transformations
Simon A. Neild
3
, where is the length change of the spring. Linear
viscous dampers are also connected between the masses and ground (damping c) and between the
masses (damping c
2
). The conguration of the system is such that the resulting system has symmetric
mass, damping and stiness matrices. Single frequency forcing P
1
cos(t) and P
2
cos(t) is applied to
the two masses. The resulting equation of motion is
_
m 0
0 m
_ _
x
1
x
2
_
+
_
c +c
2
c
2
c
2
c +c
2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_
+ (1)
_
k +k
2
k
2
k
2
k +k
2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_
+
_
x
3
1
+
2
(x
1
x
2
)
3
x
3
2
+
2
(x
2
x
1
)
3
_
=
1
2
_
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
2
_
r
where r = {r
p
, r
m
}
T
= {e
it
, e
it
}
T
is used to represent the harmonic forcing.
Applying the linear modal transform x = q, where is a matrix of eigenvectors of M
1
K results
in
q + q +N
q
(q) = P
q
r, (2)
where,
=
_
1 1
1 1
_
, =
_
k/m 0
0 (k + 2k
2
)/m
_
,
N
q
(q) =
m
_
q
3
1
+ 3q
1
q
2
2
3q
2
1
q
2
+q
3
2
_
+
_
2
1
n1
0
0 2
2
n2
_
q,
P
q
=
1
4m
_
P
1
+P
2
P
1
+P
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
_
. (3)
Also = 1 + (8
2
/), the linearized natural frequencies
n1
= k/m and
n2
= (k + 2k
2
)/m and
damping relationships 2
1
n1
= c/m and 2
2
n2
= (c + 2c
2
)/m.
The forcing transform q = v+[e]r is now applied and considering each mode in turn, this transform
removes forcing terms that are away from resonance while retaining those that are nearresonant. In
this paper we will not consider forced equations of motion in detail, and as a result we write q = v
and P
q
= 0. For the case where q = v, the resulting equation of motion is
v + v +N
v
(v, v, r) = P
v
r (4)
where P
v
= P
q
= 0. The resulting nonlinear term, without damping, can written as
N
v
(v) = N
q
(v) =
m
_
v
3
1
+ 3v
1
v
2
2
3v
2
1
v
2
+v
3
2
_
(5)
Now the equation of motion is in a form in which the nearidentity nonlinear transform can be
applied. This transform is written as
v = u +h(u, u, r) (6)
The aim of the transform is to simplify the dynamic equation, Eqn. (4), into a form that can be solved
exactly using a single frequency trial solution for each mode. The resulting transformed (i.e. simplied)
normal form equation is expressed as
u + u +N
u
(u, u, r) = P
u
r (7)
where currently N
u
, and the transform h, are the unknown.
To keep track of the relative sizes of terms we introduce , a small parameter, which can be viewed
as a bookkeeping aid. Using this bookkeeping notation, the nonlinear vectors and the transform vectors
are expressed as a power series in
N
v
(v, v, r) = n
v1
(v, v, r) +
2
n
v2
(v, v, r) +
N
u
(u, u, r) = n
u1
(u, u, r) +
2
n
u2
(u, u, r) + (8)
h(u, u, r) = h
1
(u, u, r) +
2
h
2
(u, u, r) +
Note that there are no
0
terms as N
v
, N
u
and h are all small compared to the linear terms.
Using the method described in [19, 16]
2
and higher terms are assumed to be zero, and the
coecients of the
1
terms can be written as
n
v1
(u, u, r) = [n
v
]u
(u
p
, u
m
, r)
n
u1
(u, u, r) = [n
u
]u
(u
p
, u
m
, r) (9)
h
1
(u, u, r) = [h]u
(u
p
, u
m
, r)
where the [] matrices are N L where N is the number of degreesoffreedom and L is the length of
u
which contains all the nonlinear terms. The expressions in (9) can be used to obtain a relationship
for the coecients of the form
[
h] = [n
v
] [n
u
] (10)
where the (n, )
th
element in [
h],
h
n,l
, is related to the corresponding element in [h], h
n,l
, using
h
n,
=
_
_
_
(m
p
m
m
) +
N
n=1
(s
np
s
nm
)
rn
_
2
2
rn
_
_
h
n,
=
n,
h
n,
. (11)
Here we use the matrix [] in which the (n, )
th
element is
n,
see [15] or [16] for full details of this
derivation.
For the nearidentity transform, v u, the nonlinear term is rewritten in terms of u, the substi
tution u = u
p
+u
m
is made and nonlinear term is written in matrix form
N
v
(u
p
+u
m
) = [n
v
]u
, (12)
using Eqns. (9) and (8), where for each element u
n
in u we have
u
n
= u
np
+u
nm
: u
np
=
U
n
2
e
in
e
irnt
, u
nm
=
U
n
2
e
in
e
irnt
. (13)
Using these relationships for our current example we obtain
u
=
_
_
u
3
1p
u
2
1p
u
1m
u
1p
u
2
1m
u
3
1m
u
1p
u
2
2p
u
1p
u
2p
u
2m
u
1p
u
2
2m
u
1m
u
2
2p
u
1m
u
2p
u
2m
u
1m
u
2
2m
u
2
1p
u
2p
u
2
1p
u
2m
u
1p
u
1m
u
2p
u
1p
u
1m
u
2m
u
2
1m
u
2p
u
2
1m
u
2m
u
3
2p
u
2
2p
u
2m
u
2p
u
2
2m
u
3
2m
_
_
, [n
u
]
T
=
m
_
_
1 0
3 0
3 0
1 0
3 0
6 0
3 0
3 0
6 0
3 0
0 3
0 3
0 6
0 6
0 3
0 3
0
0 3
0 3
0
_
_
[]
T
=
2
r1
_
_
8
0
0
8
4(n
2
+n)
0
4(n
2
n)
4(n
2
n)
0
4(n
2
+n)
4(1 +n)
4(1 n)
0
0
4(1 n)
4(1 +n)
8n
2
0
0
8n
2
_
_
(14)
where
r2
= n
r1
and, in [], a dash has been used where the corresponding value in [n
v
] is zero and
hence the value in [] is of no importance. Note that as
ri
ni
the linear natural frequencies must
be approximately related by
n2
n
n1
.
We are now in a position to select both the transform terms and the nonlinear terms in the dynamic
equation for u. Considering element (n, ), if possible we wish to remove the nonlinear term from the
dynamic equation and place it in the transform equation. However this is not possible for all terms.
From Eqn. (11) it can be seen that h
n,
can be large compared to
h
n,
if
n,
is close to zero. Also from
Eqn. (10), it can be seen that [
h] is of a similar size to [n
u
] and [n
v
]. Hence for the terms where
n,
is close to zero, this would suggest that if the element in the nonlinear term in matrix [n
v
] is placed in
the transform matrix [h], the transform can not be said to be nearidentity. This results in two options
for the (n, ) element, that satisfy Eqn. (10) and ensure the nearidentity condition it met. These are
the preferred option in which the term is removed from the equation of motion
Preferred Option: n
u,n,
= 0, h
n,
= n
v,n,
/
n,
(15)
and, to ensure that the transform is nearidentity, the nearresonant option in which the nonlinear term
is kept in the equation of motion
Nearresonant Option: n
u,n,
= n
v,n,
, h
n,
= 0 (16)
Using these transforms the equation of motion can be solved, for each mode in turn, using a trial
solution in the form u
n
=
Un
2
e
in
e
irnt
+
Un
2
e
in
e
irnt
(for the n
th
mode) without the need for a
harmonic balance approximation. Information regarding the harmonics of the response are captured
in the transform equation
v = u +[h]u
+ (17)
This equation can also be used to identify the nonlinear normal modes of a system.
From [] it can be seen that regardless of the value of n the following terms are resonant; [1, 2],
[1, 3], [1, 6], [1, 9], [2, 13], [2, 14], [2, 18] and [2, 19]. In addition if n = 1 the terms [1, 7], [1, 8], [2, 12] and
[2, 15] are resonant. For the resonant terms we set the relevant terms in [n
u
] to equal those in [n
v
] and
set the corresponding terms in [h], the transform matrix, to equal zero. Provided n = 1, this results in
the following normal form for the system
u
1
+
2
n1
u
1
+
3
m
u
1p
u
1m
u
1
+
6
m
u
2p
u
2m
u
1
= 0 (18)
u
2
+
2
n2
u
2
+
3
m
u
2p
u
2m
u
2
+
6
m
u
1p
u
1m
u
2
= 0 (19)
where u
ip
+u
im
= u
i
has been used.
Backbone curves
To understand the modal response of the system using secondorder normal forms we will concentrate
on the underlying modal dynamics, i.e. looking at the system response when the damping and forcing
are zero. Taking the n = 1 case, and making the substitutions u
ip
= (U
i
/2)e
ri
t
and u
im
= (U
i
/2)e
ri
t
,
such that u
i
= U
i
cos(
ri
t), and noting that
r2
= n
r1
results in the timeindependent relationships
_
2
r1
+
2
n1
+
3
4m
(U
2
1
+ 2U
2
2
)
_
U
1
= 0, (20)
_
n
2
2
r1
+
2
n2
+
3
4m
(2U
2
1
+U
2
2
)
_
U
2
= 0. (21)
Note that for the case where n = 1, the [1, 7], [1, 8], [2, 12] and [2, 15] terms will be included in the
normal form equations, which results in timeindependent relationships
_
2
r1
+
2
n1
+
3
4m
(U
2
1
+ 3U
2
2
)
_
U
1
= 0, (22)
_
2
r1
+
2
n2
+
3
4m
(3U
2
1
+U
2
2
)
_
U
2
= 0. (23)
From here, for clarity when deriving the equations we will concentrate on the n = 1 case, however
the technique is the same for both. There are two straightforward solutions to Eqns. (20) and (21) and
to Eqns. (22) and (23), these are
S1: U
2
= 0,
2
r1
=
2
n1
+
3
4m
U
2
1
(24)
S2: U
1
= 0, n
2
2
r1
=
2
n2
+
3
4m
U
2
2
(25)
These represent two backbone curves for the two degreeoffreedom system with S1 and S2 correspond
ing to a response in the rst and second modes respectively.
In addition to these, under certain conditions there are two further solutions in which both U
1
and
U
2
are nonzero. Taking Eqns. (22) and (23), and setting the terms in the square brackets of both
equations to zero gives
2
r1
=
2
n1
+
3
4m
(U
2
1
+ 3U
2
2
) =
2
n2
+
3
4m
(3U
2
1
+U
2
2
) (26)
Rearranging this equation, and using = 1 + (8
2
/), gives
U
2
1
= (1 4
)U
2
2
2m
3
(
2
n2
2
n1
). (27)
It can be seen that for a real solution to U
1
two conditions must be met
4
2
and U
2
2
2m
3( 4
2
)
(
2
n2
2
n1
). (28)
This indicates that unless
n2
=
n1
, for this solution to be valid U
2
cannot be zero. However, U
1
= 0
is a valid solution, and in this case comparing Eqns. (25) and (26) we can see that the solution lies on
the S2 backbone curve, and in fact these two solutions branch out of the S2 backbone.
If we eliminate U
1
from Eqn. (26) we obtain the response frequency equation
2
r1
=
2
r2
=
3
2
n1
+
2
n2
2
+
3(
2
)
m
U
2
2
(29)
Taking Eqns. (27) and (29) we can summarise the two further solution as
S3: U
1
=
_
(1 4
)U
2
2
2m
3
(
2
n2
2
n1
),
2
r2
=
3
2
n1
+
2
n2
2
+
3(
2
)
m
U
2
2
,
S4: U
1
=
_
(1 4
)U
2
2
2m
3
(
2
n2
2
n1
),
2
r2
=
3
2
n1
+
2
n2
2
+
3(
2
)
m
U
2
2
. (30)
These two solutions indicate that four modal solutions exist despite the system just having two degree
offreedom.
Modeshapes
Using these backbone solutions we can generate the modeshapes for the system. Here, for the unforced,
undamped system we will plot the initial displacement conditions (assuming zero initial velocities) at
which a mode is observed in the x
1
x
2
plane. Then we consider the resulting modeshapes from these
initial conditions. The forced response is considered in [22].
Firstly we must consider the nearidentity transform, Eqn. (17), to calculate the response in x
x = q = v = (u +[h]u
) (31)
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
initial condition plot X1
X
2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
initial condition plot X1
X
2
Figure 1: Initial displacement conditions at which a modal response is observed, assuming the initial velocities are zero
(shown as thin lines), for (a) n=1 system and (b) n=3 system. The thick line gives an example of the resultant oscillatory
motion from a point on the S3 solution branch.
Again considering the n = 1 case, using Eqns. (14) and (15) we can write
x
1
= (U
1
+U
2
) cos(
r1
t) +
m
U
3
1
+ 3U
2
1
U
2
+ 3U
1
U
2
2
+U
3
2
32
2
r1
cos(3
r1
t)
x
2
= (U
1
U
2
) cos(
r1
t) +
m
U
3
1
3U
2
1
U
2
+ 3U
1
U
2
2
U
3
2
32
2
r1
cos(3
r1
t). (32)
For backbone solutions S1 and S2, where U
2
= 0 and U
1
= 0 respectively, these equations show that
the corresponding modeshapes (x
1
= x
2
and x
1
= x
2
respectively) are independent of amplitude and
response frequency
r1
. For solutions S3 and S4 the modeshapes are more complex. For these solutions
the ratio x
2
/x
1
is a function of amplitude and hence response frequency. The initial displacements that
result in a modal response may be written as
x
1

initial
=
2
r1
(U
1
+U
2
) + (/32m)(U
3
1
+ 3U
2
1
U
2
+ 3U
1
U
2
2
+U
3
2
)
x
2

initial
=
2
r1
(U
1
U
2
) + (/32m)(U
3
1
3U
2
1
U
2
+ 3U
1
U
2
2
U
3
2
) (33)
with
r1
and the relationship between U
1
and U
2
are dened by Eqn. (30) (noting
r1
=
r2
as n = 1).
Simulation Results
Consider the two degreeoffreedom system with parameters; m = 1, k = 1, k
2
= 0.005, = 0.4 and
2
= 0.05 such that
n1
= 1 and
n2
= 1.005. Using Eqn. (33), the initial conditions which result in
a modal vibration are shown as thin lines in Figure 1(a). The thick line shows the resulting motion if
released from a point on the S3 solution branch, calculated using Eqn. (32).
In the previous gure the oscillatory motion is almost an exact straight line, hence the mode shape is
essentially xed during the oscillation and is just a function of initial displacement conditions. However,
for the case where n = 1 this is not the case, the modeshape varies during oscillations if the system is
released from branches S3 or S4. To see this we consider the case where n = 3 using a system with
parameters m = 1, k = 1, k
2
= 4.015, = 0.05 and
2
= 10 such that
n1
= 1 and
n2
= 3.005. Figure
1(b) shows the initial conditions which result in a modal response (thin lines). It can be seen that for
this system the bifurcation occurs on the S1 solution. The thick lines show a series of responses for
the system released from the S3 initial conditions. It can be seen that in this case the shape of the
response varies over the oscillation.
To assess the accuracy of the normal form analysis, Figure 2(a) shows the system response calculated
using timestepping simulation for two periods of oscillation (thick dashed line). It can be seen that it
agrees well with the normal form prediction. Figure 2(b) shows the corresponding response of x
1
and x
2
over time, conrming the behaviour is a vibration in unison as dened by [3]. To further highlight the
vibrationinunison behaviour, Figure 3 shows approximately two cycles of time simulation response of
the system for initial conditions that do not lie on the S14 solution curves.
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
initial condition plot X1
X
2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time (s)
x
1
,
x
2
Figure 2: (a) comparison between timestepping simulation (thick dashed line) over two periods of oscillation and the
normal form predictions for an initial displacement condition lying on the S3 solution and (b) the corresponding response
in x1 (solid line) and x2 (dashed line) over time.
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
initial condition plot X1
X
2
Figure 3: Approximately two cycles of timestepping simulation response for initial conditions that do not lie on the
S1S4 modal lines.
Conclusion
In this paper, we demonstrate how the secondorder normal form method can be used to understand the
nonlinear modal response of a system. This is done by considering a two degreeoffreedom nonlinear
system with closely matching linear natural frequencies. We show how the system backbone curves
can be found using the secondorder normal form technique. These curves are plotted in the x
1
x
2
plane as initial displacement conditions (assuming no initial velocities) from which a modal response is
observed. These solutions are more complex than the expressions for the underlying linear system as
for some x
1
values there are four x
2
values at which a modal response is observed due to a bifurcation
in one of the backbone curves. The responses over a cycle of oscillation are also shown for a number of
initial conditions, highlighting that the mode shape can vary over each cycle of oscillation. The normal
form predictions are shown to have high accuracy using timestepping simulation results.
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