Challenges and opportunities of 10 ppm sulphur gasoline: part 1

Prospect of a worldwide standard for ULSG and the challenges of increased heavy crude supplies demand careful consideration and selection of refinery configuration
Delphine Largeteau, Jay Ross, Marc Laborde and Larry Wisdom Axens


he worldwide refining industry has undergone a major transformation in the last decade due to changes in regulatory and market forces, such as fluctuating crude prices, tighter regulation on product quality and refinery emissions, shifting crude quality and fundamental changes in fuel demands. These forces can be seen clearly in the North American market, where crude quality has become heavier due to increasing amounts of lower-cost heavy, sour Canadian bitumen and where regulations have become more severe by limiting the sulphur level in fuels to 15 wppm in diesel and 30 wppm in gasoline. In addition to these feed and product quality changes, the overall demand for transportation fuels is shifting from a traditionally gasoline-oriented to an increasingly diesel-oriented market. Regulatory specifications for the gasoline and diesel pool, which are constantly evolving, have been in the forefront of refiners’ challenges in the last 10 years. In particular, the gasoline sulphur and benzene regulations have been the main drivers for the recent remodelling of the refinery configuration. This transformation has been seen all around the world, but particularly in Europe, Asia and North America. Other countries are following the trend and a common worldwide gasoline sulphur specification is on the horizon. Indeed, the overall gasoline sulphur content is likely to level off at 10 ppm across the globe. As a consequence, most refiners will face renewed challenges to be able to meet the new ultra-low-sulphur

Countries may apply lower limits for different grades, regions/cities, or based on average content. Different information on limits and regulations can be found at

Figure 1 Maximum gasoline sulphur limit around the world Source: International Fuel Quality Center,

gasoline (ULSG) specifications. However, in view of other market forces, there may also be new opportunities for refiners. This article will identify these new opportunities by reviewing the processing options and consequences of such regulation, focusing mainly on North American refineries and drawing on the European and Asian experience of meeting
Current gasoline sulphur specification
Region Gasoline sulphur, wppm Europe: EU 2005 specification 50 EU 2009 specification 10 USA: Tier 2 (2004-2006) 30 CARB 3 (California) 10 2010+ CARB 4 (California) 5 Japan: 2007 specification 10

the 10 ppm ULSG regulations. The issues, challenges and opportunities of each option will be presented and discussed. In a second article, a detailed economic assessment of each configuration will be applied in a case study.

Gasoline sulphur regulation

Table 1

There has been a steady downward trend in the sulphur content of fuels to reduce emissions from cars and trucks. Many countries mandated the production of low-sulphur gasoline (LSG) some time ago, but in recent years regulations in Western Europe, some Asian countries and California in the US have brought in even tighter specifications to lower the gasoline sulphur to 10 ppm. The different regional approaches to the gasoline sulphur specification

PTQ Q3 2012 43

ment option coupled with low following the same path to either The EU’s 10 ppm ULSG is refinery margins resulted in the meet their domestic regulatory produced mainly by using moder. Japan have met the new ULSG limit may well have been different had depending on crude availability. of 10 ppm by adding low-severity the limits on emissions and product local demand. there has been an way. each market has its own set of tion was influenced by a large important trend towards the processdynamics and means of complying demand for gasoline coupled with ing of increasingly heavier crudes.raw bitumen (DilBit) or synthetic options for ULSG compliance were tions led to a sharp increase in the bitumen (SynBit) after partial influenced by: number of FCC feed pretreatment upgrading at the production site.6 3. resulting in much lower in low-sulphur FCC gasoline.2 11.7 12. Nitrogen.7 10. wt% 15. Conradson carbon FCC feed quality from heavy feeds and metals. are Canadian bitumen Coker HCGO Syn.6 8.and/or content (TAN).2 10.3 11.6 3.5 . along with very high contaminant content: sulphur. which may be considered potential FCC feed.eptq.refineries were designed to meet and post-treatment is FCC flue gas tries still have gasoline sulphur modern fuels and emission regula. export markets and post-treatment units. wt% 3. the refinery configuraMore recently. As such. FCC feed sulphur. high aromaticity and coker gas oil) post-treatment units to ensure low hydrogen content. tions. When the Tier 2 regulations were proposed. many were convinced that CFHT would be the solution of 2001 2010 choice due to the resulting large Figure 2 FCC pretreatment and gasoline post-treatment trend in US refineries improvement in FCC performance.7 9 6 17 Sulphur. Limits on refinery emisspecifications well above 10 ppm. wt% 4. we will Ni + V. • Processing of relatively light and and FCC gasoline post-treatment These very heavy crudes are a challow-sulphur crude oil units over a short period of time lenge for processing in existing • Relatively good-quality FCC feed (see Figure 2). all of the refinery assets due to a high acid (little cracked gas oil such as heavy US refineries now have pre.compliance with gasoline sulphur regulations.1 us again. The Resources Board (CARB) regula. most refineries in “preferred” refinery configuration Refinery configurations vary widely.3 4-5 1. there is an were adopted early and somewhat barrel conversion units and high expected increase of about 2 million influenced by a market demand. However. limited fuel oil outlets. Essentially. regulatory constraints. wt% 10. More specifically.and post-treatment FCC pretreatment vs post-treatment 44 PTQ Q3 2012 www.2 2. Other countries are maximise diesel production. lower emissions and API gravity 5. By 2015.9 3. resulting in in particular heavy Canadian crude In Europe. regulations for ULSG the installation of bottom-of-the or bitumen. nitrogen. and sell on the international ULSG Many catalytic feed hydrotreater Another factor that can influence market (see Figure 1).8 9. A sampling of heavy crude components. ppm 5000 3500 3000 1900 production.5 11. (CFHT) units installed in Asian the decision between pretreatment Although the majority of coun. with the new fuel regulations.4 ment versus post-treatment is upon Concarbon. resulting the EPA.7 2.1 even a shift in gasoline/diesel Nitrogen. which which is more heavily skewed gasoline sulphur and California Air will be largely exported to the US as toward diesel than gasoline.4 trends and a renewed focus on ATB cleaner fuels. from the FCC flue gas. ment to reduce gasoline sulphur. the topic of pretreatHydrogen. sulphur been regulated in concert. SOx and NOx emissions. the high capital cost set out in Table 1 show a clear trend • Undercutting of FCC gasoline to requirement for the FCC pretreattowards ULSG.8 11. ppm 325 200 258 49 focus on the pretreat and post-treat Table 2 issues around the FCC as it relates Pre-treat only Post-treat only Pre. wt% 9. The Current refinery configuration Consequently. many are designed sions and in particular those from the overall trend clearly shows that for high desulphurisation levels to the FCC have led to refinery-specific in the near future ULSG production meet refinery and SOx regulations regulation via consent decrees with will become the norm worldwide. bitumen Mexican Blend Arabian Light show in Table 2 to highlight the VGO challenges of processing bitumenAPI gravity 13 13 18 22 26 Sulphur.wide application of FCC post-treatspecifications or be able to export ate severity FCC post-treatment.2 derived materials. In the same In the US.emissions. ppm 2100 4000 1500 1000 700 As a result of these feedstock Hydrogen. The US Tier 2 b/d of Canadian bitumen.

vanadium.2 Another important factor in MHC/CFHT design is the ability to maintain desulphurisation targets while meeting optimum VGO quality throughout the cycle length. selection of the optimum catalytic system and distributor internals. This trend is shown in Figure 3. emissions and the level of product gasoline posttreatment required.5 PTQ Q3 2012 45 wt% . this problem can turn into an opportunity to increase the severity of the CFHT. Although the chemistry and catalyst systems can be complex.0 12. the increased hydrogen www. 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 10. HCGO). HCGO and some atmospheric residue) into gasoline. arsenic.5 11. The following section will examine the influence of the CFHT operation on the FCC unit’s performance. The performance of the FCC unit and the yield of valuable products is therefore linked to the hydrogen content of the feed. contamination/poisoning) coupled with their impact on the FCC operation is paramount to selecting optimum CFHT operating conditions and design of the optimum catalyst system. requires a careful selection of the catalytic system to take into account the potential for higher metals (nickel. These adjustments will require some modifications to the operating conditions. In conclusion. Impact of CFHT on FCC performance The FCC unit has long been the workhorse in the refinery to achieve relatively low-cost conversion of heavy crude components (VGO. wt% Figure 3 FCC yield vs feed hydrogen content not only to meet sulphur targets but also to change the diesel-togasoline ratio by operating in mild hydrocracking (MHC) mode and taking advantage of low-cost natural gas to further increase volume swell. The increased contaminants also make it more difficult for the CFHT to upgrade the quality of the FCC feed to maintain the required yield of gasoline and LPG. These conversion units produce significant amounts of hydrogen-deficient.5 0 12 wt% Feed hydrogen. Moderate-pressure MHC units generally do not meet the required diesel specifications. On the other hand.eptq. along with the higher fouling propensity of these aromatic-rich feeds. increased hydrogen consumption and likely upgrades throughout the unit. In addition to the objective of hydrodesulphurisation. Concurrently. The CFHT therefore plays a vital role in improving the FCC feed quality to enhance the yield and overall refinery profitability. As the feed contaminants of sulphur and nitrogen are reduced to improve product quality and reduce FCC emissions. therefore post-treatment is required.0 11. a deep understanding of the feedstock type and the chemical reactions involved in a CFHT ( FCC performance. thermodynamics. a lower demand for fuel oil coupled with the processing of heavier crudes has resulted in the installation of residue conversion units such as delayed cokers. heteroatomrich (N and S) vacuum gas oils (VGO. modern CFHT units need to process increasingly more refractory feedstocks while achieving high desulphurisation levels to meet gasoline sulphur specifications. the processing of cracked stocks in a CFHT. and in particular the need to produce very low-sulphur gasoline. but the interaction with improved feed quality and increased FCC performance is also very important.1. where the conversion potential and gasoline yield increase sharply with the hydrogen content of the feed.5 12. One of the challenges of operating in the MHC mode is the ability to meet ultra-low-sulphur diesel (ULSD) specifications throughout the MHC cycle. which need to be deeply hydrotreated prior to conversion in the FCC unit. Sharp gains in conversion and gasoline yield result from the first incremental increase in hydrogen and there is some degree of diminishing returns (see Figure 3). silicon) and asphaltenes. often with high end-point to maximise refinery economics. One option to meet this challenge is the HyC-10 technology developed by Axens to integrate diesel upgrading within the MHC high-pressure loop while decoupling operating conditions. multi-ring aromatics are saturated and the crackability of the feed increases. generally speaking the FCC unit is a hydrogen redistribution system with some carbon rejection as coke. Environmental regulations. When propylene yield is of interest. propylene and LCO diesel blend components. The reduction in sulphur and other contaminants is helpful in terms of reducing the FCC product sulphur level and lowering the flue gas emissions from the FCC. have put increased emphasis on CFHT performance and reliability. p Pro yle n o ep ten tial Conversion Gasoline Fuel oil 18 16 14 10 8 6 4 2 13. which is consumed in the process. hydrodenitrogenation and polynuclear aromatics (PNA) saturation. butenes for high-octane alkylate production. As a result.0 20 FCC pretreatment options The benefits of FCC feed pretreatment in a CFHT are well known and extend beyond simply reducing the sulphur level in the FCC feed.

In the US market. thereby including not only benzothiophene but also some methyl-benzothiophenes in the gasoline. wppm 10-20 30-50 10-20 30-100 10 Table 3 in the gasoline decreases.3 As the severity of the CFHT increases. Within the context of ULSG. This will be true even if we consider that the FCC gasoline is only about one-third of the pool and the other blend stocks are nearly sulphurfree. considering a ratio of between 20:1 and 30:1 of the hydrotreated feed sulphur to the gasoline sulphur. With the increased interest in distillate production. the more traditional role of the CFHT to consider is that of desulphurisation and the impact on the FCC gasoline produced. If one were to target the new ULSG pool sulphur level of 10 ppm. There will be little room for error or deterioration in CFHT performance over the course of a production run or cycle. the types of sulphur left in the FCC feed alter and the amount of sulphur found FCC gasoline post-treatment unit design Typical Western Europe North America California South America Japan/Korea Feed sulphur. gasoline has been traditionally over-cut relative to the standard 430°F (220°C) cut and often extended to 450-480°F (230-250°C). 46 PTQ Q3 2012 Gasoline S. cracking and FCC mode of opera- tion within the existing constraints of a refinery configuration is therefore very complex.1 1 10 Feed sulphur. In Figure 5. meeting ULSG targets through CFHT alone is possible but challenging. Figure 5 clearly demonstrates the importance of defining the gasoline boiling range when discussing the sulphur level. there is also the opportunity for co-produced diesel in the CFHT via mild hydrocracking to shift the overall refinery balance between gasoline and diesel. These compounds enter the gasoline cut just at the standard cut point and complicate accurate measurement of gasoline sulphur from non-ideal industrial samples. Figure 4 shows this general trend for feeds that are hydrotreated and for nonhydrotreated feeds of varying sulphur content. wppm 200-1000 500-2000 100-300 500-2000 50-200 Product sulphur.eptq. we can see a carefully analysed commercial FCC gasoline and the cumulative full-range gasoline sulphur versus true boiling point (TBP). hydrogen input. When looking at the sulphur in FCC gasoline. as is done in Europe. As the sulphur content in the FCC unit feed decreases and the extent of feed hydrotreating increases. as refiners will leave some margin below 10 ppm to ensure compliance. Defining the optimal balance between severity. undercutting the gasoline to less than 430°F will significantly help control the sulphur level when producing ULSG. wt% Figure 4 FCC Gasoline sulphur vs feed sulphur and treatment 100 Cumulative sulphur. the CFHT must reduce the feed sulphur to about 200-300 ppm. ºC Figure 5 FCC Gasoline sulphur profile input is always .01 0. % 80 60 40 20 Mercaptans S Thiophene C2-Thiophene C1-Thiophene Alkyl-BenzoThiophene BenzoThiophene S 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Temperature. and in many cases high hydrogen input can be justified. Considering the dependence of FCC gasoline on both CFHT performance and precise fractionation of the gasoline product. particularly when hydrogen is relatively inexpensive. wt ppm www. one needs to be very clear about the gasoline cut point and the distillation tail on the produced gasoline product.10000 1000 100 10 Straight run Hydrotreated 1 0.

meeting new ULSG regulations at 10 ppm while using the existing assets could be achieved in different ways. one potential solution that does not require any additional investment would be to simply increase severity (essentially reactor temperature) to lower the existing Prime-G+ product sulphur.4 The technology has proven to be highly flexible. Exploiting existing Prime-G+ units Depending on the existing PrimeG+ configuration.eptq. www. and high-severity post-treaters will be required to meet the 10 ppm gasoline sulphur target. It is a widely used cracked gasoline desulphurisation technology. Light. a majority of refiners across the world have already invested in a FCC post-treatment unit. coupled with a potential cycle length reduction. Switching to higher selectivity and activity Prime-G+ catalysts may help mitigate these drawbacks. with several Prime-G+ processing schemes offered according to the targeted severity of the unit (see Figure 6). The Prime-G+ process selectively desulphurises FCC full-range naphtha (FRCN) while ensuring minimal octane loss. The streams could be light such as light coker naphtha or visbroken naphtha that can be handled in the first step (selective hydrogenation unit — SHU and splitter section). First. overall refinery configuration and crude diet (see Table 3). In PTQ Q3 2012 45 . However. Conversely. One of the drawbacks of co-processing is possible hydraulics limitations in the unit. The increased HDS level would lead to a higher octane loss and hydrogen consump- tion. straight-run naphtha. with over 190 licensed units throughout the world. depending on sulphur specification.Low/moderate HDS FCC FRN ULSG SHU HDT Prime-G+ 1-stage HDS Moderate/high HDS FCC FRN SHU ULSG FCC FRN SHU HDT 1&2 ULSG Prime-G+ 2-stage HDS HDT Prime-G+ 1st step (SHU & splitter) / 1-stage HDS Very high HDS FCC FRN SHU ULSG HDT 1&2 Prime-G+ 1st step (SHU & splitter) / 2-stage HDS Figure 6 Prime-G+ processing schemes FCC post-treatment options to meet ULSG In order to comply with lowsulphur gasoline regulations. which explains the low sulphur level in FCC naphtha. Most refineries in California and Japan are equipped with FCC feed pretreaters. Another solution would involve the co-processing of other sulphurrich streams in the Prime-G+ unit that previously did not require any treatment to meet the earlier sulphur specifications. but could prove insufficient in many cases. natural gasoline could also be co-processed either in the SHU upstream of the splitter or directly in the HDS section. processing schemes vary greatly from one site to another. FCC naphtha sulphur tends to be high in the Americas.

such as coker naphtha. which may foul the desulphurisation section.5 While this solution offers some advantages in terms of octane. For option 2. This solution also allows the co-processing of other streams containing sulphur.Isom Splitter SRN HCN Coker N Benfree Reformer NHT LCN Splitter FRCN MCN HCN MoGas pool Prime-G+ Figure 7 FCC naphtha heart cut (MCN) to reformer adding sulphur-rich streams could lead to a higher HDS level coupled with a higher octane loss and. low-sulphur.eptq. visbroken naphtha. In case cycle length becomes limited. and also the conversion of light sulphur species such as mercaptans to heavy boiling sulphur compounds. In Western Europe. as it also maximises diesel production to meet market demand. straight-run naphtha or natural gasoline. In addition. there may be limitations in terms of capacity for both NHT and reformer sections that need to be carefully assessed and taken into account for the evaluation of the overall revamp . light catalytic naphtha (LCN) stream rich in olefins and a heavy FCC naphtha (HCN). The SHU operating conditions and catalyst design allow for the selective hydrogenation of diolefins. which is routed to the HDS section. it is common to reduce the FCC naphtha end-point. a reduction in the FCC naphtha end-point or changes in the CFHT could be envisioned to reduce the sulphur in the FCC naphtha. An alternative option would be to decrease the Prime-G+ feed sulphur to maintain a similar HDS level across the unit to ensure constant octane loss and cycle length. The typical block flow diagram of Option 3 is shown in Figure 7. The addition of an integrated reformate splitter/benzene hydrogenation (Benfree) resolves this issue. More realistically. This option involves revamping the existing splitter into a three-cut column in order to withdraw a heart cut (MCN) rich in olefins that contains some sulphur and exhibits a moderate octane number (especially MON). Revamping FCC post-treatment units As most refineries are equipped with a FCC post-treatment unit to control gasoline sulphur. the potential for a reduced cycle length. again. Addition of the splitter reduces the throughput to the HDS section and hydrogen consumption. As a result of the chemical reactions taking place in the SHU. Both of these options have limitations and are generally not practical for a significant sulphur reduction without a heavy penalty on refinery flexibility. Options 1 and 2 are easy to implement and lead to moderate capital expenditure. the downstream splitter produces a sweet. Overall. the addition of a SHU upstream of an existing splitter will produce a sweet low-sulphur LCN stream and provide benefits similar to those described in option 1. this option may be attractive. The short-term solutions would be to use sulphur reduction additives in the FCC unit or to process lowsulphur crudes. Lowering the feed sulphur could be achieved in different ways. but has more implications than just making modifications to the existing FCC post-treatment section. potential increased benzene production in the reformer could lead to issues in meeting the MSAT II gasoline benzene specifications. the decreased gasoline yield should also be considered. The MCN is then mixed with the normal feed to the NHT unit and reformer unit. Such a HCN stream with its lower olefins content can be selectively desulphurised through the use of tailored catalysts to meet the ULSG target while controlling olefins saturation and thus octane loss. There are a number of ways to revamp an existing selective FCC naphtha desulphurisation unit to meet tighter sulphur specifications. the installation of a FCC naphtha splitter downstream of the existing (or new) SHU is the Prime-G+ first step. However. 46 PTQ Q3 2012 www. which display different levels of complexity and associated cost: • Option 1: Install a Prime-G+ first step if not existing • Option 2: Add a SHU (selective hydrogenation unit) or HDS reactor if the cycle length is a limitation for the new product sulphur target • Option 3: Route the medium catalytic naphtha (MCN) cut to the NHT/reformer • Option 4: Process the medium catalytic naphtha (MCN) and the heavy catalytic naphtha (HCN) streams separately • Option 5: Install a second-stage HDS section. Sending the MCN to the reformer will lead to a gasoline octane gain. In option 1. implementation of an additional HDS reactor in series with the existing one can be envisioned. it is instructive to take a closer look at the revamping options around the selective FCC naphtha desulphurisation unit to meet the new ULSG requirements.

according to the economics of the refinery. This article has presented commercially proven configurations that are available to meet these constraints and maintain profitability. TAME or Alky Unit H2S Ultra-low-sulphur gasoline to MoGas Prime-G+ selective hydrogenation SHU Splitter 1st stage HDS HCN 150ºF+ 2nd stage HDS FRCN H2 make-up Figure 9 Revamp of Prime-G+ HDS into two-stage configuration www. Processing of these heavy crudes requires a complete refinery reconfiguration with bottom-of-the-barrel conversion units such as coking or ebullated-bed hydrocracking. In view of the low refinery margins and octane-long Prime-G+ selective hydrogenation MCN HDS SHU Splitter Ultra-low S LCN to Pool. This innovative and patented scheme by Axens has the additional advantage of offering greater flexibility to route the desulphurised HCN either to the MoGas or diesel pool. In a second article. the debottlenecking of a selective FCC naphtha desulphurisation unit will likely be the preferred solution for many refiners. These options provide commercially proven solutions for refiners to meet new ULSG specifications with existing or modified post- treatment units. assuming no significant changes in their crude diet. The last option explored here. This is option 4 and is illustrated in Figure 8. and thus octane PTQ Q3 2012 45 . envisioning the processing of heavy crudes such as those derived from Canadian oil sands due to their lower cost coupled with geopolitical reasons. A number of refiners are. This challenge will be exacerbated by the increased proportion of heavy crudes and the gasoline/diesel imbalance. olefins saturation. is the inclusion of a second-stage HDS section to minimise octane loss and maintain or even increase the catalyst cycle length. As was discussed earlier. TAME or Alky Unit ULS MCN: 150-300ºF to MoGas Process integration HCN HDS FRCN ULS HCN: 300ºF-FBP to MoGas or diesel Figure 8 Decoupling MCN and HCN processing position resulting from the ethanol mandate. as a new MCN HDS section needs to be installed. Although this option requires additional capital investment. At a high HDS level. Axens also has experience of designing a two-stage HDS section on full-range FCC naphtha with no upstream splitter.and post-treatment Ultra-low S LCN to Pool.6 Both MCN and HCN selective HDS sections are designed to minimise octane loss while achieving 10 ppm product sulphur. Such feeds require deep pretreatment prior to feeding the FCC unit to maintain acceptable yields. A combination of pre. Since FCC pretreatment (CFHT) is mandatory in those cases. Several Prime-G+ units have been designed for two-stage operation and many are in operation. increases rapidly above 98% HDS. there is a real incentive to pursue this solution when the refinery is octane tight or hydrogen constrained. Conclusion North American refineries need to adapt to tightening sulphur specifications and the prospect of ULSG at 10 ppm. Although the splitter is shown here upstream of the HDS section. option 4 incurs more revamping costs. the addition of a second-stage HDS section helps improve octane retention and minimise hydrogen consumption.eptq. an economic evaluation will illustrate the pros and cons of FCC pretreatment only or in combination with post-treatment. In a typical one-stage HDS configuration. The typical block flow diagram is shown in Figure 9. one may wonder whether a post-treatment unit is required or not.Decoupling of the MCN and HCN can also be utilised to treat these streams in two separate selective HDS sections. the resulting VGO and HCGO streams are very refractory with high levels of sulphur and nitrogen and a very low hydrogen content. however. Compared to the previous option. option 5. But the additional cost could be easily offset by the improved octane retention compared to treating the combined MCN and HCN in a single onestage selective HDS section at ULSG levels and by the additional flexibility that this option offers.

local market demands. Mar 2008. Prime-G+ Commercial Performance of FCC Naphtha Desulphurization Technology. Feb 2005. 6 Debuisschert Q. Technology Solutions addressing gasoline and diesel . Mar 2006. emissions regulations and the crudes processed. Nov 2004. NPRA Annual Meeting.eptq. New mild hydrocracking route produces 10-ppmsulphur diesel. References 1 Bonnardot J. ERTC 9th Annual Meeting. NPRA Annual Meeting. Resid to Petrochemicals Technology. 4 Debuisschert Q. Platts European Refining Market 4th Annual Meeting. et al.2 wt% sulphur. borsig 46 PTQ Q3 2012 www. Benzene Management in a MSAT 2 Environment. A second article will present a detailed economic evaluation to allow comparison of the costs and returns between the FCC feed pretreatment alone and posttreatment options. Nov 2008. ERTC 13th Annual Meeting. 2 Sarrazin P. The VGO feedstock considered for this economic evaluation will be a 55 000 b/d blend of straight-run VGO and heavy coker gas oil with 4.may be necessary. depending on the initial refinery configuration. et al. Sept 2010. These configurations will be applied in the context of a refinery being revamped to process heavy Canadian crudes and maintaining its FCC unit. 3 Roux R. 5 Largeteau D. Direct Production of Euro-IV Diesel at 10 pm Sulphur via the HyC-10 Process. as well as the optimum desulphurisation and cycle length for the CFHT when considered in combination with a post-treatment. Hydrocarbon Processing. et al. AM-03-26. AM-08-11. et al. et al.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful