HOKUSA

BY

A. HYATT MAYOR

WITH AN ESSAY BY YASUKO BETCHAKU
ASSISTANT CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF FAR EASTERN ART

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

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in the provinceof Kai. FromThe COVER:Fujifrom Kajikazawa Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji, about 1831-33.
INSIDE COVERS: Fencers. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817.

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i TITLEPAGE, PAGES 3, 5, 7: Galloping horse and two archers.

Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817.Man swallowinga sword.From the Manga,Vol. X, 1819. of gluttony. A ABOVE, RIGHT: Some prize-winning"talents" tough-jawedeater bites greedilyinto a persimmonsuspendedby a string. One glutton racesthroughbowlsof noodles; another tosses whole rice cakes into his mouth. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X.
RIGHT: Variousmagicaltalents. A magicianturnsinto a BELOW, I

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frog;another makes irisesbloom from the burningcharcoalin a a third multiplieshimself;a fourthturnssheets of paper brazier; into birds. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X.

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THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART BULLETIN Summer 1985 VolumeXLIII,Number 1 (ISSN 0026-1521) Publishedquarterly? 1985 by The MetropolitanMuseumof Art, FifthAvenue and 82nd Street, New York,N.Y. 10028. Second-class postage paid at New York,N.Y. and Additional Mailing Offices. Museumof Art Bulletinis providedas a benefit to The Metropolitan Museum members and available by subscription. Subscriptions $18.00 a year. Single copies $4.75. Fourweeks'notice requiredfor change of address. POSTMASTER: Send addresschanges to Membership Department, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10028. Back issues availableon microfilm, from University Microfilms,313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Volumes I-XXVIII (1905-1942) availableas a clothbound reprintset or as individualyearlyvolumes fromThe Ayer Company,Publishers,Inc., 99 Main Street, Salem, N.H. 03079, or from the Museum, Box 700, Middle Village, N.Y 11379.General Managerof Publications: John P. O'Neill. Editorin Chief of the Bulletin:Joan Holt. Editor:Joanna Ekman. Photography by Gene C. Herbert, Metropolitan Museum Photograph Studio. Design: Abby Goldstein.

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Additional magicaltalents. One magicianproducesa processionof small figuresfromhis sleeve; a second vanishes;a third eats rice and exhales a swarmof bees; a fourthemergesfrom a vase; a fifth breathesout a saddledhorse;a sixth projectsa giant face in incense smoke;a seventh swallowsa sword;an eighth poursa gushingstreamof waterfromhis cuppedhands. From the Manga,Vol. X.

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the unsettlinggenerates Wheneverand wherever energy.000 woodcutsand some 30. Hokusai.The breakupof ancient Japaneseideas suppliesthe motor that convulses Hokusai'swrestlers. For hadbeentolerated on a three-hundred-yard of earth a fewDutchmerchants overtwocenturies rectangle dumped into Nagasaki harborfor the confinement of outsiders. to crossthe narrow theirclothes. If Hokusaihad died beforehe was forty.forin one before. he traveled fastbecause Hokusai traveled light. himselfinto the turmoil whothrew of sawit in his studio.and of Japanese himto explore The paceof changedrives dailylifeas he doingandhappening every jugglers. Whenhe wasa smallboy whopolished ashisfather. observing everything.an artistmust interesting througha year's continuously .Thus he was not altogether "Ihavedrawn whenhe said.All his lifehe wasaspoor Hokusai mirrors fora subsistence. wasbornin 1760in whatis nowTokyo.the street.silken courtesans them.fishermen.In began print drawing pictures.andbeingpeeredat fromthe street.Eventhe oldways Murasaki a thousand years Lady streetconvergesto a vanishingpoint.He is the onlyJapanese printmaker shamof the stage. once a board out of a window showsa "highnose"peering wall. thanthe high-flown the slumsrather little morethan his brushes andhis paper. fouryearsbeforeCommodorePerryintroducedforeignersinto Japaneselife. he absorbed every style that he saw.Hisstudies likea platein anywestern perspective set to anatomical capering. everything-everydot. Hokusai. his earlyteens. calling himself Shunro. 5 .living just when Japanese guns.000 to 40. while still lingering in and the actorswho impersonated this listless elegance.]At ninetyI will enter I shallcertainly havereached a magnificent intothe secretof things. All thatI humility assuming I beganto understand is not worthcounting.birds." Hokusaidied in 1849. just of fatpeopleandthinpeoplecouldwellbe Diirer's book. the variety I CV^S^/f/K in us the of hisobsession. It is not enoughmerely to be great.Sucha one wasHokusai.fishesand insects.forthe great andpersonality. ' have eyes that gluttonizein everydirectionand an absolutecommand of hand. Tobe unendurably singleness may painter impound worthof pictures.At seventy-three the true the ageof sixty-five madebefore of animals.andwhenI ama hundred andten.000 drawings. against beginning of representing the world aregoing.At a hundred level. As he flew. construction plants.at the ageof seventy-five: thingssinceI wassix. keeping consistently only the Japanese convention that ignores shadows. He adoptedpartof his master's name. beyond to the mainland. their magnifying in the can no believe tale esthetics of the ideas from to rub fairy longer quite Europe. comparisons old ideasbegin to be questioned. with figures of his printsa Japanese diminishingin the distance. to show how completelyhe succumbedto Shunsho'sratherwearystyle in printsof sulky.and their booksdid. in several the to woodcuts colors.their Eventhoughthe Dutchwereforbidden bridge ideaswere glasses. carrying changing his abode ninety-three times. and as restlesslyadopting over thirty different names. he wouldhave been forgotten.[Heomitsmen.THE OLD MAN MAD ABOUT PAINTING atevery would bearlooking theirwork doesnot have Fewartists dayfora year. everydash-will live.trees. Shadows would have obstructed the racing of his line as it describes things with disembodiedsubtlety. Japanese andat eighteenhe started to draw for wascuttingwoodblocksforpublishers. Hokusai other cuttersin the studio of Shunsho. He developedlate in his eighty-nine yearsof life by dint of makingover 10.

where a philosopher pauses to contemplate the October mist on the cliffs. The Japaneseand Chinese see no interior logic of bone and muscle in their shadowless figures.Japaneseand Chinese artistsareable to flingout lines writhinglike stringsin the wind becausethey do not move their brusheswith the little muscleof their fingers. other lies proppedon her elbows flexingher 6 . driven by the of a pausethatmightdropa blot.the snowblinds In Hokusai's withawesome fingers.These air colors capture the out-of-doorsfor a people who live more at the mercy of nature than we do.the wind-squalls cold. HYATT MAYOR Twowomen at leisure:one reads-a tobacco pipe is on the floorbehind herthe leg and wrigglingher toes.as we might do. Hokusai lived in the knockaboutstruggleof today. to a stature withthe years grown A. We are far from the mild valleys of classic Chinese painting. the rain stinging their cheeks through the splits in their strawrain clothes. prints. but with the largemusclesof their arm and shoulder.but has of command. the chill in their paper houses disjointing their scatter hatsandbullypeople. and time runs visibly in the rivers.Nothing touches the paperbut the brushtip that goes and goes. on the painted theirconvention the transparent colors without the cleanlinesbound andobscuring InJapanese themcrossing prints sky tints that stain throughthe tough diaphanoustissue of the mulberrypaper. Sucha wayof drawing dread putsits effortin outlineandsummarizes inner detail.Like Daumier. Brushdrawingin ink.and they escape our Greek abstractideal of the body-never realizedin nature to concentrate faceof the geishaandthe actor.he seemed a graphicbuffoonto his contemporaries.

Gashiki has on each doublepage a single design that whose pagesarecrowdedwith smalldesigns. River (p. of theViews about1801-2.a selection of designs on a varietyof subjects. Hokusai in a larger format demonstrates a styleof the master (p. 1834 (vol. Fromthese drawings. Senkakutei Hokuyo.beginning at the mouth and ending at the upperstream. scopeof hiswork in the following land prints. 19. and quarterof Edo (now Tokyo). of theSumida AlongBothBanks panoramaa continuous view of the river.Imado Hokusai'ssubjects ranged from animals. 1849 (vol. below. below) and EhonWakan andChina). print. 23. stayedwith one of his pupils. 29).followedin 1815-19 (vols./y .thoughlessprominent. 48) shows a striking resemblance to the images in the Manga. landscapes. clearly Bookof theStirrups Abumi(Picture EhonMusashi no of theBraves). and 1878 (vol. below).28. Hokusaipresentsin River). plants. 2-10). above." of "comics its contemporary meaning engagedin differentactivities. Even excluding one can see the Hokusai's fromhisdrawings easily paintings. above and below. 12). 27. publishedin collaborationwith Hokusai'sOsaka pupilsand Shunyosai Hokky6-in 1819. 1). a variety Manypagesof the Mangaarerandomlyfilledwith smallfigures of birdsand plants probablydrawnfromnature." commonly The word thendenoted"amanual orManga. Gekkotei Bokusen. 27." as opposed knownasHokusai to manga Manga or satires. of drawing. or landscapesin all kindsof weatherconditions. Further asHokusai wood-block created from volumes.I 0 Jj^ilTO^! v -4^^^^P didnot liveto be one hundred Hokusai old. 1850(pp. 12). and human figures to historical and themes.A similar depictionof the farshore. manual fortransmitting the trueimage: as Hokusai as "beginner's be translated was pleases. The blocks for EhonMusashiAbumiwereprobablymade about 1836 but were not printed until after Hokusai'sdeath.1836 (p. Manga printsthatwerepublished other drawings. early surviving mainly issuedforspecialoccasionsandfrequently printsprivately accompanied by In Ehon Ichiran Picture Book (The Sumidagawa Ryogan poems." a testimonyto his remarkable achievement as an artist. 13). Others are more thought-out designs that could easily have become pagesof an illustratedbook (pp. 14). He producedvoluminoussketchescoveringall these subjectson a tripto Nagoya in supernatural he when 1812.NOTES ON HOKUSAI'S WOOD-BLOCK PRINTS J iE sL. The illustrationscontinue page by closing with a scene of the Yoshiwara a scroll in the same that way painting is unrolledsection by section. Sekkatei Hokushufi.craftsmenmade in 1814(vol. The 11and14arenot yetcertain. 28. In contrast to the Manga. Figuresare executed with fine strokes in combination with 7 .as demonstrated pages. The freely renderedbrushdrawingof a man riding a donkey (p. hanshita-e (under-drawing) Among Hokusai'sother instructionalbooks was HokusaiGashiki(Methodof Drawingby Hokusai). the distant view acrossthe people engagedin differentactivities on the near shore but also incorporates is alsoseen in a single-sheet river(p. Hokusai's work is book illustration and surimono. the ageat which Although years to reach"amagnificent he expected the bulk of work he left behindis level. Hokusainot only includes the page. above)-two of three Bookof theGloryof Japan Homare (Picture knownas the Warrior with Hokusai's booksgenerally Trilogy-displaythe linearstyleoften associated workof aroundthe 1830s.The fulltitle Denshin Kaishu: Hokusai datesof volumes whichmay Manga. 15).this or a similar drawingcould have served as a forthe Manga.

could be just as exciting subjectsforsingle-sheet In other genres. 13. Other prints in the series and activitiesof ordinary (pp. Fuji. about 1833-34.In the printof irises(pp. Chinesepainting brushwork Hokusai's books. the rooftiles. above). below.butalsoin his drawings." BeneaththeSummit(pp. Mt.34-35. 44. usedforwriting of the sheetsof paper repairing poems. daily of one fromananthology Told Poems Anotherseries. In his lateryears. huge 45) the human element is unobtrusivelypresent. capturing in different essence. whereas landscapesare shaded with angularstrokes and dots-a common literati as wellas in Nanga. the famous 1235 in hundred hundred poetFujiwara by poetscompiled poemsbyone reason the serieswas never completed. swiftly taken upwardby the splashing waves. below. 36-37. 38. the viewer'sattention is alwaysdirectedto the gracefulview of this admiredmountain. 42-43.TheHundred bytheNurse. 33. abstractsense of color.usuallyshown filling the space.accentuated contour lines. in Mikawa The yatsuhashi province. Throughout the series.In is slightlyalteredto forma Hokusai's zigzag patternof the yatsuhashi print (pp. an oldhatwiththe utmost around He captures simplicity hopping sparrows playful that are contoured and the hat are drawnwith dabsof brownwash and broadbrushstrokes The sparrows thin lines (p. arenot thoseof the Heianperiod. lovely irises surroundingthe bridge and was one of the subjects favored by artists ever since it was mentioned in the tenth-centuryTalesof Ise. butthoseof Hokusai's Scene. below). 46-47).His imagesof plantsare basedupon his subjects' fromnature. to the initialset of thirty-six.22.exemplifiesHokusai's thathavegivenhis artits universal appeal. and design. maybe seennot onlyin his printed spontaneous andeconomy of line. theme for the first time in the history of Japaneseprints.theJapanese conventionin Chineselandscape by painting inspired painting of the samekind. above)depictlandscapes people set against the familiarpresence of Mt. withcontrasting for Hokusai's best-known Countless imagesproducedfor the Mangamay have servedas a groundwork the major where became of about Views The 1831-33. 10-11). and then returnedto the center where Fujistandsundisturbed beyondthe roughwaves. above. Ten prints with black outlines.about1835-36. whilein otherprints arecompletely in whichhuman eliminated. 30-31).Whetherworkers traditionally shapes boats(pp. landscape Fuji. the familiar trianglein the center that echoes the shape of the mountain.ormenrowing are smoke of where streaks A Winter own. onto anthropomorphicwavesappearto engulf the tiny people holding eye is directed by the boats toward the left.twenty-eightdesignsare known to exist as prints-twenty-seven The title of arein the Freer as hanshita-e Gallery.with a (794-1185) ideal of yatsuhashi. Irisflowers. their the bridge to pursue ordinary peoplecrossing genresceneof the Edoperiod(1615-1867)showing activities. as set againsta flatmassof blackand gray.40-41.but he goes farbeyondmorphological observation very accuracy. a collection of romanticepisodesin the life of a courtier. In The GreatWaveoff Kanagawa. 33. Fujitowerspeacefullyabove the turbulentweather In Rainstorm suggestedby the white rainclouds and the thunderbolt. are reduced to scattered dots under the prominent bridge. In one of the printsfromthe series (eightFamousBridgesin VariousProvinces. no matterhow smallFujimaybe portrayed. 39. Hokusai has replaced the Heian period usuallyassociatedwith elegant court nobles and largeiris flowers. wellas his inexhaustible originality-someof the qualities BETCHAKU YASUKO 8 .themesfavoredby the masses. colorandone blackandwhite-and forty-one designs the seriesalong with the poet'sname and poem are presentedin a rectangleand a squarecartouche.a senseof vibrantlife is suggested by the flowers the have been eaten leaf that torn the well as as discreetly by grasshopper may by stagesof bloom.Here the majesticFujidominatesan entire scene in the set (pp.the images depicted hunters warming upbya fire. derives For some no Teika. the so-called withblueoutlines. Hokusai adopts the theme of yatsuhashi forthe wasa placecelebrated nowAichi prefecture. plankbridge). shape. Hokusaiprovedthat birdsand flowers printsas actorsand beauties. figures for example. 24-25. 44. Thirty-six single-sheet prints.Hokusaifrequentlysought ideasfromthe classics. The viewer's their wooden boats. additions weresubsequent "rear-view Fuji. holdingonto it.

Vol. Fromthe Manga.' 9 . .___ __ _ __I_ ABOVE: trees in the rain. Landscapes: islands in the sea.. . III. i RIGHT:Assorted leaves. 1815. Fromthe Manga.

Froman untitled groupknown as flowerseries."late 1820s. the "large-sheet 10 .Irises.

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RIGHT:Variousbirds. Vol. water's edge: thrushes. III.cormorants. Fromthe Manga. L * 14 1 OPPOSITE.1819. ABOVE: Birdsin flight over reeds.cranes. BELOW: Birdson a tree at the OPPOSITE.I. Brushdrawingin ink and color.finches. and geese. finches. 13 . I :"I. W. FromHokusaiGashiki. ABOVE:Old hat and house sparrows. FromHokusaiGashiki. and geese.

hastily raiseumbrellasand cover themselves with coats and rugs. FromEhonSumidagawa Ryogan Ichiran. VII.From the Manga. From the Manga.about 1801-2. In the backgroundis a panoramicview of the farbank of the Sumida. ABOVE: Mount Harunain the rain. ABOVE: OPPOSITE. BELOW: Bog rhubarb in the rain.This may be his comment on the boastfultales of the residents. VII.__ f i 1^1al~ Rainbowat Mitakegura. Hokusaihas enlargedthe size of Akita to preposterous rhubarb with leaves largeenough to serve as umbrellas.Vol. Wayfarers. 14 . of Akita OPPOSITE.Vol. One of a seriesof views of famous places drawnin variousweathers.A showerfalls at the new YanagiBridgeover a canal joining the SumidaRiver.rushingacrossthe bridge.

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1. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. ....t.. . and one man has lost his hat. v V V ? A gust of wind at Ejiri. ij:t .Pale Fujiis seen from the plain.> _^~ ^^^-'* ' 'v _*' * ": " <* .w . j . on the raisedpath throughthe Travelers rice fieldsstruggleagainstthe wind. I II.. 0%~~~~~~~~~~ <4 -.\^^"i' ^: " '' rr / ?.... . Sheets of paperare swept into the air. r f-t/0'7///w ^^ Ir f'\ w ti Yl"/'"Y 1'* }I /y^^ 1/^^ -- . . i 17 .. . about 1831-33. in the province of Suruga.

gesturesspoke louderthan words. 1834.These studiescaricaturethe reaction of the harassedpedestriansto the unpredictablegustsof the wind. Fromthe Manga.Vol. A mighty and muscularwarrior pusheswith all his strength.Vol. admiresa birdflying above the irisesin the lake. Fromthe Manga. ABOVE: A remarkable strength. IX. From the Manga. ABOVE: woman of remarkable strength. IX. 18 . oblivious of the plunginganimal.The maddeningwind.Vol. XII. BELOW:Another woman of OPPOSITE. To Hokusai. The woman. At the edge of the path an empty sake bottle has been stuck upsidedown on a bamboopole. OPPOSITE. but the womancontinues to walk at her relaxedand unhurriedpace. A rearingwild horse is held fast by the delicate high wooden clog of the woman'ssandalon the halter rope. 1819.

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the other paints his lips and teeth with the aid of a magnifyingmirror.Vol. half-bird)displaytheir skills while an equallylong-nosedwomancompetes with them by writingelegant cursive scripton a folding screen with an ink brushtied to the end of her nose. a famouswrestler. longnosed. a woman's face is unflatteringly magnified. OPPOSITE. XII. XII.At the bottom a posturingdandytreadson another'srobe.a partiallyclad woman takes a pickled radishfrom a barrel. Vol. Long-nosedtengu(monsters.Fromthe Manga. makesan ostentatiousdisplayof strengthby lifting a boulder. Below. Fromthe Manga.One figure at the top paints eyebrows on his forehead. XII.halfhuman.Below. At the top a man is about to commit hara-kiri with a frog beside him.ABOVE: Caricatures of the OPPOSITE. and in the center a figure slumpslike a pile of discardedclothes.Vol. 21 . BELOW:Talentsof the BELOW: Variousunseemlysights. From the Manga.Goro of Matano village. descendantsof a noble family.Top right.

and provoketrouble. work. 1818. while a third is laying them in position. about 1835-36. BELOW: Twowomen in a house are look- ing at the peach blossomsbelow their porch. They wrestle. In the distance is a well-traveledroad.I I Thin men and thin women. Fromthe Manga. VIII. . fight.Vol. FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. carryloads. A workmanis throwingtiles to another on the roof above. break crockery. thin people are tense and active. A X-t 22 . . In LEFT: contrast to relaxedfat people (opposite).

/^r. XIII. Hokusaifinds their characterto be vastly differentfrom that of the thin people (opposite).--:. relax and sleep. _ i 23 . Randomsketches of fat men and LEFT: --~^'?. or amusethemselves in a manner. Early1800s. 1818.vj' ^^gl---L^^^^ . for the most part. bank of the ImadoRiver. fat women in various poses. A <HSr .g... Fromthe Manga. BELOW: Pottersmakingroofingtiles on ^iSB^Ts-\ > ^^^^^^the yVt ^9^^'. read.. ple.Vol. smoke. a tributary of the SumidaRiver. The fat peo- ^BSS^ -- ^ icomfortable \i ?^" .

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25 . FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. Outside a snow-covered hut.A winter scene in the mountains. men warmthemselvesover a fire. So runsmy thought. Winter loneliness in a mountain hamlet grows Only deeperwhen guests are gone And leaves and grassare withered.Illustrationof a poem by Minamoto no Muneyuki.

1817. 26 . of the Chinese warlord. Yoshisada prayingto the dragongod in the sea.Vol.D. VI. so that the general could cross to the opposite shore. Fromthe Manga. VI. ABOVE: General Nitta no OPPOSITE. The helmeted figuresin the center weargauntletsand wield swordsof wood. A wave of sand following the contour of a wave of watermay be seen in the foreground. Fromthe Manga. plungesdown a cliff into the foamingtorrentof the riveras he escapesfrom his enemies.1850. 161-223). The lances are tipped with protective cushions. no Homare.Vol. The warlord.ABOVE: Variousmodes of fencing. FromEhonWakan BELOW: An episode in the life OPPOSITE.Liu Hsiian-te (A.bent low in his saddle. the god turned the sea wavesinto sand. In response.

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1203) set out to slay the monsterthat was said to inhabit the darkcavernsdeep under Fuji.Her scatteredashes were said to have turned into a many-tailedfox.performing magic. As she disappeared. the famouscruel and beautifulconcubine of the last emperorof the Shang dynasty. On the left is the double manifestationof T'a Fei. FromEhonMusashi Abumi. Benzaitenleft behind her three serpent scales. Buddhist-follower monkey. Tadatsuneis shown here apparently lighting a magic torch from raysof sunlight reflectedon the sea. Hairsthat the monkeyhas pluckedfromhis beardformthemselves into other monkeyscarryingstaves. After three weeks of incessantprayer. which were treasured by Tokimasaas a pledge of divine protection. BELOW: ABOVE: Sun Wu-K'ung. the legendary Tokimasa(1138-1215).OPPOSITE. Tokimasaprayedto the Goddess Benzaitenfor her protection. According to the legend. Wakan Vision of H6j6 no OPPOSITE.Vol. From the Manga. 1836. ABOVE: At the requestof the emperor. FromEhon no Homare. X.Nitta no Tadatsune(d.Tokimasa was granteda vision of Benzaitenin the formof a serpent. 29 .

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1833-34.Yatsuhashi(The Eight-plankBridge). and men and women on differentpartsof the bridgeadmire the iris blossomsin the waterbelow.The middle partof the bridgeis raisedin an arch. in the province of Mikawa.a construction of narrowplatformsbuilt out zigzagover a swamp. FromViewsof FamousBridgesin Various Provinces. 31 .

.The broadSumida is spannedby the great bridge. OPPOSITE. by Kiyowara prowof a pleasureboat is hung with lanterns.t t k .'a. .I'. I >'ii i 1 r 4 -O 0 * 75 At* It 0- tF i .0> _ of tA> f -? -r. . A 4 l -r . ABOVE: OPPOSITE. and two other boats are mooredon the river..+iw. FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. .Silhouettes of houses are seen on the opposite bank. 32 . . How quicklythe night flowsin summer And dawn breaks. FromThe Thirty-six Viewsof Fuji. . From full of men and the near shore a ferryboat women is startingto cross the water.07 -4 f ~~~~~ ^'. Viewing the sunset over Ry6gokuBridgefrom the bank of the SumidaRiver at Ommayagashi.l I .I i ik . n.:) tx I4 U'. Long I sought the cloud-coveredmoon. -fL \4 '1 'j /9 e '.'A . Late 1790s-early 1800s.&w~~~~~~~~~ ABOVE:A ferryboat crossingthe bay.<. Beyond its farend Fujirisesdark and clear against the evening sky. BELOW: Illustrationof a poem The large no Fukayabu.

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and a man fishesfrom a rock in the stream. 35 . . Distant Fujiis seen between the tall piersof the wide arch of Mannen Bridgeover the FukaRiver. * * 1 . I I i I P.Under Mannen Bridgeat Fukagawa. People cross the bridge. . FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. a laden boat is poled upstreamin the foreground.

FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. A largejunk is mooredamong reeds.Ushibori in the province of Hitachi. 36 . In the distance acrossthe marshesis Fuji. Two herons take wing as a man leans out of the cabin to pourawaywaterin which rice has been washed.

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39 . OPPOSITE. Fujirisesover fields and mists. which sends up a dense column of smoke. a womancarriesa bucket. the other standingon the log.OPPOSITE. waterwheelat Onden. A greatwaterwheelis turnedby a streamrunningunder it. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. A huge squarelog is supported aslant on tall trestles. Beyondthe streamtwo men with bundles appearover the hill. A woman and a child watch. In the foregrounda boy drawsa tortoise by a string. Twomen saw. BELOW:The ABOVE: Fuji-viewFieldsin the province of Owari. and another womanwashesherbs in the stream. ABOVE: In the Totomi Mountains.between the poles is a view of the cloud-wreathedcone of Fuji. FromThe Thirty-six Viewsof Fuji. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. A workmansits by a fire.one kneeling below. The peak of the mountain on the horizonthroughthe circle appears of a greatunfinishedvat upon which a cooper is at work.

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a * The greatwave off Kanagawa... which speed like arrowsthrough the troughof the wave. 41 .. Fujiappears. snow-capped. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.The dark blue watercrests above three fragile boats.on the distant horizon. _ .

View of Fuji from a lumberyardin the Honj6 district. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. BELOW: Yoshida on the OPPOSITE.Tatekawa at Honj6. At the left are two litter bearers.one of them softening his sandalby beating it with a mallet. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. ABOVE: ABOVE: Sazai Hall of the TemOPPOSITE. A waitressis pointing out Fujito two ladies seatedon the balcony of the wide window. which partlyhides the roofs of Edo and the stacksof a timberyard. Tokaido.A man and a woman sit on the floorof the balcony restingagainstboxes containing the imagesof Kannon. God of Mercy. 42 . men and women look out acrossa silver-gray lake to Fuji.From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. ple of the 500 Rakan. A room in the Fujimiteahouse. On a balcony adjoiningthe hall of the temple.Two workmenare resting. The mountain risesbeyond a bank.

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FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. 45 . Honganji Temple at Asakusain Edo. blue and white. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. is seen between the trunksof pines fringingthe a man leads high road. A kite is flying high in the air. BELOW: OPPOSITE. appearson the horse cloth. ABOVE:The Mishima Passin the provinceof Kai. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.and travelersare measuringits girth with joined hands. Fuji. ABOVE: Hodogayaon the Tokaido. Below are the roofs of Edo with the scaffoldingof a fire station risingabovethem.Eijud6. A huge cyptomeriatree rises in the foreground. In the foregroundis the gable of the temple with workmenrepairing the tiles of the roof.t (-WcY OPPOSITE. and over floatingmist appearsthe cone of Fuji. and the bearersof a litter rest. The crest of the print publisher. In the foreground a horse riddenby a woman.

and snowstreakedFujirisesred into a clear sky with white clouds at the horizon. A forked flash lights up the luridgloom.Rainstormbeneath the summit. From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. I 1 ? we _" 46 .

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pp. Mansfield Vols. Gift of bookno.1285. 42.2983. below: 1914(JP1013) Isham.a carver. 24-25. above. pp. 120) illustrated 1936(Japanese Howard Mansfield.1323) Fund. 12-13) was madeby John Bull of the of Natural Museum American History. Y.VI:Purchase.76.CREDITS in captions. 107) illustrated 1936(Japanese Howard Mansfield. 10-11:Frederick (JP747) 1929. 30-31. of above. and Howard Smith. 0. Giftof The Howard Mansfield Ehon noHomare: Wakan Collection.On every guide the colorsin the correct werecut to register position. Havemeyer.leaving cut away parts dry. Giftof Samuel p.1911 pp. 110) 1936(Japanese Howard Mansfield.1914(14.2973. 111) illustrated 1936(Japanese Giftof Howard Mansfield.Thisprowiththe toughsheathof a bamboo padcovered in the wereprinted foreachcolor.The colors cesswasrepeated oftenseen of lighter to darker colors.Jr. CharlesStewart of Charles Stewart Smith.whichoriginated whocoordia printer.Jr.2961) Fund. 1847) Fund.76.Gift of Mrs. 22.2939. below. Phillips.The artist printed madefromthiskeyblock. printsother than those fromthe Captionsof the wood-block on descriptions arebased Binyon. Brushdrawingin ink. Fund.1914(14. CharlesStewart of Charles Stewart Smith.6) HokusaiGashiki:The HowardMansfieldCollection. laid The artist the entireproduction.44: Rogers 1324. Havemeyer Collection(JP1859. 48: Charles Caswell Stewart Smith. 43.VII-X. 36-37. illustrated Vol. below. 44. tionof an artist.2997.B. and Howard Smith.The monochrome impresimpressions one foreach sionswereusedforcuttingadditional blocks.2565. 43. 34-35.2556) 39: Purchase. 45: Purchase.Bequest HenryL.suchasembossing. Mansfield The Howard Ehon Abumi: Musashi Collection.usually orL andhorizontal-shape blockkento. bookno. 2553.Gift of bookno.Charles Stewart p. 2984.1922 (JP1398. 32: Purchase.2967. 40-41: Bequest pp. 1939 (JP2935. illustrated bookno.III. of Mrs. 23. PhillipsCollection. of the blockanda sheetof on the raised surface mentwasbrushed a circular witha baren. 33. Rogers pp.in memory Charles HewittFund. brush Specialeffects.1931(Japanese Rogers Manga. below.2966. 16-17. Gift of Mrs. 38. 14. below.The Howard Collection.The identiby Laurence Manga ficationof the birds(pp. Smith Collection. Charles p. Fund. H. 6: CharlesStewartSmith Collection.all illustrations arewoodUnlessotherwise specified blockprints.The H.werethe collaboraMulticolor prints. Caswell Stewart Smith.Pigmarks. above. XII. . 81. 0. 38. dipped weredonelast.Whenthe blockanddrawing eredsurface the linesto be of the block. Man ridinga donkey.60[25]) Smith.1936(JP2580. 13. color.1919(JP1108) Rogers p.The gradual order shading the in representations wasachieved of skyandwater bywiping blockwitha wetclothandthengoingoverthe areawitha wet in pigment. anda publisher. natedanddirected carefully facedownon the paste-covfinaldrawing his slightly moistened were of a woodblock. bookno.above.1936(JP2548. 46-47: The HenryL. wasrubbed overit. The paper paper placed shoot. Manga.the carver madecolornoteson monochrome in relief.19) Rogers pp.in memory Smith. 33.60[106]) THE PRINTING OF JAPANESE WOOD BLOCKS in 1765.

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