This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Hydro-electric power relies on the energy released when water moves from high to low levels. (Thomas et al 2005) The power station is situated at point where there is a waterfall. A dam is built to restrict the waterfall and the water is lead through a large pipe to the lower level where it rotates a water turbine. According to Leylan (2009) the cost of hydroelectric power is estimated to be Rs 30 million per MW with an efficiency of 75%. Normally HPS used a pumped storage scheme that is tailrace water is pumped back to a water storage facility located at high level. Most pumped storage stations store sufficient water for 6-12 hours of operation and the ideal operating head is between 500 and 700m. (Leyland 2009) Similarly like for other renewable source of energy, the cost of HPS, fuel cost saved and CO2 emission saved are analysed how they vary with different energy requirement on the following assumption: Cost of HPS: Rs 30 million per MW Flow of water run turbine for 8 hours. Cost of fuel: Rs 2.55 million per GWh Efficiency: 0.65

At low electricity demand the excess energy output from HPS is used back to pump tailrace water to water storage facility and thus the cost of energy to pump water back is not considered for analysis. Table 1: Variation of Cost of HPS, Fuel and CO2 emission saved with Energy requirement.

Energy % Power Generated Cost of HPS Cost of fuel saved per annum CO2 emission saved per annum ( GWh) (MW) ( Rs million) ( Rs million) ( tonne)

180 100 95 144 80 76 108 60 57 72 40 38 36 20 19 18 10 9 9 5 5 * Refer to Appendix E for calculation

2845 2276 1707 1138 569 285 142

459 367 275 184 92 46 23

93600 74880 56160 37440 18720 9360 4680

For life cycle assessment.1.when 1) Rate of selling electricity is similar to actual rate. 2) Rate of selling electricity is 50% actual rate. 3) Rate of selling electricity is 25% actual rate. 3) Rate of selling electricity is 25 % actual rate. }/ (Total electrical .5 Life cycle assessment for HPS. the HPS is considered to meet 100% the energy requirement of the town. 2) Rate of selling electricity is 50% actual rate. The life cycle cost and NPVs are similar for different energy requirement because the cost of HPS and fuel saved decrease at the same rate with the energy requirement to be met. = (Cost of Wind Farm) / (Total electrical energy generated in 25 years) NPV and IRR of HPS – excluding cost saved on fuel. a life time of 25 years with a discount rate of 10% is taken and the wind farm is assessed on the following parameter: Life cycle cost for electricity production from wind farm.when 1) Rate of selling electricity is similar to actual rate. = {(-Cost of Wind Farm + ∑ energy generated in 25 years) NPV and IRR of HPS – including cost saved on fuel. So for analysis purpose.2.

0 2 Rate of selling electricity 50% to actual rate 0.40 323 Total Revenue ( Rs million): Selling electricity at actual rate 1252 Total Revenue ( Rs million): Selling electricity at 50% to actual rate 626 Total Revenue ( Rs million): Selling electricity at 25% to actual rate 313 Life cycle cost for electricity production from HPS. Scheme NPV @ 10% ( Rs / KWh ) IRR ( % ) 1 Rate of selling electricity similar to actual rate 1. Scheme 1 Rate of selling electricity similar to actual rate 2 Rate of selling electricity 50% to actual rate 3 Rate of selling electricity 25% to actual rate NPV @ 10% ( Rs / KWh ) 2.63 22. Scheme No. Scheme No.0 NPV and IRR of HPS – including cost saved on fuelTable 10: NPV and IRR of three schemes considered.59 0. . Cost of HPS ( Rs million) Electrical energy generated per annum ( GWh ) Life time ( Years ) Total Electrical energy generated in 25 years ( GWh ) Life cycle cost for electricity production from HPS ( Rs / KWh ) 2845 180 25 4500 0.29 322 Commercial 61 10.96 *Refer to appendix G for calculation.Table 7: Revenue from selling electricity per annum.0 3 Rate of selling electricity 25% to actual rate 0 10.01 607 Industrial 60 5.63 NPV and IRR of HPS – excluding cost saved on fuelTable 9: NPV and IRR of HPS of the three schemes considered. Purpose GWh / year Rate / KWh Rs / million Domestic 61 5. Table 8: Life cycle cost for electricity production from HPS.89 44.86 1.

fuel cost saved and CO2 emission saved are analysed how they vary when wind energy is used to meet the different fraction of the energy requirement(per year) for the town.The cost of wind farm. The analysis is valid for the following parameter: .

a source of water. Most pumped storage stations store sufficient water for 6-10 hours of operation. a life time of 25 years with a discount rate of 10% is taken and the wind farm is assessed on the following parameter: .5 Life cycle assessment for Wind Farm. To build a pumped storage station you need to find.2. 2009 The only available technology for storing large amounts of electrical energy is hydropower pumped storage.January 27. 1. in one place. For life cycle assessment. The ideal operating head is between 500 and 700 m (1500-2200 ft). a hill at least 400 metres high and topography suitable for building a large pond at the top of the hill and another large pond at the bottom of the hill. A pumped storage station costs in excess of US$1000/kW and the overall losses are about 25%.

the wind farm is considered to meet 100% the energy requirement of the town. . 5) Rate of selling electricity is 50% actual rate. Life cycle cost for electricity production from wind farm. = {(-Cost of Wind Farm + ∑ energy generated in 25 years) }/ (Total electrical NPV and IRR of wind farm project – including cost saved on fuel. 6) Rate of selling electricity is 25 % actual rate.when 4) Rate of selling electricity is similar to actual rate. So for analysis purpose.when 4) Rate of selling electricity is similar to actual rate. = (Cost of Wind Farm) / (Total electrical energy generated in 25 years) NPV and IRR of wind farm project – excluding cost saved on fuel. 5) Rate of selling electricity is 50% actual rate. The life cycle cost and NPVs are similar for different energy requirement because the cost of wind farm and fuel saved decrease at the same rate with the energy requirement to be met. 6) Rate of selling electricity is 25% actual rate.

- Duties of Laboratory Technician
- Sadasdfb 22nb3m 3
- 7897913512343512 Hi Liu Knn Dx
- 12
- School thesis
- 12123132rf23 0z
- 32
- O
- Sizing of Base at EBene
- Contributory Area
- Dderwtgag135h4
- Dje
- frgghtf
- Peop
- Qop
- fsadggdsbfh
- Soewmtinsnjajmkdk
- 1231w234r53f12arwkefj
- Vzxvbjcvkgjdlk
- 123435a456g
- 12134354re53423g1d32fyt432g1df
- Wqer3rtytu1231hg23j132g1j2313
- gsdfhgfhdjhgkkbnhfgj
- Kdlslslafd
- Oiwq

project

project

- Tarbela Dam
- Tarbela Dam
- Micro Hydro by Irrigation Water
- Sainz (Web OK)
- June - July 2008 Irrigation Newsletter, Kings River Conservation District Newsletter
- Pages From 203269322 Ground Water 2
- 1-Preliminary Water Availability Analysis-SPF Water Engineer
- Presentation 1
- 120306 - IPA Power Scotland Conference - Flyer and Booking Form v3
- GIL142v2.pdf
- Lincoln-Electric-System-Sustainable-Energy-Program-Commercial-and-Industrial
- Castalia Partners - Geothermal Power
- AR3500
- BOI New Appraisal Questionnaire
- Rough Idea
- Merced-Irrigation-District-ED-2-(Commercial-/-Industrial)
- Week of May 2
- Businesses CourtyardRestaurant 26May2011
- Std 01079563
- Eco 079
- wind_myths.pdf
- Pump Station Design Civil
- Notice
- PPL Electric Utilities Corp
- PEC Fund Cook Islands
- Increased Automation Helps Water and Wastewater Industry Improve Business Processes
- 2013 UL Engineering Challenge (1)
- Delhi
- 1-s2.0-S0301421511000917-main
- Installed Capacity 31st March 2011

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd