for controlling weeds. Short grass ca n be grown in a strip down the centre of alleys, but should be mown frequently to reduce competition for water. A possible alternative to grass would be white clover, also regu la rly mown: Ihis will introduce nitrogen into Ihe plantation , but control ling the spread of the clover could be difficult , though. Some cultivars (eg. 'Mai ling Promise') produce too many canes and the row may become overcrowded unless some of the new ones are removed in late spri ng: aim to leave 6-10 canes per plant. remo ving weak canes and those growing too far away from the rows. As soon as fruiting is finished , cut the old canes down to ground level (not lea ving any stubs) to allow room for the new young canes which will crop the next year. The old canes should be buried , or chopped and composted, or removed a good distance from the cropping plants 1 0 minimise the chance of a build up of cane diseases. After cu tting out the old canes, select the healthiest and strongest of the new canes (up to 10 per plant) , leaving 6-10 cm (3_4 ft ) between each cane , and remove the rest . In the Scandinavian system , the new canes are carefully bent over the wire and twisted around each other and the wire to secure them. In other training systems, the new ca nes are tied in to wires , spreading them equally apart. In winter , the canes can be cut back to 1.5 m (5 tt) high to keep fruit within easy picking reach, though this will reduce the yields of tall growing cuUivars .

Cultivation - autumn fruiting cultivars
These bear fruit at the top 30 cm (1 tt) or so of the current year's canes, ripening from September until the first frosts. A warm sunny position is essential to aid ripen in g before the start of cold weather. All canes should be cut down to ground level in late wi nter. During the summer, remove any suckers growing away from the rows and thin the canes in the row to about 5 cm (2~) apart , removing the weakest first.

Feeding and irrigation
Raspberries need lots of potash for fruitin~ and some nitrogen for cane production . Conventional recommendations are to feed with 12 g I m of potash (K 2 0) plus 3 g I m 2 of nitrogen per year, with occasiona l applications of phosphate (P20S) equalling around 4 g I m 2 per year. The potash is easiest supplied by mulching raspberry rows with comfrey leaves , using the leaves from one plant (cut 4-5 times ove r the season) 10 mulch 10-15 m 2 of raspberry bed. Wood ash can also be used, best applied in late winter. The nitrogen required is not a great deal , and will almost certai nly be supplied by the organic mulch used to keep canes weed free . If growth is weak, extra manure or compost can be added . Phosphates need not be regularly applied ; normal weathering and mineralisation processes usually make enough available. Some will be automatically added if compost or manure is used to mulch, or if wood ash is applied. Commercially , old canes are often shredded and returned to the land. and the only nutrients carried off the field are Ihose in the fruil. A 10 tlha crop will remove 21 kg N, 3 kg P and 21 kg K. In dry summers & on light soils , irrigation increases fruil yields and is useful to obtain strong new growth of canes. If water is sca rce just as the berries begin to swell then a good application of water at that time is very beneficial ; another can be applied after picking to encourage vigorous ca ne growth . Apply water at Ihe base of canes , not overhead , to redu ce the risk of fungal infections.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Flowering
Raspberries flower late in the spring, and thus usually escape frost damage . Pollination is by insects (including bees and flies) ; self-pollination can also occur. All raspberries are self-ferti le.

Harvesting
Fruits should be picked whe n they are dry and well coloured but stifl firm . over-ripe fruits don't make gQod jam or freeze well. When picking fruits , pull them off carefu lly . leaving the core (plug) and statk on the plant . Raspberries have one of th e highest respiration rates of any fruit . and are very pe rishable.

Yields
Raspberries start cropping qu ickly and give good yields . Establ ish ed plants on average yield the following amounts of fruit Sum mer fruiting va rieties: 2- 3 Kg per metre row (1.5-2 Ib per foot row.) Autumn fruiting varieties: 0 .6 Kg per met re row (Y2 Ib per foot row.) Healthy new plants will continue to crop well for 12-15 years or more , depending on how quickly virus diseases become estab lished.

Pests & diseases
Raspberries can suffer f rom many diseases and pests. but on ly a few are likely to occur in any give n area. Au lumn fruiting (primocane) cultivars generally have fe wer pest problems. To minimise pest and disease prob lems , it is wise to prune our diseased canes and old canes after harvest and remove them from the vicinity to bury them ; seriously diseased pla nt s should be removed . It is best to purchase virus-free stock . Resistance and susceptibility in the tables below is indicated by the following codes : VS Very Susceptible R = Resistant T = To lerant

=

SR Slightly Re sistant SS = Slightly Su sceptible I = Immune

=

S = Susceptible VR = Very Resislant

Tolerance indicates that the cultivar ca n become infecled or attacked by the pest or disease in question, but that no sig nificant damage occurs.

Viruses
These are usually spread by aphids (above ground) or nematodes (be low grou nd). and sometimes by pollen . Typical symptoms are pale green or yellowish patterns, mottling or blotching on leaves , which may be distorted . The most important of these in Britain are 7, 8 , 9 and 10. Resistance to aphids (see later table) can be important in preventing some virus infections. Virus-tolerant cultivars can be infected with virus and still crop reasonably we ll. Canes and plants showing serious symptoms are best removed and buried some distance away ; new raspberry pla nt s shou ld not be planted in the same location. 1: Rubus Yellow Net Virus (RYNV) - ca uses Yellow net. Only serio usly affects black raspberries, leading to leaf distorti on and chlorosis , a weakening of the plant and crumbly fruit. 2: Black Raspberry Necrosis V iru s (BRNV) - causes Black raspberry necrosis. Only seriously affects black raspberries , but can be latent in all. Causes cane tips to die back . 3: Combined infection of RYNV+BRNV+Raspberry Leaf Mattie Virus (RLMV) - causes Veinbanding mosaic , a pronounced ch lorosis of leaves. Spread by aphids (AI).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

4: Raspberry Vein Chlorosis Virus (RVCV) - causes Vein Ch lorosis, a yellow chlorosis of small veins. Many cultivars are tolerant. Spread by aphids (ELC).

5: Raspberry Leaf Curl Virus (RLCV) - causes Leaf curl , a serious reduction in yield and kills plants within a few seasons. 6: Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV) - causes Yellows or Crumbly Fruit. Causes a yellow vein netting of the lower leaves in sp ring and a general leaf chlorosis . Many red raspberry cullivars are immune . Spread via pollen.
7: Raspberry Ringspot Virus (RRV) - causes Ringspot or Leaf Curl. Infected plants have characteristic yellow spots or rings; can kill plants within 2 seasons . Spread by nematodes.

8: Tomato Black Ring Virus (TBRV) - ca u ses Rin gspot or Leaf curl. Infected plants have characteristic yellow spots or rings. Plants are reduced in vigour. Spread by nematodes ; onl y found in a few cuUivars.
9: Strawberry Latent Ringspot Virus (SLRV) - causes Mottle or Decline. Plants may n ot show sig ns of infection but merely decline in vigour. Spread by nematodes.

10 : Arabic Mosaic Vi ru s (AMV) - s tun ts plants and reduces cropp in g, producing yellow leaf spotting of yellowing along main veins. Spread by nematodes.
Virus 1 2

Raspberry cultivar Most Rubus idaeus cvs Most R.idaeus strigosus cvs Most Rubus occidentafis cvs Augusta (Ma ilin g Augusta) Algonquin Chilliwack Comox Cuthbert Gaia Glen Clava Glen Isla Glen Mag na Glen Rosa Latham Leo Lloyd George Mailing Adm iral Mailing Delight (Del ight) Mailing Exploit Mailing Jewel Ma iling Landmark Mailing O ri on Ma iling Promise Newburgh Norfolk Giant Plum Farmer Viking

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

T T

T T
R SR SR SR

VS
R

T
R R

S S

S S

I S

S S

T S

VR
S

T S T T T T

I I S S T

VS
I S T

S I S S T I

I I S I
S

SR S S

I S

I S

I S

T

VS

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Fungal diseases
The most important of these are cane botrylis/grey mold, spur blight, cane spot and powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis); the latter is not listed in the tab le be low. as no cultivars are known to be resistant (Glen Clava is very susceptible) . With all these diseases . affected canes should be removed and burnt or buried; canes should be thinned to allow for good air access ; and light levels should be improved jf possible by pruning or removing overhanging branches , shrubs

etc.
Verticillium wilt ('Vert wilt' ) (Verticiflium spp.): causes root damage, leaf damage, then death. Root rot (Phytophthora erythroseptica): causes root damage and death . Several other species also attack roots , but no resistant cultivars are known. Cane blight (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium): a disease of wounds, causing withering of leaves and dieback of fruiting canes through infection al ground level; rarely causing damage of economic importance. Resistance builds up over the season for any cultivar. Infection is reduced by reducing cane damage . Bordeaux mixture sprayed in spring may be acceptable to some organic growers. Midge blight ('Mid bit ') (Re sseliella theoba/dl): a disease complex resulting from the feeding wounds of the cane midge. Becomes serious when canes develop exte nsive natural splits. Spur blight (Didymeffa applanata): Signs of infection appear on leaf nodes or canes, purple at first , then the lesions extend along the cane and become greyish-white , within which black fruiting bodies are formed which can themselves release spores and infect other canes Leaves can brown and shrivel. The buds in the infected area are frequently killed or weakened but the cane it self remains alive. Especially serious in wet springs, where plants are overcrowded or where nitrogen application is too high. All serious ly affected canes should be cut out and burned. Preventative measures include good spacing of plants and low application of nitrogen. Bordeaux mixture sprayed in spring may be acceptable to some organic growers . Cane botrytis ('Cane bolry') (Botrytis cinerea): caused by the same fungus as grey mOld, occasionally this invades canes , producing lesi ons. Cane spot or anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta): a serious disease of black and purple ra spberries, and susceptible red raspberries . Sunken spots appear on canes , initially purple then turning grey ; these enlarge and crack and girdle canes, sometimes killing them; fruit can be infected and distorted, and a tip die-back is also common. Canes showing severe spotting or cracking should be cut out and burned. ' Downy mildew ('Downy mild') (Peronospora sparsa): a minor disease of raspberries , associated with high rainfall areas . Causes druplelets of fruits to become dry and hard . Yellow rust ('Ye ll rust') (Phragmidium rubiidae/): a minor disease of red raspberries, causing premature defoliation and subsequent lack of productivity . Grey mold (of fruit) (Botrytis cinerea): Can cause a serious loss of fruit, especially when wet or humid weather occurs during flowering and fruit ripening , under whi ch conditions grey spore masses are produced on affected flowers and fruits and the disease spreads rapidly. It sometimes attacks fruiting canes and kill canes in autumn and early winter . Most primary infection occurs during flowering. Cultivars with a tough skin and firm texture are generally more resistant. Remove infected parts promptly . R indicates post-harvest resistance - fewer cultiva rs have pre-harvest resistance . Raspberry cultivar Rubus idaeus cvs Rubus occidenta/is cvs R.idaeus strigosus cvs Algonquin Vert wilt Root Cane Mid Spur Cane Cane Downy Yell Grey rot blight bit blight botry spot mild rust mold

R

R

S
R

R

R

R
R

R
SR

R

SR

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Raspberry cultivar Amity Augusta (Mailing Augusta) Beskid Black Hawk Boyne Brandywine Centernnial Cherokee Chief Chilcotin Chilliwack Comet Cuthbert Dinkum Festival Gaia Glencoe Glen Clova Glen Isla Glen Lyon Glen Moy Glen Prosen Glen Rosa Golden West Haida Haut Heritage Julia Latham Leo Lowden Mailing Admiral Ma1ling Delight Mailing Jewel Mailing Orion Meeker Newburgh Nootka Nova Pathfinder Phoenix Qualicum Redsetter Rossana Ruby Rucami Rumiloba (RumBo) Rusilva (Brabant) Rutrago (Rucanta) Schoenemann Skeena Souris

Vert wilt

Root Cane Mid Spur Cane Cane Downy Yell Grey blight botry spot mild rust mold blight bit rot SR SR SS SS SR SR R SR R R S R SR SR S R R S S

S SR

R R R SR

SR

SR R

SS S

T SR T
R R R

SR

SS SR VS S R SR R R

T
SR R

S

S

VS

VS

VS R R

R S R R VS R R S R R R R R R VR R S R S R R R R R SR R SS SS VR SR R R R R R R VS R R R R R R R R R R SS SS R SR

SR

S R

SR R

R R R R S S

R R R S S R

R

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Page 29

Raspberry cultivar Stonehurst

Vert wilt

Succes s
Summit Sumner

Sunrise
Titan

Tulamean

Vene
Willamette

Root Cane Mid Spur Cane blight batry rot blight bit SR R R R R SR SS SR S SS SS SR R

Cane Downy Yell Grey spot mild rust mold

R R SS SS R SR

Bacterial diseases & pests
The main pests are aphids and raspberry beetle , and sometimes cane midge. Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens): a bacterial disease which causes a gall on roots , stems or crowns. May cause fruit crops to dry up. bur vigorous plants often recover. Most severe in cool

wet acid soils.
Raspberry beetle ('E .R. beetle') (Byturus tomenfosus): the most serious pest in Europe where it is responsible for ' maggoty' fruits. The raspberry fruitworm (B .unicolor) causes similar damage in North America. Female beetles, 5 mm long and brownish, lay their eggs in the flowers and the young grubs tunnel into fruits, eating as they go . When fully grown, grubs drop to the soil and pupate before hatching into adults which hibernate in the soil over winter. Running poultry beneath plants in autumn, winter and spring is likely to be a good control. Organic growers can use a single derris spray when the flowers are first open (but in evening to avoid bee exposure.) Recent research in Switzerland has shown that the use of white non-UV reflective sticky traps are effective in trapping beetles. Regular winter shallow cultivation swill help expose beetles to predators. The recent discovery of beetle larvae parasitized by Tetrastichus haJidayi (a parasitic wasp) raises the possibility of biological control.
Raspberry midge (Resseliella theobaldil): feeds in cracks in the canes , keeps wounds open , and allows fungal infection . Leaf rollers (several species): several species of insect whose larvae feed on cane buds and terminal growth. European leaf curling aphid (,ELC aphid ' ) (AphiS idael) : one of the several aphid species which can transmit viruses. Preventative measures include planting species nearby which attract aphid predators. Soft soap sprays can be used for bad 'i nfestations. North American small aphid (' NAS aphid ' ) (Aphis rublca/a) : one of the several aphid species which can transmit viruses . Black vine weevil ('8V weevil') (Otiorhynchus sulcatus): found in Europe and N.America. Its larvae can cause serious damage to roots and crowns . Large raspberry aphid ('AI') (Ampharophara idaei) : another aphid which can transmit viruses. Raspberry cultivar Autumn-fruiting cvs Rubus accidentalis cvs Amity Augusta (Mailing Augusta) Autumn Bliss Crown gall

E.R.
beetle

Rasp midge

Leaf rollers

ELC
aphid

NAS
aphid

BV
weevil

AI R

R R

R R VR VR

R R

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Raspberry cultivar Autumn Britten Autumn Cascade Autumn Cygnet Beskid Brandywine Canby Clutha Gaia Glen Ample Glen Clova Glen Garry Glen Lyon Glen Magma Glen Moy Glen Prosen Glen Rosa Glen Shee Golden West Heritage

Crown gall

E.R.
beetle

Rasp midge

leaf rollers

ElC
aphid

NAS aphid

BV
weevil AI

VR VR VR SR R VR R R SR SS S R R S R R VR R VR VR R VR SS SS S R S R S VR SR R R R SR SR SR SR R VS R R R R R R R SR R SR SR R SR R R VR SR VR

R

Joy
Julia Latham

Leo
Mailing Admiral Mailing Delight Mailing Exploit Mailing Jewel Mailing Joy Mailing Orion Mailing Promise Marcy Newburgh Norfolk Giant Polana Qualicum Redsetter Royalty Rucami Rumiloba (Rumilo) Rusilva (Brabant) Rutrago (Rucanta) Schoenemann Titan Willamette

Cultivars
Black raspberries derive from Rubus occidentafis, and are widely grown in North America. but in Britain are susceptible to Phytophthora root rots; these include the cultivars Allen, Black Hawk, Bristol, Cumberland, Dundee, Haut, Huron, Jewel. John Robertson, Lowden, Mac Black, Morrison, Munger, New Logan, Plum Farmer, Wyoming.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Page 31

For details of pest and disease resistance and susceptibility, please consult the table s above . Cultivars with soft fruits are generally suited to the fresh market , whilst those with firmer fruits can be machine harvested and are widely used for processing into jams etc .

Summer fruiting cultivars
Season of ripeness corresponds approximately in southern England to the following (and in Scotland to about two weeks later): Early - (ate June to mid or late July Mid-late - mid July to early August Late - mid July to mid August Early-mid - early July to mid or late July Mid - early July to late July Very late - mid-late July to late August Spineless (or very nearly so) cultivars: Anelma , Clutha , Festival. Framita , Glencoe , Glen Ample , Glen Garry , Glen Lyon . Glen Magna, Glen Moy, Glen Rosa, Glen Shee. Glen Yarra, Mammouth Red Thornless, OAC Regal, OAC Regency , Rusilva , Souris , Titan , Tulameen. Algonquin : Canes upright, compact, few thorns. Fruits bright red . medium firm. Hardy. Allen: Mid season. Canes vigorous, productive. Fruits large, firm, juicy, very sweet, black. Amber: Mid season . Canes vigorous , productive . Fruits large , somewhat soft and conical , yellowish-amber , very sweet , good flavour. Heavy bearer; fairly hardy. Amethyst: Mid season . Canes very hardy, productive . Fruits large , glossy purple , easy to pick. Anelma: Mid season. Canes very large and vigorous, very hardy, nearly spineless. Fruits medium size, round, very firm , very sweet. Anita: Very early season . Canes moderately vigorous . Fruits medium-large , conic, medium firm , light red. Good cropper which needs a mild winter climate . Balder: Early season . Canes vigorous, erect, numerous with large leaves hiding fruit. Fruits medium sized , dark dull red, soft, sweet-acid. Very heavy cropper ; very hardy. Beskid: Late ripening, over along period . Canes vigorous, slightly spreading . Fruits medium-large , conic, firm , red. Black: Early season . Canes vigorous. Fruits black , good quality. Heavy cropper. Very hardy commercial cropper from USA. Black Hawk : Ripen mid-late season . Canes extremely vigorous and heavy yielding ; don 't sucker. Fruits large , roundish , glossy black, sweet rich flavour; easily picked . Drought resistant Boyne: Early-mid season. Canes moderately vigorous, sturdy . Fruits medium size . soft , dark red , aromatic, good quality, easily picked . Heavy bearer. Brandywine: Canes extremely vigorous, erect, thorny, do not sucker. Fruits large , conic, firm , reddish-purple , tart aromatic flavour. Very hardy, heavy bearer. Bristol: Mid season . Canes vigorous, upright, compact , sturdy. Fruits large . conical. firm . glossy black , mild flavour. Good cropper. Canby: Mid season . Canes thornless, vigorous , tall. Fruits red, large , firm , excellent flavour. Heavy bearer, very hardy. Centennial : Mid season. Canes upright, long , vigorous , soft prickles . Fruits large, long conic, bright red , mild flavour, medium firm . Chief: Early season . Canes vigorous . Fruits small-medium, cherry red , very firm , good flavour. Very winter hardy. Chilcotin: Early and mid season . Canes moderately vigorous . Fruits large , conic . red . moderately firm, very good flavour. Moderately productive . Chilliwack : Mid season . Canes upright, long , vigorous . Fruits large , very sweet , firm . bright red , very good flavour. Tolerant of wet sites; moderate bearer. Citadel : Mid-late season. Canes very vigorous . fruits large dark red . very firm , good fla vour.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Clutha : Mid-late season. Canes medium strong , semi-upright , fe w spines . Fruits red, medium sized. Good in fairly warm winter regio ns. Comet : Mid season. Canes tall , spin y. Fruits medium-large , very sweet, good quality. Comox: Mid season . Ca ne s vigorous, fairly upright. Fruits very la rge , conic, red , good quality. Very heavy yielder. Cumberland : Early-mid season. Canes vigorous, upright, strong. Fruits bla ck, large. round, firm, excellent fla vour and quality. Ve ry heavy cropper. Grows well in shade. Cuthbert : La te season . Ca nes vigorous, tall. Fruit s medium -la rge, conical , dark red, good flavour. Moderate yielding . Dorman Red : Ve ry late season. Canes vigo rous , non-suckering . Fruits larg e, round, firm . dark red , mild flavour. Very productive, drought resistant. Needs a wa rm climate. Dundee : Mid season . Canes vigorous. tall. Fruits large, black , moderately firm, mild fl avour. Heavy cropper . Early Black: Fruits large, black, sweet; ripens mid season . Very heavy yielding . Earlysweet: Early season. over a shari period . Canes vigo rous , semi-erect , productive. Fruits medium size, black. firm , sweet. Good cropper. Elida: Ve ry early season. Canes vigorous , abundant. Fruits medium size , firm, bright red, conic, fairly food fla vour. Estate : Late season. Canes vigorous, hardy, strong, upright. Fruit purple , large , round, sweet. Fertodi Zamatos: Mid-late season . Can es very lall , hard y, productive. Fruit s medium-large, bright red, firm , good flavour. Festival : Mid season. Canes vigorous, short, nearly spineless, sucker freely. Fruits medium-large , firm , red , fair flavour. Heavy cropper, very hardy. Framita : Canes moderately v igorous. strong, spineless . Fruits medium size, firm , dark red. round . excellent flavour. Gaia: Canes vigorous, ta ll, erect , not too spiny. Fru its large , firm, dark red , round-conic, good flavou r; easily picked . Good croppe r. Gatineau: Early season . Fru its of good flavour. Ve ry hardy . Gina: Very early season . Cane s moderately vigorous, high yielding. Fruits medium-large. red. medium firm, conic. For warm winter areas. Glencoe: Mid season . Canes vigorous, semi-erect , spineless. Fruits medium sized, round-conic . dull purple , very firm , intense flavour, easity picked. Not cold hardy. Glen Ample : Mid season . Ca nes vigorous, upright, spineless. Fruits medium -larg e. bright red, round-conic , firm , excellent flavou r but crumbly in cool cl imates; easily picked . Crops heavily. Glen Clava : Early- mid season . Fruits of good flavour, large , bright red , ripens over a long period. Heavy cropper. Glen Garry: Ea rly-mid season . Canes heavy yie lding , spi neless, moderately vigorous. Fruits very larg e, conic , firm, pale red, excellent fla vou r. Glen Lyon : Early-mid season . Ca nes establish qui ckly, spineless , moderately vigorous. Fruits medium-large , bright red , firm . easity pi cked, acid flavour, keeps well. Glen Magna: Late season . Canes erect, vigorous, moderately numerous, few spi nes. Fruits very large, dee p red, long conic , excellent flavour, moderately firm. Crops very heavil y. Glen May: Ea rly season . Canes erect, vigorous , spine free . Fruits large , firm , good flavour. Crops well. Occas io nally produces autumn fruits on the you ng ca nes. Glen Prosen : Mid season . Canes moderately vigorous . Fruits firm , medium sized. good flavour. Crops wel l.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Page 33

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Glen Rosa : Mid season. Canes moderately vigorous and upright, spineless. Fruits medium sized, red , firm, fairly good ftavour, good quality, easily picked. Moderate cropper, good in cool climates. Glen Shee : Canes vigorous , quite upright, spineless . Fruits slightly pale , firm , fleshy. soft skin. fair flavour. Glen Yarra: Mid season. Canes strong, erect, spineless. Fruits medium·large. firm , red. Adapted to warm winter regions .
Gorden~ Everest :

Fruits produced both on old and new canes, over a long season. Flavour mild .

Golden Queen : Fruits medium sized , golden. soft , with a sugary flavour. Golden West : Mid season. Canes vigorous, tall. Fruits medium sized, firm, yellow. Haida: Mid-late season . Canes stoul, self·supporting . Fruits red, large , firm, good flavour, good for freezing. A heavy cropper from Canada. Haut: Mid~late season. Canes vigorous, freely branching. Fruits medium sized , round, firm, very sweet , black , ripens over a long period. Heavy yielding. Hilton : Mid season. Canes vigorous, compact, erect, self-supporting. Fruits large , long, red , firm , good quality. Good cropper, hardy. Himbo·Queen : Canes vigoro us, sturdy, very long laterals . Fruits very large, conic, bright red, firm , excellent aromatic flavour , easily picked . Very productive. Himbo Star: Canes moderately vigorous, very long laterals. Fruits large, firm, fairly good flavour, easily picked, keep well. Honey Queen: Canes vigorous , high yielding . Fruits medium sized , golden yellow, sweet, mild flavour, few seeds. Hardy. Huron : Very early season. Canes vigorous, productive. Fruits large. Hardy. Jatsi: Canes thick, sturdy, small spines. Fruits large , firm, long , good flavour , difficult to pick. Hardy. Jenkka: Canes thin , flexible . Fruits round, red, firm. Very cold hardy; a reliable yielder. Jewel : Early-mid season. Canes very vigorous , heavy cropper. Fruits larg e, firm , black , slightly downy, ri ch flavour . Hardy. John Robertson : Canes extremely hardy, productive. fruits black , large , medium firm, good quality. Julia: Mid seaso n . Canes erect, vigorous, moderately numerous (plant close ly). Fruits large , well flavoured , dull red , moderately firm, easily picked. Crops heavily. Keriberry: Unusual evergreen black raspberry from New Zealand . Lush foliage, needs semi·shady conditions. Killarney: Mid season . Canes very sturdy, medium size. Fruits larg e, deep red , firm, good quality. Vary hardy and productive . latham: Ripens mid and late season. Canes strong , vigo rous , upright, medium tall. Fruits large , round, deep red, firm, good flavour, often crumbly . Heavy cropper. lawrence: Canes vigorous. Fruits medium-large , sweet, easily picked . Also fruits on primocanes . leo: Very lale season - until late August. Canes uprigh t, very vig orous but slow to multiply in early years, long laterals. Fruits large, round, pubescent , bright orange~red , firm , slightly acid , good flavour. A moderate cropper. Tolerant of poor soils . lloyd George: Mid season. Canes vigorous, may need thin ning . A good cropper. Lowden: Late season. Productive , very hardy. Canes vigorous , upright. Fruits medium-large , black , good flavour.

Mac Black: Late season. Canes vigorous, productive , hardy. Fruits medium-large , very good flavour . Madawaska Red: Very early season . Fruits medium-large , firm , red , sweet. fair quality. Hardy and productive. Mala hat: Early season . Canes vigo rous , fairly upright. Fruits large, firm , conic, red , good flavour, eas ily harvested , keeps well. High yielder.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Mailing Admiral : Mid-late season . Canes vigorous. Fruits large, firm , good flavour, pulls easi ly off plug. Mailing Aug usta : Canes moderate in number, tall, spreading. Fruits medium-large , firm, ovalcon ic, dark red, moderately acid, easily picked . Moderate yields. Mailing Delight: Early-mid season. Fruits very la rg e, excellent flavour, soft (not good frozen) , pulls easily off plug . Mailing Exploit: Early season. Fruits large, good flavour, pulls easil y off plug; heavy cropping. Mailing Jewel : Mid season. Ca nes sturdy. Fruits large, good flavour , pulls easily off plug, hangs well on ca nes. Heavy cropper, frost resistant. Mailing Joy: mid and late season . Canes are tall , spreading, produce a large number of laterals and should be spaced wider than normal. Fru its large, blunt conic, very firm, slightly pubescent , good slightly acid flavou r, pulls easily off plug ; very heavy cropper. Mailing Orion : Mid season over a long period . Fruit s brig ht red, firm, medium size. Mailing Promise : Early season - June. Canes vig orous but slow to multiply at first. Fruits of good flavour, soft, crumbly, pulls easily off plug; heavy yie lding and frost resistant. Mammouth Red Thornless : Early-mid se ason. Canes vigorous, tall , spineless . Fruits very large. coni c, sweet , red , soft , good flavour. Hard y and ve ry productive. Marve: Late season. Canes vigo ro us, strong . Fruits large , red . firm , conic, good flavour. fai rl y easily picked. High yielding . Matsqui: Fruits of good flavour. A hard y, hea vy c ropper from Ca nada. Meeo: Fruits medium sized , soft , good flavour . Very high yielding. Meeker: Mid season . Canes vigorous , tall. Fruits larg e, firm , deep red, very sweet, good quality, ripens over a long period . Very productive. Requi res mild winters. Munger: Mid-late season. Canes stout, vigorous, upright. Fru its medium sized, firm, glo ssy black , sweet flavour. Very hard y, moderate cropper. Newburgh: Ea rly-mid seaso n . Ca nes vigorous, tolerant of heavy and wet soils. Fruits large, firm , very sweet. light red, mild flavour. Very hardy, productive. Nootka: Canes stout, self- su pporti ng . Very hardy se lection from Cana da . Norfolk Giant: Late season. Canes t all and vigo ro us. Fruits of fa ir flavour. A toug h variety which flowers late. Norna: Early-mid ripening. Canes erect, very vigoro us, moderate in number. Fruits large , round , dark red, medium firm , mild fla vou r; easily picked . Nova: Mid season. Canes vigorous, of medium height. Fruits medium-large , dark red , firm, good flavou r. Hardy and productive . OAe Regal : Mid season . Canes vigorous, upright, numerous, few spines . Fruits medium size , red. firm, conic . easily picked . Hig h yield ing , very ha rd y. OAe Regency: Early-mid seaso n. Canes vigorous, few spines. Fruits medium size, firm , conic, easily picked . Heavy yielding , very hardy. Prestige : Early season. Canes medium size, nearly thornless. Fruit large, red. Very heavy cropper. Qualicum : Mid season. Ca nes vig orous, upright. fruit s conic , red, pleasan t flavour, easi ly picked. Rakaia: Mid season . Canes moderately vigorous, semi-upright. Fruits large, dark red, eas ily picked. Fai r to good cropper. Redbrook : Ca nes high yielding , hardy, Fruits large , bright red , sweet. Redsetter: Mid season. Canes moderately vigo rous . Fruits fi rm , large, easi ly seen, good flavour. Crops well. Resa ( Lu cana): Very early season . Canes weak. Fruits medium-large , firm, bright red , good flavour. Yields low.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Reveille: Earl y season. Canes v igorous, upright. strong , freely suckering . Fruits large , bright red , good flavour. Very hardy . Royalty: Late season . Canes vigorous, productive, few suck ers. Fruits large, firm, round, purple, very sweet, good quality. Rubaca (Niniane) : Mid-late season . Canes moderately vigorous, very strong . Fruits medium size , firm, bright red , round-conic , good flavour. Rucami: Mid season. Canes vigorous, thick with long strong laterals . Fruits large, red, firm, aromatic acid flavour. Moderately productive . Rumiloba (Rumilo) : Late season . Canes very vigorous , upright. Fruits large , broad , red , aromatic flavour, easily harvested. Medium to high yielding. Rusilva (Brabant): Mid season. Canes moderately vigorous, thin, nearly spineless . Fruits round, light red , firm , sour, aromatic. High yie ldin g . Rutrago (Rucanta): Late season . Canes vigorous, very strong, erect. Fruits medium size , firm , red, vary aromatic, sweet-acid, easily picked. High yielding. San Diego: Fruits medium sized , good quality. Used in warm regions . Schonemann : Late season . Fruits large, firm . Selwyn: Early season. Canes upright, slow to establish. Fruits medium sized, red , soft, difficult to pick . Sentry: Mid season . Canes vigorous , moderately tall, few thorns . Fruits medium-large , firm , red, good flavour , easily picked . Very winter hardy. Skeena: Canes sturdy, upright. Fruits medium-large, conical, bright red, firm, good quality. Heavy cropper. Sodus: Mid season. Canes sturdy , vigorous , upright, very few thorns . Fruits large , firm, purple, sweet, fair flavour. Heavy yielding . Hardy and drought resistant. Souris : Early-mid season. Canes with few spines , self-supporting . Fruits sma ll. Very hardy. Success: Mid season . Canes erect, heavy yielding . Fruits medium-large , purple , sweet. Very cold hardy. Sunrise: Very early season. Fruits large, firm, bright red, very good flavour. Heavy cropper. Hardy. Taylor: Mid-late season . Canes vigorous , tall , sturdy . Fruits large , very firm , red , very good flavour; ripens over along period . Good cropper . Titan : Early season . Canes moderately vigorous , tall , stout , nearly spineless , sparsely suckering. Fruits very large, sweet , juicy, bright red , mild flavour; ripen over a long period . Ve ry heavy cropper . Tulameen: Mid and late season . Canes vigorous , fairly upright , spine free except at base. Fruits very large, red, firm, of good flavour , easily picked; ripens over very long period. Very productive. Vene: Early ripening. Fruits small , round , glossy dark red , soft. Hardy. Vete" : Early-mid season . Canes moderately vigorous , erect. Fruits large , conic , dark red , acid. High yielding . Waiau: Mid-late season. Canes semi-upright and arching, numerous. Fruits large, red, firm , quite difficult to pick . Good in warm winter regions . Wawi : Fruits small-medium sized, firm , good flavour. High yielding . Willamette: Early season . Canes vigorous , lall. Fruits large , very firm , deep red , tart flavour . Requires mild winters. Very productive . Wyoming : Canes strong , very tall , non-suckering. Fruits purple-black , mild flavour. Quite hardy and heavy cropping. Yellow Antwerp: Mid season. Fruits yellow, quite large, rounded, very good flavour . Zenith : Late ripening over a long period . Canes erect, long , thick . Fruits medium size, red , short , easily picked .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Autumn fruiting (primocane or everbearing) cultivars
Most of these start cropping at the beginning of September in England unless noted otherwise, and continue well into October/November or until the first frosts . Spineless (or very nearly so) cultivars: Alkoopina, AmHy , Autumn Cascade , Autumn Cygnet , Favourite, Gala nte , Joan Squire, Parana, Princess , Red River, Redwing . Aligold· see Golden Bliss. Alkoopina : Canes spineless . Fru its yellow, medium·large , firm. easily picked . Also crops on one

year old canes.
Amity: Canes vigorous, setf·supporting, nearly spineless . Fruits medium sized, very firm , dark red , ripens a week before Heritage . Moderate bearing. August Red: Canes erect, compact, productive. Fruits large , red , excellent flavour. Very hardy. Autumn Bliss: Ripens mid -Aug ust onwards. Canes very prolific, fairly erect , moderate height doesn't need much support. Fruits large , red, firm, mild flavour, easily picked . A good reliable cropper. Autumn Britten: Fruits large , dark red, firm. High yielder. Autumn Cascade: Ripens mid-late August. Canes spineless. Fruits medium-large . dark red, firm, good flavour. Moderate yielder. Autumn Cygnet: Ripens late August. Canes spineless , self-supporting. Fruits medium sized, red , soft, uneven, easily harvested . Good cropper. Bababerry: Canes extremely vigorous. Fruits large , red, good flavour. Needs a warm growing location; drought tolerant. Bogong: Fruits large, red, firm , intense aromatic flavour , easi ly picked. High yielding. Dinkham : Ripens from mid A ugu st. Canes upright, very productive. Fruits medium sized, dark red , very firm , very good flavour; easily picked. Double Delight: Ripens from late August. Canes erect , thick, compact. Fruits small-medium sized , bright red , firm, good sweet-acid flavour. Moderate cropper . Durham : Ripens late August. Canes vigorous, healthy , sturdy, compact. Fruits medium sized, firm , red, good flavour. Fruits both in summer and autumn; very hardy. Fallbrook: Canes semi-erect. Fruit small -medium sized, bright red, sweet ; ripens over a long period . Fallgold : Canes moderately vigorous, productive. Fruits large , round, yellow , sweet, freeze well. Very hardy. Fall Red : Canes vigorous, sturdy, upright. Fruits large , very firm, bright red , excellent flavour. Vary hardy . Favourite : Canes vigorous, erect , spineless. Fruits large , red , long , good flavour, keeps well. High yielding . Galante: Canes prolific, very erect , spineless. Fruits large , red , good flavour, keeps well. A very heavy croppe r. Golden Harvest: Canes vigorous, sturdy, suckers prolifically. Fruits medium-large. bright yellow, good quality. Good cropper. Golden Bliss (Allgold): Yellow fruited sport of Autumn Bliss . Golden Summit: Ripens late August. Canes slightly spiny. Fruits medium sized , conic, firm , golden. Heavy cropper. Developed for machine harvesting . Tolerant of heavy soils. Goldie: Canes vigorous, upright , sturdy, very productive , spread rapidly . Fruits medium sized , sweet, golden , very firm , mild flavour; holds well on canes when ripe. Fairly tolerant of heavy soils.

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Heritage: Ripens from mid September. Canes vigoro us , upright, sturdy, very productive. spread rapidly. Fruits medium sized , sweet, dark red. very firm . mild flavour; holds well on canes when ripe . Fairly tolerant of heavy soils . Hollins: Canes moderately vigorous . Fruits medium sized. light red. easify picked. For warm winter areas; also crops on one year old canes. Indian Summer: Canes vigorous. hardy , productive . Fruits large. conic , aromatic . crumbly, very sweet, bright red. Joan Squire: Canes vigorous , spreading, spineless. Fruits large. firm. red. excellent flavour. Very produclh1e. Jo Mello: Canes moderately vigorous, sturdy, erect. Fruits medium size, bright red . Kiwigold : Canes vigorous, upright. sturdy, very productive , spread rapidly. Fruits medium sized, conic , sweet , yellow, very firm. mild flavour; holds well on canes when ripe . Fairly tolerant of heavy soils . Latham: Canes vigorous, upright , heavily productive. Fruits large, round, deep red , very firm , very good texture and aromatic flavour. Nordic: Ripens from mid September. Fruits medium size. tough skinned , good quality. Ve ry productive and hardy; also produces fruit on 1-year old canes. Oregon 10-30 : Fruits medium sized , good quality. Bears fruit continuously through summer and autumn in warm areas (where it is adapted) . Perron's Red: Canes vigorous, numerous, fairly erect. Fruit large, conic, red, medium firm. Polana: Ripens late August. Canes numerous, erect, sca rce spines . Fruits medium size , compact, aromatic good flavour. Princess: Ripens from mid-August. Canes with few spines. Fruits medium sized, red , good flavour. High yielding . Red Everbearing: Early ripening. Fruits very large , good flavour. Red River: Ripens late August. Canes short, stout. sparsely spined, very hardy. Fruit s mediumsized, glossy red , good sweet-acid flavour. Redwing: Ripens from late August. Canes stout , vigorous , short spines. Fruits dark red , sweet, moderately firm, good flavour. Good cropper; good on heavy soils. Hardy. Rossana: Ripens late September. Canes vigorous , of moderate height. productive . Fruits medium sized , conic , bright red, moderately firm. Quite hardy. Ruby : Canes moderately vigorous and productive. Fruits very large, bright red, co nical, firm, sweet, mild flavour, holds well when ripe . Sceptre: Canes strong , self-supporting. Fruits large , red , crumbly , of good flavour , ripening September onwards; heavy cropping. September: Ripens from mid August. Canes vigorous and numerous - needs thinning. Fruits medium-large, rounded , bright red , sweet, subacid , small -seeded. Hardy, heavy bearer. Southland: Canes moderately vigorous, rapidly suckering. Fruits medium sized, conic, sweet, firm, bright red. Heavy cropper. Heat and drought resistant. Stonehurst: Ripens from mid August. Canes upright. Fruits medium sized, reddish-purple , round , partly hidden by leaves but easily picked. Heavy yielder; also fruits on one-year old canes. Summit: Ripens late August. Canes vigorous, slightly spiny, strong laterals. Fruits sma ll-m edium sized, round , firm , red . Heavy cropper. Developed for machine harvesting. Tolerant of heavy soils. Sweetbriar: Canes upright. Fruits medium sized, rose red , firm, conic, easily picked. Also fruits on one year old canes . Zeva : Ripens from mid August. Canes vigorous though slow to establish , medium height. Fruits very large, conical , dark red, soft, crumbly, very good flavour.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Propagation
Raspberry cultivars are easify propagated by digging up suckers - especially those growing where they aren't wanted. Such canes should be healthy with no sign of leaf discolouring indicating virus diseases. This method should only be used for a few years after planting healthy stock. Pla nts can be grown from seed, though cultivars will nol come true as most are quite highly bred. Seeds require cold stratification and can be sown in early autumn or stratified over winter and sown in spring.

References
Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Displayed. Cassell, 1998. Cane Fruit. ADAS Reference Book 156 , Grower Books, 1983. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases . A.R.T., 1997. Crawford . M: Blackberries. Agroforestry News, Vol 7 No 1, 11-30. Cumm ins, J: Registers of New fruit and Nut Varieties. HortScience. List 35 (Vol 26,8), List 36 (Vol 29,9), List 37 (Vol 30,6), List 38 (Vol 32,5). Dalman, Pet al: Jenkka and Jatsi. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland, Vol 6 ( 1997) , 19-24. Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998. Hills, l: The Good Fruit Guide. HDRA, 1984. Jennings, 0: Raspberries and Blackberries. Academic Press, 1988. Lanska, 0: The Illustrated Guide to Edible Plants. Chancellor Press, 1992. Pritts, M: Raspberries. Journal of Small Fruit & Viticulture, Vol 4, No. 314, 1996, 189-225. Taylor, C E (Ed): Raspberries. Grower Books, 1979. Whea ly, K & Demuth , S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications , 1993.

Book Review
Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests
Ray R Hicks Jr
Joh n Wiley, 1998; 412 pp; £76 .95. ISBN 0-471-13758-8 (hardback). The central hardwood region of the USA range from New York to Georgia and from Maryland to Missouri, covering an area of about 235,000 square miles - the largest contiguous assemb lage of deciduous trees species found anywhere in the world. The maturing stands of mixed species in this region are a rich and valuable resource that is increasingly vulnerable to exploitation. This authoritative book examines all of the key ecological, socia l and economic management options essential to utilise and sustain these woodland effectively. The book first develops the background necessary to understand what makes the hardwood ecosystem function, with a thorough examination of the geography, geology, soils and climate of the region . The humid temperate climate along with soil and topography mean that the vegetation of the region is predominantly deciduous ha rd woods, dominated by oak species. A historical overview is also given of the woodlands evolution and development from pre-European settlement to the present. The silvicultural characteristics of 34 important tree species are detailed. Some of these may be of particular interest to European growers - ego red and sugar maple (Acer rubrum & A.saccharum), hickories (Carya glabra & C.ovala), black wa ln ut (Jug/ans nigra), eastern redcedar (Juniperus

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Page 39

_4#&

±

virg;niana), various oaks (Quercus spp.) , black locust (Robin;a pseudoacacia) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). These descriptions include the ecological role they play . Recommendations are offered for effective forest treatment and management , from specific concerns such as timber production , pollution. and financial planning to broader issues including the biological potential of the entire region. Most existing stands are even-aged, of mixed species composition, and 60-90 years of age , and are well suited to intermediate management methods (thinning & improvement) . The book is generously illustrated with graphs and photos , and will be important reading for everyone with a stake in the future of this critical living resource including foresters and environmental scientists . It will also be valuable reading for foresters and managers of European mixed sta nd forests .

Video review
The Synergistic Garden
A step by step guide to the methods of Synergistic Agriculture

Emilia Hazelip
Permanent Publications, 1999; 30 min s; £14.00 + £2.50 P & P from the publishers (see below). ISBN 1-85623-012-0 Inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka 's classic One Straw Revolution , Emilia Hazelip has developed her own methods of organic gardening in France over the last 30 years which she has named 'synergistic agriculture'. In this video she explains and demonstrates her system over a seasonal cycle. A Synergistic garden is an organic food growing system which combines techniques , many of which will be familiar to organic gardeners, including permanent mulching of beds , companion planting and raised beds. After paths are dug out to initially create the raised beds , they are never again dug, and never again left with bare soil exposed to the elements . She uses straw mulches but emphaSises that other organic mulches are possible. Vegetables are sown into beds or transplanted as seedlings. All plant residues are left on the surface to act as a mulch themselves. No fertilisers are used at all - legumes like beans are used to import nitrogen into the garden, and the mulches themselves add nutrients. Some vegetables are allowed 10 self-seed, the seedli ngs to be transplanted into beds later. The video sound and vision quality is quite good and show Emilia's garden as a wonderfully resilient and beautiful ecosystem which functions in a very sustai nable way . The one problem with following her example in our wetter climate ma y be that permanent mulches are a wonderful haven for slugs and snails which, as we all know, can be a terrib le pest (Emilia has ducks to eat slugs but they have developed a fondness for greenery too) . Nevertheless, the princip les she espouses are sound and this video should be of great interest to all organic vegetable gardeners. Available from : Permanent Publications , Hyden House Ltd, The Suslai nability Ce ntre, East Mean, Hants, GU32 1 HR. Tel: 01730 823311. Email: hello@permaculture.co .uk.

Classified adverts
25p/word, minimum 5.00. 20% discount for subscribers.
ECO·LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permacullure, sustainable systems deSign and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath Bath , BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472. NUTWOOD NURSERIES is a specialist nut nursery offering all sorts of nut trees suitable for the British climate . To receive our catalogue, send 2 first class stamps to NUTWOOD NURSERIES, 2 MI LLBROOK COTIAGES, HELSTON, CORNWALL , TR13 OBZ.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 3

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. [t can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £!8 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list uf back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x Ist class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Volume 7 Number 4

July 1999

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 7 Number 4

July 1999

Contents
2 3 4 12 14 17 22 29 36 News Forest garden guided tour Comus species Propagation: Root cuttings Forest gardening: Annuals Pest & disease series: Honey fungus Medicinal plants: Processing Beneficial insects in orchards Book reviews: Biological Control of Weeds / Success
with Growing Fruit in Containers / Propagating Plants / Drought-Resistant Gardening / The Sustainable Forestry Handbook / Bob Flowerdew's Organic Bible / The Theory and Practice of Agroforestry Design

39

The yellowhorn: Xanthoceras sorbifolium

The views expressed in Agrororestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforeshy News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere , may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforeslry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops . Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published Quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon. Dartington, Totnes . Devon. Tag 6JT. U.K. Email : AgroResTr@aol .com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTrlhomepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 1

News
Sheep in the woods
A 300 hectare (750 acre) woodland is to planted in Perthshire , Scotland , to demonstrate how new native y.'oodlands and grazing sheep can co·exist harmoniously . The design of the wood , which will mainlY 1consist of Scots pine and birch, includes 80 hectares (200 acres) of open spaces, and avenues to allow for sheep access and gathering . Sheep will be allowed to graze in parts of the wood in the summer once the trees have established well enough to withstand their presence.
Source : Tree News , Spring 1999

Blackberries and Raspberries
A new booklet with this title is now available from the A.R.T . It gathers together and extends the information from the articles in Agroforestry News Vol 7 No 1 & Vol 7 No 3, providing a complete guide to the cultivation of the bramble fruits . Blackberries 3119/99). and Raspberries. ISBN 1-874575-39-4. Price £10.00 (post-free until

Mice in forest gardens
Several readers have mentioned problems with mic e in their forest gardens. There is certainly a large population in our 2 acre forest garden, where they love to inhabit planted and bark mulched areas, and also areas of grass under woven black polythene mulch where it stays for a year to kill off existing ground cover. However, we have not noticed any particular damage caused , and there are plenty of predators (owls, buzzards, farm cat) to stabilise the population. Agroforestry systems, including forest gardens , are characterised by an ecological enhancement of the habitat compared with monocultures. offering better shelter and food conditions over a longer period. Rodents are likely to take advantage of the improved ecological diversity and their numbers may cause problems . At particular risk are any seed crops. In domestic forest gardens in Britain , there are likely to be several cats in the vicinity , and the best way of keeping numbers of mice under control is to attract cats into the garden (ie to utilise them as a biological control) . Several plants are very good cat attractants, notably:

Actinidia spp . - kiwis. Climbing shrubs . Need sun and shelter from spring frosts . Best to establish plants for a few years before training some of the new shoots each year near to ground level, where cats will decimate them. Menyanthes triroliata - bogbean . A wetland perennial needing wet soil or shallow water and sun. Nepeta cataria - catnep. Perennial, easily raised from seed, needs to be planted in a sunny location. Cats will make a beeline for the spot and love to lie there and may roll over on plants . Po/emonlum caeruleum - Jacob' s ladder. Perennial which likes a part or fully shaded site . Cats like to roll over on plants. Polemonlum reptans - abscess root. Perennial which likes a part or fully shaded site . Cats like to roll over on plants. Teucrium marum - cat thyme . A low evergreen shrub needing a sunny well-dra in ed site ; won't tolerate winter wet. Cats love the plant and may decimate parts of it. Valeriana officlnale - valerian . Perennial needing a sunny site . Cats are attracted by the root and particularly by the powdered root (make you own cat-attracting powder?) V.sambucifofia has simi lar properties.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

e

ZL

Agroforestry Research Trust
Tour of forest garden site - 1999
The ART is inviting interested visitors on a tour of our Dartington forest garden site (now 5 years old), led by Martin Crawford, on Sunday 1st August Please see the map below for directions - park at the Craft/Adult Education Centre car park. Meet at the car park! forest garden site to start at 10.30. The tour will take about 2-2Y> hours.
You may like to bring a picnic lunch with you which you are welcome to eat in the garden. No dogs please.

AJ84 10 A38 &
Buckfastleigh

Foresl garden

Adult Education Centre

Week
to

Darringtoll Hall (I mile)

AJ85

"Plymo<~

II

o~====~--

________
A385 to Totnes (I mile)

Dartinglon vi ll age

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

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Cornus species
Introduction
The genus Comus comprises some 45 species of perennials , shrubs and trees , mostly deciduous , from temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Often grown for their ornamental value , Comus species can also supply a variety of useful products , from the well·known fruits of the Cornelian cherry (Comu s mas) to lesser known fruits . numerous medicinal products , dyes , hard wood for small items like skewers and tool handles, food for bees etc, Most species grow well in any soil, acid or chalky, and many lolerale poorly drained soil. Comus species are resistant to honey fungus. All

Comus alba - Tatarian dogwood
Deciduous rampant shrub from Siberia, China and Korea. Grows to 3 m (10 fI) high, with red stems . Yellowish-white flowers in May and June are followed by blue fruits. Hardy to -30°C or more. Often coppiced annually for ornamental coloured stems. Uses: Bee plant in May-June: source of nectar and pollen. Used in hedges.

Comus aitemifolia - Green osier, Pagoda dogwood
Deciduous shrub or small tree from Eastern N.America , where it is found in woodlands and forest margins. Grows quickly to 6-8 m (20-27 tt) in height and width; likes sun or light shade and any soil. White flowers in June are followed by blue-black fruits. Short lived. Hardy to -25°C. Uses : Medicinally, the dried bark is used as an astringent , and a decoction of the inner bark to reduce fevers . A light to dark-brown dye is obtained from the roots with the addition of vinegar. The wood is heavy, hard, close grained. locally for turnery . If is too small to be of commercial value, but is used

Comus amomum - Silky dogwood, Silky cornel
Deciduous shrub from Eastern N.America , found near streams and damp sites . Grows to 3-4 m (10-13 tt) high ; likes any soil and sun or light shade. Yellowish-white flowers in July are followed by greyish-blue fruits . Hardy to -20°C or so. Often planted ornamentally for its reddish-purple shoot tips . The closely related Comus obJiqua (Silky dogwood , to 4 m (13 tt ), from Eastern N.America) probably has the same uses. Uses: The fruits are edible - raw or cooked . 8 mm in diameter, they are said to be good to eat. MediCinally, the dried root-bark is antiperiodic , astringent, stimulant (mild) , tonic ; the flowers are said to have similar properties . A tea or tincture of the astringent root bark has been used as a quinine substitute and also in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea. The bark was also used as a poultice on external ulcers . The glucoside 'cornin' found in the bark has astringent properties. The fruits are used as a bitter digeslive tonic . A tincture of them has been used to restore tone to the stomach in cases of alcoholism. The powdered bark is used as a tooth powder.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Comus asperifo/ia drummondii (Syn. C.drummondii)
Deciduous upright suckering shrub or small tree from Central N.America. Grows quickly to 4-6 m (13-20 ft) high; likes any soil and sun or light shade, Yellowish-white flowers in June and July are followed by white fruits. Hardy to _1SDC or so. Uses: This is sometimes used in shelterbelt plantings on the plains of N. America. Its spreading underground stems are effective in controlling soH erosion. The wood is - heavy, hard, strong, durable, close grained; used for small wooden articles and formerly for arrow shafts.

Comus canadensis - Creeping dogwood, Dwarf cornel, Bunchberry
A perennial carpeting plant from North America, found in woods and thickets. Grows to 15 em (6") high and spreads widely; likes any soil apart from alkaline. Greenish-white flowers in June are followed by red fruits. Very hardy . to -35 c C or so. Uses: The fruits are edible - raw or cooked ; Pleasant and juicy but without much flavour, they are high in pectin and about 6 mm in diameter. The seeds resemble poppy seeds in fla vou r. When cooking fruits, they can be strained out after boiling and mixed with apples or berries, or used in preserves or sauces. Medicinally, a tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of aches and pains, kidney and lung ailments, coughs, fevers and as an eye wash. A tea made from the roots has been used to treat infant colic. Creeping dogwood makes a good dense ground cover plant, growing well in light woodland; it also makes a good component of a mix. When established it can spread 60 - 90 cm (2-3 ft) per year.

Comus capitata - Bentham's cornel
Evergreen small tree or large shrub from Himalayan forests. Grows to 6 m (20 tt) high and wide in Europe; likes any soil and sun or part shade. Very small flowers in June and July are followed by strawberry-like fruits loved by birds. Hardy to about -1 ocC.

Uses: The fruits are edible - raw or cooked. The flavour can vary from bitter to sweet and banana-like on different trees. The fruits are crimson, about 25 mm (1") in diameter with a number of seeds and a tough slightly bitter skin, and ripen in late autumn to early winter.
The wood is very hard, close grained but warps when being seasoned . Used mainly for fuel.

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Comus controversa - Giant dogwood, Table dogwood
Deciduous tree from Eastern Asia , found in woods and hedges. Grows to 9-15 m (30-50 ft) high and wide; likes any soil and sun or light shade . Flowers in June and July are followed by blueblack fruits. Hardy to -20°C or more. Uses: The fruits are edible; about 6 mm in diameter. The wood is used for turnery .

,

Comus coreana
Deciduous tree from Korea , growing to 20 m (70 tt) high ; likes any soil and sun or light shade . Hardy to -20°C. Uses: The wood is very hard , heavy ; used for mallets etc.

Comus florida - Flowering dogwood, White dogwood
Deciduous shrub or small tree from Eastern N.America , found in the understorey of woods. Grows to 6-10 m (20-33 tt) high and 8 m (27 tt) wide ; likes any soil and sun or light shade , but susceptible to late spring frost damage, and needs a long , hot, humid summer to thrive . Flowers, green with large white bracts , in May are followed by scarlet fruits . Hardy to -20°C or more. Uses : The fruits (scarlet, 10 mm , 0.4across) can be eaten when cooked but are bitter and may be poisonous - not recommended. Medicinally, the dried root-bark is antiperiodic, astringent , stimUlant (mild) , tonic . The flowers are said to have similar properties . A tea or tincture of the astringent root bark has been used as a quinine substitute and also in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea. The bark was also used as a poultice on external ulcers. The glucoside 'cornin' found bark has astringent in the properties . The inner bark was boiled and the tea drunk to reduce fevers . The fruits are used as a bitter digestive tonic. A tincture of them has been used to restore tone to the stomach in cases of alcoholism. A red dye is obtained from the fibrous root. The peeled twigs have been used as toothbrushes , apparently good for whitening the teeth. A bla ck ink can be made from the bark mixed with gum arabic and iron sulphate . The wood is hard, heavy , strong , close grained , takes a good polish . It is used for wheel hubs , tool handles, bearings , turnery etc .

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Comus giabrata - Western cornel, Brown dogwood
Deciduous shrub from Western N.America. Grows to 6 m (20 ft) high but more often 3-3 .5 m (1012 ft) . White flowers in June are followed by whitish-blue fruits . Hardy to -20°C .

Uses :
The shoots are used for basketry .

Comus kousa - Japanese dogwood, Kousa
Deciduous large shrub or small tree from Eastern Asia . Grows 7-10 m (23-33 ft) high and 6 m (20 ft) across, though usually much smaller than this in cultivation; likes any soil and sun or part

shade .

Dense heads of flowers in June

are followed by pinki sh-red strawberrylike fruits . Hardy to -25°C.
The sub-species C. kousa chinensis (barely distinguishabl e from the species,

though more Iree-like in habit) - Chinese dogwood - grows more vigorously and flowers and fruits better in Britain . Uses : The fruits are edible when they ripen in late summer - raw or cooked , 2 cm (O . 8 ~ ) in diameter. The skin is rather tough and unpleasanl, but the pulp is sweet, juicy and delicious wilh a custard-like texture . The young leaves have been eaten when cooked, probably as a famine food. The wood is very hard and heavy - used for mallets etc .

Comus macrophyl/a - Large leaved dogwood
Deciduous tree or tall shrub from Eastern Asia, found in woodlands. G rows to 9-15 m (30-50 ft) high and 10 m (33 ft) wide; like s and soil and sun or light shade . Yellowish-white flowers in July and August are followed by blue-black fruits . Hardy to -20°C. Closely related to this, and probably with the same uses, are Comus monbeigii (deciduous shrub from Chi na , grows to 5 m (16 ft) high , black fruits, hardy to -15°C) and Comus poliophylfa (deciduous shrub from Western Chi na, grows to 4 m (13 ft) high , hardy 10 -1S0C). Uses : The fruils are edible ; round , about 6 mm in diameter. Medicinally, the bark is anodyne, astringenl , tonic . It is used in the treatment of dysentery. The wood is anodyne and a uterosedative . The wood is hard , close grained , warps badly . It makes a good charcoal.

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Comus mas - Cornelian cherry, Sorbet
Large deciduous shrub or small tree from Europe . Grows to 5 m (16 ft) in height and width ; likes any soil and sun or light shade. Ha rdy 10 -25°C. For a full description of the Co rnelian Cherry, including fruiting cultivars, see the article in Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 2.

Uses:
The fruits are ed ible raw, dried and used in preserve s; they can also be used to make wine and

liqueur. The flowers are ed ible , used as a flavouring - used in Norway to flavour spirits.
An oil can be extracted from the seeds (only practical on a large scale) - oi l content of seeds is up to 34%. The oil is edible and can be used for lamp fuel (Ie an illuminanl) . The seeds can also be roasted and ground to make a coffee sUbstitute . The bark and fruit are used medicinally, being astringent and febrifuge ; they are used for bowel complaints. Flowers are also used medicinally , for diarrhoea. Numerous other uses in folk medicine have been noted. The stones and leaves , containing easily extracted tann ins , are used in Russia for preparing medicina l drugs. Recent Russian resea rch reports that the fruit contains substances that leach radioactivity from the body . The flowers are valued by bees (hive and wild bumble bees but mostly the latter) and are a good ea rly season sou rce of nectar and pollen. In Russia it is regarded as an excellent honey plant. The leaves are high in tannin and can be used for tanning . A yellow dye is obtained from the bark , used for dyeing wool. The WOOd. though never avai lable in large sizes , has considerable value because of its very hard, tough, flexible, durable nature; it is heavier than water. It is valued for turnery and used for making sma ll articles for domestic use (skewers, handles , utensils), flutes, jave lins, whee l spo kes , gears and ladders. The Greeks and Romans used it for making wedges to split wood, pins and bolts and in spears. The tree is used in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in screens and windbreaks. trimming and makes an impenetrable hedge . It tolerates

Comus 'Norman Hadden'
This hybrid of C.kousa and c.capitata is often planted ornamentally. It is a small tree, usually deciduous, growing to 6 m (20 ft) high. It bears numerous flowers followed by large crops of red fruits . Hardy to -25°C. Uses : The red fruits are edible - raw or cooked. The wood is very hard and heavy - used for mallets etc.

Comus nuttallii - Mountain dogwood, Pacific dogwood
Deciduous tree or tall shrub from Western North America. found in coniferous woodlands. Grows to 10 m (33 tt) high or more and 7 m (23 ft) in width; likes any acid soil and sun or light shade, and needs a long, hot, humid summer to thrive. Yellowish-white flowers in May are followed by orangered fruits. Ha rdy to -15°C. Uses : Medicinally, the bark is antiperiodic, febrifuge , laxative, tonic. used as a quinine substitute in the treatment of malaria . An infusion made from the bark is

The wood is hard , heavy, stro ng , close grained - used for tool handles , cabinet making , turnery , implements etc.

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Comus occidentalis
Deciduous sh rub or small tree from Wes tern N.America, found in moist sites_ Grows to 2-6 m (620 ttl high and wide; likes any soil and sun or part shade. Hardy to -20° C.

Uses :
The white fruits have been eaten (raw or cooked) but are bitter and acid - not recommended. Medicinally , the plant is used as an ophtha lmic.

Comus officinalis - Japanese cornel, Japanese cornelian cherry
Deciduous shrub or small tree from China and Korea, closely related to the Cornelian cherry, Comus mas. Grows to 10 m (33 ft) high and in width; likes any soi l and sun or light shade. Yellow flowers in February-

March (before the leaves open) are
followed by sca rl et fruits. Hardy to 20° C. Closely related to this and probably with the same uses are

Comus chinensis (deciduous shrub
from China, grows to 10m (33 ft) high , fruits black, hardy to .1Q0C) and Comus sessilis (deciduous shrub from Northern California, hardy to ·15° C, grows to 3 m (10 fI) high, fruits purplish·black).

Uses :
The fruits are edible· raw or cooked. The furly ripe fruit, 15 mm (O.6~) long , is quite pleasant but slightly astringent (they contain tannins) . It is about 1.5 cm long and contains about 8.6% sugars. Medicinally, the fruit is antibacterial. antifungal, hypotensive , antitumor , astringent, diuretic , haemostatic , hepatic, tonic; long used in Chinese medicine . The fruit, without the seed, is decocted for the treatment of arthritis, fever and a wide range of other ai lm ents. It is used in the treatment of senile lumbago , diabetes, cystitis etc. The fruit is harvested when fully ripe and is dried for later use. The stem bark is astringent, antimalarial and tonic. The seeds are antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus. The plant is bactericidal. diuretic, hypotensive and a urinary antiseptic - a pulp is used for cancer treatment.

Comus rugosa - Round-leaved dogwood, Green osier
Deciduous tree-like shrub from Eastern N.America. Grows to 2-3 m (6-10 ft) high ; likes and soil and sun or light shade. White flowers in May and June are followed by pale blue fruits. Hardy to 25° C .

Uses:
Medicinally, the plant is febrifuge and tonic. Bee plant in May-June.

Comus sanguinea - Dogwood, Dogberry, Blood-twig
Deciduous erect suckering shrub from Europe. Grows to 4 m (13 ft) high and 5 m (16 ft) wide; likes any soil and sun or part sha de . White , very fragrant flowers in June are followed by blueblack fruits . Hardy to · 25° C. Some cullivars are planted ornamentally (and coppiced annually) for their orang e stems.

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Closely related to Comus sanguinea, and with similar uses are Comus australis (deciduous shrub from Asia Minor, which grows to 4 m (13 ft) high ; hardy to -15°C) and Comus iberica (deciduous shrub from the Caucasus , found in woods and thickets ; grows to 4 m (13 ft) high) . Uses: The fruits (6 mm across) have been eaten (raw or cooked) but are bitter and emetic and are not recommended. An oil is ob tained from the seed (45%) wh ich is edible when refined. It can also be used in soapmaking~ and lighting. Medicinally, the bark is astringent and febrifuge ; the leaves are sometimes used externally as an astringent; the fruit is emetic. Used in hedging. Plants can be copp iced regu larly and wi ll throw up long straight stems after coppiced, which can be used for basketry , as can other young stems on plants. A non-drying oil, 19-35% by weight, is also obtained from the pericarp (ie the flesh and shell surrounding the seed), wh ich can be used for lighting . A greenish -blue dye is obtained from the fruit. The wood is tough, hard - used for small items such as tool handles, skewers, toothpicks , arrows , utensils, mill cogs, turnery etc; also makes good fuel. A good quality charcoal is obtained from the wood. The plant is reported as having an antifungal action against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis).

Comus st%nifera - Red osier dogwood
Deciduous suckering shrub from North America. Grows rampantly to 2-3 m (6-10 tt) high and 4 m (13 rt) wide; likes any soil and sun or light shade. Yellowish-white flowers in May and June are followed by white fruits. Ve ry hardy - to -35°C. Often planted ornamentally (and coppiced ann ually) for its reddish or yellow shoots. Uses: The white fruits have been eaten (raw or cooked) but are bitter and may be poisonous - not recommended. The seeds yield an oil which is edible after processing. Medicinally, the bark and the root bark are -astringent , febrifuge , purgative (fresh bark), slightly stimulant and tonic. The powdered bark has been used as a toothpowder to preserve the gums and keep the teeth white. The flowers are very attractive to bees in May-June: source of nectar. Used in hedging. A fibre obtained from the bark is used as rope . A red dye is obtained from the roots. An oil obtained from the seed burns well and can be used in lighting. The branches are pliable , they are used as rims in basket making. The stem wood is very tough and flexible . Plants can be grown as a tall ground cover for colonising la rge areas. The cultivars 'Flaviramea' and 'Kelseyi' are compact and low-spreading stoloniferous shrubs recommended for ground cover.

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=
Comus suecica - Dwarf cornel
Perennial from Northern temperate regions . Grows to 15 em (6~) high ; requi res a moist peaty acid sandy soil. Red flowers with white bracts in Ju ne and July are followed by scarlet fruits. Hardy to 35°C. Closely related to thi s (in fact a hybrid of C.canadensis and thiS), probably with the same uses, is Comus x unalaschkensis (perennial from Northern N .America, grows to 15 em (6 - ) high).

Uses :
The fru its have been eaten (raw or cooked) but are bitter and unpalatable - not recommended . They are rich in pectin. Med icinally, the fruit is considered to be a good tonic for the appetite. A good ground-cover plant , succeeding under trees and sh rubs (but prefers more lig ht tha n C.canadensis).

Pests and diseases
The only problem of note is Corn us or dogwood anthracnose , a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. This causes black spots to ap pear on leaves , and bad attacks can severely bla cken and distort leaves. leading to defoliation and even dieback of lower branches. In Britain , attacks are worst duri ng prolonged wet weather in spring, when Comus mas can suffer moderate damage . C.florida and C.nuttallii are also very susceptible , while other moderately suscepti ble species include C.alba , C.con(roversa, C.kousa chinensis, and C.sto/onifera, though these asre only affected when already weakened. The disea se has recently appeared in North America whe re it has decimated C. florida populations. Anth ra cnose is worse where plants are grown in shad y locations and where plants are stressed by droug ht, hence cu rrent recommendations for preventi ng too much disease damage are to make sure plants receive at least 30% full sun , and keep mu lched to preve nt the soil drying out too much. Badly infected branches can be cut out and burnt.

Propagation
Seed of most species needs cold stratification before it wi ll germina te· ideally obtain ripe fruits , remove seed and sow immediately, exposing to winter cold. Many species can be propagated by softwood cuttings taken in summer and rooted under mist or in a closed humid environment. Such plants need protection th e following winter. So me species, eg o C.alba and C.sto /onifera, are easily propagated by hardwo od cutt ings taken in autumn and rooted in the open ground or und er cover.

References
Ag roforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants Database, 1999. Bean , W J: Trees and Sh rub s Hardy in the British Isles, VaiL John Murray, 1973. Brown, D A et al : Resistance to dogwood anthracnose amo ung Comus Species. Journa l of A rboricu lture, 1996, 22: 2, 83·86 . Buczacki, S & Harris, K: Pests , Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants . Collins , 1998. Daughtrey, M et al : Dogwood anthracnose. Plant Disease, 1996, 80 : 4, 349· 358. Duke, J & Ayensu, E: Medicina l Plants of Chi na. Reference Publications, 1985. Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plan ts with Pest·Control Properties . John W iley , 1988. Krussman , G: Manua l of Broad·Leaved Trees and Sh rub s. Batsford, 1984 . Wa lker , M: Harvesting the Northern Wi ld . The Northern Publishers, 1984.

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Propagation:

Root cuttings
I ntrod uction
Trees, shrubs and perennials that are suitable for propagating from root cuttings are generally those which produce sucker growth and which form dense thickets of vegetation in the wild. The root systems of such plants are thick and fleshy , and thus capable of high carbohydrate storage .

Taking root cuttings
A key factor for success with root cuttings is the time of year they are taken - most do best when laken in late winter, when maximum carbohydrate storage has taken place. The age and health of the stock plant is another important factor: the best stock plants are under 5 years of age, and young roots (preferably 1 year-old) taken as close to the crown of the plant as possible will have the greatest capacity to regenerate. A permanent system for supplying young roots would be provided by lifted and replanting a stock plant each winter, using roots for cuttings and trimming back top growth to keep the shoot : root ratio in proportion. Stock plants will need feeding and irrigating to continue production of usable roots for propagation each year. Growing stock plants in containers a possibility, particularly for very invasive species . The roots should be washed free of soil before cutting into lengths which depend on the rooting potential of the species and on the propagating facilities. Vigorous hardy plants (eg. Rhus lyphina) produce long fleshy roots which can be planted directly (ve rtically)i n the ground in late winter - such root cuttings need to be 10-15 cm (4-6~) long and at least 5 mm (0.2 ") in diameter. Regeneration may take up to 16 weeks in outdoor conditions , but in a protected environment (cold fame , greenhouse , poly tunnel), regeneration may only take 8-10 weeks and the cutting need only be 50 · 60 mm (2-2.4") long. If basal heat is used (18" C, 65" F) then the size can be reduced even further, to 25-30 mm (1-1.2 ") long and the regeneration time reduced to 4-6 weeks. Roots which regenerate easily can be cut into appropriate lengths and placed horizontally in the growing medium and covered. More difficult subjects respond better if the cutt ings are placed verti ca lly, with the polarity maintained - ie the end of the root nearest the crown becomes the top of the cutti ng. This is easier if, when cut , the cuttings are made with a flat cut on the top end and a slanting cut on the bottom.

It is not appropriate to use hormone rooting compounds , which stimulate roots but suppress shoot development.
A common cause of failure is rotting in la te winter I early spring, which happens easily if root cutti ng s are kept too moist. Take care, whichever method is used below, to keep the cuttings only ju st mOist; they will need little watering before growth starts . Another cause of failure is impatience - top growth often starts before root growth , so make sure that roots are growing well before transplanting the cutting s.

Open ground
Pre-callusing root cuttings is a technique which is particularly useful when planting cuttings in open ground. The cuttings are treated by burying them in bundles of 10-20 , depending on size , in an open

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h
moist medium. The cuttings are kept at a constant 5°c (40°F) for 6·6 weeks under cover in a well ventilated building. After treatment. when weather conditions are suitable, they can be planted out. This process reduces the winter survival period of the cuttings and conserves energy for the

regeneration process .
The soil should be well cultivated . with good drainage. If cuttings are placed in lin es, then trenches can be made which are refilled with friable sailor sand or a mixture. Species suitable for open ground root cuttings produce long vigorous root systems which can tolerate winter soi l conditions . They include the following species:

Ailanthus altissima Cochfearia armoracia Crambe spp.

Rhus typhina Symphytum spp.

Protected environment
Cold frames or poly tunnels allow a greater control of growth and improve success rates dramatically for root cuttings. The soil or compost used should be friable and of good drainage, slightly acid in pH (5.5-6.5) and cutti ng s placed in rows. The root cuttings can be planted in containers such as pols and trays and placed in a frame I tunnel - particularly useful when propagating invasive pla nts, ego horseradish , where the smallest piece of root remaining after lifting the cutting may cause a weed problem. Cuttings can be covered with grit. perlite or vermiculite to ensure good aeration. The following species (as well as those listed for open ground propagation above) can be propagated by root cuttings with these conditions :

Acanthus spp. Althaea offieina/e Aralia spp. Broussonetia spp. Catalpa spp. Chaenomeles speciosa C/adrastis lutea Comptonia peregrina asplenifolia Echinacea spp. Elaeagnus angustifo/ia Geranium spp. Gymnocfadus spp. Maackia amurensis

Mac!ura pomifera Mentha spp. Pau!ownia tomentosa Populus alba Populus tremu!a Primula denticulata Rhus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Sassafras albidum Toona sinensis Xanthoceras sorbifolium Yucea spp. (April/M ay)

Heated environment
If basal heat can be applied in a polylunnel or greenhouse, in addition to the conditions described above for protected environments, then still more species can be propagated . It is important that the air temperature be kept as cool as possible (but above freezing ) - ideally around 2°C (36° F) as warm air temperatures can force excessive shoot growth at the expense of root growth. Cuttings can be potted on when they have fully regenerated with an adequate new root shoot ratio . SpeCies which can be propagated this way (in addition to all those above) include:

Akebia spp. Koefreuteria paniculata Passiffora caerulea

Phellodendron amurense Zanthoxylum spp.

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Forest gardening: Annuals and biennials
Introduction
Forest gardening is all about the planting of perennials . shrubs and trees to form a stable and selfsustaining system needing minimum input of time and effort , so where do annuals and biennials (and other ephemeral plants such as short-lived perennials) fit in? One place may be in sunny clearings where an area is regularly cultivated for common garden vegetables, though uses which are more integrated into forest gardens do exist.

There are almost always going to be gaps in the ground cover or bare spaces under trees or where a tree or shrub has died or been harvested. Sometimes these gaps will be seasonal - for example where spri ng bulbs are planted , or where a deciduous ground cover is late to emerge into leaf in the spring . Other gaps will be one-off situations which can occur at any time of the year due to a variety of causes which may be predictable or unforeseen.
Wherever and whenever bare gaps do occur and the soil is exposed, it is beneficial to encourage a covering of plants as quickly as possible (to maintain soil structure and health , and reduce lea ching of nutrients), and this is where ephemeral plants - annuals, biennials and short-lived perennials - can be of great value. These plants grow from seed very quickly and form a covering layer over the soil much soone r than existing ground covers at the edges of Ihe gap can re-invade to cover the soil, and they give the existing ground covers time to spread wh il e still keeping the soi l covered. Some of the ephemeral plants can act as explorers: if they maintain a presence in the garden , they can self-seed and will in effect seek out and colonise bare areas near parent plants . If gaps are some distance from se lf- seeding ephemerals and some help is needed, the seeds can simply be picked by hand and broadcast in the gap. If desirable ephemerals have been out-competed or were never present in the garden, then their seed can be obtained (from seeding plants elsewhere or bought) and broadcast. If the gap to be seeded received plentiful light (ie sun or light shade), then some of the best species 10 use are standard garden green manure species , whose seed is cheap to purchase. They are very fast growing and some are nitrogen-fi xing too . Where described below, their sowing rates have been increased from those used on open ground to take account of light com petiti on and predation. In shadier locations, more careful selection of plants may be needed. Large-seeded species may require transplants to be raised and planted out in gaps , rather than be sown , unless the weather cond itions are settled warm and wet for a while . It is best not to dig over ground then sow seeds, as numerous weed seeds will be brought to the surface which may include docks , nettles and other undesirable species. Large bare areas could even be used for more standard garden vegetables if enough sun falls on the area for long enough.
If bare areas appear each year , or are expected to when planting a garden , then it may to include ephemerals in a planting scheme , mixed with longer-lived plants . They chosen to complement each other - usually the situation will be that deciduous ground down in late autumn and leave the soil bare until growth starts in the spring , thus any shou ld actively

be suitable should be covers die ephemeral

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grow over winter and ideally be able 10 self-seed before Ihe ground covers smother it the following spring . Better and faster cover is nearly always achieved when more than one species is used. mixtures can be sown with inlenlionally complementing species - eg o one lall , one low species which occupy similar niches, in which case some may do better than others . Seed or of

Species needing good light conditions
These can either be allowed to flower and die or, if the surrounding ground covers grow vigorously and increase shading , they will be out-competed and will die back.
Atriplex hortensis (D rach) - annual , fast growing spinach . Sow to achieve plants every 20 cm.

and easily grown.

The leaves are used like

Borago officinalis (Borage) - annua l. Grows quickly, deep rooted . Bees love the fl owers, wh ich are also edible as are the young leaves ; all parts are medicinal. Sow to achieve plants every 10 em. Brassica juncea (Winter mustard) - ann ual. f ast growing . Used in spring and summer. Bees love the fl owers. Leaves are edible as are the seeds which make a mustard . Sow at 15 g 1m 2 . Brassica napus (Rape) - annual. a common ly grown garden green manure . Used in late spring and summer, though in mil d areas it may overwinter. Bees lo ve the plant and the who le plant is edible , including the seeds which make a mustard . Sow at 15 g 1m 2 . Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat) - annual for using in spring and summ er, a commonly grown garden green manure. Very deep rooting, grows we ll on poor dry soi l. Flowers are very attracti ve to hoverflies and bees. The leaves and seeds are edible. Sow at 10 g 1m 2 . Limnanthes douglas;; (Poached egg plant) - annual which overwinters and dies down in summer. Bees and hoverflies love the flowers. Sow thickly . Lupinus angustifolius (Bitter blue lupin) - a nitrogen-fixing annual , a commonly grown garden green manure. Grows well on poor soils and has a very deep root system. Bees love the flowers . The seeds are not normally edi ble unless a special low-alkaloid variety like 'Uniwhite' is grown. Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 10 cm . Malva pusilla - annual which good qua lity edib le leaves for sa lads . Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 20 cm. Phacelia tanacetifolia - annual , a commonly grown garden green manure. Best used as a spring and summer cover . Bees love the flowers . Sow at 6 g 1 m 2. Pisum sativum arvense (Fie ld peas) - nitrogen-fixi ng annual. The seeds , young pods and shoot tops are edible as they are with cultivated varieties. Sow thickly. Cult ivated varieties may also be used but need better condi tions . Seca/e cereale (G razi ng rye) - annual , a commonly grown garden green manure. Very good for over-wintering , as it can be sown as late as October in mild climates , and grows very vigorously in the autumn. If allowed to go to seed , the seeds are edible : the stalks , if harvested , can be used as a st ra w substitute. Sow at 25 g 1m2,

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Sinapis alba (Mustard) - annual, a commonly grown garden green manure . Fast growing and usually used between spring and autumn; in mild climates it can sown by mid autumn and witl overwinter. The leaves are edible and the seeds can be used to make a mustard . Bees tove the 2 flowers. Sow at 6 g / m • Spinacea o/eracea (Spinach) - annuat , commonly grown as a garden vegetable . Fast growing , it runs to seed quickly in hot dry weather. The leaves are cooked as a vegetable . Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 10 cm. Stellari;' media (Chickweed) - annual. a very common weed of disturbed ground , which may appear by itself in bare patches , though with time populations will die out in shade. It is fast growing and will quickly cover ground. The leaves and stems are edible when cooked. Sow thickly. Tetragonia tetragonoides (New Zealand spinach) - annual , often grown as a garden vegetable. It is fast growing and covers ground quite well. The succulent leaves and stems make a good cooked vegetable . Sow thickly . Trifolium incarnatum (Crimson clover) - nitrogen-fixing annual . a commonly grown garden green manure. Used in spring and summer, though it will overwinter in mild climates . Likes alight, poor soil. Bees love the flowers, and the seeds are edible either ground as a flour or sprouted; the flower heads are used to make a tea. Sow at 6 g / m 2 • Trifolium pratense (Red clover) - nitrogen-fixing short-lived perennial , a commonly grown garden green manure. Sow in spring or summer; needs lots of sun , so will be killed off by shading. Bees love the flowers , the seeds are edible either ground as a flour or sprouted ; the flower heads are used to make a tea; and the plant has many medicinal uses . Sow at 6 g I m 2 . Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) - nitrogen-fixing annual , a commonly grown garden green manure. All parts are edible - the seeds are used as a condiment. Bees love the flowers. Sow thickly. Tropaeolum majus (Nasturtium) - a vigorous scrambling annual with large round leaves , grown in spring and summer. The flowers and leaves (peppery) are edible in salads, and the seeds can be used like capers . Bees love the flowers. Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 10 cm. Valerianella locusta (Corn salad) - annual which can be grown in spring, summer or autumn and over winter. Goes to seed quickly in dry hot weather. The leaves are mild flavoured and used in salads. Sow thickly . Vicia sativa (Winter tares , vetch) - a nitrogen-fixing annual . a commonly grown garden green manure. Can be sown for spring & summer cover or in early autumn for winter cover. Very fast growing and makes a thick cover. Bees love the flowers and the seeds can be eaten (best ground into a flour and mixed with cereals to make bread etc.) Sow at 25 g I m 2 . The related hairy vetch (V. vil/osa) is more cold hardy and can be used similarly.

Species tolerating substantial shade
Alliaria petiolala (Garlic mustard) - biennial tolerating part shade . Leaves are edible with - yes , you guessed - a garlic/mustard flavour; seeds and roots are also edible. Bees like the flowers . Sow thickly .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Angelica sylvestris (Wood angelica) - tall growing biennial , makes a good cover where a gap is substa ntiat ; tolerates dee p shade. Th e young stems and leaves are used in the same way as Angelica (A.archangelica) , which can be u sed sim ila rly though it tolerate s slightly less sh ade. Arctium lappa & A.minus (Burdocks) - tall growing biennials suitable for large gaps , tolerating substant ia l shade . Their seeds are produced in burrs which attach to clothes etc .. so they usually have no trouble spreadi ng and persisting! The roo ts , flower s talk s and leaf sta lks are all edible when cooked . also medicinal ; bees like the flowers . Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 30

em.
Barbarea verna ( Land cress) - u sually a biennial. it can be sown in spring or summer , or autumn for winter cover. The leaves are edible and peppery . Sow thick ly. Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) - an nual. Leaves and flowers are edible (peta ls are good in salads), also used medicinally. Bees and h overflies like the plant. Tolerates partial shade. Sow to achieve plants every 5 cm. Claytonia perfoliata (Miners lettuce) - annual which overwinters we ll and tolerates deep shade very good under trees, where it self-seeds. Leaves are edible - a good sa lad plant. Sow thickly . Beta vulgaris flavescens (Chard) - biennial , comm only grown as a garden vege table. It self-sows readily given bare ground , and tolerates substantia l shade . The leaves make an excellent vegetable . Transplant to achieve plants every 30 cm. Malva verticillata (Chi nese mallow) - annual wh ich can overwinter. Tolerates substantia l shade. It prod u ces very good quality edible [eaves for salads. Sow or transplant to achieve plants every 25 cm . Sisymbrium officinale (Hedge mustard) - annual , to lerati ng substa nt ial shade . The leaves and shoots are edible as are the seeds. Sow thi ckly.

References
Agroforestry Resea rch Trust: Useful Plants database 1999. Crawford, M: G round Cover Plants. A.R.T., 1997. Crawford , M : Nitrogen-fixing Plants for Temperate Climates . A.R.T ., 1998.

Pest & Disease Series:

Honey fungus
Introduction
Honey fungu s - prized by fungus eate rs but alarming to tree growers - is one of the most important tree pathogens. with a world -wide distribution in both forest and non-forest habitats. The name ' honey' refers to the light brown caps of the toadstools , which are usually formed in early autumn . It is also known as bootlace fungus , shoestring fungus and Armilla ri a root rot.

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Until recently , honey fungus was thought to be just one species - Armillaria mellea - but now there are known to be six species in Britain (and over 50 world -wide) which differ in nature and cause differing types of disease:

Ameffea is very common , and is an aggressive pathogen of many coniferous and broad leaved trees and shrubs , and also some woody herbaceous perennials such as delphiniums and lupins. The rhizomorphs are sparse and thin . It can spread rapidly, but is generally a weak parasite on forest trees. Aosto}tae (=Aobscura) is quite widespread and very similar in appearance to A mellea. It is a pathogen on both coniferous and broad -leaved trees and shrubs . It often causes considerable damage to conifer stands . Aga/lica is also common , and produces many more and chunkier rhizomorphs. However, Agalfica is relatively benign and rarely attacks healthy plants ; it usually lives on wood that is dead or already dying from another cause. Aborea/is, Acepistipes and A.tabescens are generally not aggressive pathogens and do not attack healthy plants.

Symptoms
The appearance of honey coloured toadstools in large overlapping clumps in the soil around the trunk or arising from the root system from late summer to autumn is often the first sign that something may be amiss. Remember, though , that many mycorrhizal fungi also fruit in autumn, so the appearance of toadstools is not a danger sign per se. Honey fungus toadstools are very variable in size and colour, but the cap and stalk are typically honey coloured at some stage. The caps vary from 1-25 cm (Y2-10") in diameter (usually 3-15 cm , 1-6"), with firm white flesh ; the gills white becoming yellow with age, and there is a whitish to yellowish ring attached to the upper part of the stalk; the spores are white. Early signs of the disease may be a yellowing of the foliage and a progressive dieback of shoots; leaves may fail to open in the spring; an exceptionally heavy flowering; premature autumn colour and leaf fall ; and the splitting of bark at or just above ground level , sometimes accompanied by a gummy exudate. The most reliable symptom of honey fungus attack is fungal growth (mycelium) in the roots. This is revealed when the root or stem bark around ground level is peeled off. The mycelium is a thin , creamy or dirty white layer or fine fan that has a strong mushroomy smell. If the infection is well advanced the bark will come away easily from the roots and the wood will resemble soggy balsa wood. Death may occur almost overnight or follow a decline of a year or two.

Conditions for infection & spread
Trees and shrubs that are suffering from drought , defoliation by pests or diseases , drastic pruning , or are otherwise lacking in vigour are more susceptible to attack, as are those which are overwatered or which have poor drainage. Once a tree or shrub becomes infected , the honey fungus will feed on the dead or dying plant (sometimes for several years ) while usually travelling in the soil to its next victim by means of long strands or rhizomorphs. These give honey fungus its other name - bootlace fungus. Rhizomorphs vary greatly , resembling chunky bootlaces or thick button thread, and may branch. They are very

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

tough, brown or black, hollow inside and grow at m (3 ft) a year in the soil , mostly in the top 20 cm (8 "). When the tip of a rhizomorph reaches the roots of th e next host, it penetrates the bark and begins to invade the wood . Note that rhizomorphs are not always produced on woody hosts· for example, they have never been observed on grapes (Vilis spp .). The disease can also spread by direct contact between diseased and healthy plant roots. Spores from toadstools can theoretica lly infect newly exposed stumps but this means of infection and spread is probably unimportant in comparison to rhizomorph infection .
It is worth noting that bark mulches are unlikely to be a source of infection: the material probably cannot act as a substantial food base for rhizomorphs. Armillaria is very susceptible to dehydration and any on sma ll pieces of bark and wood in a mulch would be quickly dried and killed .

'-

There is potential for biological control of honey fungus . There is some research which shows that the biological control fungus Trichoderma harzianum can not only prevent infection (if roots of trees are soaked in a solution of it before planting in infested areas) but also be used to treat infected mature trees (by exposing the main roots and inoculating them with pellets of Trichoderma.) The closely related Trichoderma viride (used against silve rleaf on plums) is also antagonistic to honey fungus and could probably be used similarly. The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is also antagonistic and could potentially be used for control by inoculating infected stumps etc.

Hosts
The fungus has a wide range of hosts, both broadleaved and coniferous trees and shrubs.

Resistant or immune species
Abies alba Aeer negundo Actinidia Akebia Amorpha fruticosa Arbutus menziesii Arctostaphylos Aronia Asimina trifoba Berberis Broussonetia papyrifera Clematis Cofutea Comus Cryptomeria japonica Diospyros Drepanostachyum Elaeagnus Fagus sylvatica Ficus carica Fraxinus excelsior Gaultheria Gingko biloba Gfeditsia Gymnocladus dioica Ha/esia carolina Buxus sempervirens Calycanthus Caragana Carya False indigo Castanea Madrone Celtis Cereis Manzanita Chokeberry Chaenomeles Pawpaw Chimonobambusa Chusquea Paper mulberry Cistus Philadelphus Bladder senna Phyllostachys Pinus patula Dogwoods Japanese cedar Pleioblastus Persimmons Prunus insititia Prunus faurocerasus Bamboos Prunus spinosa Pseudosasa Beech Fig Pseudotsuga menziesii Ptelea trifoliata Ash Pterocarya Quercus Rhamnus Honey locust Kentucky coffee t. Rhus Snowbell tree Robinia
Silver fir Box elder Kiwis

Box
Allspice Pea trees Hickory, pecan Chestnuts Hackberry Redbud Quince Bamboos Bamboos Rock rose Mock orange Bamboos Mexican weep 'g p. Bamboos Damson Cherry laurel Sloe Bamboos Douglas fir Hop tree Wingnuts Oaks Buckthorns Sumachs locusts

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 19

Himalayacalamus Hippophae Hovenia dulcis Hypericum lIex Juniperus virginian a Koelreuteria paniculata Larix Laurus nobilis Linder;l Maclura pomifera Mahonia Metasequioa glyptostroboides Morus Myrica Myrtus Passiflora

Bamboos Sambucus Sea buckthorn Sasa Japanese raisin 1. Semiarundinaria Sequioa sempervirens Holly Shepherdia Pencil cedar Shibataea kumasasa Sinarundinaria Golden rain Larch Staphylea Bay Symphoricarpus Spice bush Taxus Osage orange Thamnocalamus Oregon grape TWa Dawn redwood Tsuga Mulberries Ulex Bayberries Vaccinium Vitex agnus·castus Myrtles Passion flowers Yucca Yushania

Elders Bamboos Bamboos Coast redwood Buffalo berry Bamboo Bamboos Bladdernuts Snowberries Yews Bamboos limes Hemlocks Gorse Blueberries Chasle tree Bamboos

Resistant fruit rootstocks
Cherry: Mazzard seedling, Charger, and F12/1 are allloleran1. Pear seedling: Pyrus betulifolia, P.calleryana, P.caucasica, P.communis. Pear clonal: Kirchensaller, Anjou, Old Home, OH x F series, Oregon series, Williams . Plum/peach/apricot clonal: Etter' s Best, GF31. GF43. INRA #2 , Ishitara (tolerant) , Marianna 2624 , Marianna GF8·1, Myran. Myrobalan 29C , SI Julien A.

Notably susceptible species
Araucaria araucana Betula Ceanothus Cedrus Chamaecyparis Citrus Cotoneaster x Cupressocyparis leylandii Juniperus Laburnum Ligustrum Malus Olea europeae Paeonia Picea abieslomorika Pinus Prunus Pyracantha Rhododendron Cupressus Eriobotrya japonica Escallonia Cedars Forsythia Cypress Fuchsia Hamamelis Hydrangea Leyland cypress Jug/ans regia Junipers·prostrate Ribes Rosa Privet Rubus Apples Salix Olive Sequioadendron giganteum Peony Syringa Norway/Serbian Thuja plicata spruce Pines Viburnum Plums , cherries Vilis Wisteria
Monkey puzzle Birches Cypress Loquat

Witch hazel English walnut Currants Roses Brambles Willows Wellingtonia lilac Western red cedar Grapes

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

&

Control
In woodland, control is neither practical nor necessary . In forest gard ens and agroforestry sys tems, on ly physical control measures have any effect - chemicals are rarely effective. Th e standard recommendation , where an aggressive species is suspected, is to grub up any dead or dying plants , including stumps . However, sometimes the nature of the fungus is mOTe ambiguous: if, for examp le, an old weak tree dies and honey fungus toadstools appear in Ihe autumn, it is quite possible that honey fungus did not kill the tree but only colonised it after death. In such circumstances it may well be worth getting the fungus species identified - for instance by the Plant Pathology Department at the RHS - before taking drastic action. After removing infected plants , it is best to wail a year or two before replanting , to allow any fungus living on small pieces of wood to die. When replanting , try to leave a gap of at least 9 m (30 tt) to new plants . It is possible to prevent th e spread of rhizomorphs through the so il by making a barrier between them and any plants to be protected - this may be useful if the source of infection can not be removed. This can be done by burying a sheet of heavy gauge plastic sheeting, vertically, at lea st 50 cm (20") deep in light sailor 1 m (40 ") deep in cla y soil. The barrier cou ld also be a narrow ditch, the bottom of which is cultivated, or a strip of ground which is deeply cultivated (or at least sliced down into with a spade) seve ral times a year. Any toadstools that are formed above ground are best picked before they release spores (although this method of spread is unusual) - they should be picked before maturity and either destroyed or (the better option) eaten : ironically, they make very good eating when cooked.

Reducing susceptibility
Vigoro us healthy plants are less likel y to be attacked , and if they are attacked they decline more slowly. A period of drought, which has weakened the plant , increases the severity of the disease and hastens death. Hence susceptibl e species should be irrigated if honey fungus is though to be nearby. Overwatering and poor drainage favour the disease , so be careful not to overwater, and improve the soil structure if possible. Defoliation by pests or diseases also favours the disease, so try to prevent attacks from becoming 100 serious. Likewise, drastic pruning ca n make plants prone - try and prune moderately. Whe re gardens are infested with honey fungu s, it is wise to avoid growing trees or shrubs which are suscept ible. Herbaceous plants, bulbs and annuals are almost never affected. Stumps left in any area where honey fungus is present shou ld be removed - especially durable hardwood stumps.

References
Buczacki , S & Harris, K: Pests , Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants . HarperCollins, 1998. Butin , H: Tree Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press, 1995. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Disease . A.R.T., 1997. Gree nwood, P & Halstead, A: Pests & Diseases. Dorling Kindersley, 1997. Honey fungus - hope for a biological control. HDRA Newsletter 110 (Winter 1987). Ogawa, J & English , H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. University of California, 1991. Phillips, 0 & Burdekin , D: Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan , 1992. Resistance or Susceptibility of Certain Plants to Armillaria Root Rot. University of California, Division of Ag ricultural Sciences Leaflet 2591 . 1979. Whitehead, 0 & Sierra , A P: Da nger Underground. The Garden, November 1997 . 790-792 .

')

,

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Medicinal plants: Processing
Drying techniques
The harvested fresh plant parts should be prepared before drying. The aim of these operations cleaning (by hand, by screening, washing or peeling) , cutting up. stripping - is to increase the efficien~y of the drying; unnecessary parts should not be dried, sma ller portions can be dried with less energy, and the drying is fasler .

Herbs contain a great deal of water - often 80-90% , hence one tonne of dried herb may require 510 lonnes of the fresh herb. Consequen tly . commercia l herb dryers have to cope with larg e quantilies of material and dry it in a reasonably short period of time.
The simplest and oldest method of drying is simple natural air drying. It is totally inappropriate in Britain due to the vagaries of the weather, but can be used where reliable warm dry sunny days are the norm. Plant parts are placed in layers on frames on drying stands. The layers must not be too thick so that air movement is maintained· on 1 m 2 of area should be spread no more than 0.5 kg of flowers , 1·2 kg of plants and leaves, or 2-2 .5 kg of roots. The duration of drying depends on the weather. The drying ratio is the ralio of fresh material needed to produce a unit of dried material; ego a drying ratio of 5 : 1 indicates that 5 kg of the fresh plant material will produce 1 kg of the dried herb. 1f the drying ratio is known for a species, then the weight ca n be checked before and during drying , and the moment sufficient drying has been achieved can be told from weight loss only. There is not a standard method of drying herbs· individual growers have developed their own systems. The duration and temperature of drying are crucia l factors for herb quality. For every species there will be a maximum temperature for drying to maximise volatile oil yield and quality. Usually a temperature of 30-40"C (86·104"F) is oplim um but sometime s temperatures up to 50"C are used. Most dryers use a forced·air system: air is usually warmed with a heat sou rce (often propane gas or other source) , and forced with fans to flow through a series of mesh trays on which the fresh herb is pla ced (on 1 m 2 of area should be spread no more than 1 kg of flowers, 2 - 4 kg of plants and leaves, or 4 • 5 kg of roots). The trays are made with a solid frame and base of wire mesh or slatted wood. The vertical distance between trays should be 30-45 cm (12-18~). Drying may take 1 - 7 days; roots and fleshy fruits take longer to dry than leaves or flowers . Leaves should be dried down to 10·14% moisture and stems to 20% as this facilitates the rem ova l of the brittle leaf from the sta lks , which remain flexible . With a water content of 10-14%, most dried herbs can be stored for a long period without deterioration. Overdrying is not only harmful, but also uneconomical. Berries should be dried quickly until they sh rivel like currants , then removed before they become too hard. Herb dryers capable of handling commercial quantities of material may be costly to build. Many herb growers use contract dryers in stead of having their own equipment. Commercial warm forcedair dryers can dry 3-5 lonnes of fresh material in 24 hours , while conveyer dryers can dry 8·14 lonnes in 24 hours. Cold forced·air systems use unheated air but can only be used in dry , warm weather, when the relative humidity of the air is under 50% (so not reliably in Britain); herbs may take 8-20 days to dry.

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For very small quantities of herb, a convection system can be used - basically the same as above except that there is no fan and the heat source is directly underneath the trays of fresh herb. A metal baffle may be needed to distribute heal evenly. It is not feasible to dry herbs in an enclosed dryer just with heat - there will be too much moisture which will encourage molds. • Solar dryers may be viable nol only in regions with hot sunny summers and autumns , but also in other areas depending on the crop. With summer-harvested crops (which includes most herbs used for culinary and medicinal purposes) it is possible to dry in poly tunnels with a forced-air flow system even in Britain. Note that even in solar dryers, herbs are besl kept out of direct sunlight as that bleaches the colour and reduces essential oil content. Their is some evidence that solar dried herbs have better colour, texture and content of active ingredients than conventionally dried herbs. For commercial crops, it is important to match the capacity of the crop (20-50 tonnes/ha fresh material), harvesting equipment (10-15 tonnes/day), and drying facilities (typically 1-1.5 lonnes/day). To produce 1 kg of dried herb requires on average 5-8 kg of fresh flowers or 5-6 kg of fresh leaves or 4-5 kg of fresh leaves+stalks or 3-4 kg of raw roots or 1.2-1.5 kg of fresh fruits. Exact figures depend on the specific crop and its condition on harvesting. After drying, the dried material is usually cut , rubbed (de-stalked) or powdered, so chopping and milling equipment is usually required for commercial production. Dried material should be stored in dry clean conditions. Pungent materials should be kept in separate locations unless airtight containers are used. Comme rcial quantities of dried leaves are compressed into bales which are sewn into sackcloth or plastic. Roots and barks are packed into large sacks. Valuable drugs which are sensitive to handling are packed into wooden or cardboard boxes.

Species drying data
Species included here are trees , shrubs or perennials as listed in Agroforestry News , Vol 7 No 2, pages 34-37. Yields for plant materials are for established plantations - in the first year after establishment , yields are likely to be much less. Species common name Yarrow Sweet flag Sweet adonis Horse chestnut Anise hyssop Agrimony Couch grass Marshmallow part used tops roots tops seeds leaves tops tops rhizomes roots leaves flowers roots leaves tops tops fresh yield (tonne I hal dry yield drying ratio (tonne I hal (fresh:dry)

Achillea milfefolium Acarus calamus Adonis vernalis Aesculus hippocastaneum Agastache foeniculum Agrimonia eupatoria Agropyron repens Althaea officinalis

5 - 24

1-4

54 : 5: 2: 44 : 2 3 6: 7 :

6 : 1 1 1 5 : 1 3 : 4 : 1 1

10 - 20

Armoracia rustic ana Arfemesia absinthium Artemesia dracunculus

Horseradish Wormwood Tarragon

5-8 5-6 0.5 - 0.7 10 5-9 15 - 20

1.5 - 2 0.8 - 1 0.08 - 0.1
1 - 1.5

2.0 - 2.5

5-6: 2 - 3 : 8:

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Species

Atropa belladonna Betula pendufa Chamaemelum nobile
Chelodonium majus

Chrysanthemum cinerariaefofium eichorium intybus Colchicum autumnale Convalfaria maja/is

,

part used Deadly nightshade leaves roots Si lver birch leaves Roman cha momile flowers tops Greater celandine tops roots

common name

fresh yield (tonne I hal

dry yield drying ratio (tonne I hal (fresh:dry)
10 . 7 - 1 . 5 3 - 4 ; 1 1.5 4 -5 ; 0.4 - 0.6 5 -6 ; 3-4 ; 0.7 - 1.2 5 -6 ; 1-2 ; 3-4 ; 5 -6 ; 7 :1 3 ; 1 3 : 1 4-6; 3-4 ; 4 -5 ; 1 1 1 1

2-6

10 - 12

Pyrethrum Chicory Autumn crocus Lily of the valley

I

flowers tops

seeds
bulb leaves flowers rhizomes fruits I flowers tops

Crataegus monogyna

Hawthorn Horsetail Meadowsweet Fennel Sweet woodruff Ground ivy liquorice St John's wort Hyssop Elecampane Jasmine Juniper Bay Lavender Lavendin Lovage

Equisetum arvense Filipendula ulmaria Foenicufum vulgare Galium odoratum Gfechoma hederacea Glycyrrhiza glabra Hypericum perforatum Hyssopus officinalis
Inu/a he/enium Jasminum grandiflorum Juniperus communis Laurus nobilis Lavandula angustifo/ia Lavandu/a intermedia Lev;sticum officinalis

tops
seeds tops tops roots lops tops rools flowers fruits leaves flowers flowers tops t roots

0.6 - 1.5

0.4 - 1.2 6 ; 1 4-5 ; 3 -4 ; 4 -5 ; 1 4 - 5 1 3- 4 ;

6 - 10

0.8 - 2.0

8 - 10 2; 8 - 12 3 .6 - 4.5 4.5 - 6.3 4 -6 6-8 0 .4 - 0.6 8 - 15 10 - 20 25 - 40 12 - 20
12 - 14

0.4 - 0.5 0.5 - 0.7 1.5 - 2.5 2-3 2.0 - 4.0 2 .5 - 3.0

9; 9;

Marrubium vulgare Hoarhound Melissa officina/is Lemon balm Mentha arvensis sachalinensis Sakhalin mini Mentha x piperita Peppermint Menyanthes trifoliata Bogbean Myrrhis odorata Sweet cicily Nepe!a cataria Catnip Origanum vulgare Oregano Panax ginseng Ginseng Panax quinque folium American ginseng Plantago lanceo/afa Ribwort plantain Populus nigra Black poplar Potentilla anserina Silverweed Primu/a veris Cowslip Prunus spinosa Sloe

Iseeds tops Itops tops
tops

4-5 ; 5 ; 1 6; 6;

leaves tops tops roots roots leaves leaf buds tops flowers roots flowers

25 - 35

1.5 - 2 2 .5 - 3.5 2-5 1.7-2.5

10 ; 1

4-5 ; 2 ; 1 5 ; 1 5 -6 ; 3-4 ; 5; 1

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Species

common name Lungwort Oaks Alder buckthorn Black locust Rose Dog rose Rosemary Dewberry

Pulmonaria officinalis Quercus robur / petraea Rhamnus frangula Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rosa canina Rosmarinus officinafis Rubus caesius Ruta grave a/ens Sa/via officinalis Sambucus nigra Sanguisorba minor Satureja montana Solidago virgaurea Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officina/e Thymus vulgaris TWa spp. Tussi/ago farfara Urtica dioica Va/eriana officina/is Vinca minor Viscum album

I

Rue Sage
Elder

I Salad burnet Wi nter savory Goldenrod Comfrey Tansy Dandelion Thyme Lime tree Coltsfoot Sti nging nettle Valerian Periwinkle Mistletoe

I

part used leaves bark bark flowers 1 flowers fruits tea ves I lea ves tops tops leaves flowers fruits tops tops tops leaves roots flowers tops yng tops flowers flowers leaves leaves roots roots tops stalks

fresh yield (tonne I ha)

dry yield drying ratio (tonne I ha) (fresh:dry)

'5 : 1 13 1 3 : 7 : 1 - 3.5 8 - 10 3 17.5 - 20 5-8 2.5 - 3 2.7 - 3.3 1.5-2
1 3 .5 - 4 .0

3: 4-5: 5 : 1 5 : 1 4- 5 :
16 : 1

1.0 - 1.5 0.5 - 0.8

4 - 5 . i 1.5 - 1.7 0.7 - 2.8 14 - 5 : 5: 1 13 - 4 5 : 1 6 : 1 5 - 10 1.5 - 2 .5 [ 4: 4 1 1 6 : 1 5-6: 5 : 1 13 4 7 :4 3 : 1

5 - 10 3.5 - 7

1-2 1.0 - 2.5 0.7-1.5

Production of essential oils
Essential oils or volatile oils are chemically complex mixtures, often containing over 100 indiv idual components. Most oils have several major components which impart the odourltaste , but th e many minor components also play their part in the final produ ct (this complexity is why synthetic flavourings never quite match their natural counterparts). They usually have low boiling points and can be recovered from the plant tissues by steam distillation. Most of the oil components are stored in the spaces between cells in the outer layers of the plant cells in leaves and somet imes stems. Weed control is very important for essential oil crops, becau se certain weeds impart odours to the oil that can lead to its downgrading or rejection by a buyer. Essential oils demand considerable costs from a plant in terms of enzymes , photosynthate and energy . The oils play several positive ecological roles in return: Attractants - may attract pollinators, especially bees, moths , bats . Feeding deterrents - as a defence against herbivores . Antibiotic activity - very common for oils to have antifungal and antibacterial activity , thus they can present a significant barrier to infection by pathogens. Antioxidant activity - many oils show this which aids the health of the plant.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 25

I
5

Allelopalhy • often oils find their way into the soli and there exhibit phytotoxicity, inhibiting or delaying seed germination and seedling growth , thus reducing competition. May aid nutrient cycling. In damp climates they can regulate the rate of leaf decomposition. In

semi·arid areas , they can make fires (part of the seed reproduction system) burn at 'cool'
temperatures . Natural solven ts - may be used by plants as solvents for other bioactive compou nds There is extensive trade in distilled essential oils and their derivatives (so lvent extraction of plant tissu,es at lower temperatures - normally using petroleum ethe r , hexane or toluene - gives a concrete which can be further extracted in ethanol to give an absolute . Both of these types of extract , class ed as oleoresins. can be solids at room temperature. O ther products such as terpeneless oils result from fractional distillation of oils .) The essential oils for culinary, pharma ceutica l and perfumery uses are composed almost entirely of two classes of compounds : teroenes (the major component) and phenyl-propenes (the minor flavour & odour facto rs). Essential oils are traditionally ob tained via steam disti ll ation. This is not a new technique - a terracotla still found in the Indus Va lley has revealed traces of an essential oil industry dating from 5,000 years ago. Steam is generated by a boiler and is passed through a container (the sti ll ) in which fre sh plant material has been placed. The oil (which is 'volatile' in the steam) passes with the steam to a condenser (usua ll y run at 40°C) where both oil and steam are cooled and liquefy. The oil and water separate and the oil (usually less dense , so it floats above the wate r) can be collected. This process sometimes takes place in the field with mobile distillers , especially if the collectio n & transport of the plant material would be detrimental to quality . Sometimes mobile tubs are used , which are brought to the field , filled up with chopped plant material, then brought back to the distillation building whe re they are 'plumbed in ' as stills for steam to be passed through them. About 200-300 kg of the fresh or withered plant is able to be loaded in to a 1 m 3 vessel. A steam temperature of 150170° C and speed of 100-200 kg per hour is usually used and at such rates . for a 4 m 3 still capacity, distillation takes 1-5 hours depending on the species and parts being processed. Already dried materials take about 75% of the steam speed and time of the fresh materials .

Extraction of oils should take place either immediately after harvest. or after a period of drying of the plant material. Species like lemon balm and peppermint , which do not absorb heat well when fresh should be wilted in the field, so that during distillation the latent heat from the steam is efficiently absorbed . For dried plant material , water di stillation is used where the oil will not be damaged by boiling temperatures , otherwise a mixture of water and steam distillation is used. The latter can also be used for fresh plant material where the oi l is susceptible to damage by boiling temperatures . Distillation equipment to produce oi ls of saleable quality is very expensive - tens of thousands of pounds - and very often farmer co-operatives sha re the inves tmen t. Alternatively , there are independent distillation enterprises who work on a contract basis to growers. Steam distillation is a relative ly ' hard ' extraction method , and often results in a modification of the origina l co nstituents by heat-induced reactions . This doesn't matter if the product is acceptable to

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

users, but when such changes are detrimental, other extraction methods are used, ego some Citrus oils are prepared by mechanical extraction from the glands in the fruit skin. Essentia l oils are mainly stored in metal vessels, canisters or tanks made out of galvanised steel (or steel lined with lacquer) or aluminium; the best way of storing small amounts in is glassware. Plastic vesse ls are not re com mend ed because they will chemically react with the essent ial oil compo und s. Storage vessels are filled to their capacity with no air left and have airtight seals fitted to prevent oxi da tion. Oils should be stored at as Iowa temperature as possible and in a dark room as light can cause deterioration . The quality of an essential oil depends ultimately on its compos ition, and uniformity is essential. Tests by buyers include a botanical examination of the plant material (to check for adulteration) and determination of oil yield using standard methods. To the trai ned observer , much can be told from the taste , smell and co lour of an oil. Scientific measurements include specific rotation (ie optical rotation, measured with a polarimeter), refractive index, and density (weight per ml). Production of essential oils is highest in 'deve loping ' countries (China, Brazil, Indonesia, India. Turkey, Morocco, Egypt). In 'industrialised ' countries, the main crops grown are those well suited to mechanised cu lti vation and harvest· peppermint (USA), lavender (France). thyme (Spain), fenne l ! mints! blackcurrant (Tasmania) etc. However, the demand for organically·grown essential oils is likely to continue to increase and there is a much wider potentia l range of such plants which cou ld be profitably grown for oi l production. The principal perennial temperate essential oil crops are: Species Artemesia dracuncu/us Hyssopus officina/is Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula x intermedia Melissa officinalis Mentha spicata Mentha x piperita Origanum vulgare Rosmarinus officinalis Salvia officinalis Satureja montana Thymus vulgaris Common name French tarragon Hyssop Lavender Lavandin Lemon balm Spearmint Peppermint Oregano Rosemary Sage Summer savory Thyme Major oil components methyl chavicol isopinocamphene, pinocamphone , pinocarvone Hnalool, linalyl acetate linalool, linalyl acetate geraniol , geranial ca rvone, carvol menthol, menthone carvacrol, thymol a ·pinene, verbenone, eucalyptol thujone , camphor thymol , ca rvacrol thymol , ca rvacrol

Yields of essential oils may be low which is why the ir price is high . For example, lemon balm may yield as littl e as 2.5 Hires I ha (1 litre I acre) (wholesale price £2500 per litre) whereas lavender may yield 250 litres I ha (100 lilres I acre) (wholesa le price £100 per litre).

Essential oil data
Species included here are trees , shrubs or perennials as listed in Agroforestry News, Vol 7 No 2 , pages 34·37. Yields for essential oil are for established plantations . in the first year after establi shment, yields are likely to be much less . The distillation tim e assumes the given steam speed and a 4 m J still size.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 27

-

--..-=
~

Species kg I tonne Abies spp . Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Arteme~ia absinthium Artemesia dracunculus Chamaemelum nobile Eucalyptus dives Eucalyptus radiala Foeniculum vulgare Geranium macrorrhizum Humulus lupulus Hyssopus officinafis Jasminum grandiflorum Juniperus communis Laurus nobifis Lavandufa angusfifofia Lavandula intermedia Lavendula lalifoJia Levisticum officinafis part shoots tops roots leaves tops tops leaves leaves seeds tops rhizomes strobiles tops flowers fruits leaves flowers flowers
(kglhour)

-

--

steam speed

distill. time (mins)

% ess oil cant
(dry)

ess oil yield kg/ha

av ess oil yield fresh
dry
1

I

150-200

10 . 1-0.55 1 0 .2-0.5 0.6-2.5 0.2-0 .9 120-180 0.5-2 .8 25-35 0.6-1.0 6-10

I

2 .2-2.6 2-5 3-7 0.5-2.0 1-3 1.0-2.5

3- 4

10-40

I

3-6

1

240 250-300 60-90

300-350 300-350

40-60 40-60 180-240 300-500 120-150

Mentha x piperita Mentha spicata Myrtus communis Nepela cataria Origanum vulgare Raphanus sativa Rosa spp . Rosmarinus officinalis Salvia officinalis Sassafras afbidum Thymus vulgaris Valeriana officinalis

tops 150-200 100-150 roots seeds 200-250 tops tops tops tops tops roots flowers leaves tops root bark yng tops roots

1.5 1000 1 2-6 1 30 40 1 0.27 - 1.44 0.8-1.2 0.23-0 .34 0 .35-1 I 1-2 5 10 0.3-1 8-15 06-25 1 20-35 (concrete) 0 .3 0.2-3.4 6-12 9-13 1.25-2 .5 50-90 20-40 0.9-3 50-70 8-14 0.5-1.5 4-8 0.5-1.7 4-10 0.5-1.0 5-6 0.5-2 .0 3-6 1-1.5 20-40 1.5-4.0 5 8 1 0.5-1 1-3 5-11 0.1-0 .2 1.0-1 .5 3-5 0.5-1.3 2-7 6-12 0. 14-0.2 1-2 0.5-1.5 0.3-2 10-15 2-6 1-2 .5 8-10 3-6 6-14

;~-6

I

10 (fresh

1-2.5 0.5-1.7

1-3 1-2

5-9

Sources
Contract drying and distillation facilities are available at The National Herb Centre, Banbury Road , Warmington , Nr Banbury , Oxon , OX17 10F.

References
A report on the potential uses of plants grown for extracts including essential oils and factors affecting their yield and composition . MAFF Alternative Crops Unit , 1996 . Brownlow, M: Herbs and the Fragrant Garden . Darton , Longman & Todd , 1976. Halva S & Craker, L: Manual for Northern Herb Growers. HSMP Press, 1996. Hay , R & Waterman , P (Eds) : Volatile Oil Crops. Longman, 1993. Hornak , L: Cultivation and Processing of Medicinal Plants. John Wiley, 1992 . Stary , F: The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants . Tiger Books , 1991. Weiss , E : Essential Oil Crops. CAB International , 1997.

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Beneficial insects in orchards
Introduction
There are a surprising number of insects which are valuable consumers of fruit and nut insect pests. many of which are unknown and unseen . By providing conditions which encourage beneficial insects , organic growers can build and maintain large populations of them . which will in lurn provide substantial protection against pest damage to crops . It is important to realise, when relying on natural control of pests , that populations of predators and parasites always lag behind populations of pests. Thus when a pest outbreak is detected , the most important thing to do is ... nothing. Don't try and kill off the first flush of pests , even with ' friendly' sprays , becasue all you'll do is delay the build up of the predator I parasite population which would have provided good control within a short time. Instead, just wait, tolerate a little minor damage, ego aphid damage to leaves, and within a few weeks there will be an explosion of beneficial insects and the pest will literally vanish , sometimes within days. There are , of course, a few exceptions to the 'do nothing' rule. Codling moth is an example sometimes there are just not enough predators to cope . In this case a pheromone trap can be used in addition to trap excess moths.

Encouraging beneficial insects
Basically , don't be too tidy so that good habitats are created for beneficial insects ; retain or plant native trees nearby; and provide flowers with easily accessible nectar and pollen . Allow piles of leaves to accumulate. Use thick organic mulches - spiders love straw in particular. Heap up logs and branches out of the way rather than using a noisy and polluting shredder. Use ground cover plants beneath trees and bushes , rather than bare ground or mown grass. Leave dead herbaceous stems in place over winter, only cutting when growth starts in spring. Allow nettles to grow somewhere to provide an early supply of aphids Don't spray. Numerous studies have shown that populations of beneficial insects are highest in unsprayed orchards . Trees & plants of value include: Alnus glutinosa (alder) - attracts some capsid bugs . Betula spp . (birch) - attracts some capsid bugs. Cory/us avellana (hazel) - attracts some capsid bugs . Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) - aUracts some capsid bugs . NB ho st of fireblight - not always a good idea to have this near apples and pears . Quercus spp. (oaks) - attract various anthocorid and capsid bugs Salix spp. (willows) - flowers early in spring are attractive to anthocorid bugs and several capsid bugs . Ulmus spp. - attracts some capsid bugs. Urtica dioica (nettle) - attracts several species of capsid bug. Perennial flowers of value particularly include members of the Compositae (attracts hoverflies) and the Umbelliferae (attracts hoverflies and parasitic wasps.)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

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T

"

Compositae: Achillea sPP (yarrow) , Arctium spp. (burdock), Artemesia spp., Aster spp., Brachyglottis spp . , Centaurea spp . (knapweed) , Chamaemelum nobile (chamomile) , Cichorium intybus (chicory) , Echinacea spp ., Eupatorium spp ., Helianthus spp. (sunflower), Olearia spp. , Peiasites spp . (butterbur) , Solidago spp (goldenrod), Tanacetum spp . (feverfew, tansy) . Taraxa cum officina'e (dandelion) . Umbelliferae: Angelica spp. , Bunium bufbocastanum (pig nut) , Crypto/aenia japonica (mitsuba) . Eryngium spp ., FeruJa spp ., Foeniculum vulgaris (fennel). Heracleum spp. , Ligus/icum spp. ( lovage), Myrrhis odorata (sweet cicily), Pimpinella saxifrage (burnet

saxifrage). Sium spp .
Others : A/cea fossa (hollyhock) , Anthemis tinctoria (golden marguerite) , Convolvulus spp., Coreopsis spp. , Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) .

Beneficial insect predators
This list is not exhaustive but includes species from most categories of predator.

Earwigs
Earwigs are chestnut-brown in colour and 12-17 mm long . The beneficial role of earwigs is often overlooked , due partly to them sometimes being a minor pest of apples and flowers. They are important predators of fruit and hop insects, with aphids forming a significant part of their diet. Mites and insect eggs (including those of the codling moth) are also attacked. Feeding is usually at night and during the day earwigs hide under loose bark , leaves etc .

Thrips
Most thrips feed on plants but the following species ia a minor predator on fruit pests .

Aeolothrips melaleucus - widely distributed , adult females occuring
in small numbers. The young stages of the fruit tree red spider mite are attacked . Adult females are dark bandied and dark legged.

Damsel bugs
A group of agile and ferocious carnivores.

Aeolothrips melaleucus

Aptus mirmlcoldes (Ant damsel bug , Nabid bug) - likes warm , dry conditions and is sometimes found on raspberries where it attacks aphids and small caterpillars . Nymphs are dark brown and ant-like , appearing from mid June onwards from eggs laid in spring by overwintering adults; adults are short-winged .
Aptus mirmicoides (nymph)

Anthocorid bugs
These occur abundantly on fruit crops and hops. Adults are tiny, shiny, and beetle-like. The adults and nyphs are gerneral predators of small invertebrates including ceterpillars , weevile larvae and puipae, red spider mites and eggs. Adults hibernate overwinter and lay their eggs on the f ruit tree in spring.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Anthocoris nemorum (Common flower bug) • abundant and widespread, a voracious predator on many herbaceous plants , trees and shrubs. Adults and nymphs feed ana wide range or prey including caterpillars, weevil larvae and pupae and spider mites; large numers of fruit tree red spider mite eggs are destroyed during spring and autumn. Adults are dark brown with lighter and darker markings. Adults hibernate amoungst leaf litter, under loose bark etc .. The sim ilar A.nemorafis is also often present.

mm

3-4

.-J

Or;us majusculus - a widely distributed and important predator, feeding on aphids and spider mites. Adults are 2.6-3 .8 mm long , brownish black. The similar but sma ller O.vicinus (adults 2.2-2.5 mm long) is another common predator of aphids and other small insects on fruit trees . Orius vicinus (left)
1.8

~
,

~

;

' _ A.nemorum

mm

'~5_'
.

Loricula elegantula
A widespread and common minor predator of small insects found on fruit trees . Adults are brownish black and pale orange ; nymphs are bright red.

Loricula leganlula

Capsid or Mirid bugs
Although a few species of capsid are plant eating pests, most are important predators, with both adults and nymphs very active voracious carnivores. Adults either hibernate over the winter and lay their eggs in the young wood in spring, or lay eggs in summer-autumn which to hatch in spring. Deraeocoris /utescens - widespread on trees, nettles and other plants; often common in hedgerows . It feeds mainly on aphids, spider mites and small caterpillars. Adults are light brown with darker markings. Deraeocorls ruber - common on trees and [ow herbage, especially nettles. The bugs attack many other insects (including various predators). Adults are light brown with red and black markings. Psallus ambiguus (Red apple capsid) widely distributed on alder, hawthorn, sallow and apple, and common in neglected orchards. The bugs feed on all stages of spider mites but will attack aphids ; they are also partly plant-eaters. Adults are dark reddish-brown to black. Nymphs hatch early - April and May - from eggs laid the previous summer.

)

D.lutescens

D.ruber

P.ambiguus Atractotomus mali (Black apple capsid) - common but local , associated with hawthorn and apple. The bugs commonly attack the active stages of spide r mites, also on other mites and small insects ; they are also partly plant-eating. Ad ults are dark reddi sh-brown to black.

A.mafi

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 31

=
Plagiognathus arbustorum (left)

¥?+

Plagiognathus arbustorum - widespread and abundant on a variety of plants . especially with nettles. Sometimes present on apples where it feeds on spider mites; also partly plant-eating. Adults are pale brown or brownishyellow to black .

Pilophorus perplexus - common on oak and other deciduous trees. A useful predator on apples, where the adults and nymphs feed on aphids, moth eggs, young caterpillars, spider mites etc; they also eat some plant material. \ Adults are dark brown and ant-like ; they are very active, running rapidly over the foliage. Malacocoris chlorizans (Delicate apple capsid) widespread and common on hazel . but also numerous on various trees and shrubs including apple, plum and currant. The bugs are sometimes abu ndant predators of spider mites and other small arthropods, and sometimes feed on plant material. Adults are pale mottled with green. Blepharidopterus angulatus (Black-kneed capsid) - widely distributed, found on alder, birch, elm, hawthorn, hazel, oak etc.; an important pradator on apple, pear, charry and plum, where adults and nymphs are voracious predators of spider mite s, aphids and other small insects ; also parity planteating. Adults are 5-6 mm long, green with black 'knees' ; a sing le nymph I adult may consume 6000 or more spider mites during its life .

Pilop, h o,"usperplexus

\~/

B.angufatus nymph
Orthotylus marginalis (Dark green apple capsid) - widespread and common on alder and willow; a useful' predator on apples and currants, where the bugs are voracious predtors of aphids, spider mites etc.; also partly plant-eating. Adults are bright green .

~

O.margina/is

Lacewings
Lacewing adults are up to 30 mm in wingspan, with delicate translucent veined wings, the veins tending to fork towards the wing margins. Larvae are up to 13 mm long . Several species are important predators of fruit pests. There are three groups , green, brown and powdery lacewings all are useful. Some species overwinter as adults, others as prepupae. The adults devour their prey, but feed mainly omn nectar; the larvae are voracious predators which suck the contents out of their prey, leaving a ' shell'. Prey includes aphids red spider mites , scale insects and small caterpillars.

Coniopteryx tineiformis - widely districuted on most kinds of tree , particularly oak, willow and hawthorn; a common predator of mites on fruit trees . Adults have a 6-7 mm wingspan and yellow abdomen; the larvae are whitish-yellow with pink or orange-red marking s. There are 2 or 3 generalions of adults per year .

'

C.tineiformis, adult and larva

'~l t
,
,
"
" '

/

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

=
Hemeribius /utescens - often occurs on fruit trees with the closely related H.humulinus, particu la rly found on hazel. Often attacks aphuds in orchard s. Adults have a 15-18 mm wingspan and are greyish brown; larva are 7-8 mm long, cream y white with reddish brown markings down the back. There are several generations a yea r. H.lutescens (adult) & H.humufinus (larva)

Beetles
Ground and rove beetles are generally dark, shiny black , living under stones and decaying vegetation . They va ry widely in size from 1.5 - 25 mm , and feed mainly at night. Prey includes slugs , vine weeVil , moth pupae and red spider mite.

Ground beetles
Many species of ground beet les are useful predators of so il pests, and also feed on th e pupae of winter mo th and other pests wh ich spend part of their life cycle in or on the ground. Adults may climb plants in sea rch of pre y but few species of ground bee lie occur regularly on trees or shrubs. One which does is:
Demetrias atricapillus - widespread and common , with adults often occuri ng on fruit trees and bushes as general predators of small invertebrates. The beetles are dark ye lloiw to redd ish-yellow with a black head . D.atricapil/us

Rove beetles
Th ese are a large group of active , ofte n predatory beetles which are most abundant in moss and decaying vegetation . Some species regularly attack fruit pests , such as the following :

3~ . m: ~,Ladybirds

Tachyporus hypnorum - a wid espread and ab undan t predator , common on fruit trees and bushes in spring and summer, running rapidl y if disturbed . The adults and larvae feed mostly on aphids. The adults are black and ora nge. The closely related T.nitidufus a nd T.obtusus are also com mon predators.

T.hypnorum

ladybirds are a third group of beneficial beetles . They are mainly predators. Adult s are usually red or yellow with black markings , 3-8 mm lo ng , and often exude drops of yellow pungent 'blood ' when handled. Larvae have tapering , seg mnented bodies , often blue-grey in ciolour and up to 6 mm long , with white, orange or yellow markings ; they are normally active and feed voraciously on aphids , spider mites , small caterpi llars, sca le in sects etc; a single larva ca n eat several hund red aphid s during its deve lopment. Adults usuall y hi berna te over the winter in suitablke locations , ego beneath loose bark . Abundant and widespread are the two-spot, seven-spot and ten- spot lad ybi rd s as well as the follo wing :
Propylea quattuordecimpunctata (Fourteen-spot ladybird) - a widespread prada tor of aph ids and other insects on tre es and bushes including currants. Adults are 3·4 mm long , black an dyellow; larvae are blackish with yellow spots. Larva is shown to right.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 33

d
Midges

*

Midges are common predators and their larvae are often present among st aphid and mite colonies . The commo nest midge predator on aphid on many fruit trees and shrubs is:
Aphidoletes aphidimyza • adults are 2-2 .5 mm long and pale grey ; larvae are mm long , orange-red. Larvae overwinter in cocoons and hatch in the spring . Eggs are laid near aphid colon ies and hatc h within a few days, each larva killing several aphids . There are several generations annually .
2~ 3

~ \~
\

/' · V

\ \ \i

'. i!
/ J

"

A.aphidimyza

Hoverflies
Adult hoverflies (also called drone flies or syrphids) are very active , sun-loving insects, which are common from spring to autumn; they are frequently mistaken for wasps because of their black and gold colouring, but have a distinctive hovering , darting flight. They visit fruit blossom and many other flowers, especially Compositae , Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, in large numbers , feeding on nectar and pollen . Larvae are usually 10-15 mm long , and green, white , brown or semi· transparent ; larvae of several species are predators of aphids and other insects. One larva can eat up to 50 aphids a day (1000 in a lifetime). A common species is:
Metasyrphus luniger - often predacious on fruit crops. Adults are 9 mm long with black and yellow striped abdomen . Larvae are 10-12 mm long, dirty greybrown . M.funiger larva

Beneficial insect parasites
Parasitic flies (tachinids)
Tachinids are important parasites , and superficially similar in appearance to house flies. Their maggot-like larvae are internal parasites of other insects, particularly moth caterpillars. One of the most common and widely distributed is :
Nemorilla floratis - attacks many moth caterpitlars, including codling moth larvae Adults are 4-8 mm long, black with a yellowish or golden sheen . There are several generations per year. N.f1orafis

Parasitic wasps
These tiny wasps generally lay their eggs in the eggs of bodies of other insects which then become the food source for the developing wasp larvae . The adults are rarely noticed except on a sunny day when they can be found feeding on umbefliferou s flowers.

Ichneumon flies
Many species of this very large family attack fruit pests , especially moth caterpillars. Most species adults are 5-9 mm long, and some have extremely long ovipositors and are parasites of wood· or stem-boring insects; the are sunloving and often visit flowers , particularly umbelliferous species .
Scambus pomorum (Apple blossom weevil parasite) - a common parasite of apple blossom weevil larvae. also apple bud weevil. The adults are 5

mm
long , mainly black with reddish-brown legs. S.pomorum

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

=
Braconid wasps
These are important enemies of moth caterpillars .

~

..

~35mm
Chalcid wasps

Ascogaster quadridentatus - a common para site of codling moth . The female wasps attack the egg stage; parasitised eggs hatch normally but the wasp larva develops within it. Adults have a sturdy dull black body .

A.quadridentatus

These are a very large family of small or minute insects (most under 3 mm long). with adults often brilliantly coloured, mainly metallic blue or metalli c green. They include fairy flies , minute chalcids (some under 0.25 mm long and the smallest insects known) . Chalcids parasitise many insect pests, particularly aphids, moth larvae and scale insects.

Social wasps
Social wasps (eg. Vespula germanica & V. vulgaris) are the large wasps familiar to most people and which are often a pest on ripening fruits . However, they are often of value as predators of harmful insects , including aphids and caterpillars; this prey is fed to the wasp larvae which require a diet of animal protein. Predatory activity is maintained through brood·rearing but then in late summer and autumn the workers can be a nuisance.

Mites
Seve ral mites are predators of other mites, aphids and small insects. leaves on the ground. Most are under 1 mm long. Some overwinter on dead

Spiders
Many species are found on fruit trees and shrubs. Some catch their prey without a web , by waiting to ambush and pounce on them. Others form 'scaffold webs' consisitng of sparse, c ri ss·crossing threads or a single sinken thread trailed from the body. Other are orb·web spinners· these tend to be stout bodies with very colourful abdomens. Prey includes aphids, codling moth adults and larvae etc.

Money spiders
These are very small (usually under 2.5 mm long) with shiny black abdomens ; they are abundant, partucularly in the autumn , on fruit crops as predators of spider mites , small aphids and other small insect s. Some search for their prey without a web , others make webs which are often horizontal sheets, anchored to leaves or other herbage. Money spiders like shady , damp sites, and on fruit trees are most numerous on the trunks and main branches.

Harvestmen
These look very similar to spiders , consiting of a small round body balanced on very long, thin, delicate legs. They are common on fruit crops as predators of aphids, caterpillars and other small insects.

References
Alford, 0: A Colour Atlas of Fruit Pests . Wolfe Publishing , 1984. Beneficial insects and mites. MAFF Bulletin 20. Capsid bugs on fruit. ADAS Leaflet 154' MAFF 1983. Pollinating insects will be covered in Agroforestry News, Volume 8 No 1

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 35

Book Reviews
Biological Control of Weeds
M ti Julien & M W Griffiths (Eds)
CAB I Publishing , 1998; 240 pp; £27,50 ($50 .00), paperback. ISBN 0 85199 234 X

Biological control of weeds offers and ecologically sound and cost-effective method of controlling
invasive weed species. In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in biological control programs , with more new agents being assessed and released . The fourth edition of this catalogue provides a comprehensive reference source to attempts al biological control of weeds , and comprises of four detailed lists:

Exotic invertebrates and fungi released and their target weeds
Exotic vertebrates released and their target weeds

Native organisms utilised and their target weeds Previously usedfpotential agents found in exotic ranges (with no deliberate release)
Each entry includes the target weed, control agent , dale of release and degree of control. The book is a handy reference for professionals and students interested in the biological controt of weeds.

Success with Growing Fruit in Containers
Peter Himmelhuber
Merehurst Limited , 1999; 64 pp ; £2 .99 . ISBN 1·85391·797·4. The time is right for a book dedicated to container fruit growing and this booklet , translated from the German original, makes a good effort at covering all aspects of the subject. The first section of the booklet discusses position and selection of species, including climate, winter protecti on , light conditions , and buying of plants . Next, the main fruits are discu ssed apple, pear, quince , hazel , peach , apricot, plum , cherries , gooseberry, currants, brambles , grape, kiwi , mountain ash , sloe , elder , rose , blueberry , strawberry , rhubarb , Citrus , kumquat , fig , almond , loquat, passion fruit and cactus fig. for each of these there is a brief description of botany, position required , care and cultivation details. A few cultivars are sometimes suggested - more would have been useful. The final part of the booklet includes sections on containers and composts, suggestions for planting arrangements , and general care for container fruits - nutrient supply , pruning , irrigation, propagation , and winter protection. Numerous colour photographs add interest to the text and although other information may be needed to choose which fruit varieties to grow , it remains excellent value and will be a worthwhile read for all gardeners who want to grow fruits in containers .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

The Royal Horticultural Society Propagating Plants Alan Toogood (Editor-in-chief)
Darling Kindersley, 1999; 320 pp; £25.00 (hardback). ISBN 0751303658. This comprehensive book covers all aspects of plant propagation. Initial chapters cover the botany of seed production by plants, vegetative propagation, tools and equipment. soils and growing media, propagating environment and plant problems during propagation. The main sections of the book deal with groups of plants, with an introduction covering propagating methods, followed by an A-Z of species with detailed recommendations. The sections are garden trees, shrubs and climbing plants, perennials, annuals and biennials, cacti and succulents, bulbous plants, and vegetables. The general sections are clear and well illustrated with colour drawings and photographs. Overall, this book is a very useful reference for general techniques and specific information about common garden species.

The

Royal

Horticultural

Society

Drought-Resistant

Gardening
Peter Robinson
Darling Kindersley, 1999; 72 pp; £4.99. ISBN 0-7513-06975. The first two thirds of this booklet describes how to make a drought-resistant garden, with practical advice on saving water, improving soil and identifying trouble spots, choosing the right plants and protecting them from wind, making the best use of water, ideas for planting schemes and use of containers. The final part of the booklet contains a brief list of plants suitable for dry sites, from trees to annuals. Numerous photographs and drawings are included in this useful brief guide to droughtresistant gardening.

The Sustainable Forestry Handbook
Sophie Higman et al
Earthscan Publications Ltd, 1999; 289 pp; £25.00. ISBN 1 85383 5994 This practical and accessible handbook answers the three questions: What are international forestry standards? What do these standards require? How can these requirements be met? The subjects covered include environmental and technical issues, with a special focus on social issues . Aimed primarily at forest managers and management teams in tropical 'develo ping ' countries, this book is the first to set out in clear simple language what needs to be done.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

Page 37

e
Bob Flowerdew

£M-

Bob Flowerdew's Organic Bible
Successful Gardening the Natural Way
Kyle Cathie Ltd. , 1998; 224 pp; £19.99 (hardback). ISBN 1. 85626 280 4 . Bob Flowerdew is well known for his enthusiasm about organic growing methods and this book is

based on his 15 years of applying those methods in his own garden in Norfolk.

II shows how to

create not only productive fruit and vegetable gardens, but ornamental gardens too. Topics covered include the principles of organic gardening and becoming an organic household; encouraging predators of common pests; ornamental flower gardening; maintaining fertility with and without organic fertitisers; fruit growing; herbs and vegetables: gardening under cover; harvesting, storing and cooking the harvest ; pest , disease and weed control. The book is full of good practical advice from someone who has actually tried doing it - unlike some gardening books - and is written in Bob's usual readable style. A highly recommended 'bible' on organic growing.

The Theory and Practice of Agroforestry Design
Paul A Wojtkowski
Science Publishers Inc, 1998; 296 pp; £19.50 ($29 .50) (paperback) . UK distributor: Plymbridge Distributors Ltd. ISBN 1-57808-034-7. The purpose of this book is summarised in the subtitle: A comprehensive study of the theories, concepts and conventions that underlie the successful use of agroforestry. The book's perspective come from agroecology , and the focus is on how the individual parts (theories and concepts) form the whole (the process of designing or understanding specific agroforestry systems), and how theory influences or leads to successful application. The first chapter familiarises readers with the concept of agroforestry, its proposed uses, and the role of design theory . The second presents the basic economic evaluation methods used in agroforestry. The remaining chapters present agroforestry theory , the design strategies used to convert theory into practice , and then the practical applications. Topics covered include the agroecological base of agroforestry ; inter-species interfaces; design concepts and use of trees; sustainabiJily; agrotechnological descriptions; plot diagnosiS and design: landscape diagnosis and design. A number of practical examples are given but the emphasis is not on the use of specific plants. Such examples are mostly from South America but are applicable to any location. An excellent book for students of agroforestry and practitioners interested in going beyond field basics .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

=

The yellowhorn:
Xanthoceras sorbifolium
Description
The yellowhorn (a lso called the shiny~leaf yellowhorn and th e northern macadamia) is a large shrub (sometimes a sma ll tree) native to Northern China , where it grows in thickets on dry hi ll slopes.

The name comes from refers to the horn-like growths between the petals .
Yellowhorn grows in the wild to a height of 6 m (20 ft) and width of 2.5 m (8 ft), upright at first but becoming rounded with age; in Brit ain it rarely exceeds 3 m (10 tt) in height. The yo ung branches are sh iny and very pithy . The leaves are alternate , up to 30 em (1 ft) long with 9-17 deeply-toothed leaflets each 4-5 em (1.6-2 - ) tong, dark green above and paler green beneath. They persist into the autum n , falling very late. White-petalled flowers , 2- 3 cm (0 .8-1.2 - ) across , are produced in den se racemes to 25 cm ( 10· ) long in May at the same time as the leaves emerge . They are flu shed yellow, later carmine at the base , and are sweetly-scented . Fruits are top-shaped , 4-6 cm ( 1.6-2 .4") across at the top, lea th ery thi ck-wa ll ed capsules, which enclose 8-10 round brown seeds. The seeds are 8- 15 mm (0.3-0.6-) across . It is very cold hardy - in China it thrives where winter lows average -33°C ; but it requires hot summe rs as well.

Uses
The seeds are edible with a brazil nut flavour and crunchy texture. The y can be eaten raw or can be roasted and she ll ed, or (like chestnuts) the sh elled seed can be ground into a flour and used in any of the ways that chestnut flour can be. An edible oil can be obtained from the seeds - indeed , the yellowhorn is one of China ' s domestic oil trees. Other minor edible uses include the flowers and leaves - both h ave been eaten boi led as a famine food , but they are not recommended! The inner bark and thick fleshy roots are yellow and can probably be used for dyei ng .

Cultivation
Likes a well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position , though most soil s (includ ing cha lk) apart from

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

-

5E

$

A

wet ones are tolerated . Requires protection from co ld winds. Plants grow best in areas with warm summers and dry springs without late frosts which can be damaging. Requires a long warm growing season to fully ripen its wood and the stimulate the production of flower buds. Xan/hoceras prefers conditions in the South and South East of the UK; elsewhere the protection of a wall may be needed for flowering to occur. Plants are usually slow to become established and grow to about 2 .5 m high in 10 years . Flowers are produced on the previous yea r's wood. In the wild , the rate of fruit set is very low (only 2-6%); measures to dramatically improve this , and thus the seed yield , in China inc lud e the application of manure after seed harvesting encouraging the growth of spurs and the development of flowers/young fruits the next year ; and irrigating in dry weather.

ses
Susceptible to attacks by coral spot fungus (Nectria cinnabarina) . particularly if the wood is not fully ripened. Affected wood should be cut out and wounds painted .

Propagation
The seeds require 6 weeks of cold stratification before sowing at 21 °C (70°F). Germination occurs within 4-6 weeks. There are approximately 1340 seeds per Kg (610 seeds per Ib). Root cuttings can be taken in December or January. 3 cm long pieces of root are planted horizontally in pots under cover. A good percentage usually take. Division of suckers is possible in winter.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust. A.R.T. Useful plants database, 1999. Bean , W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the 'British Isles, Vol 4 . John Murray, 1981. Dong-Xiang . Xu: Yield and quality of seeds of the oil tree Xanthoceras sorbifolia. Pharmazie 44 (1989), H. 11 , 786-7. Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998. Krussman . G : Manual of Broad-leaved Trees and Shrubs . Batsford , 1984.

Classified adverts
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Paqe 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 7 No 4

AS' cforssti'y ;s the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce d div"rse, productive and re3i1inllt sys:em for producing food, materials, timber and olh<er p;o..i~cts. It can ra Q£W trcm plantinn trees in pastures providing shelter, spade an<.l emergency forage ~'t04'0r-est garden systems incorporating layers of tali and small irees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a ye"r in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £13 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per ye Olr overseas (please remit in Steriing)

£32 por yeaI' for institutions.
A lis' of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available un request for 3 x 1st ciass stamps. Back issues cost £3.tiO per copy including ro~tage (f. 4 50 outside the E.IJ.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research ~'rust' , and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust. 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totncs, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agrofcrestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops , and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the resuits through booklets, Agroforestry News , and other publicaiions . The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects .

ZEn

»

'4'

Agroforestry News
aN

I

Volume 8 Number 1

October 1999

·

.

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 8 Number 1

October 1999

Contents
2 5 7 9 13 19 30 36 38 News Fruit Farm in the South West of Ireland Hovenia dulcis: Japanese Raisin Tree Propagation: Division Pollinating insects in orchards Blueberries Red alder Book reviews:
The Apple Grower / Natural Enemies Handbook / City Harvest / Tropical Agroforestry

Pest & Disease series: Vine Weevil

I

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are 'Nelcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even lame species . The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agrororestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totnes, Devon , TQ9 6JT. U.K. Email : AgroResTr@ aoJ.com Website: http://members.aoJ.com/AgroResTrlhomepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 1

News
A Strawberry - Sugar Maple agroforestry system
Sugar maple trees have leaky sha llow roots , so that water absorbed by the deep roots during the day leaks from the shallow roots into the drier shallow soi l at night. Studies and excavations have shown dhat wild strawberries absorb this leaked water and a close relationship between strawberries and sugar maple roots in natural ecosystems . These observations suggested the possibility of an agroforestry system based on an association of the two species , especially in regions where droughty summer occur and strawberries need irrigation.

Researchers at Ash land University in the USA (New York) planted an 8 x 15 grid of sugar maple trees in 1996 at 6 m (20 ft) spacing. In June 1997 , a garden claw was used to cultivate narrow strips connecti ng each pair of trees, and a total of 7000 'A ll star' strawberry plants planted at 15 cm (6-) spacing . Th e aims for the next few years are to evaluate strawberry fresh fruit production related to the distance from the sugar maple tree.
Sou rce : Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Ag roforestry in North America

Wood pasture recommendations
The Forestry Commission has recent ly issued an Information Note, titled 'Domestic Stock Grazing to Enh ance Woodland Biodiversity', which contai ns useful inform atio n for agroforestry practitioners interested in woodland grazing , wood pasture or silvopastu re systems which comb ine trees and stock . Recommendations are made for grazi ng of domestic stock in ancient and semi·natural woodlands in Britain . While these won 't correspond exactly with agroforestry systems , the semi·natural wood pasture systems should be very similar to managed silvopasture systems . In such systems , the recommendations are: For ongoing stock grazing and shelter: Graze at a denSity of 0.6 catue/ha or 4 sheep/ha. Partially rest the grazing for 15 co ntinuou s years every 100 years by reducing grazi ng to 0.05 cattle/ha or 0.33 sheep/ha. To conserve habitat for birds , inve rtebrates & lich ens : Graze at 0.3 cattle/ha or 0 .4 horses/ha. To open up structure and reduce regeneration : Graze at 0.3 cattle/ha , removing from November-February. Coppice regeneration can be grazed , once the coppice is above browse height, at a density of 0.1 cattle/ha or 0.7 sheep/ha . Pigs are another grazing option in wood pastures. Whe re pigs are kept in wood land aU year at high enough densities without supp lementary feeding , they will qu ickly eradicate most ground vegetation and strip tree stems and sp ur roots leading to tree death. If densities are lower and/or a full diet is provided , they can be used to control invasive species such as bracken and rhododend ron , which are used as bedding litter by sows .

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 1

---=-Species Cattle

~.::...-

~---

--

---~

Dietary preferences and habitat effects
Selec tivitv Low Preferences Maior I minor High quality grasses, bent I fescue bog-rush fen, mat grass I purple moor grass, heather. Seasonal variation Low Broadleaves bark stripped when forage availability low (winter) or mineral deficiency (summer) Habitat effects

Horses & ponies

High

Bent I fescue grasses Purple moor grass , heather, gorse , holly. sedges, rushes. ferns . High quality grasses and herbaceous plants Heather, coarse grasses

Sheep (hardy breeds )

High

High Purple moor grass , sedges, rushes and ferns taken late spring & summer . Bark stripped when forage availability low. High Ash, holly. oak & birch browsed in summer. Fir. spruce, yew, juniper & brambles in winter. Bark stripped in severe winters.

· · · ·
· ·

Uneven tussocky sward with tall vegetation around dung patches which are avoided . High grazing pressure produces short swards. Winter grazing of mat & purple moor grass breaks up deep litter & increases Qual ity of spring growth Summer grazing of heather & wavy hair grass reduces coarse & woody material . encourages herbs , improves forage Qualitv. Varied sward structure, patches of closely grazed & tussocky ground. Native breeds particularly useful in controlling coarse grasses & producing open, herb-rich swards.

· · ·
· · · · ·
· · ·

Goals

High

High quality grasses, sedges, rushes, dwarf shrubs Mat grass, rushes, bracken , bog myrtle.

Pigs

Low

Anything tasty

High Grasses, sedges and rushes in summer; dwarf shrubs , gorse , spruce & browse in winter. Winter stripping of smooth barked broadleaves (S-3Scm 0) & conifers (S-1Scm 0 \. Low Fruits and seeds (particularly acorns) taken in autumn .

Short, tight sward except where tussocky grass is present. Commercial hill breeds avoid coarse grasses. Browse hardwood seedlings for longer in the year and more selectively than cattle, preventing natural regeneration . Saplings browsed in winter especially during snow cover. Seek woodland sheller during inclem ent weather causing high impact 10 ground flora & natural regeneration . Graze/browse tall vegetation leaving uneven. tussocky swards. Hardwood seedlings browsed more than by cattle & sheep, preventing natural regeneration. Brambles & other thorny spec ies may be con trolled by browsing.

Dense ground vegetation reduced I cleared by rooting behaviour. Seed beds created for natural regeneration of forest farming operations . Seedlings, saplings & roots of larger trees may be uprooted or damaged unless pigs are removed following pannage period (FC: and ringed - but we do not agree with this practice). Continual rooting prevents natural reaeneration .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol B No 1

Hardy and/or ancient breeds are most suitable for woodland grazing, as they are hardier, less prone to disease, thrive better on relatively poor forage, and require little supplementary feeding: Cattle - Belted Galloway or Highland Sheep - Hebridean, Herdwick, Swaledale or Rough Fell Pigs - Saddleback or Gloucester Trampling on wet sites, particularly by cattle, can damage soil structure by causing compaction. Sheep hooves app ly 44% of the pressure of cattle hooves and sheep may be better suited to wetter h",bitats for winter grazing. All domestic stock will strip the bark from trees , although sheep and goats are often more prone to this . Bark stripping may be more severe during bad weather or when fora ge availability is low or in response to mineral deficiencies - salt licks may prevent or reduce it. Cattle and horses are generally classed as grazing species, be ing low selective herbaceous feeders (taking mainly grasses and other ground vegetation), whilst sheep and goats are more selective and tend to browse more on the shoots and leaves of trees and shrubs.

Diet of domestic stock
80,-------------------60 40

o Grasses
• Herbaceous

20

o Trees/Shrubs
Cattle Horse Sheep Goat

o

Edible Buildings Project
Edible Bui ldings is an innovative project currently under development by Sustain: The alliance for better food and farming (formerly the SAFE alliance and the National Food Alliance). Its aim is to promote and support sustainab le development through local production and consumption of food on, in and up buifdings (on walls, roof-top gardens and balconies ). for the benefit of communities and the environment. The remit of the project extends to considering social and environmental aspects linked to food growing such as energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. health and employment. biod iversity, waste assimilation and recycling . Although the project will mainly concentrate on food plants, it will also consider other aspects such as: small-scale egg and poultry production, bee forage and plants used in wine-making, green manures and compost activators. Funding for the planning stage has been secured and Sustain is seeking supporters for the project and possible demonstration sites. If you would like to support the project or would like more information please contact James Petts at Sustain, 94 White Lion St, London, N1 9PF.

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Fruit Farm in the South West of Ireland
Klaus Hauschild
Caher Fruits is located about 9 miles east of Kenmare in the midst of the mountain ranges of South West Ireland. Caher Fruits consists of 62 acres . Two acres are planted as native forest - in the future it will be used for firewood in an masonry oven from Finland . Fifty acres are in sheep grazing, about 8 acres are left untouched and 2 acres of the best sites (south facing) are used for fruit production, Only this will be described in more detaiL

Climate
Caher Fruits Kilgarvan is laid in th e midst of the greatest mountain range of Ireland . The who le peninsu la of Cork and Kerry is faced towards the south west where the Gu lf Stream is and where the rain and often strong winds come from. 1400 mm of rain is the annual recorded average. This spring was especially dull. Belween mid-May and mid-June I counted less than 2 hours of sunshine per day. Thi s seemed unrealistic because it would be duller than in bad winter months , but research revea led that in Killarney in May 1991 only 2 hours of sunshine was measured per day . Mallow on the North East of the range , but already beyond the range, recorded 1000 sunshine hours on average (the lowe st on the British & Irish islands as far as I know) . The range in the mountain areas is I guess between 500 and 1000 sunshine hours with Mangerton mountain on the lower end (worst in Ireland, British islands or even the world?) and Caher on the higher end, also known locally as a su nny spot. Due to these climatic limitations, I will talk about the 1.Sth layer instead of 1st la yer and the 2.Sth layer instead of the 2nd layer of the forest garden .

Outlay
Most trees were planted in 1996 in different spots and separated by hedges , thus preventing somewhat the spread of diseases and also giving sheller. The 1.5th layer are mostly apple and plum trees. The 2.5th layer comprises Shepherdia argentea, Cephafotaxus fortunei, Gaultheria shallon and E/aeagnus species. Pear , walnut, mulberry and Carnelian cherry are interplanted with hazel, which will be confined to the 2.5th layer only after more than 20 years. Hedges comprising alder, black locust as nitrogen fixer, Arne/anchier, bird cherry, rowan species, cherry, plain and firethorn for bird consumption (also for own consumption) just to prevent them from eating curra nts, gooseberries , raspberries , hybrid berries , strawberries , blueberries and Myrtus ugni. The latter, though naturally half shadow plants, are all in the open to get the optimal fruit production. Blueberries for instance under birch trees refuse to grow and yet the further away they get , the bigger they get. Currants and hybrid berries are interplanted with morello cherries , supposedly good neighbours.

Fruits
All apple and plum trees produce fruits , whereas no pear trees have produced a single pear yet. though I have seen small ones which were certainly eaten by the birds. The same is true for all the berries. I will have to try nets next year. Most apple trees, I must say, are producing too many apples so that they fall over or even break. I thought I could leave tip bearers on their own , but that is not true. Either I have to severely cut them

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 1

PageS

back or pick off some of the tiny apples which is not in the sen se of true permacuUure as there is labour involved , Inappropriate breeding I would suppo se , Altogether the fruits taste quite nice and seem to be unaffected by bad weather conditions , with the exception of raspberries and strawberries wh ich go mouldy in rai ny weather. I will not finish this article withou t an emphasis on native trees . Certain ly, I plant a lot of exotic fruits ; but on the othe r hand Ireland is quite poor in native fruits . There are blackberries that do not ripen properl y because of the poor summers , There are crab apples which hardly anyone will eat , safQe counts for sloe and sea buckthorn. Arbutus doesn ' t grow eve rywhere and is unreliable. I pla nt native trees in hedges and woodland so the overa ll look is native rather than exotic . I would nol like to live in a place a ll my life with alien plants. Actua lly I would feel the same. On the other hand , it is strang e looking towards local people who seem to compete to see who ha s the most strang e, alien -l ooking plants in their gardens, a place where nati ve plants are virtuaJly banned.

Fruit performance in SW Ireland - diseases
Canker Apples Beauly of Balh i Cox_ 's
Or~Pippin

Mildew

Scab 1
X

Scab 2

S~ab

!~arer
X (X)

X

MM106 2 06 MM 101 MM 101 M9 MM106 MM106 MM106 M26 MM 106 M~ 06
M~
M~

X X X X X X X X X X X X (X)

• Russet Istar ieorg e Cave Ida Red Irish Peach Katy Kerry Pippin la xton's S u~ l ord Lambourne urmer Pippin un set untan Pears Beu rre Hardy Calillac

(X) X

_X

X (XI X X

MM1<

C
I I Scab 1 , Bon

X X
symptoms , 2

X

Qu ince Qu ince Qu ince Qu ince
~u i nce

A A A A A

= slight

= moderate

symptoms , 3

= severe

symptoms

Further notes
All pea rs got severe frost damage this spring. 'Katy' gates the -Ki lgarvan Medal" because the foliage was always plain green , no sign of any disease, in combination with excellence and plenty of fruit. Caher Fruits, Caher, Kilgarvan , Co. Kerry, IRELAND

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Hovenia dulcis: Japanese Raisin Tree
Introduction
Hovenia dulcis is a deciduous tall shrub or tree, so widely cultivated throughout eastern Asia that its native distribution in uncertain ; found in shady , moist glens and mountains . it is commo n in
Ch ina , Japan and Korea and can be found from the Eastern end to the Western end of the Himalayas. It is orten cultivated there for the curious edible fruit stalks ; in the West it is often grown for its handsome polished foliage .

Description
There are several forms of the species , some making a tree 15-20 m (50-70 ft) high in its native range, others only making a small tree or shrub 3-5 m (10-16 It) high. In time , the plants spread nearly as wide as they are high. Young twigs are downy. With age, the smooth greyish-brown bark separates into vertical strips to reveal a redd ish interior. Leaves are alternate, broadly oval or heart-shaped, 10-18 cm (4-7~) long by 7-15 cm (3_6 wide, se rrated , taper-poinled , on 3-5 cm (1-2 ") long downy stalks. They are distinctively three-veined from the base , lustrous green , and somewhat downy beneath .
ft )

Inconspicuous flowers are yellowish-green, with a strong sweet fragrance, and borne in 4-6 em (1 Y2-2Y~n wide clusters from June to July or August. They are self-fertile. Fruits are pea-sized, light greyish-brown . not often ripening in cultivation. The fruit stalk swells unevenly after the decay of the flower and becomes fleshy , thickened . contorted . reddish and sweet. They are ripe in September or October.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

- 15°C. .

-----

---==--

=--=-

----~

-

It is hardy to ·25°C when the wood is fully ripened, but in Britain it is wiser to expect hardiness to •

Uses
The fleshy fruit stalks are edible with a pleasant taste - they are dryish . sweet and fragrant with a raisin-like or bergamot pear-like ftavour (they have been likened to candied fruit) - they are valued and extensively cultivated throughout eastern Asia and used as a raisin substitute. They are also used to make wine. They are being investigated as a high-intensity natural sweetener.

The stalks are up to 3 em (1.2 - ) long and contain about 18-23% of sugars in total (mostly fructose , glucose and sucrose) . They can be eaten fresh or dried to keep. In China , where they are sold in markets, they (and the fruits themselves) are eaten to ameliorale the effects of large quantilies of alcohol! They have been produced in Southern England in good summers . A sweet extract from the seeds, young leaves and twigs was traditionally used in China to prepare a honey substitute called -tree honey·. The raisin tree is used for reforestation of sandy soil in Northern China , Inner Mongolia and Argentina. Medicinally, the fruits are used in China as an antispasmodic, febrifuge, laxative, diuretic and refrigerant. The seeds, which contain several flavonoids, are used in Japanese folk medicine, being diuretic and are used in the treatment of alcohol overdose: recent research has confirmed that Hovenia extracts reduce the effect and concentration of alcohol on the body . The stembark is used in the treatment of rectal diseases.

Cultivation
Hovenia is easily grown, thriving in any reasonable well-drained garden soil, with shelter from cold winds. Although it tolerates partial shade , sun is really needed for good fruiting and is essential in cool regions like Britain. Late spring frosts can sometimes damage plants and burn off leaves, but they rejuvenate well. In poor summers in Britain , growth sometimes doesn 't harden off well and some dieback occurs over winter; it prefers hot continental summers . Unripened growth is prone to coral spot fungus in winter. Young plants may need extra protection in winter.
In regions with cool summers, flowering can occur too late for the fruit stalks to ripen. Trees rarely exceed 10 m (33 tt) high in cultivation and growth is moderate , 30·60 cm when young but slowing when older. There are no pests to speak of. The fruit stalks don ' t become tasty until very late in the season - often after a frost· if harvested too early their flavour is bland. They are small and quite fiddly to pick· even the Chinese relegate the task to small children! They form terminally on the branches, hence high stalks are difficult to reach - the Chinese lop off whole large branches but this is not an option where the plant grows more marginally .

Propagation
Propagation is usually by seed. Seeds have an impermeable seed coat that severely inhibits germination. They need to be scarified, either by giving a hot water soak using nearly boiling water, or by nicking them with a file. A period of cold stratification at SoC after scarification improves the percentage of seeds which germinate.

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

= ~

Plants grown from seed usually bea r fruit within 7-10 years, though bearing within 3 years is possible under good conditions - adequate moisture and fertility, and a long growi ng season.

Softwood cutl ings in late summer and root cuttings are also possible methods of propagation .

Suppliers
In the UK, the A.R.T. supplies Hovenia du/cis seeds and plants . There are numerous suppliers of pla nts in the USA, and most large orn amenta l nursery growers wi ll stock the plant.

References
Bean, W: Trees and Sh ru bs Hardy in th e British Isles. John Murray, 1974 . Duk.e , J & Ayensu, E: Medicinal Plants of China . Reference Publications , 1985. Facciola , S: Corn ucopia II. Kampong Publications , 1998 . Fern, K: Plants for a Future . Permanent Pu bli cations, 1997. Frett , J: Germinatio n Req uiremen ts of Hovenia dulcis Seeds. HortScience 24(1):152.1989. Hussain , R et al : Plant·Derived Sweeteni ng Agents . Journal of Eth nopharmacology, 28 (1990)

103115.
Krussmann , G: Manual of Cu ltivated Broad·Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford , 1986 . Okuma, Yet al : Effects of extracts from Hovenia dulcis. Nippon·Eiyo·Shokuryo·Gakkaishi 1995.

48: 3, 167 -17 2.
Reich , L: Un common Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison·Wesley, 1991 .

Propagation:

Division
Introd uction
Div ision is the easiest method of vegetative propaga tion , and no special con ditions are needed to Extra pl ants are produced as smaller, younger pieces of the clump look after the young plants. are generated , and where many are needed, plants can be split into small sections or single·bud divisions. Division maintai ns strong growth in herbaceous plants and is orten carried out every 3·4 yea rs ; it is also used for propagating new plants. Plants propagated by digging out sucke rs· many trees and shrubs - are not included here. A lthoug h di vision is mainly applied to a number of herbaceous perennials, some woody and sem iwoody plants also possess the capacity to be di vided. Plants are usually divided when they are dormant or ju st starting into growth - autumn or spring are best. with sprin g preferable if the soil is hea vy, cold or wet. o r if plants are somewhat te nd er. Spring and early-summ er flowe ri ng perennials are best divided imm ed iately after flowering . All divisions should have plenty of roots (always aim to have more root than shoot for good success) and if there are few , the leaves shou ld be trimm ed to reduce transpiration during establi shment. Everg re en gra sses and bamboos benefit from leaf redu ction and the latter sho uld ha ve canes cut down to 30 cm (12"). Replant divisions to the same depth in their permanent positions.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 9

Clump-forming perennials
These should be lifted carefully with a fork and split into portions 5~8 em ( 2~ 3 " ) across ; larger pieces, with more shoots and foots , flower sooner than small ones. Always discard the centre portion of clumps and retain young outer parts. Clump-forming species suitable for division include : Acanthus Artemesiq Aruncus .. Asclepias Aster (some) Astilbe Astrantia Bamboos (most)

8ergenia Calamintha Campanula Carex

Crambe
Epimedium Eupatorium Euphorbia

Ferns (most) Galega Grasses (most) Hefianthus Helleborus Hemerocalfis Hosla Hypericum

Iris

Melissa
Myrrhis

Rumex Salvia Sanguisorba

Nepeta
Origanum

Tradescantia
Verbascum (some) Veronica (some)

Osmunda Phormium
Rheum

Loose mats and clumps
Many perennials form loose mats and clumps which are easy to divide. apart with your hands or a hand fork if congested . Lift with a fork and pull Bamboos and grasses should be divided in mid·spring , when growth has just started. Species which are suitable for division this way include:
Achillea Ajuga Alchemilfa Anchusa Asarum Aster (some) Bamboos (running Convalfaria Epimedium Fragaria Geranium Grasses (most) Heuchera Hosta spp) Lamium Uriope Mentha Phragmites Physalis Primula Pulmonaria Saponaria Saxifraga Sedum Sofidago Stachys Symphytum Thalictrum Trifolium Trillium Typha Veronica (some) Viola

Alpines
These are plants suitable for growing in very well drained sites· including Aubretia, Primula , Saxifraga, Sedum (some) , Thafictrum, Thymus. These plants make new plantlets annually from crowns , making division simple and productive. Divisions should be made about 10 days after flowering , when new shoots and root growth is starting; young plants produce the best material. Late summer and autumn-flowering plants are best divided in spring.

Semi-woody herbaceous perennials
These include Carex, Cyperus, Phormium, Typha , Yucca. These plants produce sword-like leaves , corded in dense terminal clusters each with its own root system. Division can be carried out between spring and summer taking care to ensure establishment of the divisions before winter some protection over winter may be necessary for some . Plants to be divided are lifted, washed clean of soil and split, ensuring that adequate roots are left on each division. Because these plants are often tough and woody , sharp spades, machetes or hatchets may be needed to split the clumps; young plants are much easier to manage.

Woody shrubs and trees
Few of these can be divided in the true sense of the word - those which do include Aronia, Aesculus parvifofialpavia, Cydonia oblonga. These form clumps of growth produced from suckers below soil

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

QSM
level near the base of the plant. Division should take place in winter; young plants can be lifted and divided up, us ing the younger shoots surrounding the main stem . Older plants can be divided in situ , severing off the young shoots around the outside complete with roots . Before planting, Ihe shoots of the divi sions should be pruned back in proportion to the rools.

Single-bud division
Plants wh ich can be divided produce a mass of closely knit shoo ts or buds forming a clump or crown of growth which can be sp li t off, each portion possess in g at least one shoot or bud together with an adequate root system for establishment. Because these divisions are usually small , they often benefit from growing on in a nursery bed or pots before planting out. Herbaceous perennials with fibrous crowns - including Achiflea , Aster, Herneroca llis, Monarda , Thafictrum, Trolfius, Va/eriana , Veronica. These are easy to divide; the best time is after the flowers have died down and new shoots and roots have sta rted to form - for late summer and autumn-flowe ring plants this will be in spring. The crowns are lifted and prepared by trimming off dead and dying growth, removing surp lu s soil and washing the crowns as clean as possible. Portions of the crown may then be pulled off or cut off into manageable portions. Young crowns are generally easier to manage than older ones, and the most suitable pieces for growing on are found on the periphery of the crown - the woody centra l material is difficult to split and lacks vigour. Large tough crowns may need to be levered apart with two garden forks. Divisions can be planted immediately back into the sailor be potted up to grow on . Herbaceous perennials with tough compacted crowns - including Astilbe, Helleborus , Hosta. Their crowns have pronounced fleshy buds and roots, and are difficult to pull apart. Crowns are lifted in late winter or early spring , when the crown buds will be starting growth. The crowns. after washing, are cut with a knife , ensuring that each part possesses at least one shoot or bud with adequate roots. These divis ion s are prone to fungal rots and hygiene is important - many growers use fungicides on them (sulphur dust may be accep table to organic growers).

Bulb division
The simplest ways to propagate bulbs are by bulblets (ie dividing excess bulbs formed in the bulb clump) and bulbils (by small bulbs formed on flower sta lks) - some species like Ca/ochortus, Erythroniurn and Tulipa must be vegetatively propagated this way . There are several other methods of bulb division, though, which are especially useful to produce larger numbers of plants quickly. All these methods require good hygiene - clean surfaces (a kitchen chopping board is useful), clean hands, clean knives (disinfected regularly) : most growers use fungicides on cut and wounded su rfaces to prevent rots (sulphur dust may be acceptable to organ ic growers) . Four main methods are outlined here:

Scaling
This is only possible with scaly bulbs. The scales are removed singly and each produces bulb let s. This is best carried out from late summer to la te autumn . Gently snap off individual scales , apply fu ngicide if any , then mix them with mist vermiculite . Put them in a thin clear plastic bag and seal it, retaining as much air as possible , and keep at 20°C (68°F) in total darkness. Cold-climate bu lbs benefit from six weeks warmth, then six weeks of coo l conditions - SoC (41 °F) in a refrigerator. When bulblets have formed in 10-12 weeks, do not break them off but pot the scales individually into a soilless compost , covering with a bulblet-thick layer of compost. Grow on in a well-ventilated cold

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

-~ -

frame or sim ilar over the sp ring and summer. C lusters of bulbs can be sepa rated in autumn or the following spring and planted oul. Species suitable for sca lin g includ e Fritillar;a and Ulium.

Twin scaling
This is possible with non-scaly bulbs which are enclosed in a thick outer skin . Each bulb is cut into pairs of ~cales , each of which produces bulblets. This technique is more fiddly than chipping but many mCllre new bulbs are produced from each parent bulb. It is carried out in late summer. Using a sharp knife or scalpe l. remove and discard the outer brown skin, cut off any dead roots and the top of the bulb . Holding the bulb upside down , cut it vertically into segments , first in half. then quarters , then into eight. Cut pairs of scales from each segment . each having a piece of basa l plate attached . Apply fungi cide if any. and place them in a bag of moist vermiculite as for sca ling. Bul blets shou ld form within 3 months , after which they can be planted into trays and grown on in a well-ventilated cold frame or similar. Species suitable for twin scaling include Alfium. Iris, Leucojum, Muscar;, Narcissus and Scilla.

Scoring
This involves wounding the basal plate of a bulb to encourage bulblets to form . It is carried out in late summer. The bulb is held upside down and a V-shaped groove cut right through the basal plate . One or two more criss-crossing grooves are made, fungicide applied if any, and the bu lb is planted upside down into a small pot in moist sand. just deep enough to hold the bulb upright. This is placed in a warm, dry, dark place (eg. an airing cupboa rd ) and bulblets will form in 2-3 months. The bulb - sti ll upside down - is then planted in a soilless compost, with the bulblets covered with a thin layer of compost, and grown on in a cold frame or similar. After a year, the bulblets can be separated and grown on . Species suitable for scoring include Fritillaria and Scilla.

Chipping
Th is used on non-scaly bu lbs, which are cut into segments, each of which produces bulblets. It is usually slightly easier than scaling or twin scaling as the segments have bigger food reserves . C hipping is carried out in summer months. The outer skin of the bulb is removed , the roots cut back , and the top of the bulb cut off. The bulb is turned ups ide down and cut vertically into 8 or 16 segments, depending on the size of the bulb . Each segment must have a piece of basal plate attached . Apply fungicide if any, and place into a bag of moist verm iculite as for scaling. Bulblets form within 3 months and they can then be potted off, covering them with 1 cm of compost. They are grown on in a well-ventilated co ld frame or similar. Species suitable for chipping includ e Allium, Iris, Narcissus and Scilla.

References
Arbury, J et al : The Complete Book of Plant Propagation. Mitchell Beazley , 1997 . Thompson, P: Creative Propagation . Batsford , 1992. Toogood , A: The RHS Propaga ting Plants. Darling Kindersley. 1999.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

=-

:a

Pollinating insects in orchards
Introduction
Many folk, when thinking about pollinators of tree and shrub crops, automatically thin k of honey bees . but there are many other pollinators of great value which can be encourag ed and lead to better overall pollination.

Honey bees
Honey bee colonies are perennial - it doesn't do much in winter, but workers and the queen stay alive, sing energy derived from stored honey to keep warm . Foraging and production of new bro od can begin as soon as weather permits in the spring.
The advantage of honey bees is that they also provide a crop - honey - each year. The disadvantage is that they are only active when the weather gets quite warm, which is certainly not always the case in Britain when pollination is needed. There are few , if any, flower species adapted specifically to pollination by honey bees. The main species of value to honey bees are listed in the table below. Members of the families Boraginaceae, Ericaceae , Iridaceae, Labiatiae, Leguminosae, Orchidaceae, Malvaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Violaceae have all evolved to be bee pOllinated. Species can easily be chosen for honey bee forage to cover the feeding season (spring to autumn).

These (Apis mellifera)need little description.

Bumble or wild bees
In Britain, bumble bee colonies last less than a year. The only individuals that normally su rvive a north temperate-zone winter are mated queens. In spring, when the weather in unpredictable, the queen on her own must find enough food to mature her eggs, find a nesting place and establish a nest, and rear the first batch of workers. Establishing a colony is thus a time-consuming and risky business. In addition, bumble bee colonies only have a few days of food reserves, and are thus more vulnerable than honey bees to a shortage of forage caused by a scarcity of flowers or poor foraging wealher.

Bombus spp. are the main bumble bee genus in Britain, with several species both short and longtongued. Nests are usually sited in a disused nest of a small mammal or bird where there is an accum ulation of grass, moss or leaves; bird nest-boxes and holes between walls of houses are also used. Some species create their own nests on the soil surface at the base of vegetation . To maximise possible habitats , make sure that some rough grassland and hedge boundaries are maintained, and that plenty of bee flowers are available.
Bumble bees are better at warming up than honey bees , and can fly at times when honey bees are grounded by cool weather. Because of this , they inhabit far northern latitudes beyond the natural range of honey bees. Bumble bees may forage for several hours a day when honey bees only emerge for a short time at the warmest part of the day; bumble bees are thus more reliable pollinators in cool climates than honey bees . Long-tongued bumble bees are excellent pollinators , and many deep-flowered species, particularly labiates and legumes, have co-evolved with them . In evolutionary terms , bumble bees seem to be generally better pollinators than honey bees . They are especially efficient at pollinating long tubelike

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 13

flowers and in 'buzz- pollinating ' pollen-only crops (e.g. some Actinidia spp, Borage, Ericaceae, Solanaceae - where the high frequency wing vibration causes pollen to be released). Nests of bumble bees are reared commercially and are now widely used throughout the world for pollinating glasshouse crops, particularly of tomatoes, that were formerfy hand pollinated. The main species used commercially in Europe is Bombus terrestris; local species are used in the USA and Canada. Favourite flowers for bumble bees include Aquilegia, Cotoneaster, Digitalis, Geranium, Lamium, Symphytum and Trifolium species . For other species of value, see the table below. Species can easily be. chosen for bumble bee forage - especially important are early forage plants (winter to spring al"fd early summer) to give queens a good chance of nesting successfully and starting a colony. Artificial nest sites for bumble bees are easy to make - use wooden boxes containing leaves, moss or dried grass: bury it slightly underground and use a piece of 25 mm (1") plastic hose to connect the box to the ground surface. Bumble bee numbers can be surprisingly high - several thousand per acre - and they playa much larger role in flower pollination than is usually envisaged. Where their numbers are high, seed crops can double or even triple and there is no doubt that these are most valuable wild pollinators wh ich orchard managers can encourage and sustain.

Solitary bees
Adrenid or mining bees (Adrenidae), halictid bees (Halictidae) and megachilid bees (Megachilidae) are common visitors to members of the Rosaceae . The first two groups are solitary ground nesters. while the megachilids nest in cavities in wood, sturdy grass stems etc . Leioproclus spp . are often common pollinators and are known to be important on kiwi fruits . In Japan and North American, species of Osmia (megachilids) - blue orchard bees or mason bees are now used commercially as pollinators of fruit trees . These species like to nest in grass stems etc. so that artificial sites are easy to provide - stems of bamboo or other material with the correct diameter holes are fine.

Hoverflies
These are common pollinators of fruits and other flowering plants, especially Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae. They are also common pollinators of kiwi fruits . Their larvae are voracious aphid-eaters. .

Other flies
Members of the Calliphorinae, Bibionidae and Muscidae are often found in abundance on fruit trees .

Plants useful to honey bees and bumble bees
The following table lists genera where most species are useful to bees. Honey bees may be attracted to all such species. The table includes the following information: Type The typefsize of plants in the genus . An = annuals, Bi = biennials, P = perennials, S = shrubs, T = trees, Cl climbers. Many genera contain a range of types, eg An-P annuals to perennials, S-T = shrubs to trees etc.

=

=

Use
a = Used especially as source of nectar u = Used especially as source of pollen A = Used especially by bumble bees

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

E
Flowering period : Displays the range of months for flowering for the genus - note that individual species will fall within this range but won" necessarily span the whole range of months. Genus Acer Achillea Acinos Aconitum

Common name

Type
T p

Use
J
a a a a a a a
u

Flowering period F M A M J J A S 0

N

0

Maples
Yarrow Calamin! Monkshood

Aesculus
Agastache Ajuga Allium Alnus Amelanchier Amorpha

Bugle Onions Alders Juneberries

An-P P T p An-P

A A
u

A A
u u u

An-P
SoT SoT S An-P P p

II
A A

Anchusa
Aq uil egia Arabis Arbutus Arctium Arctostaphylos Aster Astraga lus

a a

Columbines
Strawberry tree Burdock Searbe rry Mich. daisy

Aubretia
Baptisia Berberis Betula Borago Brassica Ca lamintha Ca ll una Campanula Ca ragana Cata lpa Centaurea Cercis Chaenomeles Chionodoxa Cirsium Cistus Clarkia (Godetia) Colchicum Colutea Coronilla Corylus Hazels Cotoneaster Crataegus Crocosm ia Crocus Cynoglossum Dahlia Wild indigo Barberries Birch

S- T P S P-S An- P p
P S SoT

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

u u u u u u u

A A A A A
).

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I I I I I I

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I I

A A A A

I I

An
Cabbages Calamint Heather Bellflowers An-P
P S

An-P
SoT T

Knapweed

An-P
T S

Glory o.t. snow P An-P Thistles Rock rose S

An
p Bladder senna S An-S
SoT S T P p

u u u u u u u u u u u

A A A A A

"
A A A A A A

u u u u u

Montbrelia

Hound 's tongue An-P

An

A

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I I I I I
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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 15

~

Genus Daphne Delphinium Digitalis Echinops Echium Elaeagnus

Common name

Type

Use

J
S An-P
Bi-P Foxgloves P Thistles Viper's bugloss An-S
u u

F M

Flowering period J A S 0 A M J

N

D

III Ii I III

u u u u u u u u u u u u

A A
u

Epigaea;
Erica Erigeron Escallonia Eupatorium Fagus Fragaria Fraxinus Fuchsia Gaillardia Gaultheria Gaylussacia Genista Geran ium Geum G ladiolus Glechoma Gleditsia Hebe Hedera Helenium Heliotropium Helleborus Heuchera Hydrangea Hypericum Hyssopus lIex Iris Kalmia Lami um Lathyrus Lavandula Lavatera Ledum Leontodon Lespedeza Umnanthes Umonium Unum Uq uid ambar Liriodendron Lobelia Lotus Heath Fleabane

S-T S S

An -P
S-T P-S T P T S An-P S S S-T

A A A A A
u u u u u u

I

III I Ii III III Ii II ill II I I I III III II I III III II I !II I I :s I I II II

Beech Strawberry Ash
Blanket flower Huckleberry Broom
Avens Ground ivy Honey locust

• • •
III I

A A A A A

II I III III II !II III

An-P
P P P T S CI P An
u u u u u u u u u u u u u u

Ivy Sneezeweed Heliotrope Christmas rose P Cora l flower P S+CI P-S Hyssop S S-T Holly P S P Deadnettles Everlasting pea An-P Lavender S An-S Mallow S Hawkbit P Bush clover S An Sea lavender P An-P Flax T T An-S P

u u

A A A A A

u
U '

A A

u

u
u u u u u u u u u u u u

A A A
U

l-

U

U

A A A A A

U

U

A A

•••• • • • • • •• • • • •• ••• • •• • • •• • •• •• • • •• •• •• • • •• •• ••
II

I III II I Ii III I I I III I III I II II I


I

I II II I

III II II
I

I

II

II II II II II

I

I I

I

I II I II II II Ii II II I I I II II I I II I I I II I I

I II

III I

I

I II

II I

I

I

I

I I I II

I

III I

II

I

II

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Genus

Common name Lupin

Type An-P An-P

Use

J
Lupinu s Lychnis Lycium Lysimachia Lythrum Malus Malva Matricaria Medicago Melilotus Melissa Mentha Mertensia Monarda Muscari Myosotis Nemophila Nepeta Nigella Olearia Omphalodes Origanum Oxydendrum Paeonia Papaver Penstemon Perovskia Phacelia Phaseolus Philadelphus Phlomis Physocarpus Physalis Pi losella (Hieracium) Platycodon Polemonium Populus Potentilla Prunella Prunus Pulmonaria Pyracantha Pyrus Quercus Reseda Rhamnus Rhus Ribes Robinia Rosa
u u u u u u

F M

Flowering period A M J J A S 0

N

D

A
I.

S
An-P Loosestrife Pu rp loosestrife P T Apples An-P Mallow An -? An-S Med fck An-Sf Sweet clover P Balm P Mint a a a a
(J

A A A
I.

u

A A
).

P
Bee balm An-?

a a a a a a a a a a a
u u u u

).

P
Forget-me-not An-P Saby blue eyes An P Calmint

A

An
Daisy bush Marjoram Sorrel Iree Paeony

S
An -P

u u

A

P·S T
p

A A A

Poppy

An
An-S

S
Beans Mock orange

An An
S P·S S
An-P

a a a a a a

u u

A A

>u u u u u u u u u u u u u u

Ground cherry Hawkweed Balloon flower Jacob's ladder Poplars Se lf heal Lungwort Firethorn Pears Oaks Mignonette Buckthorn Sumach Currants Roses

A
).

P P
An-P

a a a a a a

T P·S P T P S T T
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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 17

"'"
Genus Common name Type

Use
J
cr cr cr cr cr cr cr cr cr cr cr cr
),

F M

Flowering period J A S 0 A M J

N

0

Rosmarinus
Rubus Rudbeckia Salix Salvia Satureja, Saxifrage

Rosemary Coneflower Willows Sage Savory Saxifrage Scabious Bluebell Skullcap

S
S+CI An-P

SoT
An-S An-S

u

A A A A A

P
An-P

u u u
A A A

Sea bios a
Scilla Scutelia ria Sedurn Sidalcea Skimmia Solan um Solidago Sonchus Sorbus Spiraea Stachys Staphylea Symphoricarpus Symphytum Syringa Tamarix Teucrium Thalictrum Thymus Tilia Trifolium Tulipa Ulex Vaccinium Verbascum Ve ronica Viburnum V i cia Viola Weigela

P
An ·P An-P p

SoT
Tomatoes Golden rod Sow thistle
An

P
An -P

SoT S
Woundwort Bladder nut
An-S

u u cr u cr u cr cr cr u cr u u cr u cr
u

A A

A
A

Comfrey
Lilac Tamarisk

Meadow rue Thyme Limes Clover Tulip Gorse Blueberry Mullein Speedwell
Vetches Violet

SoT S P SoT SoT P-S P P-S T
An-P

A

P S S
Bi

P-S SoT
An-P An-P

cr cr u cr u u cr u cr cr cr cr u cr cr

A A A A

A
A A A

A A

S

A

• • •• • •• •• ••• • • • •• • • ••• •• • • • • • • •• ••• •• •• • • •• •• •• • • • ••• •• •• •• • • ••• • • • • ••• • • • • • • • • • ••• •• •• •• •• • • • • • ••
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References
Crawford , M: Bee Plants. A .R.T ., 1993. Free , J : Insect Pollination of Crops. Academic Press, 1993. IBRA: Bumble Bees for Pleasure and Profit. IBRA, 1996. Ruijter, A de: Comme rcial Bumblebees Rearing and its Implications. Acta Hort 437. ISHS 1997. Za hradn ik, J : Bees and Wasps. Blitz Editions , 1998.

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Blueberries
Intro d uction
There are several Vaccinium species called blueberries , but the fruits usually grown for home and commercial use are highbush blueberries, deri ved mainly from the North American species V.corymbosum and V.austra/e. Rabbiteye blueberries are derived from V.ashe; and are not included in this article.

Description
Highbush blueberries are deciduous shrubs, growing to 1.5 - 1.8 (5-6 ttl high at maturity. They are made up of several woody branches or canes arising from buds in the crown. The branches, especially when young, are ye llowish -gree n and warty. The dense fibrous root system is relatively small, reaching depths of about 1 m (3 ttl, though most feeder roots are in the top 25 em (10 of soil. It only extends about as far as the drip line of the bush.
M )

Leaves are 3-8 cm long, quite shiny green above. In cool wet springs, leaves often have a reddish tinge on opening. The leaves on most selections turn red and gold in the autumn, making bushes very ornamental. Flower buds are set in the late summer and autumn on new shoots and flower the following spring. Older wood bears no flower buds . The urn-shaped flowers are born in dense clusters in May, each flower 6-10 mm (0.3 -0.4 ") long, white or slightly reddish. The berries, borne in clusters of 5-10, are blue-black when fully ripe, with a waxy white bloom which makes them appear light blue. They are 8-15 mm across in the wild, but up to 20 mm (0.8") across on cultivars selected for fruiting. Bushes are generally very hardy - to -30°C (-22°F) although cultivars vary in hardiness.

Uses
The fruits are edible and an important commercial crop, especially in North America. They are sweet and ju icy (occasionally bland when raw), but are excellent cooked and they freeze and bottle well. They are quite nutritious, are low in calories and sodium and are a good source of fibre and pectin ; they are high in ascorbic acid (vitamin C). They also contain quantities of ellagic acid which a known anti-cancer agent. Bluebe rries were hig hl y regarded by native Americans who ate them fresh and added them liberally to pudding and cakes. Some fruit was preserved by dryi ng in the sun, then added to breads. stews and crushed with meat or fish to make a dried meat cake called pemmican . They used a tea or syrup made from blueberries medicinall y as a cough treatment , diarrhoea remedy and for various female ailments .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Recent investigations have confirmed many useful medicinal properties of blueberries: The juice from fruits contains a com ponen t that is useful in treating urinary tracl infections , especially of E.Coli. The component. an anti-adhesin , blocks the binding of the bacteria to the urinary tract wall. Another component, comprising proanthgocyanidins, ha s anti-carcinogenic properties. The pigments found in blueberry fruits , and which make them blue , comprise anthocyanins . These substances possess interesting biological properties : they are antioxidants which play an important role in preventing disease. They decrease the fragility and permeability of capiUaries. They can inhibit blood platelet aggregation and thus help prevent thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Early American settlers used the strong, flexible wood or larger branches for tool handles. The leaves and fruits can both be used for dyeing. The leaves give the following colo urs with different mordants: golden-tan (alum), rust (chrome), dark tan (copper) , orange-gold (tin), dark grey-green (iron). tan (no mordant) . The colours are fast except with iron which browns slig h tly .

1

Cultivation
Blueberries need a very acid soil (pH between 4 and 5.5) with plenty of summer moisture. They like fu ll sun or light shade and shelter from strong winds. Soi ls nearer neutral or alkaline pH are simply not worth considering for blueberries - in these cases, bushes can be grown in large containers (45 cm, 1 B~ diameter) with an acid compost ; water these generously throughout the growing season. They prefer well drained soils with plenty of organ ic matter. Pla nt young bushes between November and March with 2 or 3-year old plants spaced 1.2-1.5 m (45 ft) each way; in commercial plantings, wider alleys need to be allowed for mechanised access . Plant bushes deeper than usual to encourage new stool shoots. A mulch of leaves, leafmold , pine needles, grass clippings or straw is beneficial. Blueberries have both surface-feeding roots and deeper roots and do not tolerate root disturbance. It is best to keep them permanently mulched with 7-12 cm (3-5~) of an acid organic mulch such as leafmold or sh redded bark .

Feeding and irrigation
Blueberries are quite hungry feeders and require nutrients to maintain good annual growth . Recommendations in North America are to apply regular doses of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus ( 15g of each per year per mature bush of the actual element) , applied in two doses, one at the start of flowering and the other 5-6 weeks later. Of these , the nitrogen component is essential, to maintain production of new wood . Occasion al applications of potassium will suffice , whilst phosphorus may not be n eeded at all. The cut leaves from one healthy comfrey plant , cut several times per year, and used as mulch under a blueberry bush should provid e enough nitrogen and phosphorus to maintain cropping. Well rotted manure can also be applied in early spring . Feed the plants in a wide band around the drip line . In dry weather , bushes may need watering - use natural rain water or soft water. water every days maintains the water supply in a drought. 25 litres/m2 of

Pruning
Blueberries are grown as stooled bushes in exactly the same way as blackcurrants. Pruning is not necessary until the third or fourth year after planting; the best fruit is produced on 2 and 3-year-old wood, so pruning should sti mulate strong new growth from the base of the bush each year.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Prune in early March. Cut out the oldest, unproductive wood, removing about a quarter of the bush. Cut some branches back to the base and others to strong upright shoots . Remove low branches too near the ground and any weak growth . Some cultivars . particularly 'Berkeley' , do not produce much strong new replacement growth and they crop quite well on older branches . With such cultivars, or others where pruning is kept to a minim um , just remove weak and old wood as long as a good strong framework exists .

Flowering
Blueberries are members of the Ericaceae and have urn-shaped flowers which are in sect pollinated; bumble bees are by far the best pollinators. Honey bees also love the flowers and commercial growers usualJy place 2-3 hives per acre (0.4 hal to ensure good pollination. Cross pollination gives better yields, although bushes are se lf-fertile, so that two or more cultivars shou ld be grown if possible . Two rows of a main crop can be inte rspersed with one row of a secondary pollinati ng crop for adeq uate po llination. Different cu ltiva rs shou ld be no farther than 6 m (20 ft) apa rt. Flowering can extend for as long as a month with early and late-flowering cultivars grown together. Generally , early-season cultivars flower early and late ones lale, and pollinating partners sho uld be ripening at a simila r time. Adequate pollination is indicated if you observe at lea st 15-20 bee entri es into bluebe rry ffowers on a bush within a 10 minute period .

Harvesting and yields
Bushes sta rt cropping afte r 2 years, yielding lightly at first but by the fifth year should yie ld 2.2 kg (S Ib) per bush per year, increasing to 4.S kg (10 Ib) when fully grown . Mature plants can continue cropping well for more than SO years . Commercial plantations with high yieldi ng cultivars expect yields of 9-11 tlha/year. Fruits are borne in clu sters and do not ripen all at once. Ripe berries are soft and should leaved the cluster easily . Immatu re fruits have an inferio r flavou r and berries should be left for a few days after they have turned blue before picking. Each cultivar shou ld be picked once a week for the 3-4 weeks over which ripening continues . To redu ce tearing and bruising of fruit , role ripe berries from the cl uster into the palm of the hand with the thumb .

Pests, diseases and problems
There are num erous, and some serio us, fungal diseases of blueberry in North America. For deta il s of resistances to these see Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. Blueberries are resistant to honey fungus. Birds are the onl y pest of any note in Britain. Th ey like blueberries , but are not nearly as bad a pest as on redcurrants; netting may be essential t o protect th e crop if attacks are bad . Grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) can spread from fruits to branches and cause a die-back of bus hes branch by branch . Dead wood shou ld be cut out and bushes pruned to allow light and air into it. Cultivars with firm fruits are more resista nt to in fection and include Bluechip . Earliblue . Iv anhoe and Meader. Yellow, stunted young leaves are a sign of iron deficiency, usually ca used whe n the pH has become too hi gh . Chelated iron applied each sp ring shou ld conta in the problem, but lowering the pH by use of acid mulches is a better long-te rm solution.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 21

Propagation
Softwood cuttings are usually used in Britain . These are taken in late June or early July, when new shoots are 10-15 em (4-6~) long; lowe r leaves are removed, leav ing 3-4 at the top, cutti ng s are dipped in a hormone rooting powder and then inserted into a well drained acid rooting medium (1:3 peat sand). The cuttings need part shade and bottom heat of 20°C (68° F) and should root in about 4 weeks. The hardened plants are usually grown on for a year in nursery rows before transplanting to their final positions. Hardwodd cuttings can be taken from dormant. pencil-thick shoots of the previous season's growth . Take them after leaf drop in the autumn and store in the refrigerator or take them in the spring before bud growth begins. Cuttings shou ld be 10-12 cm (4-5") tong, pencil-thick, and taken near the base or middle of the shoot. Place in compost in spring with only the top bud showing . Maintain high humidity until the roots form - which is not until the first ftush of top growth is complete, which may take 2-3 months. After a year the rooted cuttings can be moved to a nursery bed for a year. Suckers can be dug up in winter and transplanted directly to their final position . layering can be undertaken, bending down shoots in autumn and partially splitting the stem where it is pegged to the ground . The rooted portion can be severed the following summer and grown on .

i

Cultivars
Much breeding work has been and continues to be ca rrie d out in the USA, where recent developments include hybrids of Vaccinium corymbosum with the southern species V.ashei and V.darrowi to produce cultivars wh ich require much less winter chilling (200-400 chilling hours below 7 .2°C or 45°F as opposed to 900 hours or so for most) which can be grown in warmer parts of the world . These so-ca lled 'southern highbush' types are not particularly winter hardy and should not be planted in areas with severe winters, but they shou ld be fine in Britain - they are hardy to about -20°C (-lO°F). Other developments include 'half-high ' cuUivars, which on ly grow about 1 m (3 tt) high and su rvive better in co ld areas. Early season cuUivars need about 120 days from flowering to fruit ripening; mid season 140 days and late season 160 days . In Britain , flowering is usually from early May and fruits ripen in August, September and October. For most cultivars , fruits ripen over a period of 3-5 weeks The flowers of Berkeley , Dixi, Earliblue, Coville, Jersey and Stanley are relatively unattractive to bees and should certainly be planted with other cultivars so that bees are attracted nearby. The fruit scar is the opening where the berry has been removed from the fruit stalk. and can be the point of entry for disease organisms. A sma1l , dry, shallow scar is preferable to one that is large, deep and moist.

Key to cultivar table
Type: S = southern highb ush type, N = northern highbush type. Ripening season: VE very early , E = ea rl y, EM = early-med, M mid , Ml mid-late , l = late, Vl = very late. Vigour: vigour of bush - low, mod = moderate, high. Bush: bush characteristics. sm = small , spr = spread ing , up = upright, se-up = semi-upright. cmp = compact. Fruit size: sma ll , medium , large, v. large; s-m = small-medium, m-I = medium-la rg e. Fruit flavour: acid, fair, mild , good, exc = excellent. Fruit scar : small, med = medium, larg e. See above for details.

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=

=

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Fruit firmness ; soft , q .firm = quite firm, firm, v.firm = very firm . Cultivars with firm fruits are more resistant 10 infection by grey mold. Fruit yield : fair, mod· moderate , high, v.high = very high . ripening season Cultivar Atlantic Avonbl ue Berkeley Biloxi Bladen Blue Gold Blue Ridge Bluechip Bluecrisp Bluecrop Bluegold Bluella Bluehaven Bluejay Blueray Bounty Brigitta Burlington Cape Fear Chand ler Chanticleer Chippewa Colli ns Cooper Coville Croatan Darrow Dixi Duke Duplin Earliblue Echota Ellio tt Elizabeth Emil Flordablue Friendship Georg iagem Gulfcoast Harrison Herbert Ivan hoe Jersey Jubilee Lateblue type VE E EM M ML L VL Vigour high low high N high S I high S high N II high S high mod S mod N high N I mod N N I high N I v.high N I mod N high N N high S high N N N high N mod N high N high N I high N N I high N I high S I high N I high N N I N I N mod S N I high S high S high N I mod N I high N I N I high S N I high Bush sp r sm,spr up,spr up up low up up up up low cmp,spr up up up ,spr spr up sl spr se·up up up ,small up up up up ,spr up up spr up se·up up se·up up up,spr up,small small up,tall se-up se·up spr up up,spr up up

............. _-Size larg e m-I m-I med med med I-vi v .larg

Fruit

._ .. __ ._---_._-

I ~

• • • • •

• •

•• • • •• •

• •

Flavour Scar good small good large mild small good good small good sma ll wet acid small good sma ll good sma ll large fair sma ll good s-m large large good small small m-I mild v.large good med small v.larg exc small large good s-m small small I·vl exc large good small mild small med large m-I good small med good small v.larg good small small large fair v. larg good med v.larg good large small med mild large good small large good med small large good good small v.larg fair sma ll good large good med mild small med good small med good large good large v. larg exc small good small s-m exc med good small small med good

Firm Yield high firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm v.high high high v.high high

I I

high v. high high

firm v.firm v.firm firm firm firm firm firm firm

high high v. high high high mod mod v. high

firm high firm firm firm firm firm firm q .firm firm high high high fair high high mod mod

firm

high

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 23

---------- ------ Fruit ---------------ripening season Size Flavour Scar Bush type VE E EM M MLL VL Vigour Cultivar good small med up high Legacy I I N small good small N Utile Giant med good ; small spr high Magnolia S I fair small m-I up,spr high Meader N II small large up high Misty S large good se-up low N Morrow large fair high spr N Murphy ~ I med med high N Nelson large good v.small high N Northblue II mild I small small med mod N Northcountry s-m good sma ll small Northland N I good v.sma ll med N Northsky v.large good N Nui sma ll v.large exc se-up high O'Neal S m-I v.good high tall ,spr N Olympia small,spr low Ornablue N large good small se-up high N Ozarkblue small,spr large good small N Palriol I med large Pemberton N I small small good se-up high N Pender med Pioneer s-med exc up med N Polaris I v.larg good N Puru s-m mild med small N Putte I poor med up ,spr med N Rancocas med N Reka s-m good small high up Reveille S I small good med up high Rubel N small v.larg exc se-up high Sampson S m-I good small high up Santa Fe S small high S Sharpblu e II good small med high up N Sierra small large good up mod S Southmoon med exc med high up N Spartan small small,up large good N St. Cloud I large s-m exc up high N Stanley I small v.large exc se-up mod N Summit good small s-m up mod N Sunrise I I small good small Sunshine Blue S med good dwarf low N Tophat med good small up high N Toro large Weymouth N small N Wolcott

Firm Yield firm I high mod high firm v. firm v. high firm

II • • • • • ••
=

firm soft soft

v. high v. high high

mod mod v. firm high high v.h igh high firm

firm

I high
v. high high v. high high v. high

v. firm high

firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm firm

mod
high high v. high high mod

• • • • ••

v. high

Atlantic : Late season. Bush vigorous, open, spreading , very productive. flavour, moderate quality , resistant to cracking .

Fruits large, firm , good

Avonblue : Southern highbush type. Bush small , low vigour, spreading, requires heavy pruning after flowering . Fruit s medium-large, light blue , small scar , very good quality. Introduced 1977.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

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q
4

Berkeley : Mid season . Bus h vig orous, upright, open spreading , very productive. Fruit s medium· large , light blue , firm . mild sweet flavour , large scar, fair quality. Resistant to cracking . Fruits fall if harvest delayed; yields better on hea vy soils . Introduced 1949. Biloxi: Southern highbush type , early season. Bus h vig orous, productive , upright. Fruits medium sized, fi rm, good flavour, sma ll scar. Introdu ced 1998. Bladen : So uthern highbush type , early season . Bush upright, vig orous , good productivity. Fruits medi um sized , dark blue , firm , good flavour. small scar. Introduced 1994 . Blue Gold: Late season . Bus h vigorous, low growing , very productive . Fruits medium sized , with good flavour, colour and firmne ss ; sca r is small and dry. Requires good pruning. In troduced 1989. Blue Ridge : Southern highbush type , early-mid season. Bush vigorous , ve ry upright , productive . Fruits large to very large , very light blue , acid , firm , wet scar. Introduced 1987 . Bluechip : Bush vigo ro us, upright. Fruits very large , excellent colo ur and quality, small scar. Easy to prune . Introduced 1979. Bluecrisp (Cru nchyblue) : Southern high bush type , ea rly season . vigorous . Fruits very fi rm , good flavour , sma ll sca r. Introduced 1998. Bush upright , moderately

Bluecrop : Early season . Bush upright , moderately vigorous, with good autumn colour. Fruits large , very light blue, firm , moderate quality, small scar; a good cropper. Res istant to drought and fruit cracking . StiU the leading cultivar in the world despite its age. Introdu ced 1952. Bluegold : l ate season . Bush vigorous , low growi ng , highly productive . Fruits firm , good quality, small scar. Introduced 1988. Bluetta: Early season . Bush compact-spreading, moderately vigorous , productive. Fruit smallme dium sized , light blue , firm , broad scar, softens rapidly after ripen in g . Difficu lt to prune. Introduced 1968. Bluehaven : Early season . Bush upright with good autumn colour. Fru its large , light blue , scar very small and dry, excellent quality, ripens over a short period. Introduced 1968. Bluejay : Early season. Bush vigorous, upright, slightly spreading , flowers late. Fruits mediumlarge , light blue, mild flavour , small scar. Res istant to premature drop and cra cking . long fruit stems aid mecha nica l harvesting. Introduced 1978. Blueray: Early-mid season . Bush upright , very vigoro us , spreading , productive . Fruits very large, light blue" firm, excellent quality, medium scar. Resistant to cracking. Introdu ced 1955. Bounty: Mid seaso n. Bush moderately vigorous, spreading , nee ds extensive early training. Fruits ve ry large , excellent flavour and colour , small scar. likes soils high in organic matter. Introduced 1987. Brigitta : la te season. Bus h vigorous, upright, very produ ctiv e, easily propagated. fi rm , small scar, good flavou r , excellent quality. Bred in Australia. Fru it s large,

Burlington : late season . Bush sl ightly spreading with a wide crown. Fruits small-med ium , very firm, very small dry scar , adapted to mechanical harvesting , resistant to cracking . Introduced 1939. Cape Fear : Southern highbush type. Bush vigorous, semi-upright, very productive , precocious . Fruits large to ve ry large , light blu e , small scar, excellent flavour and firmness , needs a high removal f orce . Introduced 1987 . Chandler: Mid-late season. Bush vigorous , upright, well branched , high yie ldi ng . Fruits large , light blue, small dry sca r , firm, good flavour; rip ens over a long period. Introduced 1994 . Chanticleer: Ve ry early season. Bush upright, moderate height. Fruits medium sized , fi rm, small sca r , mild flavou red . Introduced 1997 .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

Page 25

Chippewa : Mid season. Bush upright, productive . Fruits large , firm , light blue , sweet. Introduced

1996 .
Collins : Early-mid season . Bush upright, vigorous, fairly productive. Fruits medium-large , light blue, firm, highly flavoured, small scar. Resistant 10 fruit cracking and premature drop. May not sucker freely., Introduced 1959. Cooper : Very early season . Southern highbush type. Bush moderately vigorous, upright, moderately productive. Fruits medium sized, good flavour and colour, firm , small scar. Introduced

1987 .

Coville : Very tate season . Bush vigorous, upright-spreading , very productive. Fruits very large in open sprays, medium blue , hold well on bush , very good quality, small scar. Resistant to premature drop and crack ing . Self-sterile. Introduced 1949. Croatan: Early season. Bush upright, vigorous. resi stant to cracking. Introduced 1954. Fruits large, dark blue, fair quality, small scar,

Darrow : Very late season. Bush upright, vigorous. Fruits very large , firm , light blue, very good quality, medium scar. Resistant to cracking. Introduced 1965. Dixi : Late ripening. Bush open-spreading, productive . Fruits very large , medium blue , large scar, high quality, cracks easily . Introduced 1936. Duke : Early-mid season . Bush vigorous, upright, numerous canes , fairly late flowering. medium sized, light blue, firm, mild flavour, small dry scar. Introduced 1985. Fruits

Duplin: Southern highbush type, early-mid season . Bush semi-upright , vigoro us, high yielding . Fruits large , firm, good flavour, small scar. Introduced 1998 . Earliblue: Early season. Bush with strong upright growth and good autumn colour; productive but erratic. Fruits large, aromatic , light blue, good quality, medium scar. Resistant to cracking and premature drop. Introduced 1952. Echota : Mid-late season . Bush vigorous, semi-upright , productive. good flavour, firm , small scar, keeps well. Fruits large , very light blue ,

Elliott: Very late season. Bush upright, very hardy. Fruits mid blue, good quality, very small scar, ripen over a short period, resist ant to cracking. Introduced 1973. Elizabeth: Mid season. Bush upright-spreading . Productivity inconsistent. Introduced 1966. Fruits very large, mid blue , fair quality, firm. Fruits small , firm , good flavour. Fruits large , light blue , firm ,

Emil : Bush moderately upright, sma ll, very hardy, productive. Introdu ced 1997 - bred in Sweden.

Flordablue : So uthern highbush type. Bush moderately vigorous. medium scar, good quality. Poor shipper. Introdu ced 1976 .

Friendship: Early-mid season. Bush small (60 cm, 30") , very productive , hardy . Fruits sky blue , mild flavour, moderately firm . Introduced 1990. Georgiagem: Southern highbush type, early season. Bush upright, tall, vigorous , moderately productive . Fruits medium, small dry scar, firm , good flavour . lik es a well-drained soil. Introduced 1986 . Gulfcoast: Southern highbush type , early season. Bush vigorous , semi·up right , moderately productive . Fruits medium sized, small scar, good flavour , stem often remains attached after picking . Introduced 1967. Harrison: Early-mid season . Bush semi·upright , vigorous. Fruits large , good quality. Introduced

1974.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

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Herbert: Mid season. Bush much branched , fairly open and spreading, moderately vigorous. Fruits very large , medium blue , in very heavy compact clusters . excellent flavour; large wet scar . Resistant to cracking . Introduced 1952. Ivanhoe: Mid season. Bush strong with upright growth and good autumn colour. tight clusters, very good flavour, small scar, resistant to cracking. Fruits dark, in

Jersey: Late season. Bush upright, spreading . Fruits small-medium, excellent flavour, small scar. Suited 10 mechanical harvesting and widely grown for processing. Introduced 1928 . Jubilee: Southern highbush type . early season . Bush vigorous, upright. very productive . medium sized , firm, good flavour, small scar. Introduced 1994 . Fruits

Lateblue: Very late ripening . Bush vigorous, erect. Fruits medium sized, light blue , good quality, small scar. Adapted to mechanical harvesting. Introduced 1967. Legacy : Mid-late season. Bush vigorous, upright, high yielding. flavour, firm, sma ll scar. Introduced 1993. Fruits medium sized, good

Little Giant: Mid season. Bush medium height and productivity. Fruits small, dark blue, good flavour, small scar; ripen over a short period. Intended for processing market. Introduced 1995. Magnolia: Southern highbush type . early season . Bush vigorous , productive , spreading , medium height. Fruits medium sized . firm , good flavour, small scar. Introduced 1994. Meader: Mid season. Bush upright, vigorous , open-spreading , very hardy. Fruits medium-large , mid blue, fair quality, very firm . small scar, ripens over a short period, easy to pick . Resistant to cracking . Prone to overbearing - requires heavy pruning . Suited to mechanical harvesting . Introduced 1971. Misty: Southern highbush type . Bush tall, upright, vigorous, small crown. Fruits large, light blue, firm , small scar. Introduced 1990. Morrow: Bush semi-upright , slow growing . Fruits large , light blue , high quality, ripens over a short season . Introduced 1964. Murphy: Early season. Bush vigorous . spreading . Fruits large, dark blue , fair quality. start bearing. Introduced 1950. Nelson : Mid-late season . Bush vigorous , medium tall , highly productive. light blue, firm, dry medium scar. Introduced 1988 . Slow to

Fruits medium sized ,

Northblue: Early season . Bush very low (60 cm, 2 tt), vigorous, very hardy, non-rhizomatous, very productive . Fruits la rge, dark blue , good quality. Introduced 1983. Northcountry: Early season . Bush short (under' m , 40"), moderately vigorous, very hardy, productive . Fruits medium sized , very light blue , mild flavour, soft , small scar. Northland: Early-mid season . Bush small (120 cm , 4 ft) , spreading , branches flexible , suckers freely, difficult to prune . Fruits small-medium . mid blue , good quality, small scar. Can be mechanically harvested. Introduced 1967. Northsky: Mid season. Bush very low (25-45 cm, 10-18 ~ ), dense, moderately productive. extremely hardy. Fruits medium sized, light blue, good flavour, soft. Introduced 1983 . Nul: Early season. Bush moderate yielding. bred in New Zealand. Fruits very large, good flavour. Introduced 1989 -

O'Neal : Southern highbush type , early season. Bush vigorous , semi-upright . flowers early and for a long period , productive. Fruits very large , medium blue , very firm , excellent flavour, small scar. Introduced 1987. Olympia : Mid season. Bush very tall , spreading , vigorous , very productive. Fruits medium-large , mid blue, thin-skinned, flavour aromatic, very good. Resists cracking and holds well on bush .

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±
Ornablue: Ornamental cullivar. Bush low (1 m , 3' tall) , spreading , dense . Heavy bearer of dark blue fruits. Long lasting red leaf colour in the autumn . Ozarkblue: Early-mid season. Bush vigorous , semi-upright, high yield ing. firm , good flavour . small scar. Introduced 1996 . Patriot: Early season. Bush small (120 cm. 48 blue, very good quality, sma ll scar. Pe m berton: Mid season. variety . .. Bush hardy .
R ),

Fruits large , light blue. Fruits large , light An old

open-spreading , very hardy.

Fruits thin-skinned, large , juicy , medium scar.

Pender: Mid season. Bush vigorous, semi-upright, productive. suited for mechan ical harvesting . Fruits small , good fl avour, small scar, firm, resistant to cracking, stores well . Introduced 1997 . Pio n eer : Fruit with medium scar . Polaris: Early season. Bush upright, moderate he ight and spread (1.3 m ,4ft), productive. Fruits medium sized , light blue, scar small-medium , very firm, excellent flavour . Introduced 1996. P uru : Early season. Bush medium yielding. bred in New Zealand. Fruits very large , good flavour. Introduced 1989 -

Putte: Mid season. Bush sma ll , hardy , very productive. Fruits small-medium, black, medium scar , mild sweet flavou r . Introduced 1986 - bred in Sweden . Rancocas: Mid season. Bush upright-spreading. high yielding . Fruits med ium sized, medium scar, cracks wh en ripe, poor qual ity . Grown for processing on ly. Introduced 1926. Reka: Early season. Bush very high yielding . Fruits medium sized. Introduced 1989 - bred in New Zealand . Reveille: Southern highbush type, early season. Bush very upright, narrow, vigorous on light soils, precocious and productive . Fruits small-medium size, light blue , firm , good flavour , small scar. High yielding; adapted to mechanised ha rvesting . Introduced 1990. Rubel : Late season. Bush vigorous, upright , very productive, good autumn colour. Fruits small, light blue, firm, good quality, medium scar, keep well. Adapted to mechanica l harvesting, usually grown for processing. Introduced 1912. Sampson: Southern highbush type , early season . Bush sturdy , vigorous , semi-upright. Fruits very large, firm. excellent flavour, small scar. Introduced 1998. Santa Fe : Southern highbush type , early season. Bush vigorous, upright , medium-high yields. Fruits medium-large , firm , good flavour , small scar. Introduced 1998. Sharpblue: Southern highbush type. early season. Introduced 1976 . Bush vigorous . Fruits dark blue, small scar.

Sierra : Mid season . Bush vigorous , upright, productive . Fruits medium-sized , good flavour, firm, small dry scar, very good quality. Very productive . Introduced 1988. Southmoon: Southern highbush type, m id season. Bus h moderately vigorous and uprig ht. Fruits large , mid blue , firm , good flavour, small scar . Introduced 1995. Spartan : Early-mid season . Bush vigorous , upright, productive . Fruits medium sized, firm , light blue, excellent flavour, medium dry scar; good yields . Introduced 1976. St. Cl oud: Early season . Bush small (1.3 m ,4 ft) , upright. Fruits large , slightly flattened , scar small and dry , firm , good flavour. Very productive. Self-sterile. Stanley: Early-mid season . Bus h upright, vigorous, few branches. Fruits small-medium, firm, very aromatic , excellent flavour, large scar . Resistant to cracking; easily pruned . Introduced 1930.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 1

Summit: Mid season. Bush moderately vigorous, semi-upright , productiv e. excellent flavour , firm , small scar, resistant to cracking . In troduced 1997.

Fruits very large ,

Sunrise: Early season. Bush moderately vigorous, upright. Fruits sma ll-m ed ium , light blue, firm , small scar, good quality. Moderale yielding. Introd uced 1988. Sunshine Blue : Southern highbush type. Bush small (1.2 m, 4 rt) , wide . Fruits small , firm , firm , stores well, good flavour. Tolerates soi l up to pH 6 and drought. Tophat: flavour. Ornamental dwarf cultivar, growing 50 cm (20") high . Fruits medium sized , firm, good Fruits medium sized, good

Taro: Early-mid season. Bush vigorous, upright, highly productive . flavour, small dry scar; ripen over a short period . Introduced 1987. Weymouth: Very early season . Fruit with large scar. Wolcott: Fruit with small scar.

Cultivars resistant to fruit cracking
This can be a problem with some cultivars in wet weather. As well as spoiling fruit , it can also make the fruit and plant more susceptible to other diseases. The following are resistant to fruit craCki ng : Atlantic Berkeley Bluecrop Bluejay Blueray Burlington Collins Coville Croatan Darrow Earliblue Elliott Herbert Ivanhoe Meader Olympia Pender Stanley Summit

Agroforestry use of blueberries
Because blueberries tolerate light shade, they are very suitable for cropping in alleys between trees in alley cropping systems - however, their longevity may be reduced by excess shading as trees get larger , depending on the alley width and the placement of bushes . In forest gardens , blueberries can be grown in the understorey as long as there is fairly good light not under trees but between trees. Siting is best near open areas so that there is enough air flow around bushes to avoid grey mold problems.

References
Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Displayed. CasselIlRHS, 1998. Crawford , M: Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. A.R.T ., 1997 . Cummins , J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties , List 35 . HortScience, Vol 26(8), August 1991 . Cu mmins, J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties , List 38. HortScience, Vol 32(5), August 1997. Cummins, J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties, List 39. HortScience , Vol 34(2), April 1999. Eck, P : Blueberry Science. Rutgers University Press , 1992. Facciola, S: Cornucopia II. Kampong Publications, 1998 . Genders, R: The Complete Book of Fruit Growing . Ward Lock , 1976. Gough , R: The Highbush Blueberry and its Management. Food Products Press, 1994 . Gough , R: Blueberries - North and South . Journal of Small Fruit & Viticulture , Vo l 4 , No. 1/2, 1996 , pp71-106 . Kalt, W & Dufour, D: Health Functionality of Blueberries . HorTechnology, July-September 1997 7(3). Moerman , D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press , 1998. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit , Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

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Red alder
Introduction
Red alder (or Oregon I Western alder), Alnus rubra (Syn . A.oregana). is regarded in its native Westem North America as a valuable high quality hardwood and also a desirable pulpwood species'. As well as being an eminently suitable tree for cultivation in Britain and Ireland, many of its features are shared by the native alder here, Alnus glutinosa, and the high regard it is given in North America contrasts with the low regard alder generally has here. There is huge potential here for utilising both red and European alder as fast growing hardwood timber trees and using the wood for furniture and other items: witness the success of Ikea who use mostly small-diameter Scandi na via n birch and conifer wood .

Description
Red alder is native from Alaska to California, in a band within 70 km of the coast. It is aggressive pioneer where soil has been freshly exposed to seed fall, and it is ironic that as well being regarded as a valuable timber tree , it is also sometimes regarded as a weed species in native range . It is a short-lived tree, maturing at 60-70 years and rarely surpassing 100 years age. In form, it is a narrow pyramidal tree with slightly pendulous branches . angular and dark red. an as its of

The you ng twigs are

Leaves are oval, 7-12 cm long , slightly lobed with 12- 15 pairs of veins . They are dark green above and bluish-grey beneath, and open in early or mid April , about 2-3 before those of Alnus glutinosa, making the species rather frost-susceptible at that time.

Red alder starts flowering at a very young age , usually at 3-4 years . The species is monoecious, with separate male and female catkins developing on the previous year's twigs of the same tree.

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Male catkins occur in pendutous groups at the end of short shoots and elongate in late winter, changing from green to reddish brown and from 2·3 cm long to about 7-8 cm . The pollen grains are small , light and abundant. Severa l female catkins are produced per bud located near to the male catkins . They are 5· 8 mm long and reddish-g reen when receptive to pollen which is in late winter or early spring . Most alder seed is the result of cross pollination between trees, but some self-poll in ation occurs. The seeds are small winged nutlets (like other alders) , borne in pairs on the bracts of a barrelshaped cone-like structure which is 11-32 mm long and 8-15 mm wide. Red alder seeds are very light, numbering 800-3000 per g , and are dispersed by win very effectively over long distances. Some dispersal also occurs by water (eg if seeds fall into a stream or river) and by birds and other animals . Seed production varies widely from tree to tree, but on average a mature tree produces several mill ion seeds each year, with bumper crops every 3-5 years. The seed viability is usua lly 40-50%. The scales of the cones open in autumn, and most seed is dispersed between November and March, though some may remain to be dispersed throughout the year. Red alder forms extensive, fibrous root systems in combination with deep anchoring roots where the soil is well drained . The commonly form mycorrhizal associations with fungi (some specific to alders , some more general, including Afpova dipfoph/oeus, Cortinarius bibulus, Hebe/oma erusluliniforme , Laeearia laeeala , Laelarius obseuratus, Paxillus involutus and Thefophora terrestris) , and have root nodules that fix atmospheric nitrogen which are a symbiotic association between the tree and Frankia bacteria. Natural regeneration of red a ld er occurs frequentl y in its native range, although there is a high morta lity of seeds and seedlings: severa l hundred seeds may be required to produce one seedling after a year. When fully dormant (ie December to mid March), red alder is hardy to below -30°C.

Uses
Medicinally, red alder was used in numerou s ways by native Americans. The bark , which contains salicin (related to Aspirin), was used as a purgative , internal inj uries and as a wound dressing. Male ca l kins were used for sores and female catk in s for stomach compla ints. The sap is edible, tapped in late winter like maple sap. Foliage , twigs and sawdust have been used a to supplement grain or alfalfa for cattle and rabbits . The wood was traditionally used for smoking meat and fish. The sawdust has a limited market for burning in smoke-curing processes in meat-packing and fish-curing plants . It may also be used as a fertiliser as it rots quickly and improves soil texture. The stems and roots were traditionally used in basketry. The wood was traditionally used for carved dishes, baby cradles, tool handles , ratties, ca noe bailers and paddles . The bark was traditionally used for dyeing wood , cloth, wool , nets and baskets red , brown and orange . It was prepared by boiling in water. The bark can be converted into glue extender.

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Red alder is an excellent shelterbell tree, tolerating extreme maritime exposure (although it is likely to suffer some damage , such as tops breaking off, which limit its value for timber). It is also very good , like other alders, at lim iting river bank erosion. A lders support numerous insects which , when they drop into water, provide excellent fish food .

Red alder wood
Red alder ·wood is the most commercially important hardwood species in the Pacific Northwest of America. ~ ts wood is extremely popular in the furniture industry for its uniform colour and ability to accept stains . It is often used as a substitute for birch because of its similar appearance . The wood works extremely well. with very good finishing. gluing. colour uniformity and machining properties. It is not very dense but shrinkage rates are one of the lowest of all hardwoods. The timber warps little, holds nails well and has good dimensional stability . The wood is not durable when exposed to the elements. It has a fine . uniform grain and a smooth texture. is soft with low bending strength and shock resistance . medium crushing strength and very low stiffness. It dries easily. fairly rapidly and well. Kiln-d ried timber varies from pale yellow to light brown with little or no lustre. Primary products include timber, pallets, veneer , pulp chips, and firewood ; high-grade timber is used in the manufacture of secondary products including fine furniture , cabinets and turnery. Lower-grade timber is used for upholstered furniture frames . interior furniture parts and pallets (widely used in the grocery industry). Veneers are used for cabinets and panelling. It has also been used for river piles as it is durable under water. Wood chips and slab residue are common ly converted to pulp by the kraft or sulphite process. A low bark content makes alder useful for high yield pulping of unbleached material such as corrugating media . Red alder pulp provides good formation and printabilily as well as smoothness and softness, similar to birch. It is blended with conifer pulp to manufacture tissue , bond , envelope and book papers. and is used in composite materials such as flakeboard and particle board. As a fuel it does not spark and burns uniformly. It produces good quality charcoal

Silviculture
Red alder is one of the few quality hardwoods of considerable value which can be grown with a relatively short rotation of 35-40 years. Red alder can be managed in pure stands or as part of a mixture with other shade-intolerant species such as Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and poplars . or with more shade-tolerant species such as western red cedar (Thuja pficata) or western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Cherry (Prunus avium) , Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and grand fir (Abies grandis) also have potential. Alder must be kept in the upper canopy to survive in mixed stands . and can make a substantial contribution to soil nitrogen to benefit other species . Initial trials in Britain by the Forestry Commission 50 years ago performed poorly, but the sites for these were mainly exposed, nutritionally poor and on peat (which red alder dislikes) . No extensive trials have been performed since then , but some stands certainly grow well here

Siting
The main sites to avoid are those which a poorly drained. frost-prone or droughty.

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Soils should be moist but well·drained . Although established trees tolerate waterlogging , seedlings are nol and orten die in such conditions. In well-drained soils , trees root quite deeply and reduce any problems with windthrow. Red alder is moderately drought tolerant once established. Late spring frosts can cause damage to newly-opened leaves and cause shoot tips to die back frost pockets must be avoided . Early autumn frosts can also damage trees if new growth is not sufficiently hardened off. See nole about seed provenance be low, High winds can break off alder tops and branches and exposed sites should be avoided for maximum height growth. Only trees given full light conditions will survive - young seedlings can withstand partial shade for a few years but will grow very little.

Planting
Planting stock in Britain will have bee n grown from seed, and it may be useful to know where the seed originated from. Early plantings of red alder were grown from seed collected in southern British Columbia, and there is evidence that more northerly seed origins (provenances) may perform better here - every degree further north where collected brings forward bud hardening in autumn by about 2 days. The fastest growing (in Britain) provenances are from NW Washington , USA. For Scotland and upland areas, Alaskan seed has been recommended though this produces slower growth. Seedlings should be 30-75 cm high for planting. In Britain and Ireland, planting can be any time from November to March; in North America, spring is preferred to reduce winter freeze damage. Seedlings are brittle and prone to breakage, so take extra care when handling . A spacing of 2.5 m gives rapid site occupancy and contro l of competing vegetation . This gives a density of 1600 per ha . Some weed control is desirable to improve seedling survival. Simple scarification (cutting off weeds at soil level with a spade around the tree) is fairly effective , mulches more so.

Growth
Height growth of red alder seedlings is generally rapid . On most sites, seedlings grow 60-100 cm or more in the first year and 1 m or more per year for several years. Seasonal growth is un der strong climatic control; growth begins around mid-April and continues untif mid-September or longer until soH moistu re, temperature or light conditions become unfavourable . Growth form is strongly upright and conical during the period of rapid height growth (15-20 years). On good sites in North America, growth may reach 9 m at age 5, 16 m at age 10 and 24 m at age 20 . If there is unequal light distribution around a tree , it will lean towards the light. hence it is important to be spaced evenly. Growth slows after the juvenile stage. In pure stands on good siles, red alder grown in pulpwood rotations of 10-12 years can achieve annual cubic volume growth rates of 21 3 /ha, and in sawlog rotations of 30-32 years it can achieve 14 3 /ha.

Thinning
Self-thinning caused by competition is rapid in red alder stands, and the trees also self-prune extremely well when grown in dense stands - shaded lower branches rapidly die and fall off, resulting in clear and slightly tapered boles.

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Early control of spacing is necessary to maintain good growth beyond the juvenile phase. Sawlog yields can be maximised on short rotations by combining early spacing control with pulpwood thinnings. If thinning is late (ie after 15~20 years) or drastic, epicormic branching can occur . If planted at 1600 stems/ha in pure stands , then trees will reach an average of 10 cm diameter and 12 m height. with a clear bole of about 7 m, in 10 years ; and 14 cm diameter. 16 m height. clear bole of 11 m after 14 years. Thinning should take place between 10 and 14 years to 600 trees/ha (ie spacing of 4 m or so) . An average diameter of 28 cm will be achieved in 28~33 years with earlier thinning taking the lesser lime but later thinning giving a longer clear bole . Mixtures will need more complex management, which depends on the objectives . Most of the species mentioned above (see 'Silviculture') grow more slowly than red alder. thus conifers could be managed to survive in the understorey until the alder is harvested, then grown on to maturity themselves. In such mixtures. one row of alder for every 2~3 rows of the associated species will probably be optimum (more alder might suppress the other species) ~ a row~by~row mix allows easy row harvesting. Poplars could be chosen with similar growth rates to alder, when the mixture could be treated much like a pure stand. A recent French trial with cherry and red alder recommended a cherry : alder ratio of 1:7. which led to straighter cherry stems and beller crown development.

Regeneration
Natural regeneration can be achieved by any silvicultural system that provides full sunlight and exposed soil - clearcutting and large-group selection are feasible systems . The soil needs to be disturbed during harvesting operations or immediately after - in North America , burning is often used - although such disturbance may be against the spirit of sustaining the soil structure and ecosystem. Alternative regeneration is achieved using bare-root or containerised seedlings. growth of transplants are usually excellent. Survival and

Nitrogen fixing
In pure stands. red alder fixes some 100-200 kg of nitrogen per hectare. In mixed stands this will obv iously be lower, in alder/conifer and alder/poplar stands 50-100 kg is common . A sitka spruce I red alder stand in Scotland was measured at 37 kglha l year for 16 years . The amount fixed is relatively independent of the stand density and related more to the total crown area of alders. The strain of Frankia which colonises the nodules can affect the amount of nitrogen fixed but strains from native stands are not necessarily best - a local Scottish strain was found to be better than a North American one. There is now evidence that alders do not reduce the amount of nitrogen fixed as the amounts in the soil increase (as legumes do), hence they can be regarded as excellent and long-term greenmanure species which should improve the nitrogen nutrition of other plants grown in the vicinity.

Pests and diseases
Red alder is fairly free from most disease problems , especially when young and uninjured. Compared with other hardwood species, living trees have very littre decay, and if trees are injured the species is very efficient in its ability to compartmentalise decay so that it doesn't spread. Aphids are common feeding on leaves, but cause little damage . Animals rarely browse on the foliage unless other broadleaves are not available ; squirrel damage is small.

Coppicing
Red alder sprouts vigorously from the stump when young, and can be repeatedly coppiced on short cycles (although stump mortality increases with each harvest ). Stumps sprout the best when trees are cut in winter and stump height exceeds 10 cm. Older trees rarely sprout and are killed by cutting .

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Agroforestry use
Like other alders, one of the main potential uses in agroforestry is as a nitrogen ~jnputling source . Red alder can be used ;n lines in alley cropping systems , thought height growth will be slowed in a non-forest situation . Where tree competition effects are not present, trees will need to be formative pruned for good timber production to a height of at least 6 m (20 rt). Alleys of 20-30 m width or so might easily achieve sustainable crop production without added nitrogen once alders are established in rows. Tree pasture systems (silvopasture) may also succeed with red alder. One of the trial trees in the UK silvopasture network experiments is red alder and these trees are growing well at 10 m x 10 m spacing in pastures grazed by sheep. Forest farms and gardens can also benefit from the nitrogen supplied by red alder. In forest gardens, the trees probably won't be required to grow large, so must be coppiced every 5 years or so; an ideal use for the logs is mushroom production, by inoculating them with suitable fungi species, ego oyster mushrooms .

Propagation
Red alder is usually propagated by seeds. Alder seeds do not germinate in the dark and are very sensitive to the amount of light ava ilable: they need full light conditions to germinate well . Although not dormant, the seeds germinate beUer after a few weeks of prechilling treatment at 1· 5°C. Nodulation of seedl ings with Frankia usually occurs naturally within months . Alder seed can be stored for at least 10 years in cool dry conditions . See note on seed provenance in 'planting ' above . Greenwood cuttings from young trees can be readily rooted but are not preferred for forestry planting.

Suppliers
Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Tornes , Devon, T09 6JT, UK. Supplies seeds (provenance: Washington, USA) & sometimes plants Woodland Improvement & Conservation, Newenl Lane, Huntley, Royal Forest of Dean, Gtoucs, GL 19 3EY, UK. Forestry stock for planting· seed origin British Columbia.

References
Canne ll , Met al : Frost Hardiness of Red Alder (Alnus rubra) Provenances in Britain . Forestry , Vo l. 60, No.1, 57·67,1987. Gavaland, A & Gauv in , J: Des plantations de merisier avec accompagnement d'aulne. Foret·Entreprise, 1997, 118,21·26 . Hibbs, 0, DeBell , D & Tarrant, R: The Biology and Management of Red Alder. Oregon Stale University Press, 1994. Lincoln , W: World Woods in Colour. Stobart, 1986. Mciver, H W: Red Alder: A Broadleaved Species for Central Scotland. Scottish Forestry. 1991 , 45 :2, 95- 105. Moerman, 0: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Plank , M et al : Product values dispel · weed species· myth of red alder. Forest Products Journal , Vol. 40, No. 2, 23-28 (Feb 1990).

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,

. Book Reviews
¥

The Apple Grower
A G4ide for the Organic Orchardist
Michael Phillips
Chelsea Green Publishing (dis tributed by Gree n Books), 1998; 242 pp; £22 .50 . ISBN 1-890132-04-7, This book is very worthwhile reading for anyone interested in organic commercial or home-growing of tree fruit, particularly apples. It is written from the perspective of a lot of hard-won persona l experience, and covers just about all aspects of fruit tree growing that you can think of. Michael Phillips writes as storyteller and philosopher as much as an orchardist , and the book can't be read or referenced in a hurry - topics are cove red in discussions that are based on the authors experiences and should be read at leisure, reflected on, and applied to your own situation ; don 't expect to be able to look up a chart of pests and diseases and their control, for example . The personal experiences of setting up an organic orchard from scratch in North America are liberally sprinkled with stories and anecdotes, making the book a good read quite apart from the factua l content. The inevitable North American slant does not detract from its value in Britain or anywhere else in the world . Organic orcharding is possible, but as Michael Ph illips shows, it often depends on the philosophy of the grower, what the consumer will accept, and how much work all invo lved are willing to put into it. The book is a good guide to what is needed in all aspects of any sustain able agriculture , not just tree fruits , and is worth reading for the philosophy alone. As the author says:
~ The sustainable path is the only one intelligent humans should be taking in these tenuous times. Every spring when the orcha rd blooms, we need to remember that hope, too, always begins anew. ~

Natural Enemies Handbook
The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control Mary Louise Flint & Steve H Dreistadt
University of California Press , 1998; 154 pp ; $35 .00. ISBN 0-520-21801-9 , This excellent practical guide to biological control makes it easy to find, identify and use natural enemies to control pests in almost any agricultural crop , garden or landscape. Having identified the pest, a handy quick guide makes locating natural enemies fast and easy . The main text, organised by pest type , contains clea r and detailed information , and 180 wonderful quality colour photographs and 140 drawings show hundred s of predators , parasites and pathogens that attack pest insects, mites nematodes, plant pathogens and weeds . The illustrations make it easy to recognise when parasitism , predation or control is occurring. References , North American suppliers and a comprehensive index make this a very valuable sourcebook for farmers , growers and gardeners - anyone fascinated by natural enemies and their prey .

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City Harvest
The feasibility off growing more food in London
susta in , 1999. £30.00. Available from Sustain, 94 White Lion St. London, Nl 9PF. Tel: 0171837

1228. This report from Sustain (the alliance for better food and farming) makes a very st rong case for incorporating urban food growing strategies to tackle health, environmental, social, economic and educational problems in urban areas. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the benefits of urban food growing in London: environmental - greater biological diversity, less waste, reduced food transportation, less pollution economic - employment in food growing, boost to gardening leisure industry, stronger agricultural industry , business benefits, LETS schemes health - improved diet , more physical activity, stress relief community development - more active community life , regeneration educational - many opportunities for learning , training and employment Recommendations to encourage the growing of more food are made for government departments, statutory agencies, business and voluntary organisations.

Tropical Agroforestry
Peter Huxley
Blackwe ll Science, 1999; 384 pp; £69.50 (Hardback) ISBN 0-632-04047-5.

Tropical Agroforestry provides a comprehensive, analytical account of the principles, as well as the practical implications of agroforestry. The focus is on understanding how agroforestry systems work whilst taking into account the con flicts and compromises that arise because of the farmers' requirements and the biological possibilities and restrictions of growing woody plants with crops.
The book is divided into six sections: Section I introduces the nature and need for agroforestry, how to motivate farmers to use woody plants, discusses animal agroforestry and the role of agroforestry in soil and water conservation. Sectio n II discuss the pros and cons of 'woodiness ' and topics concerned with arranging and managing plants and plant mixtures, emphasiSing how they can better capture and utilise available resources. Section III outlines the nature of tree-crop interfaces and briefly reviews relevant issues of competition and complementarity - often the key to the success of agroforestry systems. Efficiency of agroforestry systems is also discussed. Section IV looks at useful common characteristics of woody plants, the need to classify multipurpose trees for agroforestry purposes, and the relevance of knowing their above and below-ground behaviour. Section V discusses the modifications that trees can make to their immediate environment above and below ground . nutrient cycling and soil changes, sustainability and the role of agroforestry in sustainable land use. Section VI introduces ideas about agroforestry research . its philosophy and practice . The book is well -referenced and illustrated with over 280 drawings and black and white photographs. It will be of great use to students . researchers and practitioners of both temperate l'Inl1 tronir:.<ll :::IoroforFHdrv.

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ri

e
Pest & Disease Series:

M9

Vine Weevil
Introduction
Vine weevil , Otiorhynchus sufcatus, can be a serious pest particularly of perennials and potted plants. In recent years, good co ntrol of vine weevil has been possible by the use of a bio logical control. This is a much more ecologically sound method than the use of strong insecticides which are still sometimes used against the adults , or are mixed with composts to act against the grub s.

Life history
The adult stage of the vine weevil is a small black beetle, 7-10 mm long , which has rust coloured spots on its back. Its body is pear-shaped and it has antennae which are bent at an angle about half way along their length . It is slow moving and nocturnal and therefore only active at night. When seen , they tend to play dead, lying totally still and sometimes on their backs with their legs tucked in. Damage caused by adults feeding on the foliage is largely aesthetic and unlikely to cause serious harm to the plant. The feeding patterns are very distin ctive, as they eat notches out of the perimeter of the leaf - although other insects also do this, others also eat holes in the middle of leaves . All adults are female and may lay several hundred eggs over a period of month s. They hide at soil level during the day, in leaf litter, loose brickwork or woodwork and similar locations, and crawl up onto plants after dark. The most damaging stage is the larval stage , which is a small c reamy while , legless grub , 10 mm long , with a light brown head. It resembles a large maggot and is often curved into a 'C ' shape. In the early stages , usually in late summer as the eggs hatch , it feeds on the fine roots of the root ball . Their feeding on well established healthy plants may go unnoticed, although pot-grown plants are muc h more susceptible to serious early damage. The grubs also bore into tubers and corm s. Adults die during the winter when the weather gets cold . During particu larly warm winters, some adults can survive , and will lay eggs during February if co nditions are right. During the winter, feeding stops and the grub hibernates until the soil temperatures rise in the spring . In spring , the grub matures and moves towards the centre of the root ball and feeds on the larger roots, ca using the plant to wilt. As more roots are consumed, the plant cannot draw water and nutrients from the soil and dies. The grubs pupate in small earthen cells in the sa ilor compo st when fully mature , and emerge as adults .

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Susceptible species
Particularly susceptible are pot plants, ferns, Camellia spp., Euonymus japonica, Fuchsia spp., Hydrangea spp., Primufa spp., Rhododendron spp ., Saxifrage spp. , Sedum spp., and many others, including strawberries and grape vines.
The re is evidence that weevil adults do not like to feed on plants with densely hairy leaves.

Control
In greenhouses and poly tunnels, damage can be controlled by regular inspection, good hygiene and the use of biological control measures. Potted plants should have their rootballs checked in late autumn or winter for evidence of the larvae ; if found, the compost (plus larvae) can be washed off and the plant fe-potted . Larvae should be destroyed or allowed to drown or placed on a bird table. Outs ide, damage caused by adults feeding on the foliage is usually in summer (July to September). If signs are seen of adults feeding, then although plants may be in good health, action should be taken in the autumn ~ if left untreated, the grubs produced by the adults this year will cause considerable damage the next spring. Adults die during the winter when the weather gets cold. During particularly warm winters, some adults can survive, and will lay eggs during February if conditions are right. Adult weevils can be searched for by torchlight on warm summer nights and removed from plants. Traps of rolled corrugated cardboard or damp sacking will encourage adults to hide in them during the daytime, and these can be checked and emptied in daylight hours. Adults are unable to fly. Damage caused by grubs is usually in Spring (March to June) and Autumn (August to October). Afte r warm winters, they may be found throughout the season. In greenhouses and poly tunnels, the life cycle can be continuous, particularly if they are heated in wi nter. The main method of biological control is by use of a parasitic nematode, Heterorhabditis megadis. This is a parasite carrying a bacterium which infects only the larvae of the vine weevil. The nematode is a microscopic worm~like organism which moves in the water surrounding soil particles. The bacterium lives inside the nematode without causing it harm, but once the nematode invades the body of the vine weevil grub, the bacterium is released and it turns the grubs body contents into a form which the nematodes can feed on. The grub turns light brown and dies; as it decomposes, the dead grub releases more nematodes. The nematodes can live for about 1 month in the soil. The nematodes can be obtained in powder form, and are mixed with water before being applied as a soil drench. They must be applied when the soil or compost is moist, and when soil temperatures are over 1Q°C ~ preferably over 14°C. The best time to apply the control is when cond itions are dull or in the evening. The soil should remain moist ~ not allowed to dry or become wate rlogged ~ for the next 3~4 weeks. They are usually used between April and June , and August to October; one treatment in late August or early September may suffice. Nematodes in solution can be applied to plants via a trickle irrigation system ~ this has been used with some success with strawberries ~ which ensures that the nematodes are delivered accurately to the plant crop. Several other nematodes , including Steinernema carpocapsae, S.feltiae, Neoapfectana spp., Heterorhabditis hefiothiidis and H.bacteriophora, can be used similarly. A furthe r nematode has recently been identified which is capable of killing vine weevil larvae at low temperatures. This cold ~active strain of Steinernema kraussei works well with soil temperatures as low as 3°C; it is not com mercially available yet but when it is, control will be possible and more effective at any time of year. The fungi Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae are also pathogenic against vine weevil larvae ; the latter of these is used commercially in Germany where granules are mixed with

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composts and give good control. Carabid beetles , which include the devil's coach-horse and the rove beetle , are effe ctive predators of vine weevils . Trap plants can be deliberately grown to attract any vine weevils nearby. These are plants which the weevil loves, such as primulas and cyclamen . The plants should be grown in pots and the compost treated regularly with a nematode biological control and also checked visually . Particu.larly vulnerable plants grown in pots can be individually protected by putting a strip of wide PVC tctpe (eg brown parcel tape) around the pot , and smear it liberally with a non-drying glue which weevils cannot cross ('Trappit Glue Tube') Several species of 8rassica contain substances (isothiocyanate-generating glucosinolates) which are toxic to a number of soil organisms , including vine weevil. There is some evidence that plants whose root s are already in a mycorrhizal relationship with a symbiotic fungus may have some resistance to larvae damage.

Sources
Parasitic nematodes can be obtained from : Bunting Biological North America Inc., POBox 2430, Oxnard, CA 93034-2430, USA. Tel : 805986 8265. Defenders Ltd., Occupation Road, Wye , Ashford , Kent, TN25 5EN , UK. Tel : 01233813121. Ecobugs, POBox 43 , Wadhurst, E Sussex, TN5 6BR, UK. ScarleUs Plant Care, Nayland Road , West Bergholt , Colchester, Essex, C06 3DH, UK. Tel: 01206240466 . The Organic Gardening Catalogue, Riverdene Business Park, Molesey Road, Hersham , Surrey, KT12 4RG , UK. Tel : 01932 253666 .

References
Alford , D: A Colour Atlas of Fruit Pests. Wolfe Publishing, 1984. Buczacki, S & Harris, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants . HarperColJins, 1998. Cold comfort for vine weevil. The Garden, December 1997. HDRA: Vine Weevil. Newsletter 132, Summer 1993.

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ECO-lOG1C BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. S.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath Bath , BAZ 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472 . NUTWOOD NURSERIES. Unfortunately the purchase of land to consolidate the move of Nutwood from Cheshire to Cornwall has fallen through. This means that we will be unable to send any trees during the period Autumn 1999 to Summer 2000. We apologise to all our customers and friends and hope to get back into production next year. NUTWOOD NURSERIES, 2 MILLBROOK COTTAGES , CORNWALL. TR130BZ.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 1

AgrQfcrestry. is the integration of Irees and agricul~urei hOiticultur~ to prCJQuce ,.1 diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, matenals, timber and {Jiher products. it can rallge from planting trep,s in pastures providing sheiter, ~bade emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporaiing layers of tall m~d 5:maii trees, shrubs and ground lay8i~ in a self-si.Jst8ining , interconnected and productive system.

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. Agroforestry Nevvs

Volume 8 Number 2

January 2000

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Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 8 Number 2

January 2000

Contents
2 4 7 15 18 22 25 29 31 News Poultry in tree pasture Rhus species: the Sumachs Pest & Disease series: Silverleaf Forest gardening: winter maintenance Propagation: Miscellaneous cuttings and techniques Torreya species Book reviews:
Canadian Medicinal Crops / Ground Cover

Medicinal tree crops

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common fonnat. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington , Totnes , Devon , T09 6JT. U.K. Email: AgroResTr@aol .com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Page 1

-_ E

News
Chestnut harvesting dates
We had a small crop from many of our chestnut trees (3 years from planting) at the Dartington trial plot this autumn. The good weather at flowering time in July ensured good pollination. though the weathet si nce has been average to say the least. The harvesting period spanned nearly six weeks and the following table lists cultivar harvesting periods in date order:

SEPTEMBER
20 23 25 28
Marigoule

0

3

6

8

C T 0 11 13

B

E

R
23 26 29

NOV

16 18 21

2

II II II I I II I I Precoce Migoule I Vignols I
Rousse de Nay Verdale

l aguepie

I II II I I II II II II II II

Bouche de Betizac Maraval Marron Comballe Belle Epine Ederra

II II II I II II II I II II II II II I II II
I

I

II
II II I II II II II II

II II II II II II II II II II II II II II

I II II II II II I

The earlier ripening cultivars generally had better·filled burrs and larger nuts. Even at this early stage in the tria ls. there are clear indicators from the above about which cu ll ivars are likely to be most productive in Britain· the earlier ripen ing types clearly have more potential at pre sent. although in years with wa rm er than average autumns, even the lateHipening types will have potential ; as autumns warm up from cl im ate change the later types will become increasingly productive .

Pruning machines
An inventor in Oregon is developing a new self·propell ed tree pruning machine that could make pruning trees more economica l for tree owners . Pruning is of particular importance in si lvopastora l and alley cropping regimes where trees are initially planted at wide spacing ; timely pruning increases the volume of knot-free clearwood and improves the market price that agroforesl owners can realise at harvest. The ~tree shaverMcan prune a tree up to 8 m (27 tt) above ground and return in 2 minutes. The unit is powered by a chainsaw engine driving four small rubber lyres that rapidly propel the machine as it spirals up the tree. Instead of a flat cutting blade that can bind. the machine uses a rou nd mill end (side cutting) bit to quickly cui limbs up to severa l inches thick. The current design can prun e trees from 9·28 cm (3 .5· 11 ") in d iameter.
Source : The Temperate Agroforester. October 1 999

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Medicinal holly
Scientists in Ireland are investigating the medicinal properties of holly (Jfex aquifolium), which has been used as a folk remedy for a variety of illnesses in parts of Europe for centuries. Holly roots have been found to contain three saponins, compounds linked to cancer resistance , and the bark contains triterpenes, possibly of use against skin cancer .
Source: Tree News , Autumn 1999

Cork oaks endangered
The increasing use of plastiC stoppers in wine bottles is threatening the cork oak woodlands of Spain and Portugal and the wifdlife that depends on them , according to the Sociedad Espanola de Ornitologia. The woods, known as dehasas and montades. produce over 80% of the world's cork. and more than half of this is used for wine stoppers. The bark is stripped every 9 years and allowed to regrow each time . The dehasas and montades combine open oak wood land with grazing livestock and are rich in wildlife· more th an 40 bird species depend on them ; in spring and summer they are home to many butterflies and wild flowers .
Source: Tree News , Autumn 1999

Indicators of climate change
The reality of climate change is demonstrated vividly in a report , Indicators of Climate Change in the UK, published by the Department of the Environment. The report shows that spring is arriving earlier and sea levels in Eastern Britain are rising by 1.5 cm per decade. In England, four of the five warmest years in the la st 340 have occurred in the last decade. Since the 1970's the world has warmed by about 0.15°C per decade. 199B appears to have been the warmest year of the millennium in the Northern Hemisphere, even when full account is taken of the increasing uncertainties associated with reconstructions of individual years prior to 1600. The average January·March temperature in the 1990's was 5.6°C compared with 4.3°C in the 1960' s, leading to earlier leafing out of trees . Compared with the 1970's, leafing in the 1990's in Surrey has been 14 days earlier for oak, ash and horse chestnut and g days earlier for lime. These are significant amounts but it is not clear whether the trees are taking advantage of the longer growing season or whether the earlier leafing makes them even more susceptible to unseasonally late frosts (of which there have been less).
Sources: Tree News, Autumn 1999/lndicators of Climate Change in the UK / Mann , M et al: Northern Hemisphere Temperatures during the Past Millennium, Geophysical Research Letters , 26, 6, p.759 ( 1999).

Alley cropping in France
Several papers were presented at the 'Agrifo( conference in Clermont·Ferrand, France in October 99. One of the most interesting described an alley cropping experiment with hybrid walnuts (Jug/ans nigra x regia) intercropped with alleys of a wheat·canola rotation in a sub-h umid Medite rranean climate. The walnuts were planted at 4 m (13 ft) in the rows , with rows 13 m (43 tt) apart. Two different crop·tree distances were compared, 0.5 m (ie width of alley crop 12 m) and 2 m (width of all ey crop 9 m), and two controls and included - a pure forestry plantation (7 m x 7 m spacing) and an agricultural monocrop . An unexpected positive influence of the intercrops on tree growth was found , resulting in 65% higher and 62% wider stems in agroforestry trees after 4 growing seasons. The crop-tree distance made no difference to tree growth until the fourth year , when the trees 0.5 m from the crop showed some signs of stress through competition . The rooting pattern of the trees was strongly influenced by the crop distance, and the intercropped trees appeared to benefit from the crop fertilisation.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Page 3

Poultry in tree pasture
Introduction
poultry can be integrated with young, thinned or wide-spaced forest tree plantations . open woodland , and orchards. with benefits both to the birds and the trees . This article is not intended to be a c omprehensive guide to keeping and manag ing poultry , rather to show how they can benefit agroforestry systems consisting of cropping or forest trees with

pasture beneath .

Benefits and drawbacks
Benefits of running poultry in orchards and tree pasture include: Shade and shelter are two of the major benefits to poultry in an integrated tree-pasture system: climatic extremes cause stress , disease susceptibility and a redu ction in fertil ity and egg laying. The presence of trees can reduce aggression by providing cover and isolation. Trees also increase the range of stimuli provided by the environment and such behavioural enrichment actively contributes to improved welfare. The stimuli are particularly appropriate for chickens and turkeys, who are descended from forest animals . Poultry can be encouraged to utilise a greater proportion on the pasture area through a cover and security effect. Poultry can be extremely effective at controlling pests of orchard trees, notably those that spend part of their life cycle in the sailor in fallen fruit/nuts . Ducks feed on insects and molluscs in mulches without spreading the mulch around too much. Improved economic viability of the overall system . Drawbacks include : Geese and sucks are known to strip bark. Chickens will disturb mulches around trees , spreading them widely . Dust bathing can damage tree roots. Populations of predators such as faxes ar~ likely to be higher in the vicinity of trees. Wild animals attracted by the wooded environment increase the risk of disease importation. The key factors governing such damage appear to be tree size and spe cies ; animal pressure ; adequate feed source ; and the predilection towards damaging behaviour.

Fodder species for poultry
Fodder species of tree and shrub , which produce fruits , seeds et c. of value to poultry because they drop from the tree when ripe, can be integrated into the system if desired . Just a few of these include: Species Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree Atriplex spp. Salt bushes Caragana spp . Pea shrubs Cotoneaster spp . Crataegus spp . Hawthorns Diospyros spp . Persimmons Ficus carica Fig Gleditsia triacanthos Honey locust Form Poultry use Small tree Edible fruits Shrubs Edible leaves Shrubs Edible seeds Shrubs Edible fruits Small trees Edible fruits Trees Edible fruits Small tree Edible fruits Tree Edible pulp in seed pods

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Species
Lupinus arboreus Malus spp. Morus spp. Prunus spp. Quercus spp. Sambucus spp. Tree Jupin Apples Mulberry Plums, cherries Oaks Elderberries

Form Shrub Shrubsflrees Small tree Shrubs/trees

Trees
Small tree

Poultry use Edible seeds Attracts many edible insects Edible fruits Attracts many edible insects Attracts many edible insects Edible fruits

Chickens
Though not as good grazers as geese or ducks, chickens are often the first type of poultry to be considered when introducing livestock . Hybrid breeds do not do well outdoors; best for egg production is the Arbor Acre which has been bred for free range and is heavier, more adventurous and forages better than others; also hardy are traditional breeds such as Maran and Rhode Island. The maximum density should be 400 birds per acre (1000 per hectare), but of course the pasture should be divided for rotational grazing. Groups of 150-200 birds are a more natural flock size. Housing should ideally be moveable and moved regularly, and perching space of 30 cm (1 ft) per bird should be provided; nest boxes should allow the birds privacy. Protect from faxes and rats. Some supplementary feeding will be necessary (corn) and grit may need to be provided. Chickens are 'scratchers' rather than mowers. The most common problem is worms, but these only get out of control if the conditions are too intensive or too dirty. Wild garlic in the pasture (which can be deliberately planted under trees if necessary) will help prevent them.

II,.

Ducks
Ducks are usually kept at densities of up to 100 ducks per acre (250 per hectare). Although flocks of up to 200 are common, groups of 40-50 laying ducks provide the best compromise between the better performance associated with small numbers and efficiency of labour and materials. They can utilise marshy ground which other stock cannot, as long as they are not limited only to wet ground. In foraging for feed, ducks can be of use in clearing ground of slugs and snails - which may be desirable prior brining areas into cultivation, and also reducing molluscs responsible for harbouring liver fluke of cattle and sheep . Although ducks will live entirely in the open without an form of housing, layers and breeders should be adequately housed if eggs are required through the winter months. Ducks need protection from strong winds and will lay better if they have a dry bed on which to sleep. As ducks lay about 95% of their eggs at night, many of these would be lost or taken by animals if they were laid outside, and collecting eggs outside takes much longer. Houses should be sited on dry ground with windows and doors away from the prevailing wind. Mobile housing is often most useful. Approximately 0.3-0.4 m 2 (3-4 ft2) of space per bird is required, with one nest box per three birds. Care should be taken to avoid puddling and waterlogging near the house. Although light requirements are low , plenty of air is needed as ducks dislike a warm stuffy atmosphere; high narrow buildings with adequate ventilation work well. Ducks should have access to clean natural water - a stream or pond - to fulfil their natural potential. Also desirable are areas for dust-bathing and appropriate vegetation in the range area. Some supplementary feeding will be necessary . Rotational grazing should be practised to minimise the risk of internal parasite infection . Faxes, rats and stoats can be serious predators and preventative measures maybe necessary if these are present.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Page 5

The best egg laying breeds are Khaki Campbell and Indian Runner. They can average 300 eggs per year. Table varieties include Aylesbury, Pekin, Pen nine, Muscavey and Rauen. Muscovies are good fliers and won't be deterred from flying by a low fence like other breeds. Note that duck eggs can be infected with Salmonella bacteria and every effort should be made to obtain clean eggs by providing clean well-bedded nests ; eggs should be gathered in ea rl y morning , washed and allowed to air dry.

Geese
Five ge*ese are regarded as eating about as much grass as one sheep, hence on go od land capable of carrying 5 sheep per acre (12 per hectare), 25 geese per acre (62 per hectare) would be supported. Geese are natural grazers and thrive on ample short-growing herbage; they dislike long coarse grasses. They will also eat many weeds which other animals will not touch, including buttercup herbage and roots; they will also clear creeping thistle if pout on the sward before the plants become too strong. Geese can be very long lived - 25-50 years is not uncommon. Geese should also have access to clean natural water - a stream or pond - to fulfil their natural potential. Some supplementary feeding may be necessary, but the birds will graze less if they given plentiful extras. Rotational grazing should be practised to minimise the risk of internal parasite infection . Most breeds do not Jay eggs frequently - two clutches of 15-18 eggs each season is average. The Chinese breed can produce over 100 eggs per year as well as being good for meat (with le ss fat) and very good 'watch dogs' (put another way, they may frighten anybody nearby). More friendly are Brecan Buff, though they won't lay as many eggs . Laying continues for many yea rs sometimes 25 years or more. In the wi ld , geese pair and mate for life; under domestication , geese will also mate for life if given the chance, but a gander will mate with several geese. With small breeds like the Chinese, 5-6 females to one male is enough; for larger breeds , 2-3 females to one male is usual. Geese can be housed in a shed, stable or other buildings at night and driven to the pasture for the day.

Other species
Turkeys derive from a woodland environment and do well in agroforestry systems; when old enough, they can be trained to roost up in trees. Guinea fowl are hardy. disea se-free , but are poor grazers and will require plentiful supplementary feed. They are insect eaters rather than grazers, hence will be effective against many fruit tree pests. The adults need no housing as they prefer to roo st in trees - but this habit may make them difficult to stop escaping. Quail are highly inclined to find cover in thick andlor thorny undergrowth and may be an option if such a shrubby layer is present in the agroforestry system. They are productive egg and meat producers which utilise many plants .

References
Blake, F: Organic Farming and Growing. Crowood Press, 1994. Brownlow, M et al: The integrati on of pigs and poultry with forestry: practice, theory and economics. Agroforestry Forum, Vol 4 No 3 (October 1993), 51-57 . Ducks and Geese. MAFF Bulletin 70, HM SO, 1973. Organic Poultry Production. EFRC Bulletin 35 , p5 . Wires, J : Chicken Forage Species. TIPSY 1983, 32-40.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Rhus species: the Sumachs
Introduction
Sumachs (also spell sumacs) are de ciduo us or evergreen trees. shrubs and climbers, mostly from the subtropics and tropics, with some 250 species in total. They are often grown ornamentally for their stri king foliage and rich red autumn colours.
The genus Rhus contains many useful trees and shrubs, some of which are very poisonous. The poisonous species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, and can cause severe skin irritation from the sap; they are listed in a separate section below for reference, but should not be cultivated unless you are sure you want them , and that you can stop them spreading. It is fairly easy to distinguish the poisonous species; they have panicles of flowers & fruits arising from leaf axils, and the fruits are smooth, whereas non · poisonous species h ave compound termina l panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hai rs.

Cultivati on
The sumachs are easily cultivated, most species like a well·drained soil and full sun ; a few tolerate some shade. Most species described here are deciduous . Although windy sites are tolerates, plants have brittle branches which can break in strong winds. They are susceptible to coral spot fungus (Neetria cinnabarina) but resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp.) Most species have a sucke ring habit and will form thickets if allowed. Flowers are pollinated by bees . Most species are dioecious, so male and female plants are required for seed; a few species are monoecious . All Ihe species described below are dioecious unless otherwise indicated. Sumachs are very tolerant to cutting and will respond vigorously to regular coppicing.

General uses
Leaves of all species are rich in tannins . They can be collected as they fall in autumn and used for tanning, as a brown dye, or as a dyeing mordant. Seeds of all species are rich in oil. This oil when extracted has a tallow·like consistency and can be used to make candles. Fruits of many of the non-poisonous species are edible . They are acid I lemony in flavour and quite small, hence the traditional use of soaking them in water to make a lemon-flavou red drink, which can be sweetened as required ; the flavour of fruits is best during dry weather. The fruits contain flavonols, phenolic acids, hydolysable tannins , anthocyanins and malic acid . Seeds of the non-poisonous species are an important wildlife food for birds . Flowers are polli n ated by bees ; in good wea t her they can be a major summer nectar sou rce, with the golden honey often scented and biUer when new but matures to an excellent flavour by the autumn . The flowers are also a nectar source for many butterflies in North America. Sumach wood is generally light and soft, and not particularly useful ; it is occasionally used for small furniture or cabinets. Woody prunings make a quick· burning kindling when dried .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Many sumachs have toxic sap which can , with great care , be tapped and a varnish or lacquer obta ined .

Non-poisonous species
Rhus aromatica
Lemon sumach, Fragrant sumach

A low .;s uckering downy shrub, growing to 1.2 m (4 tt) high from Eastern N.America . Trifoliate leaves are aromatic when bruised . Sometimes found in open woods, so it should tolerate light shade. Tolerates drought and poor soils. Hardy to -25°C or lower. Flowers yellow, in April, fruits are round , red, downy, dry, 6 mm thick; seeds ripen in September. A very low growing form, var. arenaria grows on sand dunes in the mid-West of N .America . Uses The small fruits are edible, raw or cooked . They can be made into a lemon-flavoured drink by soaking in cold or hot (not boiling) water for 10- 30 minutes . They can also be mixed with flour and used in cakes, porridge etc . Medicinally, the leaves are astringent and diuretic - formerly used for colds, bleeding, stomach aches. The root bark is also astringent and diuretic. The fruits were chewed for stomach aches, toothaches etc. The leaves contain up to 25% tannin; the bark is also a good sou rce . The extensive root system makes the plant useful in preventing soil erosion. The split stems are used in basketry.

Rhus chinen sis

Chinese gall

A small broad-headed tree or large shrub, growing to 6 m (20 tt) high from China and Japan. Hardy to -10°C, so not hardy in all parts of Britain . It needs a hot summer to ripen its wood, and suffers dieback below _7°C in winter . Flowering occurs in August . and fruits are rounded , flat, orange-red and downy. Uses The fruits are edible when cooked, with an acid flavour. They can be used as a rennet substitute. Many parts are used in Ch inese medicine. incl udi ng fruits , leaves. roots, stem bark, seeds and root bark; galls on the plant are also used. Extracts have recently been confirmed in their antiviral behaviour. The roots and leaves have an anti-i nsect effect agains t cotton aphids (Aphis gossypil) , Rice leafrollers (Cnapha/ocrocis medinalis) and Rice field insects. A blue dye is obtained from galls on the plant. They contain up to 77% tannins and can be used as an ink.

Rhus copallina

Dwarf sumach, Shining sumach

A medium sized downy shrub , usually growing to 2 m (6 tt) high and wide . from Eastern N.America. Hardy to -25°C. Flowers from July-September; seeds ri pen October-December. Fruits are 3-5 mm long with little flesh , but are borne in dense panicles . Uses Fruits are edible , raw or cooked , with an acid flavour. Often made into a drink by soaking in water. Roots. bark and fruits were all used medicinally by native Americans.

PageS

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

I

Fresh leaves usually contain 10-25% tannins, while dried leaves a ve rage 32%. Can be used against soil erosion due to the extensive root system. Red and black dyes are obtained from the fruit.

Rhus g/abra

Smooth sumach

A shrub growing 3 m (10 ttl high and wide, from many parts of N.America. Hardy to -35°C. Flowers in July-August, the seeds ripen in September-November. Plants are fast-growing and sucker profusely, individual siems not being very tong lived.

Uses The fruits are edible, raw or cooked, with an acid lemony flavour. They are usually soaked in water for 10-30 minutes to make a lemon-flavoured drink, sometimes with added sassafras. They can also be chewed, with the seeds as well, to quench the thirst and leave a pleasant tasle in the mouth. Many paris have been used medicinally, including the root bark , roots , [eaves and fruits. Recently, extracts have been found which exhibit antibacterial , antiviral and antitumour properties. All parts of the plant are antibacterial against Tomato wilt (Pseudomonas sofanaceum). the plant have also been used as a rodenticide. Parts of

Fresh leaves usually contain 10-25% tannins, dried leaves average 27%; the shoots and roots are also rich in tannins . A black dye is obtained from the frul!, and an orange or yellow dye from the root. The extensive rool system makes the plant useful for soil stabilisation and it can be used as a pioneer species for establishing woodlands; it is also used in North America in windbreaks. The leaves were smoked by many native American tribes.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

g:g:zz Ii Rhus potaninii

--B

-:;:

A small to medium sized round-headed tree, usually growing 5-8 m (16-28 ft) high and to 8 m (28 ftl across, from Cen tral and Western China . Hardy to -25°C, Flowers in June, though it rarely flowers in Britain. Uses Parts are used medicinally as an antiseptic, astringent and haemostatic. An indeliJJle black ink is obta ined from galls on the leave s. Parts are used med icinally as an antiseptic , astringent and haemostatic.

,

Rhus

X

pulvinata

A hybrid of R.glabra x R.lyphina , making a wide-spreading shrub growing 3 m (10 tt) high. Hardy to -35°C, Flowers in July-August, with seeds ripe ning Sep tember-November . Tolerates most soils, including chalk and poor sandy soils, Often grown ornamentally, there are so me named varieties; 'Red Autumn Lace' (sometimes ca lled R.glabra 'Lacin ia ta ') is a female form which fruits freely. Freely suckering , with individual stems not very long -lived . Uses The fruits are edible, raw or cooked, with an acid lemony flavour. They are usually soaked in water for 10-30 minutes to make a lemon-fla vo ured drink. Many parts have been used medicinally, including the root bark, roots, lea ves and fruits. Leaves usually contain 10-25% tannins; the shoots and roots are also rich in tannins. A black dye is obtained from the fruit, and an orange or ye llow dye from the root. The extensive root system makes the plant useful for soil stabilisation and it can be used as a pioneer species for establishing woodlands.

Rhus punjabensis
A small to medium sized tree, growing to 12 m (40 rt) high, from the Himalaya s, Ce ntral and Western China. Hardy to -2 0°C. Flowers in June. The form sinica is most commonly grown in Britain. Uses The fruits are edible, raw or cooked. Usually soaked in water for 10-30 minutes to make a lemonflavoured drink.

Rhus trilobata

Skunk bush

A small to medium sized shrub from Western N.America, growing to 1.8 m (6 ft) high ; closely allied to R.aromatica . Leaves have an unpleasanl scent. Hardy to -30°C. Flowers in March-April, the fruits are round , red, downy and 6 mm thick .. Uses The fruits are edible, raw or cooked. Usually soaked in water for 10-30 minutes to make a lemonflavoured drink. They can also be dried , ground and made into a jam. Several dyes can be obtained from the fruils, shoots and leaves: yellow with alum m ordant , midbrown (chrome), olive tan (copper), bright yellow (tin), grey-green (iron), beige (no mordant). The shoots are tough and slender, and used in basketry - often stripped of bark and split into several strands , Several parts were used medicinally by native Americans, including fruits , leaves, bark and roots. The species is used in North America for windbreaks and sc reen plantings .

r
Page 10 AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

Rhus typhina (R.hirta)

Stag's Horn sumach

A large shrub growing to 6 m (20 ftl high and wide, from Eastern N.America. Hardy to -30°C. Tolerates poor soils and drought. Suckers very freely, though individual shools are fairly shortlived. Shoots are velvety. Flowers in June-July, fruits are red, downy.

Uses
The fruits are edible, cooked in puddings (they are sour) or soaked in water to make a lemonflavoured drink. Several parts have been used medicinally, including the bark. roots, leaves, flowers , fruits and sap (NB sap can cause a rash on some people). Recently. extracts have been found which exhibit antiviral and anlitumour properties. The leaves contain up to 48% tannins, but average 25%; the bark, especially from roots, and the fruits are also rich in tannins. The leaves contain several insecticidal compounds which are effective against aphids. A solid obta ined by stream distilling the leaves contains these compounds, as does an ethanolic extract of the leaves. The extract, when applied to leaves of the food plant , was very effective within a few minutes against the black bean aphid (Aphis (abae), the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and the mustard beetle (Phaedon cochleariae). The extract also has a fungicidal effect. which is moderately effective against fireblight (Erwinia amy/ovora). The stems and leaves are antifungal aga inst Fusarium wilt (Fusarium spp.) and antibacterial against tomato wilt (pseudomonas solanaceum). The plant has also been used as a rodenticide A black ink can be made by boiling the leaves and fruits. Severa l dyes can be obtained from the fruits and leaves: greenish-gold with alum mordant. chestnut brown (chrome), brassy gold (copper), bright yellow (tin), charcoal grey (iron), tan (no mo rdant) . A yellow dye can also be obtained from the roots. The young shoots were hollowed out and made inlo pipes for use as flules and to lap the sap of sugar maples . The extensive root system makes this valuable as a windbreak screen and soil stabil iser . This is an excellent bee plant. producing lots of pollen and nectar.

Other species which are only hardy to about -SoC (zone 9) and thus not of much use in Britain include R.integrifolia, R.microphylla, R.ovata and R.sempervirens. all shrubs from Southwestern N.America. They all have edible fruit , soaked in water to make a drink as with many other species.

Poisonous species
The sap of these species can cause severe irritation, blisters and dermatitis; all parts should be regarded as poisonous. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumach sap contains 3-N pentadecycatechnol wh ich causes a severe spreading dermatitis. but the toxins only reach the skin if p lant tissues have been damaged, although indirect contact can still cause serious problems. Severa l of these species are utilised by making a lacquer from the sap, obtained by tapping the sap much like sugar maples are tapped . This is a hazardous procedure bearing in mind the poisonous nature of the sap, which can give off a poisonous vapour. The dangerous nature of these species is illustrated by an incident in Torquay, Devon (U.K.) a few years ago, when four tree surgeons suffered severe skin problems and breathing difficulties from sap which seeped from a 12 m (40 tt) Rhus

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verniciflua tree which they were felling. for a log fire .

Also affected was a person who picked up pieces of wood

Rhus ambigua
A climber from the mountains of Japan, hardy to -1 5°C. Tolerates some shade.

Uses
A lacquer is obtained from the sap .

Rhus coriaria

Tanner's sumach, Elm-leaved sumach, Sicilian sumach

A shrub or small tree growing up to 3 m (10 ft) high from Southern Europe; hardy to about -12° C. Unlike most species, this is hermaphrodite . It needs a warm sheltered location in Britain.
Uses

The frults and seeds are peppery and are sometimes used as a spice . but this is not advised as
they are toxic. The leaves and seeds are used medicinally , being astringent. diuretic , styptic and tonic. They are used for dysentery, haemoptysis and conjunctivitis. Recently a methanolic leaf extract was found to be a very effective antibacteria l agent. The leaves have an insecticidal effect against Woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) and Grape phylloxera (Phylfoxera vitifo/iae). A black dye is obtained from the fruit; and yellow and red dyes from the bark. Leaves contain 20-35% tannins and yield a yellow dye. The finely ground leaves and stems provide the dyeing and tanning agent ' sumac' , one of the oldest and best known vegetable tans . It produces a good tan where white or light coloured , soft and supple leathers are required, and is still used (though not as much as in the past) to prepare Cordoba and Morocco leather; these do not darken on exposure to light and are less lia ble to decay than leather produced by many other tannages; they also withstand prolonged exposure to acid atmospheres and are favoured for bookbinding leathers. Sicily is the main producing country , where it is cultivated mostly on steeper slopes and stony sites where soil cultivation is impractical. Rooted suckers are transplanted in winter and cut down low. Annual harvesting takes place in June or Juiy (branches cut close to the main stem and to the ground) and sometimes again in September (when leaves are simply stripped by hand) ; the leafy branches are cut with a heavy curve d knife , and left in loose bundles to dry. They are threshed with a flail the leaves sent to a mill where they are ground and packed . Plants yield for about 15 years, with maximum yields at about 7 years of age; average yields of 1700 kg/ha (1500 Ib/acre) can be achieved.

Rhus diversiloba

Western poison oak

A shrub growing to 2.5 m (8 ft) high from Western N.America.; can also climb by aerial roots . Hardy to _20D C. Closely related to R.tox;codendron.
Uses A tincture of the fresh leaves was used med ici nally in the treatment of skin diseases.

The supple ste ms are used in basketry. A good black dye is obtained by exposing the sap to air.

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Rhus radicans

Poison ivy

_

A climber, reaching 2_5 m (8 ft) high , from Eastern N.America . It produces aerial roots and can sometimes reach the size of a small tree . Fast growing but short lived. Should not be handled with bare skin .

Uses
A good ink is obtained, probably from the sap. The leaves can be used as an antifeedanl against Tobacco hornworm (Mandu ca sexta) and Citrus red mile (Panonychus citd).

Rhus succedanea

Wax tree
4

A small tree reaching 9 m (30 ft) high and wide , from China , Japan and the Himalayas. Hardy to 20°C but needs hot summers to ripen wood. Frequently cultivated in Japan for its sap and the wax obtained from the fruit. Uses Wax from fruits on female trees is used medicinally in ointments ; an extract of the leaves has anticancer and antiviral properties. Recently an extract from this plant was found to be effective against the hepatitis B virus. The leaves contain about 20% tannins. The sap is tapped and used as a lacquer. It is often used in Japanese art and needs to be kept in a cool humid location to dry properly. A yellow dye is obtained from the wood. A wax is obtained from the fruits and can be used to make candles , floor wax , varnish etc; fruits contain about 17% wax.

Rhus sy/vestris
A small-medium shrubby tree, growing to 5-10 m (16-33 ft) high, from the mountains of Japan ; hardy to about _1O o e. Uses A lacquer is made from the sap.

Rhus toxicodendron

Poison oak

A freely suckering shrub growing to 60 cm (2 ft) high and 1 m (3 ftl across from Southeastern N.America. Hardy to -15°C. Tolerates poor soils and drought. There is some c onfusion over the naming of this species, it is sometimes included with R.radicans. The sap contains several very poisonous substances including the polyphenol fisetin which causes severe dermititis. Uses The fresh leaves have been used medicinally but this can be very dangerous. A safe homeopathic remedy (Rhus tax) is made from the leaves which are used for a wide variety of diseases including skin disorders and mumps. The sap makes an indelible ink and can be used as a varnish for boots or shoes .

Rhus verniciflua

Lacquer tree, Varnish tree

A small to medium sized tree, growing up to 15 m (50 ft) high and 10 m (33 ft) in spread , from mountain slopes in China and Japan. Hardy to about -15°C (despite some reports of marginal hardiness in Britain). The fruits are pea-sized. Cultivated for its lacquer in warmer parts of Japan . See notes above for an example of the poisonous nature of this tree.

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Uses Several parts are used in Chinese medicine, including the leaves , seed and resi n, but these should be treated with caution. A non-drying oil is obtained from the fruits (whlch contain about 25% oil) and is used to make candles. The oil is extracted by crushing the fruit, heating, and crushing again. The roots and leaves have an anti-insect effect against cotton aphids (Ap his gossypi/) and rice leafrolters (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis). The saR can be used as a varnish or lacquer, obtained by an incision in the stem in midsummer. The lacquer is used in Japanese art and requires a damp atmosphere to dry and harden. It is resistant to acids, alkalis and temperatures up 10 70°C.

Rhus vernix

Poison sumach
Does well in a moist soil and

A shrub growing to 3 m (10 ft) high from Eastern N.America. tolerates waterlogging. Hardy to - 30°C. Uses The sap can be made into an indelible black ink.

A varnish can be obtained from the sap which is black, lustrous , durable and toxic .

References
Agroforestry Research Trust. Useful Plants Database, 1999. Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Vol 1. John Murray, 1973. Bestmann, H et al: Steam volatile constituents from leaves of Rhus typhina. Phytochemistry, 1988, 27: 1, 85-90. Crawford, M: Dye Plants. A.R.T., 1993. Duke, J : Handbook of Edible Weeds. CRC Press , 1992. Frey, D: Staghorn sumac. TIPSY, 1965: 46. Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. John Wiley, 1988. Howes, F: Vegetable Tanning Materials. Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1953. Klingauf, F et al: Botanical insecticides VI. Journal-of-Applied-Entomology, 1966, 105: 1,41-47. Krussman, G: Manual of Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford, 1964. Lauk, Let al: Antimicrobial activity of Rhus coriaria leaf extract. Phytotherapy-Research , 1996, 12:S152-153. Mavlyanov, S et al: Anthocyans and organic acids of the fruits of some species of sumac. Chemistry-of-Natural-Compounds. 1997, 33:2, 209. Mavlyanov, S et al: Phenolic compounds of some tannide-bearing plants and their pharmacological activity. Chemistry-of-Natural-Compounds. 1995,31:2,266. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Masch, J et al: On the effect of plant extracts against fireblight. Acta-Horticulturae, 1990, 273, 355361. Payne, J: Stag horn sumac. Pomona, Vol xxix No.4, 53-54. Saxena, G el al: Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra. Journal-of-Ethnopharmacology, 1994, 42:2, 95-99. Stary, F: Poisonous Plants. Magna Books, 1995. Tree's toxic sap poisons six people and two dogs. Western Morning News , January 17th 1996. Zembower, D et al: Robustaflavone, a potential non- nucleoside anti-hepatitis Bagent. AntiviralResearch, 1998,39 :2,81-88.

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Pest & Disease Series:

"

Silverleaf
Introd uction
Silverleaf disease is a fungus , Chondrostereum purpureum, which causes serious losses of fruiting trees in Europe , Asia , South America and New Zealand , and occasional losses in North America .

Symptoms
Typically, the leaves on single or a few branches of affected trees become silvery in appea rance, because the upper epidermis separates and a layer of air enters, interfering with the normal reflection of light. Severely affected leaves appear tattered and brown, and may rot before leaf fall. Affected branches soon die back and later produce groups of small (2 em+ , 1-+) , purplish-grey , bracket-like fungal bodies. The branches may also bear leaves in autumn but fail to leaf out the following spring . Spread of the disease from affected branches to the rest of the tree may occur but is not inevitable. Disco louration of the heartwood with a brown stain is one of the most characteristic symptoms; it is seen on branches ovef 25 mm (1 ") in diameter. Although C.purpureum is an important disease of fruit trees, it does not cause serious decay at wound sites or in fe lled log s. Some plants (eg. hawthorn , rhododendron , rose , bee ch, birch) may be killed without any si lvering of the leaves. Note that a common and superficially similar symptom to silverleaf is a nutritional disorder called false silver leaf, treated by mulching and feeding trees .

Conditions for infection & spread
Spores are produced from the fruiting bodies most abundantly in the autumn, but potentially at any time of the year during mild or warm moist weather. The spores are entirely wind-disseminated, though direct infection via infected pruning tools is possible . In order for infection to occur , the fungus requires a fresh wound on the trunk or branches deep enough to expose the wood . The wood is most susceptible for the first week after wounding , but by one month after, infection is rare . Spores landing on the wood of the fresh wound germinate in pla ce or are drawn into the xylem vessels where they germinate to produce hyphae, which spread in the living wood and kill the tissues as they advance. The invaded wood becomes dark brown and develops a gummy substance in the vessels that serves as a barrier against further spread of the fungus. Trees can thus sometimes recover from infection . Silverleaf fungu s can remain for 3-7 yea rs in infected stumps from dead trees , although fruiting bodies are on ly produced for 2-3 years at most. Toxic substances produced by the fungus are carried into the leaves where they cause the leaf tissues to sepa rate . The silvered leaves are not a source of infection and can be safely used for mulch etc . or allowed to fall and decompose normally.

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Hosts
Wild hosts to the disease are varied and include sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) , birch (Betula), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), Eucalyptus , Laburnum, poplar (Populus) , oak (Quercus) , Rhododendron, rose (Rosa), willow (Salix), Sorbus, lilac(Syringa) and elm (Ulmus) . It is frequently found on wounds, dead branches, stumps and the end grain of felled logs of these species . Because of the larger number of deciduous trees which host silverleaf, the fungus is in fact used deliberately in some parts of the world as a biological control of species considered ~weedy ~ such as Alnus rubra in North America and Prunus serofina in Europe. It is also used as a stump killer to prevenf coppicing. The most seriously affected fruiting crop is plum, but other stone fruit can also be affected (cherries , apricots , almonds) , as can apples , currants , gooseberries, raspberries and chestnut.

Resistant and susceptible plum cultivars
In areas of high risk of silverleaf, resistant plum cultivars should be chosen , preferably with a resistant rootstock as well.

Resistant cultivars
Black Prince (very res) Blaisdon red Bodi Szilva Bush Jefferson (slightly res) Marjorie's Seedling (very res) Merton Gem Monarch Pershore Purple Pershore

Susceptible cultivars
Count Althann's Gage Czar Giant Prune Reine Claude Verte Victoria (very susc) White Magnum Bonum

Damsons and greengages are fairly resistant. Rootstocks also influence the risk of infection of a grafted cultivar:

Resistant rootstocks
Common plum Myrobalan B Pershore Pixy (very res)

Susoeptible rootstocks
Brompton (very susc) Marianna GF8-1 Mahaleb SL 64 (cherry)

Control
Control is difficult due to the wide range of potential hosts and the virtual impossibility of protecting all wounded surfaces . Natural recovery is quite common and if the only symptom is silvered leaves , with no dieback of branches, it may be best to wait. Dead and dying wood should be cut out and burned in midsummer - take care to cut back to clean wood (15 cm , 6 ~ beyond any sign of discoloured wood) , disinfecting the pruners with each cut , and apply Trichoderma (see below) to the final cut surface. Silverleaf can be prevented by using the biological control fungus Trichoderma viride, making a paste with it and applying this to all pruning cuts (or allover a certain size , say 12 mm, Yz"). This technique

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is commercially used in many orchards_ T.polysporum have a simifar effect.

The closely

related

species

T.harzianum

and

Trees already infected with silverleaf can be treated using the saine biological control. which is used in pelleted form and inserted into the trunk in pre~drilled holes. Trichoderma then works its way through the tree and attacks the silverleaf fungus. One hole should go deep into the heartwood, preferably to the centre of the tree, and the others drilled 5 cm (2~) deep into sapwood, spaced 10 cm (4~) apart in a spiral. After the pellets are pushed in, the holes are covered with a tree pruning compound or wax to prevent birds or squirrels from picking them out. The pellets should be inserted from February to April, or in Aug ust , because rising sap pressure may force them out at other times of the year. . An ancient technique, no longe r often used, was to make vertical slits in the bark of infected trees to encourage renewed vigour; this apparently sometimes cleared up the silverleaf disease.

Reducing susceptibility
Trees are much less susceptible to infection in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, probably because in the laUer periods, nitrogen and carbohydrate levels in xylem sap are at their highest and support the best growth of the fungus. Hen ce it is very important that stone fruits, and especia lly plums, are pruned only from late spring to early autumn: if possible, also choose settled, dry weather when the chances of a week of fine weather are good. Further precautions are the use of clean nursery stock , removal of infected parts and burning of infec ted material immediately after removal. Piles of logs or branches should not be slored in an orchard of stone fruit. Alternate hosts in the vicinity of the orchard (within 500 m) which have the disease may be removed. Infected plants over 500 m away pose no further threat over the natural spore population.

Sources
Unfortunately, the biological control Trichoderma viride is not available in the UK as the manufacturers have declined to register it with MAFF (no doubt put off by the large fee charged for registration). It is made in powder and pellet form under the name 'Binab T' and is available in Europe from 8inab USA Inc, Bratenvagen 74, S~542422 Mariestad, SWEDEN.

References
Buczacki, S & Harris , K: Pests , Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. HarperCollins, 1998. 8ulin, H: Tree Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press, 1995. Coombs, J & Hall, K: Dictionary of Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management. CPL Press,

1998.
Crawford, M: Fruit Varieties Resistant to Pests and Disease. A.R.T ., 1997. Culpan, G: Pests, Diseases and Common Problems. Hamlyn, 1995. Greenwood, P & Halstead, A: Pests & Diseases. Darling Kindersley, 1997. Hintikka , V: Occurrence of edible fungi and other macromycetes on tree stumps over a sixteen~ year period. Acta~8olan i ca-Fennica, 1993, 149, 11-17. HORA Newsletter 104, Summer 1998. Usansky , S et al: The UK Green Growers Guide. CPL Press, 1991. Ogawa, J & English, H : Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. Un iversity of California, 1991. Phillips, 0 & Burdekin, 0: Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan, 1992.

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Forest gardening: winter maintenance
Harvesting
Woody crops are usually harvested in winter. These may include : Willows cut annually for basketry or to plant for living hedges etc. Try and cui the willow stool as~close to the ground and the old stool stump as possible. If destined for basketry, the willow is best left to air dry for 6 weeks or so by leaning it vertically in a dry spot , eg o under conifers.

Hazels and other trees cut for poles or coppiced for fuelwood.

Poles should be kept off th e

ground if possible to prolong life ; wood for fuel shou ld be stacked to dry for at least 6 months. Bamboos cut for canes - used in the garden, for crafts etc. It is important to cut only 3-year old canes (or older) which have fu lly lignified . This is achieved by tagging each year's canes with a different colour tag, or by using as dot of coloured paint. The cut canes can be used without curing but they will rot very quickly (after a year or so); to cure them, lay them horizontall y in a dry airy place - ego an open-sided roofed shed , or on nets strung beneath conifer trees - for at lea st 6 months.

Fertili sing
Late winter (March) is a good time to spread any manure or compost which is being used . One aim of forest gardening is to minimise the need to input such materials, but a convenient (and preferably organic) source nearby may be very useful , particularly in the early stages of the garden. Try and use organic fertilisers only around species which reatly need and can utilise the extra nutrients. These include: Bamboos cut for canes Fruit and nut trees cropping well, ego apples , pears, plums, walnuts , chestnuts , hazelnuts Spread the fertilisers thinly to avoid damag ing dormant ground cover plants, and out up to the drip line of the tree (ie below the edge of the canopy) .

Pruning & trimming
Cold frosty winter days are ideal for these tasks . Prunings and trimmings, unless they are either obviously diseased or from species very prone to fungal diseases , can be simply thrown onto the ground where their decay over a few years will return nutrients to the soil slowly and steadily . With large branches it may be convenie n t to cut these into smaller pieces or cut off the branch lets so that they do not become too much of an obstruction to foot traffic; alternatively they can be placed in or under hedges where they are out of the way. Diseased and prone material can either be moved to part of the garden where related species are not growing (only if the garden is big enough); burnt , saving the ash to use as fertiliser; or shredded by machine and used for mu lch , perhaps after composting (although most detrimental fungi do not grow well on small bits of shredded material which dry out rapid ly in dry weather.) The material can also be taken away for drying and burning as kindling in fires. It is probably a false economy to generally shred trimmings and prunings unless you are despe rate for mulching material. Shredders are noisy and unpleasant machines to use and it takes quite a long time to feed in material. which needs to be trimmed first in any case so that it fits into the hopper.

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Fruit trees
Most unimproved fruit trees (eg. strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo, and date plum, Diospyros lotus) can be left unpruned. Remember also never to prune members of the Prunus family - plums. cherries, peaches , nectarines, apricots , almonds - in winter as they are prone to infection by the silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum) at this time of year. Cultivated fruit trees can be pruned to one of many shapes with different techniques applicable 100 much delail to include all in this article . It is worth noting the following points though:

Always prune on dry days after the wood has dried from any dew to minimise risk of infection by fungal spores. If there is any risk of cutting diseased wood, disinfect secateurs after every cut (eg. using a cloth soaked in household disinfectant).
Try and prune members of the Rosaceae (apples, pears etc.) after Christmas when they are less susceptible to infection by scab (Venturia spp.) Always cut out any diseased or dead wood, and crossing branches. goblet shape, cut out any inward-growing branches. If the tree is grown as a

Fruit trees on dwarfing rootstocks (ie probably growing in the shrub layer) need less pruning than those on vigorous rootstocks. The most dwarfed trees need almost no pruning, although they need good light conditions. Fruit trees on vigorous rootstocks make standard trees. These are usually grown with a single trunk up to 1.5-2.1 m (5-7 ft) before the main branches arise. The branches soon get too high to reach without using ladders or long pruning arms, which may be difficult in a densely-planted environment. Tip-bearing cultivars require no pruning and may be worth considering. If the tree is young, and growing and cropping well, prune lightly. Make any cuts to a bud facing the direction in which growth is required . As a general rule, cut back leaders by 25-30% of the previous summer's growth. Laterals (side branches from leaders) are cut back to a number of buds of new growth depending on the character of the species and cultivar.

Fruiting shrubs
Fruiting shrubs are usually best kept in a goblet shape to allow for light to penetrate, air to circulate and access for picking the crop. No-pruning methods can be adopted but will lead to crops of smaller fruit which are borne on the very outside of the shrub only; if the crop only bears fruit on one-year old wood , not or minimal pruning may be the best option. After cutting out any dead or diseased wood, and any shoots growing into the centre of the bush, the pruning method depends on the character of the species: Stooled species, ego blackcurrants Aim to encourage new stool shoots every year. shools, so do not cut the new growth back. Fruit is usually formed along the length of new

Cut out 25-30%. of the oldest stems down to soil level. Single-stemmed species, ego redcurrants, pepper bushes (Zanthoxylum spp.) Aim to encourage a regular supply of new wood, as most fruit is borne on 1, 2 and 3-year old wood. Remove thin and overcrowded branches. Remove old unproductive branches, preferably where a new shoot can replace them. Cut back branch side growth one or two buds to encourage fruit spur production. Cut back main leaders to leaves 5-10 cm (2-4") of new growth from the last growing season.

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Stool beds for propagation
If you are propagating your own trees or shrubs from hardwood cuttings (eg. elders , Sambucus spp ., currants, Ribes spp.) or graftwood obtained from annually stooled f coppiced plants (eg . apples, pears etc.), then these should be cut in winter. In Britain, most hardwood cuttings are best taken in November or December and struck immediately in a cold frame or sim ilar environment. Plants grown for cuttings should be cut back quite hard each year to ensure a good supply of n ew

wood.

Plants grown for graftwood can also be cut back hard . although less wood is generally

needed. from these. partly to keep them a manageable size. Graftwood is best cut around Christmas time in dry weather and stored in sealed plastic bags in a refrigerator until late winter I early spring when it is used.

Nitrogen-fixing & mineral accumulating trees
Trees grown specifically for nutrient input will usually be cut regularly, usually coppiced or po ll arded every 5-8 years. Coppicing involves cutting the whole tree down to within 30 cm (1 ft) of the ground; pollarding is similar but the tree is cut at 1.5-2.1 m (5-7 tt) above ground. New shoots are allowed to grow from the stumpltrunk that remains and the tree regenerates quickly. A few species of use do not coppice or pollard well and are better trimmed and kept to a shrubby shape . The advantages of coppicing are: The new shoot growth is very vigorous and is soon clear of understorey growth New growth is also quickly clear of any grazing pests (eg rabbits, deer) Most deciduous species coppice very well The advantages of pollarding are : The new shoot growth is already well clear of understorey growth New growth is also clear or very quickly clear of any grazing pests (eg rabbits , deer) The cutting operation takes place near eye level where it is usually easier to use saws The new growth does not cast as dense a shade as coppice growth as it is further from the ground. Once the tree has been cut , the smaller side branches can be cut off and left on the ground. The larger trunks of trees , usually 7-15 cm (3-6 ") at largest diameter, can be used for inoculation of fungi, fuetwood, or other specific use depending on the species. Alnus spp . {Alders}, Hippophae spp. (Sea buckthorns), and Robinia spp. (False acacias) all coppice and pollard well except A/nus cordata which is more variable in response . Nitrogen-fixing shrubs won't need regular trimming or cutting, but the larger ones (eg. large Elaeagnus species) can be cut back and allowed to regrow if this is desirable - eg o if you need extra light in the vicinity.

Formative-pruning of timber & other trees
Trees grown for timber in the garden will need formative pruning to reduce the number of knots produced ; without significant side shade, the side branches do not self prune as they often do in a dense forest. Each winter, prune off lower branches up to about a half of the total height of the tree , leaving a clear trunk. If forks are produced in the main growing stem, remove one to leaves the most upright; it is important to have chosen trees which are strong upright growers andlor have been grown from seed of good origin to achieve good timber form in a forest garden .

Trees to be kept shrubby
Some trees may be best kept shrubby if this does not drastically affect their cropping. Thus limes (TWa spp.) which are grown for edible leaves can be coppiced or pollarded every 3-10 years to stop them becoming large rounded shade-casting trees detrimental to nearby plants . Similarly . Eucalyptus species grown for the medicinal foliage crop , or black walnuts (Jug/ans nigra) grown for

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the medicinal leaves are best cut every 4-8 years to stop them becoming too dominant. Some trees, particularly Eucalypts and walnuts, are allelopathic towards other plants - ie . reta rd their growth - through rain dripping off leaves, fallen leaves or root exudates and keeping them shrubby will minimise such effects. Evergreens like Eucalyptus can be cut in winter but are better cut in spring so that they regenerate more quickly.

Spreading trees and shrubs
Very often , it is preferable for the higher trees in a forest garden to grow more upright than spreading in form, to maximise the amount of light which can filter through and around the tree canopy and reach shrubs and ground layers of the garden. Trees which grow with a spreading form when young can be encouraged to grow taller more quickly and with less spread by following the formative pruning advice above: each winter, prune off lower branches up to about a half of the total height of the tree, leaving one or more clear trunks. If trees have been planted in pasture, wh ich is gradually being planted out with ground covers, then the grass which still remains might be kept short by mowing. In this case, trees and shrubs which are very spreading, or which produce long low side branches, may interfere with mowing operations unless they are trimmed. Trees can usually have branches cut out back to the trunk when they start to interfere, but with shrubs the procedure depends on the final desired form of the plant: large shrubs which might have a clean lower stem or stems can also have branches cut out completely, but with other shrubs it is usually better to trim branches back so that they continue to produce new wood low down but no longer interfere with mowing. The above also applies along the edge of paths for foot or mechanised access: it is surprisingly annoying to have paths impinged upon - remember that branches with leaves and new growth in summer are much more of a nuisance than bare branches in winter.

Replanting
As the garden establishes there are bound to be some plant faitures as conditions change. Patches of failed ground covers shou ld be weeded and replanted , if necessary with a species more suited to the conditions. Try to include 'mobile' ground cover species like strawberries (Fragaria spp.) that will move to find the best conditions and save you work. Consider before replacing any failed trees or shrubs. If shade conditions have considerably increased, the original plant may simp ly no longer be viable in that position. A new species may be appropriate or a replacement may be unnecessary if there are nearby trees and shrubs filling the space. Stumps from dead trees or shrubs don" generally need to be removed unless honey fungus (Armilla ria spp.) is a big problem nearby. An alternative to digging out is to inoculate stumps with mycelium of an edible fungi, ego oyster mushrooms (Pleuratus spp.) - do this immediately after cutting down (see Agrafarestry News, Vol 5 No 4 for more details).

New planting
Areas for new planting should have been mulched for the previous 4-12 months with light and weed-excluding mulch material (eg. carpet, newspaper, card, black plastic) to kill off grass and weeds. A 12-month cycle with woven plastic ground cover material can work very well as this material lasts 4-5 years and can simply be moved to a new location before planting. Try to move the mulch quite close to planting time to reduce the leaching of nutrients from the bare soil. Underneath the mulch material, the soil should be soft and friable , and may well show signs of numerous mouse activity which will have helped keep the soil friable . Planting is best completed by Christmas, weather permitting, as the warm soil conditions will allow root growth and good establishment of many species; but planting anytime up until March is possible.

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Propagation:

Miscellaneous cuttings and techniques
Vine eyes
This is a technique traditionally only used with grape vines (Vilis spp .), but it can be used for any plant that produces a solid stem. It is useful when cutting material is in short supply . The cutting is made in winter as for hardwood cuttings. The cutting consists of a piece of stem about 35 mm (1 Yz~) long , terminating in a single bud and inserted vertically with the bud just exposed to the surface of the rooting media. Traditionally , the stem is cut into short sections with the bud in the midd le and placed horizontally, half-burying the stem in the compost with the bud uppermost.

Sets
A set is a hardwood cutting usually 1.5-3 m (5-10 til long of current season ' s WOOd, which is prepared in late winter and immediately placed in the planting position . The technique works well with willows and hybrid pop lars, which root easily, and is often used for planting windbreaks and shelter belts. Large sets are the normal method of planting cricket bat willows (Salix x caerulea) to ensure a good length of clean knot·free timber.

Leaf bud cuttings
A leaf bud (single-eye or single-node) cutting consists of a leaf blade, stalk, and a short piece of the stem with the attached axillary bud where the leaf stalk meets the stem. This bud at the nodal area of the stem provides the new shoal. Leaf bud cuttings are particu larly useful when propagating material is scarce, because each node can be used as a cutting. A number of plant species are readily propagated by leaf bud cuttings , including black raspberries (Rubus occidentafis) , blackberries (Rubus spp .), boysenberry, lemon (Citrus limon) , maples (Acer spp .), Rhododendron spp. and Camellia spp. The cuttings are taken from mid to late summer, and should be handled rapidly to avoid dessication. The cut surfaces should be treated with rooting hormone to stimulate root production , and the cuttings inserted in the rooting medium with the bud 13-25 mm (Y.!·1 ") below the surface of the compost. High humidity is essential - misting is best is possible, otherwise enclose the cuttings in a polythene tent - and bottom heat is desirable for rapid rooting.

Techniques for difficult species
These techniques greatly improve the success of cuttings taken from many woody species. They are undertaken when plants have had all chilling or rest requirements for the winter met, and the buds are beginning to swell. This is usually early spring for outdoor plants or midwinter in a greenhouse.

Shading and etoliation
During the shading process , entire plants or several branches of a plant are covered with an opaque material , usually black cloth or plastic; take care to allow space for the new growth to extend. A wire or wooden frame can be used to support the covering . Cuts should be made in the covering material, or corners left slightly open near the top of the structure . to aflow for ventilation . A small heat build·

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up under the structure is desirable, but enough ventilation provided that plants are not scorched. Between 95 and 98% light exclusion is optimum; 100% is neither necessary not desirable. Etoliation occurs as initial growth is allowed to occur in the dark until new shoots are 5· 7 em (2_3 long , after which the shade is gradually removed over a period of about a week so the very tender shoo l s are not scorched.
) H

Softwood cuttings can then be taken of the etoliated shoots in the normal manner (see Agroforestry News , Vol 6 No 3, page 18).

Shad ing and etoliation enhances roollng of cuttings from the following species:

Clematis spp., Cory/us maxima (filbert), Cotinus coggyria (smoke bush), Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle), Malus sylvestris (crab apple), Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce), Prunus domestica (plum ), Rhododendron spp., Rosa spp. (rose), Syringa vulgaris (lilac) , Tifia tomentosa (silver lime).

~j~"1~
band applied Shoots green up

'-

Shaded dormant plants Shoot

Cuttmg

rooted

Band removed ,
hormone applied

Etoliated softwood cutting propagation

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 2

F

&0

Banding
This is carried out after shading and etoliation has occurred. On the first day of shade removal. banding is initialed with the placement of self·adhesive black bands at the base of each new shoot (the future cutting base). Black plastic electrical tape works well. To speed later removal , the end of the tape should be folded over to form a small loop. These bands keep the base of the shoot in an etoliated conditions while the tops are allowed to turn green in the light; banding thus mimics mound slooling. The bands should be about 25 mm (1") wide and similar in length. The inner side of the band can be coated with a talc-based rooting hormone to encourage extra rooting stimulus . An alternative to black electrical tape is to use strips of Velcro: these are made of two pieces , a woolly side and a side of hooks , and the Velcro band is placed ' sandwiching ' the shoot so that the hooks gently pierce the surface of the shoot when the sides are pressed together; the hooks wound the stem and improve penetration of the rooting hormone. Bands are left on the shoots for about 4 weeks (though 2-12 weeks may be required depending on the species) . The cuttings are then removed from Ihe stock plant below but next to the banded area. The bands are removed and the cutting bases again treated with rooling . The area underneath the band is typically yellowish·white and swollen , and occasionally root primordia can be seen emerging . Cuttings are then stripped of lower leaves and placed in a rooting medium consisting of peat and perlite (1:1 by volume). Bottom heat of 25" C (77" F) is supplied during winter months , and mist applied intermittently, starting at 7 seconds of mist every 2 minutes , becoming less frequent with time . Shading of 50 % using shade netting should also be used over the rooting bench to keep down air temperatures around the cutti ngs. The ambient temperature should be kept around 20"C (68"F) and daylight regulated to 16 hours by using 60W incandescent bulbs spaced 1 m (39 ") apart and hung 1 m above the bench. The cutting s are left in the rooting bench for 2-5 weeks for deciduous plants and up to 12 weeks for pines . After rooting , the cuttings are then potted up, fertilised , and kept under long days (16 hours) to encourage growth. They can be placed outside to continue growing from late spring or early summer onwards . Eloliation and banding enhances rooting of cuttjngs from the following species:

Acer spp.(maples), Betula papyrifera (paper birch) , Carpinus betulus (hornbeam) , Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut), Cory/us americana (American hazel), Pinus spp . (pines) , Quercus spp. (oaks), Malus x domestica (orchard apples), Tilia spp. (limes) .

Blanching
Thi s is a variation on the above. All the steps for eto liation banding are followed except that stock plants are not initially covered , so that new growth occurs in the light as normal. When the soft green shoots are 5-7 cm (2_3 n ) long , banding is carried out , and the procedure for banding continued. Blanching enhances rooting of cuttings of the following species:

Acer platanoides (Norway maple), Platanus occidentalis (American plane), Rhododendron spp. , Rubus idaeus (red raspberry), TWa cordata (small leaved lime).

References
Hartmann, H et al : Plant Propagation , Principles and Practices . Prentice Hall , 1997 .

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Torreya species
Introd uction
Torreya species are evergreen trees from Asia and America, often called nutmeg trees or nutmeg yews, named for the edible large aromatic seeds they bear. They are part of the family Taxaceae and are closely related to the yews (Taxus). The main Chinese and Japanese species are cultivated for the seeds which are relished there are sold commercially.

Description
Trees have fissured bark and whorled branches. Needles are long , straight, stiff and pointed, slightly convex and glossy on their upper side. They are arranged spirally on leading shoots and twisted to appear in 2 ranks on the lateral shoots. They persist for 3-4 years and in most species are strongly aromatic when crushed; they contain essential oils which may be of value.

Torreya species are all dioecious, that is plants are usually male or female, and both sexes are needed for fruiting to occur. Occasionally, though, monoecious branches may occu r on dioecious plants , and fruit formed on single plants. Male flowers are about 8 mm long, bud-like, and numerous on the undersides of twigs at the bases of needles produced the previous year. Stamens are clustered in 6-8 whorls with four stamens in a whorl. Each filament supports four round yellow pollen sacs . Scattered green female flowers generally appear on the lower sides of shoots of the current year's growth , also in the leafaxils The flowers usually open in April and May, and are wind pollinated. The seeds take two summers to mature and by the end of the second season the fertilised ovule forms a thinly-fleshed elliptical greenish-purple plum-like fruit 25-44 mm (1-1.75 ~ ) long. The flesh of the fruit is not edible . The fleshy layer contains numerous thin flat fibres, and this splits after maturity to expose the single yellow-brown seed, oblong and pointed at both ends. The wood of Tarreya species is yellowish, straight-grained, easy to work , durable, strong ; it is used for furniture, cabinet work and fence posts, but is not a common timber.

Cultivation
All species dislike significant wind exposure, and prefer conditions of high humidity. They tolerate riverside locations with moist soils. All solis are tolerated, incl uding quite acid and alkaline types, also chalk. They are very shade tolerant, growing well and fruiting in very shady co nditions as well as locations with part shade or full sun. Torreyas are slow growing . Torreya seeds are rich in oils and are usually edible , as is the oil obtained from them; animals frequently eat them .

Agroforestry use
Torreya species have great potential as understorey cropping shrubs or small trees in agroforestry systems . They are very shade tolerant and will happily grow and crop beneath other trees. The species with greatest potential in cool temperate areas like Britain are T.californica and T.nucifera.

Torreya californica

California nutmeg

A small to medium sized evergreen shrub or tree from shady slopes and canyons of the Sierra Nevada in Ca lifornia . Grows 5-15 m (16-50 ft) high and up to 8 m wide, with a con ical form when

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young, becoming rounded with age: its trunk can reach 20-50 cm (8-20-) in diameter. Hardy to 15°C or more: grows well as in Scotland and even Denmark. The bark is greyish-brown and branches are spreading and somewhat nodding ; shoots are green for 1-2 years , then reddishbrown. Needles are 3-7.5 cm long by 3 mm wide, shining dark green above , two bluish-white bands beneath. Usually slow growing but sometimes making 60 cm of new growth per year . Flowers are produced in May and the seeds , 20-35 mm long , ripen from September to November the following year within fruits which are green streaked and spotted with purple when ripe. All parts of the plant are aromatic whe n crushed. There are approximately 275-420 seeds per kg . T.californ tca is well adapted to cool maritime sites - it prefers the West of the UK.

Uses
The seed is edible - raw or cooked, usually roasted . An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seeds were traditionally used medicinally by native Americans, mostly externally when crus hed , for a variety of ailments. The wood is whitish-yellow, straight-grained , strong , light , soft, and easily worked . The wood is excellent for cabinet making but large enough log s are rare ; smaller material is used for fence posts because the wood is very durable in the soil. The roots can be used in basketry. The sharp pointed needles were formerly used as needles for ski n tattooing.

Torreya fargesii
A medium-large tree from Eastern China (mountains of Szechwan and Hupeh); clo se to T.nucifera. Grows to 20 m high , hardy to -15°C. Has conspicuous parted , outspread needles, 15-22 mm long and 2-3 mm wide with two reddish-brown bands beneath . The seeds. 16-25 mm long, ripen in October-N ovembe r. Likes hot humid sum mers for best growth.

Uses
The seed is edible - raw or cooked. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Torreya grandis

Chinese nutmeg tree, Chinese kaya

A large tree from Central and Eastern China, growing up to 25 m high in its native habitat with a diameter up to 2.5 m . Hardy to _10°C or so: only hardy in milder areas of Britain , where it grows to become a small tree or shrub. Needles are 12-25 mm long , glossy yellowish-green above, two whitish bands beneath ; they are almost unscented when crushed . The reddi sh -brown seeds, 20-30 mm long by 10-15 mm wide, ripen in October-November within fruits which are brownish when ripe . Likes hot humid summers for best growth.

Uses
The seed is edibte - raw or cooked. An edible oil is obtained from the seed . Med icinall y, Chinese kaya has long been used in folklore medicines. The flowers are anthelmintic and carminative ; the seed is anthelmintic , antitussive , laxative and peptic . The bark is used for treating rheumatism .

Torreya jackii
A small tree from Eastern Ch ina, g rowing to 7-10 m high with a diameter of up to 60 cm (2 ft) ; often

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only a stoutly branched shrub . Has ascending branches and broadly spreading or somewhat pendulous shoots. Needles are sickle-shaped, 60-80 mm long by 3-5 mm wide, with a sandalwood scent when crushed Hardy to _lOcC or so: only hardy in the milder areas of Britain. The seeds ripen in October-No vember within bluish-green fruits. Likes hot humid summers for best growth.

Uses
The seed is edible - raw or cooked. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Torreya nucifera

Japanese nutmeg, Japanese Kaya

A medium-large tree from Central and Southern Japan, growing to 25 m high in its native habitat, with a diameter up to 2.5 m. In Britain it grows to become a large shrub or small slender thinlyfoliated tree. It has a dense crown and widely spaced branches. Hardy to -15 cC. Needles are to 3 cm long and 3 mm wide, glossy dark green above, two bluish-white bands beneath, sickle shaped and spirally arranged but spreading in a flat plane, pungent when crushed. The seeds, 20-30 mm long by 10-15 mm wide, ripen from September to November with fruits which are green clouded with purple when ripe. Likes hot humid summers for best growth, though it is known to crop well in Britain. It is sometimes cultivaled in Japan for Ihe seed, with a variety, 'Shibunashigaya ', grown for seed production. It is often grown in Japan as an ornamental tree and can often be seen in the grounds of Japanese temples.

Uses
The seed is edible - dried, cooked or used in confectionery (whole or cracked) in cakes . It has an agreeable sweet slightly resinous and aromatic flavour . It is much relished in Japan and is eaten in quantity though it is said 10 be laxative if eaten in excess. The dried ground seeds are sold as Japanese kaya powder and are used lik e wheat flour . NB. although long used in foods, the seeds are said to contain alkaloids which in past times were used as abortifacients in Japan. An edible oil is obtained from the seed which is used in cook ing . Medicinally, the seeds are anthelmintic; and the plant is anodyne, carminative, digestive, laxative, pectoral and ve rmifuge. The Chinese use the seeds mainly against internal parasites (ie as a vermifuge). The needles contain volatile oils which are burned as a mosquito repellent. The wood is very hard, lustrous yellow to pale brown, durable underwater and used for chests. boxes, cabinets, furniture, wate r-pails , as a building material and by craftsmen, particularly to sculpt statues of Buddha as well as making board games such as "Go" and M Syohgi".

Torreya faxifolia

Florida torreya

A small tree from NW Florid a and Georgia, growing up 9-12 m (30-40 ttl high with a trunk reaching 30-60 cm (1-2 tt) in diameter; resemb les T.californica. Branches are spreading and somewhat pendulous. Hardy to -5 to -15 cC depending on the origin . Needles are 20-40 mm long by 3 mm wide, somewhat sickle-shaped. spirally arranged but spreading on an even plane, glossy dark green above, Iwo grey bands beneath; they have a strong unpleasant odour. The seeds are 25-30 mm long by 20-25 mm wide, within fruits which are deep green with purple stripes and a white bloom when

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ea=
ripe ; there are approxima tely 500 seeds per kg .

a

T.nucifera seeds
Uses
The seed is edible - raw or cooked . An edible oil is obtained from the seed . The wood is excellent for cabinet making but large enough logs are rare ; smaller material is used for fence posts because the wood is very durable in the soil.

Torreya yunnanensis

Yunnan nutmeg yew

A medium sized tree from Eastern China (Yunnan), growing to 15 m high . Hardy to -10°C : only hardy in the milder areas of Britain . Need les 20-35 mm long by 3-4 mm wide . Seeds ripen from October-November. Likes hot humid summers for best growth .

Uses
The seed is edible - raw or cooked . An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Propagation
Seed is the usual method . although germination is usually slow. It is best sown as soon as it is ripe ; some should germinate the following spring though much of it can take another 12 months . Stored seed requires a period of warm strat ification (at 21 ° C) followed by cold stratification (at SO C) and can take 18 months or more to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into pots as soon as growth is seen and grow on in light shade under cover for at least the next 2 years . Plant out in their permanent positions in early summer when the plants are at least 20 cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe shoot s in can be taken in late summer, but are difficult and do not grow well.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 2

Layering is also possible . Grafting can be carried out. using yew (Taxus spp .) as a rootstock.

Sources
Torreya plants are rare commodities and not easily obtained. In the UK . Nutwood Nurseries sometimes list them (see classified advert on page 40) and the A.R.T. are growing small plants al present. Seeds are commercially available and are the most econom ic way of growing plants , though germination is very slow (see above).

References
Crawford, M: A.R.T. Useful Plants database, 1999. Duke, J & Ayensu, E: Medicinal Plants of China. Reference Publications , 1985. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cultivated Conifers. Balsford , 1984. Moerman, 0: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press , 1998. Motohashi, N & Meyer, R: The Versatile Kaya Trees of Japan and China. WANATCA Yearbook 1994, 38-41. USDA Agriculture Bulletin No. 450: Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States . USDA Forest Service, 1989.

Book Reviews
Canadian Medicinal Crops
Ernest Small & Paul M Catling
NRC Research Press, 240 pp; $29.95 (Can) I $29.95 (US) . ISBN 0-660-17534-7. There is an increasing demand for information on medicinal plants from growers , processors , marketers and others in the agricultural community , and this book aims to be an analysis of the most promising Canadian native medicinal plants that possess commercial value . Although as many as a thousand of Canada's 3200 native species have been used historically for medicinally purposes, at present only a few dozen species are presently sold in signifi cant quantities and it is these the book concentrates on. An introductory chapter briefly discusses the history of medicinal plants, the chemicals found in them and the refining of pharmaceuticals from plants. As well as synthesising primary substances (metabolites) which are critical to their existence , plants also synthesise a dazzling array of secondary metabolites , many of which protect the plants against fungi. bacteria, animals or other plants . Some of these compounds are medicinal or toxic , but it does not follow that the compound extracted from the herb are as toxic or medicinal as when present in the herb - synergistic (interactive) effects of the chemical components of the herb are possible . The tradition for developing plant-based drugs in Western medicine in largely based on the model that there is a single active ingredient in medicinal plants, or at least a primary chemical. that is responsible for the medical effectiveness; however, it may be that many preparations used in herbal medicine are effective because of synergistic therapeutic effects of several ingredients.

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The main part of the book concentrates on individual medicinal species which . though nalive to Canada, are often native to other temperate areas and I or can be cultivated in other temperate areas. Of particu lar interest to Eu ropean growers (due to popularity here) are ya rrow (Achillea miflefolium) , sweet flag (Acarus calamus). bearberry (Arctostaphylos uV8-urSI), coneflower (Echinacea spp.), witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) . hop (Humulus Jupulus), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and gi nseng (Panax quinquefolius). Other tree and shrub species described include devil's club (Op/opanax horridus) , cascara (Rhamnus. purshianus), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifofia) and Vaccinium species - cranberry and bilberry. "t Each species is described in detail , with common names explained , morp h ology , classification , geography and eco logy covered. The m ed icinal uses are described in detail, with sections on toxicity and chemistry. Non-medicinal uses are al so described , and agricultural and commercial aspects bri e fl y covered - more details of cultivation techniques would be useful. Each species is illustrated with a large co lou r drawing and other monochrome drawings. References are given for each species and a li st of World Wide Web link s. An interesting section for each species is titled 'Myths, Legends , Ta les, Fo lklore, and Interesting Facts' . These include amusing and entertaining facts and stories. Chapters at the end o f the book cover medical ca u tions (with reference to Canad ian law), the business of medicinal plants, and informatio n sources. Included are sections on cultivating medicinal herbs as a small enterprise , and risks a nd problems for the grower.

Canadian Medicinal Crops is a co mprehensive re fere nce to imp ortant medicinal species which will be of great va lue to all involved in growing and hand ling medi cinal crops.

Ground Cover
John Cushnie
Kyle Cathie, 1999; 160 pp ; £19.99 (ha rdback). ISBN 1-85626-326-6. John Cus hni e takes an admirably wide view of grou nd cover plants, re alisi ng that although they are o ften grown as a means of weed co ntrol, they are also valuable labour-savers for difficult areas like steep banks , and useful for excessively wet or dry sites which are difficult to cultivate. He also understands that although most ground covers chosen are by nature low growing and spreading , this is by no means essentia l , and larger shrubs with dense foliage can make supe rb cover. An introductory secti on covers soil preparation , weed co ntrol, feeding and mu lching, pests and diseases, and propagation . The next half of the book is taken up with selections of plants for specifi c locations - dry shade, wood land, acid sites etc. I particularly liked the recommendations for good combinations of plants - rarely found in descriptions of ground covers . The second ha lf of the book consists of a directory of ground cover plants, organ ised by type climbers, ferns, conifers, grasses, heathers , herbs, bu lb s, fruit, vegetables, alpines, herbaceous perennials and shrubs. It is good to see fruit and vegetab les given their own sectio ns , though of course only well-k n own species are listed. W ithin each section, a variety of plants are des cri bed with details of conditions required , size and spread. Over 1000 plants are de scribed in all , many illu strated with good co lour photographs .

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Medicinal tree crops
Introduction
This article is intended to detail all the main temperate tree crops of currant economic value . Some are already bei ng grown on a planta tion sca le in co untri es where labour is cheap and may be difficult to grow economically in Britain or North America, but there is a growing demand for org anically grown products from all these crop s, including the mass grown ones . This is perhaps the niche which agrororestry growers should aim for. Many of these tree crops can be grown in alley cropping systems - indeed , those wh ich are coppiced regul arly to provide a crop may be ideal for such systems. as they will be cut before there is much light co mpetition to the arable crop, and thus the arable component can remain arab le whereas normally the light reduction necess ita tes cha nging to pasture or shade-tolerant crops after some yea rs. The cop piced crops may not be as suitable to tree pasture systems since the tender new shoots produced after co ppici ng will be vul nerable to grazing damage. The tree crops here from wh ich are ha rvested fruits, leaves etc . are ideal candidates for treepasture systems and fo~e st farming systems. These trees can remai n productive for many decades and provide a niche cro p to add diversity to the system . Mixed plantings could incl ude trees to be felled for medicinal products which are used as nurse species, wh ich are removed to make space for the more permanen t medicinal trees . Note: I have not included warnings about the safety or toxic nature of essential oils and medicinal products described below. Many prod ucts, especially essential oi ls, are toxic in sma ll doses if taken orally and none should be used without consultation of appropriate ly Qualified persons .

Abies balsa mea

Balsam fir

A medium sized everg reen tree growing to 15 m (50 ft) high from No rtheastern N.America . Likes a moist, slightly acid soil; not very wind tolerant. Extremely hardy, to -40°C, but susceptible to ea rly frost damage in Britain. Very shade tolerant , especially when young - a good understorey component of a mixed system. An essentia l oi l from the resin tapped from trees is used. The essential oil is obtained from the distilled resin; the resin is tapped from trees in July and Augu st whe n the flow is at a maximum. About 225-280 g (8-10 oz) of re si n is obtained per tree. The oil is similar to that of pines and is very aromatic, with a pleasant scent, and contains camphene , pinene and resinic acid. All firs (Abies spp.) yield res in to a greater or lesser degree . The oi l has long been used medicinally , being a ve ry strong antiseptic on wounds and ulcers. It is also antirheumatic, antitussive , cicatrisant , diuretic, expectora nt , , nerve sedative . tonic and vulnerary; it is used in treating diseases of the reproductive organs and urinary systems as well as the respiratory sys tem . A considerabl e American industry deals with bal sam fi rs and the oil is used in many soaps and cos metics , perfum ery , in denti stry as an ingredient in root cana l sealers, and as a flavouring in some food products and drinks .

Abies sibirica

Siberian fir

A la rge evergreen tree from Northern Europe growing to 30 m (100 tt) hig h . Likes a sligh tl y acid soil. Extremely ha rdy , to -45°C, but susceptible to ea rly frosl damage in Britain . Ve ry shade tolerant, especially whe n young - a good understorey com ponent of a mixed system. An essential oi l made from the needles is used . The fresh shoots wit h needles are distilled to extract the essential oil. Materia l is usua ll y used from fe lled trees . The oil is pale yellow with a rich sweet-

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balsamic odour; it contains santene, pinene, Hmonene, bornyl acetate and others, and is used mainly for respiratory complaints , fever , muscular and rheumatic pain. It is used in cough and cold remedies , rheumatic treatments, and as a fragrance component in deodorants, room sprays, disinfectants , bath preparations, soaps and perfumes . Yields of 2.2-2 .6 Kg/tonne of fresh material are obtained. Annual world production is worth over £250,000 ($400,000); A .sibirica essential oil wholesales at about £45/1i1re ($7211). Many species of fir can be used similarly , but this is the most popular in Europe and North America due to its fine fragrance . Others include Japanese fir needle oil from A.mayriana or

Asachallnensis.

Aesculus hippocastaneum Horse chestnut
A large deciduous tree from Europe, growing 30 m (100 ft) high. Tolerates most soils and very tolerant of cutting back . Very hardy, to -35° C. Bears seeds at Ihe age of about 20. The leaves and seeds are both used medicinally . Seeds have a drying ratio of 2 : 1, and leaves of 4-5 : 1. Seeds are collected when ripe in September; leaves are collected in June and July. Horse chestnut contains saponins (notably aescin), coumarin s and flavonoids. Aescin, the main active ingredient , has anti-inflammatory properties, and is used in many European countries. The seeds wholesale for about £7/kg ($5/Ib).

Betula lenta

Sweet birch

Sweet birch is a medium to large deciduous tree from Easlern N.America , growing to 24 m (80 ftl high . Tolerates most soils, and moderately shade tolerant. Hardy to _35°. An essential oil from the bark is widely used . The essential oil is extracted from the bark which is first macerated in warm water before distillation. The oil is clear or pale yellowish-red with an intense wintergreen scent. It contains almost entirely methyl salicylate and is almost identical in composition to wintergreen oil. It has a limited use as a counter-irritant in anti-arthritic and antineuralgic ointments and analgesic balms , also in cosmetics and perfumes ; used as a flavouring agent in toothpaste , chewing gum etc. Sweet birch essential oil wholesales at about £20llitre ($32/1).

Betula pendula

Silver birch

A medium to large deciduous European tree growing to 20 m (70 ftl high . Tolerates most soils and wind exposure. Very hardy, to -40°C. The leaves are used medicinally. Leaves have a drying ratio of 4-5 :1, and are collected from June to August. Dried leaves wholesale for £5/kg ($3.6I1b), mostly coming from Slovenia . They are used in tea blends. An essential oil is distilled from the leaves and leaf buds which is pa le yellow, viscous and with a balsamic scent; birch bud oil is used mainly in hair tonics and shampoos , also medicinally for skin and scalp complaints . Paper birch (B.papyrifera) is used similarly . White birch essential oil wholesales at about £65/1itre ($100/1).

Cedrus deodara

Deodar

A farge evergreen tree from Eastern Asia , growing to 33 m ( 110 fl) high. Tolerates most soils including chalk, and Quite wind tolerant. Hardy to -12° C or so , depending on origin of seeds.

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The essential oil distilled from the wood is used in perfumery. Most production is from India . It is sometimes called cedarwood oil but should not be confused with that from C.libani atlantica. Himalayan cedarwood essential oil wholesales at about £25f1itre ($40/1).

Cedrus libani atlantica

Atlas cedar

The Atlas cedar (Syn. C .aUantica) is a large evergreen tree from North Africa , growing to 25 m SO tt) high. It tolerates most soi ls and is hardy to -20° C. Cedarwood or oil of cedar (NB the name is used for several other species but this one is usually used therapeutically) is produced by distillation of wood from cut trees, also stumps and sawdust. The wood contains 3-5% of oil. Most production is from Morocco , where 6-7 tonnes of oil per year are produced (19S0 figure); annua l world production is worth some £7,000,000 ($11 ,000 ,000). The oil has been used from the tim e of the ancient Egyptians. Atlas cedarwood essentia l oil wholesales at about £35l1itre ($5611) (organic oil at £72I1itre, $115/1). The oil is syrupy, yellowish and balsamic , with a sweet turpentine scent. It contai n s terpenic hydrocarbons , cedrol and sesquiterpenes. It has a beneficia l effect on eczema and other sk in diseases including scalp problems; in France it is included in commercial shampoos and hair lotions. It is used in cosmetics , soaps, detergents and perfumes (especially men's).

Crataegus monogyna & C.oxyacantha

Hawthorn

Small deciduous European trees growing to 6 m (20 ft) high . Tolerant of most soils and very wind tolerant. Hardy to about -23°C. Seedling trees bear fruit after 5-S yea rs. The leaves , flowers and fruits all contain ca rdioactive compounds. The flowers contain 0. 15-0 .17% essentia l oil, quercitin, quercitrin and trimethylamine; the fruits contain citric acid, crataegus acid and vitamin C. Medicinally, hawthorn dilates the blood vessels, especially the coronary vesse ls, reducing periphera l resistance and thus lowering blood pressure . It has a direct favourable effect on the heart and reduces the li kel ihood of angina attacks . Generally , the flowering branch ends are gathered in May, and the mature fruits from August to September or October. To avoid the flowers falling off, the flowering ends are dried without turning. The mature fruits are usually dried in shade. Fruits have a drying ratio of 3:1 and flowers o f 4-6 : 1. Dried flowering tops wholesale for £S-11!kg ($6-SlIb) , and dried f ruit for £4-6/kg ($34.4l1b) (the higher prices for organica ll y grown) . Most production is from Eastern Europe . The fruits and dried shoots are also used in h erb teas.

Cupressus sempervirens

Italian cypress

A large evergreen tree from South ern Europe and Western As ia, growing to 30 m (100 tt) high. Likes a loamy soil and fu ll sun; can be damaged by strong winds. Hardy 10 at least -15°C . An essential oi l is produced from the tree. The fresh leaves and cones are distilled to produce the essential oi l. They contain 1.3-1.5% of oil. The oil is colourless or very pale yellow, with a woody, balsamic, agreeable amber scent. It contains lerpenes (65%, mostly B-pinene and terpineol), cedrol, cypress camphor , some acids and tannin. Most production is from the South of France; annual world production is worth over £150,000 ($240,000) . Cypress essential oil wholesales at about £55l1ilre ($9011) (organic oil at £65I1ilre, $ 10511).

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The oil acts as a vaso-constric tor and is used for circulatory problems like varicose veins and haemorrhoids. It is also used as a vapour inhaled for coughs and bronchitis and was formerly used in cough pastilles in France , and used for whooping cough in children. It is used as a fragrance component in perfumes.

Eucalyptus spp.

Eucalypts

Eucalypts are fast-growing eve rgreen trees from Au stral ia which need a sunny site and a mode rately fertile well·d rained soil. Hardiness varies widely between species, and can vary widely depending on the seed origin ; hard y su rvivors in temperate cli mates pass on the hardiness (which may inc rea se) to their offsp ring. Most of the species mentioned below are not very hardy but there are many hardier species which may produce good quantiti es of oil in temperate regions - little research has been done on the matter. Eradiata and E.dives are hardy to - 1Qoe; th e others below to between -2 and _5° C .

Cupressus sempervirens The leaves of mo st Eu calyptus species can be used me dicina ll y, but th e esse ntia l oil is more commonly used. European organ ic Eu ca lyptu s leaf who lesales for about £5/kg ($3.6I1b) . At least 500 species of Eucalyptus produce an essential oil. but a relatively small number are used commercially. In general they can be div id ed into three categories of oils:
1. The m ed icinal oi ls containing larg e amounts of cineol (euca lyp tol) such as the blue gum (Eg/obufus), the blue mallee (Epofybractea) , the narrow-leaved peppermint (Eradiata ausfraliana), broad-leaved peppermint (Edives cineole variant), Eviridis and the gully gum (Esmithii) . For medicinal use , oi l distilled from E.g/obu/us , the Tasmanian Blue Gum , is preferred . Young and mature trees are bot h used , but more oil is produced by mature trees and it has better aromatic qualiti es . Normally, trees are coppiced to keep them manageable. Leaves may contai n 3-4 .5% of oil. The oi l is very fluid and a pale clear ye llow , wit h a fresh ba lsamic aroma . It c ontains 70-80% eucalypto l (cineo l) and various other substances ; there are about 250 different constituents so it is extremely difficul t to re produce syntheti ca ll y. Spain and C hin a are the main producers ; annua l wo rld production is worth over £10,000 ,000 ($16,000,000). E .globulus essential oil who lesales at about £22l1itre ($3511) (organic oil at £2711i1re, $4311) ; E. radiata oil at £35-55/I itre ($56-8811); E.srT)ithii oi l at £35-55Ifitre ($56-8811) ; and E.dives oil at

£35/1;lre ($56/1) .
Eucalyptus oil is highly antiseptic and antifungal and often used as an inhalation for co ld s, flu , coughs, bronchitis, ca tarrh and vira l infections . II is also used for rheumatic conditions. The oil and cineol are large ly used in li niments , inhalants , co ugh syrups , ointments , toothpaste and as pharmaceutical flavourings in dentistry and veterinary work . They are used as a fragrance co mp onent in soaps, detergent and toiletries . Cineol is used as a flavouring in many food products. 2. The industrial oil s containing mainly pi perilone (40-50% ) and phellandrene (20-30 %) , such as the peppermint eucalyptus (E.piperita) , grey peppermint (Eradiata phellandra) , Ee/ala and broad lea ved peppermint (Edives). The oil from these sp ecies ha s a fresh , camphoraceous , spicy-minty odour. It is used in deodorants , disinfectants , antiseptics, mouthwashes and gargles , and is u sed to make thymol and menthol (f rom piperitone) . 3. The perfumery o il s con ta ining mainly citronella I (80-95%), such as the lemon-scented euca lyptus (Ecitriodora) . Annual world production is worth over £2 ,000 ,000 ($3 ,200 ,000) ; E.cilriodora

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,
essentia l oil wholesales at about £35f1itre ($S6/1) . The oil from these species has a strong citronella~like odour, II is used as a fragrance compo nent in soaps , detergents and perfumes ; in room sprays and insect repellents. Citrone llal is also used as a starting point for synthesisi ng many aromatic chemicals. The twigs and leaves (fre sh or partially dried) are distilled to exlract the esse ntia l oi l. The oil content varies from species to species and is affected by c lima te, but may reach 3-4.5% in the best species ; typically , a species with 1.5% oil content will produce 3.5 - 6 kg of distilled oil per tonne of fresh leaves. Eucalypts are grown in plantations which are coppiced once or twice annually by machine ; foliage is also obtai ned from trees felled for other purposed and from natural stands . In plantations, trees are planted 3-5 m apart within rows, with a spacing between rows suitable for the machinery used. Weeding is very imp ortant in the first year after seedlings are pl anted, but after that the cover between rows can be mown . Hand harvesting o f foliage sti ll takes place where areas are small or rough - a person can cut and load 600-1000 kg of foliage per day for transport to a stil l. Coppice height can be any convenient height; on level land it can be as low as 5-8 em (2-3") . Plantations have been harvested for 70 years without deterioration.

E. citriodora: Foliage yield from annua lly coppiced trees is 2-5 kg . with selected strains up to 10 kg; mature trees yield 300-500 kg of foliage when felled for timber. Oil yield is usually 0 .5-2% .

E.g/obu/us ssp. g/obu/us : Foliage yields from 6-6 year old trees in Spai n is 20-60 kg of leaves. Oil with the highest ci neole con tent tends to be at the ends of branches and Ihe top of the ca n opy , and se lective harvesting of these leaves produces the highest quality oil. Trees are ofte n grown on a 5-12 year coppice rotati on for pulp or firewood , or on 15-30 year rotations for timb er; the foliage yield when these tree s are coppiced is much greater. E.polybractea: Seedl ings are initially coppiced after 15-18 months , then every 1-2 years.

Ginkgo biloba

Gingko , Maidenhair tree

The ginkgo is a large deciduous tree growing to 30 m (100 ft) high from Northern China. Tolerates most soils and prefers hot summers . Hardy to -25° C . Ginkgo leaves have long been used in Chinese medicine and in recent decades the medicinal values have been recognised in the West. The seeds are also much used for food and medicine in China. Ginkgo trees are cultivated for the med icinal leaves in plantations which are coppiced annually, particularly in China, France and the USA. They are harvested in late summer or early autumn, before they beg in to change colour. The leaves co ntain flavonoids , ginkgolides and bilobalides . Extensive research in the past 30 yea rs has established that ginkgo can improve cerebral circulation , aiding memory and concentration. II is also anti-asthmatic , anti-inflammatory , antispasmodic and anti-allergenic . Ginkgo is the best-selling herbal medicine in several European countries and demand for leaves in steadily inc reasing . Ginkgo leaf wholes ales for about f6/kg ($4.4l1b) . Most is purchased by pharmaceutical and herba l remedy companies and processed by them.

Juniperus virginiana

Pencil cedar

A medium to large evergreen tree growing to 20 m (65 tt) high from Central and Eastern North America . Tolerates most soils - prefers neutral or slightly alka line . Drought and wind tolerant. Hardy to -25° C . The wood from this species is used in the pencil industry , and an essential oil obtained from waste pieces and sawdust. At one time a superior oil was distilled from the red heartwood of trees over

25

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e

years old. Virginian cedarwood essential oil wholesales at about £40/lilre ($64/1).

==

The oil is pale yellow or orange with a mild , sweet·ba lsami c scent. It mainly contains cedrene and cedro!. It is used extensively in room sprays and household insect and moth repellents , also in soaps, cosmetics , polishes and perfumes. It is sometimes called cedarwood oil but should not be confused with that from C.libani atlantica.

Picea Spp.

Spruces
D

J. virginiana

All medium to large evergreen trees which like a moist acid soil. They are all widely used in forestry. Norway spruce (P.abies) reaches 30 m (100 ttl and is from Northern and Central Europe, hardy to _2S C; white spruce (P.glauca) reaches 15 m (50 ttl or more and is from Northern N .America , hardy to -40°C: black spruce (P.mariana) reaches 20 m (70 ft) or more and is from Northern N.America , hardy to -25°C.

Hemlock or spruce oil is produced from these species by distillation of needle s and twigs, u sua lly from forestry trees which have been felled. A similar oil is produced from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The oil is pale yellow which a fresh-balsamic , sweet-fruity odour. It contains mainly pinenes, limonene , bornyl acetate and others. It is used for muscular and joint pains, respiratory problems , and nervous ailments. It is used extensively in the USA for room spray perfumes, detergents, soaps, bath preparations and tOiletries: and in veterinary liniments.

Pinus sylvestris

Scots pine

A large evergreen tree from Northern Europe, growing to 25 m (80 ft) high. likes a light soil. Very wind tolerant and fairly shade tolerant. Hardy to -40°C. An essential oil (pine needle oil) can be obtained from many pines, but for medicinal use, P.sylvestris is preferred (other species which can be used include eastern white pine , P.strobus, and black pine, P.nigra). The best quality oil is distilled from the needles, but sometimes co nes and young twigs are included . The oil from Siberia and Finland is regarded most highly. The oil itself is colourless or very pale yellow, and has a strong turpentine-l ike aroma . It contains 30-40% bornyl acetate and several other terpenes .' Annual world production is worth over £600,000 ($1 ,000 ,000); essential oil wholesales at about £50llitre ($8011) (organic oil at £120Ilitre, $190/1). Turpentine is also obtained from the Scots pine (see below for details). Pine needle oil is antiseptic and expectorant , and is very efficient for pulmonary problems and as a sudorific, used for flu and other virus infections. It is vaporised in the burns units of some hospitals and has been found to prevent infection after severe burns. It is used as a fragrance component in soaps. detergents, cosmetics, toiletries and perfumes; and as a flavouring in food products , alcoholic and soft drinks. Longleaf or pitch pine, P.paJustris, produces an essential oil from the wood, and turpentine from the oleoresin which exudes from the trunk. Sawdust , wood chips of heartwood and root s are distilled to produce the crude oil, which is double distilled by fractional distillation to produce pine essential oil. This is used extensively in medicine , particularly in veterinary antiseptic sprays, diSinfectants, detergents and insecticides; also as a fragrance component in soaps, toiletries , bath products and perfumes ; and in paint manufacture. Turpentine contains largely alpha pinene and is used in many ointments and lotions for aches and pains, and in cough and cold remedies: though it is mainly kn own as a paint and stain remover, solvent and insecticide. Turpentine is obtained from several other species including slash pine (P.elliottii), chir pine (P.roxburghil) , lodgepole pine (P.contorta latifofia), masson pine (P.massoniana), sea pine (P.pinaster) and Scots pine (P.sylvestris).

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Populus nigra

Black poplar

A large deciduous tree from Europe, growing to 30 m (100 ft) high. Tolerates most so ils and needs a sunny site. Hardy to -40cC. Very tolerant of cutting. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap which has a turpentine odour and bitter taste. Leaf buds are collected in February and March. Th ey have a drying ratio of 2:1, and contain an essentia l oi l. a phenolic glycoside (sal icin, close ly related to salicylic acid· forerunne r of Aspirin) and a flavone derivati ve . Dried poplar buds wholesale for about £7/kg ($5I1b) and are moslly collected in Eastern Europe. They are used in herb teas and cosmetics.

Quercus robur & Q.petraea
loam.

Oaks
They prefer a deep fertile

Large Europea n deciduous trees wh ich reach 30 m (100 ft) or more.

The bark is used medicinally and in industry. Trees are usua ll y coppiced on a 5-12 year rotation and the bark stripped from branches. It is collected in sprin g and conta ins 15-20% tannins. The bark has a drying ratio of 3: 1. It is used medicina ll y as an astringent and haemostat. Dried oak bark is mostly coll ected in Eastern Europe and wholesales for about £5/kg ($3.6/lb ). A small amount is used medicinally, but most is used in the leather industry for tanning and the paint ind ustry.

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust

A large deciduous tree from Eastern North America, growing to 25 m (80 ft) high . Hardy to -35°C. Likes a well drained soi l. Susceptible to wind damage. Seedling trees usua lly flower at 10-12 years of age; improved selection at about 6 years. Flowers are shown to right. The flowers are used medicinally and for perfumery. Flowers are gathered in may and June, and contain the glycoside loxalbumin. Flowers have a drying ratio of 7: 1. Most are collec ted in Eastern Europe, whe re some breeding work has taken place to produce selections with more flowers ove r a longer period of time (eg. ' 0-2') mainly for bee fodder. The fl owers are used as a spice/flavouring, in herb teas, and an essen tia l oi l is distilled from them and used in perfumery.

~.
C.

Salix alba

White willow

Wh ite wi ll ow is a large deciduous European tree growing to 25 m (80 ft) high, usually found by river banks. It tolerates most soils but pre fers damp ones. It needs full sun. It is very tolerant of cutting. The bark is used medicina ll y. Trees are usually grown in pastures and pollarded regularly and bark stripped from 2-6 year old branches in spring or early autumn. The bark contains salicylic acid, f1avonoids and tann ins (up to 20%) and is anti-inflammatory, analgesic, febrifuge, antirheumatic and astringent. Sal icylic acid was the fore runner of Aspirin and has many of the same analgesic and anti-in flammatory actions - un li ke Asp iri n, it does not th in the blood or irritate the stomach lin ing. Dried wi llow bark wholesales for £5-8/kg ($3.6-6I1b) (the highe r price for organic).

Sassafras albidum

Sassafras

Sassafras is a deciduous tree f rom Eastern North America, usua lly growing some 18 m (60 ft) high, occasio n all y much higher. with an irregular pyramidal head. It prefers sandy so ils and quickly colonises neglected land in its native range.

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9i

The bark , especially from the roots . has been used as a food and drink flavouring for several centuries , as well as being used medicinally . The dried bark wholesales for about £12/ kg ($9/Ib) and the dried root bark for £23/kg ($ 17/lb). Trees over 10 years old are normally harvested. An essential oil is distilled from the chipped dried inner root bark, which yields 10% oil. Sassafras oil is yellowish-brown , viscous , with a sweet-spicy camphoraceous odour; the main constituents are safrol (to 80%). phellandrine and pinene (10%). The sweet , rather woody taste was the main reason for the oil's use in soft drinks. especially north Ame ri can root beers and sarsaparilla drinks (now banned) . The oil is also used in perfumery , soaps and toiletries, and has antiseptic , insecticidal and bactericidal properties. A safrol-free oil can be produced . Safrol itself is used as a starting material to synthesise heliotropin, used in perfumery. The fresh leaves when crushed have a orange-lemon-vanilla scent , quite different from the bark and contain citrol and geraniol but little or no safrol. Due to the finding of carcinogenic substances in safrol , its use has declined , and most sassafras oil is now produced from a different tree entirely, the tropical Oeotea pretiosa .

Taxus baccata

Yew

A slow-growing medium sized tree from Europe, growing to 15 m (50 ft) high. Tolerates most situations including deep shade - good in the understorey of an agroforestry system . Ve ry tolerant of cutting . Hardy to -25° C . An anti-cancer compound taxol (paclitaxel) is present in yew trees which is active against ovarian and breast cancer and perhaps other cancers. Originally found and extracted from the Pacific yew (T.brevifolia), where the chemical is found especially concentrated in the bark, it has since been found in lower concentrations in other yew species . Leaves of Tbaecata are used to extract starting chemicals which are then used to synthesise taxol, and there is at least one commercial pharmaceutical company which co ll ects quantities of yew clippings to use for this process in Britain . Trees can be clipped annually for a supply of leaves , although large quantities are needed to produce small quantities of taxol.

Thuja occidentalis & T.plicata American arpor-vitae & Western red cedar
T.occidenta/is is a medium sized evergreen tree from Eastern North America growing to 15 m (50 tt) high . It prefers a moist soil. It does not regenerate well from cutting. It is hardy to -45°C . T.pficata is a fast growing deciduous tree from Western North America , growing to 60 m (200 tt) high. It prefers a moist loam and is tolerant of light trimming. It is hardy to -20° C.
Essential oil can be obtained from all Thuja species , the leaves and twigs of which contain medicinal compounds. Essential oil is distilled from T.occidentalis using leaves, twigs and bark collected in summer. Whole branches can be lopped off or trees felled . The oi l ('o il of white cedar') contains up to 60% thujone . T .occidentalis essential oil wholesales at about E50llitre ($8011). It is used in pharmaceutical products such as disinfectants and sprays , and as a counter-irritant in analgesic preparations. It is used as a fragrance component in some toiletries and perfumes; and a flavouring if the component Thujone is removed. The leaves are sometimes used medicinally, being anti-viral amongst other things . Oil from Tplieata is preferred for medicinal use. The leafy young twigs (either fresh or dried) are distilled to produce the oil , of which there is most in spring - very litUe in summer. Trees can be annually clipped for a regular supply of twigs and leaves, or branches lop ped, or trees felled. The oil contains ex-pinene, borneol , bornyl acetate , d-thujone , fenchone and fenone .

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The oil is antiseptic and antirheumatic, and is used for a va riety of skin and scalp diseases. It is sometimes called cedarwood oil but should not be confused with that from C.libani atlantica.

Tilia cordata & T.p/atyphyllos

Limes

These are large deciduous European trees growing to 30 m (100 tt) high. They prefer a moist loamy soil, are tolerant of cutting and tolerate moderate side shade ~ they will grow in an understorey but will not flower much until in sun. Small leaved lime (T.cordata) is hardy to ~35cC and large leaved lime (T.p/atyphy/los) to ~23°C. They flower from the age of about 20 years. Lime flowers are used medicinally. The dried flowers contain 0.05~0.1% essential oil which contains eucosane, eugenol, farnesol, geraniol, linalool and others, They also contain mucilage , tannin, flavonoids and various other compounds. Widely used in herb teas, they are diaphoretic as well as antispasmodic, sedative and others. Lime flowers are also used for cosmetics, mouth washes and bath lotions. The flowers are gathered together with bracts (sometimes without) at full bloom in May and June, prior to the blooming of the central flowers. Care should be taken not to damage the tree during flower gathering • the best way is to cut the end s of branches with scissors and gather the flowers manually from the branches. The flowers are dried in we ll~ventilated shade or an artificial dryer at 40°C. The flowers have a drying ratio of 4: 1. Dried lime flowers wholesale for £8~14/kg ($6~10Ilb) (the higher price for organic). An essential oil is occasionally produced from the flowers, but is very expensive and only used in the 'high quality' perfume market; a synthetic alternative is more often used. The oil is sweet and slightly spicy with a heady aroma, and contains farnesol (an alcohol). It can be used medicinally for nervous system complaints, catarrhal conditions and kidney disorders. It is said to keep wrinkles at bay when used on the skin. Linden blossom essential oil wholesales at about £500fJitre ($800/1) because of the large amount of flowers needed to produce the oil.

Tsuga canadensis

Eastern hemlock

A medium to large evergreen tree from Eastern North America, .growing to 20 m (70 tt) high. Tolerates most soils and positions; very shade tolerant when young ~ good in an understorey. Hardy to ·25 cC. The bark of this species is sometimes used medicinally, being astringent and antiseptic. The dried bark wholesales for about £10/kg ($7/Ib). Hemlock or spruce oil is produced from this species by distitlation of needles and twigs. Similar oils are produced from Black spruce (Picea mariana) , Norway spruce (Picea abies) and white spruce (Picea glauca). The oil is pale yellow which a fresh·balsamic, sweet~fruity odour. It contains mainly pinenes, limonene, bornyl acetate and others. It is used for muscular and joint pains, respiratory problems, and nervous ailments. It is used extensively in the USA for room spray perfumes, detergents, soaps, bath preparations and toiletries; and in veterinary liniments.

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Ulmus rubra

Slippery elm

A medium to large deciduous tree from Central and Southern North America , growing to 20 m (70 ft) high. Grows in any reasonable soil. Very susceptible to Dutch elm disease. The inner bark of slippery elm has long been used medicinally and for food. Trees can be coppiced on a 10-year cycle to provide branches of the fight age. The inner bark of 10-year old trees or branches is collected in spring , dried and powdered. It is very mucilaginous and is demulcent, emollient and laxative. Used medicinally . it soothes inflamed skin or membranes. S l ippery~ elm is widely used in herbal preparations, particularly for throat and digestive tract infections. foods for those convalescing and for babies . The powdered product wholesales for about £13/kg (S9/1b) .

References
A report on the potential uses of plants grown for extracts incfuding essentia l oils and factors affecting their yield and composition . MAFF Alternative Crops Unit, 1996. Brownlow, M: Herbs and the Fragrant Garden . Darton , Lon9man & Todd, 1978. Cheva llier , A: The Encycfopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley, 1996. Halva S & Craker , L: Manual for Northern Herb Growers. HSMP Press , 1996. Hambleden Herbs Catalogues· 1998. Hay, R & Waterman, P (Eds) : Vo latile Oil Crops. Longman, 1993. Hornak, L: Cultivation and Processing of Medicinal Plants. John Wiley, 1992. Lawless: The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils . Element , 1992. Price , S: The Aromatherapy Workbook. Thorsons , 1993. Ryman, D: Aromatherapy. Piatkus , 1991. Sellar, W; The Directory of Essential Oils. C W Daniel Company, 1992. Small , E & Catling, P : Canad ian Medicinal Crops. NRC Research Press, 1999. Stary, F: The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books, 1991. Weiss , E A: Essential Oil Crops. CAB International , 1997.

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f32 per year for institutions.

A- jist

Of back issue contents ;s included in our current cataiogue, available on request fo r :) ~ 1::;t dass stamps. Back issues COBt £3.50 per copy includi ng fiClStage (£4.50 outside (he E.U .) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforest'y Rese'lrch Trust'. and send to: Agroforestry Reseai'(;h Tru,t, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Tolnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803 840776. Email: mail@agroforastry.co.uk. Web'site: www.agroforestry.co.uk.

Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in Engiand (Reg. No. "1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants \0 fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News
.,.-

Volume 8 Number 3

April 2000

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 8 Number 3

April 2000

Contents
2 4 5 19 21 23 News Open days for 2000 Medicinal shrub crops Forest gardening: Spring maintenance Grey mold - Botrytis cinerea Grapes
24 25 30 35 Cultivation Pruning systems Rootstocks Cultivars

40

Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed dearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species . The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crav.ford . Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions : Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon. Dartington, Totnes , Devon , Tag 6JT. U.K. Email : mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Page 1

News
Agroforestry at Riverford
Riverford Farm near Totnes in South Devon is the largest grower of organic vegetables in the UK, which are supplied to wholesale markets, to customers through box schemes and in their own farm shop. *They also have an organic dairy herd producing milk, some of which is packaged on site and sold locally. The farm is large ly denuded of tre es, many of the hedges being removed by previou s generations of farmers . Recently , the A .R.T. have been working with Oliver Watson of Riverford on variou s agroforestry techniques to introduce on the farm. These include : • • • • • Windbreaks of Italian alder (Alnus cordata) for stock protection and nitrogen input. Alleys of Italian alder to be intercropped with vegetables and grass to be cut for silage. Alleys of chestnut (Castanea sativa) which is to be coppiced for production of poles probably to be used for fence posts ; intercropped with vegetables and grass to be cut for silage. Orchard crops of apple and walnut intercropped with grass to be cut for silage Use of wet and damp land for native alders (Alnus glutinosa) and poplar cultivars (Populus spp .)

By keeping tree planting to areas free of stock , measures will not be needed for tree protec tion these would be very costly against cattle. Within a few years, the alders will large enough to graze grass beneath them safely. Future plantings may include chestnut and hazelnut cultivars planted for nut production.

Sheep and Christmas trees
Bill White grows 10 acres (4 hal of Christmas trees (Scots pine , White pine . fir, spru ce) in Missouri , with trees planted at 800 per acre (2000 per hal. They intercrop the trees with Shropshire sheep which have been extensively researched for grazing Christmas trees in Europe and which came out best in trials . One to two acres of trees are planted annually , and trees are harvested from 5-9 years of age . The shropshire s are used in a rotational system to provide weed c ontrol (formerly done by mowing , weeding . trimming and herbicides) . and lambs are send to local markets. Bill finds that when the sheep are let into a new pasture , they go right down the weeds on the first row of trees like a lawn mower, then start on the grass between the trees . Some 30 shropshires . including lambs, suffice for the operation .
Source: Inside Agroforestry, Fall/Winter 1999-2000

Forest farming in Texas
Rob Macintyre is creating a four level forest farm on 5 acres (2 hal in Texas which he hopes will be productive and profitable. The four levels consist of: Level 1: the underground portion of the orchard consists of black truffles. which grow in symbiosis with the roots of live oak trees that were planted as seedlings in 1988. Level 2: While the trees are maturing , the alleys of the orchard are used for qui ck-growing wild flowers and grasses suitable for floristry. Level 3: In 1992, 36 American persimmon (Oiospyros virginiana) seedlings were planted . whi ch will

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

yield fruits and eventually valuable timber (persimmon ca n be as va luable as walnut). Water runoff is collected by crescent·shaped berms to irrigate trees . Level 4: Live oak seedlings have been planted , from trees bearing low·tannin acorns. provide acorns in the autumn, which have potential as a nut and oil crop . These wi ll

Source: Inside Agroforeslry, Fall/Winter 1999·2000

Silvopasture in Galicia (NW Spain)
Forest grazing systems have been under in vestigation in Galicia for over 20 years and are considered effective in preventing forest fires, as well improving the profitability of woodland. Pine woods (Pinus pinaster & Pinus sylveslris) and Eucalyptus globulus plantations make up 70· 80% of the wooded land in Galicia . The cluster pine (P.pinaster) and Eucalyptus allow a large amount of light radiation through to the undergrowth (20·75%), leading to a thick shrubby understore y producing 2.5·3.2 tonnes/ha/year of dry mass. The Scots pine allows far less light through (7·27%), which leads to a less thick underslorey producing 1.4·2.8 tonnes/ha/year. The understorey is dominated by woody species which pose a serious fire threat. In order for livestock to effectively control the scrub , th e animals should feed on the young shoals . For this reason , before the livestock are introduced into a thickly scrubby understorey, these species are flattened, burnt or cleared. In the first phase , when woody species are abundant, lignivores, such as goats and horses , are utilised . Once the land is grazed , the vegetation cha nges and woody species decrease and grass species increase, making it advisable to substitute lignivore livestock for herbivores (sheep and cows). However, lignivores shou ld nol be removed clearly to avoid the scrub coming back . Horses are compatible with even young eucalyptus and pin e, as they do not eat the shoots and keep gorse , broom and hard grasses under control. Goats coexist with eucalyptus without harming them , but they wi ll eat the tops of young pines ; goats control gorse shoots , broom , bramble and heather. Sheep and cows are compatible with the trees as long as they ca nn ot reach the leading shoots. Investigations show that in 42·year·old pine woods and rotational growing, good results were obtained with an initial stocking rate of 2 goats per ha , gradually varying and stabilising at 1 goat and 3 sheep per ha when the undergrowth started to grow. Before grazing , the scrub had a biomass of 40·50 tonnes/ha and an average heig ht of 2 m; after grazing and stabil isation, grass species are dominant and the biomass is stable at 0.5·2 tonnes/ha and an average height of 10·15

em.
Con tinuous grazing under the Eucalyptus for over 30 years is successful with a stOCking rate of 0.5 goats/ha and 0 .2 5 horses/ha. In the spring, there is more than enough pasture and local peop le are allowed to let their cows graze at about 1 cow/ha. Scrub control is more effective with rotational rather than continuous grazing, although both methods are effective in preventing forest fires. Source: Rigueiro-Rodriguez et al : Silvopastoral systems in prevention of forest fires in the forests of Galicia (NW Spain). Agroforestry Forum , Volume 9 Number 3 (1999).

Hybrid walnuts in the Dordogne
Walnut hybrids (Juglans nigra x regia) are being grown in France for high quality timber production . Va riou s mixtures are grown, with the walnuts interplanted with Elaeagnus umbel/afa, Halian alder (Alnus cordata) or hazel. Poplar and willow intercrops have been found to grow too quickly, shading the walnuts too much . In woodland situations, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is an excellent nurse and nitrogen fixer. Wa lnut s are planted at 8- 10 m (27-33 tt) spacing s and ideal sites are deep loam y soils. Careful pruning is needed to achieve a straight bole of 3·4 m (10·1 3 tt). Trees grow by 1.5·2 cm diameter per yea r and good trees for harvest are expected in 40 years. Source : Woodland Heritage Journal NO.5

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Page 3

Agroforestry Research Trust
Tours of research sites - 2000
The-ART is inviting interested visitors on a tour of our Dartington reserch sites (forest garden site, now 6 years old, and trials site), led by Martin Crawford, on Sunday 11th June and on Thursday 24th August. Please see the map below for directions - park at the Craft/Adult Education Centre car park. Meet at the car park! forest garden site to start at 10.30. The forest garden tour will take about 2-2% hours. After a break for lunch we will walk to the trials site (15 mins) and spend an hour or there.
You may like to bring a picnic lunch with you which you are welcome to eat in the garden. No dogs please.

A384 to A38 & Buckfastleigh

Forest garden

Adult Education Centre

Week to Darungton Hall (1 mile)

Dartington village

A385 to Totnes (1 mile)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Medicinal shrub
I ntrod uction

crop~

I

This article is intended to detail all the main temperate shrubs crops of currant sig nificant economic va lue. Several are grown on a plantation scale in co untries where lab our is cheap and may be difficult to grow economically in Britain or North America , but there is a growing demand for organically grown products from all these crops, including the mass grown one s. This is perhaps the niche wh ich agroforestry growers should aim for. Most of these shrub crops require sunny conditions to flourish , and their use in agroforestry systems would therefore be either as a low 'canopy ' crop beneath which other ground-level crops could be grown, or in rows (sing ly or multiple) grown in alley cropp in g systems , with other crops, perhaps arable, grown between. A few of these crops are shade lolerant and can be located in the understorey of forest gardens or forest farming systems; those which are and whose cropping may still be reasonable or good are listed here: Tole rate part shade Berberis vulgaris Eleutherococcus senticosus Hamamelis virginiana Jasminum grandifforum Laurus nobifis Myrica cerifera & M.pensylvanica Rhamnus frangula & R.purshiana Ribes nigrum Rubus caesius & R.idaeaus Schisandra chinensis Tolerate full shade Gaultheria procumbens Vinca minor & V.major

The shrubs which are normally cut quite close to the ground for cropping will need good weed con trol to maintain cropping; an organic mulch is the best option; mosl com mercial growers of nonorganic crop use herbicides. Feeding and irrigation may also be more necessary than with medicinal tree crops , but will vary widely from crop to crop. Note: I have not included warnings aboul the safety or toxic nature of essential oils and medicinal prod ucts described be low. Many products , especially essentia l oils, are toxic in small doses if taken orally and none shou ld be used without consultation of appropriately qualified persons .

Berberis vulgaris

Barberry

A medium sized deciduous shrub from temperate regions growing to 3 m (10 tt) high and wide . Very hardy, to -35°C. Tolerates mosl soils and light shade . The fruits ripen in September and October. Once cultivated for its edible fruils . The bark and fruits are the most widely used parts, and are presently gathered from wild-growing plants in the USA. The bark is ha rvested in spring or autumn . The bark and rootbark are antibacteria l , antiseptic, astringent . cholagog ue , hepatic, purgative , refrigerant. stomachic and tonic; the bark is harvested in the summer and can be dried for storage. The fruits are antipruritic. antiseptic , appetiser , astringent , diuretic. expectorant . laxative and febrifuge; they are used in the treatment of liver and gall bladder problems , kidney stones . menstrual pains etc. The dry bark wholesa les for about £lS/kg ($11I1b).

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Page 5

Eleutherococcus senticosusSiberian ginseng
A woodland edge shrub from Eastern Asia, growing to 2 m (61,4 ft) high . Prefers a light soi l, sheltered position and some sun - tolerates light shade and poor soils. Slow growing and hardy to -25° C or so. Cultivated in China and Russia as a medicinal plant.

This plant is used as a gi nseng substi tu te. This pungent bitter-sweet warming h erb is

used as a ginseng substitute - said to be
stronger in its action than ginseng. Regular use is said to re store vigour , improve the memory and increase longevity. The root and the root bark are adaptogen,

antiin fl ammatory, hypoglycaemic. ton ic and
vasodi lator. It is take n interna ll y during convalescence and in the treatment of menopausal problems, geriatric debility, physical and mental stress etc . It works by strengthening the bodies natu ral immune system . It has also been used to combat radiation sickness (eg , after Chernobyl) and exposure to toxic chemicals . The roots are harvested in the autumn and dried whole, then chopped and stored for later use. The dry root wholesales for about £7 .50/kg ($5.51Ib).

Gaultheria procumbens

Wintergreen
ft )

A dwarf, ground -covering shrub from Eastern North America, growing only 15 cm (6 high but spreading widely when established. Likes a light-medium, humus-rich , moist acid soil. Hardy to 35°C. It is a woodland understorey plant and tolerates full shade - good under trees and shrubs. It is occasionally cultivated for the medicinal leaves but most herb is harvested from wild plants in the USA. The leaves and essential oil are ana lg esic , anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antitussive, aromatic, astringen t, carminative, diuretic, emmenagog ue, ga lactagogue, stimu lant and tonic. Main ly used for joint and muscu lar problems. Leaves are harvested in the summer . The dry herb wholesales for about £7/kg ($5.1I1b). An essential oil is obtained from the leaves by steam distillation: the leaves need first to be steeped for 12 - 24 hours in warm water. The oil is pale yellow or pin kish with an intense sweetwoody odour. It contains almost exclusively methyl salicylate (up to 98%). The esse nti al oil is used as a food flavouring (mostly in the USA, in toothpaste , chewi ng gum, root beer and soft drinks, notably Coca cola), medicinally (the original source of Wi ntergreen oil - methyl salicylate is closely related to aspirin and is an effective antii nflammatory) and in perfumery . The oil is very similar to that from sweel bi rch.

Hamamelis virginiana

Witch hazel

A slow-growing shrub from Eastern North America . growing to 5 m (16 tt) high and wide. Likes a light-medium soil and sun or part shade. Hardy to -35°C. Paris are harvested commercially from the wild in Easlern USA and from cultivated plants in France.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Witch hazel bark is an important ingredient of proprietary eye drops, skin creams, ointments and skin tonics; it is widely used as an external application to bruises , sore muscles , varicose veins , haemorrho ids , sore nipples , infl ammations etc . It is also used in toiletri es, aftershaves etc. The bark is astringent , haemostatic , sedative and Ionic. Tannins in the bark are believed to be responsible for its astringent and haemostatic properties . Bottled witch hazel water is a steam distillate that does not conta in the tannins from the shrub. It is made from twigs collected in autumn, winter and early spring, and is a sub stantial industry with over 4 million lilres produces per year. The witch hazel used in cosmetic products comes from stripped leaves and bark collected in summer and early autumn . The bark is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea , colitis, dysentery, haemorrhoids , vaginal discha rge , excessive menstruation, internal bleeding and prolapsed organs. An infusion of the leaves is u sed to reduce inflammation s, treat piles , internal haemorrhages and eye inflammations . A homeopathic remedy is also made from fresh bark . Branches and twigs are harvested for the bark in the autumn or spring and dried quickly; the leaves are harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. The bark wholesales for about £9 .50/kg ($6 .9/lb) and the dry leaf for about £9.50/kg ($6 .9/1b) (organic leaf £16 .50/kg, $12/lb).

Hyssopus officina/is

Hyssop

A small evergreen shrub from the Mediterranean growing to 60 cm (2 ft) high and wide ; naturalised in Britain. Hardy to -20° C. Likes a light to medium, well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil and full sun. It is cultivated commercially in Eastern and Southern Europe , particularly France , Spain and Hunga ry. The plant thrives without extensive fertilisation - manure is applied before planting , then occasionally appl ications of nitrogen to maintain yields. The leaves and flowering tops are antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, antiviral , astringent, bactericidal , carminative , cephalic, cicatrisanl, diaphoretic , diuretic , emmenagogue, expectora nt , febrifuge, hypertensive , nervine , pectoral. sedative , stomachic , sudorific, tonic , vermifuge , vasodi lator and vulnerary. The plant is harvested when in full flower and dried for later use . The dried herb is used for culinary purposes . A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of flatulence, stomach-aches, upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, colds, coughs in children etc. A poultice made from the fresh herb is used to heal wounds. Yiel ds of flowering tops are 6-10 tonnesfha (2.4-4 tons/acre) and the drying ratio is 4 or 5:1. Two harvests are normally made , one in July during just before flowering (for leaf production) or during full flowering (for oil production), and another in late September, with the plants cut just above the woody parts. The shoots and leaves are then dried immediately or taken stra igh t to a sti ll. Yields of fresh material are 2-3 tonnes/ ha in the first year , and 6-10 tonnes/ha from the second year onwards. The dry herb/flowering tops wholesale for about £5/kg ($3.6/Ib) - organic for £9.50/kg ($6.9/lb). A n essential oil is extracted from Ihe leaves by steam distillation; it is antiseptic and used medicinally and in aromatherapy ; it is also used in perfumery , soaps and cosmetics , and as a food (main ly sauces and seasonings) and liqueur flavouring (notably chartreuse). The oil is pale yellowish -green and has a particularly fine odour; Ihe main compo nent is pinocamphene. It is much va lued by perfumers . Average yields of the oil are about 0.6% (yield s from the blue-flowered variety are 1 - 1.5% essential oil, the red-fl owered variety yie ld s about 0.8%, whilst the whiteflowered form yields 0.5% essential oil.) Yields of oil are usually 0 .8-2 .5 kg per tonne of fresh material , or 8-15 kg per ha of crop. Non-organic and organic essential oil wholesales for about £110/litre ($69/1).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Page 7

Jasminum grandiflorum

Jasmine

A deciduous climber (Syn. J.officinale Lgrandiflorum) . twining and self·supporting, reaching 10 m (33 ft) high from Asia. Tolerates most soils with sufficient moisture; fast growing; hardy to -1S"C. Quite shade tolerant. Th e flowers are produced from June to September on the current year's growth and older wood; they are very fragrant. The plant is cultivated commercially around the Mediterranean for the flowers and is one of the few cl imbers thus grown - va rious trellis and post & wire systems are used. There is potential in agroforestry systems for growing this up trees or shrub~ on sunny or shady edges of trees. The flowers are mildly analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, antiseptic , antispasmodic , carminative , cicatrisa nt , expectorant , galactogogue , parturient , sedative and uterine toni c. Yields are 8-10 tonnes/ha (3 .2-4 tons/acre). The dry flowers wholesale for about £8.S0/kg ($6.2f1b) . A concrete is obtained from the flowers by solvent extraction, an absolute obtained from the concrete by separation with alcohol, and an essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the absolute. The concrete and oil are used in aromatherapy (in the treatment of depression , nervous tension , impotence, menstrual disorders and weak digestion) and perfumery, cosmetics and toiletries; also in food products and alcoholic and soft drinks . The absolute is a dark orange-brown visco us liquid with an intensely rich, warm, floral scent; the oil contains over 100 constituents. The flowers are picked soon after opening each morning and used fresh for oil extraction; experienced pickers can harvest 1 kg of flowers in 2-3 hours. Flower yields are about 7 tonnes/ha. Dry petals contain about 0.3% concrete and yields are about 20-30 kg per ha of crop . The essential oil wholesales for about £1650/lilre ($ 103011).

Juniperus communis

Juniper

A very variable evergreen coniferous shrub, sometimes growing to 9 m (30 ft) high by 4 m (13 tt) across, from Northern temperate regions. Tolerates most soils , light shade and drought - fruits better in sun. Very hardy , to -35°C. The fruits (actually cones, 4-8 mm in diameter) are wind pollinated and take 2 years to mature. Juniper is dioecious - plants are male or female - and both sexes are n eeded for fruit to be produced . The fruits are harvested from both wild and cultivated plants, mostly in Southern and Central Europe (Italy , Spain etc) . Junipe r fruits are commOnly used in herbal medicine , as a household remedy, in herb teas and also in so me comme rcial preparations. They are harvested from wild plants . The fully ripe fruits are antirheumatic , antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic , aphrodisiac, aromatic , astringent , carminative, cicatrisant , depurative, diaphoretic , strongly diuretic, emmenagogue , nervine , parasiticide, rubefacient , sedative , stomachic , sudorific, tonic and vu lnerary. They are especially useful in the treatment of digestive disorders plus kidney and bladder problems, and are used in diuretic and laxative prepa rations. Plantations can be established with 2-3 year old seedlings planted in rows 1-1.5 m (3-5 ft) apart with plants 0 .5-0 .6 m (20-24 ") apart in the row. Fruits can be gathered 3-4 years after planting . The ripe fruits are harvested from September to November in their second yea r - usually by ca refully knocking branches and

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

letting ripe fruits fall onto canvas sheets. The drying ratio for fruits is 2: 1. The dry fruits wholesale for about £6lkg ($4.41Ib) - organic for £ll/kg ($8f1b). A n es sential oil is sometimes steam distilled from the fruit and twigs ; the oil is pale yellow with a sweet , fresh . woody-balsamic odour, and contains over 60 constituents. It is used as a flavouring in foods , drinks (notably gin) and liqueurs , in aromatherapy , soaps , detergents , c osmetic s and in perfumes with spicy fragrances. Average yields are around 1 % but varies from 0.2 to 3.4% of dry fruits; yields from fresh fruits are about 6-12 kg of oil per tonne. The essential oil wholesales for about £90-160/litre ($56-10011) - organic for £2001litre ($12511).

Laurus nobilis

Bay laurel

An evergreen large shrub , occasionally a small tree, growing up to 12 m (40 tt) high and 10 m (33 ft) across from Southern Europe. Very tolerant of clipping. Hardy to around -15" C . Tolerates most soils and part shade , though it prefers sun. Cultivated commercially for the leaves in Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Turkey etc.). Trees are planted at 3 x 3 m (10 x 10 tt) where irrigation is not used , later thinned to 6 x 6 m (20 x 20 tt); two or three harvests per year are possible, culling to 40-60 cm (16-24 ") high. The leaves are antirheumatic , antiseptic , aromatic, bactericidal, carminative , diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic. emetic in large doses, emmenagogue, fungicidal, hypotensive, narcotiC, pa rasiticide , sedative, stimulant and stomachic. Annual yields of leaves are 5-12 tonnes/ha (24.8 tons/acre) - the higher yields for irrigated crops . The dry leaves wholesale for about £6 .50/ kg (S4.7/ lb) - organic for £1 2/kg (SB.B/lb). The essential oil steam distilled from the leaves has narcotiC, antibacterial and fung icidal properties. It is greenish-yellow with a powerful spicy-medicinal odour; it largely contains cineol (30-50%) . It is used as a food and drink flavouring , as a fragrance component in cosmetics , toiletries and perfumes (especially aftershaves) and in medicine . Yields can vary from 0 .5 - 3.5% oil; or 50-90 kg per ha of crop . The essential oil wholesales for about £100/litre ($63/1) - organic for £240/lilre ($150/1).

Lavandula Spp.

Lavenders

Small greyish evergreen shrubs from the Mediterranean growing to 1 .2 m (4 tt) high and 1 m (3 tt) across (L.angustifolia & L.intermedia) / 35 cm (14") high (L.latifo/ia) . Hardy to -10 or -15" C . They like a well drained soil, preferably neutral to alkaline , and need full sun ; they are very drought tolerant and good bee plants. They live for 20-30 years in the wi ld and in cultivation. Grown commercially for the flower heads which produce an essential oil by steam distillation. Lavender is not very nutrient-demanding , usually soils are heavily manured before planting and moderate annual applications of fertiliser will be required to maintain cropping . Plants are usually established by green or woody cuttings (though seeding is possible) which are rooted in beds for a year, cutting back several times to 12-15 cm above soil level. The rooted cuttings of L.angustifofia are planted out at rows spaci ng of 1 m (39") with plants 0.5 m (20") apart (1.2-1.5 m x 0.4-0 .6 m, 45 ft x 16-24" for L.intermedia). The young plants are cut back to 10-12 cm high at the start of lowering in the first year to develop a well-branched dense bush; this cutting back is repeated in the spring of the second year al 15-18 cm high. The flower heads are best harvested during full flowering , which

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lasts for 6-10 days, when the flowers contain the most and best-quality essential oil. Flowers are cut just with the stem just beneath the first set of leaves and to a uniform height; even today. hand harvesting with sickles is common on slopes of 10-15% or more; machine harvesting is more co mmonly used . Flowers for drying are dried in the dark at moderate temperatures (maximum

30°C).
L.angustifolia - lavender Cultivated all over the world for the flower heads from which an essential oil is obtained which is antihaJ itosis , antiseptic. antispasmodic. aromatic, carminative. cholagogue, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. The oil is pale yellow with a sweet. floral-herba ceo us scent more fragranl Ihan that of L.latifolia, contains over 100 co nstituents including up to 40% linalyl acetate , and has a very wide range of applications. Some 200 tonnes of oil per year are produced world-wide. It is commonly used in pharmaceutical antiseptic ointments , soap making , in making high quality perfumes (it is also used in 'Eau de Cologne'),in cosmetics, in aromatherapy, as a dete rgent and cleaning agent, a food and drink flavouring and as an insect repellent. Yields of 0 .5 - 1.5% of the oil are obtained. Y ields of flowering heads are 3.6-4 .5 tonnes/ha (1.4-1 .8 tons/acre) ; the drying ratio is 9:1. Oil yields are about 20-40 kg per ha of crop. The essential oil wholesales for about £54/litre ($34/1) - organic for £130/1ilre ($81/1) .

L.intermedia - Lavend i n A variable hybrid of L.angustifolia and L.latifolia. The essential oil has similar properties as that from L.angustifofia and is used similarly except that it is more penetrating and rubefacient with a sha rper scent; oi l yields are higher. Some 750 tonnes of oil per yea r are produced world-wide . The oil contains 30-32% Hnalyl acetate; it is used extensively in soaps, detergents , perfumes . as a food flavouring and as a natural source of linalol and linalyl acetate. Yields of flowering tops are 4.5-6.3 tonnes/ha (1.8-2.5 tons/acre); the drying ratio is 9:1. Oil yields 0.9-3 .0% , ie about 50-70 kg per ha of crop, or 8-14 kg per tonne of fresh tops. Non-organic and organic essential oil wholesales for about £35l1ilre ($2211) . L./atifolia - Spike lavender This species is cultivated for its essential oil in Southern France and England . with yields of 2.43% of oil obtained from the flower heads. II is considered inferior in quality to the oil from the above species but has similar actions. It is a pale yellow liq uid with a penetrating freshherbaceous, camphoraceous odour, and contains mainly cineol and camphor (40-60%). Some 50 tonnes of oil per year are produced world-wide. The oil is used in soap making . tOiletries. perfumery, food flavouring , pharmaceutical preparations. veterinary medicines. and in the production of fine varnishes and lacquers (used in porcelain painting etc) . Oil yie lds are about 4-8 kg per to nne of fresh tops . The essential oil wholesales for about £55/1itre ($3411) - organic for £90/litre ($57/1) .
The dry flowers from lavender species wholesale for about £8/kg ($5.8I1b) - organic for £12.S0/Ib ($9.1I1b) . Lavender water wholesales for abo ut £5mtre ($3.111) .

Myrica cerifera

Bayberry, wax myrtle

A large deciduous shrub (everg reen in mild areas) growing to 9 m (30 tt) high and 3 m (10 ttl across, from Southeastern North America. Hardy to -20°C. Likes an neutral or acid . moist soil and sun or part shade. It is a good nitrogen-fixing plant in temperate regions. The root bark is astringent, emetic (in large doses), stimu lant and tonic. It is harvested in the autumn from wild plants in the USA. thoroughly dried then powdered and kept in a dark place in an airtight container. It is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, jaundice , fevers, colds, influenza. catarrh, excessive menstruation , vaginal discharge etc. Externally , it is applied to indolent ulcers. sore throats . sores , itching skin conditions . dandruff etc. It is also used in perfumery . The dry bark wholesales for about £211kg (S15.3/1b) .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Myrica pensylvanica

Northern bayberry

A medium sized deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (10 ft) high from Eastern North America . Hardy to · 40°C . Likes an neutral or acid , moist soil and sun or part shade. It is a good nitrogen-fixing plant in temperate regions. The root bark is astringent and emetic and is harvested from wild plants . The essential oil obtained from it is used in perfumery. All parts are similar in aclion to those of M.cerifera.

Myrtus communis

Myrtle

An evergreen aromatic shru b from Southern Europe and Western Asia, growing up to 4 .5 m (15 tt) high and 3 m (10 ft) across , though less in marginal areas . Hardy 10 between -1 0 and -15° C . Needs a well drained soil and sun . Very tolerant of clipping and maritime exposure . II is harvested commercially mainly in North Africa. The leaves are antibiotic, anticatarrhal , antiseptic (urinary, pulmonary) , aromatic , astringent , balsamic , ba c tericidal, expectorant , haemostatic, regulator, slightly sedative and tonic. Used internally in the treatment of urinary infections, vaginal discharge, bronchial congestion , sinusitis and dry coughs; externally , it is used in the treatment of acne (the essential oil is normally used here), gum infections and haemorrhoids. The leaves are harvested from wild plants from late spring to early autumn and usually distilled immediately or dried. An essential oil obtained by steam disti ll ation of the leaves and twigs, which is pale yellow or orange with a fresh , clear, camphoraceous scent similar to eucalyptus. It is antiseptic. It contains the substance myrtol • this is used as a remedy for gingivitis. The oil is used as a local application in the treatment of rheumatism . The oil is used in perfumery, soaps and skin-care products, as a food flavouring in meat sauces and seasonings and in alcoholi c drinks. Oil yields are about 0.5- 1.1 % from fresh leaves and twigs; or 5-11 kg per ha of crop. The essential oil wholesales for about £1101litre ($69 /1).

Prunus spinosa

Sloe

A large deciduous spiny shrub from Europe growing to 6 m (20 ft) high ; often grows wild in hedgerows. Grows in any soil in sun or part shade . Flowers are borne in March and April. and can be damaged by late frosts. The flowers are used in herb tea mixes , and are gathered from wild plants. They are difficult to pick so are usua ll y shaken onto sheets laid underneath, then after twigs and leaves have been removed are dried quickly in thin layers . The drying ratio of flowers is 5: 1.

Rhamnus frangula

Alder buckthorn
Hardy to-

A large European deciduous shrub growing to 5 m (16 tt) high and 4 m (13 ttl across. 30°C . Grows in any soil , tolerating wet soils, and sun or part shade. Coppices welL

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The inner bark is cathartic, cholagogue, laxative (the fresh bark is violently purgative), tonic, vermifuge. It is harvested in early summer from the young trunk and moderately sized branches, it must then be dried and sto red for at least 12 months before being used. It is taken internally as a laxative for chronic atonic constipation and is also used to treat abdominal bloating , hepatitis, cirrhosis, jaundice , and liver and gall bladder complaints. Externally, the bark is used to treat gum diseases and scalp infestations. The bark is mostly collected from wild plants, stripped from 10-20 mm thick branches (ie 3-S yearold branches) in early spring. Two circu lar cuts are made in the bark, 10-20 cm (4-8") apart, and a long dr! between them, enabling the piece of bark 10 be easily stripped. The bark must be under 2 mm thick and any lichens on it scraped off. [t is harvested at least 12 months before it is used medicinally, in order to allow the more violent purgative effect to be mollified with age. The harvested bark is dried, broken into pieces and aged for a year (or artificially by heat. ego 1 hour at 100°C). The drying ratio for bark is 3: 1. Bushes can be cultivated and coppiced on a 3-S year cycle; a planting spacing of 0.8-1 m x 0.4-0.S m (32-39" x 16-20 ~) is suitable. The bark is used medicinally, as above, also in herb teas.

Rhamnus purshiana

Cascara sagrada

A la rge evergreen shrub from Western North America, growing to 10m (33 tt) high and 6 m (20 tt) across . Hardy to -15°C. Grows in most soils in sun or shade - often found as an understorey species. Cascara sagrada bark is widely used as sold in chemists etc. The bark also promoting gastric digestion and appetite. a laxative , it is taken internally in the compla ints, haemorrhoids, liver problems a laxative and is often has tonic properties, As well as its uses as treatment of digestive and jaundice.

The bark is harvested on a commercial basis mostly from wild trees, also some plantations, in Western North America, where its value is estimated at $100 million per year. Bushes are usually coppiced, leaving a 30 cm (1 tt) stump to allow regeneration. The bark is then stripped from the main trunk and other branches. The average yie ld is 4.S kg (10 lb) per tree but varies from 2 kg (4Y2 tb) for a 7.S cm (3 ") diameter bush upwards . It is harvested in the autumn or spring at least 12 months before it is used medicina ll y, in order to allow the more violent purgative effect to be mollified with age; three year old bark is considered to be the best age. The harvested bark is usually sun-dried, broken into pieces and aged for a year (or artificially by heat ego 1 hour at 100°C). The dry bark wholesa les for about £6.50Ikg ($4.7f1b) - organ ic for

...._=_.

£8.50Ikg ($6.21Ib).

Ribes nigrum

Blackcurrant

A small deciduous shrub growing to 1.B m (6 ft) high, commonly grown for its fruit. Hardy to -20°C. Grows in most well-drained soils in sun or light shade. It is cultivated in Europe for the leaves which are much used in herb teas and the food industry. The leaves are harvested during the growing season, usually after the fruits are picked, and can be used fresh or dried; they are diaphoretic and diuretic. The dry leaves wholesale for about £7/kg ($S.lf1b) - organic for £12/kg ($8.8f1b).

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Rosa canina

Dog rose

A very variable deciduous shrub from Europe, growing to 3 m (10 H) high and across. Hardy to 25° C . Grows in most soils including wet ones, in sun or light shade . The flowers are insect pollinated and fruits ripen from October to December. Fruits are harvested from wild and cu ltiv ated plants in Europe . They are gathered when they colour purple-red but the flesh is still hard and before any frosts. After harvest they are split in two and the seeds removed and cleaned of hairs (all done by machine) , and the remaining flesh quickly dried in hot air at 80-90°C. Cultivated plants are spaced at about 5 m x 0.5 m (16 ft x 20 · ). The fruits (hips) are astringent. carm inative , diuretic , laxative , ophthalmic and Ionic. They are taken internally in the treatment of co ld s , influenza , minor infectious diseases , scurvy , diarrhoea and gastritis. A syrup made from Ihe hips is used as a pleasant flavouring in medicines, as a nutritional supplement , especially for babies , and is added 10 cough mixtures. The hips are also dried and used in herb teas. Yields of fresh hips are 8-10 tonneslha (3 .2-4 tons/acre); the drying ratio is 3:1. The dry hip shells (organic) wholesale for about £7.50/kg ($5 .5I1b).

Rosa spp.

Roses

Severa l species of rose are cultivated for the flower petals , from which essential oils are produced and used in perfumery. Yields of fresh petals vary from 1-3.5 tonnes/ha (0.4-1.4 tons/acre) and of oil are 0.5-1.5 kg per ha of crop . Dry petals wholesale for about £7lkg ($5.1IIb) - organic for £15fkg ($11I1b). The main species used are described below ; they are cultivated in the Mediterranean and China. Annual pruning is essential to keep bushes in shape, to promote branching, and to remove dead or diseased shoots . Flowers are picked in the morning when oil conlent is highest and processed the same day if possible. Flower yields depend on species and climate but are around 1.5-2 tonnes/ha (0.6-0.8 tons/acre). Rose petal essential oil is antibacterial. antiseptic, antiviral , astringent, choleretic , cicatrisan!, depurative, emmenagogue , haemostatic, hepatic, sedative , stomachic and tonic. Rose petals are taken internally in the treatment of colds , bronchial infections, gastritis , diarrhoea , depression and lethargy . Externally, they are used to treat eye infections, sore Ihroats, minor injuries and skin problems. The essential oil is used extensively in soaps , cosmetics, toiletries and perfumes of all types; also in flavouring food (fruit products particularly) and tobacco . Rose water, either made by cold-infusing the petals or as a by-product of distillation for oil, is used as a flavouring in various confections, especially 'Turkish Delight'; it is also used in cooking (especially Persian) , as an additive to bath water and in skin care preparations.

Rosa centifolia - Cabbage rose, Provence rose A deciduous shrub of hybrid origin , growing to 1.5 m (5 f1) high. Hardy to -20° C. Grows in most soi ls in sun or light shade (flowering is better in sun) . Flowering occurs in June and July. This species is often cultivated in Southern France and Morocco for the essential oil.
The oil is pa le yellow with a deep , sweet , rosy-floral , tenacious odour, and has over 300 constituents, mainly citronellol (18-22%), phenyl ethanol (63%) , geraniol and nerol (10-15%) . It is also used in aromatherapy. It wholesales for about £9501litre ($59011) .

Rosa damascena - Damask rose A deciduous shrub from Western Asia growing to 1.5 m (5 ft) high . Hardy 10 -25°C. G rows in most soils in su n or light shade (flowering is better in sun). Flowering occurs in June and July.

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The petals are the source of 'attar of roses' and 'rose water' , which are u sed as a flavouring for drinks , sweets , baked goods, ice cream etc. The essential oil obtained from the flowers is pale yellow or olive ye ll ow with a very rich, deep, sweet-floral , slightly spicy scent. It contains mostly citronellol (34-55%), geraniol and nerol (30-40%) and stearopten (16-22%). It is much used for perfumery and as a flavouring . 1 kg of flowers yields 0 .25-0.4g of oil.

Rosa gallica - Apothecary rose, French rose A deciduous sh ru b from Southern & Centra l Europe , growing to 2 m (6 tt) high and 1 m (3 ft) across, Hardy to -20cC. Grows in most soils in sun or light shade (flowering is better in sun). Flowertng occurs in June and July. This species is often cultivated for the essential oil in Eastern Europe.
The essentia l oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery , as an additive to bath water and in skin care preparations.

Rosa rugosa ~ Rugosa rose A decid uous shrub growing to 2 m (6 tt) high and spreading by suckering , from Eastern Asia. Very hardy, to -40"C. Grows in most soils in sun or light shade (flowering is better in sun) and tolerates maritime exposure . Flowering occurs from June to Augusl.
Much less used than the previous species.

Rosmarinus officina/is

Rosemary

An evergreen shrub growing to 1.5 m (5 ft) high and across from Southern Europe and Western Asia. Hardy to -15"C. Likes sun and a light or medium well-drained soil ; drought tolerant. Cultivated commercially, notably in Spain, the USA and England. Three different chemotypes differ in their chemical components and are sometimes grown specially. The whole plant is antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatiC, astringent , cardiac , carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, nervine, stim ulant , stomachic and tonic. Rosemary is rich in vo latile oils, flavanoids and phenolic acids , which are strongly antiseptic and antiinflammatory. Rosmarinic acid has potential in the treatment of toxic shock syndrome, whilst the flavanoid diosmin is reputedly more effective than rutin in reducing capillary fragility. Rosmarol, an extract from the leaves, has shown remarkably high antioxidant activity. Rooted cuttings are planted out at a spacing 'o f 1-1.5 m x 0.5 m (3-5 tt x 20~). One or two harvests a year are made, depending on the climate and leaf use . Good potaSSium levels are necessary for high yields of essentia l oil. The leaves can be harvested in the spring or summer and used fresh, but are usually harvested during flowering for oil production ; they can also be dried (in shade to retain colour and aroma) for later use. Yields of fresh leaves are about 3-4 tonnes/ha (1.2-1.6 tons/acre); the drying ratio is 2:1. Dry leaves wholesa le for about £3.50fkg (2.6flb) - organic for

£6.50Ikg ($4.71Ib).
An essential oil distilled from the plant is often used medicinally, that distilled from the flowering tops is superior than that from the who le plant, but is not often available. The oil is pale yellow with a strong freSh, minty-herbaceous scent. The oil is app li ed externally as a rubefacient, added to linim ents , rubbed into the temples to treat headaches and used internally as a stomachic and nervine. It is also used extensively in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, in aromatherapy , perfumery, and is often added to hair lotions. It is widely used in foods , especially meat products and drinks. The leaves contain 0.3-2% of oil and yields are about 10-15 kg of oil per ha of crop or 2·6 kg per tonne of fresh material. Non-organic and organic essential oil wholesa les for about £60/litre

($3811).

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Rubus caesius

Dewberry

A prostrate shrub from Northern temperate regions . growing 20 em (8 ~ ) high and 1 m (3 tt) in spread. It is a blackberry with biennial stems, a number of which are produced each year from the perennial rootstock. Hardy to -20°C. It grows in most soils in sun or part shade. Leaves are harvested from wild plants and dried (drying ratio 4 or 5:1). They are used in herb

teas.

Rubus idaeus

Raspberry

A European deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (6 tt) high and 1.5 m (5 ft) across. It produces biennial stems, a number of which are produced each year from the perennial rootstock. Hardy to 30°C. Grows in most soils in sun or light shade.
The leaves are antiinflammatory, astringent, decongestant. ophthalmic and stimulant. A herb tea made from them is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, as a tonic for the uterus to strengthen pregnant women, as an aid in childbirth and for relieving painful menstrual cra mps . Externally, they are used to treat tonsillitis , mouth inflammations, sores, conjunctivitis , minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers. The leaves are harvested in the summer from wild and cultivated plants in Europe and dried for later use . The dry leaves wholesale for about £5/kg ($3.71lb) • organic for £9/k9 ($6.6/Ib).

Salvia officinalis

Sage

An evergreen grey·leaved shrub from Southern Europe growing to 60 cm (2 ft) high and 1 m (3 tt) across. Hardy to ·20°C. Likes a light to medium soil, preferably neutral to alkaline, and sun. Drought tolerant. Cultivated commercially in Southern Europe, Cl;1ina and the USA. The leaves are widely used as a culinary herb. The leaves and whole herb are antihydroUc, anti· inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, galactofuge, hypertensive, insecticidal, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vasodilator. It is used internally for sore throats , in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation (as in Parkin son's disease) , profuse perspiration , anxiety, depression , female sterility and menopau sal problems . Externally, it is used to treat insect bites, skin, throat , mouth and gum infections and vaginal discharge . Sage is a heavy feeding plant and plantations are heavily manured before planting, and given moderate doses of fertilisers after establishment. One year·old seedlings are planted in rows 0.7 m (28·) apart with 0.4·0.5 m (16·20· ) between plants . They are cui back 10 8· 10 cm high in the spring of the second year to encourage bushy plants . The leaves are best harvested just before the plant comes into flower (or during flowering around midday for essential oil production); a second cut can be made in August or September. The first cut is made just above the woody part, the second a little higher. The leaves are removed from the stem immediately after cutting. Yields of fresh leaves are about 2.5·3 tonnes/ha (1-1.2 tons/acre); the drying ratio is 4 or 5:1. The dry leaves wholesale for about £S/kg (S3.7I1b) - organic for £10/kg ($7 .3I1b). The essential oil from the plant (usually leaves and shoots) is pale yellow with a fresh, warm , spicy , herbaceous , somewhat camphoraceous odour; it largely contains thujone (42%). It used medicinally in small doses to remove heavy collections of mucous from the respiratory organs and mixed in embrocations for treating rheumatism ; and in mouthwashes, gargles , toothpastes etc. It is also used in aromatherapy . It is used as a fragrance component in soaps, shampoos , detergents , anti-perspirants and perfumes . It is widely used commercially to flavour foods (mainly meat products), soft and alcoholic drinks (especially vermouth). Yields of shoots+leaves are about 2-4 tonnes/ha (0.8-1.6 tons/acre) ; the drying ratio is 5 : 1. Yields of oil are about 8-10 kg per ha of crop or 3-6 kg per

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~

~-

---

-

----

-

------~

-

---

-

tonne of fresh material.

The

essential oil wholesales for about £lO/litre ($4411) - organic for

£95/lilre ($59/1).

Sambucus nigra

Elder

A large deciduous shrub from Europe growing to 6 m (20 ft) high and across. Hardy to -20°C. Grows in most soils in sun or shade - sun is needed for good flowering and fruiting. Flowering occurs in June and July, with fruits ripening in August and September. Very tolerant of cutting . Comm'ercial elder plantations are still in their infancy, but with good flowering and fruiting selections available they should easily outperform wild stands. Plantations can be established by planting seedlings or cuttings in rows 2.5-3 m (B-lO ft) apart with plants 1-1.5 m (3- 5 ft) in the row. Elder has a very long history of use as a medicina l herb. Mainly used nowadays are the dried flowers. which are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant. galactogogue and pectoral. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes . The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser. Externally, the flowers are used in formulations to ease pain and abate inflammation. Used as an ointment , it treats chillblains . burns, wounds , scalds etc. The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water' . The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions, oils and ointments . The elderflower drinks industry in large and growing, with herb teas , cordials. and alcoho li c beverages all being made on a commercial scale . Despite this, most flowers are still gathered from the wild. The flowers heads can be gathe~ed once the outer flowers are open and the central ones are still in bud; they are collected on dry days as wet flowers disco lour on drying. The flowers are delicate and are dried carefully at moderate temperatures (35-40°C maximum). The dried flowers are then rubbed away from the stalks by hand or machine. The drying ratio for flowers is 6 :1. Dry flowers wholesale for about £B/kg (S5.Bflb) - organic for £12/kg ($B .Bllb) . The fruits are used in the food industry, mainly as a colourant. Fruits for drying are harvested in heads with stalks intact, thus ensuring during drying that the fruits do not stick together and dry uniformly . After drying the berries are removed from the sta lks by rubbing. The drying ratio for fruits is 4 or 5:1. Dry fruits wholesa le for about £5 .50/kg ($4I1b).

Satureja montana

Winter savory
ft )

A dwarf evergreen shrub from the Mediterranean, growing to 40 cm (16 high and 30 cm (12 ~ ) across . Hardy to -15°C. Likes a light or medium, well-drained soil and sun . Drought tolerant but short-lived . Cultivated commercially for the oil in Spain and Morocco which is similar to that obtained

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

from the annual summer savory (S,hortensis). Plantations use plants at a spacing of 30 cm x 3045 cm (1 x 1-1Yi fI) which may need replanting every 3-4 years . The whole herb, and especially the flowering shoots , is strongly antimicrobial, mildly antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, digestive, mildly expectorant and stomachic. It is used internally for colic and flatulence , gastro-enteritis, cystitis . nausea, diarrhoea, bronchial congestion, sore throat and menstrual disorders. The plant is harvested in the summer when in flower and can be used fresh or dried; a second cut may be possible in early autumn. Plants are cut at a height of 5 cm (2~) to leave a stubble that will regrow. The leaves are removed from sta lks and usually dried . Dry yields are about 0.7-2.8 tonnes/ha (0 .3- 1.1 tons/acre) . An essential oil is obtained from the leaves by steam distillation; it is pale yellow with a sharp , medicinal, herbaceous odour, and contains mainly carvacrol . cymene and thymol. Leaves conta in about 0.2% of air. It is used in the food industry as a flavouring (mainly for meats and seaso nings) and as and ingredient in scalp lotions and other cosmetics ; and occasiona lly in perfumery.

Schisandra chinen sis

Magnolia vine

A twining deciduous climber from Eastern Asia, growing to 9 m (30 tt) high. Hardy to -20°C . Grows in most soi ls in light or heavy shade; a good species for the shadier parts of agroforestry systems. It is dioecious, ie plants are male or female and both must be grown if fruit is required. The fruits are small (6 mm) but are borne in large bunches. This plant is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is one of the 50 fundamental herbs and is grown commercially. It is considered to be a substitute for ginseng and is commerciall y cultivated in Northeastern China. The fruit is antitussive, aphrodisiac, hepatic, astringent, ca rdiotonic, cholagogue, expectorant, hypotensive, lenitive, n ervine. pectoral, sedative, stimulant and tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of dry coughs , asthma , night sweats, urinary disorders, involuntary ejaculation , chronic diarrhoea , palpitations . insomnia , poor memory , hyperacidity , hepatitis and diabetes. Externa lly , it is used to treat irritating and al1ergic skin conditions. The fruit is harvested after the first frosts and sun-dried for later use. The dry fruits wholesale for about £9/kg ($6.6f1b).

Viburnum opulus

Cramp bark

A large deciduous European shrub, growing to 5 m (16 ft) high and in spread. Hardy to -30 D C. Tolerates mo st soils, including wet ones, and sun or light shade - but it grows better in sun. Responds well to culti ng . The bark is collected from wild plants in Ihe USA ; it is antispasmodic , astringent and sedative. It contains 'scopole!in', a coumarin that has a sedative affect on the uterus. A tea is used internally to relieve all types of spasms, including menstrual cramps, spasms after childbirth and threatened miscarriage ; also in the treatment of nervous comp laints and debility. The bark is harvested in the autumn before the leaves change colour, or in the spring before the leaf buds open. It is dried for later use . A homeopathic remedy is also made from the fresh bark . The dry bark wholesales for about £12/kg (8.8f1b) - organic for £27/kg (S19.7/lb) .

Vinca spp.

Periwinkles

V .minor and V.ma j or have simi lar uses. They are trailing evergreen shrubs from Europe , growing 20-50 cm (8-20· ) high and spreadi ng widely and rapidly via trailing and rooting stems. Hardy to 20 D C. They grow in mosl soils and in sun or heavy shade; drought tolerant. Good under deciduous trees - a good understorey plant for agroforestry systems. They are cultivated commercia lly and harvested from wild plants .

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The plants are sedative and tonic. They contain the alkaloid 'vinca mine', which is used by the pha rmaceutical industry as a cerebral stimulant and vasodilator. A homeopathic remedy is also made from the fresh leaves. The leaves are usually harvested in spring. Dry yield s are about 0.71.5 tonnes/ha (0.3-0.6 tons/acre). The dry herb wholesales for about £6/kg (S4.4/lb).

Vitex agnus-castus

Agnus eastus, Chaste tree

A deciduous shrub from Southern Europe growing to 3 m (10ft) high and across. Hardy to -10 or 15°C. It likes sun and a light or medium, well-drained soil; it tolerates drought. It really needs a climate"t with long hot summers for fruiting to occur (not like Brita in). The fruits are collected from the wild in China. The seeds and fruits are anaphrodisiac, aphrodisiac, galactogogue. ophthalmic, sedative and stomachic. They are gathered from wi ld plants. The most important use is its ability to rectify hormonal imbalances caused by an excess of oestrogen and an insufficiency of progesterone used in malfunctions of the fem in ine reproductive system and has been used with great effect in restoring absent menstruation. regu lating heavy period s, restoring fertility when this is caused by horm onal imbalance, relieving pre-menstrual tension and easing the change of the menopause. The dry fruits wholesale for about £4.50/kg ($3.3/Ib).

Zanthoxylum americanum

Prickly ash

A large deciduous shrub from Eastern North America, growing to 4 m (13 ft) high and across. Hardy to -30°C. Grows in most well-drained soils in sun or light shade. The seeds ripen in September and October. The species is dioecious - ie plants are ma le or female - and both sexes need to be grown for seeds to be produced . The bark is irritant, odontalgic and antirheumatic, and contains the aromatic bitter oil xanthoxylin. The seeds have a similar medicinal action to the bark and are also antispasmodic, carminative and diuretic. They both have a number of applications in medicine and are harvested mainly from wild plants in North America, the bark in spring and the seeds in late summer. The dry bark wholesa les for about £18/kg ($13 . 1IIb).

References
A report on the potential uses of plants grown for extracts including essential oils and factors affecti ng thei r yield and compos ition. MAFF A'iternative Crops Unit , 1996. Brownlow, M: Herbs and the Fragrant Garden. Darton, Longman & Todd , 1978. ChevaJlier, A: The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . Darling Kindersley, 1996. Halva S & Craker, L: Manual for Northern Herb Growers. HSMP Press. 1996. Hambleden Herbs Catalogues - 1998-9. Hay, R & Waterman. P (Eds): Volatile Oil Crops. Longman, 1993. Hornok, L : Cultivation and Processing of Med icinal Plants. John W il ey, 1992. Lawless; The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils. Element. 1992. Price. S: The Aromatherapy Workbook. Thorsons , 1993. Ryman, D: Aromatherapy. Piatkus, 1991. Sellar, W; The Directory of Essentia l Oils. C W Daniel Company. 1992. Small, E & Catling, P: Canadian Medicinal Crops. NRC Research Press, 1999. Stary, F: The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books, 1991. Weiss, E A; Essential Oil Crops. CAB International , 1997 .

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Forest gardening: spring maintenance
Harvesting
Very little harvesting is usually possible during spring apart from fresh green leaves to use raw in salads and cooked. A few fruits may ripen in spring such as those from EJaeagnus x ebbingei.

Pruning & trimming
A few species are best pruned at this time of year, particularly Prunus species· plums , apricots, peaches and almonds - to reduce the chances of infection by silverleaf disease . These species should be pruned lightly, only removing dead , diseased, or badly crossing branches . The pru ning s from these species are best burnt. Evergreens which are to be coppiced are best cut in the spring - for example, Eucalyptus species

and redwoods (Sequioa sempervirens).
Some hedges , particularly those close to cropping areas or paths , may need trimming once or twice - especially to stop species like brambles invading.

Replanting
Patches of failed ground covers planted a fe w months before in winter should be weeded and replanted, if necessary with a species more suited to the conditions. Ground cover plants grown from seed may be ready to plant out by late May.

Grafting
Early spring - March and early April - are a good time to perform outsid e grafting onto field-grown rootstocks or cleft grafting onto existing trees . Grafting wood should have been cut in December or January and stored in a fridge in closed plastic bags. Choose a dry mild day and perform the grafting as quickly as possible, wrapping the graft union with plastic tape and waxing the cut tops of the scions (a portable stove is useful for heating grafting wax in situ.)

Weeding
Spring is the most important time of year for weeding (the trick with weeding is timing; get it wrong and the work required can easily double.) Early spring is a good time to spot undesirable weed species, before other species come into leaf and provide hiding places and.

New plantings
If these have been well mulched when planted in the previous winter then the weeding required will be minimised. Try and pull out nettles and docks when they are small , when the soil is moist and the roots pull out easily.

Existing plantings
The ground covers of these should be well established and annual weeds of little problem . The main trouble some weeds are likely to be : Brambles (Rubus frulicosus) - best spotted in winter or early spring, as they often remain evergreen or semi-evergreen in Britain . The spi nes on these make them an annoying (and painful) weed. · The roots of all but very young plants are tough and difficult to pull up: if you can, dig them up , otherwise aim to repeatedly cut back any shoots until the plant dies. It is a good

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idea to on ly plant sp ineless cultivars of blackberries so that these can be easi ly distinguished from the wild spiny plants. Brambles are good wildlife plants but the fruits are bettered by cultivated varieties. Nettles (Urtica dioica) are another painful weed species. Nettle tops make a useful spring vegetab le and weeding regimes can take this into account; they are high in nitrogen and make a good mulch or liquid manure . Nettles do not root very deeply and are quit e easy to pull up once the shoots have thickened. Try and stop them seeding· repeated cutting will control th~m but not always eradicate them. Nettles are also good wildlife plants. D6cks (Rumex spp.) are very deep rooted and difficult to eradicate. They are very good mineral accumulators, raising minerals from deep in the sai l or subsoil and making them availab le nearer the soli surface. The ir dense leaves compete very well wit h ground cover plants and create a ci rcular 'hole' in the cover. Repeated cutting will set docks back, and roots can be removed entirely using species clawed tools. Trees may be sig nificant weeds. Light·seeded species are likely to appear anywhe re, particularly pussy willow (Salix caprea) and birches (Betula spp.) Other species which can be weedy will depend on what is growi ng nearby, for example ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) can be weedy. In their first growing season, young tree seed lings can be pulled out of the soil, roots and all, but the roots quickly get a firm hold . If you cannot pull them ou t, then repeated cutting is necessary.

Paths and unplanted areas
These will need some maintenance, depending on their treatment. On a large scale, paths and unplanted areas are likely to be grass which must be mown - try and mow every 2-3 weeks , as a longer time period wi ll cause problems with long grass and tough stems (eg. of docks.) Area edges of unplanted areas, for example up to fences or around mulched trees su rrounded by unplanted areas, may need strimming every couple of months to contro l ingress of grasses and weed species.

Propagation
Some species are best propagated in spring , notably those which are propagated by root cuttings , for example comfrey (Symphytum spp.) and black locust cultivars (Robinia pseudoacacia). Comfrey plants can be dug up and root cuttings taken in the sure knowledge that the plants will recover. Th e roots dug up should be cut into 25 mm (1~) section s and planted in pots or straight in the ground in the permanent positions· if doing the latter, make sure to keep the area we ll weeded, as new shoots will take several weeks to come up.

Seed collection
Early flowering species can set seeds wh ich ripen in the spring . Examp les are evergree n Elaeagnus species and lungwort (Pulmonaria spp). If you want to propagate such species from seed, you'll want to collect the seed s. When you are sure they are ripe , collect them on a dry warm day and either dry them in a warm dry spot, or sow them immediately.

Pest control
Slugs and snails are some of the most destructive pests in damp British springs. Hopefully you have planted ground cove rs which are not susceptible to mollusc damage , but these pests can also attack larger plants· for examp le you ng mulberry trees can be severely damaged. Keep an eye on such plants and take measu res if they are getting too damaged. Other pests to keep an eye on are fruit pests like codling moths - use pheromone traps to reduce numbers and monitor the situation.

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Pest & Disease Series:

Grey mold
Introd uction

Botrytis cinerea

Grey mold is a very common funga l wound parasite whi ch can attack any dead or dyin g plant material , sometimes also live material. Its spores are ubiquito us and infection can never be co mpletely avoided in a humid climate.

Symptoms
On app les and pears, the decay caused by Botrytis originates al the stems or ca lyces (the remna nt s of the flowers) o r at ski n punctures . A water-soaked spot on the fruit turns greyish and the n becomes light brown with darker brown areas. The decaying tissue usua ll y has a pleasant fermen ted odour. The fungus moves from one fruit to the next causing a 'nesting ' effect and at this stage of decay sma ll black sclerotia, the resting bodies of the fu ngus , may be detected. On soft fruit , grey mo ld atta cks ripe ning fruit s and invades the stems and canes . A greyish fu zzy fungal growth develops on infected areas. Growth above points of infection may deteriorate, with leaves yellowing and wilting , and flowers or fruits dying off. The fungus develops in stored apples and pears at injuries and from incipient infection commonly located at the stem or calyx end . Grey mold infectio ns can continue to develop even at storage tempe ra tu res as low as -O.6°C ; healthy fruit stored at th is tempe rature in autumn may be completely decayed by the following February or March.

Conditions for infection & spread
Grey mo ld favours humid and warm conditions ; a film of moisture is necessary for spores to germinate and infect plants Sporulation of t he fungus occu rs under high-moisture conditions . A coating of greyish fungal spores spreads over the infected area. Spores are readily sp read b rain or water sp las h and on ai r currents. Infection on pears is common in orchards where abundant spores of the fungus occur on infected cover crops such as vetch and clover. Infection is worse following damage by hailstones or pests.

Hosts
Attacks on fruit are worst on apples , grapes , strawbe rries , figs , blackberries , raspberries and gooseberries. Virtually all plants can be attacked though. Interestingly, attacks on grapes are sometimes utilised: the rotting frui ts are harvested to make sweet dessert wines .

Resistance
There is little information on resistance in tree fruit. Cultivars which bear fruits with hard or thick skins will be less susceptible to damage from pests and hail , hence less susceptible to grey mold

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infection . In raspberries, cultivars derived from Rubus occidentalis are generally somewhat resistant to infection. Resistant cultivars include Beskid , Chilcotin, Chilliwack, Cuthbert, Dinkum, Glencoe, Glen Isla, Glen Lyon, Glen May, Glen Prosen, Haut, Mailing Jewel, Meeker, Nootka , Qualicum , Skeena and Tulameen .

Control of grey mold is related to the reduction of inoculum or infection in the orchard and the prevention of fruit injuries after harvest. Most (non-organic) commercial growers used fungicide sprays in the orchard and fungicidal drenches after harvest. Prompt cooling of fruit below O°C and maintenance of low temperature throughout storage are essential for commercial crops. Storage should avoid damp and overcrowded conditions. Some control is possible by using the biological control fungi Trichoderma harzianum (sprayed onto flowers) and Acremonium breve (used post harvest); also by using the biological control bacterium Streptomyces . Other materials acceptable to organic growers include sulphur dust. Diseased and dead plant parts should be removed - the fungus thrives on these. When attacks start, diseased parts should be removed and destroyed. When pruning , make sure you cut back to a bud , not leaving any length of stem between the cut and bud below.

Control ,

Reducing susceptibility
Despite its widespread occurrence, grey mold is a weak pathogen , often attacking through wounds, after frost damage and on stressed plants. Soft lush growth caused by an excess of nitrogen is more likely to be attacked; use moderate amount of fertilisers. Tissue damaged by slugs is particularly. susceptible to attack; take action to prevent slug damage. Thin out any very dense areas of branches and leaves . Susceptible plants should not have dead or dying plant material left beneath or near it.

References
Buczacki, S & Harris, K: Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. HarperCollins, 1998. Coombs , J & Hall, K: Dictionary of Biological Control and Integrated Pest Management. CPL Press, 1998. Crawford, M: Fruit Varieties Resislant to Pests and Disease. A.R.T., 1997. Culpan, G : Pests. Diseases and Common Problems . Hamlyn , 1995. Greenwood, P & Halstead, A: Pests & Diseases. Darling Kindersley, 1997. Ogawa , J & English, H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops . University of California , 1991.

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H

Grapes
Introd uction
Grapes are one of the earliest temperate fruits to have been cultivated - vineyards were planted in Egypt some 4200 years ago. They are the most important and most widely grown deciduous fruit and a major crop in all continents, with some 65 ,000,000 million tonnes produced per year, twothirds in Europe. Very commonly grown in the temperate and Mediterranean regions of the world for its edible fruit, there are numerous named varieties , some of which have been developed for their use as a dried fruit, others for dessert use and others for wine.

Description
Cultivated grape vines are derived mostly from Vilis vinifera , although many hybrid cultivars have been bred using other Vilis species (notably V./abrusca and V.rotundifolia from North America) . V.vinifera is native to the Caucasus where it grows along riversides and in damp woods . It is naturalised in Britain. The grape vine is a vigorous deciduous climber , reaching 15-20 m (50-70 ft) high if allowed , with clinging tendrils. It has brown bark which shreds in long strips . After bud break, a shoot and leaf appear first, then 2-3 flower clusters per shoot appear opposite the leaves. Leaves are rounded to heart-shapred with 3-5 lobes, 7-15 cm (3-6") wide on stalks 410 cm (1~-4 · ) long. Flowers emerge in June or July in Britain, and fruits ripen from August to November, depending on the selection. The flower clusters are produced from a complex bud or 'eye '. Each eye, borne on the previous year's growth, contains a number of buds but only the central bud usually develops. Fruits are blue, green or red , often with a bloom . Each fruit contains 2·4 seeds. Grape vines are winter hardy to about -20°C.

Edible uses
Grapes are well a known edible fruit, eaten raw or dried for later use . The dried fruits are the raisins, sultanas and currants of commerce, different varieties producing the different types of dried fruit. The nutritional composition of grapes (per 100 g) is approximately: 81.4% water 0 .6 g protein 100 IU Vitamin A 12 mg Calcium

0.3 g fat 0.3 mg Vitamin 8 17.3 9 carbohydrate 4 mg Vitamin C

0.05 mg Vitamin 81 20 mg Phosphorus 0.03 mg Vitamin 82 0.4 mg Iron 3 mg Sodium 173 mg Potassium

The fruit juice is widely produced and drunk as it is; it can also be concentrated and used as a sweetener The fruit are widely used in making wine in many parts of the world.

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The leaves are edible when cooked. Usually the young leaves are wrapped around other foods and then baked , imparting a pleasant flavour. Also edible , but rarely used as they are small , are the young tendrils (raw or cooked) and the flower clusters (cooked). An edible oil similar to sunflower oil is obtained from the se ed; it needs refining before it can be eaten . The oil is polyun saturated and is suitable for mayonnaise and cooking , especially frying. The sap is edible raw, with a sweet taste . The-roasted seed is edible . it can be used as a coffee substitute . Cream of tartar, also known as potassium bitartrate , a crystalline salt, is extracted from the residue of pressed grapes , and from the sediment of wine barrels. It is used in making baking powder.

Other uses
Medicinally, the fresh fruit is antillthic, constructive , cooling , diuretic and strengthening. The dried fruit is demulcent, cooling , laxative and stomachic . The seed and the leaves are antiinflammatory and astringent. The sap of young branches is diuretic. The tendrils are astringent. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies . A yellow dye is obtained from the fresh or dried leaves. lavender·grey with an alum mordant. The fruits of black cultivars dye

An oil from the seed is used for lighting and as an ingredient in soaps, paints etc . Cream of tartar, extracted from the residue of pressed grapes, is used in making fluxes for soldering . In warm climates , the stems of very old vines attain a good size and have been used to supply a very durable timber.

Cultivation
Although grapes are on the northern most limits of their fruiting range in Britain , there are an increasing number of commercial vineyards in Britain (usually producing wine grapes ) and , given a suitably sunny and sheltered position . good dessert grapes can also be grown . In general it is best to grow the dessert varieties against the shelter of a south or west facing wall. There are a number of varieties that have been bred to cope with cooler summers . Grape vines grow in most soils but prefer a deep rich moist well·drained moderately fertile loam. They grow in sun or partial shade though a warm sunny sheltered position is required for the fruit to ripen. Sites should be chosen avoiding frost pockets , as late frosts can damage young shoots in Britain. Grapes grow well in the company of hyssop, chives, and basil. Grapes grow with very little winter chilling, but grow much faster after long chilling similar to most temperate fruits. Relatively long hot summers are required to mature the fruit. Direction of rows depends on wind speed and direction, slope , and the need for maximum light. North-south rows intercept more light than East-west ones. On sites with high winds , rows should be parallel to the wind direction. The planting site should be weed-free and have compost or manure applied before planting.

If post and wire pruning systems are to be used, these should be set out before planting. End posts need to be really substantial - 2.4-3 m (8-10 ft) long and 10 cm (4 ~ ) in diameter, sunk 1 m (3 n ft) into the ground. Intermediate posts should be 7.5 cm (3 ) in diameter and positioned at least one per five vines ror the Guyot system to prevent wind damage when the vines are in full leaf. Double wires are useful at each wire height, so that fruiting laterals can be tucked between the wires rather than tied .

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t
Vine spacing and planting
If vines are to be planted on a reasonable scale , then they should be planted in rows , ideally 1.31.5 m (4-5 tt) apart. When rows are over 2 m (6 tt) apart, the vineyard loses its microclimate and no heat is retained between rows : this is particularly important when the grapes are ripening and air temperatures are declining . The planting distance within rows depends on the fertility of the soil and vigorous of the vine. On ve ry poor soi ls, spacing of 60 em (2 tt) are adequate , on moderately fertile soils 1.2 m (4 ft) may sutriee , while on very rich soils or with very vigorous vines , 2 m (6 ft) ma y be ne cessary. In general 1.2 m (4 ft) is a good norm . Vines can be planted at any time in the dormant season from November to late April or early May. Cui all vine roots back to 7.5 cm (3 "), top growth back to 2·3 buds and soak the plants in water for severa l hours prior to planting . Plant them deep enough so thai only 7.5 cm (3 ") is above soil level, and if grafted so the graft is j ust above soil level. Each vine requires a bamboo or similar support about 1.5 m (5 tt) long .
It is common practice now to mulch new vine rows with a narrow strip (60 cm , 2 fI or so) of black polythene . This ensures thai young vines grow away strongly with no weed competition or drought stress.

Pruning systems
Pruning can be underta ken at any time between January and April. Vines must not be pruned during frosts, or the vine will suffer die·back from the pruning wound; branches are also apt to snap if bent when frosted. In Britain, vine damage from winter cold is rare (roots can die al -12°C, and buds at -2S°C). Guyot system The most common system used in Britain , requiring posts and wires. Cropping begins in the third year ; vines allowed to crop in their second year may be set back , and th e fruit will be of poor quality. The bottom wire is at a height of 50 cm (20 · ), then pairs of wires are attached at SO cm (2 ft S") and 130 cm (4 ft 4") ; strong end posts are needed . This system has the huge advantage in borderline areas of bearing the crop 30-40 cm (12-16") from the ground, taking advantage of heat radiation from the ground ; it is also sturdy in windy and storm y conditions. Year 1: Allow just one shoot to grow, tying it to the cane every 15 cm (6 ") . Keep the ground between vines clean. Winter: In the winter, cut this down to 2 or 3 buds . Year 2: Allow two shoots to grow into strong pencil-thick rods of 1.2 (4 ft) or more in length. Some feed in the spring will encourage such growth if necessary. Tie Ihese to Ihe bamboo shoot again . During the season, side shoots (sub-laterals) will grow from the leafaxils ; these should be pinched out after one leaf - vines should be checked every 2-4 weeks for axils. (This practice should be undertaken every year, as sub-laterals do little for the ripening of grapes or wood .) Keep the ground between vines clean . Winter : If no shoots are pencil thick, repeat from winter of year 1. Otherwise, bend the stronger rod down and tie to the bottom wire and cut after the 7-Sth upward facing bud (less with weaker vines) . cutting the second rod out , leaving a 2-3 bud spur. This spur will form the two fruiting rods and spur for the next year. Year 3' Allow 6-S fruiting shoots to grow from upward-facing buds on the rOd . rubbing out other buds and shoots soon after bud burst. Tuck these growing fruiting laterals between the wires until they

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reach above the top wire, when they should be nipped out. Pinch out side shoots as for year 2. Each fruiting lateral may bear 1-2 bunches of grapes. In autum n , remova l of the bottom leaves is sometimes practised to improve fruit ripening and reduce the risk of botrytis . Winter: Cut away the horizontal two-year wood and fruiting latera ls, leaving 3-4 young rods on or near the head of the v in e from which to choose the new fruiting wood and spu r. Choose the rod best placed to provide a spur. and cut this to 3 buds: then choose one (sing le Guyot) or two (double Guyot. the normal system) rods and tie these to the bottom wire. Trim off all sub latera ls and teQdrils as these tend to harbour mild ew and botrytis . Note; most of the ancient French vines fail to fruit when Guyot trained. This is because the vines are unfruitful on the first five buds and the sixth bud is the first to be fertile . For these . prune the fruiting lateral s down to le ave 8 bu ds . Rub off the mid dle buds after bud burst. and leaves the first and sixth to develop . Guyot pruning system: before and after pruning Replacement canes

/\
50 cm 30 cm

I

50 cm

I

1

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Year 4: Allow 6-8 fruiting shoots to grow from upward-facing buds on each rod , rubbing out other ~nd shoots soon after bud burst. Avoid overcrowding by spacing the shoots about 7.5 cm (3") apart. Tuck these growing fruiting laterals between the wires until they reach above the top wire . when they should be nipped out. Pinch out side shoots as for year 2. Each fruiting lateral may bear 1-2 bunches of grapes: it is French practice to pinch out the third, weakest flower cluster from each fruiting lateral before flowering to improve the quality and overall yield; whereas in Germany they prefer to all ow 3 bunches per lateral. with the drawback of lower quality and a reduced life for the vine. In autumn, removal of the bottom leaves is sometimes practised to improve fruit ripening and reduce the risk of botrytis.
~:

As for year 3. Then continue with year 4 procedures.

Variations on the Guyot system:

Most of the ancient French vines fail to fruit when normally Guyot trained. This is because the vines are unfruitful on the first 5 buds. Thus for these, prune the fruiting laterals down to

For lighter-cropping small-clustered hybrid vines the replacement canes can be arched to increase the number of fruiting laterals . Space vines at 1.5- 1.8 (5-6 ft).

m
leave 8 buds; the first and sixth are allowed to grow.

Head or goblet pruning This is practised in France and other areas, sometimes with a single low wire as support, more often with no wire at all. The vine is formed as a short-stemmed . low free-standing bush , spurpruned back to the head or crown each winter. Year 1 & winter 1: Train as for Guyot system . Year 2: Allow new growth to extend to 30 cm (1 ft), then pinch out. On remaining stem, rub out all but top two buds, which wi ll develop and grow, pinching them out after 2 leaves but leaving sublaterals; tie these to a bamboo cane. Winter: Cut back each shoot to leave 6 buds (for old French varieties) I 2-3 buds (other varieties) on matu re, well-ripened cane. As the vine ages , more fruiting spurs can be left to the head of the vine, until a maximum of 12 is reached , which will in turn produce 12 fruiting laterals. Year 3: In spring after bud burst, keep on ly the strongest and most fertile shoot on each spur. When summer growth is at its maximum , the rods can be gathered together and tied, so they support each other. Nip out the tops of each fruiting lateral after the 12th leaf. Winter onwards: as for year 2 winter onwards.

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Goblet pruning: after second year's pruning, third and fourth years. Mosel system This is used on steep and undulating sites in Germany where post and wire trellis in unfeasible. It is really a variation of the Guyot system, in that two replacement canes are grown each year, which replace the two of the previous year when pruning takes place in winte r. No wires are used, each vine being supported by its own 2 m (6 tt) stake. The stem or leg of the vine is grown to a height of 1 m (3 tt) or more and instead of tying the replacement rods sideways onto wi res, they are bent in a complete arc downwards and tied back t a the stem of the vine. This method is as productive as the Guyot system, but of course is less expensive to set up. Access to vi nes is much easier, as one can walk between vines in any direction . High trellis systems· lenz Moser and Geneva double curtain These are little used in the more northerly vine-growing regions, where vines are lower and closer to trap and conserve soil heat lenz Moser system This is a cordon trained on a wire 1.2 m (4 tt) high ; two further pairs of wires are placed at 1.5 m (5 tt) and 1.6 m (6 tt) . The vines are planted 1.2 m (4 tt) apart , in rows 3 m (10 tt) apa rt. The vin e is trained up to the first wire, and two rods trained horizontally along it. Fruiting canes are taken from spurs which spiral along the old rods. The short fru iti ng canes are cut to leave 6-10 buds to provide a replacement for the following year.

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Advantages: Cheaper initially, with about a half of the number of vines needed as opposed to Guyot. Most work can be mechanised with full-scale equipment, The wide rows can be green manured in the autumn. to be ploughed back in spring, or grassed and mown quickly with standard tractor systems. Harvesting and pruning (the only manual work) are conducted at face height rather than knee level - reducing fatigue and improving efficiency. Vines are held high enough to escape slight spring frosts. Disadvantages: 8est suited to sheltered sites in hot, low-lying areas, where a cooler shaded environment is created where the vines function more efficiently. Only suits vigorous vine cultivars.
Geneva double curtain This uses a high I-trellis, 2 m (6 ft) above the ground, with rows 3 m (10 ft) apart. It is an extension of the Lenz Moser system, in that the vines are trained high , with wide grassed alleys between the vines. Two parallel wires are used, and vines are trained with a bamboo cane up to the wire height, then two rods are trained horizontally onto the wires, which are then spur-pruned each winter. Different culUvars require different numbers of buds left on the spurs - generally 3-6 are needed .
---------- - ---------------~~_,r_-

2m

________~J',_______
The advantages are: Cheaper initially: on ly about a quarter of the number of vines are needed as opposed to the Guyot system. The wide rows can be green manured in the autumn, to be ploughed back in spring, or grassed and mown quickly with standard tractor systems. Less work - no summer pruning needed; no bending needed for harvest. The disadvantages are: Massive end posts are required (eg. telegraph poles) . Only suited to vigorous hybrid vines (or vinifera vines on very vigorous rootstocks) as most vinifera varieties take too long to drag themselves up to furnish the high-wire system, and take 8 yea rs to reach fu ll cropping.

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High-trained vines are much more susceptible to wind damage and bird damage (g rapes are on the lop surface of the vines in full view of birds) . Wood ripening is not so good , especially with vin ifera varieties. Bud break and flowering are delayed. Yields are less. limited to 2.5-3.8 t/ha (1-1.5 tonsfacre), some 30% of those obtained by the Guyot system . Also, sugars are 10% lower and acidity 10% higher comparatively .
A variat,on of the Geneva system which is better in windy localities is to train the arms of the vine one on each wire, thus:

,.
Rootstocks
Grapes are very susceptible to attacks by phylloxera, a root louse which is especially prevalent in some areas of Europe and which almost destroyed the grape industry there after its introduction from North America around 1860. However, American species of grapes that are resistant to phylJoxera are now used as rootstocks and this allows grapes to be grown in areas where the disease is common. Grafted vines yield slightly lower than those on their own roots, and ha ve a useful life of only 25 years or so (as opposed to 70 years or more for ungrafted vines) and start to decline after 15·20 years. Britain is free of the disease at the present and grapes are often grown on their own roots (particularly since many of the viable grape cultivars here are only available on their own roots). However, phyll oxera can be blown on the wind for up to 100 miles (160 km) so that it may arrive here one day.

Rootstocks were initially bred for phylloxera . resistan ce and graft compatibility , but selection has also taken place for resistance to root rots and nematodes and for tolerance for drought, high lime and high soil salts . Rootstocks have been derived mainly from hybrids of following species:

Vilis riparia, the riverbank grape. It is cold hardy and resistant to phylloxera . downy mildew and black rot. but is susceptible to lime·jnduced chlorosis and drought. It roots readily and prefers moist. sandy soil. The root system is sha1Jow and spreading. Bud burst is very early in spring . It encourages early ripening. Vitis rupeslris . the sand grape . It is hardy and resistant to phylloxera. mildew and black rot. It is easily rooted and grows well in sandy soil. It is moderately tolerant to lime and slightly more drought tolerant than riparia . Roots are less fibrous and go deeper than riparia . Bud burst is early . It encourages early ripening . Vilis berfandieri. little mountain grape . It is moderately hardy and resistant to phylloxera , mildew , black rot and drought stress. It does not root easily , but the roots grow deep in the soil and are tolerant of high lime. Bud burst is late. It prolongs maturing dates. Vitis champini, the adobe land grape. It is resistant to phylloxera , black rot and limy soils , and is moderately resistant to downy mildew. It is only moderately hardy but is very drought tolerant. It

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does not roo I easily . but it grows well in both sandy and clay soils. and it s hard roots penetrate deeply into the soil. Phyllo Nema Or'l Lime Salt res res res res Species res Rootstock riparia x rupestris 4 2 1 9 0 101-14 Mgt fupestris x berlandieri 4 4 17 2 110 Richter 4 rupeslris x berlandieri 17 0.6 2 3 1103 Paulson riparia x vinifera 2 1 2 13 0.8 1202 Couderc rupestris x berlandieri 4 4 3 20 140 Ruggeri 4 tow Solonis x (Iabru x ripar x vinif) 2 2 1613 Couderc riparia x berlandieri 4 1 25 0 161·49 Couderc 1 1 riparia x Soloni5 11 3 0.8 1616 Couderc 4 fiparia x rupestris 11 0.4 1 1 3306 Couderc riparia x rupestris 4 1 1 11 0.4 3309 Couderc berlandieri x vin ifera 2 1 40 v.se n 2 333 EM v.sen berlandieri x vin ifera 4 1 3 40 419 Mgt riparia x berlandieri 4 2 2 20 420 A Mgt riparia x rupestris x cordifolia 4 4 10 2 44-53 Malegue 4 riparia x berlandieri 20 3 1 5 BS Teleki riparia x berlandieri 4 4 1 17 5C berlandieri x riparia 4 4 17 0 3 69 4 17 3 rupestris x berlandieri 2 0 99 Richter riparia x vinifera 2 1 2 13 0.8 AXR #1 V .champini 2 4 2 Dogridge 4 1613c x Dogridge 2 2 Freedom 1613c x Dogridge 2 4 2 Harmony V.riparia 5 2 1 0.7 6 Riparia Gloi re 4 15 0.7 2 2 V.rupestris Rupestris St.George V .champini 2 4 2 Salt Creek riparia x berlandieri 4 4 1 17 0.4 SO 4 Phyllo res : resistance to phylloxera, 5= very resistant , = very susceptible. Nema res : resistance to nematodes, 5= very resistant , 1 = very susceptible . Or't res : resistance to drought, 5= very resistant, 1 = very susceptible. lime res: tolerance of Calcium as a % of soi l level. Salt res : tolerance of NaCI in gIL of soil.

Flowering
Flowering takes place over 10-21 days, depending on the temperature and humidity, in late June or (m ore commonly) early July in Britain. Grapes are wind pollinated and self-fertile . although fruit size can be doubled when cross pollination occurs ; thus two or more cultivars are a good idea . W arm , dry , windy conditions are perfect; in cold wet seasons, pollination is often poor.

Feeding
Grapes are voracious feeders, but the amount of fertiliser needed will largely depend on the soil; on some soils, ve ry littl e is eve r needed, while on poor soils , annual feeds are required. Vine leaves of a yellowish colour indicate a mineral deficiency of some kind . Vines need little nitrogen certainly don't add any except on the poorest of soils when little growth is made - but require plentiful magnesium , potash, zinc and boron.

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Rootstock 101-14 Mgl 110 Richter 1103 Paulson 1202 Couderc 125 AA ~ 140 Ruggeri 1613 Couderc 161-49 Couderc 1616 Couderc 3306 Couderc 3309 Couderc 333 EM 41 B Mgt 420 A Mgt 44-53 Malegue 5 aa Teleki

Vigour moderate v.vigorous vigorous v.vigorous vigorous v .vigorous moderate moderate moderate vigorous vigorous moderate moderate v .vigorous moderate v.vigorous v .vigorous v .vigorous moderate low v.vigorous v .vigorous moderate

Soil types moist most include dry dry, sandy/ alkaline poor sandy most shallow, dry fertile moist fertile, moist/wet fertile well-drained fertile well-drained alkaline Poor alkaline deep fertile heavy acid , sandy moist clay/a lkaline clay , loam moist deep fertile light sandy

Comments Inconsistent GC ; EER Good GC Good GC Good GC; very fertile Encourages good set Good GC Poor GC fertile, EER Good GC Very EER; good GC Gives good crops, high sugar Gives good crops ; good GC Retards maturity; not easily grafted Good GC: fertile inconsistent GC

5C
8 B Teleki 99 Richter AXR #1 Dog ridge Freedom Harmony Riparia Gloire Rupestris St.George Salt Creek SO 4

Good GC Poor GC Good GC Good GC ; EER ; scion res to coulure Good GC; scion has low fertility Poor GC Fairly good GC: EER

deep fertile deep deep sandy moist clayfloam

GC = graft compatibility EER = encourages early ripening

Pests, diseases and problems
Coulure is the abortion of fruit embryos prior to flowering - the embryo flower shoot suddenly browns and shrivels . It is caused by potash, zinc , boron or calcium deficiency. Prevent by spraying seaweed solution at least twice before flowering. Millerandage is symptomatic of very poor pollination or fruit set , resulting in a few berries in each bunch setting and swelling normally, the remainder staying tiny . It is caused by mineral deficiencies andl or poor weather . Seaweed solution used for coulure (above) should help prevent the problem . Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) can attack vines especially after the bark splits after very cold temperatures (-20°C or so) . It is more common in a grassed down vineyard, particularly where lush clover is present. Vines affected display a spongy mass emanating from the damaged area at ground level, lose vigour and slowly die .

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Honey fungus - grapes are also notably susceptible to honey fungus (Armilfaria spp .) powdery mildew (Uncinufa necator) can be a major fungal disease . It forms a fine grey powdery skin on the leaves , young shoots and grapes. It is favoured by warm humid conditions and often appea rs in autumn. Good air flow around vi ne s helps prevent it. II can be treated with powdered sulphur. Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticofa) is another major disease which also occurs on Parlhenocissus species. This forms pale translucent or yellow-greenish spreading patches on the upper side of the leav es; as it develops, a thick while down forms on the leaf undersides and sometimes Ihe grapes. The mould disappears when conditions become drier. Young shoots, leaf sta lks , tendrils and flowers may turn brown and mature fruit may rot. This fungus can be controlled with Bordeaux mixture ; it overwinters as spores on dead leaves beneath vines. Botrytis (Bolrylis cinerea) is the third of the three major fungal diseases. It attacks all parts of Ih e vine including the fruits. See the separate article in this issue for more details . Try and improve air flow to reduce susceptibility. Phylloxera (Daklulosphaira vitifofiae) is a North American species introduced into Europe around 1863. It ravaged European vineyard s in the second half of the 19th century and was eventually checked only by grafting all commercial European vines onto resistant rootstocks derived from North American vine species . It is still present in Europe but is no longer a serious pest ; it is not established in Britain but is occasionally accidentally introduced - when vines must be destroyed by law. This root louse attacks and eats vine roots of V. vinifera cultivars . The roots slop growing , leaves turn reddish and vines rapidly collapse and die. Leaf galls may develop on some vines during attacks. Vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is a weevil which la ys grubs that eat vine roots. Signs of attack are indicated by chunks taken out of the edges of leaves. Ground beetles are good predators of vine weevil - encourage these if possible. A good biological control is available which is watered onto the soil surface around the affected vine. Birds can be a major problem in Britain and some other areas of Europe , attacking the ripening grapes. Deterrents sometimes work , like hanging long strips of yellow plastic above the vineyard. Others net the whole vineyard against both birds and wasps ; one way of doing this is , about 3 weeks before harvest , attach netting to the second wire up (G uyot system) and moor it to the ground with stones. Repeat this on the other side of the vines as well, and the fruiting sections will be completely covered. lift the nets immediately before harvest. Wasps are the other potential major problem in Britain. Not only might they attack ripening fruits, but they might then sting pickers during harvest. Options are to destroy nearby nests, to hang traps (narrow-necked containers half-full of beer) near where the wasps are likely to live , or netting as for birds. Wasps are repelled by lavender - v in es can be interplanted with lavender in the rows. Later-ripening cultivars (October-November) may ripen after the wasps hibernate and so may escape the problem.

Harvesting
Maturity is best indicated by the balances between sugars and acids. Picking too early results in very high acidity and reduced yield; picking too late results in high sugars and low acids. The optimum sugar:acid ratios are different for juice, fresh , wine and different culUvars.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 3

Taste is an invaluable test for ripeness : before they are fully ripe , grapes are very acid. Any serious grower, especially for wine , will test the sugar content by using a hydrometer or refractometer. Grapes are often machine harvested for processing but not for fresh use - clusters tend to break up and berries damaged , necessitating immediate processing . Manual I;larvesters should use a sharp pruning knife or secateurs to cleanly cut the bunches off. Yields in Britain depend largely on the summer weather, and can vary from 2.5-22 tlha (1-9 tons per acre .) Harvested fruits can be stored at 0 to 1°C for several months - store in shallow layers in slatted wooden boxes for good air circulation . The stems eventually become brittle and the berries may shrivel a Httle, but the fruit flavour and character remain good for some time. The best storing varieties tend to be those with tight clusters , where the berries don't crack easily , and which have fairly tough skins . Grapes can be frozen for storage : wash the clusters, remove the berries from the stems and freeze in containers . When thawed, they can be used on cereal , in cooking , or by themselves (when still partly frozen , some varieties rival a good sorbet.) Avoid using varieties with acid or bitter skins un less they are destined for cooking - the acid/bitterness wilt permeate through the flesh when frozen. Grapes from all grape cultivars can be made into juice. Wine grapes press mechanically much better than dessert grapes - the latter have thicker flesh: wine grapes also have a better sugar:acid ratio for juice. If using a press, use a nylon bag to stop seeds passing through the gaps in the staves : remember to chop/cut the grapes first , after removing them from the stems. On a small scale, with seedless grapes, it is often easier to use an electric juicer; don 't use it for grapes with seeds , though, as the seeds 100 will be ground , releasing tannins and gritty bits into the juice. On a small scale, the best way to preserve juice is by freezing it. The processing of fruits into wine is a subject beyond Ihe scope of this article - needless to say it is both an art and a science on which numerous books have been written.

Agroforestry potential for

~rapes

Although grapes can be grown up trees - they are supposed to do particularly well with elm and mulberry. Until three centuries ago , many European landscapes were still agroforests and fruit trees of the Rosaceae family (apples , pears, plums, apricots, peaches, almonds) were left scattered across fields , not hindering manual cultivation techniques ; these often provided living trelHses for grape vines. In Britain , however, this technique can cause a lot of extra work for little benefit. The grapes, if any , will be borne high in the trees necessitating ladders for harvest. Pruning is a nightmare, summer pruning is more or less impossible, although winter pruning may be possible - eg o treat the limbs of the tree like the wires in a Geneva double curtain system, and train permanent rods along each limb; each of these rods can then be spur-pruned each winter. The fruiting laterals will trail down (ish) from the rods each year. Only attempt this on a small scale, and with trees which have a thin canopy : shading will drastically reduce fruiting and delay ripening . Windbreaks are commonly used in windy areas for vineyards - particularly in Britain. The force of a strong wind on Guyot or other system trained vines on wires is tremendous and protection is vital although this has be weighed up against good air flow to reduce diseases. Alley cropping of vines is certainly feasible , with fairly wide-spaced rows of trees or shrubs and alleys of vine rows. The trees

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used in such systems should have thin canopies and not be nitrogen-fixers unles s the soil is very poor. Alley cropping is also feasible using the space between vine rows; in China , grapes are intercropped with vegetables and medicinal herbs. Such intercropping is uncommon in Europe, where occasionally vineyards are grassed between vine rows - but the grass is mown regula rl y and not util ised otherwise. For sensible inte rcropping, vine rows need to be wider than normally spaced : 3 m (10 ft) or so . The central 2 m (6-7 ft) can be cultivated and planted with vegetables or herbs , allowing enough of a gap at each side for manual access to the vines for summer pruning , harvest etc . The vines will cast significant shade in summer, so the most appropriate interplant crops are likely to be overwintered crops , fast growing spring crops or shade tolerant c rops . Grassed vineyards have potential for grazing, but in practice Ihis proves problematical. Sheep and goats may well damage dormant vines and will certainly damage growing vines . The post and wire systems obviously impede movement and may mean uneven grazing and make stock control difficult. Also in China, grapes vines are sometimes trained over streams and irrigation canals on sturdy post and wire systems , giving potential for grape production in areas not usually used for plants.

Cultivars
There are some three thousand grape cullivars , bred in all grape-growing regions . Climate is of great importance in influencing the quality and production of individual cultivars , and great care must be taken to choose appropriate cultivars for a particular site. It would take a whole (large) book to describe all grape cu ltivars, so this article concentrates on the hardy cultivars of use in Britain (most of French or German origin). All are Vilis vinifera or V.vinifera hybrids - cultivars of V./abrus ca and V.rotundifo/ia are not included , as these Ame ri can vines need a longer growing season than the UK offers. Hybrid vines crop more heavily than pure vinifera, and wines made from the grapes mature faster, store for less time in the bottle , lack high-quality taste and are regarded as of inferior denomination. They are , however, often bred from classic vines (eg. Chardonnay , Pinot Nai r ). In Britain (as elsewhere), it is vital for commercia l plantings of vines for wine to produce a viab le crop every year, even after bad summers, and thus it is most usual for such growers to plant earlyripening va ri eties. The one drawback with this strategy is that in very good summers, there might be significant wasp damage to the fruit. With summers warmi ng due to climate change, the case for planting mid-ripening varieties is becoming stronger. The ma in desirable attributes when choosing a cultivar for Britain are: The most important characteristic is the ability to ripen its replacement wood really well before the onset of winter frosts . Without this , the vine is susceptible to deb ilitating mildew and botrylis attack in winter and subsequent die-back . When replacement canes are not ripened adequately , the vine has to be pruned back so hard that there will be insufficient wood to bear mu ch fruit in the following season . Thick , dark, glossy leaves· less susceptib le to mildew and botrytis than a downy dull leaf, and Jess su sceptible to extremes of heat and sun or cold . The ability to produce adequate pollen and to set the flowers quickly and welt. particularly in cool damp conditions. Flowers are reluctant to pOllinate if the temperature is under 10°C ( 50°F) . Some vines manage well in poor condition s, others fails to set any grape s at all. Adequate vigour. Excessi ve vigour in a vineyard causes a lot of extra work .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

~~--- - - -

- -

-

~~-

---- -

---

The ability to produce viable yields with reliable consistency . Fruit buds are laid down in July of the current year, and this is reliant on the wea ther and temperature in July _ The quality of the grapes reflects the parentage of the vine. For wine , a good sugar-acid balance is necessary along with sufficient bouquet and flavour, and the ability to give a good extract from the pulp.

White , vinifera Gultivars
Auxerrois : Widely grown in Alsace and Luxembourg, used for wine. Moderately vigorous and productive , prefers alkaline sites. Mid season . The wood ripens well. leaves are dark and glos sy, not susceptible to mildew. The grapes are loose in the bunch and make a good wine. Of French origin.
Bacchus: Similar in habit to Muller Thugau, but more rel iabl e in flowering and better quality. Early ripening, medium sized fruit. Vigorous grower. Makes a good wine. Chardonnay: One of the great wine grapes , but needs a very favoured site to ripen its grapes in England . Likes an alkaline site . A healthy vine , slow growing in spring. The wood ripens well. Of French origin. Chasselas: For wall culture in Eng land ~ late ripening. Widely grown in France as an eating grape ~ low in acidity . A vigorous vine. The wood ripens moderately well. Of French origin . Forta 100 : A German bred vine which is very winter hardy but needs a good site. t/ha (2~3 tonsfacre) and produces a good wine. Yields
5~7 . 5

Freisamer: German bred vine which likes a good site and soil , is frost hardy , easrly ripening with grapes of good quality which make a good wine. Gewurztraminer: Grown extensively in Alsace and Germany for wine , producing a fruity , full~ bodied wine . The vine is vigorous and mid to late ripening in Britain ~ requires a good site and soil. The wood ripens we ll. Should be trained by the double Guyot method with ea ch replacement cane highly arched ra ther than flat to enco urage buds nearer the stem to be fruitful. Of French origin . Makes an excellent juice with a flowery flavour. Gutenborner: A Muller Thurgau cross, with grapes of similar behaviour. Huxelrebe: Thrives in a warm , well~drained soil and a good site. This German vine is very v igorous and fertile , producing large crops (can become biennial if not thinned ). The grapes are early~ripening , with high sugar and acidity, making a strong wine , good when aged . The wood ripens well. Kerner: A German vine with good frost resistance, moderate vigour and excellent wood ripening . mid~ripening grapes which make an outstanding wine . Sets fruit weH in a poor yea r . Moderately vigorous, late to drop its leaves.

It carries moderate yields of

Madeleine Angevine : Grown as an eating grape in France , it has gained a good reputation in Britain due to early ripening, consistent cropping and making a good wine. The fru it sets well even in poor weather and yields are heavy (7.5~10 t/ha, 3~4 tonsfacre). The vine is vigorous, quite healthy and sets a good crop (often 3 bunches per lateral); the wood ripens well. Of French origin. Madeleine Sylvaner: Anot her old French vine , vigorous, early flowering , sets well and produces a moderate crop of very early ripening grapes for dessert or wine. Produces a good wine . The wood ripens well.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS VolB No 3

----- ~

Mireille: Produces early fruits of Muscat flavour. Needs a wall to ripen outdoors in Britain. Muller Thurgau: A German vine, widely grown there. Mid ripening. It adapts to most soils and situations, but is extremely vigorous, needing constant summer pruning ; the wood ripens poorly ; and flower set is poor in poor summers. Produces a pleasant wine. Muscat de Saumur: An early ripening golden Muscat grape , with high quality fruit. Quite low yielding, but can be used in mixtures to improve wines. It ripens its wood well. Crops on six-bud spurs. Noblessa: German bred vine, early ripening and moderate yielding. Has good potential for wine

making.
Optima: German vine, producing moderate yields of very early ripening grapes, moderately vigorous vine. Produces a good wine. The wood ripens well. Healthy,

Osiris: German bred vine , early to mid season ripening, yielding good crops of grapes which make a fine wine. Ripens its wood well. Perle: A German vine, adaptable to most soils and sites, frost resistant and ripens its wood well. Produces mild wines. Moderately vigorous vine, and a reliable moderate cropper of early-ripening grapes. Perlette: An old French variety , vigorous and producing a low acid wine. The grapes are seedless and plentiful. Early ripening. Perle de Czaba: A very old French variety, early ripening and moderately vigorous. good wine . Very often vines only crop on long six-bud spurs. The wood ripens well. Produces a

Pinot Gris (Tokay): Mid-ripening , moderately vigorous and a fairly light cropper, bearing small bunches of greyish-mauve grapes. Used in mixtures for wine. The wood ripens well. Of French origin. Precoce de Malingre: An old French vine of somewhat shrubby habit, responding best to long sixbud spurs. Berries small, pale amber, sweet and juicy - dual use. Extremely early ripening grapes make a good wine. The wood ripens well. Regner: A German vine which likes a good site and well drained soil. Moderately vigorous , mid ripening, setting well in poor summers, and makes a good wine. The wood ripens well. Reichensteiner: A German vine which likes a good well-drained site and fairly rich soil. Early ripening , small-medium sized grapes . The wood ripens late and poorly and is somewhat diseaseprone. Growth is moderate to strong and flower set is good even in poor years. Produces a good wine. Schon burger (Rosa Muskat): A German vine which adapts to all soils and conditions (prefers fertile , well drained) , sets well in poor weather and produces a good wine from mid-ripening grapes . Needs a hot south-facing slope. The wood ripens well. Septimer: A German vine, early ripening, moderately vigorous, adaptable to soil and site, ripens wood well. Produces moderate yields of quality grapes that make a good wine . Siegerrebe: A German vine which dislikes alkaline conditions . Moderately vigorous, and doesn ' t set too well in poor weather, but otherwise produces good yields of very early ripening grapes for dessert or wine. Makes a good wine. The wood ripens well and leaves are dark and thick.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Wurzer : A German vine , moderately vigorous , liking a neutral fertile , well-drained soil and good site. It produces heavy crops of ea rly-ripening grape s, making a good wine . It ripens its wood well.

White hybrid cultivars
Concord : A leading Ame rican vi ne , with an unmistakable 'foxy' flavour from its labrusca origin s. Used fpr dessert and wine . Needs a wall in Britain. Has ornamental autumn foliage . Emerald : An American vine, which ripens its grapes well in the open vineyard in Britain. Produces a large crop of round green grapes that make a fair wine. Faber : Tolerant of most soils and frost hardy , this vine needs a good site and ripens mis season . Heavy cropping , of good vigour, sets well in a poor year and bears grapes with a good sugar-acid balance, making a very good wine. Wood ripening is only fair - poor in a cool year. Himrod Seedless : An American vine producing seedless grapes of good flavour. Needs a wall in Britain . Seibel 5279 (Aurora): A very vigorous, healthy vine with drooping growth which demands spur pruning . The grapes are mid-ripening , small, grey-yellow with an attractive spicy flavour produces a good wine . The wood ripens well. Widely grown in New York state . Seyvat Blanc (Seyve-Villard 5276): A very popular vine in Britain , ve ry suited to the climate. Produces a clean wine, also very suitable for blending . Heavy cropping, mid ripening, can suffer from poor fruit set, and ripens its wood very well.

Red vinifera cultivars
Dunkelfelder: A German vine, moderately vigorous and early ripening. Ripens wood well, but susceptible to Botrytis. Makes a reasonable wine . The wood ripens well. The vine has good autumn colour. The grapes have blood-red juice, useful for colouring wine red (usually this is achieved by fermenting the win of the skins of red grapes) . Nair hatif de Marseilles: An old French cultivar, low in vigour, producing low to moderate yields of early-ripening grapes of good quality for wine. Susceptible to mildew. Pinot Nair: A classic French grape , mid ripening and ca n be used for white wine production in Britain . V ine of low vigour, m oderatel y cropping - needs a good site and alkaline soil. The wood ripens well. Wrotham Pinot (Meunier) : A hardy French vine which bud s late and does not need an alkaline soil. It has white down on its leaves and is one of the Champagne grapes. Best on a wall in Britain , but may be satisfacto ry outside . Zweigeltrebe : An Austrian vine of extreme vigour and large leaves . Produces heavy crop s of large loose bunches of late-ripening grapes that make an acceptable wine. The wood ripens well. Only suited to the best sites in southern England .

Red hybrid cultivars
Baco NO.1: a French hybrid of great vigour (plant vines 2-3 m apart); practically immune from mildew and botrytis . A fairly hea vy cropper of mid-ripening intensely black grapes which make a clean slightl y spicy wine. It ripens it s wood well.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Brandt: Of Canadian origin. a very vigorous healthy vine which produces good crops of black grapes which make a fair red wine if allowed to mature for a year or two . Has good autumn colour and ripens its wood well. Widely grown in Britain as a wall vine. Foch : Bred in Alsace. it is vigorous and healthy. The small berries make a mediocre Burgundyslyle wine . Fragale (Strawberry grape): Fruits mauve with a strawberry flavour. Vigorous dual use vine. Gagarin Blue: A Russian dual purpose hybrid from Pinot Noir and V.amurensis . Crops freely, early to mid season ripening, with large bunches of grapes which are very open and thus less liable 10 mildew and bolrytis attack. Glory of Boskoop: Hardy variety bred in Holland producing black sweet grapes . Joffre: Bred in Alsace, the grapes ripen early and are borne in light crops. They make an ordinary wine. The wood ripens well. Kuibishevski; A Russian hybrid from Pinot Nair and V.amurensis . Crops freely , mid season ripening , with open bunches of grapes which are very open and thus less liable to mildew and botrytis attack. Leon Millot: Very vigorous, mid season ripening and bearing heavy crops - vines respond well to arched cane pruning. Grapes are dua l use. The wood ripens well. The wine is good, improving with a year in bulk followed by a year in bottle. Resistant 10 mildew and botrylis; not attractive to birds . Juice rich with an intense cherry flavour. Oberlin 595: Bred in Alsace, this is a vigorous healthy vine , giving a moderate to good crop of small tight black bunches. Very early ripening, with good wood ripening. Pirovano 14: A vine suited to wall growing, where it produces masses of large black eating or wine grapes. Late ripening, with good wood ripening . Ravat 262: A Pinot Nair hybrid , this ripens its grapes early to mid-season, but it can have flower set problems. Makes a quality wine . Schuyler: An American vine, mid season ripening, producing moderate to good crops of black grapes with a pleasant flavour which make a very fair wine. Moderately vigorous. Seibel 13053 (Cascade): An early-ripening, hardy prolific vine , grown quite a lot in Britain as a rose or red wine grape. Mildew resistant ; ornamental autumn foliage . The wine needs a year in bulk before bottling. It ripens its wood well. Tereshkova: A Russian dual purpose hybrid from Pinot Nair and V.amurensis. Crops freely, mid season ripening, with open bunches of round grapes which are very open and thus less liable to mildew and botrytis attack. Triomphe d'Alsace: A vigorous and disease-resistant vine , which needs good weather at flowering time and can bear a very heavy crop of intensely-flavoured black grapes. The wine needs keeping in bulk for two years followed by a year in bottle , when it is quite good . Early to mid ripening and ripens its wood weir. Resistant to mildew and botrytis; not attractive to birds.

Propagation
Seed - sow late winter in a cold frame . Six weeks cold stratification improves germination. This is a hybrid species and will not come true from seed.

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Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth , December/January in a frame. These cuttings can be of wood 15 - 30 cm long or they can be of short sections of the stem about 5 cm long with just one bud at the top of the section. In this case a thin , narrow strip of the bark about 3 cm long is removed from the boltom half of the side of the stem. This will encourage callusing and the formation of roots. Due to the size of these cuttings they need to be kept in a more protected environment than the longer cuttings . Layerin.9 is very easy. Grafting onto rootstocks is commonly done using small machines which cut an and sc ion. Manually, any grafting method can be used.
Q

shape in stock

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants Database, 2000. Buczacki , S & Harris, K: Pets, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants. Collins, 1998. Gordon, A & Newman , S: Temperate Agroforestry Sys tem s. CAB International, 1997. Pearkes, G: Growing Grapes in Britain. Amateur Winemaker, 1977 . Pea rkes, G: Vine Gro wing in Britain. Dent, 1982. Pongracz, D: Rootstocks fo r Grape-vines. David Phillip , 1983. Rombough, L: Using Grapes Part 1: Storing and Freezing. Fruit Gardener, Vol 31 No 4. Rombough, L: Using Grapes Part 2: Making Juice. Fruit Gardener, Vol 31 No 5.

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ECO·LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permaculture, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath Bath , BA2 3AF. Telephone 01225 484472. The Agroforestry Research Trust sells seeds and plants of over 300 species of useful tree, shrub and perennial plants. The Trust also publishes a variety of books on useful plants, fruits , nuts, ground covers etc. Our 00101 catalogue is out in September 2000, and is sent automatically to Agroforeslry News subscribers and all customers over the past year. Others please send 3 x 1st class stamps for a catalogue. Martin Crawford of the Trust also undertakes consultancy work . A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT, UK. NUTWOOD NURSERIES. Unfortunately the purchase of land to consolidate the move of Nutwood from Cheshire to Cornwall has fallen through . This means that we will be unable to send any trees during the period Autumn 1999 to Summer 2000. We apologise to all our customers and friends and hope to get back into production next year. NUTWOOD NURSERIES, 2 MILLBROOK COTTAGES, CORNWALL. TR130BZ.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 3

Agroforcstrf is the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce" diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures iJfnviding shelter, shade a~d emergency forage, to iorest garden systems incorp;:>rating layers o'tali and sma!! trees , shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestrf News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust fOilr times a year in October, Januar~/, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 pel year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged)
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J>.groforestrJ R(;search Trllst The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. !'Jo. 1007440), with the object to research ;,,10 temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and t:; disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to f'J "d its WOi"k, which includes IIarious practical research projects.

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Volume 8 Number 4

July 2000

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 8 Number 4

July 2000

Contents
2 5 18 20 23 25 39 News Medicinal perennial crops (1) Cudrania tricuspidata: Chinese mulberry Caragana arborescens: the Siberian pea tree Forest gardening: summer maintenance Poplars Book reviews:
The RHS Dictionary of Gardening I Strawberries I The Silvicultural Basis for Agroforestry Systems

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere. may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agrororestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT. U.K. Fax & 24-hr order line: +44 (O}1803 840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: WVoNI.agroforestry.co.uk

(

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Page 1

News
Truffles
The firs t UK commercial crop of black Perigord truffles ( Tuber me/anosp orum) has been planted in Hertford sh ire . England . Farmer and estate owner Nigel Hadden· Paton has planted 50 oak and hazel t rees , their roots infected with truffle mycelium . in a walled garden at Rossw ay Park . He has also formed a company to sell the truffles and market infected trees to other people . Truffles have a wholesale price up to [BOO/kg and could potentially be a good diversification crop. The first truffles could be harvested in about five years· but harvest won 't necessitate the use of trufflehunting pigs or dogs as is traditional in France : grown on planted and spaced trees , it should be obvious where the tfumes are . Source: Woodland Heritage Journal No. 5

Poultry in tree pasture
Responding to the article in Agroforestry News Vol 8 No 2 , Ann Eggleton from Monmouth disagrees that hybrid breeds do not do well outdoors : ~ .. I have kept a flock of between 50 and 120 hens in a one acre orchard for the past ten years. I have kept Marans, Welsummers, Dorkings , Ught Sussex and Cornish Game; Warrens, Black Rocks, Shavers, Lohmann Browns, and Speckledy Hens; and Ross and Cobb table birds. The only differences are in temperament and in stamina (a modern hybrid flock wlll start to die quietly after 4 years, a pure-breed flock after 4). The table hybrids. if fed moderately instead of to appetite , will flourish and forage actively with no jo int problems , and the cocks reach 5-7 Ib dressed weight at 16 weeks. The hybrid layers will lay at least 250 eggs a year and survive even the worst weather with aplomb. I buy all my birds as day-olds, and lose no more than 2% between then and maturity. ·

Natural stand Christmas tree production
There is a 70 year history of Xmas tree production in British Columbia, Canada . One method of production, called natural stand production, uses stump culture - ie sustainable production on each stump . This eliminates much of the need to regenerate , decreases the length of the crop rolation, and in creases opportunities for forest farming under the trees. Stump culture is initiated by growing the tree 90-120 cm (3-4 ft) taller than the height of the tree to be harvested; the trees are spaced to allow, growth to maturity without touching other trees - 1..51.8 m (5-6 ft) apart. During harvest , several branches (30-40% of the foliage) are left on the stump to keep it ative. A new leader will be formed from a shoot or upturned branch . Two years after harvest the tree is pruned to a single leader. Some stumps cultured in this way have produ ced a tree every 5 years fo r the last 60 years. In dry areas of British Columbia , where native grasses grow under the trees, then domestic animals are grazed; once stump culture is established, cattle do not bother the trees . In higher rainfall areas , a wide range of herbaceous and woody vegetation grows under natural stand Christmas trees . Here , some growers are cultivating floral greenery as an understory crop. Species are used which require partial shade to produce the product quality the floral market is looking for, such as Salal (Gaultheria shallon), Bear-grass (Xerophylfum tenax) , Falsebox (Pachistima myrsinites) , Sword fern (Polystichum munitum), Deer fern (Blechnum spican!) and evergreen Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum) . These can be cultivated directly under trees and between them if there is enough shade. Sun loving plants for the floral market such as Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) can be cultivated in open or sunny areas between the Christmas trees. Alternatives to floral crops include a range of medicinal, food and craft products. So.urce: Christmas Trees : Plantations to Agroforestry Systems . R 0 Hallman. From Proceedings of 'Farming The Forest for Speciality Products ', University of Minnesota 1999.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Silvopasture in SW England
Sieve Pritcha rd from Somerset is deve loping a 40 acre farm on the Mendip plateau with an emphasis on silvopastoral agroforestry . He wou ld like to network with others pursuing a silvopastora l model whether for commercial or academic ends, especially in the South West. Steve can be contacted at: Bendall's Farm , Green Ore , Wells , Somerset , BAS 3EX . Tel : 01761

241015 .

Cider apple production
Bulmers is the largest cider maker in England, and has experienced a large increase in the cider market - presently at 500 million litres per year in the UK. They process around 100,000 lannes of app les per year. The company experienced a shortage of genuine bitter sweet apples in the UK in the 1970's and early 1980's, and as a result decided to plant more commercially sized bush orchards in the UK. They establis hed 729 hectares (1800 acres) of orcha rds themselves , and then turned to lo ca l farmers in Herefordshire and surroundin g co unties. They offered financial packages to plant orchards on 20-year orchards . In the early 1990' s the company decided to start up another planting scheme to meet increasing demand . A further 235 acres (580 acres) of orchards was set up by themselves , and additional requirement met by se lecting new growers and expanding the area of existing suppliers . There are now more than 150 producers growing intensive bush orchard s on contract and a further 950 supp liers. who have grazed st andard orchards with a planting dens ity of aro und 100 treesfhectare (40 trees/acre). The larger tonnage producers are linked to 10-year supply contracts.
It was predicted in the 1970's t hat orchards would crop at around 25t1hectare (10t/acre) and be commercially producti ve for 20-25 years . This was a huge underestimation with many of these original orchards still yielding 32-62 tlhectare (13-30 tJacre) . New contracts now stand at 30 years and contract fruit prices this year will be £92fton ne for bush orchard growe rs.

Waterbreaks - managed trees for flood plains
Many of the natural woody ecosystems that were once present in flood plains have been highly altered or removed . with the consequence that extensive flood management systems are often required to protect towns . roads and agricultura l land . However, even with the best avai lable flood management techniques , when rivers decide to flood - they will. often with devastati ng conseque nces. All owing flood plains to revert to a natu ral state may be th e ideal option but such an option would be a rad ical and contentious action. Creating a flood plain system using waterbreaks that accommodates, rather than controls flooding , A and still maintains its economic and biological attributes, is a compromise alternative. waterbreak is a planned flood plain system of linear woody buffers oriented to reduce flooding impacts and to provide supplemental benefits; the placement and use of waterbreaks are intended to m oderate water flowers si milar to the way wi ndbrea k s moderate wind flows. Waterb reak systems can , du rin g flooded co nditi ons , trap de bri s. reduce sand deposition and scouring , increase bank stability , protect levee systems , and reduce damage to roads and ditches. During non-flooded conditions, waterbreaks increase wildlife habitat, improve water quality by trapping sediments and filtering chem icals , and can provide additional farm income from sa le of wood products. A t ypical waterbreak system should includ e : • Primary wa terbreaks that parallel ri ve r courses in corridor widths of 15-30 m (50-100 ttl for smaller wate r courses and 90m (300 tt) for large rivers;

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100 ft) in width which are established alon g borders or at least every 800 m (Xz mile). The width varies with steam size and site needs. Interior waterbreaks should be established perpendicular to anticipated flood current s and tie into primary waterbreaks and non-flooding elevations. Additional interior waterbreaks can be strategically planted to divert potentially da~aging flood currents away from sensiti ve areas . Waterbreaks should be avoided at locations that would concentrate flood or return flows.

M:::Iinr flnnrl flnlAi

Vigorous growing trees should be established at 2-3 gOm wide 30m wide m (6-10 ft) apart , and sh rubs at 1-2 m (3-6 ft) - shrub primary waterbreak secondary waterbreak plantings should be restricted to the leeward side (downstream side for interior waterbreaks and field side for primary waterbreaks) of the waterbreak to minimise A typical waterbreak design potential damage from flood debris and sediments. Planting on raised beds or ridges some 25-30 cm (10-12M) high and top width improves soil aeration for the establ ishing plants. After establishment, it is important to replant any gaps to avoid the potential for severe sco uring , and to periodically remove debris along the steam-edge of the waterbreak .
Source: Agroforestry Notes - 19: Waterbreaks. USDA Forest Service, 2000.

Soil compaction from cattle grazing and tree growth
A two year study in British Columb ia ha s found that cattle grazing on forest plantations does not inhibit seedling tree growth and development. Cattle grazing in forest plantations is a co mmon practice in the interior of B.C . Foresters are often concerned that cattle grazing and trampling will compact the soil and restrict the growth of newly planted trees . Soil compaction ca n occur and varies with stocking rate , vegetation type, soil type, soil water content and climate . Results indicated that cattle grazing did cause soil compaction, but the degree of compaction did not limit root development or growth. Cattle grazing did increase soil bulk density by 6 percent , relative to the ungrazed pa stu res , and the sa me results were observed for the penetration resistance . These results for the top part of the soil profile were observed both before and after a 1-month grazing period . Seeding domestic forages in the grazed pastures was expected to reduce soil compaction, but the greater carrying capacity due to the seeded forage actually resulted in slightly greater soil bulk density. However. even though presence of ca ttle grazing did increase soil bulk density and penetrometer resistance . these parameters were well below the critical ranges considered to limit root growth . Researchers determined that even when soils with moderate to high compaction ratings are grazed . it is unlikely that soil compaction will inhibit seedling growth . If compaction is going to be a problem. it is likely to be localised on cattle trails to salting and watering areas. Source: University of Guelph's ~Anima[Ner clipping

A.R.T. update
Our website, at www.agroforestry.co.uk, is shortly to be completely updated to allow online ordering using credit cards. We have also just installed a fax and 24·hour order line, on 01803 840776.

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Medicinal perennial crops (1 )
I ntrod uction
These articles are intended to detail all the main tempe rate perennia l crops of currant significant eco nomic val ue. Nearly a ll are grown on a plantation scale in countries whe re la bour is cheap and may be difficult to grow eco nomi ca ll y in Britain or North America, but there is a growing dema nd for organically grown products from all these crops, includ ing the mass grown ones . This is perh aps the niche which agroforestry growers should aim for. Many of these crops req uire sunny conditions t o flourish , and their use in agroforeslry systems would therefore most likely be in blocks grown in alley cropping sys tems . Others are shade tolerant and can be located in the ground layers of forest gardens or fo rest f armi ng systems; those which are and whose croppi ng may still be reaso nable or good are listed here: Toterate part shade Atropa belladonna Cimicifuga racemosa Hypericum perforatum Levisticum officinalis Tolerate full shade Hydrastis canadensis

Weed control for orga ni ca ll y-grown medicinal perennials can be a prob lem. Because most perennials are cut fo r harvest quite close to the ground , mulches may be caught by mechanical harvesters and con taminate the crop; likewise a ground-covering mulch grown between and under the main crop. Crops which cover the ground well and are evergreen or deciduous and ea rl yleafing in spring may manage to suppress weeds well with little or no weeding; othe rs may have to be mu lched and cut higher than normal or hand -harvested, which may reduce yield s. Note: I have not includ ed warnings abo ut the safety or toxic nature of essential oils and medicinal products described below. Many products, especially essential oi ls, are toxic in small doses if taken ora lly and none should be used without consultation of appropriately qualified persons.

Achillea mil/efolium

Yarrow

A lo ng-lived aromatic perennial from Europe and Asia ; naturalised in North America. Found along roads, in meadows and on fallow land. It has fibrous roots that creep like sto lon s, and develops a num ber of tough stems with feathery leaves. Ea ch stem is 15-70 cm (6-28") high. Greyish-white heads of flowers appear from June to late autumn. Yarrow plantations are established eithe r by using plant divisions in spring from 4-5 year-old plants ; or by tra nsplantin g six month-old seedli ng s from a nursery bed in autumn where seed was sown in rows 15-20 cm (6-8") apart; or by direct sowing in late summer or early autumn in rows 4050 cm (16-20~) apart, using 2-3 kg of seed per hecta re (1.8-2.6 Ib/acre) . Direct-sown plants ach ieve a full harvest in thei r third year. Optimum spacin g for mature plants is 60 em x 25-30 cm (24" x 10-12"). Flowers are ha rvested when in full bloom with short (3-4 cm , 1-1'h") stem parts. Flowering tops are also harvested at fu ll bloom. Th e leaves are gathered when the plants are in the rosette stage. Fres h plant parts are dried in the shade or with artificial heat; to retain Ihe original co lour, fast drying is very important. The drying ratio is 5 or 6:1 and the expected yie ld is 1-4 I/ha (0.4-1 tlacre) of dry herb. Yarrow herb or tops whol esales for about £4.50Ikg ($3.30Ilb) or £7.50Ikg ($5.50Ilb) for organic crops. Yarrow is anti-inflammatory, antipyretic , antirhe umatic , antiseptic, antispasmodic , astringent,

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carminative. cicatrisan!, diaphoretic, digestive , diuretic, expectorant , haemostatic. hypotensive, stomachic, stimulant and tonic. It is used in many herbal lea blends , to control bleeding, and an infusion is used for inflammations of the gums, eyes and other organs. Extra cts of yarrow exhibit antibiotic activity. The dried flowers are also used in floristry. The flowers contain 0 .2-0.5% essential oil ; the leaves and stem parts contain only 0.02-0 .0 7%. The oil distilled from the flowers is dark blue due to 20-30%, or more azuline content. Yield of essential oil is 2·5 kg/tonne (4.4-11 Ib/t) of fresh material or 3-4 kg/tonne (6.6 -8 .8 Ib/t) of dried materia,. The oil is extracted by steam distillation of dried material. The essential oi l is mainly used in the cosmetics industry to produce creams and hair shampoos, in perfumes and aftershaves, in aromatherapy , and as a flavouring ingredient in vermouths and bitters . It wholesales for about £750/litre ($1 100/litre).

Acorus calamus

Sweet flag

Sweet flag or calamus root is a spreading semi -evergreen perennial plant with erect, sword-shaped leaves up to 2 m (6 tt) long (tangerine scented); yellow-green flowers in summer; and with a tortuous, branched, underground rhizome which is whitish-pink internally, cylind rical, 1-2 cm (OA0.8") thi ck and up to 1 m (3 ft) long. It is found in temperate and sUb-te mperate regions of Europe, Asia and the Americas and is semi-aquatic, occurring in swamps and the edges of streams, marshes, ponds and lakes. The rhizomes have been used medicinally everywhere the species occurs, usually for antibiotic purposes as a vermifuge, antiseptic and to treat diseases caused by micro-organisms . It is also anticonvulsant, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, insecticide , spasmolytic. stim ulant. stomachic and tonic . It is sti ll used to a minor extent in modern medicine , mainly as an antispasmodic, but there have been recent concerns over safety (it is currently banned in food products in N. America); the American variety (var. american us) does not contain the chemical in question (asa rone) . and the European variety contai ns only tiny amounts. The essential oil from the roots has antibacterial , antifungal. antiamoebic and insecticidal properties . The fragrant oil of sweet flag has long been used in perfumery and cosmetics, and is still used as a flavouring in some liqu eurs. Dried rhizomes (wild harvested) wholesale for about £6 .50/kg ($4 .7 0/lb). Rhizomes are harvested in the autumn, mainly from wild plants, and dried; the drying ratio is 4:1. The main active ingredients are glycosides . The essential oil can be extracted from fresh or dried rhizomes . Propagation is easy , via pieces of rhizome ,' and harvesting of rhizomes can take place 2 years after planting . Wetland areas are ideal for cultivation, but may also cause problems , ego with harvesting .

Althaea officinalis

Marsh mallow

A perennial European plant found in humid places and along rivers, lakes and ditches . The downy stems are 60-120 cm (2-4 tt) high, simpl e or branching. and cylindrical; leave s are velvety and flowers pale pink in summer; the fleshy tap roots are greyish-brown outside and white inside. Flowering takes place from June-September. The spread of the plant is 60-90 em (2-3 ft) . This is one of the few plants featured here which can be grown on soil which floods from time to time. Plantations are set up either by direct sowing in autumn, using 4-5 kg of seed per hectare (4 Ibfacre) in rows 50-60 cm (20-24~) apart; by tran sp lanting seedlings from a nursery; or by using root heads or offsets (those cut off when roots are harvested are fine) planted at 60 x 40 cm (24 x 16"). Well-deve loped clean leaves are harvested . without stalks, throughout the summer . 4-6 kg of fresh leave s give 1 kg of dried leaves. Expected yields are 0.8-1 t/ha (0.3-0.4 t/acre) of dry leaves . Dry leaves wholesale for about £6.00/kg ($4 .40/lb)- organic for £10/kg ($7.30Ilb).

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Shoots can be harvested at the time of flowering in July when plants a re 70-80 cm (28-32 ") high by cutting 10-20 cm (4-8") from the ground. The cu t plants will regrow and can be cut for a seco nd time in September. Mechanical harvesting is possible . The leaves or leafy stems should be dried in the shade on a drying frame or in an artifi cial dryer at 40- 50"C . Flowers are harvested by hand , when completely open together with sepals in dry weather after any dew has evaporated . The .-*"",""..W drying ratio fo r flowers is 7:1 and expected yield s are 80- 100 kg/ha (70-90 Ib/acre) of dry flowers. Roots are harvested in autumn or early spring from 2-3 year old plants, cleaned of soil , and t he root head and any rotten parts removed. The roots are then best washed aga in, allowed to su rface dry for a few hours, then peeled and sliced into 2 parts lengthways if over 1.5 cm thick, cut into 1520 pieces, and dried with artificial heat at 3540"C . The drying ratio is 4-5 : 1 and yields of 1.5-2 t/ha (0.6-0.6 t1acre) of dry roots can be expected. Dried organic roots wholesale for about £10/kg ($7.30/Ib). Marshmallow is antibacterial and expectorant; it is used as a remedy for tracheal catarrh and co ughing , and is an important ingredient of herb tea blends . An infusion of the flowers in used to soothe inflamed eyes. The extract is u sed to prepare cough-soothing syrups and swee ts. The dried roots contai n 20-30% mucilage and the dried leaves 5-10% mucilage, as well as starch and pectin .

Artemesia absinthium

Wormwood
paris of the sil very-grey plant since Plants grow

Wormwood is native to dry areas of Euro pe and Asia, but is natural ised in many other world. It is an erect-growing perennial or subshrub with ste ms and leaves covered si lky hairs ; has small yellow flowers in summer. It has been known as a medicinal ancie nt times. It is cultivated on a field scale in the USA, France and other countries. to a height of 1 m (3 ft) and a spread of 60-90 cm (2-3 ft) .

Plantations are established by transplanting seed li ngs in autumn to a spacin g of 30-40 cm (12- 16 ~) by 50-60 cm (20-24"). A life of 6-8 years fo r the planting is usual. The herb has been used as a flavouring agent alcoholic beverages, such as vermouth , hiUers and liqueurs (eg. absinthe); it contains bitter glucosides. However, the plant is known to be poisonous

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and the essentia l oil is a central nervous system depressant, so these uses are dubious. The oil is also used in perfumery. Medicinally, the dried leaves , flowering tops and essential oil are anthelmintic, anti-inflammato ry, choleretic, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue , febrifuge , inse ct repellent , narcotic , stimulant, tonic and vermifuge; it has been used for several ailments including treatment against tumours and cancers . Wormwood contains 0.2-0 .9% essential oil which is usually blui sh due to camazulene. The oil is used in cosmetics and perfumes . Basa l and stem leaves are harvested from late May to August ; and flowering stems can be cut at full flowering . Two cuts per year are possible from the second year onwards . Drying takes place at relatively low temperatures and the drying ratios are 5-6 : 1 for leaves and 2-3 :1 for flowering stems. Yields of 1-1.5 t/ha (0.4-0.6 tlacre) of dry herb are usual. The dried herb wholesale for

about £4 .S0Ikg (S3 .301Ib) - organic for £7 .S0Ikg (SS.SOllb) .

Atropa belladonna

Deadly nightshade

Belladonna or dead ly nightshade can be found everywhere in Europe , especially in the Sou th , as we ll as temperate regions of Asia and North Africa. It is a perennial, strongly poisonous plant of the Solanaceae family . It has thick roots , yellowish-brown outside and greyish-white inside . Stems are 1-2 m (3-6 ft) high, erect, cylindrical and branching at the top. Purple-brown flowers appear from June onwa rd s until the autumn. The fruits are sh in y black. berries , 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6") in diameter , with bluish-purple juice. Plants spread 60-90 cm (2-3 tt) wide. Deadly nightshade is cultivated in a number of countries, mainly in clearings in forests to prevent the spread of seed into agricultural fields. A well-drained , moist soil with plenty of lime is necessary. Propagation is either by direct sowing, transplanting seedlings from a nursery, or by planting divisions of root heads. About 4 kg seed/ha (3.5 Ib/acre) is needed in a nursery, or 20 kg/ha (18 Ib/acre) for direct sowing. Optimum spacing of plants is 60 cm x 45-60 cm (18" x 1824 ~ ). Belladonna is a heavy feeder and annual applications of nitrogen are required to maintain cropping. Field crops usually remain for 3-4 years, yielding 2-4 forage crops ann ually . Leaves are harvested from flowering time up to the time of fruit maturity in autumn , and dried with artificial heat. If leaves are hand-harvested, no more than a third of the lower leaves should be removed at anyone time. The drying ratio is 6 : 1 and dried leaves are bright green . Yields are 0.7 -1.5 t/ha (0.3-0.6 t/acre) dry leaves. For mechanical harvesting , plants are cut 2-4 times a year from the second year onwards at short intervals, at a height of 20-25 cm (8-10 ") above ground for summer cuts and 5 cm (2") above ground for the final autumn harvest. The cut materials is rapidly dried by turning (drying ratio 5:1), then the leaf stalks removed after collection . Yie ld s are about 1 tlha (0.4 tlacre) dry material per year. Roots are harvested in autumn before frosts (when the alkaloid level is highest) or in early spring , when they are 3-4 years old . Afte r cleaning, the main fle shy roots are cut into 15-20 cm (6-8 ") long pieces and the thick ones sliced into 2-4 parts. Drying takes place in a dryer at 50-70° C until the roots give a short snapping sound if broken in two . The drying ratio is 3:1 and expected yields are 1.5 t/ha (0.6 tlacre). The root s contain 0.2-0.8% alkalOids , the leaves 0.1 -1 .3% and the seeds 0.3-0 .9% . The alkaloids are very toxic and overdoses can be fatal in man . The drug obtained from the roots and leaves is cons idered to be antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, anodyne, diuretic, febrifuge , mydriatic, narcotic, nervine and sedative . Extracts are used medicinally as pre-anaesthetic agents to check throat sec retions , as antidotes to depressant poisons, as a truth drug , and to teat Parkinson's disease. The root and leaf are used to treat various tumours and cancers .

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b

Chamaemelum nobile

-

Roman chamomile

Roman chamomile (Syn. Anthemis nobilis) has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time but has only been cultivated for a few decades. It contai ns a very valuable essential oi l. An infusion of flowers is used for treating digestive troubles and for treatment of the skin and hair; it is also a popular herb tea . The essential oil is mainly used by the cosmetics and perfume industry. The biggest producers are Belgium, Netherlands, England, France and Italy. Orten confused with the annual German

chamomile, Matricaria chamomi/la or M.recutita, which is used on a small scale. Roman chamom ile is analgesic , anti-anaemic , antineuralgic, antiphlogislic , antiseptic,
antispasmodic, bactericidal , carminative , cholagogue, cicatrisant, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, hypnotic , nerve sedative, stomachic , sudorific, tonic , vermifuge and vu lnerary. It is used in homeopathy, ointments , cosmetics, soaps, perfumes, and as a food and alcoholic drink flavouring. Roma n chamomile is a mat-forming evergreen perennial of Mediterranean origi n . Only the variety with full flowers and conta ining large amounts of essential oil is cultivated (var. flora plena:::: var. figulosa) ; this does not grow in the wi ld . From the multi-headed, spreadi ng rhizome, a number of creeping shoots develop , which frequently form rhizomes at the nodes . The stems are 20-40 cm (S-16") long and plants spread to 45 cm (1S") wide. Flowers are white; the full -flowered variety seldom develops germinable seeds - those that are never full-fl owered. Glands containing essential oil are found on the flowers. Fu ll-fl owered Roman chamomile is usually propagated by root division. Established plants are lifted and divided into pieces so that every plant includes at least 2-3 rosettes. From one plant, 10-15 new plantJets can be obtained. When the developing new shoots on these are 2-4 cm (11 :,.s,") long , planting out in the field can start. Planting should take place after rain, at a spaci ng of 50-60 cm x 20-25 cm (20-24" x S-1O~). taking care not to plant plantlets with no coliars too deep. Irrigation may be requ ired to aid establ ishment. Weeding of the young plants can be done by careful hoeing. Little if any fertili sa tion is required (too mu ch reduces flowering) . From the second year on , the dry dead parts of the plants are cut by machine in early spring, and the field spike harrowed and hoed Roman chamomile requires warmth and sunshine and prefers humus-rich soils. It has a high water requi rement , especially in May-June during the period of fastest growth. Annual applications of nitrogen are usually given at the time of shoot emergence and after h arves ting . A plantation-grown Roman chamomile bed has a useful life of 3-4 years. Flowering takes place continuously from Mid June to August. For flower production, harvest takes place several times during full flowering in dry weather. Machine harvesting using a type of comb can be used , or flowers are picked by hand with short stems. The flowers are spread in thin layers in a shady place as soon as possible , or are dried artificially at 35-40°C. The fresh flowers start to decay within 1-2 hours . Expected yields are 200-250 kg/ha (175-220 Ib/acre) of dry flowers in the

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first year, increasing to 400-600 kgfha (350-530 Ib/acre) in latter years. fo r about £15/ kg ($ll / lb) - organic for £35fkg ($25 .50flb) .

Dried flowers wholes ale

For essentia l oil production , plants in full flower are cui in dry weather (by machine or hand mowing) , leaving 5-6 cm (2 ~ ) of stubble . The cut plant is usually dried in the field in the same way as hay . Th e essential oil extracted from the fresh plant is light blue, but it becomes greenish or brownish-yellow in a few days. The oil extracted from dried plants is yell owish -brown . The soil has a strong odour and spicy taste. Dry flowers contain 0.6-1 % (occasionally to 1.5%) oil, and the flowei ing plant contains 0.2-0 .3% oi l. Expected yields are 3-5 kg/ha (2 .6-4.4 Ib/acre) of essential oil in the first year, increasing to 6-10 kg/ ha (5 .3-8 .8 Ib/ acre) in latter years . The essential oil wholesa les for about £440flitre ($650/litre) - organic for [11 OOllitre ($ 1600Ilitre).

Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Pyrethrum
Pyrethrum (syn. Tanacetum c.) flowers (powdered) have been used as an insecticide for at least 150 years and is cultivated widely. Its used has increased since the banning of DDT in the late 1960's ; the advantage of pyrethrum is that it is not toxic to humans and warm-blooded animals , it is fast acti ng , and insects do not become resistant. The largest producers are in Afric a, South America and the Indian subcontinent. Pyre thrum is a herbaceous perennial from the Balkans, growing 30-50 em ( 12-20") high with white and yellow flower heads . All paris of the plant above ground contain pyrethrins; the leaves contain on ly traces, the dried stems contain 0 .15% and the flowers 0 .5-2.5%. Although the plant usually lives for 8-10 yea rs , in cultivation yields and pyrethrin content diminish after 4-5 years. The cultivar 'Hypy' has a high pyrethrin content and yieldf ha . The plant requires plenty of sunshine , tolerates drought and poor soils , also alkaline and salty soils. It requires light well-drained soils where there is plentifu l rainfall. It does not need much fertilisation. It is propagated by seed sowing or root division . Seeds are sown in nursery beds ; the young plants are slow to develop and are planted out when 8-10 em (3-4 ") high. For root diviSion , 3-4 year old planted are lifted and divided into 5-10 pieces, all with roots. Planting takes place at a spacing of 60 x 20-30 em (24 x 8- 12") . Weed control without chemica ls is by hoeing. Little nitrogen fertilisation is required. Weed control can be become problematical after a few years . Flowers can be harvested in the first year after planting out, but yields are not high until the second year . Harvest should start when the about 70% of the flower are open in June , and lasts for 9-1 0 days . Machines are usually used, although hand harvest gives a cleaner product. The cut flowers are dried artificially at 50-60° C , then are threshed and the leaf and stem parts removed by screening. The dry materials must be sto red in a cool place in airtight bags . Expected yields are 100-200 kg/ha ( 90-180 Ib/ acre) in the first year and 0.7-1.2 Uha (600-1050 Ib/acre) in latter years.

Cimicifuga racemosa

Black cohosh

Black cohosh is a herbaceous perennial growing 1-2.6 m (3-11 tt) tall and 60 em (2 tt) wide from Eastern North America . It has spikes of fragrant white flowers in mid-summer and stout , blackish rhizomes which are cylindrical , hardy and knotty. It is found in deciduous forests and grows best in partial shade , in a moist humus-rich acid soil. Black cohosh is an important medicinal plant. The rhizomes are collected in the autumn from wild plants after the leaves have died off. It is currently used for depression and tinnitus , but is best known as a · woman ' s plant ~ because of its usefulness in relieving menstrual cramps - it is a traditional remedy for menstrual problems and to facilitate childbirth (it increases the intensity of uterine contractions). It is used extensively in herbal preparations in North America, Europe and Australia. Dried wild-harvested roots wholesale for about [10/kg ($7.30Ilb).

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Echinacea angustifolia & E.purpurea
ft

@

Coneflower

Eangustifofia or Epallida lIar.angustifolia, and purple coneflower, Epurpurea, are winter-hardy and drought-resistant native North American perennial plants growing 15-50 em (6-20") and 1.2 m (4 ft) high respectively . They have attractive flowering heads in late summer and autumn , and a thick blackish taproot 6-18 mm (O.25-0.75 in diameter. They grow best in a sunny location in a fertile, well-drained soil. Eangustifolia endu res more heat than E.purpurea, but is more sensitive to soH pH and moisture.
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The Echinacea of commerce is obtained 80% from Epurpurea and 20% from E. angustifolia. The root is the main part of the plant used medicinally, but flowers and sometimes leaves are also used. Long used by American Indians, Echinacea is now very well-known for stimulating the immune system. Root extracts have cortisone-like antibiotic effects, antiviral properties , and they increase white blood cell production (these destroy bacteria and viruses). It is often used not so much to cure as to prevent illness and promote well-being. More than 200 echinacea preparations are marketed in Europe, as extracts, salves, tinctures for wounds etc. There is mainstream acceptance that echinacea can prevent and treat colds, sore throats and superficial wounds. It is also used in veterinary medicine . Echi nacea is extensively cultivated in Europe and increasingly so in North America (where wild stocks have been dangerously depleted by overharvesting); E.purpurea is the easier to cultivate. It Ihrives in well drained loams and sandy loam soils with a pH of 6-7. Drought is tolerated but better growth occurs in a moist soil. High fertilisation favours top growth over root growth , so is not advisable. Roots are harvested at 3-4 years of age from sowing . Flowers are sometimes also harvested for sa le to pharmacological compa nies. Propagation ca n be by seed, crown division, and by planting 10-12 cm (4_5 rool sections. Seeds germ inate better after a few weeks of cold stratification; they are u sually sown indoors and trans planted up into ce lls to produce plantiets to plant out in the field in spring; 1 kg of seed is required to provide transplants for 1 ha (0.9 Ib/acre). Planting is at a spacing of 30 cm x 20-30 cm (12" x 10-12") for a 3-4 year harvest , or wider spacing if plants are kept longer. Weed control is im portant - organic growers used bark or black plastic mulches. Diseases are not usually a problem.
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The roots don 't usually reach a desirable size until 3-4 years after sowing . Harvest is usually in the autumn after the first frosts. Roots are washed and then dried . Yields are around 2.5 t1ha (1 t/acre). Dried organic roots of E.purpurea wholesale for about £321kg ($23.30Ilb) and organic herb for £ 11 .501kg ($8.40Ilb) ; dry organic roots of E. angustifo/ia wholesale for about £501kg ($36I1b) and organic herb for £12/ kg (SS.80Ilb) .

Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel

Fen nel is an ancient spice plant whose flavour and medicinal effects were utilised by the ancient Greeks and Romans. The seeds are used in cookery for flavouring vegetables, salads, fish , sauces, cakes and liqueurs , and to aid digestion ; and medicinally in cough medicines as an antispasmodi c; in herb leas; in Ch inese medicine ; and the essential oil is used in condiments and liqueurs , also in cosmetics and toothpastes. Fennel is also anti-inflammatory , antimicrobial , antiseptic, carminative, depurative , diuretic , emmenagogue . expectorant . galactagogue , laxative , orexigenic , stimulant, splenic, stomachic. tonic and vermifuge. The main areas of cultivation are southern Europe and Asia. Fennel is a herbaceous perennial from the Mediterranean region . For seed production. often bitter fen nel (ssp . capillaceum var.vulgare) and sweet fennel (ssp . capillaceum var. dulce - an annual) are cultivated . Other va rieties/subspecies are piper fennel (ssp. piperitum) whose seeds have a strong spicy taste; Indian fennel (ssp. capiflaceum var. panmoricum) with slightly strong-tasting seeds; and

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Florence fennel (ssp. capillaceum var. azoricum) which is grown for the thickened base of leaves and whose seeds are brown with an unpleasant taste. The cultivar 'Feniks' bears seeds with high quality oil. Only sweet fennel seed oil is used in aromatherapy. Fennel roots are spindle-like, white and deeply penetrale the soil. Stems are erect, 1.5-2 m (5-6 ftl high. Flowers are yellow umbels. All parts of the plant contain essential oil - leaves and stems contain about 1-1.5% with a similar composition to seed oil. The oil from roots (0.6-0.7%) have a variable composition. Ripe seeds contain 2-6 % essential oil, which is very pale yellow. Fennel lives for 4-5 years, but significanl amounts of seed are only produced the first 2-3 years, hence it is usually only cultivated for this lenglh of time. Warm conditions are needed, and very cold winters will kill plants. It grows well in Britain and other mild climate regions. Fennel develops a large vegetative mass (40-60 IIha, 16-24 lIacre). for which fairl y high amounts of nutrients are necessary; however, it is not advisable to feed with nitrogen, which encourages high vegetative mass and poor seed development, unless growth in spring is slow. Propagation is via seed, which germinates quickly, but plants are slow to develop - direct sowing requires very good weed control for several months which may be difficult in organic systems; it may be better to grow plants in cells and transplant these.

Seed should be sown in March due to the long vegetation period; 8-10 kg of seed is needed per ha (7-9 Ib/acre) for direct sowing. Planting is at a row spacing of 36-48 cm (14-19"). Established plants develop rapidly in spring, forming a closed ca nopy , suffocating weeds, by late Mayor early June. Fennel seeds ripen unevenly and the ripe seeds tend to drop out easily; the height of plants and time of seed maturity (usually September) add to harvest difficulty. When seeds are at the waxy ripe stage, plants are usually cut at 30-50 cm (12_20") from the ground, and left in windrows to post-ripen for 7-14 days, depending on the weather. They are then combined, threshed, and cleaned of green parts and impurities, then artificially dried. Expected seed yields are 0.4 tfha (350 Ib/acre) in the first year, 1.0-2.0 Uha (880-1760 lb/acre) in the second year and 0.6-1.5 tfha (530- 1320 Ibfacre) in the third year. Fennel seed wholesales for about £3.50/kg (S2.55/lb) organic for Ea/kg (S5.80/Ib).

G/ycyrrhiza g/abra

Liquorice

Liquorice or licorice is a perennial leguminous plant. The medicinal parts used are the dried, peeled and unpeeled roots and stolons of varieties of G.g/abra and other Glycyrrhiza species. The principal fla vouring ingredient is glycyrrhizin, and the content varies between varieties and different regions. Most commonly cultivated are: G.glabra var. typica (Spanish liquorice) - contains 5.9- 10.6% glycyrrhizin G.glabra var. glandulifera (Russian liquorice) - contains 9.9% glycyrrhizin G. glabra var. beta-vio/acea (Persian liquorice) - conta ins 7.4-13.2% glycyrrhizin G.ura/ensis (C hinese liquorice) - contains about 7% glycyrrhizin

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The extract is used extensively as a demulcent and expectorant in cough medicines , and also in tonics , laxatives , anti-smoking preparations, as a flavouring agent with other drugs to mask unpleasant tastes and in herb teas. II is used as a flavouring agent in the tobacco industry and

as a sweetener. foods and as

Other uses are a stabiliser in in

in iCings . baked goods , dietetic

beverages . The foots are boiled to produce the familiar black

substance used confectionery.

liquorice

G.g/abra is of Mediterranean origin and is mostly cultivated in China, former USSR states , Iran and Iraq ; but cultivation has been

successful

as

far

north

as

Yorkshire (UK). Liquorice grows 50-150 em (20"-5 ft) high by 1 m (3 ft) wide and develops a taproot and extensive root system (the tap root may penetrate over 1.2 m , 4 ft , deep, and the stolons from one plant may extend as much as 7 m (24 tt) in all directions) . It needs a deep , moist, rich soil, preferably heavily manured. Propagation is usually from stolons, which are cut into short lengths, each piece with 2-3 buds. These are planted in early spring at 45-60 cm x 90 cm (18-24" x 36") and irrigated if necessary until established . Establishment is quite slow , so good weed control is necessary by hoeing etc. Dead dry shoots are cut down to the ground before each winter. Flowering shoots are removed as soon as they appear, as roots are of inferior quality if seeds are allowed to ripen . Rhizomes are ready for harvesting after 3-5 years , hence normally some intercropping is practised for 2-3 years, growing crops like carrots or potatoes between the rows. Roots and stolons are lifted in the aulumn; lifting is a laborious operation, as it entails the digging of trenches about 60100 cm (2-3 tt) deep along the sides of the rows so that the soil is loosened enough to release the whole root system . After the small roots are cut off, the long straight roots are washed, cui into lengths of 90-150 cm (3-5 tt) and slowly dried under cover for some months . [f digging is exhaustive, yields can be as high as 50 t/ha (20 tJacre) of fresh root; the drying ratio is 3-4 : 1. The root system is so dense that even after careful harvesting , sufficient root remains in the ground to regenerate the planl, regeneration laking 2-5 years to provide enough growth for another harvest. Dry roots wholesale for about £5/kg ($3.65I1b) - organic for £a.50/kg ($6.20Ilb) .

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Hydrastis canadensis

Golden seal
Goldenseal is a ro ughly-h airy herbaceous perennial growing 20-50 em (8-20 ") high and 15-30 em (6-12 ") across from Eastern and Central North America . Rhizomes are horizontal, knotty , cylindri c al and strong smelling. 4-7 em (1 Yz -3") long and 0.5-2 em (0 .2-0.8 ") wide; when fresh they are yellowish-brown outside and bright yellow internally. The rhizomes have many fibrous rootlets .
Goldenseal grows in colonies in shady , open deciduous woods and woodland edges. It grows best in so its that are rich, moist , loamy and well drained , and grows best with a leaf mulch. Optimal growth occurs with 75-60% shade.

The rh izomes are the usual source of medical preparations (though the leaves are occasio n ally used) , the active substances being several alkaloids whi ch are highest in concentration in the autumn. Properties include antimicrobial , antibioti c (effective against some bacteria , protozoans and fungi) and antitumour. It is used in numerous commercial preparations for boosting the immune system , for mouth sores, eye infections, ringworm , haemorrhoids , acne and as a surface antiseptic; and is one of the best selli ng herbs at present.
Some plants are still wild harvested, but decreasing stocks have led to increasing cultivation . Because it is a woodland plant which requires similar c onditions to ginseng , it is sometimes grown by ginseng growers both under shade laths and in fore st farms - indeed, it has been recommended as a crop to rotate with ginseng in the latter situation.

Seedlings develop very slowly from seed - just two seed leaves in the first year, one true leaf in the second and two leaves (the maximum) and a nower in the third. Rhizomes from seed-grown plants can be harvested after 4-5 years ; plants , can also be grown from rhizome sections , and be harvestable in 3 years. Dry rhizomes from wild -harvested plants who lesale for £100/kg ($73I1b).

Hypericum perforatum

SI John's wort

An upright , rhizomatous perennial , woody at the base from woods and hedgerows in Europe and Asia. Bears yellow flowers in summer. Grows to 30-60 cm (1-2 ft) high and 15-45 cm (6-18") across . It likes a well -drained soil and some shade . St John's wort has rapidly become one of the most popular herbal remedies for depression : the substance hyperforin is anti-depressant , while hypericin is strongly antiviral (also potentially for HIV and AIDS). It is also astringent calm inative , anti-inflammatory and locally antiseptic and ana lgesic . It is used externally for burns , bruises , injuries etc . Propagation is by seed or division ; seedlings are slow to develop and it is sensible to plant out one-year old plantlets on a plantation scale, or divisions in autumn or spring. Harvest can begin in the second year and usually takes place as flowering finishes in June or July , when the hypericin content is highest; the whole plant is cut and dried. Harvest at the time the flowers are in bud c oincides with maximum content of wound-heali ng sub stances, while harvest in September, just before the seeds ripen coincides with maximum content of anti-depressanl substances . The drying ratio is 4-5: 1;

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..

A ·

yields are of dry matter are about 4.5 t/ha (1.8 t/acre) . The essential oil is red due to hypericin and is an excellent antiseptic . The cultivar 'Topaz' is high in active substances .

Dry herb wholesales for about £S .50/kg ($4/Ib) • organic for £9/kg ($6.60/Ib) . The essential oil wholesales for about· organic for £1050/1ilre ($ 1550/Iitre).

Levisticum officina/is

Lovage

Lovage is a long-used medicinal and culinary plant, with all parts having odours and flavours similar to celery. The variations in aroma from different plant parts lead to each part being utilised somewhat differently. The essential oil from the rools is highly valued for use in perfumery , soaps and creams, and is used in aromatherapy: the seeds and seed oil are used for flavouring confectionery and liqueurs; the stems are used for candied products ; and leaves are added to salads, soups and stews . The roots are used medicinally as a diuretic for digestive troubles and for liver problems ; they are also antimicrobial , antiseptic, sedative, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant , feb rifuge, stimulant and stomachic. Lovage is cultivated over large areas of central Europe and the eastern USA; the related L.scoticum is also used to produce an essentia l oil.

Lovage is a herbaceous perennial from m ountain regions of northern Europe , which can be cultivated in any temperate climate . It li kes a slightly shady site and medium Hypericum p erforatum ·firm soils rich in humus, but can also be cultivated on swampy soils (where roots are easy to remove but the oil content is lower). It has vertical rhizomes, which penetrate the soil to 40·50 cm (16·20 ~ ) depth, terminating in a taproot. The tubular stem is often over 2 m (6 ft) taU . Flowers are yel[ow umbels . The rhizome and roots contain 0 .5-1.0% essential oil; the seed-bearing stems contain 0.15-0.45% ; the lea ves 0.08-0.24% and the ripe seeds 0 .81.5% . The root oil is the most valuable, and is yellow or dark brown , somewhat resinous and thick, with a strong angelica-ce[ery aroma. Lovage lives for 6-8 years, but plantations can only be maintained for 3-4 years, because after that the stem and leaf development diminishes, and the roots becomes cavitated and rotten. Seedlings grow slowly and only form a rosette in their first year. Established plants vegetate quite early . flowering in June-July, with seeds ripening in August. The ripe seeds are susceptible to dropping off. Prior to sowing or planting, good quantities of manure or compost should be incorporated into soils. Establishment is usually by sowing seed (10-12 kg/ha, 9-11 Ib /acre) in rows 50-70 cm (2028- ) apart; but organic growers may be better transplanting cell-g rown plantlets to reduce the weed control needed.

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Roots are usua lly harvest ed in third or fourth growing year , in the autumn , after cutting the herb with si lage ma chines . The roots are turned out with a plough ad shaken free of soil. Prior to processing the y are washed, any sproul residues removed , then the roots are split into 2·4 parts of 10·15 cm (4·6 -) in length (or are sliced) and dried in shaded open·air or artificial dryers . The drying ratio is 4:1. Dry roots wholesale for about £6/kg ($4.40/lb). For essential oil production , the roots are washed and sliced , and placed into a distillation vessel in layers separated by straw. A 3·4 year old plantation yields 6·8 t/ha (2.4·3.2 tlacre) of fresh root, which gives 5·6 kg (ie 4.4·5.3 Ibfacre) of essential oil. For the production of vegetable oil , the plantation is maintained for 4·6 years. The base leaves of the first year plant are harvested in the autumn just before the frosts ; from the second year on, the plants are harvested together with the base leaves at the same time as seed ripening via machines. The average leaf yield is 4·6 tlha , (1.6·2.4 tlacre) from which 2·4 kg (ie 1.8·3.5 Ibfacre) of vegetable oil can be produced . The yield of seedy plant is 10· 20 t/ha (4·8 tlacre), from which 8·20 kg (ie 7·18 Ib/acre) of vegetable oil can be extracted. Organically grown dry leaves wholesale for about £7/kg ($5.10Ilb). The ripe seeds are occasionally harvested to produ ce seed or seed essential oil ; 0.4· 0.6 tlha ( 160· 530 Ib/acre) of seed gives 3·6 kg (ie 2.6·5 .3 Jb/acre) of seed oil.

7

Glossary of medicinal terms
Term Anaesthetic Analgesic Anodyne Anthelmintic Antibacterial Antibiotic Anticoagulant Antifungal Antiinflammatory Antipruritic Antiseptic Antispasmodic Antitumor Antitussive Antiviral Astringent Cardiotonic Carminative Description Numbs the feeling in a tocal or general area of the body. Relieves pain. Relieves pain , it is milder than an analgesic. Expels parasites from the gut. Kills bacteria. An agent that inhibits or destroys bacteria or other micro~rgani sms. Removes blood clots. An agent that inhibits or destroys fungi. Reduces inflammation of joints, injuries etc. Treats itching of the skin . Preventing sepsis, decay or putrefaction , it stops the growth of micro.-organisms. Relaxes muscular spasms and cramps, calming nervous irritation. Preventing, or effective against, tumours. it is used in the treatment of cancer. Prevents or relieves coughing. Treats virus diseases Produces contraction in living tissue, reducing the flow of secretions and discharges of blood , mucus, diarrhoea etc. A tonic for the heart. Reduces flatulence and expels gas from the intestines.

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E
Cholagogue Demulcent Detergent Diaphoretic Digestive Diuretic Emmenagogue Emollient Expectorant Febrifuge Galactogogue Haemolytic Haemostatic Hypnotic Hypotensive Narcotic Nervine Ophthalmic Pectoral Refrigerant Rubefacient Sedative Sternutalory Stimulant Stomachic Tonic Vasoconstrictor Vasodilator Vermifuge Vulnerary

+

----==

A

Increases the flow of bile and its discharge from the body. Soothes, lubricates and softens irritated tissues, especially the mucous membranes. A cleansing agent, used on wounds etc. It removes dead and diseased matter. Induces perspiration. Aids digestion. Acts on the kidneys, promoting the flow of urine. Promotes or increases the menstrual flow. Softens the skin, causing warmth and moisture. Clears phlegm from the chest by inducing coughing. Reduces fevers. Promotes the flow of milk in a nursing mother. Breaks down red blood corpuscles to separate haemoglobin. Controls internal bleeding. Induces sleep. Reduces blood pressure, it is used in the treatment of high blood pressure Relieves pain, induces drowsiness and gives a sense of well-being, Stimulates and calms the nerves. Treats eye complaints. Relieves respiratory diseases, a remedy for chest diseases. Cools Ihe body. An external stimulant, it produces inflammation and redness of the skin. Gently calms, reducing nervousness, distress and irritation. Promotes sneezing and nasal discharges. Excites or quickens activity of the physiological processes. Aids and improves the action of the stomach. Improves general health, bringing steady improvement. Narrows the blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. Widens the blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure. Expels and kills internal parasites. Promotes the healing of wounds.

References
A report on the potential uses of plants grown for extracts including essential oils and factors affecting their yield and composition. MAFF Alternative Crops Unil, 1996. Bown, 0: The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley , 1995. Chevallier, A : The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley, 1996 . Halva S & Craker, L: Manual for Northern Herb Growers. HSMP Press, 1996. Hambleden Herbs Catalogues - 1998. Hay, R & Waterman , P (Eds): Volatile Oil Crops. Longman, 1993. Hornok, L: Cultivation and Processing of Medicinal Plants . John Wiley, 1992. Lawless: The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils. Element, 1992. Li, T: Echinacea: Cultivation and Medicinal Value. HortTechnology April -June 19988(2) 122-128. MAFF : Culin ary and Medicinal Herbs. HM SO, 1951. Motley, T: The Ethnobotany of Sweet Flag , Acarus cafamus (Araceae). Economic Botany Vol 48

pp
397-409 (1994). Price , S : The Aromatherapy Workbook . Thorsons, 1993. Ryman, 0: Aromathe rap y. Piatkus, 1991. Sellar, W : The Directory of Essential Oi ls. C W Daniel Company , 1992. Small, E & Catling, P: Canadian Medicinal Crops. NRC Research Press, 1999. Sta ry, F: The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books, 1991. More perennial medicinal plants will be covered in the next issue .

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Cudrania tricuspidata: Chinese mulberry
Introd uction
The Chinese mulberry, che, or silkworm thorn is related to mulberries (Morus spp.) and to the

osage orange (Maclura pomifera), and is one of a small number of Cudrania species native to
Eastern Asia and the S.W.Pacific. It is yet another example of a fruit that Chinese and other Asian

cultures have grown and appreciated for centuries, but has been little known elsewhere until recent times .

Description
G.tricuspidata is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 6·8 m (20-27 ttl high and 6 m (20 ttl wide, but usually only reaching 5 m (16 ft) high and remaining brad spreading bushes unless they are trained when young. It is native to Central and Western China and Korea. It has a dense, rounded head of branches, with shoots lightly striped olive brown. The young branches are thorny but older wood loses its thorns .
Its leaves are oval (often three lobed) and alternate, 4-10 cm (1%-4~) long and 2-5 cm (0.75-2 ~ ) wide, dark green, with short stalks. A straight thorn emerges from each leaf axil on young branches. Flowers are green, crowded into a ball about 8 mm (0.3-) in diameter, with male and female flowers usually on separate plants (ie the species is dioecious); they appear in July, usually in pairs, from the leafaxils of the current years' g ro wth. The male flowers turn yellow as the pollen ripens and is released. Pollination is via . the wind . Female flowers develop into an elliptical hard shining 'fruit', orange-yellow, 25 mm (1-) long by 40 mm (1%-) wide, which turns red or maroon as it softens. Fertilised fruit s contain 3-6 brown flattish seeds , 5 mm (0.2 W) in diameter. The species is hardy to zone 6-7 (winter min temperatures of -20°C), is hardy in Britain and flowers frequently here , at least in Southern Eng land.

Uses
The fruits are edible, fresh , cooked or preserved, and are rather like mulberries . The hard fruit is almost tasteless , but when fully soft-ripe it is sub-acid to sweet. fragrant and pleasant flavoured , with a melon flavour - some forms can be quite delicious . The sugar content is similar to that of ripe figs. Fruits developed from fertilised female flowers contain several seeds. Fresh fruits can be kept for several days in a fridge . Cooking them with other fruits that add some acidity improves the taste (eg. half che, half rhubarb is said to be particularly tasty). Preserves made from che fruits taste like fig

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preserves. The leaves have been eaten as a famine food.

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The plant is used in Chinese medicine: an infusion of the wood is used to treat sore or weak eyes ; the inner bark and the wood are used in the treatment of malaria , debility and menorrhagia; the root is galactogogue and is also used in the treatment of amenorrhoea ; and the plant is used to eliminate blood stasis and stimulate the circulation in can cer of the alimentary system. A yellow dye is obtained from the wood . The wood is fine grained and sometimes used for utensils . The leaves are sometimes used in China for feeding silkworms (hence the alternative common name), but usually only when white mulberry leaves are in short supply.

Cultivation
Cultivation is very similar to that of mulberries . A sheltered sunny position in well drained, moist soil is ideal; nutritional requirements are minimal , and feeding is not usually required. Established trees are wind and drought tolerant (the name che in Chinese means 'stone-Iree ', indicating the common occurrence on stony soils). New trees should be mulched, and irrigation may be required in very dry spells. Trees leaf and flower late in spring , missing spring frosts. It appears that male and female trees are not required for fruits to be produced ; without pollination , female flowers simply deve lop into seedless fruits (very useful , especially for preserving fruits) . Also , male trees occasionally have a few female flowers whi ch will set fruit. Female trees are larger and more robust than male trees, and if both are grown then they should be next to each other; or a male and a female can be planted in a single site about 30 cm (1 ft) apart - as they grow they are pruned so that the male occupies 25% and the female 75% of the total tree volume ; or a male branch can be grafted onto a female tree. Growth is generally slow. The plants do not appear to be as susceptible to slug and snail damage as mulberries . Pruning is essential to prevent trees from becoming sprawling untidy bushes that make harvesting very difficult. In winter , prune branches formed the previous year to about half their length , and head back the remaining shoots also by 50% . A leader can be staked to point it more vertically to form a more erect tree . A summer trimming may also be required to conlrol the growth of a male tree planted at the same site as the female. Ches begin to fruit at an early age (10 years from seed, earlier from cuttings or grafts) and mature trees can produce as much as 180 kg (400 Ib) of fruits , which ripen in late autumn. Unlike mulberries , the ripe fruits don 't separate easily from the tree and must be individually picked . Full ripeness is indicated by a dark shade of red with some blackening of the skin and lack of milky latex when the fruits are picked . Superior fruiting selections do exist in China but not yet in the West; their is good potential for work here. Their are few pests and diseases. The ripe fruits are moderately attractive to birds - but unprotected trees usually still retain enough fruits .

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Trees are propagated by seed. Fresh seeds should be sown as soon as they are ripe; dry seeds in early spring . The seeds are not dormant and germination is relatively quick. Cuttings can be taken of half· ripe wood , in July or August ; and of mature wood in November in a sa ndy soil. Superior selections can be grafted onto seedling Cudrania or osage orange (Maclura pomirera) rootstocks. Grafted plants tend to more upright in growth habit.

,

Sources
Agroforestry Research Trust - occasionally have plants for sale. Edulis , 1 Flowers Piece , Ashampstead, Berks , RG6 6SG. UK , Occasionally have plants for sale. Tel/fax: 01635 576113.

]

J S Akin , POBox 6, Sibley , LA 71073, USA. Hidden Springs Nursery, 170 Hidden Springs Lane. Cookville , TN 38501 , USA. 9889 . Papaya Tree Nursery, 12422 EI Oro Way, Granada Hills , CA 91344.

Tel: 615-266-

References
Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1970. Gholston. D: Che a.k.a Chinese Mulberry. Fruit Gardener, Vol 29 No 4 (July/AuguSI1997). Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening . Macmillan, 1999. Krussmann. G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford , 1965.

Caragana arborescens: the Sibedan pea tree
Introduction
Caragana species are a group of shrubs belong to the legume family . mostly originating from Central Asia , of which C.arborescens (from Siberia and Mongolia) is one of the largest. The Latin names comes from the Mongolian name for C.arborescens, 'caragan ' . This species is the commo nest of the Caraganas found in gardens.

Description
Caragana arbarescens is a deciduous shrub (of occasional tree-like habit) growing to 5-6 m (16-20 ttl high and 4 m (13 ttl width. with an upright habit. It is vigorous and free growing , wilh long. sparsely branched shoots which carry small stiff spines at each joint.
)

)

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Flowers are borne from buds on the previous years ' wood, and are typical of leg umes , being yellow, cup shaped and 18 mm (0.75") long . Flowering occurs in May. Pollination is via bees, usually wild bumble bees . Pods develop from flowers, looking like small pea pods (hence the common name) ; they are 4-5 cm (1!h-2") long , borne on slender stalks of a similar length , and are smooth, cylindrical and enclose 3-6 round ish or oblong seeds, each 2 .5-4 mm in diameter. The pods ripen to amber or brown from June or July onwards and seeds fall by August. The seeds ripen well in Britain. The Siberian pea tree is extremely hardy - to zone 2, will tolerate winter temperatures of -40°C.

"

Uses
The young pods are eaten as a vegetable, lightly cooked. The pods become tough later in the season . The seeds are rich in fats and protein (12% and 36% respectively), about the size of lenti ls and can be cooked and used in any way that beans are used (the cooked flavour is somewhat bland , so best used in spicy dishes). The young raw seeds have a pea-like flavour although it is not clear whether they should be eaten raw in much quantity.

C.arborescens is widely used in windbreaks in North America and the former USSR . particular on open prairies for farm shelter and outdoor screening in towns and cities.
Some use has been made in wildlife-erosion control plantings in North America; it is a good soil stabiliser with an extensive root system. The seeds have great wildlife value in its native range ; and the species is used as a supplementary reindeer food in the far North . Siberian pea tree is recommended as a self-forage species for chickens - the seeds will fall and be avidly consumed where chickens have access. Because it is a nitrogen-fixing plant . it enriches the soil nearby and inputs nitrogen in to the system . The rhizobium with which it nodulates is the clover and lupin group, and these are usually freely circulating. so addition of inoculant is rarely necessary. It can be used in polyculture systems, and is sometimes grown with black walnut (Jugfans nigra) where it in creases the growth of the walnut crop for severa l years until it is shaded out . In Britain . where it requires maximum sunlight. it is really only feasible to combine it with smaller species than itself. A fibre is obtained from the bark and used for rope.

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An azure blue dye ca n be obta ined from the leaves. Bee plant - so urce of nectar and pollen, particularly for bumble bees.

Cultivation
Caragana species prefer a continent al climate with hot dry summers and cold winters, but they grow reasonably well in Britain (especia ll y in the East), given a good sunny site . They do not need a ri ch sol i but need good drainage and to lerate sandy alkaline soils. They tolerate drought, full exposure to wind, and industrial air pollution. They are resistant to hon ey fungu s. No pruning is normally required .
Growth in Brita in is about 40 cm ( 16") per year for the first 10 years. Shrubs take 3-5 years to reach commercial seed-bearing age, and good crops occur nea rl y every year. Young pods can be harvested as a vegetable, in June and early July. For seed harvest, the pods sho uld be collected in July or early August as they begin to open (the window for harvest is less than 2 weeks). Th e pods should be sprea d out to dry in a protected are until they pop open ; the seeds are then easily extracted by light sifting , beating and fanning. The re are 39,600 -41,800 seeds/kg ( 18 ,000-19,QOO/lb) and seed yield is 13-20% of fresh pod yield. The seeds can be stored in the dry for many years at room temperature . They can be soaked and cooked in the same way as with other beans .

Propagation
Seed propagation is the norm ; seeds germinate better after a sho rt period of stratification and/or soak ing in warm water prior to planting . Softwood or semi-ripe cuttings can be taken from May-July and r ooted in sand with bottom heat. Rooting hormone may not be necessary, but sometimes helps. Ornamental cultivars are grafted onto seedling rootstocks and there is potential for good fruiting selections to be propagated this way.

Sources
Plants <in the UK) and seeds (worldwide) are availab le from the A.R.T . (see contents page for details). In North America , many forest and conservation tree nurseri es stock the plant.

References
Bean , W J : Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, 1970. Crawford, M : Bee Plants . Agroforestry Research Trust , 1993. Crawford, M: Black wa lnut (2) : uses. Agroforestry News, Vol 5 No 1 p3 (October 1996). Crawford , M: Nitrogen-fixing Plants for Temperate Climates. Agroforestry Research Trust , 1998. Dirr , M & Heuser, C: The Reference Manua l of Woody Plant Propagation . Varsity Press , 1987. Krussmann , G: Manual of C ulti vated Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford , 1985. USDA Forest Service: Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. 1974 .

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&

Forest gardening: summer maintenance
Harvesting
June onwards is a lime of abundant harvest. Early summer harvests are largely of leaf crops from trees (eg. Limes , Tilia spp.), shrubs (ego Pepper shrubs, Zanthoxylum spp.) and perennials (eg. mallows , Malva, and most herbs) . Early summer fruit crops include black and redcurranls . By mid to late summer, mulberries, cherries , plums, apples, pears etc will all be ripening. Later in the summer, most leaf crops often become tougher and less appetising , although some plants continue to put out new tender leaves - lime trees are good for this.

Pruning & trimming
Continue 10 prune Prunus species (plums, apricots , peaches, almonds) in the summer if necessary. Summer pruning may be required for some other cropping trees, ego apple s, pears, chestnuts, grape vines. Pruning summer fruiting shrubs immediately after fruiting finishes is sometimes carried out. Curra nts can be pruned this way, also summer·fruiti ng raspbe rries (which have fruited canes cut out completely). Either leave such prunings on the forest garden floor some distance away from the pru ned plants, shred them , or remove them . Some hedges are best trimmed in summer to prevent fungus disease problems which ca n crop up with winter pruning. Species like beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Italian alder (Alnus cordata) are best trimmed in late summer. Comfrey (Symphytum spp.) and any other green manure crop can be cut every 6 weeks or so, and the cut leave s used as a mulch around other plants hungry for nitrogen and potassi um (ie. most heavily fruiting plants) . It is less work if you allow the comfrey leaves to wilt for a day or two before you move them . Wear gloves and keep your arms covered as the leaves can irritate the skin .

Replanting
It is not too late to replant areas of failed ground cover right up to July - vigorous ground covering species will stil l largely cover the ground in the time to autumn . Many seed-grown ground cover plants started the previous spring will be large enough to plant out after 3 months .

Budding & graft care
Budd ing should take place in July or August in showery warm weather . Bud wood should be cut and used as soon as possible, although it will store for a day or two at cold temperatures with the leaves removed. Chip buds or T-buds are normally used - wrap completed buds in plastic tape or use spec ial rubber squares; they should take within 3 weeks or so. Remember to unwrap them laler in the summer. Keep an eye on an grafts made the previous spring . If they have laken well, then the tape coveri ng the union will need to be removed before it starts constricting the branch. If in doubt, leave the tape on a little longer - it helps splint the graft until it becomes strong enoug h to withstand general outdoor conditions . Grafts made indoors should be treated the same way.

Weeding
Try and keep on top of undesirable weed species at least until midsummer. Arter this , any deciduous ground covers should be doing their job and weeds sho uld not make much of an impact. Make sure that you cut any weeds to prevent flowering and setting of seed - species like nettles and docks are

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=:ttr"R

fEi

good at hiding in hedges. You may also find that cleavers (Galium aparine) grows vigorously in places, threatening to overgrow areas of perennial ground covers: it is easy to pull out , and can be left in place unless its sticky seeds are ripening .

Paths
Grass paths will need mowing every 2-3 weeks throughout the summer. Strimming every 4-8 weeks may be needed to control other unplanted areas against hedges and fences . Grass ingress into organic mulches can be significant over the summer (up to 60 em, 2 ft) and although strimming will help, some hand weeding may be necessary if you don·t want the mulch overgrown ; alternatively, keep covering the ingressing grasses with further mulch and they can be kept under control. Many trees , after the first few years of establishment , won 't suffer from grasses beneath them.

Propagation
Early summer (June) is the time to take softwood cuttings from wood species , eg o hardy kiwi (Actinidia argula) , saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia) . chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), deciduous BerberiS, Chaenomeles, apples (Malus) , Prunus , Va ccinium , grapes (Vilis ) See Agroforestry News , Vol6 No 3 for more details. Mid to late summer (July & August) is the time to take semi-ripe (greenwood) cuttings of woody species, ego kiwis (Actinidia) , Akebia, choke berries (Aronia) , salt bushes (Atrip/ex) , CaJycanfhus, Chaenomeles , Citrus, Comus kousa, E/aeagnus , Gaultheria, mulberries (Morus), bayberries (Myrica) , olive (Olea europaea), Prunus, Sfaphylea , yew (Taxus), grapes (Vilis), pepper trees (Zanthoxylum). See Agroforestry News, Vol 6 No 4 for more details. From midsummer onwards , trailing and rooting species (eg . strawberries & some Rubus species) can have stems trained into and out of small pots . Instead of trying to peg the stems onto the surface of the compost , simply trail the stem in and out of an empty pot and pile compost on top to fill the pot up. Much quicker and just as effective! Propagation areas (cold frames, greenhouses , poly tunnels) should have plenty of ventilation , especially on hot days; temperatures over 26°C (80°F) are generally detrimental to germination and cuttings propagation . Make sure there is adequate watering as well - twice daily can be necessary for container-grown plants on hot days.

Seed collection
Summer is the main time of seed collection in the garden. Try and keep a chronological list of the species in your garden , and approximately what date their seeds ripen and need to be collected otherwise it is all too easy to forget something you really wanted. When collecting fruits from which you want to use seed , either allow the fruits to dry in the sun and then rub off the seeds from the outside (eg. Duchesnea indica & strawberries), or extract the seeds and dry them. Most species of this type will not germinate their seed well if whole fruits are sown they expect the fruits to have gone through the gut of an animal and be at least pari-digested. Some difficult to germinate seeds do best if sown immediately after collection and extraction (ie without drying).

Pest control
Once summer arrives, there should be few pests and diseases. Any slug-prone species (eg . mulberries) should have outgrown the pest. You 'll probably notice some pests arriving in numbers . but vanishing within weeks as predators soon get rid of them - this usually happens with black aphids on elder trees (Sambu cus spp .) for example.

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Poplars
Introduction
Poplars have been useful to humans and cultivated since historical times . They are fast growing , easily propagated, and can be grown on many types of siles the forests as well as in more open landscapes. They serve as an excellent source of a wide range of wood products , especially in temperate zones. Poplars also play a sig nifican t role in environmental protection and improvement, especially in protecting land from wind and flood erosion, in remedying contaminated groundwater, and in the safe disposal of sewage sludge.

rn Central and Eastern Asia and the Mediterranean region, poplars have been closely associated with agricu lture since anti quity , and for many centuries provided timber, with ies and fuel , with lea ves and twigs used as animal forage and bedding. Early popla r culture made use of loca lly available tree s, usually fo rm s of Populus nigra (black poplar) and P.alba (white poplar). However, the introdu ction of American species into Europe in the 17th century resulted in natural hybrid s which eventually revolutionised poplar cultivation.

Poplars in temperate regions
Poplars are used in temperate areas in several main ways : Forestry Often planted in stands of a si ngl e clone or in blocks of different clones , in fairly short (20· 30 yea r ) rotations . Also sometimes planted in mixtures. Agroforestry Both silvopasture and silvoarable systems are used, often using lines of popla r clones and intercropping between with light·demanding crops (eg . wheat) for a few years . followed by less demanding c rops (eg. grass for grazing) for a number of years . Protection plantings Poplars are widely used for stream bank protection and rehabilitation , to stop soi l erosi on , and for windbreaks. Fast growth. easy establi sh ment, and cultivar selection make win dbreak use popular, particu larly in Russia , Ukra ine and Canada. Sewage utilisation Recent use has been mad e of pop lar plantings for the sa fe utilisation of sewage sludge and rem ediation of contaminated groundwater. Short rotation coppice (biomass plantations) These are dense single·clone planta tio ns which are well cultivated and maintained, and harvested frequently (every 1·8 years) and subsequently regenerated by coppice growt h. The above ground portion is used for fibre (via pu lp ) and energ y production. Pop lars are naturally found on flood plains, and require fertile, moist , but not perma nently waterlogged soils which allow deep rooting. Water availabi lity is an important factor in growth rates, and irrigation is sometimes used in dry summer regions. Without irrigation, the wa ter table needs to be within 1·1.5 m (3-5 ft) of the surface for rapid growth . Pop lar roots are close t o the surface, can

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be invasive and search out water, so trees should not be planted near drains, underground services, road s. or buildings on shrinkable soils,

Forestry
Traditionally , poplars were often planted on river banks and pollarded every 10 years or so. Plantations of poplar often cons titute trees of a single clone planted at a spacing of 6 m (27 ft) , grown in ,20-30 year rotations. Yields of 10-1 4 m 3 /halyear are normal with the older clones and 1822 m 3Ma/year with the newer clones. Pre-rooted stock and unrooted cutlings or poles are used for planting. Such plantations are found in Europe and North America , with aspen varieties as well as Euramerican. Interamerican and balsam poplar hybrid clones. Balsam poplars are often planted within forests in mixed stands (including conifers), for examp le in Germany. Aspens are also well suited to forest soils , but are usually grown in pure stands on a rotation of 40-50 years. In Asia . a traditional form of planting is with fastigiate (columnar) clones, usually of P.nigra and P.alba origin, grown in very dense plantings (1 m , 3 tt) in 10-20 year rotations ; these are an important source of timber for rural construction and firewood, with leafy branches used for animal fodder . Poplars require deep, freel y rootable soils with ample and continuous supplies of water; clay loams are ideal, but a wide variety of soils from sands to clays are possible. Hybrid clones require relatively sheltered and warm sites, with a soi l pH on the acid side (pH 5-7) ; P.trichocarpa clones thrive in high rainfall areas and can tolerate a soil pH down to 4.5. Mulch trees after planting or keep an areas weed free around each tree; poplars are very intolerant of weed competition in their early years . Most poplars are hardy to frost damage. For high quality sawn or veneer timber it is necessary to space trees widely (eg. 8 m x 6 m, 27 ft x 27 ft) by either initial wide spacing or by thinning a closer spaced planting from about 6 years onwards. In either case the rotation is likely to be 20-30 yea r s. Pruning is recommended for fast-growing poplar plantations, to produce clear, knot-free wood. Pruning should be initiated within the first three years and repeated annually for at least 5 years. Initi all y, double tops shou ld be removed; later, only la tera l branches and any epicormic shoots need be removed. These should be removed before they exceed 6 cm (2'12 ") in diamete r when the trunk at their base is about 10-12 cm (4-5") diameter. Pruning should be carried out to a height of 6-8 m (20-27 rt). France is the largest poplar-growing country in Western Europe. with some 260,000 ha of poplar currently producing about 2.5 million m 3 of timber per year. The clones used are mostly the Euramerican (P.x canadensis) '12 14', 'Blanc de Poitou ', 'Robusta' and ' Se rotina ' . This resource is well-used and va lu ed in many ways. In Britain, only sma ll amounts of poplar have bee n planted since the 1970's (see 'Agroforestry ; below for details) and landowners are still wary of planting because of what happened then; but given a reliable annual harvest, there is no reason why poplar timber should not be as popu lar here as it is in France . The poplar varieties currently legally acceplable for planting for wood production in Britain are listed in 'Species and varieties' below.

Poplar timber
The timber is light in weight (380- 550 kg/m 3 , average 450 kg/m 3 at 12% moisture content). straight grained, fine textured, not sl rong, off-white in colo ur (so metimes grey , pinkish or pale brown) with no clea r difference between heartwood and sapwood, and does not splinter . Aspen (P.tremufa) timber is whiter and finer in texture and quality. Poplar's cle an appearance coupled with the absence of any taints makes it favoured for use in contact with food . Poplar timber sands wel l. turns well . takes paint

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very well but the hardwood does thin cutting edges are required to smoulder rather than burst into becoming splintery . When fixing pins and similar narrow nails lend

not lake stain or preservatives well (the sapwood does) ; sharp , overcome the woolly texture . It is difficult to ignite as it tends 10 flames. When subjected to abrasion, it bruises rather than poplar, it is important 10 use flat-top nails or staples, as panel to pull through. II is not durable in contact with water.

Formerly in Britain, and still in other pa rts of the world , the timber was used for light agricul tu ral products; curved timbers were split and used back to back for cruck-framed buildings; wagon bottoms were made from the impact-absorbing soft wood ; pegs were cut from young shoals which wou ldn 't split easily in use ; upper floors of houses were made of the wood because it didn't catch fire easily; long pollarded po les were used as scaffolding poles; and bowls and other receptacles were and are still made from the wood which turns well ; and fruit punnets and chip baskets were made from it. The tim ber is u sed for plywood veneers (i t is easily cold pee led as a rotary veneer), blackboard, laminates , and the sawn timber and veneer for trug baskets boxes , crates (eg . for lettuce and broccoli), pallets , furniture (eg. chunky kitchen furniture like tables) and carcassing (eg . bed bases), joinery (window and door frames) and mouldings . The bark from peeled logs is often used for garden mulch. It was formerly, and still is much used for match production (despite its slow flammability - improved by impregnation with flammable hydrocarbons) , but not now using European wood . It is still the preferred material for the floors of oast houses and other situations with a fire hazard. Poplar plywood is produced mainly in Italy, Spain and France: the clones 'Blanc de Poitou' and the new Belgian clones are preferred for peeling. Boxes are made notably for cheese and for fish they are normally made in undried timber, with the completed box being kiln dried overnig ht before delivery. An expansion of poplar foreslry is likely following the interest in new industrial techniques for usi ng the timber - laminates in particular, for beams and boards hold great promise; the traditional demand for poplar plywood and packing material is not likely to change much .

Agroforestry
Poplars are typically grown in lines , sometimes along the boundaries of fields and irrigation channels , also in wide-spaced lines with an intercrop between . Lines at 10-12 m (33-40 ft) apart allow roughly 3-4 years of intercropping using a light-demanding crop (eg . maize , wheat etc) , and at least 10 years further intercropping u sin g more shade-tolerant crops (eg. medicinal plants or grass for grazing). In Italy, poplar-maize inlercropping is practised, wilh poplars at close forestry spacing , allowing two years of maize cultivation. One of the few significant examp les of agroforestry practised in the UK was on the Bryant and May eslates between the 1950's and 1970's, when poplars were grown in li nes or blocks, with pasture for grazing beneath ; the wood was used for match manufacture, but the operation became uneconomic. The species/clones used (mostly euramerican such as 'Robusta ') at that time were far less productive than recent hybrids (interamerican - P.X generosa - such as ' 6eupre', ' Ghoy', and 'Primo' , for example yield almost twice the annual volume increment) . Eight years of intercropping with cereals was followed by a further 12 or more years of a grass-clover ley for cattle forage. Recent experimenta l plantings have used trees in rows 10m (33 fl) apart and 6.4 m (21 fl) between trees in rows ; the alleys have been cropped for cereals etc (alternative fallowing of alleys increased overall tree height) for five years, with little difference between intercropped and monoculture yields. This option uses trees al a densily of 156/ha, and should allow for arable use for some 7-8 yea rs, followed by grazing use for at least further 12 years; rotations of 17·25 years are feasible. Poplar agroforestry is particularly popular in China, where the indigenous P.X tomentosa (a P.a/ba hybrid) has been widely used, despite the difficulty of propagation. The wood is used for a range of u ses, from sawn wood for construction to veneer and pu lp . Some silvoarable plantings use trees in widely spaced lines of pairs of lines (at 50 m , 160 ft apart) , and use a wheat intercrop.

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Euramerican hybrid (P.x canadensis) clones (Marilandica , Regenerata , Robusta , Seratina) and Lombardy poplar (P.nigra cv . italica ) are frequenlly used in Europe in row plantings along ditches, ro ads and farm boundaries . Single or double rows are usually used, with a wide spacing (4-10 m , 13-33 ttl between trees . The trees are cut at 20-40 years of age and replaced by new planting . A traditional European use, now rarely practised, is to pollard for forage.

Protection plantings
For windbreak use , fastigiate poplars are often used grown in single or multiple rows , planted at a dense (1-2 m , 3-6 tt) spacing. On the Canadian prairies , poplars are used as the outer row of shelterbefts, with the inner rows being longer·lived species; three clones are used in particular which are hardy and effective: 'Assiniboine' and 'Walker' (P.deltoides var. accidentaJis seedlings), and 'Northwest ' (Hybrid of P.balsamifera x P.de/taides var. accidentalis). Stream bank and soil protection is achieved quickly with poplar's fast growth and extensive root system . It is used in New Zeatand to check soil erosion on hilly land resulting from sheep and catlie grazing .

Sewage utilisation
A recent use which is becoming popular. particularly in the USA, is for the safe disposal of municipal waste water, sewage sludge and farm wastewater. Special plantations of fast-growing hybrids are established for this purpose . and show high uptake rates for nitrogen and other minerals. As well as being a nutrient sink, the trees produce a wood product - usually by SRC • which helps offset the cost of installation and maintenance. Rotations of 6·15 years are best to maintain fast growth and uptake of nutrients . Pumps and a pipe system are used to convey the wastewater to the irrigation system at the plantation . The irrigation system required depends on tree spacing. infiltration rate of the soil. water quality targets etc. The usual systems used as micro-spray sprinklers and drip irrigation - the former runs the risk of making conditions rife for poplar rust , so should only be used in dry climate regions. Total irrigation amounts of 60·115 cm (25-45-) per year are normally required. Tree spacing depends on the use required: SRC spacing , ego 1 m (3 ft) square are most efficient at taking up wastewater nutrients. whilst wider spacing , ego 2.5 m (8 tt) square for pulp production, may reduce wastewater treatment efficiency . Nitrogen uptake of the stand is typically 225·400 kg/ha/year (200-360 Ib/acre/year) . Phosphorus. potassium , magnesium and calcium are also utilised in large amounts . Research is now under way on the suitability of poplar in the broader context of phytoremediation (ie the use of plants as clean-up organisms for the absorption and conversion of toxic pollutants); in the future, breeding may produce clones' which are efficient at removing specific target pollutants - there is already some evidence of good uptake of zinc and cadmium.

Short rotation coppice
Short rotation coppice (SRC) is usually established on good land . usually farmland destined for diversification. Stemwood production per unit area is usual maximised by coppicing trees in their second or third year of growth. Productivity remains similar in each rotation for at least five rotations . A moist. fertile . well-drained mildly acidic soil (pH 6-7) is ideal and a flattish site useful as mechanised access for winter harvest is essential. SRC plantations can increase wildlife potential and in particular encourage song birds and breeding game birds like pheasants . Establishment is by using unrooted cuttings 20·25 cm (8-10 ~ ) long, leaving 1-2 cm (0.4·0.6") exposed above the soil. The cuttings are taken in winter, stored in cold conditions until spring , the soaked in water for 24 hours before planting and semi-automatic planting machines are used . Weed control is very important in the year of establishment and after each harvest - chemicals are usually used and

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organic methods may be difficult to apply . Harvest is in winter during dormancy by machine . For pulp (fibre) production , unroated cu ttings of easily-propagated clones are planted at a spacing o f 2.5-4 m (8·13 ft) . The p lantations are in blocks of different clones. and are tended by cu ltivation and often chemical weed control. Rolations of 7-10 years are used and after harvest the site is either regenerated from coppice of replanted with new stock . Pulp production has become popular in the Pacific Northwest of North America , using hybrid clones

of P.trichocarpa x P.deftoides.

Rotations of 7-8 years are used, with 1300-2000 trees/ha , which

produce 17-21 tlha/yr of woody biomass. The short hardwood fibre is typically mixed with long er con ifer fibre in the manufacture of tissue paper, towels , high·grade newsprint and high·quality bond paper. The fibre has a low bleaching requiremenl in pu lping compared with conifer pulp. A growing inlerest in higher·value structural wood products, such as oriented strand board and laminated veneer, may lead to extended rotations of 10 years . poplars are well suited to biomass production (usually for energy production) , with rapid juvenile growth, high photosynthetic capacity, superior growth performance and large woody biomass production. Biomass plantations are even more densely planted, wit h trees at 0.3·1.5 m (1·5 ft) apart (usually about 90 cm , 3 tt) , either of a single c lone or in blocks of different clones . The sites are very carefully prepared , well cultivated, fertilised and maintained , u sually using chemical weed control. Rotations of 1·5 years are used and subseque nt regeneration is from coppice growth; it is uncertain how long rotations can continue without soi l depletion , but there is no significant decline in production after 5 rotations. Interamerican (P. x generosa) clones yield up to 28 mJ/ha/year of biomass (even unfertilised they can achieve 20 mJ/ha/year) , with Eu ramerican (P.x canadensis) 3 clones yielding much less , 10-15 m /ha /y ear; yie ld s of 10-15 dry tonnes/ha/year are achievable in Britain with 3·year rotations. Altho ugh SRC p lantings are usually in blocks to maximise efficiency of management, they can be grown in other ways: As wide strips between fields , acting as conservation buffers . As windbreaks , p lanted around the edges or between fields . In this cas e , the SRC is harvested in two passes , with a year or two between , allowing the first harvested rows to coppice and provide shelter before the second harvest. In strips parallel to streams and rivers. They not on ly grow very well in such sites (their natural habitat) but also remove excess nutrients from nearby arable crops etc . Hybrid poplars in SR C are being tested as a 'landfill cap', planted on top of completed landfills - thus reducing the amount of rainfall leaching through the landfill and consequently reducing leachate. As wastewater treatment - see above for details.

Propagati on
Most pop lars have a high rooting capacity and are usually planted as unrooted cuttings or sets , taken from vigorous one year-old shoots . In mainland Europe it is common to plant sets up to 5 m (16 tt) long in order to reach the water table; in Britain, sets of 1-2 m (3-6 ft) are adequate, wit h at least a th ird of the length below ground . Sets have an advantage over cuttings in having greater resources and be be Iter able to withstand grazing injury and weed competition ; they avoid the problem of damage on emergence from tree shelte rs; and the trees are deeper rooted (at least initially). Sets longer than (1.2 m 4 tt) can suffer from wind damage though . In cold winter areas , plant in spri ng wh en the soil temperature reaches 1Q° C. At high planting densities , cuttings are preferred to sets . 20-25 em (8- 10") cuttings are used, wit h a m inimum diameter of 10 mm (OA - ), with a prime b ud near the top ; they are planted leaving 1-2 em and the bud above ground. Fluffy windblown seeds are produced in summer and need to fall onto bare wet ground to germinate (eg. si lt and mud banks of rivers in it s natu ral habitat) - the soi l needs to remain bare and moist until

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the autumn. Poplars are dioecious (ie trees are male or female), and so cross pollination (via the wind) is necessary for seeds to be produced .

Pests and diseases
The trend to planting single clone stands of poplar both in forestry and for SRC puts these crops al risk of severe damage should a pest or diseases arrive· this is the main reason why multiclonal stands are now recommended. The main, pests in Europe are the willow beetles Phyllodecta spp. and Galerucella lineola , which in large numbers can cause severe defoliation and mortality 10 SRC plantations. Young plantations are also prone to grazing damage by rabbits and deer. Most poplars are susceptible to bark stripping by grey squirrels. Various aphids can migrate from black poplars to celery and the roots of lettuces and carrots in summer and be significant pests on these crops . Bacterial canker (Xanfhomonas populi) is an extremely damaging disease in Britain - so much so that only canker-resistant varieties can be legally planted for timber and SRC production . Infection via natural openings such as leaf scars can lead to the death of branches and to the deve lopment of perennial cankers on the trunk . The other most potentially damaging disease to SRC plantations is the leaf rust Melamspora laric;populina, characterised by bright orange pustules on the underside of leaves. There are several races of this disease and new ones are constantly evolving (there were 3 in 1989 but there are now 5), hence resistant clones are quite likely to lose their resistance at some time - this has severe repercussions for SRC in particular , because the conditions prevailing in dense copp ice stands are more favourable for rust development than widely spaced timber stands. Infection is best c ontrolled by using several clones and through using clones which are currently resistant. The alternate host of rust is larch (Larix spp.); larch needles become infected by spores released from overwintering structures on fallen poplar leaves. Fresh infection of polar occurs during the summer. As well as foliage loss , shoots and occasionally older wood can die back. The related Mallii-populina is a problem in Southern Europe , and is sometimes found in Brita in in warm summers - and might presumably become more significant as our summers warm up. Leaf spot (Marssonina brunnea) is another damaging leaf disease.

Species, varieties and uses
Many poplar species interbreed freely , there are numerous natural hybrids and there is some evidence that some ' species' are in fact hybrids. The identifjcation of most cultivated poplars is very difficult and often imposs ible from the physical appearance alone. Similar to willows , the bark of most , if not all members of the genus contain salicin , a glucoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark can therefore be used medicinally as an anodyne , antiinflammatory , antiseptic, astringent , diuretic and febrifuge . It is used internally in the treatment of rheumatism , arthritis , gout , lower back pains , urinary complaints, digestive and liver disorders, debility, anorexia, also to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. Externally , the bark is used to treat chilb lains , haemorrhoids , infected wounds and sprains . The bark is harvested from side branches or coppiced trees and dried for later use Again like willows , an extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking chopped up shoots in cold water for a 24 hours. The mixture will keep in a closed jar for several weeks. To use it, cuttings should be soaked for an hOUf or two in the mixture before planting.

P.X acuminata - Lanceleaf cottonwood
Tree growing 15-20 m (50-70 tt) high from Eastern North America . Hardy to zone 3 (-35°C , -35°F) .

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Fodder - branches and bark were fed to horses during winter by native Americans . The wood was used to make fi re dri lls.

P.adenopoda - Chinese aspen
Tree growing 25 m (80 ft) high from China . Used for forestry in China .

P.alba - White poplar, Silver poplar, Abele
Tree from Europe and Asia, grown ornamenta lly in Britain. Grows to 30 m (100 ft) high and 12 m (40 ft) in width. The undersides of leaves are whitish and downy. Hardy to zone 3 (-35°C, _35°F). Tolerates salt-laden winds . Used for forestry in Germany, Italy, Greece , Iran , Syria and India. The leaves and inner bark (ground and added to bread) have been eaten in times of famine. The leaves have been used medicinally in the treatment of caries of teeth and bones; the twigs are depurative. A yellow dye is obtained from the bark.

P.angustifolia - Narrowleaf cottonwood, Willow-leaved poplar
Tree growing to 20-30 m (70-100 ft) high from Western North America. Hardy to zone 3 (-35°C, 35°F) . The young leaves and expanding buds emit a pleasant distinctive fragrance in the spring. Sometimes used for forestry in France. The inne r bark (ground and added to bread) has been eaten in times of famine. The buds were used as a kind of chewi ng gum. A tea made from the inner bark has been used in the treatment of scurvy: the woolly fruit was used to treat gum infections and toothache. The young shoots were used for basketry. Young twigs were fed to horses when other food was unavailable.

P.balsamifera - Balsam poplar, Tacamahac
Tree growi ng 30 m (100 ft) high and 8 m (27 ft) wide from Northern N.America. Hardy to zone 2 (40°C, _40°F). In spring the buds and young leaves have a strong fragrance of balsam. the subspecies balsamifera has the same uses. Uses: Used for forestry in the North of North America and Russia. The variety subcordata (Syn. P.candicans) is used in France, Yugoslavia and Canada. The catkins (bitter) and inner bark (ground and added to bread) have been eaten in times of fami ne. The sap can be tapped and used for food. Young twigs were fed to horses when other food was unavailable. Medicinally, the leaf buds are antiscorbutic , antiseptic , diuretic, expectorant , stimulant and tonic; they are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste, and are boiled in order to separate the resin which is then dissolved in alcohol. The resin is a folk remedy for sores, rheumatism, wounds etc. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for spra in s, inflammation, muscle pains etc. Internally, th e tea is used in the treatment of lung ailments and coughs. The buds can be used to make a salve and poultice , and can also be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. The leaves were used in sweat lodges for rheumatic pains. A tea made from the inner bark is used as an eye wash and in the treatment of scurvy. The bark was used by some native Americans to manufacture a cloth. The resin obtained from the buds was used by the N. American Indian s to waterproof the seams on their canoes. The resin was also used to repel mosquitoes, blackflies and gadflies. The bark was used to make fishing floats.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

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Zi

2
X

The wood gives off a pleasant odour when burning , and was sometimes used to smoke fish.

P.X bero/inensis (P./aurifo/ia

P.nigra 'Italica') - Berlin poplar

A broad columnar tree growing to 25 m (80 tt) high , Hardy to zone 2 (-40<>C, -40 C F) , This Lombardy poplar hybrid was developed in Berlin before 1870 and is one of the more popular poplars for park trees in Europe, Used for forestry in Germany , France , Czech Republic , Yugoslavia,

P.x cqnadensis (P.de/toides X P.nigra or P.x euramericana) Euramerican hybrids, Canadian poplar
Fast growing hybrid growing to 40 m (130 tt) high by 12 m (40 tt) wide , Hardy to zone 4 (-25 C C , 25<> F) . Small leaved, well suited to drier climates with plentiful sun (ie South & East of the UK). Older varieties reach 15 m (50 fI) in 10 years. Major forestry hybrid in Europe and South America. Clones include 'Casale 78 ' (1-78, Italian), 'Eugenei ' (fast growing, upright, to 50 m), 'Gaver', 'Gelrica ' (fast growing , only moderately straight) , 'Ghoy' , (yields 18 m 3 /ha/year) , 'Gibecq', 'Heidemij', 'KoltaV' (Hungarian) , 'Kopecky' (Hungarian) , 'Neva ' (recent Italian clone, high productivity , strong wood) , 'Primo' , 'Regenerata ' (tolerates urban pollution), 'Robusta' (upright, older established clone, yields 10-14 m 3 /ha/year, used for timber & biomass - produced a stronger timber than many clones, widely used in Western Europe), 'Serotina ' (older established clone , pollards well, late to leaf in spring). In Britain, only Ghoy , Gaver, GibecQ (Belgian clones) and to a lesser extent Robusta are currently planted in any quantity. The timber of these is of high quality and being small-leaved , they are more able to stand strong winds. The newer varieties in the table below are the result of breeding work in Belgium. The following are currently legally allowed to be planted for wood or SRC production in Britain (nnnn = very resistant, n ::: least reSistant, Lf spt=leaf spot):

Lf spt resltol Variety Timber use Viqour Canker res Rust resllol SRC use -older varsCasale 78 4 4 Eugene; 4 Gelrica 4 4 Heidemij 4 4 Robusta 4 4 Serotina 4 4 -newer varsGaver 4 4 Ghoy 4 4 GibecQ 4 4 Primo 4 Shelter - sometimes planted to surround and shelter mteramencan (P.x generosa) vanetles.

nn

nn nn nn nn nn nn nn nn

nn nn nnn nn nnn nn nnn nnn

n n nn nn

n

nn nn

nn nn nn nn

nn nn nn nn

P.X canescens (P.a/ba

X

P.tremu/a) - Grey poplar.

A natural hybrid similar to P.aJba, growing 30-45 m (100-150 ftl high and 15 m (50 tt) wide with attractive foliage - popular for amenity plantings . Hardy to zone 4 (_25 C C, -25° F). Tolerates a wide range of moist soils , and grows well near the sea (tolerating salt-laden winds) and anywhere in the UK. New clones are being developed for their adaption to soils which are temporarily waterlogged . Usually propagated by suckers, layers or root cuttings . Can be grown for timber production; it is currently legally allowed to be planted for wood production in Britain , Used for forestry in Germany , France, Yugoslavia , Iran , former USSR.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

P.cathayana
Tree growing 10 30 m (1 00 ft) high from NW China, Manchuria and Korea . Hardy to zone 4 . Used for forestry in China and Yugoslavia .

P.deltoides - Eastern cottonwood, American poplar
Tree nalive to E.N.America , growing 30 m (100 ttl high by 20 m {70 ttl wide ; found on neulral alkaline soils where the climate is continental with low rainfall. Hardy to zone 2 ( -40° C , -40° F) , Rarely planted in the UK. Quite susceptible to wind damage . Used in forestry in South ern and West ern Europe , Asia , North and South Africa , South America and North America . Forestry clo n es include '1 -214', 'Lena' (productivity 10-20% higher than 1214 . wood strong) , 'Lux' . The buds , leaves and inner (ground and added to bread) have been eaten in times of famine . Lea v es and bark were used together medicinally. Trees are some tim es planted for dune fixing in erosion control programmes .

P.deltoides SSp . monilifera - Plains cottonwood
Similar to the species , from North America. The inner bark was eaten (us u ally dried and added to bread) for its pleasant sweet ta ste. The seed fluff was used as an abso rben t on wounds . The branches were used as forag e for horses. The waxy leaf buds we re boiled to make a yellow dye. The seed vessels were also boiled to make a yellow dye . The large leaves were used for making toys and a fl ute-like musical instrument.

P.deltoides SSp . wislizeni - Rio Grande cottonwood
Straight stemmed tree growing to 30 m (100 tt) high from Texas and New Mexico. Hardy to zone 2

(·40' C , -40' F).
Sometimes used for forestry in France. The buds and cottony fruits were eate n like chewing gum . The wood was sometimes used t o make tind er boxes, small boats and rafts, for cradles and for construction beams .

P.euphratica
Differing from most species in being a slender tree or shrub, originating from North Africa to Asia Minor and Central Asia . Only hardy to zone 9 (-SO C, 23° F). Often menti oned in the Bib le as the 'willow' of the chi ld ren o f Israel. Used for forestry (perhaps for sheller?) in North and East Africa to China and Mongolia.

P.fremontii - Fremont's cottonwood
Straig ht tree growing 25- 30 m (85- 100 ft) high from Southweste rn N.Am erica. Hardy to zone 7 (15° C,5° F). Very tolerant of extrem ely alka lin e soi ls. Sometimes used for forestry in France . The catkins (b itter) and inner bark (grou nd & added to bread) have been eaten in times of famine . The young green 'pods' we re eaten like chewing gum. The leaves were sometimes u sed with bark medicinally. The youn g shoots (sometimes pee led and split) have been used in basketry . Hollowed logs were used to make drums.

generosa (P.deltoides interamericana) Interamerican hybrids
X
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

P.

x

P.trichocarpa

or

P.X

Large leaved vigorous h ybrid growing 35 m (120 tt) hig h .

Hardy to zone 6 (-20° C , _5° F) .

Has

Page 33


popufea) than euramerican clones. Major forestry hybrid in Europe . Clones include 'Beaupre ' (yiel ds 22·26 m 3 /ha/year on good land), 'Soelare' (now no longer approved for planting in the UK due to fust susceptibility). 'Hazend ens' (only slightly susceptib le to poplar ru st), 'Hoogvorst' (only slig htly susceptible to poplar rust) , 'Hunnegem ' (not currentry on list of approved varieties for the UK), 'Raspalje ' (yields 24-28 m3/ha/yr biomass - not currently on li st of approved varieties for the UK), 'Unal ' (not currently on list of approved varieties for the UK). Beaupre, Hoogvorst and Hazendans are very vigorous, with excellent form, and are very resistant to bacterial canker. Beaupre and Boel'lre have become very susceptible to rust and are no longer used in SRC , but are still good timber trees . These are all the result of breeding work in Belgium .

The following are currently legally allowed to be planted for wood or SRC production in Britain (nnnn = ve ry resistant, n = least resistant, Lf spt= leaf spot): Va riet y Beaupre Hazendens Hoogvorst Raspalje

n nnn nnnn nnnn nnn nnn nn nnnn P.grandldentata - Canadian aspen, Bigtooth aspen

Timber use 4 4 4 4

SRC use

Viqour nnnn

Canker res nnnn nnnn nnnn

Rust resllol

Lf spt resl tol nnnn

nn nn nnnn

Tree growing 20 m (70 ft) high from Northeastern N.America. Hardy to zone 3 (-35° C, -35° F). Trees usually produce suckers and form large thickets in the wild. Does not thri ve in Britain . Usually propagated by suckers, layers or root cuttings. Sometimes used for fore stry in Austria. The inner bark (ground and added to bread) has been eaten in times of famine. Young roots were used medicinally (an infusion being haemostatic).

P.x jackii 'Gileadensis' - Balm of Gilead, Jack's poplar
Syn. P.gileadensis . A natural hybrid growing 30 m (100 ft) high by 12 m (40 ft) wide; hardy to zone 2 (-40°C, -40°F) . The buds and young lea ves have the scent of balsam . Only femal e forms are known, which is very susceptible to bacterial canker. Used for forestry in Eastern North America - planted over a considerabl e range. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that ha s a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste - they also contain salicin, a glucoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspi ri n) in the body. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic , balsamic, diuretic , expectorant, stimUlant and tonic; they are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds , sinusitis , arthritis, rheumatism , muscular pain and dry skin conditions . They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages . The buds are harvested in the spri ng before they open and dried for later use . The resin was used for trap scents in hunting .

P.koreana
Tree growing to 25 m (85 ft) high from Korea . Not very tolerant of air pollution . Used for forestry in Yugoslavia.

P.lasiocarpa - Chinese necklace poplar
Slow growing, round crowned tree to 25 m (85 It) high , from China. Hard y to zone 5 (-23°C, _10°F). Difficult to propagate and required a protected site. Used for fore stry in SW China.

P.laurifolia - Laurel poplar
Tree growing to 15-20 m (50-70 tt) high from India to Siberia and Japan. Hardy to zone 6 (-20°C, -

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

5°F).
Used for forestry in China and Russia.

P.maximowiczii - Japanese poplar, Doronoki
Large broad crowned tree growing to 30-40 m (100-130 ft) high from NE Asia to N.Japan. Hardy to

lone 4 (-25°C, -20°F).
Used for forestry in NE China and Japan.

P.nigra - black poplar
Native to Britain, Europe to Western China, growing to 30 m (100 ft) high and 20 m (70 ttl wide; hardy to zone 2 (-40°C, -40°F). Has small leaves - less susceptible to wind damage - and is highly resistant to bacterial canker. A lth ough it's hybrids are now much used, the native black poplar in Britai n (ssp. betuUfolia) is our most endangered nalive timber tree ; once hybrids were produced in the 1850's, few black poplars we re planted. Trees have su rvived, often by propagating themselves vege tatively , in riverside colonies. Not a woodland tree - won't tolerate side shade. Formerly much pollarded. Used in forestry, especially in Asia minor, North Africa and the Middle East. Shelter & windbreaks. Clones used include 'Ital ica' (Lombardy popla r - often used to provide a quick screen or windbreak, but is not a very suitable choice because it has fragile branches and is prone to basa l rots which can cause sudden co ll apse), 'Pla ntierensis' (a good variety for a Quick screen or wi nd break). The inner bark (ground and added to bread) have been eaten in tim es of famine. The leaf buds are cove red with a resinous sap that has a strong turp entine odo ur and a bitter taste; they also contain sa li cin , a glucos ide that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The buds are antisco rbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diapho retic, diuretic , expectorant, febrifuge, salve, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary; they are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections, stomach and kidney disorders. Externally , the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pa in and dry skin con ditions. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to re lieve congested nasal passages. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are dried for later use. The bark can be used as a cork substitute for floats etc.

P.pseudo-simonii
Tree from Eastern Asia. Leaves have been used as a famine food.

P. sargentii
Tree simila r to P.deltoides, but somewhat smaller; native to the USA. Hardy to zone 4 (-25°C, -

20°F).
Someti mes used for forestry in the USA.

P.sieboldii - Japanese aspen
Suckering tree growing to 20 m (70 ft) high in its native habitat (half that in cu ltivation here) from F). Japan. Hardy to zone 4 (_2SDC, _20D Young leaves and shoots have been cooked and eaten - probably as a famine food.

P.simonii
Narrow tree from Northern Chi n a, growing to 30 m (100 ft ) high there (hal f that in cultivation here). Hardy to zone 2 (-40°C, -40°F). Susceptib le to bacterial canker. Extensive ly planted in China for construction material in rural areas. Sometimes planted for timber in Central Europe (Au stria, Bu lgaria, Yugoslavia). Young leaves have been cooked and eaten - probably as a fam ine food.

AGROFORES TRY NEWS VolB No 4

Page 35

P.suaveolens
Slow growing upright tree. reaching 30 m (100 tt) high in its habitat, from Siberia . Manchuria, Korea and N.Japan. Hardy to zone 3 (-35° C, -35° F) . Used in forestry in NW China and Mongolia.

P.szechuanica
Tall tree growing to 40 m (130 ft) high in its habitat, from Western China. Hard y to zone 4 (-25°C, -

20°F). ~ • Used in fo restry in China

P.X tomentosa (P.alba

X

P.adenopoda) - Chinese white poplar
Hardy to zone 4 (-25°C, -

Tree similar to P .alba but talter. to 40 m (130 ft) from Northern China.

20°F). Used in forestry in Northern Ch ina.

P.tremula - Aspen, Quaking aspen
Tree from Europe and Asia growing 18-30 m (60-l00 ft) or more high and 10 m (33 tt) wide . Hardy to zone 2 (-40°C, -40°F). Trees produce suckers freely and can form dense thickets; they are to lerant of exposure. They are good wild life plants in Europe. Usually propagated by suckers, layers or root cuttings . Wide ly used for forestry in Western, Central and Northern Europe . ' Tapiau' is a fast growing form. The inner bark has been used (ground and added to bread) as a famine food . The bark and the leaves are mild ly diuretic, expectorant and stimulant; the plant is seldom used medicinally , but is sometimes included in propriety medicines for chronic prostate and bladder disorders. It is also used in Bach flower remedies . The wood makes It makes a high quality paper and is also used to make a very good charcoal.

p.tremula

X

P.tremuloides - Hybrid aspen

Has higher biomass production than pa rents , due to lower morta lity rate & higher growth rate . Used in forestry - some clones are now being grown in Europe, ego 'Astria'. Reaches fastest growth around age of 15; ro tations of 10-20 years feasible .

p.tremuloides - American asp.en, Quaking aspen
Tree growing to 20-30 m (70-100 tt) hig h and 10 m (33 ft) wide in its habitat (ha lf that in cultivation) from North America (Canada to Mexico). Hardiness varies with origin - zones 1 to 5. Prefers a warm sheltered site . Usually propagated by suckers, layers or root cuttings. • Sometimes used for forestry in the USA. The catkins (bitter) and inner bark (ground and added to bread) have been used as a famine food. The sap can be tapped and used as a drink, also a flavouring (apparently good with wild strawberries) Medicinally, the root can be poulticed and applied to cuts and wounds; a tea from the root bark is used as a treatment for excessive menstrual bleeding ; the leaf buds are used as a salve for colds. coughs and irritated nostri ls; a poultice of crushed leaves is used for bee stings, mouth abscesses etc. The bark is used for numerous problems. The bark has been used as a winter f odder for horses. The young twigs were fed to horses when other food was unavailable. The wood was used to make canoes, pole s for tepees and to smoke fish. Knots from the wood were used to make cups. The bark was used to make rope and for hats.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

P.trichocarpa - Balsam poplar, black cottonwood
Syn . P.balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa . Native to Western N.America , growing to 40 m (130 ft) high and 12 m (40 ft) wide; hardy to zone 5 (- 23° C , ·10° F). Has long dark green leaves , white underneath . Tends to produce epicormic shoots which require regular pruning, and suckers. Quite a good tolerance of rust. Well suited to areas of high rainfall such as the West of Britain, but nol in 100 exposed a site. Heights of 20 m (70 ft) in 10 years are common. Used in forestry - a major species in Europe and the USA. The newer varieties in the table below are the result of breeding work in Belgium . Clones in clude 'Columbia River' , 'Fritzi Pauley' (growth rate is 10-15 m 3/ha/yr biomass; prone to wind damage) , 'Muhle Larsen', 'Scott Pauley' (less prone to wind damage & doesn 't produce so many epicormics , but slightly less vigorous then 'Fritzi Pauley ' ), ' Trichobel'. The followi ng are currently legally allowed to be planted for wood or SRC production in Britain (Ilrlnn = very resistant, n = least resistant, Lf spt= leaf spot) : Timber Viaour Canker res Rust resllol Lf sot resltol SRC use Variety -older varsnnn Fritzi Pauley 4 4 nn nnnn nnn Scott Pauley 4 nn nnnn nnn nnn 4 -newer varsColumbia River 4 nn nnnn nnn nnnn 4 nn nnnn nnn nnn Trichobel 4 4 TraditIOnally, the wood was used by native Americans to make canoes and for constructing lodges . It was also used for smoki ng salmon. The catkins (bitter) and inner bark (ground and added to bread) have been used as a famine food . The sap can be tapped and used for food. It was also used as a scenl concealer. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odour and a bitter taste; they also contain salicin, a glucoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body . The buds are antiscorbutic , antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic , expectorant . stimulant and tonic. and can be taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections . Externally, the buds are used as a salve or poultice to treat colds. sinusitis. arthritis, rheumatism , muscular pain and dry sk in conditions . They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve congested nasal passages. The buds are harvested in the spri ng before they open and are dried for later use. The leaves have also been used medicinally, sometimes as an infusion as an antiseptic for cuts . The twigs and bark were fed to horses and other livestock. The leaves and twigs are ealen by moose. The bark of large trees is thick and corky . It can be made into containers for carrying and storing food, also as a lining for underground food stores; it was also used for roofing. The inner bark can be sh redd ed and spun with other inner bark (eg . red or yellow cedar) or fibre (eg. nettle fibre). then used as nets, fishing line, twine and rope. The inner bark can also be used as a scouring pad . Dried inner bark was used as a soap substitute for washing and as a laund ry soap. A glue can be made from the aromatic gum on the spring buds; very slrong, it can also be used as a waterproofing for wood etc - when mixed with pigment it can be used as a paint. A string can be made from the roots. The roots were also sometimes used for basketry. The seed fluff can be used as a stuffing material for mattresses . pillows etc . It was also spun and used to make blankets etc . The buds were used to make a yellow dye. The dried roots were used to make fire drills.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Page 37

P. trichocarpa x P. balsamifera
Fast growing hybrid, hardy to zone 5 (-23°C, -10°F) . 'Ba lsam Spire' (TT32) - has been widely planted for its narrow crown and early leafing . providing early shelter. Has narrow branch angles , so can be grown at narrow spacings . It is currenlly legally allowed to be planted for wood production in Britain but is no longer recommended for SRC. Same uses as for balsam poplar, p.rrichocarpa .

P. wilsonii
Conica l tree growing to 25 m (85 tt) high from Central and Western China. Hardy to zone 5 (-23°C, -10°F). Difficult to propagate - usually grafted . Used for forestry in SW China.

P.yunnanensis
Tree from SW China. Hardy to zone 5 (-23°C, -10°F). Used for forestry in China and sometimes France .

References
Aaron, J & Richards, E: British Wood land Produce. Siobart Davies, 1990. Evans, J: Silviculture of Broadleaved Wood land . FC Bu lletin 62, 1984. Gordon, A & Newman, S: Temperate Agroforestry Systems. CAB International , 1997. Huxley, A: The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening . Macmillan, 1999. Incoll, L 0 et al : Temperate silvoarable agroforestry with poplar. Agroforestry Forum Vol 8 No 3, 1215. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford, 1965. Lincoln , W: World Woods in Colour. Siobart Davies, 1966. Michell, C P et al: Short-rotation forestry. Forest Ecology and Management 121 (1999) 123-136. Moerman, D: Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, 1998. Pontailler, J et al: Biomass yield of poplar after five 2-year coppice rotations . Forestry, Vol 72 No

2.
1999.
Savill, P: The Silviculture of Trees used in British Forestry. CAB International, 1991. Savill, P et al: Plantation Silviculture in Europe . Oxford University Press, 1997. Stettler, R F et al (Eds): Biology of Populus. NRC Research Press , 1996 . Tabbush, P : Poplar Husbandry. Quarterly Journal of Forestry , Vol 67 No 3 (July 1993). Tabbush , P & Lonsdale, 0: Approved Poplar Varieties. Forestry Commiss ion Information Note ,

1999.
Tabbush, P & Parfitt, R: Poplar and Willow Varieties for Short Rotation Coppice. Forestry Commission Information Note, 1999. USDA Forest Service AF Note 10: Opportunities for Growing Short-Rotation Woody Crops in Agroforestry Practices . 1998. USDA Forest Service AF Note 11: Establishment and Cultural Guidelines for Using Hybrid Tree Species in Agroforestry Plantings . 1996. USDA Forest Service AF Note 17: Wastewater Management Using Hybrid Poplar 2000. USDA National Agroforestry Center: Working Trees for Treating Waste. 2000 . White, J: Black Poplar: The most endangered nalive timber tree in Britain. Forestry Commission Research Note 239, 1993. Willis, R W et al: Poplar agroforestry. Forest Ecology and Management, 57 (1993) 65-97.

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I

Book Reviews
The RHS Dictionary of Gardening
Anthony Huxley (Editor in Chief)
Macmillan, 1999 (paperback); 3240 pp (4 vols.); £149 (paperback) I £550 (hardback) ISBN 0333 770188 (p/b) / 0333 474945 (h/b) This new paperback edition of the RHS Dictionary of Gardening brings together almost all thai is known about gardening in a more affordable form . The dictionary consists of four sizeable volumes and contains details of just about all cultivated plants. Each genus is given a general description with detailed cultivation methods, be fore the species are indiv idually listed. Each species is described in deta il along with cultiva rs, and the winter hardiness zone is given where known. Many of these are accompanied by high quality drawings. The major fruits are given their own entries, with in-depth descriptions of rootstocks , recommended cultiva rs , planting and tra ining , pruning, nutrition, pollination , harvesting, pests and diseases. Althou gh the vast majority of the dictionary is filled with plant descriptions, other entries include biographical information on important figures in gardening history, and entries on general garden topics, ego Propagation. At the end of the dictionary, a glossary of pests , diseases and disorders is virtually a dictionary in itself. Following this is a horticultural glossary, descriptions of botanical names , index of authors, bibliography, and index of common names. Any serious plants person will find the dictionary an invaluable reference and should be greatly tempted to buy this paperback edition.

Strawberries
J F Hancock
CAB I Publishing, 1999; 240 pp (paperback); £25.00 ($45.00). ISBN 0-85199-339-7 . This is the first book in many years to concentrate and give a broad review of strawberries and their cultivation. The book first describes the biology of strawberries and the principles that underlie its cultivation. Strawberry species (18 in all) are described along with the origins of the cu ltivated strawberry and history of strawberry domestication. Other topics covered include ecology. genetics. environmental physiology . disease and pest control, fruit ripening , storage and processing. Strawberry cultivars and production systems used in different climatic zones across the world are described . Eighteen colour photographs show production systems, pest and disease symptoms, whilst other black and white photos and drawings accompany the text. An excellent book for researchers . commercial growers and students of horticulture. for info rmation both about cultivated and wild species of strawberry.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Page 39

~ 44 -

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The Silvicultural Basis for Agroforestry Systems
Mark S Ashton & Florencia Montagnini (Eds)
CRC Press , 1999; 278 pp ; £49 .99. ISBN 0-8493-2206-5. This book emphasises a perspective on agroforestry which is based in large part on the knowledge of silviculture in natural forests. Unlike many other agroforestry texts, it concentrates on the woody t and perennial components of agroforestry systems, often relating to ecological theory of forests. It also has a strong North American perspective (from the point of stand dynamics and forest development), bul gives worldwide agroforestry examples including forest gardens (homegardens or household orchard gardens), forest farms, silvoarable and silvopastoral systems . The authors promote the idea of working with natural processes rather than continuously trying 10 control or fight against them· by working with the process of succession , and by selecting crops and cultivation systems that malch the constraints of the site. The book has three parts: The first part concentrates on the relat io nships between plant mixtures and the environment. Chapters cover the influence of environmental factors (light, soil moisture, nutrients) on plant mixtures ; nitrogen-fixation and potential symbiotic relationships between plants and microbiota ; ecology of plant mixtures , and of plants and animals, and its aplication in agroforesty systems . The second part focuses on the dynamics of native forests and how they can be used for design of silvicultural practices in agroforestry systems . Chapters look at the patterns and processes of forests and how to use them as templates in agroforestry systems; water and climatic relationships in agroforestry; nutrient cycling and use; nitrogen -fixing leguminous trees; species interactions , stand structure and productivity; and successional agroforestry systems analogous to native forests. The third part look s at site classification , the management of landscape pattern in agroforestry systems, and provides a protocol for thinking about appropriate silvicultural systems for desired agroforestry types . The book will be an invaluable text and reference for silvculturalists, foresters and agroforesters who are concerned with a deeper ecological basis for the management of agroforestry system s.

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ECO-LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, manuals and videos for permacullure, sustainable systems design and practical solutions to environmental problems. s.a.e. for our FREE mail order catalogue to eco-Iogic books (AN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath Bath , BA2 3AF . Telephone 01225 484472 . BENDALL'S FARM . A weekend agroforestry course on the Mendips led by Stephen Nutt. 2-3 September. Introduction to the theory and practice of the models of agroforestry. F .F.I. BENDALL ' S FARM , GREE N ORE , WELLS, SOMERSET, BA5 3EX . Telephone 01761 241015 . NUTWOOD NURSERIES. Unfortunately the purchase of land to consolidate the move of Nutwood from Cheshire to Cornwall has fallen through. This means that we will be unable to send any trees during the period Autumn 1999 to Summer 2000. We apologise to all our customers and friends and hope to get back into production next year. NUTWOOD NURSERIES, 2 MILLBROOK COTTAGES, CORNWALL. TR130BZ.

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 8 No 4

Agroiorestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture to proGlJce ~, divp.rse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tali aM smail trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. ,

Agrofomstry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year In October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per yea, in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon , Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Fax/order line: +44 (0)1803 840776 . Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk. Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, an to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications . The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

J

Agroforestry News
..
)

Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Volume 9 Number 1

October 2000

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 9 Number 1

October 2000

Contents
2 2 3 19 22 24 29 39 News Pests & Diseases: Plum fruit moth Apricots Pollard meadows Chicken forage plants The jujube: Ziziphus jujuba Medicinal Perennials (2) Book reviews:
Crop Pollination by Bees / Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, jf unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, , authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartinglon, Totnes, Devon , TQ9 6JT. U.K. Fax & 24-hr order line: +44 (0)1803840776 Email: mail@agroforestry.co.uk Website: www.agroforestry.co.uk

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News
Online index for Agroforestry News
An index for Vo lumes 1-8 has been placed on ou r website (www.ag roforestry.co .uk/agnindex.htmn w hich we hope wi ll be useful to fo lk trying to locate spec ific articles from the jou rn al. The printed index to tVolumes 1·7 remains available at £3.00 .

2000/1 Catalogue
Our n ew cata logue has been sent oul to all customers of the past year and subscribers handled by us . Ame ri can subscribers who renew via Peter Bane al the Permacul ture Activist shou ld write or emai l us if they wou ld like a copy sent.

Hill sheep and native woodland project
Current systems of hill sheep production in the UK often fail to meet the high standards demanded for ani mal welfare , do not produce a quality product , and often have a detrimental effect on the env ironment. This project of the Scottis h Agricultu ral College aims to integrate hill sheep and native trees. An innovative sheep husbandry system is in tegrated with the establishment of ext ensive and diverse woodlands on the same block of land . The wood land is a patchwork m osa ic at various pla nting densities designed to mimic native pine and birch woodlands. Initi ally grazing is prevented in the woodland but thereafter , sheep will only h ave access to the wood and adjacent hillsides during the summe r months ; they are moved to higher qua lity pastures in aut um n and winter. More information can be found at www.sac.ac .uk/foodsys/ External/ HiU&Mountain/

Hazels and anticancer drugs
Paclitaxel, t he active ingredient in Taxol , has been discovered in hazel nut (Cory/us spp.) trees . Researchers in Oregon , looking into Eastern Filbert Blight , discovered the ch emical during routine chemical analyses . Taxol is a major anticancer drug, presently semi·synthesised from the needles of yew species (i nclud ing Taxus baccata, the common yew). Paclitaxe l is fou nd in the hazel tree 's leaves, stems and raw nuts as well as in the fu ng us th at c au ses Eastern Filbert Blight. Source: Herbs. Vol 25 No 3.

Pests & Diseases:

Plum fruit moth
Introduction
The plum fruit moth (or plum moth), Latin name Cydia funebrana (Syns. Laspeyresia funebrana , Grapholitha funebrana) is prevalent in temperate regions of the world and is a major pest of plum . It is clo sely related to the apple codli ng moth (Cydia pomonella) . It is often found in the wild on blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) . Its larva are often called red plum maggots .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 9 No 1

Insecticidal sprays are used in most commercial orchards and these keep populations low: most of these chemicals are broad-spectrum , kHling many beneficial insects as well (and sometimes causi ng significant problems with other pests like red spider mile) . and some are organophosphorus substances which are very harmful to people and the environment. Plum fruit moths are also becoming increas ingl y resistant to many of these chemicals . However. there are several methods of control suited to organic growers which can control the pest.

Life History
Adult moths have a wingspan of 11-15 mm (0.4-0.6 "), and have greyish wings. Adults occur from late May to September but are most numerous from mid-June to mid-July. They are most are active on warm nights and lay eggs from June onwards . Females lay flat . oval. translucent eggs (0 .6 mm across) singly on fruits (near the stalks) and caterpillars hatch from them after about 2 weeks . Plum moth cate rpillars are white, pink or reddish maggots 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5") long, with dark brown heads, that tunnel deeply into the immature and mature fruit in summer (July and August). The entrance hole is usually surrounded by frass and droplets of gum. Most feeding occurs around the stone and the damaged area becomes filled with the caterpi llar' s brown frass pellets. They feed for several weeks . Fruits attacked are often caused to rot , ripen and fall prematurely, and often have a depressed area on the surface where the larva has eaten its way out. When they have finished feeding . usually from late July or early August onwards) . the caterpillars leave the damaged fruits through the side (leaving a 2 mm hole in the skin) and spin cocoons under loose bark and in similar situations. or drop to the ground . and remain there until the following season (in some years during fine conditions there can be a partial second generation of adults in August and September). The pupa is 6-7 mm (0.25~) long and light brown. The pest is worst in warme r areas - Southern England is curre ntly worse affected than other parts of Britain . but the pest can be expected to move northwards rapidly as the climate warms up.

Susceptible cultivars
All plum cultivars are susceptible to a greater or lesser degree. yield or time of ripening. Trials have shown less suscept ibility in the following cultivars: Amers Anna Spath Emma Leppermann Italian Prune Stanley Valjevka Victoria Wangenheim Prune Infestation does not depend on

Buhlertal Prune Lowan Valor

Control
Control is similar to that for apple cod ling moth. The most important natural mortality is caused by birds , especially tits (blue and great), feeding on overwintering cate rpill ars , Tits can be attracted into trees by hanging fat etc for them in winter ; nesting boxes nearby in summer will also help. French research has found than an adult tit can consume 12 ,000-18 .000 hibernating moth caterp illars per year. Other birds which predate on the pupae includ e wrens . tree creepers and robins. Predation of the eggs by various insects, such as mirid (capsid) and anthrocorid bugs, can also be important. The eggs are also often eaten by earwigs. Use of any insecticides (includ ing Derris and Pyrethrum) can kill the se beneficial insects, making trees more dependent on further doses of chemicals.

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tree ties should have as few crevices as possible . Bands of sacking or corrugated cardboard, about 10 cm (4 ") wide, can be tied around the trunk & branches by mid July to provide alternative overwintering sites . They will have already damaged fruits , but infection the fallowing year should be reduced (unless females fly in from nearby trees which have not been treated .) These bands should be removed after the crop has been picked and~ either burnt or immersed in a bucket of boi lin g water or unrolled and given to poultry . Insect barrier glue can be spread around the lower part of the trunk in late July. This will prevent caterpilla f s which emerge from fallen infested apples from climbing back up the tree . Any fallen~ infested fruits can also be collected and destroyed, as can any fruits left on the tree after harvest. Infested fruits (many of which fall; on the tree they can often be easily spotted as they ripen prematurely) should be collected and destroyed in July and August , before the caterpillars leave them . If poultry are at hand, feed the fruits to them· they will relish the caterpillars!

Pheromone traps
At dusk . female moths emit a scent (pheromone) which attracts males. Sticky traps or lures baited with the synthesised pheromone are routinely used in commercial orchards to monitor the flight and numbers of male moths as an aid to spray timing ; but can also be used as a control method in their own right. Lures placed in the upper canopy (2·4 m, 6-13 ft in height) are most successful in capturing males. One lu re per 5 trees is reasonably successfu l, with traps set up in mid June and the pheromone lure replaced in late July. If more than 15 moths are caught in a trap per week, the infestatio n is severe and additional traps may be needed. Of course , in gardens with neighbouring infested trees which are untreated , moths can continue to immigrate in. Traps tend to be most successful on isolated trees. More than 5 moths caught per trap per week for 2 weeks is taken by commercial growers as indication to start a spray programme (with traps at one per 2.5 hectares or 6-7 acres .) Although not common ty used as mating·disrupters, the ptum moth pheromone has this potentia l (like the codling moth pheromone) - where a large number of dispensers of pheromone are used (1000-2500 per hectare, 400-1000 per acre , ie every 2-3 m or 6-10 tt) and the quantity of pheromone released is such that mating is disrupted to an extent that control is achieved. This has been achieved with success in some parts 9f the world.

Biological control
There are several species of parasite which attack eggs , caterpillars and pupae . The only commercially available parasite is rrichogramma cacoeciae, a tiny parasitic wasp, which lays its own eggs in the eggs of the plu m fruit moth, thus killing them in the egg stage. New parasitic wasps emerge from the egg to search out new moth eggs. The wasps are delivered on cards which are hung in trees ; 2-3 releases are managed . starting at the beginning of July (or when males are caught in pheromone traps), with 2 weeks in between . 1-2 cards are used for a small tree and 2-3 on bigger trees . The nematodes Neoaplectana carpocapsae and N.glaseri have been found in trials to be an effective parasitic control or plum fruit moth and may become available commercially in the future .

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AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 9 No 1

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Sources
Agralan ltd. The Old Brickyard , Ashton Keynes , Swindon , Wilts , SN6 6QR , UK. - make the 'Trappit' plum moth pheromone traps . Available in most garden centres . Bedoukian Research Inc, 21 Finance Drive , Danbury, CT 06810 , USA. - supply pheromones. W.oProduction , Denmark . Email : Bio@BioProduction.dk-supply ·TrichocardP· Trichogramma parasitic wasps . Defenders Ltd , Occupation Rd , Wye, Ashford, Kent , TN25 SEN . - supply a pheromone-based trap . Farchan Laboratories , 2603 NW 74th Place , Gainesville , FL 32653-1207 , USA. - supply

ph eromones.
Occos Ltd - make a pheromone monitoring system. Research Institute for Plant Protection, IPO·OLO, P.O. Box 9060 , NL-6700 GW Wageningen, NETHERLANDS. - supply pheromones. Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd., Fine Chemica ls Dept, 2-6-1 Ohtemachi , Chioda-ku , Tokyo, JAPAN. - supply pheromones . Siber Hegner Raw Materials Ltd , P.O. Box 888, CH-8034 Zurich, SW ITZERLAND. - supply pheromones.

References
Alford, D: A Colour Atlas of Fruit Pests . Wolfe Publishing , 1984 . Buczacki, S & Harris, K: Pests , Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants . HarperCollins, 1998. Culpan, G: Pests, Diseases and Common Problems. Hamlyn, 1995. Greenwood , P & Halstead , A : The RHS Pests & Diseases. Dorling Kindersley , 1997. Pluciennik , Z et al : Preference of Plum Fruit Moth to Some Plum Cu ltivars. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research . Vol VII No.1 (1999) .

Apricots
Introduction
The cultivated apricot originates from western China. The fruit moved westwards along the silk route to reach Italy by the first century, England by the 13th Century and North America by the 17th. They are now cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world ; in Europe, Turkey, Italy, Spain, Greece and France are the main producers, with some 880,000 tonnes of fruit produced per year. Apricots are an attractive , delicious and highly nutritious fruit , a very rich source of vitamin A and containing more ca rbohydrates . protein, phosphorus and niacin than the majority of other common fruits. Apricot trees are drought resistant. salt tolerant and les s susceptible to pests and diseases than man other fruits.

Description
The almond, Prunus armeniaca (Syn. Armeniaca vulgaris), is a deciduous tree , 4-7 m (12-24 ft) high , sometimes gnarled and twisted , with a dark bark. Flowers are produced in early spring , before the leaves emerge . tinged pink, and fragrant. Leaves are leathery, shiny and dark green. Fruits are fragrant, sweet, 4-8 cm (1"Y2-3~) long, rounded or oval , sometimes with flattened sides or pointed ends . Colour varies from yellowish-green to brownish orange - fruits are always more deeply coloured on the sunny side. They are white , occasionally

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The fruils contain a single stone (which may be free or clinging). Within the stone, the kernel may be sweet or bitter. Trees are hardy to zone 5-6, about -20°C.

Uses
The ripe fruits are used in many ways: it is an excellent dessert fruit; they are also canned, candies, frozen and dried. The fruit is processed into jam, juice (nectar) and other products. They can be made into wines and liqueurs. The nutritional composition of apricot fruits is approximately (per 100 g): 85% water, 2700 I.U. vitamin A, 0.6 mg Niacin, 1.0 g protein, 0.03 mg vitamin 81, 17 mg Calcium, 0.2 g fat , 0.02 mg vitamin B2, 23 mg Phosphorus, 12.8 g carbohydrate, 10 mg vitamin A. 0.5 mg Iron, 1.0 mg Sodi um, 281 mg Potassium. The kernels (aboul 34% by weight of the seed) are a valuable by-product. Depe nding of the cultivar, the kernel is either sweet or bitter. Sweet kernels taste like alm onds and can be used in all the ways that almonds can. Bitter kernels are not edible but can be used for oil extraction. Apricot kerne l oil (up to 50% content) is an important commercia l commodity which is sim il ar to almond oil in physical and chemical properties - both are high in oleic and linoleic acids. Green fruits can be u sed in compotes; they can also be bottled in syrup or brandy after peeling the tough immature skins off. The seed is sometimes used medicinally, being anthelmintic, antispasmodic, antitussive, demulcent, expectorant, pectoral, sedative and vulnerary. The flowers are tonic. The semi-drying oil obtained from the seed can be burnt for lighting; it also has a softening effect on the skin and so it is u sed in perfumery and cosmetics. and also in pharmaceuticals. A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fru it. The wood is hard and durable; sometimes used for agricultural implements etc. The flowers are an early source of nectar for bees.

Cultivation
Apricots prefer a continenta l climate and break from dormancy early in the season. An uninterrupted warm spring is ideal along with low humidity conditions (so cultivation in Britain can be challenging!) A deep. well-drained but moisture-retentive soi l is best , neutral to alkaline if possible, and as frost free site as possible to avoid spring frost damage. Shelter is essential for when the tree is carrying
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fruit as the wood is brittle . Annual rainfall of about 1 m (3 ft) is sufficient. A site on a sunny wall is often recommended in Britain . Traditional apricot orchards are usually planted at a spacing of 6 x 6 m (20 x 20 tt) . giving 280 trees/ha (110 trees/acre). In warm regions, higher planting densities are now recommended (6001300 trees/ha. 240-520 trees/acre) along wilh the adoption of training systems which control the size of the tree more effectively (palmette . spindle , tatura) but these may not be so successful in Northern regions as the extra pruning required may make plants much more susceptible to fungal diseases. A.pricots benefit from growing Alliums nearby, especially garlic and chives.

Rootstocks
Seedling apricot stocks are used in very well -drained sandy soils ; they are slow to sta rt cropping, although after a time production is of good quality and quantity. Trees are vigoro us . Seed from local cultivars tend to be used, which leads to non-uniform seedlings and hence tree s. Seedling peach stocks are adapted to we ll drained acid so ils and irrigated dry soils; they are widely used in America and Oceanea but rarely in Europe as they are susceptible to nematodes and crown gall. Seedlings of specific cuUivars are used which are known to produce uniform seedlings. Some apricot cullivars are incompatible with peach stocks . Plum stocks are used on medium and heavier soils and wet soil conditions . In Britain . the usual stock used is the plum stock ' St Julien A' , giving a tree of about 5 m (16 ft) in height and spread. There is evidence that apricots on plum rootstocks are more susceptible to canker than those on peach rootstocks.

Peach seedling
Lovell - dependable stock, provides good anchorage . Nemaguard - excellent for well drained soils. Poor anchorage on some soils . Nemared - compatible with most varieties.

Plum seedling
Myrobalan - highly variable from seed. Indures slightly later (Penng .

Plum clonal
Brompton - virus-free available; thought to ha\S spread Shaoo in Europe GF 31 - productive, vigorous stock, compatibl e with many varieties, promotes precociousness. Tolerant of wet and alkaline soils; good on dry sony roils; very susceptible to Verticillium. GF 43- vigour varies INith ~il. Susceptible to d1lorotc leafspot. flay deay rpening; virus-free available. Ishitara (Ferciana) - semi-dwarfing . Induces early and heavy fru iting . Compatible with most varieties ; anchorage moderately good . Marianna 2624 - promotes slightly ear1ier ripening; poor anchorage in early years. Can outgrow bacterial canker. Ures nitrogen effciently; virus-free available. Marianna GF 8-1- compatible with some varieties . Promotes precociousness . Myrobalan 29-C - promotes slightly later ripening. Poor anchorage in ear1y years. Absor1::Js calcium and potassium very ..-.ell. Virus-free available. Myrobalan B - prom:>tes later rpening . Abrorbs Calcium weU; virus-free available. Good for trees in pastures. Mussel· may deay rpening . Requres copious amounts of v..ater. Pixy - promotes precodousness in the sdon (fruiting in 3 years) . SmaU root system, promotes easier flowe