RAN

HSUPA Description

Issue Date

02 2008-07-30

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RAN HSUPA Description

Contents

Contents
1 HSUPA Change History .......................................................................................................1-1 2 HSUPA Introduction ............................................................................................................2-1 3 HSUPA Principles.................................................................................................................3-1
3.1 HSUPA Protocol Architecture ................................................................................................................. 3-1 3.2 HSUPA Channel Mapping ...................................................................................................................... 3-2 3.2.1 Mapping of Services onto The E-DCH ........................................................................................... 3-2 3.2.2 Mapping of Logical Channels onto Transport Channels .................................................................. 3-2 3.2.3 Mapping of Transport Channels onto Physical Channels................................................................. 3-3 3.3 HSUPA Physical Channels...................................................................................................................... 3-4 3.3.1 E-DPCCH ..................................................................................................................................... 3-4 3.3.2 E-DPDCH ..................................................................................................................................... 3-6 3.3.3 E-AGCH ....................................................................................................................................... 3-6 3.3.4 E-RGCH........................................................................................................................................ 3-9 3.3.5 E-HICH....................................................................................................................................... 3-12 3.4 HSUPA Physical Channel Timing ......................................................................................................... 3-13 3.4.1 E-DPDCH/E-DPCCH Timing Relative to the DPCCH ................................................................. 3-13 3.4.2 E-AGCH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH.................................................................................. 3-13 3.4.3 E-RGCH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH.................................................................................. 3-14 3.4.4 E-HICH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH ................................................................................... 3-15 3.4.5 Association Between Frames of Different Physical Channels........................................................ 3-15 3.5 HSUPA Key Technologies .................................................................................................................... 3-17 3.5.1 HSUPA HARQ ............................................................................................................................ 3-17 3.5.2 HSUPA Short TTI........................................................................................................................ 3-19 3.5.3 HSUPA Fast Scheduling............................................................................................................... 3-19 3.6 MAC-e PDU Generation....................................................................................................................... 3-19 3.6.1 MAC-e PDU Overview................................................................................................................ 3-19 3.6.2 MAC-e PDU Generation Process ................................................................................................. 3-20 3.6.3 MAC-e PDU Encapsulation ......................................................................................................... 3-25

4 HSUPA Algorithms...............................................................................................................4-1
4.1 Overview of HSUPA Related Algorithms ................................................................................................ 4-1 4.1.1 Algorithm of HSUPA Fast Scheduling............................................................................................ 4-1 4.1.2 Algorithm of Flow Control............................................................................................................. 4-1 Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd i

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.............3...............................1..... 4-12 4............................................................................................3 AG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm ..........2..................................................................................................... 4-14 4...................2 HSUPA Fast Scheduling .................................................................................................. 4-22 5 HSUPA Parameters ..... 4-2 4....6 MBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm..........................4-11 4...................................................................3 HSUPA Flow Control ......................................................4 RG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm ....................3 Algorithm of CE Allocation .....................pdffactory............ 4-6 4.................................................................................. 4-21 4..............Contents RAN HSUPA Description 4................................................................................................. 4-9 4..........................4 HSUPA Mobility Management.................5 HSUPA Directed Retry ...................2 User Queuing in the Scheduling Algorithm..............................................................3 Adjusting the Available Bandwidth of HSUPA ... Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www........................................ 4-9 4........................ 4-15 4.....................................................5...... 4-20 4......................................4-11 4.................2.....1 Overview of HSUPA Scheduling...........4 Handling Iub Buffer Congestion.................................................... 4-20 4.............................5.................................3. 4-2 4...............5 GBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm...............................................................5-1 6 HSUPA Reference Documents ...............1.........................2........5............................2................... 4-21 4...................3 HSUPA Power Control.3....... 4-20 4................2..........................................2 HSUPA DCCC................................................................4 Dynamic CE Resource Management .................................................................6-1 ii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.......................................................................................... 4-10 4.......... 4-1 4...3..............5.4 Relation Among HSUPA Algorithms........................... 4-14 4.............................................2...2 Adjusting the Maximum Available Bandwidth of the Iub Port .................... 4-4 4.1 Overview of HSUPA Flow Control..................................................................com ..............................................................1 HSUPA Cell Load Control .....................................................................5 Other HSUPA Related Algorithms....................................................... 4-2 4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................5..........

Compared with 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0. issue 02 (2008-07-30) of RAN10.RAN HSUPA Description 1 HSUPA Change History 1 Document and Product Versions Document Version 02 (2008-07-30) 10. Table 1-1 Document and product versions RAN Version RNC Version V200R010C01B061 NodeB Version V100R010C01B050 V200R010C01B041 01 (2008-05-30) 10.0 V200R010C01B050 V100R010C01B045 There are two types of changes..0. 02 (2008-07-30) This is the document for the second commercial release of RAN10.pdffactory. or the addition of information that was not provided in the previous version. refer to 4. Editorial change: refers to changes in information that has already been included. which are defined as follows: l l Feature change: refers to the change in the HSUPA feature of a specific product version.4 Dynamic CE Resource Management Parameter Change l The parameters that are changed to be non-configurable are listed as follows: Happy bit delay time HSUPA service rate extend scale l l Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.0 HSUPA Change History HSUPA Change History provides information on the changes between different document versions. Change Type Feature change Change Description Dynamic CE Resource Management is optimized For details. Ltd 1-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.0 incorporates the changes described in the following table.0 V200R010C01B051 V100R010C01B049 V200R010C01B040 Draft (2008-03-20) 10.com .

The algorithm of HSUPA flow control is changed.0 parameter reference.0.com . The structure is optimized. None.. See chapter 5 HSUPA Parameters. 01 (2008-05-30) This is the document for the first commercial release of RAN10. The algorithm of HSUPA CE scheduling is introduced. Compared with draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.1. The algorithm of HSUPA scheduled transmission is changed. Change Type Feature change Change Description None.0 incorporates the changes described in the following table. this issue incorporates the changes described in the following table: Change Type Feature change Change Description SRB can be carried on E-DCH. None. issue 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0. The HSUPA Parameters is removed because of the creation of RAN10. Parameter Change The parameters that are changed to be non-configurable are listed as follows: l l HARQ Info for E-DCH HSUPA Scheduling Info power offset Editorial change General documentation change: l None. None. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. l Draft (2007-03-20) This is a draft of the document for the first commercial release of RAN10. Compared with issue 03 (2008-01-20) of RAN 6. None.0.pdffactory. Parameter Change None.1 HSUPA Change History RAN HSUPA Description Change Type Change Description Parameter Change l l l E-TFCI Table Index E-RGCH 3-Index-Step Threshold E-RGCH 2-Index-Step Threshold Editorial change A parameter list is added. 1-2 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.

RAN HSUPA Description 1 HSUPA Change History Change Type Editorial change Change Description General documentation change is as follows: l Parameter Change None.pdffactory.com . Implementation information has been moved to a separate document. Ltd 1-3 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co..

com .pdffactory.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

RAN HSUPA Description 2 HSUPA Introduction 2 l l l HSUPA Introduction HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access) is an important feature of 3GPP R6. HSUPA improves the performance of the UMTS network in the following aspects: l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l Higher UL peak data rate Lower latency: enhancing the subscriber experience with high-speed services Faster UL resource control: maximizing resource utilization and cell throughput Better Quality of Service (QoS): improving the QoS of the network UL peak rate: 5. NodeB-controlled UL fast scheduling: It is used to increase resource utilization and efficiency. Ltd 2-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.0 is 5.. HARQ at the physical layer: It is used to achieve rapid retransmission for erroneously received data packets between the User Equipment (UE) and NodeB.pdffactory. It also shortens the scheduling response time.73 Mbit/s.73 Mbit/s per user 10 ms and 2 ms TTI Maximum 60 HSUPA users per cell Soft handover and softer handover Multiple RABs (3 PS) Dedicated/co-carrier with R99 UE categories 1 to 6 Basic load control OLPC for E-DCH Iub flow control CE scheduling Power control of E-AGCH/E-RGCH/E-HICH Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.73 Mbit/s on the Uu interface. HSUPA provides a theoretical maximum uplink MAC-e rate of 5. As an uplink (UL) high speed data transmission solution.com . The MAC-e peak data rate supported by Huawei RAN10. The main features of HSUPA are as follows: 2 ms short frame: It enables less Round Trip Time (RTT) in the Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) process. which is controlled by NodeB.

The implementation of HSUPA requires the support of power control. MGW = Media Gateway. load control. GGSN = Gateway GPRS Support Node. and a good balance between downlink and uplink. For detailed information. RNC = Radio Network Controller.com . HLR = Home Location Register Impact l Impact on System Performance Compared with 3GPP R99. see Other HSUPA Related Algorithms. MSC Server = Mobile Service Switching Center Server. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. a shorter latency. Table 2-1 NEs involved in HSUPA UE √ NodeB √ RNC √ MSC Server – MGW – SGSN – GGSN – HLR – NOTE l – = NE not involved l √ = NE involved UE = User Equipment.pdffactory. HSUPA and the other features have an impact on each other.. SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node. admission control. 3GPP R6 introduces HSUPA to provide a significant enhancement in the uplink in terms of peak data rate and cell throughput. 2-2 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. and mobility management.2 HSUPA Introduction RAN HSUPA Description Network Elements Involved The following table describes the Network Elements (NEs) involved in HSUPA. l Impact on Other Features The impact of HSUPA on the other features is as follows: − − − HSUPA does not affect the effectiveness of the other features.

1 HSUPA Protocol Architecture HSUPA Protocol Architecture describes the protocol architecture of HSUPA. Ltd 3-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles 3 l l l l l l HSUPA Principles The principles of HSUPA cover the technical aspects of the feature: HSUPA Protocol Architecture HSUPA Channel Mapping HSUPA Physical Channels HSUPA Physical Channel Timing HSUPA Key Technologies MAC-e PDU Generation 3. scheduling. and E-DCH Transport Format Combination (E-TFC) selection. Figure 3-1 shows the HSUPA protocol architecture. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. MAC-e multiplexing. Figure 3-1 Protocol architecture of HSUPA To enhance the Access Stratum (AS).. HSUPA is implemented in the following ways: l A new MAC entity (MAC-es/MAC-e) is added to UE below the MAC-d to handle HARQ retransmission.com .pdffactory.

Step 3 The E-DCH FP of Iub interface controls the data flow between NodeB MAC-e and SRNC MAC-es. service rate.3 HSUPA Principles l l l RAN HSUPA Description A new MAC entity (MAC-e) is added to NodeB to handle the HARQ retransmission.2. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the Packet Switched Core Network (PS CN) requires a higher rate of service assignment.2.2 HSUPA Channel Mapping HSUPA Channel Mapping describes the following: l l l Mapping services information on the E-DCH. 3. and switching. Step 4 The MAC-es of SRNC sends MAC-d PDUs to SRNC MAC-d. For detailed information on mapping of signaling and traffic onto transport channels. Step 2 The MAC-e of NodeB sends the MAC-es PDUs through E-DCH FP to the MAC-es of SRNC. such as. and MAC-e demultiplexing.pdffactory.2 Mapping of Logical Channels onto Transport Channels Both Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) and Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) can be mapped onto the E-DCH in HSUPA. user plane transmission. the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) supports higher-rate transmission. cell HSUPA capability and UE HSUPA capability. scheduling. A new transport channel (E-DCH) is added to transfer data blocks between NodeB MAC-e and SRNC MAC-es. A new MAC entity (MAC-es) is added to SRNC to combine signals from different NodeBs in soft handover and deliver data to the MAC-d in sequence. ----End With HSUPA. Mapping of logical channels onto the transport channels Mapping of transport channels onto the physical channels 3. the traffic class.1 Mapping of Services onto The E-DCH When the UE sends a service request. 3. Accordingly. scheduling scheme.. The HSUPA data flow is as follows: Step 1 The MAC-es/MAC-e of the UE sends the MAC-e PDUs to the physical layer (PHY) of UE. 3-2 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.com . see Mapping of Signaling and Traffic onto Transport Channels in Radio Bearers. the RNC determines whether to map the service onto the E-DCH according to the factors.

Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. first out) and directly onto the physical channels.3 Mapping of Transport Channels onto Physical Channels After the coding and multiplexing on the E-DCH are performed.2.pdffactory..RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Figure 3-2 Mapping of logical channels onto transport channels on the UE side Figure 3-3 Mapping of logical channels onto transport channels on the UTRAN side 3. Ltd 3-3 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the subsequent data streams are mapped sequentially (first in.com .

3..pdffactory. Each radio link has at most one E-DPCCH.3 HSUPA Physical Channels HSUPA Physical Channels describes five types of HSUPA physical channels: l l l l l E-DPCCH E-DPDCH E-AGCH E-RGCH E-HICH 3.1 E-DPCCH The E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH) carries the control information associated with the E-DCH. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Figure 3-4 Mapping of transport channels onto physical channels 3.com . The spreading factor of the E-DPCCH is 256. 3-4 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.

com . passed from the MAC to the physical layer for the E-DPCCH inclusion. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. With the table. E-TFCI: 7 Bits E-TFCI is used on the current E-DPDCH.321. Each TTI has two tables. which indicate whether the UE wants more resources. The Unhappy value indicates a higher data rate than that supported by the current SG. Otherwise. the details for which are as follows: l l l l 2 ms TTI E-DCH Transport Block Size Table 0 2 ms TTI E-DCH Transport Block Size Table 1 10 ms TTI E-DCH Transport Block Size Table 0 10 ms TTI E-DCH Transport Block Size Table 1 Table 0 or Table 1 is selected according to the signaling from the RNC. This field takes two values: Unhappy and Happy. due to the sufficient data in the buffer and enough power in the UE. There are four transport block size tables defined in 3GPP 25. Ltd 3-5 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the E-TFCI can be mapped to a transport block size..RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Figure 3-5 Frame structure of the E-DPCCH The E-DPCCH carries the following control information: l l l Retransmission Sequence Number (RSN): 2 bits E-TFC Indicator (E-TFCI): 7 bits Happy Bit: 1 bit Retransmission Sequence Number (RSN): 2 Bits RSN is transmitted on the E-DPCCH and used to convey the uplink HARQ transmission number. Happy Bit: 1 Bit Happy Bit is a single bit field that is.The E-TFCI Table Index is 0 for V oip service and 1 for all the others.pdffactory. the Happy Bit is set to Happy.

one. Figure 3-6 Frame structure of the E-DPDCH Generally. The ratio mentioned in the third criteria is always 1 for 10 ms TTI. The E-AGCH is a common downlink physical channel with a fixed rate of 30 kbit/s. the E-DPDCH and the E-DPCCH are transmitted simultaneously.. the E-DPCCH is transmitted discontinuously. 3. The spreading factor of the E-DPDCH ranges from 2 to 256. RAN10. The E-AGCH is a shared channel for all HSUPA UE in the serving E-DCH cell. Based on the same power offset as the one selected during E-TFC selection to transmit data in the same TTI as the Happy Bit. the Total E-DCH Buffer Status (TEBS) may require more than Happy bit delay time which equals to 50 ms to be transmitted with the current SG multiplied by the ratio of the number of active processes to the total number of processes.2 E-DPDCH The E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) carries the data associated with the E-DCH. 3-6 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.214. Each radio link can have none. or several E-DPDCHs. except with the power scaling as described in 3GPP TS 25. the Happy Bit is set to Unhappy if the following conditions are met: l l l The UE transmits as much scheduled data as allowed by the current SG during E-TFC selection. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.3. The UE has enough power to transmit data at a higher rate.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description For every E-DCH transmission.3 E-AGCH The E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) carries AGs for uplink E-DCH scheduling.com .pdffactory.0 provides a maximum of four E-DPDCHs with two SF4s and two SF2s. 3.3. The spreading factor of the E-AGCH is 256.

only the value "All HARQ processes" is valid. Only the UE having the same E-RNTI can demodulate the information correctly. Here. depending on the E-DCH TTI is 2 ms or 10 ms. The mapping of AG values is described in Table 3-1.3 in 3GPP 25. The secondary E-RNTI is usually for a group of UEs.1. see HSUPA Serving Grant Update (subclause 11.pdffactory.321). The RNC-assigned sequence of 16-bit CRC on the E-AGCH is masked with either a primary or a secondary E-RNTI. When the UE demodulates the E-AGCH. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Only the primary E-RNTI is used in the current RAN version.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Figure 3-7 Frame structure of the E-AGCH An E-DCH AG has to be carried by one E-AGCH subframe or one E-AGCH frame.8. The information transmitted on the E-AGCH includes a 5-bit field of the AG value and a 1-bit field of the AG scope. "All HARQ processes" means that the AG is for all HARQ processes. For detailed information on SG update. When the E-DCH is configured with 10 ms TTI. The AG scope indicates whether the HARQ process activation or deactivation will affect one or all of the processes. Ltd 3-7 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the E-AGCH will again mask the CRC with the primary or secondary E-RNTI.. the E-RNTI stands for E-DCH Radio Network Temporary Identifier. l l The primary E-RNTI is unique for each UE. The AG scope can take two different values: "Per HARQ process" or "All HARQ processes".com . − − "Per HARQ process" means that the AG is for one HARQ process. l l The AG value indicates the maximum power ratio of the E-DPDCH to the corresponding DPCCH.

3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Table 3-1 Mapping of AG values Absolute Grant Value (168/15)2 x 6 (150/15)2 x 6 (168/15)2 x 4 (150/15)2 x 4 (134/15)2 x 4 (119/15)2 x 4 (150/15) x 2 (95/15) x 4 (168/15)2 (150/15)2 (134/15)2 (119/15)2 (106/15)2 (95/15)2 (84/15)2 (75/15)2 (67/15)2 (60/15)2 (53/15)2 (47/15)2 (42/15)2 (38/15)2 (34/15)2 (30/15)2 (27/15)2 (24/15)2 (19/15)2 (15/15)2 (11/15)2 (7/15)2 2 2 Index 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 3-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co..com . Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

. The step can be 1. Table 3-2 Mapping of RG commands RG Command UP HOLD DOWN RG Value (for Serving E-DCH RLS) 1 0 –1 RG Value (for Non-Serving E-DCH RL) Not allowed 0 –1 When the UE receives an RG command. Each slot carries a sequence of 40 binary values. as described in the following table. the SG is adjusted upwards or downwards by one step. depending on the E-DCH TTI is 2 ms or 10 ms.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Absolute Grant Value ZERO_GRANT INACTIVE Index 1 0 3. The RG commands are mapped to the RG values. or 15 consecutive slots. then 3 or 12 slots are used. 15 slots are used. 2. Figure 3-8 Frame structure of the E-RGCH An RG is transmitted in 3.3. The E-RGCH is a dedicated downlink physical channel with a fixed rate of 60 kbit/s.pdffactory.4 E-RGCH The E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH) carries RGs for uplink E-DCH scheduling. 12. l l If the cell transmitting the E-RGCH is in the serving E-DCH Radio Link Set (RLS). If the cell transmitting the E-RGCH is not in the serving E-DCH RLS. The spreading factor of the E-RGCH is 128. Ltd 3-9 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. or 3 in the Scheduling Grant Table according to the current SG Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.com .

and E-RGCH 2-Index-Step Threshold. 37)]. If 3-index-step threshold ≤ SGIndexLUPR < 2-index-step threshold.pdffactory. then SG = SG[MAX (SGLUPR . and is equal to. For example.3 HSUPA Power Control. 37)]. For example. if SGIndexLUPR = 15 and 3-index-step threshold = 20.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description value. then the new SG index is 23. The Scheduling Grant Table is provided in Table 3-3. The reference_ETPR is the power ratio of E-DPDCH to DPCCH. if the SGIndexLUPR = 28 and 2-index-step threshold = 25.com . For example. then SG = SG [MIN (SGLUPR + 1.1. l If the UE receives a serving RG "UP". then the new SG index is 29. 0)]. The lowest power ratio is in the Scheduling Grant Table (Table 3-3). Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The ratio is used for the E-TFC selected for the previous TTI in this HARQ process and calculated by the amplitude ratios prior to the quantization according to 4. if SGIndexLUPR = 21 and 2-index-step threshold = 25. If the UE receives an RG "DOWN". then SG = SG [MIN (SGLUPR + 2. then SG = SG [MIN (SGLUPR + 3. l l l l l l l l Table 3-3 Scheduling Grant Table Index 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 Scheduled Grant (168/15)2 x 6 (150/15)2 x 6 (168/15)2 x 4 (150/15)2 x 4 (134/15)2 x 4 (119/15)2 x 4 (150/15)2 x 2 (95/15)2 x 4 (168/15)2 (150/15)2 (134/15)2 3-10 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. the UE determines the SG (based on the "3-index-step threshold" and "2-index-step threshold" configured by higher layers) as follows: If SGIndexLUPR < 3-index-step threshold. When the SG needs to be determined due to E-RGCH signaling: l The UE determines the lowest power ratio and the corresponding index in the Scheduling Grant Table: SGIndexLUPR. or higher than the reference_ETPR. E-RGCH 3-Index-Step Threshold whose value is 17 for 2ms TTI and 9 for 10ms TTI.. Wose value is 18 for 2ms TTI and 12 for 10ms TTI. SG = SG[SGIndex] which means to get an SG from the Scheduling Grant Table according to the SGIndex. 37)]. then the new SG index is 18.5. If SGLUPR ≥ 2-index-step threshold.

RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Index 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Scheduled Grant (119/15)2 (106/15)2 (95/15)2 (84/15)2 (75/15)2 (67/15)2 (60/15)2 (53/15)2 (47/15)2 (42/15)2 (38/15)2 (34/15)2 (30/15)2 (27/15)2 (24/15)2 (21/15)2 (19/15)2 (17/15)2 (15/15)2 (13/15)2 (12/15)2 (11/15)2 (9/15)2 (8/15)2 (7/15)2 (6/15)2 (5/15)2 Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.com .pdffactory. Ltd 3-11 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www..

5 E-HICH The E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (E-HICH) carries uplink E-DCH HARQ acknowledgement indicators. The frame structure of the E-HICH is the same as that of the E-RGCH. The spreading factor of the E-HICH is 128. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www..pdffactory.com . 12 slots are used for the UE with 10 ms E-DCH TTI. Figure 3-9 Frame structure of the E-HICH The ACK and NACK mappings on the E-HICH are described in the following table. An HARQ acknowledgement indicator is transmitted in 3 or 12 consecutive slots and in each slot a sequence of 40 binary values is transmitted as follows: l l 3 slots are used for the UE with 2 ms E-DCH TTI. the NACK is transmitted discontinuously. The E-HICH is a dedicated downlink physical channel with a fixed rate of 60 kbit/s. the UE combines them as shown in the following table. 3-12 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Table 3-4 Mapping of HARQ acknowledgement Command ACK NACK (for the RLSs not containing the serving E-DCH cell) NACK (for the RLS containing the serving E-DCH cell) HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator +1 0 –1 When an ACK and an NACK are received at the same time. For the RLSs that do not contain the serving E-DCH cell.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description 3.3.

1 E-DPDCH/E-DPCCH Timing Relative to the DPCCH The timing of the E-DPCCH and all the E-DPDCHs transmitted from the UE is the same as that of the uplink DPCCH. on which the cell System Frame Number (SFN) is transmitted. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. directly for the downlink and indirectly for the uplink..2 E-AGCH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH The E-AGCH frame offset from the P-CCPCH should be = 5120 chips.4. and includes the scheduling information with new data payload in the next packet.com . flushes the packet.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Table 3-5 ACK/NACK combining Transmission Data Type ACK/NACK from Serving RLS ALL NACK ACK/NACK from Non-Serving RLs ALL NACK Operation of UE All data The UE performs HARQ (re)transmissions until the maximum number of transmissions is reached. All data High-level data only Higher layer data and SI triggered by an event or timer At least one ACK ALL NACK ALL NACK Either ACK or NACK At least one ACK At least one ACK SI only ALL NACK Either ACK or NACK 3.4 HSUPA Physical Channel Timing The Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH). 3.pdffactory. Ltd 3-13 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. is used as a timing reference for all the physical channels. The UE performs HARQ (re)transmissions until an ACK from the RLS containing the serving cell is received or until the maximum number of transmissions is reached. 3. ACK ACK The UE notifies the Scheduling Information Reporting function that the Scheduling Information is not received by the serving the RLS.4.

the E-RGCH frame offset from the P-CCPCH is chips. and the cell transmitting the E-RGCH is in the serving E-DCH RLS.. 3-14 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Figure 3-11 E-RGCH timing relative to the P-CCPCH If the E-RGCH is transmitted to the UE. the E-RGCH frame offset should be as follows: l If the E-DCH TTI is 10 ms. If the E-DCH TTI is 2 ms. the E-RGCH frame offset from the P-CCPCH is chips.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Figure 3-10 E-AGCH timing relative to the P-CCPCH 3. l is the DPCH frame offset from the P-CCPCH.3 E-RGCH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH The timing of the E-RGCH relative to the P-CCPCH is shown in the following figure.pdffactory.com .4. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. In this case.

and the cell transmitting the E-RGCH is not in the serving E-DCH RLS. 3. l If the E-DCH TTI is 2 ms.com .4 E-HICH Timing Relative to the P-CCPCH The timing of the E-HICH relative to the P-CCPCH is shown in the following figure.4. Figure 3-12 E-HICH timing relative to the P-CCPCH l If the E-DCH TTI is 10 ms. the E-HICH frame offset from the P-CCPCH should be chips.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles If the E-RGCH is transmitted to the UE. = 3. the E-RGCH frame offset from the P-CCPCH should be 5120 chips.5 Association Between Frames of Different Physical Channels 10 ms E-DCH TTI For each cell in the E-DCH active set: The UE associates the control information received through the E-HICH frame SFNi with the data transmitted in the E-DPDCH frame SFNi-3.pdffactory. the E-HICH frame offset from the P-CCPCH should be chips.4. The following figure shows an example of timing of the E-HICH with 10 ms TTI. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd 3-15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www..

Where. 2 ms E-DCH TTI For each cell in the E-DCH active set: The UE associates the E-DCH control information received through subframe j of the E-HICH frame SFNi with subframe t of the E-DPDCH frame SFNi-s. where 3-16 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. For each cell that belongs to the serving E-DCH RLS: The UE first takes the E-DCH control information received through subframe j of the E-RGCH frame SFNi into account in the higher layer procedures that correspond to the E-DCH transmission in subframe j of the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+1.. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. For each cell that does not belong to the serving E-DCH RLS: The UE first takes the E-DCH control information received through the E-RGCH frame SFNi into account in the higher layer procedures that correspond to the E-DCH transmission in sub-frame t of the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+1+s. Where. For the E-AGCH frame: The UE first takes into account the E-DCH control information received through the E-AGCH frame SFNi in the higher layer procedures that correspond to the E-DCH transmission in the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+1+s. Where: and .3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Figure 3-13 E-HICH timing relative to the P-CCPCH For each cell that belongs to the serving E-DCH RLS: The UE first takes into account the E-DCH control information received through the E-RGCH frame SFNi in the higher layer procedures that correspond to the E-DCH transmission in the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+1.com . For each cell that does not belong to the serving E-DCH RLS: The UE first takes into account the E-DCH control information received through the E-RGCH frame SFNi in the higher layer procedures that correspond to the E-DCH transmission in the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+1+s.pdffactory.

With these key technologies.. RSN (2-bit) is sent from the UE to the NodeB. each having eight HARQ processes in the case of 2 ms TTI or four HARQ processes in the case of 10 ms TTI. HSUPA provides a theoretical maximum uplink MAC-e rate of 5.73 Mbit/s on the Uu interface. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.1 HSUPA HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) is a multi-instance Stop-And-Wait (SAW) protocol. which indicate the status of E-DCH transmissions. The HARQ entity can store the MAC-e payloads and retransmit them.5.com . which increases the cell throughput. The HARQ entity has the following parameters: l l l E-TFC Retransmission Sequence Number (RSN) Power offset: used to calculate the power ratio of E-DPDCH to UL DPCCH The E-TFC and the power offset are decided by HSUPA E-TFC Selection.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles and For the E-AGCH frame. In the NodeB. and fast scheduling. 3.5 HSUPA Key Technologies HSUPA Key Technologies describes the HSUPA key technologies: HARQ. an HARQ entity is present on both UE and NodeB sides. HARQ Entity In the UE. 3. Ltd 3-17 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Several HARQ processes used together can fully use the transmission capability of the Uu interface. It is a combination of Forward Error Correction (FEC) and ARQ.pdffactory. If the number of transmissions is larger than three. the RSN is set to 3. Each process is responsible for generating ACKs or NACKs. the HARQ entity is located in MAC-es/MAC-e. short TTI. where and . For every HSUPA user. The RSN can help to indicate the Redundancy Version (RV) of each HARQ transmission and to assist in the NodeB soft buffer management. The RRC can configure the HARQ over MAC-controlled Service Access Point (SAP). the HARQ entity is located in MAC-e. UE first takes the E-DCH control information received through sub-frame j of the E-AGCH frame SFNi into account in the higher layer procedures that correspond to E-DCH transmission in sub-frame t of the E-DPDCH frame SFNi+s.

Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The UE uses the E-DCH RV indexes as listed in the Table 3-7 . only E-DCH RV index 0 can be used. different bit sets are retransmitted. If configured by higher layers.data. Combining Modes of HARQ HARQ supports two coding combining modes as shown in the following table. The incremental redundancy mode is better because inconsistency between the retransmitted bit set and the former bit set leads to an increase in the redundant data and the possibility of recovery from errors on the Uu interface. the same bit set is retransmitted.data. The RV can be derived by L1 from RSN and Connection Frame Number (CFN). The E-DCH RV index specifies the used RV. E-DCH RV Index (When Nsys/Ne.. 3-18 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.j < 1/2) 0 1 2 3 Note: is to round down a value. the NodeB flushes the soft buffer associated with the HARQ process to ensure that the soft buffer is in a good condition.j ≥ 1/2) 0 3 2 0 2 0 [ mod 2 ] x 2 mod 4 The parameters in the table are described as follows: l Nsys is the number of system bits after channel coding.pdffactory. Redundancy Version Redundancy Version (RV) defines the selection of bits that can be transmitted on the air interface resource. Table 3-6 Coding combining modes of HARQ Coding Combining Mode Chase combining mode Incremental redundancy mode Description In this mode. which is known as the rate matching pattern. Table 3-7 Relationship between RSN values and E-DCH RV indexes RSN Value E-DCH RV Index (When Nsys/Ne.com . or in the case of 2 ms TTI from the subframe number.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description If more than three consecutive E-DPCCH transmissions in the HARQ process cannot be decoded or the last received RSN is incompatible with the current one. In this mode.

TTIN is the TTI number. − − For 10 ms TTI.0 supports both 10 ms TTI and 2 ms TTI.6. The MAC-e entity uses the scheduling information contained in the enhanced uplink and the information carried by the E-DPCCH to quickly adjust the rates of UEs based on the Uu resources.1 MAC-e PDU Overview MAC-e PDU Overview describes the overview of MAC-e PDU. 3.5. the fast scheduling helps improve cell throughput.2 HSUPA Fast Scheduling. Thus. starting from 0 for the first TTI to 4 for the last TTI. HSUPA can implement faster data scheduling and data transmission with lower delay.. RAN10.j is the total number of bits available for the E-DCH transmission per TTI with transport format j. l NARQ is the number of HARQ processes. TTIN = CFN.RAN HSUPA Description l l 3 HSUPA Principles Ne. the subframe number counts the five TTIs within a given CFN. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd 3-19 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. For 2 ms TTI. The 10 ms TTI is mandatory for R6 UE and the 2 ms TTI is optional for R6 UE.2 HSUPA Short TTI By using a short TTI on the Uu interface.data. 3.5. TTIN = 5 x CFN + subframe number. see 4. 3.6 MAC-e PDU Generation MAC-e PDU Generation describes the data transmission and MAC-e PDU generation on the UE side.pdffactory. For details about fast scheduling. In this case.3 HSUPA Fast Scheduling The MAC-e entity of the NodeB performs scheduling. 3.com .

Related terms and definitions are as follows: 3-20 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. In the MAC-e header. to allow the UE to set DDI values. The N field (fixed size of 6 bits) indicates the number of consecutive MAC-d PDUs corresponding to the same DDI value. serving Relative Grant (RG). Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. 3. The MAC-e PDU is forwarded to a Hybrid ARQ entity.com . The TSN field (6 bits) provides the transmission sequence number on the E-DCH.2 MAC-e PDU Generation Process On UE side. the left part shows the functional split.pdffactory. which then forwards the MAC-e PDU to layer 1 for transmission in one TTI. the UE selects the E-DCH Transport Format Combination Indicator (E-TFCI) and finally creates the MAC-e PDU according to the information on different logical channels in the buffer. and the AG processing procedure is shown in Figure 3-16. the UE performs Serving Grant (SG) update upon reception from the downlink control command. and non-serving RGs that apply to every TTI. MAC-d flow and MAC-d PDU size. The MAC-d C/T multiplexing is bypassed.. HSUPA Serving Grant Update The Serving Grant (SG) update applies to every TTI boundary and takes into account the Absolute Grant (AG). A mapping table is signaled over RRC. A special value of the DDI field indicates that no more data is contained in the remaining part of the MAC-e PDU. Based on the SG.6. An RLC PDU enters MAC-d on a logical channel. while the right part shows PDU architecture. The SG update procedure is shown in the Figure 3-15. the DDI (Data Description Indicator) field (6 bits) identifies logical channel. in each TTI.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Figure 3-14 Simplified Architecture for MAC Inter-working in UE In the figure.

not by Secondary Absolute Grants). Primary_Grant_Available: This state variable is a Boolean. Primary Absolute Grant: An AG received with the primary E-RNTI.RAN HSUPA Description l l 3 HSUPA Principles AG_Timer and Non_serving_RG_timer: They are equal to one HARQ RTT (40 ms in the case of 10 ms TTI. Ltd 3-21 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Serving E-DCH RLS or Serving RLS: A set of cells that contains at least the serving E-DCH cell and from which the UE can receive and combine one RG. l l l l l Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. or 16 ms in the case of 2 ms TTI). as defined in 3GPP TS 25.com . Secondary Absolute Grant: An AG received with the secondary E-RNTI.. The UE has only one serving E-DCH RLS.321. indicating whether the UE SG is affected only by Primary Absolute Grants and Relative Grants (that is. Identity Type: It takes the value "Primary" or "Secondary" based on whether the message is addressed to the primary or the secondary E-RNTI. The possible values are "Zero_Grant" and numerical values. Stored_Secondary_Grant: This state variable is used to store the last received Secondary Absolute Grant value.pdffactory.

pdffactory. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www..com .3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description Figure 3-15 SG update procedure 3-22 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.

the SG update is described as follows: l l l l If any non-serving RGs indicate DOWN for a TTI. The Non_Servig_RG_Timer is started (if it is inactive) and set to one HARQ RTT. Ltd 3-23 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.RAN HSUPA Description 3 HSUPA Principles Figure 3-16 AG processing procedure According to the two procedures shown above.pdffactory.. and The AG or RG from the serving RLS at the same TTI is ignored. then The UE updates the SG and sets the Maximum_Serving_Grant to SG.com . Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.

start it.pdffactory. If the Non_Serving_RG_Timer is inactive. start it..8. see subclause 11.1. The RG commands from the serving RLS and non-serving RLs are listed in the following table.321. The configuration of the HARQ profile is described in E-DCH Outer-Loop Power Control. as described below: l l The HARQ profile includes the power offset and the maximum number of HARQ transmissions.com .3 HSUPA Principles l RAN HSUPA Description If no non-serving RGs indicate DOWN for a TTI. If the Non_Serving_RG_Timer is inactive. the new SG cannot exceed the Maximum_Serving_Grant saved last time if the Non_Serving_RG_Timer has not expired. HOLD HOLD All HOLD At least one DOWN HOLD DOWN The UE saves a new Maximum_Serving_Grant.3 in 3GPP 25. can not exceed the Maximum _Serving_Grant if the Non_Serving_RG_Timer has not expired. start it. the UE updates the SG according to the AG or RG (used when no AG has been received and the AG_Timer has expired) received from the serving RLS. however. then one is from the serving RLS and the others are from non-serving RLs. DOWN DOWN All HOLD At least one DOWN DOWN DOWN The UE saves a new Maximum_Serving_Grant. If the HSUPA UE receives more than one RG command. UP At least one DOWN DOWN The UE saves a new Maximum_Serving_Grant. The RRC configures the MAC with a HARQ profile and a multiplexing list for each MAC-d flow. Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. If the Non_Serving_RG_Timer is not active. For detailed information on SG update. In addition. Table 3-8 RG commands RG Command from Serving RLS UP RG Commands from Non-Serving RLs All HOLD Final RG Command UP The new SG. HSUPA E-TFC Selection At every TTI boundary. where a new transmission is required by the HARQ entity. the UE performs the E-TFC selection procedure. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) 3-24 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

the RRC configures the MAC with a special HARQ profile for "Control-only" transmissions: l l The power offset is fixed to 6dB. For the detailed procedure of E-TFC selection.3 MAC-e PDU Encapsulation The detailed procedure for encapsulating the MAC-e PDUs is described in Section 11. Note that: l l l The calculation of the required transmit power for each E-TFC is the same as that described in Power Control.pdffactory. Ltd 3-25 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. For all logical channels: Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. the UE in CELL_DCH state with an E-DCH transport channel determine the state of each E-TFC for each configured MAC-d flow based on its required transmit power and the maximum UE transmit power. NC represents the number of non DTX slots in the compressed TTI. but the MAC-d packet of higher priority logical channel cannot be multiplexed into the MAC-e PDU of the lower priority logical channel. The SG update function provides the E-TFC selection function with the maximum E-DPDCH to DPCCH power ratio that the UE is allowed to allocate for the upcoming transmission for scheduled data. According to the priority levels of logical channels and the scheduling modes. 3. Through power offset and E-DCH Transport Format Combination (E-TFC) restriction procedure. At each TTI boundary. The principle of configuring the multiplexing list is that the MAC-d packet of lower priority logical channel can be multiplexed into the MAC-e PDU of the higher priority logical channel.com . that is. l l l The SI is always sent when the transmission is triggered..321 protocol. The maximum number of HARQ transmissions is eight in this case. refer to the 25. Nc depends on the compressed mode which can be configured by the SET TGPSCP command.RAN HSUPA Description l l 3 HSUPA Principles The multiplexing list identifies the other MAC-d flows from which data can be multiplexed for transmission that uses the power offset included in its HARQ profile.321.8. If the Scheduling Information (SI) needs to be transmitted without any higher-layer data. the TB size can be obtained in the next TTI. a given E-TFC can be in Supported state or Blocked state. Logical channels support absolute priority. the MAC-e PDUs can be encapsulated on the basis of the following principles.1. the SG provided by the SG update function is scaled down according to the following equation: SG' = SG x (NC/15) Where: l l SG' represents the modified SG considered by the E-TFC selection algorithm.4 and Appendix C of 3GPP 25. For each configured MAC-d flow. the UE maximizes the transmission amount of higher-priority data.6. Only E-TFCs in Supported state are considered in E-TFC selection. If a 10 ms TTI is configured and the TTI for the upcoming transmission overlaps with a compressed mode gap.

Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. If an MAC-d flow is configured with the non-scheduled transmission mode. without a grant from the Node B.2 HSUPA Fast Scheduling.01 for each RAB and 5 for each SRB.pdffactory. If the logical channel does not belong to a non-scheduled MAC-d flow.com . the E-DCH becomes a "fast retransmission DCH" without scheduling. conversational service can be mapped onto the E-DCH in non-scheduled transmission mode. and N (Number of MAC-d PDUs) fields MaxRateUpScale: used for multiplying the UL MBR in the RAB assignment to achieve the peak bit rate for the service bearers on the E-DCH The default value of MaxRateScale is 1. the current non-scheduled grant of the user determines whether the data can be transmitted. Data Description Indicator (DDI). 3-26 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. see 4. in non-scheduled mode. Scheduled Transmission Mode In scheduled transmission mode. The non-scheduled transmission mode is suitable for the services with the requirements for low delay and steady source data rate. The value of "Max MAC-e PDU contents size" is calculated in the RNC by the following formula: MaxMACePDUSize = [Ceil(MBR x TTILen / RLCPDUpayload) x MACdPDUSize + 18 ] x MaxRateUpScale Where: l l l l l l l l MaxMACePDUSize: Max MAC-e PDU contents size Ceil(): to get the larger integer MBR: maximum bit rate specified by the Iu message RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST TTILen: TTI length RLCPDUpayload: RLC PDU payload. In RAN10. If only non-scheduled MAC-d flows are configured for a UE. The MAC-d flows are configured in non-scheduled transmission mode or scheduled transmission mode. the NodeB does not send any AG or RG to this UE.. the UE can transmit data at the rate specified by the RNC. Therefore. For detailed information. the current SG of the user determines whether the data can be transmitted. the MAC-d PDUs for logical channels belonging to this MAC-d flow shall not exceed the size specified by the IE "Max MAC-e PDU contents size". the UE receives a grant from the NodeB before sending data.3 HSUPA Principles RAN HSUPA Description If the logical channel belongs to a non-scheduled MAC-d flow. only the streaming service.0. Non-Scheduled Transmission Mode In non-scheduled transmission mode. namely RLC PDU size minus RLC PDU header MACdPDUSize: MAC-d PDU size 18: sum of bits for the Transmission Sequence Number (TSN).

and CE scheduling algorithm. 4.1. and CE scheduling.1. it can obtain more uplink resources compared with a user with a lower SPI.com . and CE resources for the UE. HSUPA fast scheduling algorithm. to maximize uplink throughput. Flow control algorithm dynamically adjusts the available bandwidth of HSUPA UE based on the congestion state of the transport network. 4. namely. Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR).1 Overview of HSUPA Related Algorithms This section describes the relation among algorithms in HSUPA. and to achieve better utilization of the Iub bandwidth.1..2 Algorithm of Flow Control Flow control is implemented to reduce delay and packet loss rate. and uses the corresponding algorithms to perform the following functions: l l l Efficient use of uplink resources: The algorithm maximizes the uplink throughput of a cell under the condition that the QoS requirements of all the UEs are met. This algorithm can also affect the way the fast scheduling algorithm grants the UE. the buffer usage. thus matching the Uu rate with the Iub transport capability. Iub resources. flow control algorithm. 4. As the number of HSUPA UEs increases. Iub flow control information. With the introduction of HSUPA.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms 4 HSUPA Algorithms HSUPA algorithms introduce the HSUPA related algorithms. 4. and CE resources on the NodeB. The scheduling procedure takes into account such factors as Scheduling Priority Indicator (SPI).1 Algorithm of HSUPA Fast Scheduling By sending a scheduling grant. These algorithms respectively consider the Uu resources. and the CE resource may become a bottleneck. Differentiated services: If a user has a higher SPI.3 Algorithm of CE Allocation After HSUPA is introduced. or relative grant (RG). the consumption of CEs also increases. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. and variation trend of the Iub port. flow control. more CEs are required.pdffactory. Fairness of services: If some UEs have the same Scheduling Priority Indicator (SPI). absolute grant (AG). the NodeB uses three algorithms. and provide the detailed information on algorithms for fast scheduling. the NodeB performs fast scheduling to adjust the data rates of the UE. the algorithm allocates the same uplink resources to these UEs. Ltd 4-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

the UE sends resource requests with the Scheduling Information (SI) on the E-DPDCH and the Happy Bit on the E-DPCCH. the MAC-e scheduling also considers the impact of flow control and CE scheduling results when giving the scheduling grants. Thus. the MAC-e scheduling controls the UE maximum data rate. Figure 4-1 Overview of HSUPA algorithms relation The figure shows the relation among the three HSUPA algorithms on the NodeB side. the results of both flow control and CE scheduling shall be reported to the MAC-e entity. thus fully using the CE resources.pdffactory. In this mode. The HSUPA flow control entity sends the available bandwidth of HSUPA UE and the grant indicator to the MAC-e scheduler. available uplink Iub bandwidth. 4. and the NodeB assigns a granted power ratio to the UE to determine the UE rate. The HSUPA CE scheduler provides the MAC-e scheduler with the number of CEs allocated to the UE and the maximum SG.. 4-2 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.1 Overview of HSUPA Scheduling In scheduled transmission mode. Principle of the Scheduling Algorithm The scheduling algorithm considers the UL load factor. The scheduling algorithm mainly performs the following operations: l l Assigning the AG based on the SI and Happy Bit sent by the UE to control the maximum rate that can be used by the UE.4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description The CE scheduling algorithm dynamically adjusts the CE resources allocated to the UEs according to their data rates and preferentially serves the E-DCH RLS UE. That is.com . and CE resource.2 HSUPA Fast Scheduling 4. In addition to the Uu resources.4 Relation Among HSUPA Algorithms Flow control and CE scheduling cannot directly control the transmit data rate of the UE.1. Assigning the RG according to the Happy Bit. It uses the DL control channel (E-AGCH or E-RGCH) to affect the E-TFCIs used by the UEs. 4. the NodeB can control uplink interference. the algorithm can control the UL interference on the Uu interface and avoid congestion on the Iub interface. It aims to reduce the probability of demodulation failure caused by CE resources. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.2.

Else if the conditions for sending RG UP are met. and updates the remaining resources. Scheduling the happy queues and the unhappy queues in turn Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. GBR. the algorithm assigns AG to the user based on the available load resource of the cell where the UE camps or the available bandwidth of the Iub port where the UE is carried. 7. the algorithm assigns RG to the user based on the available load resource of the cell where the UE camps or the available bandwidth of the Iub port where the UE is carried.4 Dynamic CE Resource Management 3.2. Limiting the UE rates according to the CE resource Based on SGmax and CE preemption.RAN HSUPA Description l 4 HSUPA Algorithms If the user is configured with the GBR by the RNC. see 4. If the conditions for sending AG UP are met. and the GBR Schedule Switch parameter is set to TRUE (OPEN). Queuing users The algorithm arranges all the users that are not granted within the NodeB based on Happy Bit. For an unhappy user.pdffactory. the algorithm sends AG DOWN. Calculating the uplink Uu load resource of each cell and the uplink Iub bandwidth for NodeB Uplink Uu load resource of a cell = Maximum Target Uplink Load Factor . 6. the scheduling algorithm functions are as follows: 1. the algorithm assigns AG to the user.com . Updating the remaining resources The algorithm calculates the maximum resources that can be released by the happy users for the unhappy users..3 AG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm.3. the algorithm assigns RG to the user. Process of the Scheduling Algorithm When the scheduling period (equal to one TTI) arrives.actual load Uplink Iub bandwidth of a NodeB = bandwidth available for HSUPA users within the NodeB range . see 4. thus obtaining a sequence of happy queues and a sequence of unhappy queues.2.4 Handling Iub Buffer Congestion. and effective data rate. see 4. If the conditions for sending RG UP are met. b. For detailed information. For details. and updates the remaining resources. the algorithm guarantees the GBR. 5. Limiting the UE rates according to the buffer congestion state The algorithm sends RG DOWN to the user on the Iub port whose buffer is in a congested state. For details. 8. The factors to be considered include the scheduling information. Ltd 4-3 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. For detailed information on CE preemption and SGmax. see 4. see 4.4 RG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm.total throughput of the users 2.6 MBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm. Scheduling the unhappy queues in a reverse order a. scheduling priority indicator. rather than sends RG DOWN to the happy users. Limiting the UE rates according to the MBR The algorithm directly sends RG DOWN to the UEs whose rates need to be downsized by MBR limitation and updates the UL load based on the current UL load. 4. l l If the conditions for sending AG UP are met.2. For details about how to judge the buffer status.

the algorithm queues all the happy users in descending order by Priorityn. which is used to provide different scheduling opportunities according to the scheduling priority. Queuing Unhappy Users When queuing unhappy users. GBR. the scheduling algorithm puts the users who can correctly receive data or SI into a happy sequence or an unhappy sequence according to the happy bit carried on the E-DPCCH. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. and GBR satisfaction degree.4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description If the available load resource of the cell where the UE camps or the available bandwidth of the Iub port where the UE is carried is smaller than zero. the greater the value of Priorityn.5 GBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm. if the GBR Schedule Switch is ON and the value of Reff of an unhappy user is smaller than the GBR. and the NodeB receives the data or SI correctly. see QoS Management of Services Mapped on HSDPA. Priorityn = Reff/γSPI Where.2. During the scheduling. γSPI. Queuing Happy Users Regardless of whether the requirements of the users for the GBRs are met. Firstly. the algorithm sends RG DOWN to the UE and updates the remaining resources. the algorithm performs 4.2. SPI and γSPI (SPI weight) are the same as those used for HSDPA. During the queuing. When the scheduling period arrives. For details. The smaller the SPI. The NodeB does not send the non-serving RL RG DOWN command unless both of the following criteria are met: l l Experienced RTWP of the NodeB > target RTWP sent from the CRNC Non-serving E-DCH to total E-DCH power ratio > Target Non-serving E-DCH to Total E-DCH Power ratio sent from the CRNC Target Non-serving E-DCH to Total E-DCH Power ratio can be set on the RNC LMT. the users must be queued first. The update is necessary to the remaining UL load source and remaining UL Iub bandwidth after sending the AG and RG to the UEs. the algorithm also considers the SPI. l l Priorityn is the priority value of user n SPI is assigned by the RNC. Priorityn is calculated by using the following formula: 4-4 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. In the process. l Reff is calculated according to the formula described in Calculating the Effective Data Rate. the algorithm considers the effective data rate. The algorithm arranges zero_grant users in descending order by Priorityn and puts them to the end of the unhappy sequence.. and current effective data rate of each user.com . 4. the rate of such a user is decreased before that of a user with a smaller Priorityn. for zero_grant users.2 User Queuing in the Scheduling Algorithm Regardless of whether AG or RG is assigned.

k) means user n and TTI k.com . l If the GBR Schedule Switch is OFF. k) l l l l (n. Priorityn is calculated by using the following formula: Priorityn = Reff/(γSPI x RGBR) RGBR is the GBR of the user.1) + αeff x R(n.. − For the users whose requirements for the GBRs are met. Calculating the Requested Data Rate (Rreq) The NodeB must determine the requested data rate (Rreq) based on the available data amount obtained from TEBS in the UE buffer.6%. Priorityn is calculated by using the following formula: Priorityn = Reff/γSPI. R(n. l If the GBR Schedule Switch is set to ON. αeff is an effective rate smooth factor and is fixed to 0. which is a filtered value of the successfully received data rate with a α-filter: Reff(n. R(n.αeff) x Reff(n. the algorithm arranges them in descending order by Priorityn: Priorityn = Reff/γSPI The rate of a user is decreased before that of a following user but increased after that of a following user. k . l l l Priorityn is the priority value of user n. which is used to provide different scheduling opportunities according to the scheduling priority. Otherwise. Then. the users are queued according to the following principles: For non-zero_grant users. k) is equal to the total size of all the MAC-es PDUs (which are from the same MAC-e PDU) divided by the TTI length. Rreq is calculated according to the formula described in Calculating the Requested Data Rate (Rreq). If the data is received correctly. –1) is an initial value and is zero.pdffactory. Reff(n. The rate of a user is decreased before that of a following user but increased after that of the following user.k) = (1 . Calculating the Effective Data Rate (Reff) Reff is the effective data rate. SPI is assigned by the RNC. the algorithm arranges them in descending order by Priorityn and puts them before the zero_grant users. Ltd 4-5 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the algorithm queues the users according to the following principles: − For the users whose requirements for the GBRs are not met. The Rreq can not exceed the maximum data rate configured by the RNC and the power can not exceed the available power obtained from UE Power Headroom (UPH). the algorithm arranges them in descending order by Priorityn and puts them before the users whose requirements for the GBRs are not met.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms Priorityn = 1/(γSPI x Rreq) Where. k) is equal to zero. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. for non-zero_grant users.

Calculate Rmax(UPH). − − Argmax{R|Q(K) ≥ R x TTI} means finding a value R that is the maximum one and meets the condition Q(k) ≥ R x TTI. the TB size can be obtained. where 1 stands for (ßc/ßc)2. where (n. 2. The AGCH code allocated to the user is idle and not used by other users. 4-6 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. b.. Calculate Rsupport. Here. 3. the algorithm determines whether to assign AG UP to the user based on whether a request for the SI is received from the UE. the R restricted by Q(k) is obtained. (ßed/ßc)2UPH can be obtained from the equation. Then. the NodeB calculates the requested rate. the NodeB schedules this user through AG: l l l The user is unhappy and the SI sent from the user is received. return to 1-2. a. Because (ßec/ßc)2 is known. whether the AGCH code is idle. the power of DPCCH. Calculate (ßed/ßc)2UPH according to UPH. Rsupport = min{R (Maximum set of E-DPDCHs). c. 1-1 Get the TB size for jth E-TFCI based on the TB table configured by the RNC. The user meets the requirement: SGIndexreq . The maximum (ßed/ßc)2 is (ßed/ßc)2UPH.j for jth E-TFCI using the method presented in HSUPA Power Control. Calculate R. the process stops. 1-3 j ++ . and whether the Iub bandwidth and CE resource are available. the algorithm calculates the grant that can be assigned to the user based on the requested rate. From the TB table. According to the buffer size and the TTI attribute of the UE. Iub bandwidth. which acts as the TB size divided by the TTI length for each E-TFC. Otherwise. R(E-DCH MBR)} 4.SGIndexcur > AG Threshold. For a user in the unhappy sequence. Calculate all (ßed/ßc)2 for all E-TFCIs according to 3GPP.4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description The formula for calculating Rreq is as follows: Rreq(n. select one E-TFCI whose (ßed/ßc)2 is the most similar to but smaller than (ßed/ßc)2UPH. Assume that UPH = (ßed/ßc)2UPH + (ßec/ßc)2 + 1. and Uu bandwidth. With the TTI attribute of the UE.k) means user n and TTI k. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com .pdffactory. argmax{R|Q(k) ≥ R x TTI}. 1.2. SGIndexreq and SGIndexcur are obtained from Rreq and Rcur. 1-2 Calculate the quantized ßed. Δharq is the HARQ power offset of the MAC-d flow carrying the logical channel with the ID of HLID. If the conditions for sending AG UP are met. Select Rmax(UPH).3 AG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm After the serving E-DCH cell of the UE receives the SI of the UE. Rsupport). the Rmax(UPH) is easy to obtain. Conditions for Sending AG UP When the user meets all of the following conditions. If the value exceeds the range of the TB table.k) = min(Rmax(UPH). Q(k) is the buffer size.

SGIndexcur > AG Threshold. the scheduler assigns AG to this UE when SGIndexreq . For details.2 User Queuing in the Scheduling Algorithm.com . l When an SI is received by NodeB. see Dynamically Setting the AG Threshold.2. which increases or reduces the UE scheduling grant step by step.RAN HSUPA Description − 4 HSUPA Algorithms Rcur is the current bit rate of the UE. the NodeB can schedule the user through AG if SGIndexreq . l When the traffic volume of a service source is small. − Rreq is calculated according to the formula described in 4. Dynamically setting AG threshold can avoid the disadvantage described above. In the period. It helps to improve user experience with smaller latency. Compared with RG. the AG threshold is set to 3 so that the user can get enough resource to send data out as soon as possible. AG will not be used except at the beginning of transmission. l l The rate of the user is not decreased because of MBR processing. AG causes larger fluctuation of uplink load due to a large UE data rate change. the AG threshold is set to 37 to avoid usage of AG. AG threshold is 37 and only the RG can be used. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. SI Transmission The SI is attached to the end of the MAC-e PDU and is used to notify the serving NodeB of the amount of system resources required by the UE. Ltd 4-7 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Iub bandwidth limitation. Dynamically Setting the AG Threshold When a non-zero_grant user sends an SI request. The MAC-e PDU size can be obtained according to the E-TFCI. If any TEBS in SI received in this period is greater than 20. and CE resource limitation. The period is set to 500ms.pdffactory.. the scheduler checks a Flag to decide the AG threshold: l l If the Flag is TRUE. and instead RG can be used to provide a steady cell uplink load and a steady throughput for each user. If the user meets all these conditions. the scheduling algorithm calculates the AG to be assigned to the user based on the Uu bandwidth and Iub bandwidth. the AG threshold is 3. The scheduler in NodeB maintains the Flag for each user periodically. AG can perform a faster data rate. But if the AG threshold is too low. The user demodulates the data on the E-DPDCH correctly. the Flag is set to FALSE when one of the following requirements is met: − − If the total received data bit number is greater than 2 k bytes or the data rate is greater than 4 k byte/sec.SGIndexcur > AG Threshold. If the Flag is FALSE. When the traffic volume of a service source is large. which means 1658byte < TEBS ≤ 2202byte. which is calculated on the basis of the E-TFCI carried on the E-DPCCH. The AG threshold is adjusted dynamically according to the traffic volume at the service source. The Flag can be decided in the following ways: l l The initial value of the Flag is TRUE. Rcur is equal to the MAC-e PDU size divided by the TTI length.

which identifies the total amount of data available across all logical channels (for which the reporting has been requested by the RRC) and indicates the amount of data in bytes available for transmission and retransmission at the RLC layer. which indicates the ratio of the maximum UE transmission power to the corresponding DPCCH code power. the SI transmission is triggered. for example. Figure 4-2 SI transmission Figure 4-3 SI structure Where. This process may be delayed if the HARQ processes are occupied by retransmissions. For details. as shown in the following figures.321. or by the triggering conditions. see 3GPP25. the UE checks the SG and the buffer status. a new serving E-DCH cell is indicated in the message and the new serving E-DCH cell is not in the previous serving E-DCH RLS. then the SI transmission is triggered. The triggering of a report is indicated to the E-TFC selection function at the first new transmission.4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description The SI is sent by the UE to the NodeB. which identifies the highest-priority logical channel with available data. which indicates the amount of data available from the logical channel identified by the HLID.. When the TEBS is not zero. In this case. HLID: Highest priority Logical channel ID. HLBS: Highest priority Logical channel Buffer Status. the SI transmission can be triggered by the following conditions: l Triggered by events At each TTI boundary. If the serving E-DCH cell changes. when the RNC sends a reconfiguration message in response to a 1D event measurement report.pdffactory. If the SG has the value Zero_Grant or all processes are deactivated and the TEBS becomes greater than zero. The reporting of SI is triggered according to the SG after SG is updated. 4-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. l l UPH: UE Power Headroom. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. TEBS: Total E-DCH Buffer Status. l l The transmission of SI is initiated by the quantization of the transport block sizes that can be supported. The change occurs.com .

see 3GPP 25. but the size of the data plus the header is smaller than or equal to the TB size of the UE-selected E-TFC minus 18 bits.4 RG UP Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm This part describes the conditions necessary for the algorithm to send the RG UP to the users. the GBR is sent to the NodeB.5 GBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm If a UE is configured with the GBR by the RNC and the GBR Schedule Switch parameter is set to TRUE (OPEN). Triggered by the timer T_SING (Timer Scheduling Information . GBR is transmitted from RNC to NodeB: l l If the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message from the CN carries the GBR when the RAB is set up."Zero_Grant"). which can be configured on the RNC LMT through the parameter HSUPA schedule period with grant. and the SI is transmitted together with higher-layer data multiplexed into the same MAC-e PDU.2. If the HARQ process fails to deliver an MAC-e PDU that contains a triggered SI to the RLS that contains the serving cell.pdffactory. GBR processing is as follows: l If the load on the Uu interface exceeds the value of Maximum Target Uplink Load Factor.not "Zero_Grant"). the scheduling algorithm should compare the effective data rate with the GBR and decide whether the GBR is met. silver. 4. Otherwise. which can be configured on the RNC LMT through the parameter HSUPA schedule period without grant. l Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. the SI is concatenated into this MAC-e PDU. Iub bandwidth limitation. The GBR can be configured for each user priority (gold.2. the GBR configured on the RNC LMT is sent to the NodeB when the RAB is carried on HSUPA. For details of SI triggering. the algorithm meets the requirements of the users for the GBRs.321. the algorithm sends RG UP to the user. the algorithm does not send AG UP or RG UP to those users whose requirements for the GBRs are already met. 4.com . Ltd 4-9 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The rate of the user is not decreased because of MBR processing. The user does not meet the conditions for sending AG UP. l l l l The user is unhappy. and CE resource limitation. If the load on the Uu interface exceeds the value of Maximum Target Uplink Load Factor but does not exceed the load congestion threshold. the transmission of a new SI is triggered. no new SI is triggered if the HARQ process fails to deliver the MAC-e PDU. The user demodulates the data on the E-DPDCH correctly. In this case.RAN HSUPA Description l 4 HSUPA Algorithms Triggered periodically Triggered by the timer T_SIG (Timer Scheduling Information . If all these conditions are met and both the Uu bandwidth and the Iub bandwidth allow an increase in the user rate. however. or copper) through the SET USERGBR command on the RNC LMT.. If the SI transmission is not triggered under the previous condition.

The MAC-e PDU size can be obtained according to the E-TFCI.4 HSUPA Algorithms l RAN HSUPA Description If the load on the Uu interface exceeds the load congestion threshold.pdffactory. which is a smoothed value of Rcur with an α filter.2.com . l l If Rreq is smaller than the GBR. When the user meets the conditions for sending AG UP. l l If the estimated load does not exceed the load congestion threshold after RG UP is sent. the grant assigned to the user can not cause the throughput of the user to exceed the bandwidth available for the HSUPA users in the NodeB. which is used at the beginning. if both Rcur and Ravg of a user are greater than the E-DCH MBR.αavg) x Ravg (n. the algorithm calculates the maximum grant that can be assigned to the user according to the load congestion threshold. αavg is an Average Rate Smooth Factor.6s. the smoothing time is 1.–1) is an Average Rate Initial Value.6%. see 3GPP 25. The purpose is to reflect the impact of the channel fading and to smooth it. 4-10 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Otherwise. k) is the current bit rate of the UE. − − If the estimated load does not exceed the load congestion threshold after the GBR is reached. Ravg is the average data rate of the UE.1) + αavg x Rcur(n. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. k) = (1 . When the user does not meet the conditions for sending AG UP but meets the conditions for sending RG UP.2. If the estimated load does not exceed the load congestion threshold. which is an α coefficient. Rcur(n. In addition. Ravg(n. neither the serving RLS nor the non-serving RL will send RG DOWN to those users whose Reff is smaller than the GBR. which is calculated on the basis of the E-TFCI carried on the E-DPCCH. RG UP is not sent to the user. RG UP is sent to the user. no matter whether the requirement for the GBR can be met. Ravg(n. at least the GBR is assigned to the user. about 10 times the period of fast fading that occurs during 3 km/h movement.433 9. Otherwise. Rcur is equal to the MAC-e PDU size divided by the TTI length. The load congestion threshold is 0..13T.6 MBR Processing in the Scheduling Algorithm At each TTI. only Rreq needs to be assigned to the user. k) indicates user n and TTI k.2. Average Rate Initial Value is set to 0 kbit/s and αavg is set to 0. k) l l l l (n. If Rreq is larger than the GBR. Thus. RG DOWN is sent to this user. For detailed information. The E-DCH MBR is transmitted by RNC to NodeB through the signaling. 4.95. k . the algorithm does not meet the requirements of the users for the GBRs.

3 HSUPA Flow Control 4. the delay must be kept within the given range and packet loss must be minimized. Ltd 4-11 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. HSUPA UEs would share Iub resources in a more flexible way than R99 UEs.. When the Iub bandwidth becomes the bottleneck of uplink data transmission. a higher delay or packet loss rate may be incurred. If the uplink throughput on the Uu interface is continuously wider than the Iub bandwidth.pdffactory. Without flow control. the flow control algorithm needs to maintain the throughput from the Uu interface. Controls the Iub buffer usage to ensure that the buffer-caused delay is within the allowed range without any packet loss. Adjusts the available bandwidth of HSUPA according to the change trend of the Iub buffer. which is the input throughput of the Iub interface under the maximum rate allowed by the Iub bandwidth. l Principles of Flow Control The data rate on the Uu interface is restricted only by the UE capability and the grant given by the MAC-e scheduler. Figure 4-4 Principles of flow control To control the packet loss and the delay on the Iub interface. This prevents large amounts of data from being discarded when data convergence causes congestion in the transport network. the flow control algorithm restricts the throughput on the Uu interface only by affecting the grant given by the scheduler. l l The uplink throughput of a UE on the Uu interface may vary in a wide range. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.com .3. to maximize uplink throughput. Therefore. and to achieve better use of the Iub bandwidth. and informs the scheduler of controlling the total traffic volume of HSUPA UEs according to their available bandwidth. the flow control algorithm performs the following functions: l Adjusts the maximum available bandwidth of Iub port according to the congestion state of the transport network.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms 4. the data stored in the Iub buffer will be continuously increased.1 Overview of HSUPA Flow Control Flow control is implemented to reduce delay and packet loss rate. Meanwhile. l l The functional modules of the flow control algorithm are shown in the following figure. thus maximizing the uplink throughput and achieving better use of the Iub bandwidth.

4 HSUPA Algorithms

RAN HSUPA Description

Figure 4-5 Functional Modules of Flow Control Algorithm

l l

Scheduling Module: allocates grants to the UEs according to the Uu load resources and the available bandwidth of the HSUPA users. Flow Control Module: adjusts the available bandwidth of every HSUPA user according to the reported change trend of the buffer usage and the maximum available bandwidth, and provides the buffer congestion state of Iub port according to the buffer use. Transport Network Congestion Control Module: detects the congestion state of the transport network and adjusts the maximum available bandwidth of Iub port accordingly. Buffer Usage Reporting Module: reports the buffer use of Iub port.

l l

The detailed functions of each module are described in the following sections.
l l l

4.3.2 Adjusting the Maximum Available Bandwidth of the Iub Port 4.3.3 Adjusting the Available Bandwidth of HSUPA 4.3.4 Handling Iub Buffer Congestion

4.3.2 Adjusting the Maximum Available Bandwidth of the Iub Port
In the case of network convergence or hub NodeB, the bandwidth configured for the NodeB can be greatly wider than the resource available in the transport network. The HSUPA flow control algorithm automatically adjusts the maximum available bandwidth of the Iub port based on the congestion state of the transport network. ATM transport is different from IP transport; therefore, two different algorithms are provided.

Algorithm for ATM Transport
The RNC side detects the delay and loss of the FP frame in each MAC-d flow by using the FSN and CFN in the FP frame. Then, the RNC side sends a congestion indication to notify the NodeB of the congestion state when the MAC-d flow is transmitted on the Iub interface, as shown in the following figure.

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RAN HSUPA Description

4 HSUPA Algorithms

Figure 4-6 Procedure of TNL congestion indication

Where the Congestion Status indicates whether there is transport network congestion. Its value range is described as follows:
l l l l

0: no TNL congestion 1: reserved for future use 2: TNL Congestion – detected by delay build-up 3: TNL Congestion – detected by frame loss

When the period for adjusting the maximum available bandwidth arrives, the NodeB takes statistics on the congestion indications of all the MAC-d flows on the Iub port and performs the following operations:
l

If there is a congestion indication "TNL Congestion – detected by frame loss", the NodeB subtracts the product of the maximum available bandwidth and a preset step from the maximum available bandwidth. This step is set to 2%. Otherwise,

If there is a congestion indication "TNL Congestion – detected by delay build-up", the NodeB subtracts the product of the maximum available bandwidth and a preset step from the maximum available bandwidth. This step is set to 1%. If neither congestion indication is received during three consecutive periods nor the use of the Iub bandwidth exceeds a preset value which equals to 85%, the NodeB increases the maximum available bandwidth by one step. The initial step is 10 kbit/s. The step is doubled every time the five consecutive increases are complete. The maximum step is 100 kbit/s.

Algorithm for IP Transport
For IP transport, the NodeB side directly uses the Performance Monitor (PM) algorithm, rather than the congestion indication from the RNC, to periodically detect the transmission delay and frame loss in the IP network. After knowing the congestion state of the Iub interface, the NodeB performs the following operations:

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4 HSUPA Algorithms
l

RAN HSUPA Description

If the congestion is due to frame loss, the NodeB subtracts the product of the maximum available bandwidth and a preset step from the maximum available bandwidth. This step is set to 2%. Otherwise,

l

If the congestion is due to delay, the NodeB subtracts the product of the maximum available bandwidth and a preset step from the maximum available bandwidth. This step is set to 1%. If neither congestion is detected during three consecutive periods nor the NodeB increases the maximum available bandwidth by one step. The initial step is 10 kbit/s. The step is doubled every time the five consecutive increases are complete.

4.3.3 Adjusting the Available Bandwidth of HSUPA
If the transmission bottleneck of the Iub interface lies in the NodeB rather than the transport network, the maximum available bandwidth of the Iub port is just equal to the bandwidth configured for the NodeB. Otherwise the Iub port bandwidth is adjusted by 4.3.2 Adjusting the Maximum Available Bandwidth of the Iub Port. When R99 users enter or exit the network, the bandwidth available for HSUPA users changes accordingly. Therefore, a scheme is introduced to estimate the bandwidth available for HSUPA users. This bandwidth is taken as an input of the scheduling algorithm. The data is buffered on the NodeB side when the traffic on the Uu interface jumps and exceeds the capacity of the Iub interface. If the traffic on the Uu interface exceeds the capacity of the Iub interface all the while, the occupancy rate of the buffer also increases all the while. Therefore, through the variation trend of the occupancy rate of the buffer, the NodeB can learn how to adjust the available bandwidth of HSUPA. The adjustment process is as follows:
l

If the occupancy ratio of the Iub buffer increases, the NodeB reduces the available bandwidth of HSUPA users based on the variation. The adjustment upper limit is 150 kbit/s. The adjustment is in direct proportion to the variation. If the occupancy ratio of the Iub buffer decreases and the use of the Iub bandwidth exceeds a preset value, which equals to 85% in the buffer non-congestion state, the NodeB increases the available bandwidth of HSUPA users based on the variation. The adjustment is in direct proportion to the variation. The adjustment upper limit is 150 kbit/s.

l

The adjustment must guarantee that the available bandwidth of HSUPA users cannot exceed the maximum available bandwidth. When a lot of R99 users access the network in a short period of time, the occupancy rate of the Iub buffer jumps and even the buffer may overflow. To avoid this problem, the backpressure mechanism is introduced to the flow control algorithm based on the occupancy rate of the buffer. For detailed information, see 4.3.4 Handling Iub Buffer Congestion.

4.3.4 Handling Iub Buffer Congestion
The HSUPA flow control algorithm detects the status of the Iub buffer periodically and handles Iub buffer congestion to minimize Iub packet loss rate and delay in the Iub buffer. The following figure shows the procedure for handling Iub buffer congestion.

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the flow control algorithm does not affect the decision of the scheduler. The HUSPA improves the uplink performance of delays and rates capacity. − − l l The Congestion Threshold of IUB Buffer Used Ratio is 30%. If the Iub buffer occupancy rate does not increase. the buffer state is marked not congested. Ltd 4-15 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. In this Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.2 k AMR voice. The processing after congestion detection is as follows: l If the Iub buffer is congested. the NodeB compares the value of the Iub buffer occupancy rate with the previous one every 40 ms. The detection of the buffer state is as follows: l If the Iub buffer occupancy rate > The Congestion Threshold of IUB Buffer Used Ratio + The Congestion Threshold Hysteresis of IUB Buffer Used Ratio. the buffer state is marked congested.pdffactory. If there is no dynamic CE resource management. − l If the Iub buffer is not congested. If the Iub buffer occupancy rate < The Congestion Threshold of IUB Buffer Used Ratio The Congestion Threshold Hysteresis of IUB Buffer Used Ratio. − If the Iub buffer occupancy rate increases.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms Figure 4-7 Handling Iub buffer congestion The Iub flow control module measures and stores the value of the Iub buffer occupancy rate every 40 ms and compares it with the previous one. including 3.4 Dynamic CE Resource Management Overview of Dynamic CE Resource Management A channel element (CE) is defined as the baseband resources required in the NodeB to provide capacity for 12. the buffer status remains unchanged. neither AG Up nor RG Up is allowed to be sent to the users on this Iub port. The Congestion Threshold Hysteresis of IUB Buffer Used Ratio is 5%. even if the actual traffic volume is very low. Where. 4. but HSUPA consumes large CE resources. the scheduler sends the RG Down message to all the HSUPA users on this Iub port.. Otherwise. The HSUPA shares the CE resource with the R99 services.4 k DCCH. the NodeB will allocate the CE resources according to the maximum rate of the UE. and no AG is allowed to be sent to these users.com .

4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description case.com . the algorithm also adjusts CE resources. Dynamic CE management can minimize the failures in demodulation and decoding due to CE. the algorithm periodically adjusts CE resources of users according to the users’ rate and the available CE resources. The period is 500 ms. the utility of the CE resource is inefficient.pdffactory. 4-16 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Considering that the rate of HSUPA user changes fast. Figure 4-8 Overview of CE resource management MAC-e scheduler always takes the CE resources allocated to the user into consideration. Meanwhile. CE resource adjustment is performed periodically or triggered by events. the dynamic CE resource management is necessary. When a new RL is admitted.. it also can maximize the CE usage and UL throughput. Thus. Periodical CE Resource Adjustment The procedure for periodical CE resource adjustment is shown in the following figure.

Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. If the user is not configured with the GBR. which is calculated on the basis of the average rate of the serving RLS. which is calculated on the basis of the configured GBR. CEinit: Initial number of CEs..pdffactory.CEinit). the allocated CE resources may be insufficient. SGmax: Maximum SG for the UEs. the NodeB calls back some CEs and decreases CEallocate to Max(CEavg. If the CEallocate is greater than both CEinit and CEavg. The CE resources called back takes effect during the next period. The algorithm notifies the SGmax to the MAC-e scheduler at current TTI. then CEinit is the CE resources for transmitting an RLC PDU. the algorithm performs the following operations: 1.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms Figure 4-9 Procedure for periodical CE resource adjustment When each adjustment period arrives. Therefore. the algorithm needs to notify the MAC-e scheduler of the SGmax to avoid CE insufficiency. which is determined by the function of the dynamic CE resource management. Call back the CE resources of the serving RLS The NodeB determines whether to call back the CEs based on the CEavg during the previous period. Processing CE resources among serving RLS for fairness l l 2. Since one SG may correspond to different CE numbers.com . CEavg: Average number of CEs. if MAC-e scheduler uses this SG. l l CEallocate: The number of CEs allocated to the serving RLS. Ltd 4-17 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

the algorithm increases the CE resources to that correspond to 2xSF4.5 3 5 10 20 32 48 The deference of CEs consumption rules for HSUPA phase1 and HSUPA phase2 is causes by deference hardware version. The operation of increasing CE resources is based on the user queuing. the algorithm performs fairness processing. the algorithm notifies the MAC-e scheduler of the new SGmax.. Increasing CE resources of the serving RLS If the CEavg during the previous period is greater than or equal to CEallocate. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the algorithm queues the users based on Priority = Reff/(γSPI x GBR). When the next period arrives. the algorithm queues the users based on Priority = Reff/γSPI. the algorithm queues the users based on Priority = Reff/γSPI. The processing of increasing CE resources is as follows: 4-18 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. For example. The algorithm selects a user with the largest value of priority and reduces its rate. For the users whose Reff is greaterr than or equal to the GBR or the users whose GBR is not configured.5 1+1+3 1+1+5 1+1+10 1+1+20 Not supported Not supported 1 1. the algorithm stops decreasing its CE resources if the CE resources equals to CEinit. Table 4-1 HSUPA CEs consumption rules MinSF SF64 SF32 SF16 SF8 SF4 2xSF4 2xSF2 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 HSUPA phase 1 HSUPA phase 2 1+1+1 1+1+1. The queuing of users is as follows: l l For the users whose Reff is smaller than the GBR. the algorithm queues the users based on Priority = Reff/(γSPI x GBR). 3. The smaller the priority value of a user is.pdffactory. as listed in Table 4-1. For the users whose Reff is greaterr than or equal to the GBR or the users whose GBR is not configured. the algorithm can increase the CE resources of theses users by one step if there are available CE resources. For the users of the serving RLS. The queuing of users is as follows: l l For the users whose Reff is smaller than the GBR. The users are queued in ascending order based on priority value. this user ’s CE resources will be called back.4 HSUPA Algorithms RAN HSUPA Description If the available CE resources for serving RLS are less than the CE resources that are required for increasing the SF4 to 2xSF4. the earlier this user ’s CE is increased. The users whose GBR are met are downsized before the users whose GBR are not met. After processing. if the CE resource of a user corresponds to SF4.com .

The priority value is calculated as follows: Priority = CEneed / γSPI l CEneed = NRL * (CEnew . the algorithm can preempt the CE resources of the non-serving RLs until their resource decreases to the minimum CE resources. Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. CEE-DCH MBR.pdffactory. the algorithm notifies the MAC-e scheduler of the new allocated CEs and SGmax. as listed in Table 1-1. If no enough CE resources are available. NodeB schedules the user of serving RLS by the ascending order of priority until the remaining CE resources are not enough to increase the user by a step or all users have gotten the CE resources of Min[ CE(E-DCH MBR). During the increasing procedure. CEMaximum Set of E-DPDCHs] − − − CEE-DCH MBR: the CE resources corresponding to the E-DCH MBR CEMaximum Set of E-DPDCHs: the CE resources corresponding to the Maximum Set of E-DPDCHs CEup: the CEassign after increasing by a step l γSPI : is the weight of SPI If the available CE resources can meet the requirements for CEneed of a user. the algorithm increases the number of CEs to CEup. After increasing. the algorithm notifies the MAC-e scheduler of the new CEs and SGmax. 5. the algorithm allocate the CE resources to this user. CE(Maximum Set of E-DPDCHs)]. After the increase of CE. the algorithm allocates the minimum CE resources. which are required for E-DPCCH demodulation and decoding. the earlier the user is processed. The users are queued in ascending order based on their priority value. CEassign: the CE resource allocated to this user CEnew = Min[CEup. and Where.com . Allocating CE resources to non-serving RLs When there are available CE resources for non-serving RLs. The smaller the value of priority is.CEassign) NRL: the number of RLs on the current UL board. Allocating the remaining CE resources This NodeB allocates the remaining CE resources to the users of serving RLS in order to improve the efficiency of utility of CE resources. the algorithm allocates them to the users of non-serving RLs. Ltd 4-19 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. 4. The algorithm allocates available CE resources as much as possible to non-serving RLs. so that more users can obtain the gain of soft handover.RAN HSUPA Description l l 4 HSUPA Algorithms The users whose GBR is not reached are increased before the users whose GBR is satisfied or not configured. Based on the CEavg of non-serving RLs during the previous period. The priority is calculated as follows: Priority = CEneed / F(SPI).. where CEup is obtained by increasing CEavg by one step.

com . the algorithm preempts the CE resources of serving-RLSs until the CE resources decreases to CEinit. HSUPA mobility management. The algorithm preempts the CE resources of users in Type1. For detailed information.5 Other HSUPA Related Algorithms This section describes the following HSUPA related RAN features: HSUPA cell load control.1 HSUPA Cell Load Control For detailed information about load control. HSUPA power control. 4.2 HSUPA DCCC HSUPA DCCC involves rate reallocation based on throughput. then in Type2. If the CE resources are still insufficient after preemption of non-serving RL.. see the following descriptions in DCCC of Rate Control: l l l Rate Reallocation Based on Throughput UL BE Rate Downsizing and Recovery Based on UL Basic Congestion UE State Transition Algorithm 4-20 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. and γSPI are the same as those described in “HSUPA Fast Scheduling”. 4. see Load Control. the algorithm preempts the CE resources according to the priority value of the users: Priority= Reff / γSPI l Reff. l l Type1: users with the GBR and Reff ≥ GBR. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.5. If the CE resources are insufficient. HSUPA DCCC. 4. UL BE rate downsizing and recovery based on UL basic congestion.5. the new RL requests CE resources according to CEinit. CE preemption is triggered and processed as follows: l l The algorithm preempts the CEs of non-serving RLs until their CE resources decrease to the minimum CE number. and HSUPA directed retry. and UE state transition when uplink channel is E-DCH.pdffactory.4 HSUPA Algorithms l l l RAN HSUPA Description CEneed = NRL * (CEup – CEassign) CEassign is the CE resources allocated to the user of the serving RLS. or the user without GBR Type2: users with the GBR and Reff < GBR In each type. CEup is the CE resources that are required for increasing the CEassign by a step. CE Resource Adjustment Triggered by Event When a new RL is admitted.

If the best cell in the DCH active set supports HSUPA.5. DPCH connection Similar to handovers in R99-based systems. inter-frequency handover. to decide whether the services can be carried on E-DCH.4 HSUPA Mobility Management After HSUPA is implemented. and inter-RAT handover. For details. Both HSUPA handover and DPCH handover are controlled by the network through the measurement report of the UE. inter-frequency handover. the uplink services are preferentially carried on the DCH.RAN HSUPA Description 4 HSUPA Algorithms 4.5. E-RGCH. DL E-AGCH. Otherwise. HSUPA handovers include intra-frequency handover. handover decisions for both of them are made individually according to the channel mapping policy and the capabilities of the UE and the cell. and DL E-HICH. The difference is whether services are carried on E-DCH according to the channel mapping policy when both the UE and the cell support HSUPA. UL E-DPDCH. Ltd 4-21 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the uplink services are preferentially carried on the E-DCH. The HSUPA serving cell always tries to change with the best cell in the DCH active set.com . HSUPA. Table 4-2 Connections between UE and network Connection HSUPA connection Handover Similar to handovers in R99-based systems.. and E-HICH 4. The principles of the HSUPA soft handover algorithm are as follows: l l l The E-DCH active set and the DCH active set are maintained separately. Therefore. DPCH handovers include intra-frequency handover. DL E-RGCH. Cell capacity varies with R6. there are two possible connections between the UE and the network.3 HSUPA Power Control HSUPA introduces the five new physical channels.pdffactory. see l l l l Power Control on E-DPCCH Power Control on E-DPDCH E-DCH Outer-Loop Power Control Downlink Power Control on E-AGCH. The type of bearer carrying the uplink services is decided on the basis whether the best cell in the DCH active set supports HSUPA. or others. and inter-RAT handover. refer to manuals: l Intra-Frequency Handover Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. The difference is that an HSUPA handover requires the management of the HSUPA serving cell. For detailed information on the HSUPA power control on these channels. it is necessary to employ the channel mapping policy based on different cell capacity combinations in the active set. The E-DCH active set is a subset of the DCH active set or the same. HSUPA power control refers to the power control of these five channels: UL E-DPCCH. If HSUPA and DPCH connections are available at the same time.

for example. resources can be shared between R99 and HSUPA cells or. between HSUPA cells. HSUPA_DRD_SWITCH and INTER_HO_D2H_DRD_SWITCH are enabled. Directed retry is triggered in the following cases: l l l In the R99 cell. The access to an HSUPA cell is rejected when the channel switching from DCH to E-DCH is triggered. the system starts a timer for the inconsistency between the channel that is suitable for the service and the channel that carries the service. the admission request is rejected. The length of this timer is defined by the H Retry timer length parameter.pdffactory. the DRD_SWITCH needs to be enabled. Directed retry is triggered in the following cases: l l l The access to an HSUPA cell is rejected when the service is set up. HSUPA_DRD_SWITCH and INTRA_HO_D2H_DRD_SWITCH are enabled. the system assigns the service to the E-DCH of the other HSUPA cell through directed retry.. For detailed information of the following parameters.com . The associated timer expires.5. refer to Load Control: l DRD_SWITCH 4-22 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co. Directed Retry from an R99 Cell to an HSUPA Cell Suppose that an R99 cell and a neighboring HSUPA cell cover the same physical area and one is the other’s DRD neighboring cell.4 HSUPA Algorithms l l RAN HSUPA Description Inter-Frequency Handover SRNS Relocation 4. To support directed retry. it can be set up on the DCH of the R99 cell because. DCH to HSUPA retry is allowed only when it is required after an inter-frequency hard handover. directed retry is allowed only when it is required. If DRD_SWITCH. l Directed Retry Between Two HSUPA Cells Assume that two neighboring HSUPA cells cover the same physical area and one cell supports HSUPA DRD. DCH to HSUPA retry is allowed only when it is required after a soft handover or an intra-frequency hard handover. Under such a circumstance. The access to an HSUPA cell is rejected when the channel switching from FACH to E-DCH is triggered by the increase of the traffic volume. The traffic volume of the UE increases when the UE stays in CELL_FACH state in the R99 cell. When one of the preceding conditions is met. For a service that must be set up on the E-DCH according to the service mapping rules.5 HSUPA Directed Retry With the feature of directed retry. and the service fulfills the criteria of service mapping to HSUPA. DRD is enabled after the relative switch is on: l If DRD_SWITCH. the UE initiates a service that has to be set up on the E-DCH according to the service mapping rules. Ltd Issue 02 (2008-07-30) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. If both DRD_SWITCH and HSUPA_DRD_SWITCH are enabled.

Ltd 4-23 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.RAN HSUPA Description l l l 4 HSUPA Algorithms INTRA_HO_D2H_DRD_SWITCH INTER_HO_D2H_DRD_SWITCH HSUPA_DRD_SWITCH Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co..pdffactory.com .

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Effective Level Configuration on .RAN HSUPA Description 5 HSUPA Parameters 5 Table 5-1 Parameter Name Parameter ID Maximum Target Uplink Load Factor HSUPA Parameters Inter-RAT Handover Parameters provides information on the effective level and configuration of the parameters related to the feature....pdffactory. Ltd 5-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com . MaxTargetUlLoadFact or HRetryTimerLen HsupaSchPrdForGrant HsupaSchPrdForNonG rant NonServToTotalEdch PwrRatio GBRENABLE SPIWEIGHT Cell(ADD CELLHSUPA) RNC(SET COIFTIMER) RNC(SET FRC) RNC(SET FRC) Cell(ADD CELLHSUPA) Cell(SET MACEPARA) Cell(SET MACHSSPIPARA) RNC RNC RNC RNC H Retry timer length HSUPA schedule period with grant HSUPA schedule period without grant Target Non-serving E-DCH to Total E-DCH Power ratio RNC GBR Schedule Switch weight of SPI NodeB NodeB Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.

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213: Spreading and modulation (FDD) 3GPP TS 25.423: UTRAN Iur interface RNSAP signaling 3GPP TS 25.430: UTRAN Iub interface: general aspects and principles 3GPP TS 25.pdffactory.302: Services provided by the physical layer 3GPP TS 25.RAN HSUPA Description 6 HSUPA Reference Documents 6 l l l l l l l l l l l l l HSUPA Reference Documents HSUPA Reference Documents lists 3GPP protocols and documents related to HSUPA. Ltd 6-1 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.101: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD) 3GPP TS 25.309: FDD Enhanced Uplink 3GPP TS 25..433: UTRAN Iub interface NBAP signaling Issue 02 (2008-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.com .301: Radio Interface Protocol Architecture 3GPP TS 25.420: UTRAN Iur interface general aspects and principles 3GPP TS 25.212: Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) 3GPP TS 25.321: Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification 3GPP TS 25.211: Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) 3GPP TS 25.214: Physical layer procedures (FDD) 3GPP TS 25. 3GPP TS 25.

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