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Disarmament and International Security


Throughout last century United States have been acquiring the military structures, even in times
of peace, have shaped an enormous sector, which the president Dwight Eisenhower had named
as Complex Military man - manufacturer, whose participation, influence, and capacity of decision
inside the political life of the developed conditions not to stopped increasing up to the current

The armies were formed when it was threatening the conflict, the military budgets were
increasing when the war was exploding, or an imminent threat existed of the same one. At
present there is always a military permanent structure; prepared to enter action almost any
moment, tempting the political leaders to do resource or use the force to the minor opportunity;
before the first indication of crisis; without need of a time of preparation that probably would
serve also to be thought, at least, the most suitable way of performance.

The end of the Cold War reborn the hopes of a better world. Was standing out between these
the illusion of a humanity most pacific and ready to collaborate and the expectation of a
substantial dividend of peace: the moment had come from that the governments were
reconsidering its priorities, displeasing them of the war and preparations to the disarmament and
the assignment of funds for civil needs. This reorientation would produce important savings as
consequence of an investment in military expenses less large than in the past.

At present, the military budgets continue being so raised since it they were on having finished
the decade of 1970, when the expansion came to its end between The United States and the
Soviet Union. The principle that informs the politics of the governments consists of doing a bit
less of the same thing. Meanwhile, in extensive zones of the Third world the peace is slightly
distant; the governments are committed to an incessant formation of military musculature.
Neither in Middle East, at least has the incipient peace Arab - Israeli seems to lead a minor
spent in armaments

Instead of the budgetary liberated resources re-assign the military sphere to the civil one; the
western governments have preferred reducing the global expense, with the aim to correct
deficits that he offers fiscal reductions. Simultaneously, though the conditions. The Agreement of
Warsaw have cut its military budgets away, the deep crises provoked by the restructuring of their
economies have given as result a deficit of investments.

Table 9-5. World expenses of the peace and the demilitarization, 1989-1994 (million dollars)

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Disarmament and International Security

Category 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Elimination of mines 10 10 197 200 238 241
Demobilization 46 28 38 54 56 52
Refugees repatriation 77 101 160 172 252 463
Nuclear 1.174 1,214 1.706 1.775 2.007 1.998
Conventional 25 26 144 351 321 529
Chemist 180 170 317 421 591 586
Help to the antique URSS 0 0 1.275 1.708 2.370 1.984
Others 126 124 1.199 218 206 246
Base closing s.d. 538 998 1.148 2.l20 2.864
Restructuring 93 114 511 1.302 1.609 2.707
Maintenance 749 677 760 2.149 3.450 4.080
Construction of the Peace
International Court 6 9 9 9 9 20
Court for Crimes of War
Total 2.486 3.111 6.314 9.507 13.229
Source: Base of information of Worldwatch.

Though the conduct of many governments has not been precisely exemplary as for payments of
rights stipulated by the international legislation, they do not have obligatory contributions
uncertainty as for the availability of funds, both in sufficient quantities and in the fulfillment of
period. These investments are vulnerable not only to the caprices and inconstancies of the
governments and changes of priorities, but likewise to the political and economic pressures of
the moment. That are predictable fluctuations year after year.

The trade of weapon is stimulated by too much interests firmly guaranteed in the UNO, which
beneficiaries will do everything what is to its scope to protect his lucrative business ", a diplomat
of the world said to IPS in development.

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Disarmament and International Security

All five principal manufacturers of weapon of the world qualified by the coalition since the " bad
culprits " - are also the most powerful countries of the UN, with faculty of veto on the decisions of
its Council of Security: China, The United States, France, Great Britain and Russia.

A spread report this Monday for the organizations International Amnesty, Oxfam Internacional
and International Net of Action on Small Weapon calculates in 1,1 trillions of dollars the trade of
these appliances for this year.

It is a question, in real term sends, of the highest number from the Cold War. The amount
multiplies by 15 the current expenses in international assistance to the development and
humanitarian. The growth of the military budget of the whole world gave course for a great
summit of the industry of weapons. The sale of all 100 principal companies of the sector
increased almost 60 per cent between 2000 and 2004, of 157.000 million dollars to 268.000
millions, according to the study. The quantity and gravity of food crises related to warlike
conflicts rises up to the pace of the world expense in weapon, according to the Organization of
the United Nations for the Nourishment and the Agriculture.

The spread report this Monday, graduate " You Arm without borders: For what included trade he
needs global controls ", calls to the countries of the UNO when an agreement rests on trade of
weapons on the session 61 of the General Assembly, which began last month and he will
conclude in the middle of December. " A convention on the trade of weapon would be the
confirmation of which these are not alone a goods that can be traded com if they were toasters
or games of video ", said to IPS Natalie J. Goldring, expert of the Center of Studies for the
Peace and the Security of the School of Exterior Foreign Service Edmund A. Walsh of the
American Universidad of Georgetown. The Institute of Investigations Stockholm for the
International Peace reported in June that the military expense of The United States in
Afghanistan and Iraq will raise the budgets and the world this year its historical maximum, far
beyond of the current 1,1 trillions of dollars.

The suppliers of arms argue often that his sales are congruent with the international principles of
human rights and with the humanitarian international law, he remembered. " But they look for
another side when his weapon is used to violate the human rights ", added Goldring. In spite of
the fact that the trade of weapons is a world phenomenon, the vast majority of the sales of
conventional weapon centers in scarcely six countries: The United States, Russia, France, Great
Britain, China and Germany, according to the calculations of the expert. The humanitarian
organization Oxfam Internacional, which integrates the world coalition for the control of weapon,
it indicated this Monday in a communique that the sales without regulation feed the poverty, the
conflicts and the violations of human rights. Africa is particularly harmed by this current: 61 per
cent of the countries of the continent affected by food crises suffer civil wars.

In Afghanistan, according to Oxfam, approximately 2,5 million persons lack sufficient food to
survive, at the time that the armed conflict prevents the international assistance. In the last
months, the conflict in Gaza left hundred of containers of food blocked in positions of border.

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Disarmament and International Security

The United States and countries of Middle East are responsible for great part of the growth of
the military expense, but some of the poorest nations of the world also increased his budgets,
according to Oxfam. The budget of defense of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda,
Sudan, Botswana and Uganda doubled between 1985 and 2000. Bangladesh, Nepal and
Pakistan spent) more in this item that in health in the year 2002 and 2003. (FIN/IPS/traen-
mj/td/ks/wd ip dv md pn/06) (FIN/2006)

To gather the benefits of the peace, the governments do not have any more remedy that to leave
this smallness of gun-sights that makes economize on a cent, preventing thousands that its
investment might save in the future. If the peace is considered to be unattainable from the
economic point of view, it will continue being shy. In an epoch in which the strategic thought of
political times goes beyond the close electoral campaign, courageous leaders will be necessary
to now the initiative with a vision of future that come to fruition in dividends of peace for future

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