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1007/s10483-012-1586-6 c Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

**Applied Mathematics and Mechanics
**

(English Edition)

**Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines∗
**

Run LIU ( )1 , Wu-gang WANG ( Xin-li WU ( )1 , )2 Shu-wang YAN ( )1 ,

(1. State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China; 2. School of Engineering Design, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, Pennsylvania, USA)

Abstract In-service hydrocarbons must be transported at high temperature and high pressure to ease the ﬂow and to prevent the solidiﬁcation of the wax fraction. The high temperature and high pressure will induce the additional stress in the pipeline, which results in the upheaval buckling of the pipeline. If such expansion is resisted, e.g., by the frictional eﬀects of the foundation soil over a kilometer or of a pipeline, the compressive axial stress will be set up in the pipe-wall. When the stress exceeds the constraint of the foundation soil on the pipeline, suddenly-deforming will occur to release the internal stress, similar to the sudden deformation of the strut due to stability problems. The upheaval buckling may jeopardize the structural integrity of the pipeline. Therefore, eﬀective engineering measures against this phenomenon play an important role in the submarine pipeline design. In terms of the pipeline installation and protection measures commonly used in Bohai Gulf, three engineering measures are investigated in great details. An analytical method is introduced and developed to consider the protection eﬀect of the anti-upheaval buckling of the pipeline. The analysis results show that the amplitude of the initial imperfection has a great eﬀect on the pipeline thermal upheaval buckling. Both trenching and burial and discrete dumping are eﬀective techniques in preventing the pipeline from buckling. The initial imperfection and operation conditions of the pipelines determine the covered depth and the number of layers of the protection measures. Key words measure submarine buried pipeline, thermal stress, upheaval buckling, protection

Chinese Library Classiﬁcation TE54 2010 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation

32G05

1

Introduction

In-service hydrocarbons must be transported at high temperature and high pressure to ease the ﬂow. The thermal stress together with the Poisson eﬀect will cause the pipeline to expand longitudinally. However, due to the soil restraint, e.g., by the frictional eﬀects over a

∗ Received Jan. 18, 2011 / Revised Mar. 5, 2012 Project supported by the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51021004), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40776055), and the Foundation of the State Key Laborary of Ocean Engineering (No. 1002) Corresponding author Run LIU, Professor, Ph. D., E-mail: liurun@tju.edu.cn

Shu-wang YAN. In 2004. In 1991. analyzing the characteristics of the pipeline thermal buckling and comparing the eﬀectiveness of diﬀerent protection measures are very important in oﬀshore pipeline engineering. In 1985 and 1989. The drag force and the lift force of the pipeline with a mattress and the mattress itself were measured. In China. Many researches have been carried out in this area since the early eighties of the last century. which will not only cause a great waste of resources. Cao[14] described the characteristics of the mattress and the imperfection of the mattress structure. and discussed the optimal position of the anchor. a given temperature. This paper is organized as follows. ﬂuidization. and Xin-li WU kilometer or of a pipeline. They also obtained the partial analytical solutions. Hu et al. Hobbs[3] .[1] . As a result. According to diﬀerent protection measures.782 Run LIU. Jin[13] carried out a model test to study the hydrodynamic force of the submarine pipeline protected by mattresses. In 2001. the mathematical model could be used to impose the restrictions on the allowable imperfections of the unloaded pipe center line (plastic deformations) combined with the restrictions on the allowable imperfections of the trench. Literatures have shown that there are fewer studies on the upheaval buckling of submarine pipelines with the initial imperfection under protection. Finally. Wu-gang WANG. Ma[12] explained the key points of the mattress protection measure.[1] made a research on the upheaval buckling of a submarine pipeline with initial imperfections in accordance with the case study. Liu et al. the thermal buckling analysis of a submarine pipeline is carried out with the consideration of the initial imperfection. and proposed a reliable empirical natural burial prediction model in conjunction with the deformation capacity of pipelines. Section 3 analyzes the upheaval buckling. Schaap[6–7] studied the natural backﬁll of the trench. Palmer and Davies[5] pointed out that the principal techniques for the trenching of submarine pipelines comprised jetting. including the calculation method of the mattress weight and the mattress installation method. The accumulated compressive forces is frequently large enough to induce either the lateral buckling or the vertical buckling of the buried pipelines[1] . suddenly-deforming will occur to release the accumulated internal stress in the pipe wall. upheaval buckling studies of the submarine pipeline play an import role in the pipeline design. Pedersen and Jensen[8] expounded that. trapezoid. and consequently. By comparing with each other. This phenomenon is similar to the theoretical stability analysis of a strut with two ends pinned and compressed by the anti-symmetry concentrated force. and s-type were discussed. In 1988. it was concluded that ploughing was a less risky trenching technique. the oil and gas will leak out.[11] carried out a model test to study the hydrodynamic force incurred by the wave current of the unprotected smooth pipeline and the pipeline protected by mattresses in 1991. In 1997. Each method had its own particular features and constraints. Some cases are studied in Section 4. Gokce[9] concluded that a deeper burial depth of a pipeline could greatly improve the capacity of the pipeline to bear thermal stresses. a compressive axial stress will be set up in the pipe wall. In 2005. and Maltby and Calladine[4] showed that vertical buckling was the main failure mode for the buried heated pipelines. but also bring dangers to the living environment of human beings. Liu et al. the pipeline cannot expand freely. milling. Once the integrity of the pipeline is destroyed. which was considered to be an economical and acceptable solution for covering the pipeline after trenching. Sahel and Hamdan[10] analyzed the stability of the anchored and trenched pipeline with initial imperfections. In 1985. Section 2 presents some pipeline protection measures. He presented a practical calculation method to determine the natural backﬁll as a function of time for the speciﬁed trench proﬁle and local natural environment. some conclusions are summarized in Section 5. and pointed out that increasing the covered depth was an eﬀective way to prevent the pipeline from upheaval buckling. and ploughing. In 2002. An analytical method is introduced and developed to consider the protection eﬀect of the anti-upheaval buckling of the pipeline. They discussed the shape and interval of mattresses. Taylor and Tran[2] . When the compressive force reaches or even exceeds the constraint of the foundation soil. The suitable conditions of mattresses with the shapes of diamond. for a given pipeline. . and a given burial depth. Therefore.

kN·m−1 . and it can be determined by Fv1 = q sin θ + ϕL q cos θ. (i) Cohesive soil foundation D 2 cu H 1 Fv2 = 1 + 0. the soil submarine weight and the resistance above the pipeline under this protection state are not taken into account in the pipeline thermal buckling analysis. If the backﬁlled soil is clay. ϕL is the lateral friction coeﬃcient between the pipeline and the soil. q is the submerged self-weight of the pipeline per unit length. Therefore. cu is the average undrained shear strength on the vertical slip planes. H is the depth of embedment. it is widely used in oﬀshore engineering (see Fig. Fig. θ is the angle of the trench slope. pipeline protection measures can be summarized in three categories. 2 Typical burial topology The soil resistance (Fv2 ) above the pipeline is taken into account with this kind of protection measures and the soil resistance can be calculated as follows[15] . Fig. burying pipelines by machine after trench ploughing is widely adopted to prevent the pipeline from ocean current scouring and to ensure the on-position stability. ′ γ HD H γH D 2 (2) where γ ′ is the submerged unit weight. the resistance force of the trench is considered in the analysis. the strength recovery will take a long time because of the low permeability of this type of soil. 2.Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 783 2 Pipeline protection measures In terms of the oﬀshore engineering practice in China. The design sketch of this protection measure is illustrated in Fig. and the backﬁll degree of the trench is diﬃcult to be determined. 1). The natural backﬁll is usually a slow procedure.1 + ′ + . . for the conservative purpose. 1 Natural backﬁll after trench Nevertheless. D is the external diameter. mm. This protection measure also can help the pipeline to avoid damages of ship anchoring and ﬁshing activities.2 Trenching and burial In general. m. 2.1 Natural backﬁll of trench Since the natural backﬁll is an economical and convenient measure for covering the pipeline after trenching. 2. kPa. (1) where Fv1 is the restraint force of the trench to the pipeline. kN·m−3 .

(5) 35 where Wmat is the eﬀective weight of the concrete mattress per unit length. and the vertical resistance can be calculated as follows[16] : 30 2 Fv3 = Wmat = 2Dghρ . and Xin-li WU (ii) Sand soil foundation Fv2 D H = 1 + 0. and K is the lateral soil pressure coeﬃcient. which installs concrete blocks on the pipeline intermittently or continuously. The sketches of the discrete dumping measure are illustrated in Fig. The total uplift resistance per unit length of the pipeline Fv2t is Fv2t = Fv2 + q. the departure of the center during the manufacture. kN·m−1 .784 Run LIU. the remolding strength of the subsoil should be adopted. The concrete mattress is widely used in oﬀshore engineering in recent years.1 + K tan ϕ γ ′ HD H D 1+ D 2H 2 . and burying. There are two main forms of discrete dumping.1 Initial imperfection of submarine pipeline The pipelines usually have an initial deformation during the manufacture and installation procedure. (4) In terms of the soil disturbance due to installation activities. can be adopted when the trenching and burial protection is diﬃcult or uneconomical to be used. and Lmat is the design width of the concrete mattress. One is the single concrete block. ρ is the concrete density. (3) where ϕ is the angle of the internal friction. especially for cohesive soil. With this protection measure. Fig. 2. Shu-wang YAN. 3. a crest in the sea bed proﬁle. the resistance is about 20% to 30% of the weight of the pipeline. e. which is laid on the pipe after the pipeline installation. the soil strength decreases. The principle of this protection measure is to add the weight to the pipeline until it is heavy enough to avoid buckling. When the space between diﬀerent concrete blocks is equal to zero. Wu-gang WANG. the total ultimate resistance (Fv3t ) can be obtained by Fv3t = Fv3 + q. which is put on the pipeline according to the design after the pipeline installation. in which Lm denotes the space between the two adjacent concrete blocks.g. The other is the prefabricated concrete mattress. (6) 3 Upheaval buckling analysis 3.3 Discrete dumping The discrete dumping protection measure. 3 Discrete dumping protection Available results show that the vertical resistance provided by the single concrete block is equal to the negative buoyancy itself[12] . such as trenching. or a prop appeared when the isolated rock is . a soil platform caused by the rooter. paving. h is the thickness of the concrete mattress.. In the analysis.

the relationship between the amplitude and the buckle length can be depicted as follows: L0 = 5. Lu < L < Li .Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 785 located immediately below the line or another pipeline is to be crossed as required in the design. Rs = ϕA qLs . (i) The buckling length is no more than the initial imperfect wave length. 2 (8) . (7) where Vom is the maximum vertical amplitude of the continuous prop imperfection topology. This type of modes occurs where the seabed is uneven. (ii) The buckling length is larger than the initial imperfect wave length. the initial out-of-straightness will weaken the pipeline resistance against the upheaval buckling under thermal stresses. The continuous prop mode is the most common case among all kinds of pipeline initial imperfections[2] . With the inﬁlled prop. the following bending moment equilibrium equation can be established (see Fig. and the angularly mismatched ﬁeld joint. 4 Continuous prop initial imperfection The upheaval buckling of the submarine pipeline with the continuous prop initial imperfection always develops at the initial imperfection under the actions of the thermal stress and internal pressure.. In the ﬁrst stage of upheaval buckling. 5. Other less obvious possibilities that can cause initial deformations include the free span gap.g. kN·m−1 . In Fig. Since the further deformation always develops at an initial imperfection. The sketches and force analysis of these two stages are shown in Fig. 5. E is the Young modulus. the trench step. I is the second moment of the area of the cross section. The upheaval buckling is composed of the following two main stages.825 9 Vom EI q 1 4 . q is the submerged selfweight of the pipeline per unit length. 4. Therefore. Rs is the slide friction resistance between the pipeline and the subsoil. and the amplitude of the upheaval segment increases. m. as shown in Fig. Based on the research ﬁndings of Talor and Tran[2] . Rh = L 2 ϕA Fv .2 Natural backﬁlled pipeline In this case. mm. L0 is the buckle length of the initial imperfection topology. Rh is the horizontal axial resistance force of the buckled pipeline at the peel point. in which Fv is the vertical restraint force of the peel point. the continuous prop initial imperfections are taken into account in analyzing the validity of the pipeline protection measures. and the amplitude of the upheaval segment increases. 3. Such initial deformations of the pipeline are deﬁned as initial imperfections. the linear diﬀerential equation and the solution procedure condition for the deﬂected shape of the buckled part of the pipeline are as follows. Fig. Rv = L F 2 v . Rv is the vertical resistance force of the buckled pipeline at the peel point. the pipeline is approximately laid on the undulation foundation. there are some heaves or bulges and the voids between the seabed and the pipeline are inﬁlled with soil under the current action. 5(a)): Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv1 x2 + M. e.

V is the vertical displacement of the buckle segment at the section x. 12 L 2q 3 2q q nL nL (nLi )2 −C2 cos − C3 sin + −2 . M is the bending moment at the crown in the continuous prop model. Li is the buckle length of the imperfection topology.786 Run LIU. 2 2 V′ xx | L = Vi′ xx | L 2 2 together with the assumption n2 = P/(EI ). Fv1 is the restraining force of the trench to the pipeline. 2 x (9) where Mx is the bending moment of the buckle segment pipeline at x. Wu-gang WANG. EI (12) . Vm is the maximum vertical amplitude of the buckled pipe. Other notations remains the same as forgoing. V′ x | L = Vi′ x | L . P is the axial force of the buckle segment. 5 Force analysis for continuous prop model and the quintessential buckling model employs a potential energy W approach with L0 2 W = 0 EI (V′ xx − V0′ xx )2 dx + 2 L 2 L0 2 L 2 L0 2 EI (V′ xx − V0′ xx )2 dx + 2 L 2 L0 2 L0 2 q (V − V0 )dx 0 + L0 2 q (V − V0 )dx − 0 P 2 (V′ − V02 ′ x )dx − 2 x P 2 (V′ − V02 ′ x )dx. The expression of the buckle amplitude and the maximum bending moment of the pipeline can be written as V = C1 + q nL nL C2 cos − nx + C3 sin − nx − C2 4 EIn 2 2 (nL)2 Li q + Fv1 n2 L i q + Fv1 − 2 −3 + x − n2 x2 . V | L = Vi | L . In accordance with the corresponding boundary conditions V |0 = Vm . Shu-wang YAN. mm. 2 2 V′ x |0 = 0. and Xin-li WU Fig. Lu is the buckle length at the upheaval. 2 n 2 2 24 (10) (11) M= Substituting x = 0 into Eq. (10) yields the maximum in the ﬁrst stage of upheaval buckling as follows: Vm = C1 + C4 qL4 .

α is the coeﬃcient of the linear thermal expansion. E 2t t If ε is completely restrained. t is the wall thickness of the pipe. the maximum compressive stress can be obtained as follows: σm = P MD + . the axial compressive force generated and available to the participate in buckling is Apr EAε = (0. The free axial strain ε. and AEαT ′ = Apr (0. For computational convenience. t in which p the internal pressure. where P0 is the so-called pre-buckling force caused by the constrained expansions set up by thermal and internal pressure actions. 3 L 2q 48 L 1 nL nL (nL)2 Li q + Fv1 C4 = C cos + C sin − C − 2 −3 2 3 2 4 nL 2 2 12 L 2q . Ls is the axial slip length.5 − ν ). and the friction resistance between the pipeline and the subsoil Rs . L Li −1 L Li −3 . t dW With d Vm = 0 and Eqs. A 2I (17) . It can be obtained by P0 = AEα∆T = AEα(T + T ′ ). A is the cross-sectional area. Rh = L ϕA Fv1 . By using the axial force and the bending moment in the upheaval pipeline segment. the internal pressure actions can be changed into the pressureequivalent temperature. 2 (13) (14) (15) 2 nL Li q + Fv1 (nL)3 Li C3 = −3 + −1 . (11)–(12).5 − ν ). due to a positive pressure diﬀerence p between the oil and the sea. and ν is the Poisson ratio. is given in terms of the thin wall axial and hoop stresses in the pipe by ε= 1 pr pr −ν . which can be determined by[19] P = P0 − Rh − Rs .Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 787 where 3 qL4 Li −1 C1 = 1 152EI L Fv1 (nL)2 + C2 = −1 − q 24 Li +3 . ϕA is the axial friction coeﬃcient. Rs = ϕA qLs . AEαT ′ is the pre-buckling force caused by the internal pressure. L The axial force P consists of the internal axial force P0 . (16) where AEαT is the pre-buckling force caused by the temperature diﬀerence. the lateral resistance of the peel point Rh . the relationship between the upheaval amplitude and the axial force can be established.

the relationship among the axial force. The maximum compressive longitudinal stress σm in the pipewall can be deﬁned with the axial force obtained by Eq. 7 n2 6 2 2 24 nL nL nL sin − cos 2 2 2 1+ (nL)2 (nLi )2 − . the vertical displacement of diﬀerent parts in the upheaval segment can be obtained as follows: (i) 0 < x < Li /2 V = nLi n2 L i q + Fv1 2 2 q C cos( nx ) − sin( nx ) + C + x− n x . 8 24 nLi nLi nLi sin − cos . 2 (18) P From n2 = EI and the boundary conditions V |0 = Vm . L > Li . and V |L/2 = V′ x |L/2 = 0. 7 8 EIn4 8 2 q nLi nLi nLi (nLi )2 − C + sin + cos + −2 . Wu-gang WANG. V′ x |0 = 0. In the second stage of the upheaval buckling. 6 2 2 q Fv1 1 1 1 + C9 + 1 + (nL)2 − (nLi )2 . 5(b)): (i) 0 < x < Li /2 Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 Mx = EI (V′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv1 x2 + M. (13)–(16) and (22)–(23). 5 6 4 EIn 3 3 2q (20) (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 V = Fv1 (nL)2 n2 x2 C cos( nx ) + C sin( nx ) + 1 + − . 2 2 Substituting x = 0 into Eq. and the bending moment equilibrium condition can be expressed as the following two equations (see Fig. Comparing σm with the material yield stress σyid . 4 EIn q 8 24 (23) dW Based on the former point. 6 2 2 nL nL nL sin − cos . Shu-wang YAN. (13) and the bending moment obtained by Eq. 2 (19) Fv1 x2 + M. from d Vm = 0 and Eqs. the buckle amplitude of the upheaval segment. . 2 2 2 (21) And the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is M= where Fv1 C5 = q − Fv1 C6 = 1 + q C8 = nL cos 2 − (22) C7 = − nL nL − sin . whether the pipe material enters the state of yield damage can be judged. whether the pipe enters the state of yield damage can be judged. (11). and the temperature diﬀerence can be established. and Xin-li WU Comparing σm with the material yield stress σyld . (20) yields the maximum vertical amplitude in the second upheaval buckling stage as follows: Vm = where C9 = Fv1 nL nL nL − sin − cos q 2 2 2 − nLi nLi nLi sin − cos .788 Run LIU.

10 1 152EI L L 2 (nL)2 Li Li nL Li (nL)3 Li C = − 2 + − 1 − 3 . Similarly. In the ﬁrst stage of the upheaval buckling. . (16). the axial compressive force in the buckling segment P in this case can be determined by P = P0 − Rh − Rs . 2 2 P V′ x |0 = 0. The maximum compressive longitudinal stress σm can be deﬁned by the axial force determined by Eq.Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 789 3. whether the pipe material enters the state of yield damage can be judged. 5(a)): Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv2t x2 + M. Compare σm with the material yield stress σyid . Combining with d Vm = 0 and Eqs. Lu < L < Li . L Rh = ϕA Fv2t . (28) and the bending moment determined by Eq. 2 Rs = ϕA Fv2t Ls . C = − 3 + − 1 . (25). which can be deﬁned by Eq. 12 L 3 Fv2t nL nL (nLi )2 − C cos − C sin + −2 . V | L = Vi | L . 11 12 24 L L 3 L 48 L 2 C13 = 1 C11 cos nL + C12 sin nL − C11 − (nL) 2 Li − 3 . (26). the relationship among the axial force. the linear diﬀerential equation and the solution procedure condition for the deﬂected shape of the buckled part of the pipeline are as follows. 2 (24) where Fv2t is the total uplift resistance per unit length of the pipeline. V′ x | L = Vi′ x | L . (27)–(28). and the following bending moment equilibrium equation can be established (see Fig. (4).3 Pipeline with trenching and burial In this case. the 2 2 2 2 expression of the buckle amplitude and the maximum bending moment of the pipeline can be written as follows: V = C10 + nL nL Fv2t C11 cos − nx + C12 sin − nx − C11 EIn4 2 2 (nL)2 Li n2 L i − 2 −3 + x − n2 x2 . (13)–(16). Substituting x = 0 into Eq. nL4 2 2 12 L (28) (29) (30) dW where P0 can be calculated by Eq. in accordance with the corresponding boundary conditions V |0 = Vm . it yields the maximum amplitude in the ﬁrst stage of the upheaval buckling as follows: Fv2t L4 Vm = C10 + C13 . 2 3 n2 2 2 24 (25) (26) M= Similarly to Eqs. (27) EI where 3 L Fv2t L4 Li i C = −1 +3 . and the temperature diﬀerence can be established. and V′ xx | L = Vi′ xx | L together with the assumption n2 = EI . the buckle amplitude of the upheaval segment.

Comparing σm with the material yield stress σyid . (28)–(30) and the bending moment determined by Eq. EIn4 8 24 (36) Fv2t nLi nLi nLi (nLi )2 − C + sin + cos + −2 . and Xin-li WU In the second stage of the upheaval buckling. and the temperature diﬀerence can be established. whether the pipe material enters the state of yield damage can be judged.790 Run LIU. . the buckle amplitude of the upheaval segment. 2 2 2 6 2 2 (nLi )2 nL nL nL (nL)2 − . (33) yields the maximum vertical amplitude in this upheaval buckling stage as follows: Vm = Fv2t 1 1 2 + C14 + (nL)2 − (nLi )2 . (35). L > Li . The maximum compressive longitudinal stress σm can be deﬁned by the axial force determined by Eqs. 4 EIn 8 2 (34) And the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is M= where nL nL nL nLi nLi nLi C14 = − sin − cos − sin − cos . 2 (31) P From n2 = EI and the boundary conditions V |0 = Vm . and 2 2 2 V′ x |0 = 0. (28)–(30) and (36). the vertical displacement of diﬀerent parts in the upheaval segment can be obtained as follows: (i) 0 < x < Li /2 V = Fv2t nLi n2 L i C cos( nx ) − sin( nx ) + C + x − n2 x2 . C15 = 2 + 8 24 2 2 2 nL nL nL C17 = cos − sin . V | L = V′ x | L = V′ xx | L = 0. Shu-wang YAN. 14 15 EIn4 3 3 (33) (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 V = (nL)2 n2 x2 Fv2t C16 cos(nx) + C17 sin(nx) + 1 + − . 5(b)): (i) 0 < x < Li /2 Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 Mx = EI (V′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv2t x2 + M. C16 = − sin − cos . Wu-gang WANG. 7 n2 6 2 2 24 (35) Combining with Eqs. and the bending moment equilibrium condition can be expressed as the following two equations (see Fig. the relationship among the axial force. 2 2 2 Substituting x = 0 into Eq. 2 (32) Fv2t x2 + M.

2 2 P V′ x | L = Vi′ x | L . Compare σm with the material yield stress σyid . 2 (45) Fv3t x2 + M. (39). 12 L 3 Fv3t nL nL (nLi )2 − C cos − C sin + −2 . L Rh = ϕA Fv3t . and the following bending moment equilibrium equation can be established: Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv3t x2 + M. (6). (41) (42) (43) The method to get P0 in this equation is the same as Eq. whether the pipe material enters the state of yield damage can be judged. The maximum compressive longitudinal stress σm can be deﬁned by the axial force determined by Eq. L > Li . (41) and the bending moment determined by Eq.Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 791 3. In the ﬁrst stage of the upheaval buckling. In accordance with the corresponding boundary conditions V |0 = Vm . the relationship among the axial force. (40) EI Similarly to Eqs. the expression of 2 2 2 2 the buckle amplitude and the maximum bending moment of the pipeline can be written as V = C10 + − M= Fv3t nL nL C11 cos − nx + C12 sin − nx − C11 EIn4 2 2 (38) (39) (nL)2 Li n2 L i 2 −3 + x − n2 x2 . (16). the axial compressive force in the buckling segment P in this case can be determined by P = P0 − Rh − Rs . (38) yields the maximum amplitude in the ﬁrst stage of the upheaval buckling as follows: Fv3t L4 Vm = C10 + C13 . the linear diﬀerential equation and the solution procedure condition for the deﬂected shape of the buckled part of the pipeline are as follows. and the temperature diﬀerence can be established. Lu < L < Li .4 Pipeline with discrete dumping In this case. 2 (44) . (13)–(16). According to Eqs. 2 (37) where Fv3t is the total ultimate resistance including the pipeline weight and the concrete block action determined by Eq. V | L = Vi | L . In the second stage of the upheaval buckling. 5(b)): (i) 0 < x < Li /2 Mx = EI (V′ xx − Vi′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 Mx = EI (V′ xx ) = P (Vm − V ) − Fv3t x2 + M. V′ x |0 = 0. 2 3 n2 2 2 24 Substituting x = 0 into Eq. and V′ xx | L = Vi′ xx | L together with the assumption n2 = EI . the buckle amplitude of the upheaval segment. and the bending moment equilibrium condition can be expressed as the following two equations (see Fig. 2 Rs = ϕA Fv3t Ls . (40)–(41).

Table 1 E /(N·mm−3 ) 2. Ip is the plasticity index. the relationship among the axial force.58 Su /kPa 4.1E−5 D /mm 0. 4 EIn 8 2 (47) And the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is M= Fv3t nLi nLi nLi (nLi )2 − C + sin + cos + −2 . where w is the water content.65 MPa.792 Run LIU. Comparing σm with the material yield stress σyid .5−16 14. Shu-wang YAN.012 7 Design parameters of pipeline ρg /(kg·m−3 ) 7 850 ρo /(kg·m−3 ) 800 ρs /(kg·m−3 ) 1 120 α/◦ C 1. The soil properties are shown in Table 2.8 45. and the temperature diﬀerence can be established. ρo is the oil density. the buckle amplitude of the upheaval segment.63 0.5 7.8 9. T is the wall thickness. whether the pipe material enters the state of the yield damage can be judged. e is the void ratio. (40) and the bending moment obtained by Eq. c is cohesion. (48). (41)and (49).89 El−2 /MPa 3.3 21.3 T /mm 0.8 γ ′ /(kN·m−3 ) 7.06E+5 ν 0. ρg is the steel density. from d Vm = 0 and Eqs. The maximum compressive longitudinal stress σm can be deﬁned by the axial force obtained by Eq. ρs is the seawater density.0−7. and the operational temperature change is 85◦ C.26 2. Wu-gang WANG. and Xin-li WU P and the boundary conditions V |0 = Vm and V | L = V′ x | L = V′ xx | L = From n2 = EI 2 2 2 V′ x |0 = 0.27 Ip Soil properties c/kPa 18 10 ϕ/(◦ ) 18. 4 Case study 4. α is the coeﬃcient of linear thermal expansion.5 .6 15. and Su is the undrained shear strength. upheaval buckling may occur. (46) yields the maximum vertical amplitude in the second upheaval buckling stage as follows: Vm = Fv3t 1 1 2 + C14 + (nL)2 − (nLi )2 . 7 n2 6 2 2 24 (48) Substituting x = 0 into Eq.1 Engineering description The example is an API 5L X65 grade oil pipeline in Bohai Gulf.4 e 1. 14 15 EIn4 3 3 (46) (ii) Li /2 < x < L/2 V = Fv3t (nL)2 n2 x2 C16 cos(nx) + C17 sin(nx) + 1 + − . the vertical displacement of diﬀerent parts in the upheaval segment can be obtained as follows: (i) 0 < x < Li /2 V = Fv3t nLi n2 L i C cos( nx ) − sin( nx ) + C + x − n2 x2 . where ν is Possion’s ratio. al−2 and El−2 are the compaction indexes. In term of the operational conditions.323 9 Table 2 Horizon Silt clay Clay H /m 0−2 2−3 w /(%) 38. The design internal pressure is 4.9 al−2 /MPa−1 0. 4 EIn 8 24 (49) dW Based on the former point.05 1. Other design parameters of this pipeline are shown in Table 1.

2 Analysis with natural backﬁll measure In accordance with the pipeline practice of Bohai. For example. (16). the increased temperature is still much lower than the designed value. Figure 6 shows that the material of the pipeline will yield when the buckle amplitude is in excess of 750 mm. The initial imperfection keeps increasing until the pipeline falls into failure. the total equivalent temperature diﬀerence is 90.3 Analysis with trenching and burial measure With this measure. a peak value appears on the curve of the diﬀerential temperature against the buckling amplitude. The restraint force of the trench to the pipeline can be calculated by Eq. 6. and the trench slope is 20◦ . With the increase in the initial imperfection. 4. Considering the soil properties. The foregoing three protection measures are investigated separately.0◦ C to 22. the frictional coeﬃcient between the pipeline and the subsoil is adopted as 0. 6 Temperature diﬀerence with buckle amplitude for natural backﬁll of trench 4. which implies that the upheaval buckling is more likely to occur in the the pipeline with large initial imperfections. which is much lower than the designed temperature diﬀerence. and the soil resistance of diﬀerent depths of cover can be determined . the peak on the curve vanishes gradually. which is 1.0◦ C[17] . In the analysis.5 m. which is shown in Fig. In this case.7◦ C. It implies that the deformation of the pipeline is continuous rather than sudden.7◦ C. (1). The analyzing results imply that the protection measure of the natural backﬁll can improve slightly the capacity of the pipeline to bear the thermal stress. such as 50 mm and 100 mm. With a slight increment of the thermal stress at this point. However.Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 793 The analysis results indicate that the minimum temperature diﬀerence causing the upheaval buckling of the pipeline without protection measures is about 22. the relationship between the temperature diﬀerence and the upheaval amplitude with the continuous prop initial imperfection amplitude varying from 50 mm to 300 mm can be obtained. the protection measure must be used to prevent the pipeline from thermal buckling. The results show that the amplitude of the initial imperfection has a great impact on the upheaval buckling of the submarine pipeline. It can be concluded that the natural backﬁll measure cannot achieve the purpose of preventing upheaval buckling. The broken line in the ﬁgure is the yield stress of the pipeline material. Therefore. the buckle amplitude of the pipeline will increase greatly and suddenly to release the accumulated internal compressive axial stress. Therefore. The larger the imperfection is.2. Fig. which increases the force to resist the pipeline uplift. Figure 6 shows that with relatively small imperfections. the depth of the trench is about 1. the internal pressure is converted into an equivalent temperature diﬀerence determined by Eq. when Vom = 300 mm. the smaller the temperature diﬀerence needed to lead to upheaval buckling is. the trench will be ﬁlled with soil by machine. The peak value on the curve indicates that the pipeline will suﬀer unstable deformations and a dynamic snap will occur subsequently.302 kN·m−1 . the pipeline buckling temperature increases from 22.

especially for cohesive soil. paving. the buckling temperature increases from 22. In this practice. except the increase in the buckling temperature. Table 3 Embedment ratio (H/D ) 3 4 5 6 Analysis results of depth-to-diameter Temperature /◦ C Tu Tmax Tu Tmax Tu Tmax Tu Tmax 50 102. Table 3 shows that the higher the designed temperature is . H/D = 5 is adopted.7◦ C to 94. diﬀerent initial imperfections with continuous prop modes and diﬀerent depth-to-diameter ratios are investigated in great detail. and burying. In terms of the soil disturbance. cu = 5 kPa.2 — 300 69.0 154. due to the installation activities such as trenching.1 Fig. Comparing Fig.0 141. 7 Temperature diﬀerence with buckle amplitude for trench-burial Figure 7 depicts the relationship between the pipeline upheaval amplitude and the temperature diﬀerence when H/D = 5. That is to say.4 123. However. the soil strength decreases.4 130. . it can be seen that the pipeline with the trenching and burial protection measure has the same buckling mode as the natural backﬁll protection measure.1 — 82. Wu-gang WANG.6 — 113. Since the typical depth-to-diameter ratios are between 3 and 6 in Bohai Gulf.5 82. a deeper depth of cover is needed to prevent the pipeline from buckling when the initial imperfection amplitude is large. (4). these depth-to-diameter ratios are employed in the calculations.9 106. The engineering has been constructed in Bohai Gulf since 2005.1 167. the larger the depth-to-diameter ratio is required. and one of them is shown in Fig. 7 with Fig.8 — 103. The results suggest that the trenching and burial protection is an eﬀective measure to improve the capacity of the pipeline to bear thermal stresses. the remolding strength of the subsoil is adopted in the analysis.1 138.0 139. Shu-wang YAN. It shows that the pipe material will yield when the buckle amplitude is in excess of 850 mm.7 — 93. the validity depends mostly on the depth-to-diameter ratio and the initial imperfection amplitude.8 127. The calculated results are summarized in Table 3. 7. For example.2 Vom /mm 100 200 92.2 27. Therefore.6 101.9 116.9 115.794 Run LIU. 6. The protected pipeline is under good conditions up to the present.6 19.2 120.4 — Resisting uplift force /(kN·m−1 ) 15.4 23. In the analysis. and Xin-li WU by Eq. when Vom = 300 mm. The typical relationship between the upheaval amplitude and the temperature diﬀerence is obtained.8 128.4 — 94.8◦ C.8 — 108.

the vertical resistance can reach 16. and the corresponding resistance is 3. (6).4 Analysis with discrete dumping measure The concrete mattress is widely used in the pipeline installation in Bohai. the uplift resistance can be solved by n Fv3nt = i=1 x Fvi3 + q. and the discrete dumping. the upheaval buckling analysis of the submarine pipeline with typical initial imperfections is carried out. 8. − x Fig. In the design.0◦ C to 52. 5 Conclusions By considering the commonly used engineering measures. Comparing Fig.31 kN·m−1 .Engineering measures for preventing upheaval buckling of buried submarine pipelines 795 4. By considering that the conﬁguration and the force analysis of the concrete mattresses on the pipeline are similar to the catenary[18] . 8 with Figs.. The relationship between the upheaval buckling amplitude and the temperature diﬀerence is illustrated in Fig. the natural backﬁll after trenching. Figure 8 shows that the yield stress of the pipeline material corresponds to the buckle amplitude of 750 mm. The larger the imperfection is. 6 and 7.1◦C. The force. the initial buckling temperature will increase from 22. which is provided by the concrete mattress to resist the pipeline uplift. The thickness of one layer concrete mattress is usually 300 mm. in where Fvi3 = k a 2 (e which ai is the shape factor of the concrete mattress and k is the weight of the mattress per unit area. which is higher than the design conditions.4◦ C. the trenching and burial. and the corresponding initial buckling temperature is 104. (50) i ai − e ai ) is the resistance of the concrete mattress of the ith layer. the smaller the temperature needed to induce .e. (i) Three engineering measures can be employed to prevent the submarine pipelines from thermal upheaval buckling in practice. can be calculated by Eq. (ii) The amplitude of the initial imperfection has a great eﬀect on the pipeline thermal upheaval buckling. the depth of cover and the layer number of mattresses should be determined by the initial imperfection conﬁguration and the operation conditions of the pipeline. Since it still cannot meet the requirement of the designed conditions. it can be concluded that the bucking mode of the pipeline under these three protection measures are almost the same. 8 Temperature diﬀerence with buckle amplitude for mattress The calculated results show that when three layers of the concrete mattresses are laid on the pipeline. for Vom = 300 mm. The following conclusions can be obtained. If one layer of the concrete mattresses is laid on the pipeline. Based on the foregoing analysis. more layers of concrete mattresses are needed. i. the protection measures of trenching and burial and discrete dumping are both eﬀective measures to prevent the upheaval buckling of the submarine pipeline.43 kN·m−1 .

R. Experimental and theoretical studies in subsea pipeline buckling. and Liu. Marine Structures. Application of high strength concrete interlock block to yard and road of port (in Chinese). Improvement of the method for marine pipeline upheaval analysis under thermal stress (in Chinese). 64–72 (1997) [13] Jin. and Tran.10. 175–189 (1984) [4] Maltby. 97–100 (2009) [18] Sun. 28(1). The on-position stability of submarine pipeline (in Chinese). 37(9). 1–31 (1985) [7] Schaap. 110(2). and Xin-li WU the upheaval buckling of the pipeline is. 9(2). Mechanics of Materials.. N. International Journal of Oﬀshore and Polar Engineering. Q. Sun. Beijing. In-service buckling of heated pipelines. T. G.. C. and Sun.. and Al-Shayea. Journal of Henan Normal University (Natural Science). P.. S.. W. Y. F. J.. N.. Natural backfull of submarine pipeline trenches. F. An investigation into upheaval buckling of buried pipelines-II. C. The upheaval capacity of pipelines in jetted clay backﬁll. a continuous deformation will develop instead of an unstable deformation procedure.. T. C. S. K. and Davies. N. A. S. D. Z. Stability of vertically bent pipelines buried in sand. Amsterdam. Z. Al-Ghamedy. R. separately. L. X. 31(4).. X. 280–287 (2002) [16] DEP 31. F. T. P.796 Run LIU. and Fang. The pipeline with a small initial imperfection will suﬀer a dynamic snap procedure with thermal stresses. Journal of Tianjin University. P. R. 965–983 (1995) [5] Palmer. Anchor wire design for drop anchor near the pipeline (in Chinese). 33–38 (1989) [8] Pedersen.). X. (iii) The protection measures of the natural backﬁll after trenching can raise the initial buckling temperature slightly.. Wu-gang WANG. Upheaval creep of buried heated pipelines with initial imperfections. J. while the other protection measures can raise the initial buckling temperature greatly. and Brunning. 29(3). 5(8). H. 124–128 (2005) [2] Taylor. 12(2). S. and Gunbak. Shell DEP Mechanical Engineering Equipments (1998) [17] Gao. and Xing. J. R. Newson. Port Engineering Technology. Natural burial of submarine pipelines. Proceedings of the First International Oﬀshore and Polar Engineering Conference. M. Advances in submarine pipeline trenching by plough. 2nd ed. 35–37 (2002) [15] Bransby. T. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology.. De la Mare. Ocean Technology. A. Asi. Yu. 12(4). 2. Edinburgh. D. 11–22 (1988) [9] Gokce. theory and analysis of experimental observations.40. The increment of the buckling temperature depends on the depth of cover and the thickness of the mattress. N. 1. E. F. 211–257 (1996) [3] Hobbs. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. M. Marine Structures. I. R. Shu-wang YAN. the covered depth and the number of layers can be determined in practice. R. 445–453 (1991) [12] Ma. X. 61–75 (1985) [6] Schaap. Hydrodynamic forces laboratory study of horizontal cylinder with masses near the ocean bottom (in Chinese). Journal of Transportation Engineering. Siddiqui. L. and Jensen. 38(2). Advances in Oﬀshore Oil and Gas Pipeline Technology (ed.. With the increasing initial imperfection. China Oﬀshore Platform. X. Yan. A. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Oﬀshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Texas. Study of hydrodynamic loadings on pipe near seabed in wave and current (in Chinese). 382–390 (2004) [11] Hu. 30–36 (2001) [14] Cao. Upheaval Buckling of Pipelines. M.16-Gen. V. 294–321 (1979) . 308–314 (1991) [10] Abduljauwad. Gulf Publishing Co... Journal of Dalian University of Technology. Oﬀshore Pipeline Technology Conference. Considering the pipeline initial imperfection and operation conditions. and Calladine. X. Self burial and stimulated self burial of pipelines by waves. Higher Education Press. J. N. A. 126(3). References [1] Liu.

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