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Grammar Definition of grammar: Harmer (2002, p. 12) emphasizes “The grammar of a language is the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language.” According to Coghill and Magendanz (2003, p. xvi), “The grammar of a language is the set of rules that govern its structure. Grammar determines how words are arranged to form meaningful units.” Based on Swan (2005, p. xix), “The rules that show how words are combined, arranged or changed to show certain kinds of meaning.” From the definitions above, we can conclude that grammar is the rules of sentence to make sentences meaningful and in harmony with context.
Teaching Grammar “Grammar teaching sometimes happens as a result of other work the studenrs are doing.” (Harmer, 2007, p. 210)
at a football game: A lot of people are shouting. 2007. Now. the teachers tell them to imagine they are in this place and the teacher asks them to look around them and write down three things that they can see using the present continuous (e. . too. It has a slight game element because the other students have guessed what the speaker is taking about. Someone is kicking a ball. a beach. if this is appropriate. But of course.) While. One student knows comes to the front of the class. One of the advantages of the activity done in this way is that students are given time to think up present continuous sentences rather than having to produce them spontaneously. read out his/her sentences and then says where am I? The other students try to guess. we could do it as a quick fair game. (Harmer. on the sport field. they are doing this we can go around the class monitoring their progress and suggesting alternatives to prompting students who cannot think what to write. The teacher tells the students to think of a place they would really like to be (e.g.An example of teaching grammar activity that is designed to get students making sentences using the present continous. in the park).g. p. They should keep their choice to themselves. 219) Example: Where am I? Focus: Age: Level: present continuous young learners Elementary In this activity is designed to get the students making sentences using the present continuous (it can also be used to practice the past simple). A man is blowing a whistle.
class of people. "Vocabulary can be defined. etc. 60).Vocabulary Definition of vocabulary: Regarding to Penny (1991. Teaching vocabulary When teaching vocabulary this is a major part of the teacher’s art. or miming the actions in figure 1." Barnhart (2008. p. An example of teaching vocabulary (Harmer. profession. usually in alphabetical order and defined. p. 2007. as the words we teach in the foreign language. and the teacher may well conduct a rapid cue-response drill where she points to a picture or mimes the action and then nominates a student to say walk. 697) defines vocabulary as “(1) stock of words used by person. 229-230) that is designed to focus students’ attention on an aspect of vocabulary is Example: Walking running jumping Focus: Age: Level: verb of movement adult beginner The teacher starts by showing or drawing pictures. p. (2) a collection or list of words. etc. The words are carefully modeled. climb. Students need to see words in context to see how they are used." From the definitions above. . roughly. we can conclude that vocabulary is group of words that can construct sentences or a meaningful communication.
where one student is a robot and the others give instructions such as run to the window. the teacher now goes through the answer. and the robot has to mime these activities. making sure that the students pronounce the words correctly. etc. swim to the door. provided that the students can still see the pictures. If the students have worked on the exercise in pairs. . These can be projected or written into the board. This can be done with the whole class or the students can work in pairs.Students are now asked to put the correct verb in the sentences in figure 2. They can then (depending on their age) do a quick round of class robot.
across a river c.. Then you. they can write their own instructions... Then you.up a tree g... .over a wall d.. like the one in figure 2..along a road Finally the students can be asked to write new instruction using the new word...across the bridge h.across a stream f.. as in figure 3-or they can invent their own fitness exercise or design their own activity sequence. Whichever.a..... Then you. Then you.down a wall b.. You.. Then you.. Then you . Then you..along a road e...... they choose..
253-254). 2007. stress and rhythm. 1) Based on the definitions aforementioned. is a very effective way of teaching small numbers of individual with beginning level. . especially when they are listening to hear the small difference between the sounds (Harmer. or straight arrows if we follow the ESA form of description. “Pronunciation includes supra-segmental features and they are: sounds of the language. Teaching Pronunciation “Pronunciation teaching not only makes students aware of different sounds and sound fatures. p.” (Adult Migrant English Program Research Centre. intonation. p. 36). p. 248) An example of teaching pronunciation that is designed to get students to concentrate on specific aspects of pronunciation. 2002. which we might call PPP.This kind of procedure.” “Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. Pronunciation Definition of pronunciation: According to Lindsay (2000) as cited by Jahan (2011. but can also improve their speaking immeasurably. 2007. we conclude that pronunciation is sounds that produce the meaning of the language.” (Harmer. Example: Ship and chip Sounds: Age: /∫/ and /t∫/ Intermediate Contrasting two sounds which are very similar and often confused is a popular way of getting students to concentrate on specific aspects of pronunciation. p.
witch If they have no problem with these sounds. 4. It is very cheap a grey chair a cheese sandwich You cheat! . The disher / ditches need cleaning.: 1. the teacher asks them to listen to a recording and. they have to work out which word they hear. 2. for example: ship sherry shoes sheep chip cherry choose cheap washing cash mash wish watching catch match which.The sequence starts with students listening to pairs of words and practicing the difference of /∫/ and /t∫/. in a series of exercises. They now move on to exercises in which they say words or phrases with one sound or the other. Small shops / chops are often expensive. the teacher may well move on to other sounds and/or merely do a short practice exercise as a reminder of the difference between them.g. I couldn’t mash / match these things up. She enjoys washing / watching the children. e. 3. But if the students have difficulty discriminating between of /∫/ and /t∫/.g. e.
a pretty child no chance .
Facts on File: Inc. The practice of English language teaching third edition. England: Pearson Education Limited. Magendanz. (2008). (2002). Cynthia A. Penny. Jeffrey and Stacy. Swan. Oxford University Press. Cambridge: University Press. Harmer. (2007). 2(3). Jahan. (2003). Coghill.). (2011). The practice of English language teaching (third ed. England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Jeremy. Journal of Education and Practice. Teaching and learning pronunciation in ESL/EFL classes of Bangladesh. English grammar. The facts on file student’s dictionary of American English. Inc. N. (2005). Practical English usage: 3rd Edition. Harmer. A course in language teaching: practice and theory. Michael. . New York: Wiley Publishing.References Barnhart. (1991). Ur. Jeremy.
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