COLONMUN 2008

Disarmament and International Security

TOPIC A: THE REDUCTION OF MILITARY BUDGETS Throughout last century United States have been acquiring the military structures, even in times of peace, have shaped an enormous sector, which the president Dwight Eisenhower had named as Complex Military man - manufacturer, whose participation, influence, and capacity of decision inside the political life of the developed conditions not to stopped increasing up to the current importance. The armies were formed when it was threatening the conflict, the military budgets were increasing when the war was exploding, or an imminent threat existed of the same one. At present there is always a military permanent structure; prepared to enter action almost any moment, tempting the political leaders to do resource or use the force to the minor opportunity; before the first indication of crisis; without need of a time of preparation that probably would serve also to be thought, at least, the most suitable way of performance. The end of the Cold War reborn the hopes of a better world. Was standing out between these the illusion of a humanity most pacific and ready to collaborate and the expectation of a substantial dividend of peace: the moment had come from that the governments were reconsidering its priorities, displeasing them of the war and preparations to the disarmament and the assignment of funds for civil needs. This reorientation would produce important savings as consequence of an investment in military expenses less large than in the past. At present, the military budgets continue being so raised since it they were on having finished the decade of 1970, when the expansion came to its end between The United States and the Soviet Union. The principle that informs the politics of the governments consists of doing a bit less of the same thing. Meanwhile, in extensive zones of the Third world the peace is slightly distant; the governments are committed to an incessant formation of military musculature. Neither in Middle East, at least has the incipient peace Arab - Israeli seems to lead a minor spent in armaments Instead of the budgetary liberated resources re-assign the military sphere to the civil one; the western governments have preferred reducing the global expense, with the aim to correct deficits that he offers fiscal reductions. Simultaneously, though the conditions. The Agreement of Warsaw have cut its military budgets away, the deep crises provoked by the restructuring of their economies have given as result a deficit of investments.

Table 9-5. World expenses of the peace and the demilitarization, 1989-1994 (million dollars) - 1-

COLONMUN 2008
Disarmament and International Security

Category Elimination of mines Demobilization Refugees repatriation Disarm Nuclear Conventional Chemist Help to the antique URSS Others Base closing Restructuring Maintenance Construction of the Peace International Court Court for Crimes of War Total

1989 10 46 77

1990 10 28 101

1991 197 38 160

1992 200 54 172

1993 238 56 252

1994 241 52 463

1.174 25 180 0 126 s.d. 93 749

1,214 26 170 0 124 538 114 677

1.706 144 317 1.275 1.199 998 511 760

1.775 351 421 1.708 218 1.148 1.302 2.149

2.007 321 591 2.370 206 2.l20 1.609 3.450

1.998 529 586 1.984 246 2.864 2.707 4.080

6

9

9

9

9

20

2.486

3.111

6.314

9.507

13.229

Source: Base of information of Worldwatch. Though the conduct of many governments has not been precisely exemplary as for payments of rights stipulated by the international legislation, they do not have obligatory contributions uncertainty as for the availability of funds, both in sufficient quantities and in the fulfillment of period. These investments are vulnerable not only to the caprices and inconstancies of the governments and changes of priorities, but likewise to the political and economic pressures of the moment. That are predictable fluctuations year after year. The trade of weapon is stimulated by too much interests firmly guaranteed in the UNO, which beneficiaries will do everything what is to its scope to protect his lucrative business ", a diplomat of the world said to IPS in development.

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COLONMUN 2008
Disarmament and International Security

All five principal manufacturers of weapon of the world qualified by the coalition since the " bad culprits " - are also the most powerful countries of the UN, with faculty of veto on the decisions of its Council of Security: China, The United States, France, Great Britain and Russia. A spread report this Monday for the organizations International Amnesty, Oxfam Internacional and International Net of Action on Small Weapon calculates in 1,1 trillions of dollars the trade of these appliances for this year. It is a question, in real term sends, of the highest number from the Cold War. The amount multiplies by 15 the current expenses in international assistance to the development and humanitarian. The growth of the military budget of the whole world gave course for a great summit of the industry of weapons. The sale of all 100 principal companies of the sector increased almost 60 per cent between 2000 and 2004, of 157.000 million dollars to 268.000 millions, according to the study. The quantity and gravity of food crises related to warlike conflicts rises up to the pace of the world expense in weapon, according to the Organization of the United Nations for the Nourishment and the Agriculture. The spread report this Monday, graduate " You Arm without borders: For what included trade he needs global controls ", calls to the countries of the UNO when an agreement rests on trade of weapons on the session 61 of the General Assembly, which began last month and he will conclude in the middle of December. " A convention on the trade of weapon would be the confirmation of which these are not alone a goods that can be traded com if they were toasters or games of video ", said to IPS Natalie J. Goldring, expert of the Center of Studies for the Peace and the Security of the School of Exterior Foreign Service Edmund A. Walsh of the American Universidad of Georgetown. The Institute of Investigations Stockholm for the International Peace reported in June that the military expense of The United States in Afghanistan and Iraq will raise the budgets and the world this year its historical maximum, far beyond of the current 1,1 trillions of dollars. The suppliers of arms argue often that his sales are congruent with the international principles of human rights and with the humanitarian international law, he remembered. " But they look for another side when his weapon is used to violate the human rights ", added Goldring. In spite of the fact that the trade of weapons is a world phenomenon, the vast majority of the sales of conventional weapon centers in scarcely six countries: The United States, Russia, France, Great Britain, China and Germany, according to the calculations of the expert. The humanitarian organization Oxfam Internacional, which integrates the world coalition for the control of weapon, it indicated this Monday in a communique that the sales without regulation feed the poverty, the conflicts and the violations of human rights. Africa is particularly harmed by this current: 61 per cent of the countries of the continent affected by food crises suffer civil wars. In Afghanistan, according to Oxfam, approximately 2,5 million persons lack sufficient food to survive, at the time that the armed conflict prevents the international assistance. In the last months, the conflict in Gaza left hundred of containers of food blocked in positions of border. - 3-

COLONMUN 2008
Disarmament and International Security

The United States and countries of Middle East are responsible for great part of the growth of the military expense, but some of the poorest nations of the world also increased his budgets, according to Oxfam. The budget of defense of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, Sudan, Botswana and Uganda doubled between 1985 and 2000. Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan spent) more in this item that in health in the year 2002 and 2003. (FIN/IPS/traenmj/td/ks/wd ip dv md pn/06) (FIN/2006) To gather the benefits of the peace, the governments do not have any more remedy that to leave this smallness of gun-sights that makes economize on a cent, preventing thousands that its investment might save in the future. If the peace is considered to be unattainable from the economic point of view, it will continue being shy. In an epoch in which the strategic thought of political times goes beyond the close electoral campaign, courageous leaders will be necessary to now the initiative with a vision of future that come to fruition in dividends of peace for future generations.

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