Lighting is one of the most critical qualities of an indoor space. Lighting includes use of both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. Daylighting (through windows, skylights, etc.) is often used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings given its high quality and low cost. Artificial lighting represents a major component of energy consumption, accounting for a significant part of all energy consumed worldwide. Artificial lighting is most commonly provided today by electric lights. Proper lighting can enhance aesthetics and indoor lighting is a key part of interior design. Daylighting Daylighting is an important method of lighting. Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day, natural light provides effective internal lighting. Daylighting is useful for maximising visual comfort as well as decreasing energy consumption and costs due to reduced use of artificial lighting. The presence of daylight can result in fewer electric lights requirements and installations. Savings from daylighting can cut lighting energy use by up to 80 percent according to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program. In terms of cost savings, the DOE reported that many commercial buildings can reduce total energy costs by up to one-third through the optimal use of daylighting. Light shelves are an effective way to enhance the lighting from windows on the north-facing side of a structure, this effect being obtained by placing a white or reflective metal light shelf outside the window. Usually the window will be protected from direct summer season sun by a projecting eave. The light shelf projects beyond the shadow created by the eave and reflects sunlight upward to illuminate the ceiling. This reflected light can contain little heat content and the reflective illumination from the ceiling will typically reduce deep shadows, reducing the need for general illumination. A skylight is any horizontal window placed at the roof of a building for daylighting. Skylights admit more light per unit area than windows, and distribute it more evenly over a space. The optimal area of skylights is usually 4-8% of the floor area. The use of white translucent acrylic

Halogen bulbs are similar but instead have a small pocket of halogen gas that reacts with tungsten to produce light. This somewhat resembles recessed ceiling light fixtures. which is placed into a roof and which admits natural light to a focused area of the interior. It does not allow as much heat transfer as skylights because it has a smaller surface area. use less electricity and last twice as long as a standard bulb. There are two main kinds: Compact Fluorescent Lights and Light Emitting Diodes. a diffuser spreads the light into the room. Only 10% of the electrical energy is converted to light. The light in a given room can be maximised by choosing light colours and reflective materials for walls. A light tube is lined with highly reflective material to lead light rays through a building and at the point of use. Energy saving halogen lamps use 70% of power compared to a standard incandescent bulb. This excites the phosphor coating which emits visible light that shines out of the tube. CFLs give off the same . ceilings and floors. Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFLs) These are small versions of full fluorescent lights and consist of a glass tube coated with phosphor and filled with gas and a small amount of mercury. brightening up interior space. 90% is wasted as heat. Electricity jumps off electrodes on the end of each tube and excites the mercury molecules to emit ultraviolet light. Electricity is passed through a metal (tungsten) filament that heats to over 2000º Celsius and glows to give off light. Light couloured and shiny flooring options like linoleum or polished wood can reflect a lot of ambient light. are known to be highly inefficient. Energy efficient light bulbs Energy efficient light bulbs use significantly less energy than incandescent bulbs and also last longer. Energy inefficient light bulbs Standard light bulbs. They burn brighter.over or under transparent skylight glazing will help to reduce internal heat problems and to diffuse and distribute light evenly over areas. known as incandescent bulbs. Another type of device used is the light tube or solar tube. but are still inefficient compared with other forms of bulbs.

Although more expensive to buy than a standard http://www. LEDs are readily combined with solar panels to provide reliable. This is called 'solid state lighting' because LEDs use a solid material as opposed to CFLs which use gas.amount of light as incandescent bulbs but they are up to 80% cooler and are 4 times more energy efficient (i. LED lamps use only 10% of power compared to a standard incandescent bulb. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) LEDs are small and solid light bulbs that are lit by the movement of electrons in a solid semiconductor material as electricity is passed through it. They have low heat generation. and incandescent bulbs which use a filament. low power requirements and are highly durable because there is no filament or tube to break. they contain trace amounts of mercury. Care needs to be taken to ensure the glass tube does not break and that the bulbs are disposed of safely. Because their power inputs are minimal.e they use 25% of power compared to a standard incandescent bulb) they easily recover their costs in energy savings.html http://inhabitat. LED is a relatively new technology and currently the bulbs are most suitable for track and recessed lighting.sustainablebuild. To replace a 60watt incandescent bulb for instance. only a 15-watt CFL would be needed. lasting over 100 times longer than incandescent bulbs and up to 10 times longer than CFLs. CFLs are suitable for all lighting purposes. which is hazardous to health and the environment. where a pointed light is required rather than radiated light. energy efficient lighting during the day and at night. On the http://en.000 hours) and are responsible for the emission of 70% less carbon dioxide than incandescent bulbs. They are more expensive than CFLs but energy savings over their lifetime means their cost is soon recouped. LEDs are extremely energy . CFLs also last 10 times longer (up to 20.

org/wiki/Daylighting .wikipedia.http://en.

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