This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
What is Time Division Multiple Access?
TDMA is a digital transmission technology, which works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to each user within each channel. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels.
What is FDMA?
Frequency Divison Multiple access is a scheme in which the entire frequency band is divided into channels, each channel corresponding to a particular
frequency range. With FDMA each channel can be assigned to one user at a time.
3) Give details of the uplink and downlink band of GSM?
The uplink band of GSM is from 890MHz to 915MHz and the downlink band of
is from 935MHz to 960MHz
4) What is the bandgap between the uplink and downlink carrier in GSM?
5) What is the bandgap between 2 consecutive carriers?
6) How many carriers are present in the GSM band and how many channels are there in each carrier?
124 carriers and 8 channels per carrier
7) What type of modulation is used in GSM?
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) c. In GSM ARFCN 1 to 124 are used GSM Network Architecture 9) What are the components of the GSM network? Draw a schematic diagram of the GSM Network architecture? The GSM network architecture consists of the following components a.8) What is ARFCN? In cellular mobile communications the radio channels are identified by their Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. Base Station Controller (BSC) . Mobile Station (MS) b.
Home Location Register (HLR) f. The main function of the BSC is allocation and release of radio channels and the handover management. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 10) Describe in brief the functionalities of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)? The BTS is a part of the Base Station Sub system and is in contact with the MS through the radio interface. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) e.d. Visitor Location Register (VLR) g. 11) Describe in brief the functionalities of the Base Station Controller (BSC)? The BSC is connected on one side to one or several BTSs and on the other side to the MSC. Authentication Center (AuC) h. The BTS is in charge of management of transmission and reception on the radio interface. 12) What is the function of the Mobile switching center (MSC)? .
along with the current location of the mobile. The main function of the MSC is to co-ordinate the setting up of calls to and from GSM users and the external network The MSC has interface with the BSS on one side and the external network on the other side. Once the visited system detects the mobile.This is useful when searching for stolen mobile equipment or when monitoring misuse of mobile stations. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network. 13) What is the function of the Home Location Register (HLR)? The Home Location Register (HLR) together with the MSC. provide the callrouting and roaming capabilities of GSM. 16) What is the function of the Authentication Center (AuC)? . It temporarily stores the last location area visited by the MS. the special services the MS is subscribed to and so on. It contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network. the VLR of that system enquires the HLR to make sure you are a valid subscriber.where each mobile station is identified by International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). 14) What is the function of the Visitor Location Register (VLR)? The Visitor Location Register contains roaming information. 15) What is the function of the Equipment Identity Register (EIR)? The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that stores data related to the mobile equipment.The MSC performs the basic function of switching. the power the mobile uses.
18) What is SIM? What are the functions of the SIM? The Subscriber Identity Module is a card inside a mobile equipment which contains subscriber related data. the SIM card in the mobile. a secret key for authentication. . If the number sent by the mobile is the same as the one calculated by the AuC. in conjunction with the subscriber’s secret key and a ciphering algorithm called A3. Both the mobile and the AuC then use the random number. to generate a number (SRES) that is sent back to the AuC. one copy of which is stored in the SIM card and the other in the Authentication Center. The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system. Common Control Channels and Dedicated Control Channels. the AuC generates a random number (RAND) that it sends to the mobile. 19) Describe how authentication is performed in GSM? Authentication involves two functional entities.The Authentication Center is a database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscriber’s SIM card. and other information. 19) What are the two types of logical channels? The two types of logical channels are Traffic Channels (TCH) and Control Channels 20) What are the various types of Control Channels? There are three types of control channels mainly broadcast Control Channels. and the Authentication Center (AuC). the subscriber is authenticated. which is used for authentication and ciphering of the radio channel. Each subscriber is given a secret key (Ki). During authentication.
25) What is the function of the SCH? The Synchronization Channel is used for frame synchronization of the Mobile Station. Paging Channel and Random Access Channel. It contains information about TDMA frame number and the BSIC. 23) What are the various types of Dedicated Control Channels? The three types of dedicated control channels are Slow Associated Control Channel. 22) What are the various types of Common Control Channels? The three types of Common Control Channels are Access Grant Channel. . Synchronization Channel and Frequency Correction Channel. Fast Associated Control Channel and Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel 24) What is the function of the FCCH? This downlink channel continuously transmits unmodulated carrier frequency for frequency correction of the MS.21) What are the various types of Broadcast Control Channels? The three types of Broadcast Control Channels are Broadcast Control Channel.
.26) What is the function of the BCCH? The Broadcast Control Channel broadcasts general information about the cell viz. 27) What is the function of the FACCH? The FACCH is used as a main signaling link for the transmission of data eg. 29) What is the function of the RACH? The RACH is used to transfer uplink messages in response to the call initiation request placed by the MS or in response to a paging request or automatically as part of a location update. neighbor cell information. 28) What is the function of the AGCH? The AGCH is used for sending access grant messages. The FACCH is required for every call set up and release. The FACCH is transmitted in the burst by pre-empting a portion of the speech/user data information bits during active call. Paging messages are sent to the area where the recipient MS is located. MS maximum transmit power on CCHs and local area identification. 30) What is the function of the Paging Channel (PCH)? The PCH is used to page the MS during mobile terminated call setup. Handover commands. which assign the MS to an SDCCH or directly to a TCH in response to a request placed on RACH by MS.
34) What are the functions of the Mobility Management sub layer in GSM? . 32) Draw and explain the protocol layer between the Mobile Station and the BTS? 33) What are the functions of the Radio resource Management Layer in GSM? The main function of the Radio resource management layer is to establish and release stable connections between mobile stations and the MSC for the duration of the call and to maintain the connection despite user movements. It is used for service requests (eg. ciphering. subscriber authentication. initiation. location updates. equipment validation and assignment to a TCH.31) What is the function of the SDCCH? The SDCCH carries all signaling between the BTS and the MS when no TCH is allocated. SMS).
and call independent supplementary services support (SS). 39) What is IMSI/TMSI? . Many cells bear the same BSIC and it is common for neighboring cells to have the same BSIC. The security function is performed by the AuC. In the idle mode the MS listens to broadcast channels in order to intercept paging messages. 38) What is Base Station Identity Code? The BSIC is a color code which the MSs use to be able to discriminate between the cells transmitting their beacon channels on the same frequency. monitor the radio environment in order to evaluate its quality and choose the most suitable base station.The mobility Management layer manages the location updating. and registration procedures. 36) What is Idle Mode? A mobile is said to be in idle mode when it is active (powered on) but is not allocated any traffic channel. handovers. The machines concerned with mobility management are mainly the MS. 35) What are the functions of the Communications Management sub layer in GSM? Communications Management sub layer terminates at the MSC and contains entities that currently consist of CC including call-related supplementary services. SMS. the HLR and VLR.
Every Subscriber is assigned an IMSI associated with its SIM card. The IMSI consists of Mobile Country code (MCC) which identifies home country of the subscriber. The IMSI detach procedure will set the binary bit to “ Not Useful To Try” whereas the IMSI attach procedure will do the reverse. the Mobile Network Code (MNC) which identifies the PLMN of the subscriber and the Mobile Station Identification Number (MSIN) which identifies the subscriber within a PLMN. 41) What is the structure of IMSI? 3 Digits 2 Digits MCC MNC MSIN . Hence important resources are consumed for nothing. The IMSI is known only to the subscriber and is kept internal and transmitted as rarely as possible for security reasons keeping the identity of the subscriber confidential (in case some one is listening on the air interface). It is used instead of the IMSI to avoid transmitting the IMSI. Only the VLR stores the TMSI not the HLR. Several MSC/VLR’s can use the same TMSI 40) What is IMSI attach /Detach? When a MS station is switched off(or when the SIM is removed by the user). call towards that MS station cannot be completed. `The MSC/VLR allocates a TMSI temporarily to a subscriber present in the geographical area served by the MSC/VLR. The TMSI serves to identify the MS when it needs to communicate with the network. The subscribers record in the MSC/VLR contains a binary information indicating whether or not it is useful to try to complete the call toward the subscriber. To alleviate this load. the IMSI attach and IMSI detach procedure is used.
National Destination Code (NDC) and Subscriber Number. it is important to minimize the amount of information the MS has to receive. The MSISDN consists of the Country Code (CC). demodulate and analyze when it is in idle mode. Therefore the downlink common control channel is divided into several paging sub channels and all messages pertaining to a given . 43) What is Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)? The MSRN is used to identify a subscriber when routing the call from the GMSC to the visited MSC for mobile terminating calls. It is the number dialed when someone needs to call the mobile subscriber. It is the identity of the subscriber known by the external world.Mobile Country Mobile Network Mobile Subscriber Identification Code Code Number 42) What is MSISDN? Mobile Station ISDN Number This is the subscriber phone number.. It is allocated by the MSC/VLR currently serving the subscriber on a call basis (temporary assignment) 44) What is discontinuous Reception? For the sake of battery consumption in MS.
subscriber are sent on the same sub channel. Whether DTX should be applied or not is decide by the MSC while its execution is controlled by the BSC. it must register with the network to indicate its current location. 45) What is Discontinuous Transmission? Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a method that takes advantage of the fact that a person speaks less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversation by turning the transmitter off during silence periods. 46) What is Location Updating? When a MS moves to a new location area or is switched on in a new location area. thereby increasing the life time of the battery at the expense of a small increase in the delay for the setting up of incoming calls. A location update message is sent to the new MSC/VLR. and then sends the location information to the subscriber’s HLR 47) What are the various types of bursts in GSM? Normal Burst Synchronization Burst Dummy Burst . which records the location area information. Power is conserved at the mobile unit by appling Discontinuous Transmission. Such a scheme allows the MS to restrict the monitoring of paging messages to their own paging sub channel.
Frequency Synchronization Burst. 49) Draw and Explain the Protocol architecture of the GSM Network? RR Management sub layer Manages the Radio Interface Terminates at BSS from MS MM sub Layer Terminated at MSC Messages from or to the MSC are relayed transparently from BSS Communications Management sub Layer Terminates at MSC Contains entities that consist of CC including call related supplementary services. SMS and call independent Supplementary Services (SS) support. TCAP and MAP These are the interfaces between the MSC and HLR/VLR BSSAP .
Final system planning. .Used to implement all procedures between the MSC and the BSS that require interpretation and processing of information related to single calls and resource management. GSM Network Planning & Optimization 1) What is the basic procedure for RF planning using RF planning tool in GSM? Planning Tool Loading of digital map data of the city on the planning tool.Nominal cell planning for the coverage .frequency planning and interference study. Model tuning for proper prediction on the tool .Omni antennas. In GSM We have space diversity antenna and cross polorised antenna. 2) What are the different types of antennas used in a GSM network? Antennas of different types based on antenna beamwidth and gain. SCCP and MTP SCCP and MTP protocols are used to implement the data link layer and layer 3 transport functions for carrying the call control and mobility management signaling message son the BSS_MSC link.
Automatic frequency planning can be done in planning tool. orientation. Increase in antenna height improves the coverage.3) How do the power. To minimize frequency interference problems.3/9 pattern .Frequency reuse pattern is used for capacity planning. Beamwidth and tilt improves the coverage of the planned area. Proper Orientation. 4) What is EIRP? How is it calculated? Effective isotropic radiated power is the total o/p power of Base station EIRP=BTS (O/P) power+Antenna gain-cablelosses-other (combiner)losses 5) What is frequency planning? Why is frequency reuse pattern used? Frequency planning is to be done for the GSM network for a given operator with A set of GSM frequency band. beamwidth. 6) What are all the patterns available? How is frequency planning done on planning tool? 4/12 pattern. tilt and height of the antenna affect the coverage? Power increases the coverage. 7) What is co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference? .
The interference caused by using same channels in a network is called cochannel interference and interference caused by adjacent channels of is called adjacent channel interference. 10) What is model tuning? Why is it used? Okarama Hatta model? Model tuning is done for any planning tool to obtain proper prediction expected from planning tool as there will be difference in actual and predicted data for planning tool. 8) How do you minimize co-channel interference? proper frequency planning and proper reuse pattern. 9) How do you minimize adjacent channel interference? Proper frequency planning. 11) What is link Budget Analysis used for in GSM? Link budget analysis is used for the path balance between both uplink (Transmitter) Downlink (Receiver) part of the network. 12) How is path loss taken into calculation? . One of the model is Okarama Hatta Hatta Model is used which considers the signal propagation losses.
15) What is optimization? What are the tools used for optimization? Once GSM network is integrated in order to achieve proper planning predictionRF parameters Optimization is done. 17) How do we handle poor C/I.This is the total path loss occurred due to multipath propagation of the signal between transmitted signal and the received signal level. handover problems and blocking? . 13) What is capacity planning? This is process of increasing traffic by adding Trxs traffic channels and proper use of frequency reuse pattern. 16) How do we use the above antenna patterns for optimization? Proper antenna orientation and tilts and antenna types can be used for optimizing network. Addition of BTSs 14) How is site selection done for planning and site acquisition? After nominal cell planning with the geographical coordinates identifying best site candidate in a geographical area is the process of site selection. C/A. Drive test tool.Planning tool and Post processing tools are Used for optimization.
18) What is system information? System information is from BTS sent to Mobile for the idle mode and dedicated mode of the call for call management. 22) How do you optimize a network using OMCR performance data? Proper increase in call success. .Checking proper neighbor list. 21) What is grade of service? Grade of service is the blocking for the given traffic channels. changing frequency planning and proper no of radio channels availability. 20) What is Erlang table? This is the table for calculating Traffic in erlang for no of channels. and increase in handover success performance and drop call reduction performance. 19) What is bench marking in GSM? Bench Marking used for comparing performance of different network for quality and call performance parameters.
24) What is cell_reselect_hysterisis? This is process of handover done by mobile in idle mode from selected cell to another cell. 25) What is path loss criterion (C1)? How is it calculated? This is the signal strength measured in idle mode for selecting best serving channel. .23) What is daily report and traffic? This is the report obtained in OMC for the performce of all BTS about traffic .