^be jform

of iperfcct Hiving

otber prose ^Treatises,

:

Zbc dform

of perfect
and

%mnQ

otbeu Iprose XTreatiees-

RICHARD ROLLE,
OF Hampole,
A.D. I3OO-I349.

RENDERED INTO MODERN ENGLISH
BY

GERALDINE
Lecturer
in

E.

HODGSON,

D.Litt.,

Education in the University of Bristol.

LONDON

THOMAS BAKER,

72,

NEWMAN
1910.

STREET, W.

PRINTED
ST.

BY W. C. HEMMONS, STEPHEN STREET,
BRISTOL.

fP
^2/3^

LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA

/9/0

Love

is

a

life,

joining together the loving

and the loved."

Truth

may

be without love, but
it."

it

cannot

help without

Richard Rolle
(The Form
of Perfect Living, ch. x.).

preface.

'T^HIS book

is

not intended for those

who
and

are acquainted with Anglo-Saxon

Middle English
the

;

but for those who care for
the
religious

thought,

specially

and

devotional thought, of our forefathers.

My

one aim has been to make a portion of that
thought
accurately
intelligible

to

modern

readers, with the greatest possible saving of

trouble to them.

When

I

could use the old
its
I

word

or phrase, with certainty of
I

being
could

understood,
not,
I

have done
it

so.

When

have replaced
I

with the best modern
In ex-

equivalent

could find or invent.

tenuation of the occasional use of Rolle's
vii.

viii.

preface.

expression, "

by

their lone,"

I

may

urge

its

expressiveness, the absence of an equivalent,

and the

fact that

it

may

still

be heard in
I

remote places.

Where

possible,

have

re-

tained the archaic order of the original Text.

Such irregular constructions, as
of a singular

e.g.,

the use

pronoun

in the first half of a

sentence,
I

and

of a plural in the
;

second

half,

have

left

unaltered

for the
I

meaning was

perfectly clear.
to

In short,

have endeavoured

make Richard

Rolle as he was as significant

as possible

to English

men and women

of

to-day as they are, when they are not professed students of English language.

In such

an undertaking,

it is

obvious that

I

must have

presented endless vulnerable places to the
learned.
I

can only repeat that the book was

never meant for them, but for those
will

who
them

perhaps forgive

me

if

I

describe

preface.

ix.

as specialists in religious thought rather than
in English

Language.
is

The rendering

made from
Horstman
:

the

texts

printed by Professor
of

in his Library
of

Early English Writers

Richard Rolle
of the

Hampole an English Father

Church.

GERALDINE
The University,
S.
Bristol,

E.

HODGSON.

Mary Magdalene,

1910.

. .

Contents*
PAGE.
Preface
vii.
.
.

Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

xi.

The Form
{From

of Perfect Living

.

.

.

i

Our Daily Work
the

(a Mirror of Discipline).
.

Arundel MS.)
the

.

.

.

83
1 69

On

Grace.

{From

Arundel MS.)
.

.

.

An

Epistle on Charity
. .

.

.

.

.

185 190
192

Contrition

.

.

.

.

.

Scraps from the Arundel MS.

.

.

.

Jntvobuction-

RICHARD
Mystics.

ROLLE
in or

of

Hampole

is

the

earliest in

time of our famous English

Born

about 1300, he died in

1349,

seven years

after

Mother Julian

of
in

Norwich was born.
1392.

Walter Hilton died

An
given

exhaustive account of Rolle's
in

life

is

Vol.

ii.

of

Professor

Horstman's

Edition of his works, a book unfortunately

out of print.

The main

facts are recorded

in a brief " Life "

appended
Love

to Fr. R.

Hugh
There-

Benson's

A Book
to

of the

of

Jesus.

fore, it will suffice to

say here that Richard

RoUe seems

have been born at Thornton,

near Pickering, in Yorkshire, in or about
xi.

xii.

Jntrobuction.
that, finding the

1300

;

atmosphere of Oxford
left
it,

University uncongenial, he

and

for

some four years was supported,

as a hermit,

by the Dalton Family.
time,

By

the end of that

through

prayer,

contemplation

and

self-denial,

he had attained the three stages

of mystical life
dulcor,

which he describes as
(heat,
of

calor,

canor

;

sweetness,
life

melody.)
less

The next period
Having
left

his

was

easy.

the protection of

the Daltons,
of

and being without
sistence

those

means

sub-

which are within the reach
this

of priest

or

monk,

hermit depended for his daily

bread on other men's kindness.
he was a useless person
utility of a life of Prayer,
:

Not that

apart from the

he could point to
given
;

counsel

and

exhortation

to

the

existence of converts
ministrations.

consequent upon his
to his difficulties, he
selflessness
all

To add

preached a doctrine of high pure
with which, the average man, in

times,


3ntrot)uction.
xiii.

seems to have no abundant sympathy
to

:

and

crown

all

he was endowed by nature with
temper.

a

sensitive

His

remarkable
;

gifts

forced

him

into public notice
his

his cast of

thought
calculated Professor

and
to

temperament

were

not

win him ease or popularity.
is

Horstman
his

peculiarly severe to

those
"

among
called

enemies

and

detractors

who

themselves

followers

and

disciples of Christ."
this painful passage

The

insertion here of

would introduce a jarring

note

;

moreover, the raked embers of past

controversy

seldom

tend

to

the

spiritual

improvement

of the present.

An

interesting

judgment by Professor Horstman on Rolle's
place in mysticism
is

too long for quotation

;

but the following sentence
the pith of
it
:

may

be taken as

" His position as a mystic
result of the

was mainly the
scholasticism.

development of
luxuriant

The

exuberant

growth

of the brain in the

system of Scotus

xiv.

3^tro^uctio^.

called forth the reaction of the heart,
this reaction
is

and

embodied

in

Richard Rolle,
the
side

who

as

exclusively

represents

of

feeling as Scotus that of reason

and

logical

consequence

;

either lacking the

corrective

of the other element."
It is consoling to

know

that Rolle's last
cell,

years were passed in peace, in a

near a

monastery

of

Cistercian

nuns at Hampole,

where the nuns supported him, while he acted
as their spiritual adviser.

In the book mentioned above, Fr.

Hugh

Benson has translated some

of

Richard Rolle's

Poems, and certain devotional Meditations.
In this Volume, four of his Prose Treatises

have been selected from the
in the behef that they

rest of his works,

may supplement

those

parts of Rolle's writings with which, those

who

are interested in these phases of thought,

are already familiar.

The

first,

The Form

of Perfect Living, is

Sntrobuction.

xv.

a Rule of Life which he wrote for a nun of

Anderby, Margaret Kirkby, of
fessor

whom

Pro-

Horstman

writes

:

" She seems to have

been his good angel, and perhaps helped to

smooth down
ship

his ruffled spirits.

This friendtheir

was lasting— it lasted to

hves'

ends."

This treatise was written of course to meet
the
It

requirements
has

of

the

" religious "

life.

seemed expedient, because suppleit

mentary, then, to put next to

his

work on

Our Daily

Life,

which was meant
world "
;

for those

who
give

are

'*

in the

and which may
otherwise

pause to some

who might

criticise the first hastily,
it

perhaps condemning
objectionable in a
eat

as unpractical, or even
all,

world where, after
drink and
live,

men must

and

and where some, therefore
the

must provide
intensely

necessary means.
is

Most

practical

this

second
so than

treatise,

and perhaps nowhere more

when

it


xvi.

Jntrobuctton,

meets the needs of those who are inclined to
spHt straws over the definition of the word
" good."

What
to

is

a

good

action
like

?

—such
an

people
Pilate,"

love

inquire,

and
not

" jesting
for

sometimes

do

" stay

answer."

Richard Rolle has no manner of
his reply.
i.e.,

doubt about

An
would

action
tell us,

must be
pleasing

good
to

in itself, in its

so he

God

own

nature.

But the matter
This good
it

by no means ends there
action

for him.

must be performed,is,

— and

is

this

which

now

palpably,

now

subtly, hard

entirely

for

the

sake of goodness,

without

the slightest taint of self-seeking, of vanity,
of secret satisfaction that

we

are not as other

men

are,

not even as this Pharisee or this

Publican.

Such a motive, inspiring each person's
whole work, would surely go far to remove

what

is

known

as

the Social Problem.

It

would make many a house the dwelling

of

;

Jntrobuction.
peace,

xvii.

many
If

a business-place an abode of
get back to Richard
to
his

honour.
Rolle's
faith,

we could

simphcity

and

unmovable

then, his goal, even the acquisition of

perfect love,

might seem to

all

of us less

distressingly remote.

The present rendering has been taken
from the longer and more elaborate
of the

two

MSS.

containing

the

Treatise.

The
the

shorter form of his
Epistle have been

work On Grace and
added
in
all,

the hope that

they

may meet
is,

the need of

contemplative

or active as they

may
his

chance to be.

There

among

voluminous writings,

a curious and interesting Revelation concerning Purgatory, purporting to be a

woman's
soul
in

dream

about

one,

Margaret,

a

Purgatory.

Amidst

much

natural

horror,

not

however exceeding that described by
there
are

Dante,

many

quaint

side-lights

thrown upon our

forefathers'

ways

of thought

xviii.

Sntrobuction.

as

e.g.,

when Margaret's
with him,"

soul

is

weighed

in

one
long

scale,

against the fiend, "
in

and a great
;

worm

the other

the

worm

of conscience, in fact.

But the work
lest it

has not been included in this volume,

should prove wholly unprofitable to a generation

which

if

it

be not readily disturbed by

sin, is easily

and quickly shocked by crude
concerning
its

suggestions

possible
will find

conse-

quences and reward.

They

enough,

perhaps, in the treatise on Daily Work.
If

any one should think that

there,

and

in

one portion of the treatise on Grace, Rolle

has dwelt harshly on considerations of fear,
rather than on those of love, he

must not

make

the mistake of concluding that these

admonitions represent the whole of Catholic
teaching on the point.
differ,

Men's temperaments

and teachers, meeting these various
differ

tempers,

in

their

modes

of

helping

them.

Side

by

side with

Richard Rolle

may

-

!

3^tco^uctton.
be put the words of

xix.

S.

Francis Xavier, in

what
tian

is

perhaps the most beautiful of Chris:

hymns
My
I


I

God,
hope

love

Thee

;

not because

for

heaven thereby,
love

Nor yet because who
Are
lost eternally.

Thee not

Not

for the

hope

of gaining aught,
;

Not seeking a reward

But

as Thyself hast loved

me,

O

ever-loving Lord

Moreover, no reader of the Epistle on
Charity can entertain any doubt as to whether

our English Mystic understood the mystery
of limitless love.
It is

no doubt, easy to complain, as we

read certain passages, that Richard Rolle's

recommendations
original
:

are

neither

new

nor

but

if

instead of dismissing

them

as familiar,

we

tried to put

them

into practice,

we should perhaps have

less leisure for idle

XX.

3ntro^uction.

criticism of others,

and ourselves be

less evil

and tiresome people.

On

the other hand, the accusation

may

be brought that he proposes an impossibly
high aim. devotion as

No
is

doubt,

in

such a pitch of
e.g.,

suggested,

in ch. viii. of

The Form

of Perfect Living,
:

some may think
it

they find extravagance

but no doubt
inspired

was
Peter

this

same

spirit

which

SS.
;

and Paul, and the other Apostles
;

which built up the Early Church

which
;

made

Saints, Martyrs

and Confessors

which

suggested such apparently forlorn hopes as
that of
to bring
S.

Augustine of Canterbury, when,
of

them the Gospel

Jesus

Christ, he

bearded the rough Men of Kent, and (according
to

Robert

of

Brunne) reaped, as
of fishtails

his

immediate reward, a string

hung

on
of

his

habit,

though

later,
It

the conversion

these sturdy pagans.

was doubtless,

too, the spirit

which inspired the best men

3ntrot)uction.

xxi.

and women

in

the English Church, before

they began to confuse the spheres of Faith

and Reason, and to disregard
warning about the

S.

Hilary's

difficulty of expressing in

human language
comprehensible/'
old
"
sense,

that which

is

truly
in

" in-

—incomprehensible
the

the

as

in

Athanasian
Filius,

Symbol,

Immensus
Spiritus

Pater,

immensus
;

immen-

sus

sanctus "

till,

indeed,

men

forgot, for all practical purposes that infinity

transcends the grasp of
as

finite

minds

(in fact,

well

as

in

placidly

accepted and then
;

immediately neglected theory)

and can be

apprehended only, and that imperfectly, by
the best aspirations of a heart, set of fixed

purpose on that high goal.

To

the

modern Englishman, immersed
anxieties,

in

business

imperial

interests

and

domestic cares, the invitation repeated so
often

by

Richard

Rolle,

to

love

God
and

supremely,

may seem

incalculably unreal

xxii.

^ntro^uctiolu

remote, even though he might hesitate to
confess
it

baldly.
so loved
?

But what
God, were

if

the EngUsh-

man who

also the greater

EngHshman

And what answer
?

does his-

tory return to that plain question
" Richard

Rolle/'

Professor
'*

Horstman
of the

does not hesitate to write

was one

most remarkable men of
history.
It is

his

time, yea, of

a strange and not very credit-

able fact that one of the greatest of English-

men

has hitherto been

doomed
beast

to oblivion.

In other cases, the

human

first crucifies,

and then

glorifies or deifies the

nobler minds,

who swayed by
others live, in

the Spirit, do

not

live

as

quest

of

higher
;

ideals

by

which

to benefit the race

he,

one of the

noblest champions of humanity, a hero, a
saint, a

martyr

in this cause

has never had

his resurrection yet

-a

forgotten brave.

And
all

yet, he has rendered greater service to his

country, and to the world at large, than

3ntroDuction.
the great names of his time.

xxiii.

Love^ the principle of
feeling,

He rediscovered Christ. He reinstalled
life

the spring of

which had been

obliterated in the reign of scholasticism.

He
life

re-opened the inner eye of man, teaching

contemplation in solitude, an unworldly
in abnegation, in chastity, in charity
.

He
and

broke the hard crust that had gathered
of Christianity,

round the heart
exteriority,

by formalism
free flow of

and restored the

spiritual life."

This passage, to those

who

feel

that there

has been no age since the Birth of Christ
the
great
principles
lost,

when
have

of

religious

life

been wholly

and who remember that
in the age of

Richard Rolle lived

Dante,

may

seem overstated.
at least,

But

it

shews
is

sufficiently

and

for that reason

quoted here,

what a great Englishman he was, and what a
debt his unaware countrymen owe him
debt which they could pay in the
;

a

way most

xxiv.

3ntrot)uction.

grateful
It

to

him, by listening to his words.

may
is

be remarked, by the way, that

Rolle

not inclined to substitute individualauthority
of

ism for the

the

Church

;

a

change which has been brought against some
mystics.
all

There

is

immense emphasis

laid,

through his writings, on the importance
conduct.

of

The penetrating

analysis,

in

ch. vi, of

The Form

of Perfect Living, of the
its

possible sins

humanity can commit on

journey through the wilderness of this world,
hardly
lighted
;

leaves
lets

a

corner

of

the

heart

un-

not one possible

shift, twist or

excuse

of
all

the

human
the
in

conscience
its

go

free.

But

it

has the Church as
;

immediate
not
the

background
individual

Mystical Body,
isolation,
is

soul

everywhere

taken for granted.

Man

lives

not to himself

nor dies to himself, even though he be Richard
Rolle the hermit, or Margaret
recluse, that
is

Kirkby the
these

the plain teaching of

Jntro&uctlon.
plain-speaking pages.
too
is

xxv.

And

all

through them

a tough

common sense, and an unusually
of

alert

power

observation

;

and there

is

perhaps an element of that business capacity,

which some of the Saints and Mystics have
shewn, in his inclusion among
of
''

sins of
is

deed

"

" beginning
;

a thing that
is

above our

might "

for in that there

not only pride,

but a kind of stupid incapacity surely.
It is quite possible that Rolle's

tendency

to

repetition

may

tire

any one who reads
is.

him "
is

straight on," as the phrase

But

it

doubtful whether that be the best means
If

of approach.

he be read in
:

bits,

he will

/

prove far more effective
hit the right nail

and

his ability to
hit
it

on the head, and to

wonderfully
his

hard,

may

occasionally

bring

words home to our immediate circum-

stances with an appositeness that

may

be

more than a coincidence.
In the
past,

the

learned and ignorant


xxvi.

3ntrobuction.
have been guilty of the operation which
be described as cutting
:

alike

may
parts

man up

into

i.e.,

they have been inclined to treat
if

him now
if

as

he were
;

all intellect,

then as

he were

all feeling

while to the will a kind

of

intermediate
if

part

has

generally

been

allotted, as

it

were the handmaid instead

of the master of the other two.
is
still,

And
an

there
to

in

some quarters, a tendency
and the
feelings to

relegate the will

inferior

plane,
at

if

indeed they be allowed any place
In other quarters, the onslaught
intellect.
is

ah.

made on
there

Men

are bidden to be

humble, to become as
were

little

children
in

;

as

if

any humility
all
;

thinking

in-

correctly or not at

as

if

the odd, though

suppressed,

assumption that children have

no

intellects

had any ground

in fact.

It is

surely a true apostrophe
"

God

!

Thou

art

mind

!

Unto the master-mind,

Mind should be

precious."

3ntrot)uctiO!u

xxvii.

The Angelic Doctor himself paid a
to the importance
intellect,
it

tribute

and

special difficulties of

and
will
:

also to the necessity of uniting

with

— " the

martyrs

had greater

merit in faith, not receding from the faith for
persecutions
;

and likewise men
of
faith,

of learning

have greater merit

not* receding

from the
or

faith for the reasons of philosophers

heretics

alleged

against

it."

Richard
as
S.

Rolle,

following

on

the

same

lines

Thomas Aquinas, has nothing
of
division
:

of this spirit
is

the

whole being

what he
it

would
so are

fain see offered to

God, whether

be

by Margaret Kirkby, or by those who
" in

the world,"
written.

for

whom Our
God
:

Daily

Work was

In the image of
therefore

God

was man made, and
all

suffices for

the needs of man's nature

that, at least

seems to be the underlying idea when Rolle
writes
*
:

— " God
Fr.

is

light

and burning.

Light

Quoted by

Joseph Rickaby,

S.J., in Scholasticism, p. 121.

xxviii.

3ntro^uction.
our reason, burning kindles our will."
not say here too
together,
?

clarifies

May we
joined

— " What
not

that

let

God has man put

asunder."

Above

all

things, Rolle aims at a perfect

balance, culminating in a

harmony

ruled
in

by
the

one power,
world. Love.

and that the greatest
Real love, he asks
to
;

not the

degraded things
great

which men give that

name, as to every passing gust of
every unworthy untamed emotion
'*
:

feeling, to

but the divine quality, when to the
ness,"

lasting-

which he requires,
is

is

also joined that

which

the
"

inner
is

essence

of

Love,

viz.,

sacrifice.

Love
the

a

life,"

he writes, " join-

ing

together

loving

and the loved."
gift

And
to

then he remembers the other great
intellectual
all

men,

sincerity,

which

has

inspired

"

who
"
;

follow Truth

along her
to that its
:

star-paved
place

way
:

and he gives

and due

"

Truth

may

be without love

3ntrobuction.
but
it

xxix.

cannot help without
is

it."
;

Even
the

then,
of

the whole tale
the Saints
is

not complete

way

not " Primrosed and hung with
is

shade."

Love, with Rolle,
:

no easy sentisacrifice in
it

mentahty

it

involves

definite

more

directions

than

one

;

demands

thought, perseverance, supernatural strength,
natural strenuousness
;

it

is

not a

selfish

enjoyment of a circumambient atmosphere wrapping humanity, without responsibility or
effort of its

own

:

"

Love

is is

a Life."
a perfection of
;

" Love,"

he writes, "
of

learning

;

virtue

prophecy
;

fruit

of

truth

;

help of sacraments
;

establishing of
of

wit and knowledge
life

riches

pure
love
all
if

men
is.

:

of dying

men.

So,
;

how good
if

If

we

suffer to be slain

we

give
:

that

we

have (down) to a beggar's
as
is

staff

we know
all this

much

as

men may know on

earth,

naught but ordained sorrow and torment."
is

Then, with that sound sense, which

not

XXX.

3ntrobuction.

the least element in the
ness,
all

sum

of his attractive-

he utters a subtle warning against that

too

common

sin,

judging one another
is

:

" If thou wilt ask

how good
:

he or she, ask

how much he
can
tell.

or she loves
I

and that no man
judge a man's

For

hold

it

folly to

heart, that none

knows save God."
"
x.,

After this
kolle
is

it

cannot be necessary to say that

a true mystic.

Many,"
"

so he tells

us in this same chapter

Many speak and
But that
will
is

do good, and love not God."

not suffice his exacting demands.

A man
of

not " good " until his interior disposition be
all filled

and taken up with pure love

God.

And
there

as he analyses the Christian Character,
is

a pleasant blunt directness about

this holy

man

:

— " he that says he loves God
is

and
tell

will

not do what
lies."

in

him

to

shew

love,

him that he

It is possible that the

alarming
vi.,

list

of sins

of the

heart,

in

chapter

may

give the

3ntro^uction.
heedless

xxxi.

and even the heedful matter
as

for

grave thought,
ejaculating

each one finds himself
fear

with

spontaneous
?

— " Who

can

tell

how

oft he offendeth

Cleanse thou

me from my

secret faults."

Surely no one need fear that the outcome
of a study of Richard Rolle will be effeminacy.

Not that that indeed
tion
of

is

the special tempta-

the English
in

:

a

chill

commonplace
if

acquiescence

a

convenient,

baseless,

hope that somehow
right,"
is

" things will

come

all

far
''

more

likely to lead

them astray

than any
wonderful

burning yearning to
delight

God

with a
Is

)

and certainty."
still ?

not

George Herbert's cry apposite
"

O

England,

full of sin,

but most of sloth
fairly

"
!

Nor can any one argue
absorption of the mystic
ness.
It
is,

that this

is

just selfish idle-

so

it

seems, as

we read

Rolle's

injunctions, of the nature of hard exacting
toil.

No

doubt, there must be those

who do

xxxii.

3ntro^uction.

the material work of the world

;

who

gain,

among

other things, those

''

goods "

which
will

go to support the Mystics.

But there

be no lack of such workers, through the
inroads of religion
life
;

the broad ways of daily

are in no danger of contracting suddenly

in to the

path to the

strait gate.

Moreover,

natural

life itself is

a poor thing unsupported
of
spiritual refection.

by an unseen stream
things,

Here, as elsewhere in the ordered economy of

two forms of

life

are found to be
as

com-

plementary.

wrote

:

—"

It

is

true,
is

Dr.

Bigg once

If

Society

to be

permeated by

religion, there

must be

reservoirs of religion

like those great storage places
hills

up among the
is

which feed the pipes by which water

carried to every

home

in the city.

We

shall

need a special

class of students of

God, men

and women Jwhose primary and absorbing
interest
all
it is

to

work out the

spiritual life in
It is
135.

its

purity and integrity."*
*

indeed

Wayside

Sketches,

p.

3ntrot)uction.
the idlest of criticism that

xxxiii.

condemns such

people as slothful or

selfish.

There

is

one charm
miss in

in
S.
;

our own Mystics

which we

may

John
viz.,

of the Cross

or S. Teresa for example
their zeal, there
is

that with

all

also

an amazing reality and

simplicity

down

at the

bottom

of

it,

which

may seem
of

to us not present in the rhapsodies

more

southern

lovers

;

though
is

in

all

probability

such seeming

purely
if

racial.

Nevertheless,

we may be thankful

we

find
in

the antidote to our national prosaic

ways

the sane zeal of others of our nation.
Lastly, as

men

read, they

may be overcome
pure
untainted

perhaps

by

despair.
of

This

selflessness

which Richard Rolle writes

almost glibly,

how can
can

it

be possible here and
fixed in

now

?

How

men and women,
ways
of

and condemned
hfe,

to the dusty

common
so

unable as they are to leave the world
if

even

they would,

how can they

much


xxxiv.

3ntrot)uction.

as

dream

of such unattainable heights

?

Is

there no help for
lines of a later
"

them

in the often
?

quoted

English Mystic
aimeth at the sky
he

Who

Shoots higher

much than

who means

a tree."

For plain men and women^ the key to the
problem

may

lie

in

the

question

put by

Robert Browning into the mouth of Innocent
XII.

:—
try

" Is this our ultimate stage, or starting place

To

man's

foot,

if it

will creep or climb,

'Mid obstacles in seeming, points that prove

Advantage

for

who

vaults from low to high,
?

And makes

the stumbling-block a stepping-stone

"

Even though the

goal be

not reached,
first

to have willed deliberately here the

step

may

prove to have been not wholly un-

availing.

^be form

of

perfect

living.

XTbe jfornt of perfect

%mnQ

TRicbarb IRoUe.

CHAPTER

I.

IN
hell.

every sinful

man and woman
sin, are

that

is

bound

in

deadly

three wretched-

nesses, the

which bring them to the death of
first is
:

The

Default of ghostly strength.

That they are
that

so

weak within
stand

their heart,

they

can

neither

against

the
lift

temptations of the fiend, nor can they
their will to yearn for the love of

God and
of fleshly

follow thereto.
desires
:

The second

is

:

Use

— for they have no
fall

will

nor might to
likings of this

stand, they

into lusts

and

world
they

;

and because they think them sweet,
in

dwell

them

still,

many

till

their

2

Zbc form

of perfect Xivincj.

lives'

end, and so they

come
is,

to the third

wretchedness.
lasting

The

third

Exchanging a
:

good for a passing delight

as

who

say they give endless joy for a
this
life.

little

joy of
rise to

If

they will turn them and
will

penance,
angels

God

ordain their dwelling with

and with holy men.

But because
and

they choose the

vile sin of this world,

have more delight

in the filth of their flesh
lose

than in the fairness of heaven, they
/

both

the world and heaven.

For he that hath not

Jesus Christ
that he
is,

loses all that he hath,
all

and

all

and

that he might get.
life,

For

he

is

not worthy of

nor to be fed with

swine' s-meat.
in His

All creatures shall be stirred

vengeance in the day of Doom.
I

These

wretchednesses that

have told you of are

not only in worldly
use
glutton}'", lust,

men and women, who
sins
:

and other open

but

they are also in others who seem in penance

and godly

life.

For the devil that

is

enemy

Zbc iform
to all

of perfect ativing.

mankind, when he sees a

man

or a

woman among
that

a thousand, turn wholly to
all

God, and forsake

the vanities and riches

men who

love this world covet,

and

seek lasting joy, a thousand wiles he has in

what manner he may destroy them.

And
them

when he can not bring them
which might make
all

into such sins
at

men wonder

who knew them, he
has taken them.

beguiles

many

so privily

that they cannot oftentimes feel the trap that

Some he
them
in.

takes with error that he puts
singular wit,

Some with
best

when he

makes them suppose that the thing that they
say or do
is
;

and therefore they
is

will

have no counsel of another who
abler than they
;

better

and

and

this

is

a foul stinking

pride
all

;

for

such

man would
is idle

set his wit before

other.

Some, the devil deceives through
joy
;

Vain-glory, that

when any have
of

pride

and

dehght

in

themselves,

the

4

Zbc Jform

of perfect Xtvina.

penance that they

suffer, of

good deeds that
;

they do, of any virtue that they have
glad

are

when men

praise them, sorry
of

when men
are

blame them, have envy

them who

spoken better of than they.

They

consider

themselves so glorious, and so far surpassing
the
life

that other

men

lead, that they think

that none should reprehend that they do or say
;

them

in

anything

and despise

sinful

men,

and others who

will

not do as they bid them.

How

mayst thou
?

find a sinfuller wretch

than
is

such a one

And

so

much

the worse
is evil,

he
is

because he knows not that he
considered and honoured of
holy.

and

men
bv

as wise

and

Some

are deceived

over-great lust

and

liking in meat

and drink, w^hen they pass

measure and come into excess, and have
delight

therein

;

and they know not that
not,

they

sin,

and therefore they amend them
of soul.

and so they destroy virtues
are

Some

destroyed with over-great abstinence of

Zbc form

of perfect aLivino.

5

meat and drink and

sleep.

That

is

often

temptation of the devil, for to make them
fall in

the midst of their work, so that they
it

bring

to

no ending as they should have

done, had they
cretion
their
;

known reason and had
lose

dis-

and so they

their

merit for

frowardness.

This

snare

our

enemy
to hate

lays to take us with

when we begin

wickedness, and turn us to God.

Then many

begin

a

thing

that
:

they can never more
then they suppose that
is

bring to an end

they can do whatsoever their heart

set on.

But oftentimes they

fall

or ever they

come

midway

;

and that thing which they supis

posed was for them

hindering to them.

For we have a long way to heaven, and as

many good
as

deeds as
as

we

do, as

many

prayers

we make, and

many good

thoughts as
charity, so

we think

in truth

and hope and

many

paces go
so

we heavenwards. weak and

Then,

if

we make us

so feeble that

we

6

ZTbc jTorm of perfect Xtvina.

can neither work nor pray as we should do,
nor think, are we not greatly to blame that
fail

when we had most need
well
I

to be stalwart

?

And
we
shall

wot that

it is

not God's will that
:

so do.

For the prophet says

" Lord,

I

keep

my

strength to Thee," so that he
till

might sustain God's service
day, and not in a
little
lie
it is

his death-

and a short time

waste

it,

and then

wailing and groaning

by the

wall.

And

much more
robbery

peril

than

men

suppose.

For

S.

Jerome says that he

makes

an

offering

of

who

out-

rageously torments his body by over-little

meat or

sleep.

And

S.

Bernard says

:

" Fast-

ing and waking hinder not spiritual goods,

but help,

if

they be done with discretion

;

without that, they are vices."
it

Wherefore,

is

not good to torture ourselves so much,

and afterwards to have displeasure at our
deed.

There have been many, and are who
it is

suppose

naught

all

that they do unless

Zbc form

of perfect Xiving.

7

they be in so great abstinence and fasting
that
all

men speak
it

of

them who know them.
more out-

But oftentimes
ward joy

befalls that the

or wondering they have (on account)

of the praising of

men, the

less

joy they have

within of the love of God.

By my
His

judg-

ment, they should please Jesus Christ

much

more

if

they

accepted

for

sake

in

thanking and praising Him, to sustain their

body
selves

in

His service and to withhold them-

from great speech of men

—whatsoever
and gave

God

sent

them

in time

and

place,

themselves since entirely to the love and the
praising of that

Lord Jesus Christ

:

Who

will

stalwartly be loved, and lastingly be served,
so

that

their

holiness

were more seen

in

God's eye than
thou
art,

in man's.
less

For

all

the better

and the
is

speech thou hast of

men, the more

thy joy before God.

Ah
it

!

how

great

it is

to be

worthy

of love,

and to
is,

be not loved.

And what

wretchedness

8

Zbc form

of perfect living.
of hohness,
ire

to

have the name and the habit
;

and be not so

but to cover pride,

or

envy under the clothes

of Christ's childhood.

A

foul

thing

it

is

to

have

liking

and

delight in the words of

men who can no more
wot

deem what we
what we
he or she
lower
is
;

are in our soul than they

think.
is

For ofttimes they say that
is

in the higher degree that

in the

and

whom

they say
Therefore

is

in the lower,

in the higher.

I

hold

it

to be

but madness to be gladder or sorrier whether
they say good or
ill.

If

we be

trying to hide

us from speech and praise of this world,
will

God
For

shew
is

to us His praise,

and our

joy.

that

His joy when we are strength-full to

stand against the privy and open temptation of the devil,

and to seek nothing but

the honour and praise of Him, and that

we

might entirely praise Him.
to be our desire, our prayer

And

that ought
intent,

and our

night and day, that the

fire

of His love kindle

^bc form

of perfect UiPino.

9

our hearts, and the sweetness of His grace be

our comfort and our solace in weal and woe.

Thou

hast

now heard a

part

how

the fiend

deceives,

with his subtle

craft,

unknowing

men and women.
hope that thou
traps,

And

if

thou wilt do by
I

good counsel and follow holy teaching, as
wilt,

thou shall destroy

his

and burn

in love's fire all the
;

bands
all

that he would bind thee with

and

his

malice shall turn thee to joy, and him to

more sorrow.

God

suffers

him

to

tempt good
be the

men
help,

for their profit, that

they

may

higher

crowned,

when

they,

through

His

have overcome so cruel an enemy, that
both
in

oftentimes,

body and

soul,

con-

founds

many men.
In one manner, hurting the
in

In three manners, the devil has power to

be in a man.

good they have by nature, as

dumb men,
In

and

in others,

staining their thoughts.

another manner, snatching away the good

10

Zbc Jform

of pertect Xiving.

that they have of grace

:

and

so he

is

in sinful

men whom
of the

he has deceived through dehght
flesh,

world and of their
to hell.

and leads

them with him

In the third manner,

he torments a man's body, as we read that
he has done (to) Job.

But wit thee

well,

if

he beguile thee not within, thou needst not

dread what he
he

may

do to thee without, for

may

do no more than

God

gives

him leave

to do.

Zbc iform

of perfect Xivina.

^

CHAPTER

II.

BECAUSE
tribulation

thou hast forsaken the solace
of this world^

and the joy

and taken

thee to soHtary Hfe, for God's sake to suffer

and anguish
that
bliss

here,

and afterwards

to

come

to

which never more

ceases, I Christ,

trow truly that the comfort of Jesus
of His love, with
all

and the sweetness
of the

the

fire

Holy Ghost, that purges

sin, shall

be in thee, and with thee, leading

thee and teaching thee

how thou

shalt think,
shalt work,

how thou

shalt pray,

what thou

so that in a few years thou shalt
delight to be

have more

by thy

lone,

and to speak to

thy Love and thy Spouse Jesus Christ,
is

Who

high in heaven, than

if

thou wert lady

here of a thousand

worlds.

Men suppose

; ;

12

ZTbc J'orm of perfect XtvinG.

that

we

are in torture

and

in

penance great

but we have more joy and more very dehght
in a
life.

day than they have

in the
:

world

all

their

They

see our

body

but they see not
is.

our heart where our solace
that,

If

they saw
all

many

of

them would forsake
us.

that

they have, for to follow

Therefore, be

comforted and stalwart, and dread no annoy
or anguish
:

but fasten
life

all

thine intent in

Jesus, that thy

be good and convenient
in thee that

and look that there be nothing
should be displeasing to not soon
art in,

Him
is

that thou dost

amend
is

it.

The

state

which thou
all

which

solitude,

most able of

other to revelation of the Holy Ghost.

For

when

S.

John was

in the Isle of
secrets.

Patmos, then

God shewed him His of God it is that He
fully that

The goodness

comforts them wonderif

have no comfort of the world,

they give their heart entirely to Him, and
covet not nor seek but

Him

:

then

He

gives

Zbc Jform

of perfect XtviUQ.

13

Himself to them in sweetness and delight, in

burning of

love,

and

in

joy and
in

melody
soul,

and dwells aye with them,
so

their

that

the

comfort

of
if

Him

departs

never from them.
begin to
err,

And

they any time
frailty
;

through ignorance or
the right
of,

soon

He shews them

way

;

and

all

that they have need

He

teaches them.

No man
first

to such revelation
;

and grace on the

day may come

but through long travel

and carefulness

to love

Jesus

Christ, as

thou

shall here-afterward.
suffers

Nevertheless, then he
in sore

them

to be

tempted

manners,
aye
the

both

waking

and

sleeping.

For

more temptations and the grievouser they
stand against and overcome, the more they
shall joy in

His love when they are passed.

Waking, they are sometimes tempted with
foul

thoughts,
ire,

vile

lusts,

wicked

delights,

with pride,

envy, despair, presumption

and other many.

But

their

remedy

shall

be

:

14

^be jform
:

of perfect Xlving*
Fasting

Prayer
things,

Weeping

:

:

Waking. These

if

they be done with discretion, they
filth

put away sin and

from the

soul,

and

make

it

clean to receive the love of Jesus

Christ,
ness.

Who may

not be loved, but in clean-

Also, sometimes the fiend tempts
solitary,

men

and women, who are
in a quaint

by
:

their love

manner and a

subtle

he trans-

figures himself in the likeness of
light,

an angel of
is

and appears

to them,

and says he

one of God's angels come to comfort them,

and so he deceives

fools.

But they that are
all spirits,

wise and will not quickly trust to

but ask counsel of knowing men, he can not
beguile

them.

Also,

I

find

written
to

of

a

recluse, that

was a good woman,

whom

the ill-angel oft-times appeared in the form
of a

good angel, and said that he was come to
Wherefore, she was

bring her to heaven.
right glad

and

joyful.

But

nevertheless, she

told

it

to her Shrift-father,

and

he, as a wise

Zbc Jform
man and

of iperfect Xiving.

15

wary, gave her this counsel.

When
so,

he comes, he said, bid him that he shew thee

our Lady,

S.

Mary.

When
did

he has done
so.

say
said
:

Ave Maria.
"

She

The
;

fiend

Thou

hast no need to see her

my
that

presence suffices to thee."
all
it

And
do her

she said by

means she would
behoved him

see her.

He saw
will,

either to
:

or she

would despise him
forth

so quickly, he

brought

the fairest

woman

that might be as
to her.
said,

to her sight,
set her

and shewed

And

she

on her knees and
all

Ave Maria.

And

so quickly

vanished away, and for

shame never

after
I

came he
hope he

to her.

This

I

say not, because

shall

have leave to
I will

tempt thee

in this

manner, but because
if

that thou beware,
befall

any such temptation
or

thee

sleeping

waking,

that

thou

trust not over quickly
truth.

till

thou knowest the

More

privily he transfigures himself

into an angel of light

—that

commonly

all

1

6

Zbc jform
are

of perfect Xtvino.

men

tempted

with^

—when

he hides
that
is

ill

under the likeness of good.

And

in

two manners.

One

is,

when he

eggs us on to

over-great ease and rest of body, and softness to our flesh,
nature.
for

need to sustain our
in us
:

For such thoughts he puts

that unless
sleep well,

we
and

eat well,
lie

and drink
sit

well,

and

soft

and

warm, we can

not serve God, nor last in the labour that

we

have begun.

But he thinks
Another

to bring us to
is,

over-great pleasure.

when under

the likeness of ghostly good, he entices us to

sharp and over-great penance, for to destroy
ourselves
;

and says thus

'*
:

Thou

wot'st
for

well that he

who
and

suffers

most penance

God's

love, he shall

have most meed.
feeble

There-

fore eat little,
less,

meat

;

and drink

the thinnest drink

is

good enough to wear the
hairis

thee.
shirt

Reck not

of

sleep

:

and the habergeon.
thy
flesh,

All thing that
it
;

affliction for

do

so that there

Zbc jform

of perfect OLtving.

17

may be none that can pass He that speaks thee thus,
thee

thee in penance.
is

about to slay
;

with

over-great

abstinence

as

he

that said the other to slay thee with overlittle.

Therefore,
it

if

we

will

be rightly

dis-

posed,

behoves us to

set ourselves in

a

good mean, and that we
vices

may

destroy our

and hold our
that
it

flesh under,

and neverin

theless

should be
Christ.

stalwart

the
will

service of

Jesus

Also, our

enemy

not suffer us to be in rest when we sleep, but

then he
ners.

is

about to beguile us in

many man-

Sometimes, with ugly images, for to
us afraid and to
:

make

make

us hateful of

our state
sights

sometimes with

fair

images, fair
for

and that seem comfortable;
us glad in vain, and

to

make
we

make

us think
tells

we
us

are better than
are holy
;

we

are.

Sometimes,

and good,

for to bring us into

pride

[sometimes says we are wicked and

sinful for to

make

us

fall

into despair.]

But

1

8

^be iform
is

of perfect Xiving,

He Who

Ordainer of

all

things, suffers not
if

that our sleep be without reward to us,
dress our
well,
life

we

to

His Will.

And

wit thou
if

thou sinnest not sleeping,

waking

thou beest evermore without excess of meat

and

drink,

and without

ill-thoughts.

But

many
heart

a one the devil has deceived through

dreams, when he has

made them

set their

on them.
truth,

For he has shewn them

some

but afterwards beguiled them
false.

with one that was
wise

Therefore says the
;

man

that
fell

many

cares follow dreams

and they
fore that
I will

that hoped in them.

Where-

thou beest not beguiled with them,

that thou wit that there are six manners

of dreams.

Two
escape

are, that
:

no man, holy or
if

other,

may

they are,
over-full

their

stomach

be

over-empty

or

;

then

many
enemy.

vanities, in sore
ing.

manners, befall them sleepis

The

third
is,

of illusions of our

The fourth

of

thought

before

and of

Zbc JTorm
illusions

of iperfcct Xiving.

19

following.

And
The

the

fifth

through
is

the revelation of the Holy Ghost, that
in

done

many

a manner.

sixth

is,

of thoughts

before that are due to Christ or Holy Church,
revelation

coming

after.

manners, the image of

many dreams touches men
In thus
so

when they
shall

sleep.

But

much
which
is

the

less

we

give faith to
is

any dream, because we
truth,
is

can not wit which

false

;

which
Ghost.
are

is

of our

enemy, which

of the

Holy

For where many dreams
vanities.

are, there

many

And many

they

may

make

to err, for they set

up unwise men, and

so deceive them.

20

Zbz form

of perfect Xtving.

CHAPTER

III.

KNOW

that thy hfe

is is

given to the
it

I

service of

God.

Then

shame

to

thee, unless

thou beest as good, or better,

within thy soul, as thou art seeming in the
sight of

men.

Turn
as

therefore thy thoughts
it

perfectly to

God,

seems that thou hast
I

done thy body.

For

will

not that thou

shouldest ween that

all

are holy that have

the habit of holiness, and are not occupied

with the world.

Nor that

all

are

ill

who

discourse of earthly business.
are holy,

But they only

what

state or degree they be in,
all
;

the which despise
say, love
it

earthly things, that

is

to

not
;

and burn
all

in the love of

Jesus Christ

and

their desires are set to
all sin,

the joy of heaven, and hate

and cease

1

Zbc form

of perfect

%mm,

2

not from good works, and
their heart of the

feel

a sweetness in
:

love

without end

and

nevertheless, they think themselves vilest of
all,

and hold themselves wretchedest,
This
is

least

and lowest.
it

holy men's
if

life

;

follow
in the
for-

and be holy.

And

thou wilt be

Apostles' reward, think not
sookest, but

what thou

what thou

despisest.

For they

who
and

follow Jesus Christ in willing poverty,
in

meekness,

and

in

charity,

and

in

patience, forsake as

much

as they can covet

who how

follow

Him

not.

And
will

consider with

great

and how good

thou presentest

thy vows before
set

Him
if

:

for

on that

He

has

His eyes, and

thou with great desire
with
great

offerest

thy

prayers,

fervour

desirest to see

Him, and seekest no earthly

comfort, but the savour of Heaven, and in

contemplation

thereof

hast
in

thy

delight.

Wonderfully Jesus works

His lovers, those

whom

he reaves from the pleasure of flesh

22

Zl)c Jform of ipcrfcct Xiving.

and blood through tender

love.

He makes
and makes

them
them

to will no earthly thing,
rise to

the solace of Him, and to forget
fleshly loves of the world,

vanities

and

and

to dread no sorrow that

may

fall

:

to diminish

over-great bodily ease

:

to suffer for His love,
to be solitary they

seems to them joy

;

and
:

have great comfort

so that they be not

hindered of that devotion.
see that

Now mayst

thou

many

are worse than they seem,

and

many

are better than they seem,

and namely

among

those that have the habit of holiness.
force
thyself, in
all

Therefore

that

thou

mayest, that thou mayest be no worse than

thou seemest.

And

if

thou wilt do as

I
I

teach
hope,

thee in this short form of living,

through the grace of God, that

if

men

hold

thee to be good, thou shaft be well better.

^bc Jform

of perfect Xiving.

23

CHAPTER

IV.

AT
all

the beginning then,
to thy

bow

thee entirely

Lord Jesus
is

Christ.

That turn-

ing to Jesus

naught

else

but turning from

the covetousness and the liking and the

occupations and business of worldly things

and
thy

of fleshly lust

and

of vain love

:

so that

thought,

that

was

ever

downward,
in

burrowing in the earth, whilst thou wert
the world,
fire
;

now should be aye upward
where

like

seeking the highest place in heaven,

right to thy Spouse,
bliss.

He

sits

in

His

To Him thou
and conforms
all

art turned,
;

when His
all

grace illumines thine heart
vices,
it

and forsakes

to virtues
of

and good
compliance

manners, and to

manner

and debonairness.

And

that thou mayst last

24

^be jform
in

of perfect QLivino.

and grow

the goodness that thou hast
sorriness,

begun without slowness, and
irking of thy Kfe
;

and
thou

four things
till

shalt

have
love.

in

thy thought,

thou beest in perfect

For when thou art come thereto, thy

joy and desire will aye be burning in Christ.

One

is

:

the

measure

of thy life here, that
it

it is

so short that scarcely is
live

anything.
is

For we

but in a point

—that
liken
is
:

the least thing
life
is

that

may
aye.

be.

And
if

soothly, our
it

less

than a point,
lasts

we

to the

life

that

Another

uncertainty

of

our

ending.

For we wot never when we
die,

shall die, shall die,
;

nor where we shall

nor

how we

nor whither we shall go when we are dead

and that God
us, for

wills that this

be uncertain to
to die.

He

wills that
is
:

we be aye ready
shall

The

third

that

we

answer before the

righteous Judge, for all the time that

we have

been here, how we have

lived,

what our

occupation has been and why, and what good

Zbc form

of perfect %m\\Q.

25

we might have done when we have been
Therefore said the prophet
thee times again," that
lent us here for to
is
*'
:

idle.

He

has called

every day

He

has
in

spend

in

good

use,
If

and

penance, and in God's service.
it

we waste
full

in

earthly

love

and
be
is
:

in

vanities,

grievously

must
for

we

condemned

and

punished

;

that

one of the greatest
unless

sorrows that

may

be

we

try

manto all

fully in the love of

God, and do good

that

we may,

while our short time lasts.

And
The

every time that we think not on

God we may
lost.

count
fourth

it

as the thing that
:

we have

is

that

we think how
last in

great the joy is
love to their

that they have

who

GOD'S

ending.

For they shall be brethren and fellows

with angels and holy men, loving and thanking, praising

and seeing the King

of

Joy

in

the beauty and in the shining of His majesty.

The which
and
all

sight shall be

reward and food,

delights that

any creature may think,

26

^be iform

of perfect Xivtno*
to

and more than any can
without end.
It is

tell,

all

His lovers,

much

easier to
it.

come

to

that bliss than to describe

Also think

what pain and what sorrow and tormenting
they shall have

who

love not

God above

all

things that one sees in this world, but defile
their
life,

body

in the pleasures

and

lusts of this

in pride

and greed and other

sins

;

they

shall

burn

in the fire of hell

with the devil

whom they served, as long as God is in heaven
with His servants, that
is

evermore.

^be JTorm

of perfect Xiving.

27

CHAPTER
WILL

V.

that thou beest aye dimbing to
increasing
;

I

jESUS-ward, and
service to

thy love
;

and thy

Him
I

not as fools do

they begin in the highest degree and come

down

to the lowest.

say not that

if

thou hast

begun unreasonable abstinence that thou hold
it
;

but for

many who were

burning at the
of)

beginning and able to (capable
of

the love

Jesus

Christ,

through over-great penance

they have hindered themselves, and

made

themselves so feeble that they cannot love

God

as they should.

In the which love that
is

thou mayest wax aye more and more
coveting

my

and

my

admonition.

I

consider

28

ZTbe iform of perfect Xivincj-

thee never of the less merit
in so great abstinence
;

if

thou beest not
if

but

thou set
love

all

thy

thought

how thou mayest

thy

Spouse Jesus Christ more than thou hast
done, then dare
I

say that thy reward

is

waxing not waning.

^be form

ot perfect XiviriG,

29

CHAPTER

VI.

WHEREFORE,
and thy body, thou
things.

that thou may'st be

rightly disposed both for thy soul
shalt understand four
is
:

The

first

thing

what thing
:

defiles

a man.
clean.

The second thing

what makes him

The

third

:

what holds him in clean:

ness.
to

The fourth

what thing draws him for
will.

ordain his will entirely at GOD'S
first,

For
three

the

wit

thou
i^s

that
foul
:

we
that

sin
is

in

things that

make

with heart

and mouth and
are these
to sin
: :

deed.

The
:

sins of the heart

Ill-thought
ill
;

ill

delight
will
:

:

assent
ill

desire of

wicked
if

sus-

picion

:

undevotion

:

thou

lettest

thine

heart any time be

idle,

without occupation

of the love, of the praising of

God

:

ill

dread

:

so

Zbc Jform
love
:

of IPcrfcct Xiving*

ill

error

:

fleshly

affection
:

to

thy

friends or to other that thou lovest

joy in

any man's
or none
:

ill-faring,

whether they be enemy
of

contempt

poor or sinful
:

men

:

to

honour rich men

for their riches
:

unsuitable

joy in any world's vanity

sorrow of the
is

world

:

impatience

:

perplexity, that
for every

doubt

what

to

do and what not,

man ought
do and
ill
:

to be secure (about)

what he
:

shall

what he
noyance

shall leave

obstinacy in

an-

(at having) to
ill,

do good

:

sorrow that

he did no more

or that he did not have

that pleasure or that will of his flesh which

he

might
:

have

done

:

unstableness
:

of

thought
to

pain at penance

hypocrisy

:

love
:

please
of

men

:

dread to displease them
:

shame
wit
:

good deed

joy of

ill

deed

:

singular

desire for

honour or dignity, or to be
or

holden better than another, or richer,
fairer, or

more

to be dreaded

:

vain glory of
:

any good

of nature, of happening, or of grace

^he form
shame
of

of perfect Xtvina.

31

poor friends
all

:

pride of rich or of
alike are free before

gentle kin, for

we

God's
or

face, unless

our deeds
in

make any
spite
of

better

worse

than

another,

good

counsel and of good teaching.
the

The

sins of
:

month are these
:

:

to

swear oftentimes

forswearing

slander of Christ or of any of
to

His

Saints
;

;

name His name without
and
strife

reverence

gainsaying
;

against
for

truthfulness

murmuring against God

any anguish or trouble or tribulation that

may

befall

on earth

:

to say

God's Service
:

undevoutly and without reverence
biting
;

back:

flattering
:

:

lying
:

:

abusing

:

cursing
:

defaming

quarrelling
:

threatening
:

sow:

ing of discord

treason
:

false-witness
in

ill

counsel
to turn

:

scorn

unbuxomness
ill
:

speech

:

good deeds to
ill

to

make them be

holden

who do them

:

(we ought to wrap
in the best not the
ire
:

up our neighbours' deeds
worst)
;

exciting

any man to

reprehend-

32

Zbc iTorm
in

of perfect Xlving

ing

another what one does one's
:

self

:

vain speech
to speak idle

much
words
: :

speech

:

foul

speech

:

or to speak words not
:

needful

:

praising
:

polishing of words
:

de-

fending sin

shouting with laughter

making

grimaces at any

man
:

:

to sing secular songs
:

and
sing

to love

them

to praise ill-deeds

to

more

for the glory of
:

men than
gluttony
:

of

God.
:

The sins

of deed are these
:

lechery
:

drunkenness

simony
:

:

witch-craft
sacrilege
:

break-

ing of the holy-days

:

to receive
:

God's Body
apostacy
set his
:

in

deadly sin

breaking of vows

dissipation in
of
ill

God's service
to hurt

:

to
in
:

example

deeds

:

any man

body, or in his goods, or in his fame
:

theft

rapine
:

:

usury
to

:

deceit
ill
:

:

selling

of

righteousness
harlots
:

hearken

to

give to

to

withhold necessaries from the
give
it

body,

or

to
is

to excess

:

to begin a
:

thing that
sin
:

above our might
:

custom to

falling often into sin

feigning of

more

tTbe Jform of ipcrfcct Xivincj.

32,

good than we have

:

for to

seem hoher, more
:

learned and wiser than
that

we
:

are

to hold office

we do not

suffice to

or to hold one that
:

cannot be held without
to bring

sin
:

to lead dances

:

up new fashions
:

to be rebellious

against one's Sovereign
are less
:

to insult those

who

to sin in sight, in hearing, in smell-

ing, in touching, in handling, in

swallowing
:

:

in

means

:

in signs

:

in beggings

writings.
is

To

receive the circumstances, that

to say

time, place, manner, number, person, dwelling,

knowledge, age, that makes thee sin more

or

less.

To

desire a sin or to be
sin.

tempted

:

to

constrain one to
are
of

Other
is,

many
the

sins there

omission,
:

that

of

leaving

good

undone

when men

leave

good they

should do.
dreading,

Not thinking about God, nor

nor praising Him, nor thanking His
gifts
:

Him

for

to do not all that one
:

does for love of
sins as

God

to sorrow not for one's
:

one should do

not to dispose one's
D

34

^be jform

of perfect Xiving.

self to receive grace.

And

if

one have taken
;

grace, not to use
it
:

it

as one ought

not to keep

to turn not to the inspiration of
will to

God
:

:

to

conform not one's

God's

will

to give

not attention to one's prayers, but mutter

on and never reck save that they be said
to

;

do negligently what one was bound by
to do, or
:

vow
in

by command,
to

or else enjoined
at

penance

draw out
:

length what

should be done soon
neighbour's
profit

having no joy at one's
at

as

one's
:

own
not

;

not not

sorrowing
against

at

his

ill-faring
:

standing

temptations

forgiving
:

those

who have done one harm
did to one's

keeping not faith

with one's neighbour as one would that he
self
:

and yielding not a good
one can.
:

deed

for

another

if

Amending not
not appeasing
are

those sins before one's eyes
strifes
:

not
:

teaching

them that

un-

learned

not comforting them that are in

sorrow^ or in sickness, or in poverty, or in

^be form

of perfect ILiviua.

35

penance, or in prison.
others

These

sins,

and many
that cleanse

make men
filth,

foul.

The things

us of that

are three, against these three

manners

of

sins.

The

first

is

:

sorrow
:

of

heart against the sin of thought
it

and that

behoves (thee

to)

be so perfect that thou

beest in full will never to sin more.

And
thy

that
sins.

thou mayest have sorrow

for

all

And
and

that
in

all

joy and solace, except of
of thine heart.
;

God
The

God, be put out
is
:

second
of

shrift of

mouth

against the sin

mouth.

And

that shall be hasty, without

delaying.

Naked, without excusing.
Also (not) for to

Whole,
tell

without parting.
sin

one

to
all

one priest and another to another.
that thou wottest to one, or else thy
is
;

Say

shrift

not worth.

The Third

is.

Satis-

faction

that has three parts. Fasting, Prayer,

and Aims-Deed.

Not only
:

to give poor

men
and

meat and drink

but to forgive them that
for

do thee wrong and pray

them

:

36

Zlbe jTorm ot perfect Xivina.

inform them

who

are at the point to perish
do.

what they

shall

For the third thing,

thou shalt wit that cleanness behoves to be
kept in heart, in mouth and in work.
ness of heart, three things keep
ful
is,
:

Clean-

one

is,

watch-

thought and stable about God.

Another
all

care to keep thy five wits, so that
stirrings of

the

wicked
flesh.

them be
honest

closed out of the

The

third,

and

profitable

occupation.
things

Also, cleanness of mouth, three
:

keep

one

is

that

thou should'st

bethink thee before thou speakest.
is

Another
little

that thou beest not of great but of
;

speech

and

specially ever

till

thine heart be
:

established in the love of Jesus Christ

so

that

men

think thou ever lookest on Him,

whether thou speakest or not.

But such a
first

grace may'st thou not have on the

day

:

but with long travel and great care to love

Him

from habit, so that the eye of thine

heart be aye upward, shalt thou come thereto.

Zbc form
The
for
third,

of iperfect Xiving.

37

that thou for nothing, not even
fie
iff

meekness, shaft
fie
is

to

any man.

For
wiff.

every

sin

and

:

and not God's
alf

Thou needest not
unfess

teff

the truth afways,
aff
iies.

thou

wiifest.

But hate

If

thou sayest a thing of thyseff that seems to
thy praise, but thou sayst
it

to the praise of

God and
wiii

heip of another, thou dost not un-

wisefy for thou speakest truth.

But
to

if

thou

have aught private,

teff it

none but
it

such a one that thou beest secure that

shouid
the

not be shewed (disclosed) but only to
praise of

God,

of

whom

is

all

goodness, and

who makes some
them

better than others,

and gives

special grace, not only for themselves,
will
of

but also for them that
example.
keep.

do well after their
three

Cleanness
is
:

work,

things
:

One

a careful thought of death

for the wise

man
flee

says

;

" Bethink thee of

thy

last

ending, and thou shalt not sin."
:

The second

from

ill

fellowship,

that

3S

tTbc jform of perfect Xtvincj.

gives

more example

to love the world
filth of
is
:

than

God, earth than heaven,
cleanness of soul.

body than
temperance

The

third

and

discretion in

meat and drink
nor

:

that

it

be

neither

to

excess,

beneath

suitable

sustenance for thy body.

For both come to
:

one end
neither

:

excess and over-great fasting

for
will
If

is

God's

will

—and
of

that

many
say.

not suppose, for anything one

may

you take sustenance

such good as

God
it

sends for the time and the day, whatever
be, I take out

no manner of meat that Chris;

tian

men

use

with measure and discretion,
;

thou dost well
Apostles.
If

for so did Christ

and His

you leave many meats that men

have, not despising the meat that

God

has

made

for

man's

help,

but

because

thou

thinkest thou hast no need thereof, thou dost
well
:

if

thou seest that thou art stalwart to
it

serve

God, and that
if

breaks not thy stomach.
it

For

thou hast broken

with over-great

^be ifonn
abstinence,

of {perfect Xivincj.

39

appetite for

meat

is

reft

from

thee
as
if

:

and often

shalt thou be in trembhngs,

thou wert ready to give up the ghost.
deed.
thine

And wit thou well, thou didst sin that And thou may'st not wit soon whether
abstinence

be

against

thee,

or
I

with thee.
counsel thee

For the time thou art going,

that thou should'st eat better and more, as
it

comes, that thou beest not beguiled.

afterward,
things,

when thou

hast

And proved many
than thou
be to be

and overcome many temptations, and

knowest better thyself and
didst, then
if

God
it

thou seest

that

done, thou mayst take to greater abstinence.

And meanwhile thou mayst do privy penance which all men need not know. Righteousness
is

not

all

in fasting or in eating.
if

But

thou art righteous,
poverty
delights

contempt and
hunger

praise,

and

riches,

and need or
to thee.
I

and

dainties be

all alike

If

thou takest these with love of God,

hold

40
thee

Zbc Jform
blessed

of perfect Xlvino

and high before Jesus.

Men

who come

to thee,

they love thee because

they see thy great abstinence, and because
they see thee enclosed
:

but

I I

may

not love

thee so lightly for anything

see thee

do

without, but
to

if

thy

will

be conformed entirely

God's

will.

And

set not

by

their praise
if

and blame, and never give thou heed
speak
less

they

good

of thee

than they did
in

;

but

that thou shouldest be
love than thou wert.

more burning

God's

For one thing

I

warn

thee

:

I

hope that

God

has no perfect servant

in earth

without enemies of some
has no

men

—For
to
:

only wretchedness

enemy.
will to

For

draw us

that

we conform our

GOD'S

will

are three things.

One

is,

example of holy
intent, night

men and women, who were
Him.

and
love

day, to serve God, and dread

Him and
is

n we

follow
in

them on
heaven.

earth,

we must
the

be with them

Another

goodness of our Lord, which despises none.

Zbc jform

of ipcrfect Xiving.

41

but gladly receives

all

that

come

to

His

mercy

:

and He

is

homelier to them than

brother or
love,

sister, or

any friend that they most
in.

or

most

trust

The

third

is

the

wonderful joy of the kingdom of heaven,

which

is

more than tongue may

tell,

or heart
hear.

may

think, or eye

may

see, or ear

may

It is so great that, as in hell

nothing might

live for great pain

but that the might of
to die
;

God

suffers

them not
Jesus
in

so the joy in the
is

sight of

His GoD-head
if it

so great that
for

they must die of joy,
goodness,

were not

His

who

wills
bliss

that His lovers should
:

be living aye in
wills

also His righteousness

that

all

who loved Him
which
is

not, be aye

living in

fire,
:

horrible to
it

any man
is

that thinks

look then what
will

to feel.

But they who
it

not think of
it

it

and dread

now, they

shall suffer

evermore.

Now
I

hast thou heard
life,

how thou mayst
to

dispose thy

and

rule

it

God's

will.

But

wot

42

Zbc iform

of perfect Xiving.

well that thou desirest to hear

some

special

point of the love of Jesus Christ, and of

contemplative
thee in
all

life,

which thou hast taken to
sight.

men's

(According) As
I will

I

have grace and knowledge,

teach thee.

Zbc JFonn

of perfect Xiving.

43

CHAPTER

VII.

A
is
if

MORE LANGUEO.
^

These

two words

are written in the

Book

of Love^ that

called the

Song

of Love, or the

Song

of

Songs.

For he that loves greatly,

lists

often

to sing of his love, for joy that he or she has

when they think on
their love be true

that they love, specially

and

loving.
:

And
"I
earth

this

is

the English of these two words
for

languish

love."

Separate

men on

have

separate gifts and graces of God, but the
special gift of those
is

who

lead the solitary

life,

for to love
*

Jesus
love

Christ.

Thou
But

sayest to

me,

All

men

Him who
is

keep His comall

mandments.'

That

Truth.

men
His

who keep His bidding keep
Counsel.

not also

And
the

all

that do His Counsel are
of His love,

not nor

all fulfilled

by the sweetness
of

feel

fire

burning love of heart.

44

Zbc iform

of perfect Xivino-

Therefore, the diversity of love
diversity of hohness

makes the
In heaven,
in love, are

and

of need.

the angels

who

are

most burning

nearest to God.

Also,

men and women

that

have most

of

God's
;

love,

whether they do

penance or none

they shall be in the highest
:

degree in heaven
in

they
If

who

love

Him

less,

the

lower

order.

thou lovest

Him

much, great joy and sweetness and burning
thou
feelest in

His love, that

is

thy comfort
thy love be
thy delight.

and strength night and day.
not burning in

If
is

Him For Him may no man
:

little

feel in

joy and sweetfilled

ness, unless they be clean

and

with His

love

;

and thereto

shalt

thou come with

great travail in prayer

and thanking, having
all

such meditations as are
the praising of God.

on the love and
art at

And when thou

thy meal, ever love

God

in

thy thought, at
in thine heart be
:

each moment, and say thus

Loved

be

Thou, King

:

and thanked

Thou,

^be form

of perfect Xiving

45

King, and blessed be Thou, King,

my
me

joying,
spilt

of

all

Thy good

gifts

:

JESU Who

all

for

Thy

blood,

and died on

the rood.

Do
Thy

Thou
praise.
eatest,

give

me

grace to sing the song of

And

think

it

not only whiles thou
after,

but both before and

and ever
if

when thou prayest

or speakest.

Or

thou

hast other thoughts, that thou

hast more

sweetness in and devotion than in those that
I

teach thee, thou may'st think them.

For

I

hope that

thine heart,

God will as He is
for.

put such thoughts in
pleased with, and as

thou art ordained
look not
well
:

When

thou prayest,
but

how much thou

sayest,

how

that the love of thine heart be aye

upward, and thy thought on what thou sayst
as

much

as thou

canst.

If
all

thou beest in
the day,
I

prayers and meditations
well that thou
of

wot

must wax greatly
and
feel

in the love

Jesus

Christ,

much

of delight,

and

within short time.

46

Zbc jform

of {Perfect Uivino.

CHAPTER

VIIL
tell

THREE
for I

degrees of love I shall

thee,

would that thou mightest win

to

the highest.

The

first

degree

is

called

Insuperable.
third
is,

The second

Inseparable.
is

The

Singular.

Thy
is it

love

Insuperable,

when nothing
overcomes
it
:

that

contrary to God's love
is

but

stalwart against

all

temptations

;

and

stable,

whether thou beest

in ease or in anguish, or in health or in sick-

ness

:

so that

men

think that thou wouldest
all

not, even to have

the world without end,

make God angry
wert
liefer, if

at

any time

:

and thou
all

so

it

should be, to suffer

the

pain and woe that might come to any creature,
before thou wouldst do the thing that should
displease

Him,

In this manner shall thy love

Zhc jform
be

of (Perfect Xtvino.

47

Insuperable that nothing can bring
it

it

down, but
is

may
who

aye spring on high.
is

Blessed

he or she

in this degree

:

but yet

are they blesseder

who might
to

hold to this
that
is

degree

and turn

the

other,
is

to

Inseparable.
all

Inseparable

thy love, when

thine heart,
is

and thy thought, and thy

might

so wholly, so entirely

and so perfectly
in

fastened, set

and established

Jesus

Christ,

that thy thought comes never from

Him,
:

never departs from Him, sleeping excepted

and as soon

as thou awakest, thine heart is

on Him, saying Ave Maria, or Gloria Tibi^
Domine, or Pater Noster, or Miserere mei,

Deus,

if

thou hast been tempted

in

thy sleep

;

or thinking on His love

and His

praise as

thou didst waking.

When

thou canst at no

time forget Him, waking or sleeping, whatso

thou dost or sayst, then
separable.

is

thy love In-

Full great grace have they that

be in this degree of love.

And methinks

48

Zhc iTorm
who

of perfect Xlvincj.

that thou,
for to love

hast nothing else to do but
if

God, mayst come thereunto
it.

any

may

get

The

third

degree

is

highest
is

and most

wondrous
for
all
it

to win.

That

called Singular,
is

has no peer.

Singular love
is

when

comfort and solace

closed out of thine

heart, but of
it

Jesus Christ alone.

Other joy

delights not in.
is

For the sweetness of
so comforting,

Him

in this degree

and

lasting

in His love, so burning

and gladdening, that
can as well

he or she
feel

who

is

in this degree

the

fire

of love burning in their soul, as

thou canst
it

feel

thy finger burn

if if

thou puttest
it

in the fire.

But that
and

fire,

be hot,

is

so delectable
tell it.

so wonderful, that I cannot
is

Then, thy soul

loving Jesus, think;

ing of Jesus, desiring Jesus
of

in

covetousness
:

Him

breathing
;

;

to

Him

singing

of

Him
of

burning
praise

in

Him
of

resting.

Then the song

and

love

has come.

Then, thy

Zbc Jform

of perfect

Xivmo.

49

thought turns into song and into melody.

Then

it

behoves thee to sing the psalms
said'st.

which before thou

Then must thou
Then, thou wilt
for

be long over a few psalms.

think death sweeter than honey,

then

thou art
lovest.

full of sighs to see

Him whom
say

thou
"
I

[Then mayst thou boldly

languish for love."]

Then mayst thou say

"

I

sleep,

and

my

heart wakes."

In

the

first

degree,
I

men may

say

"

I

languish for love," or "

long in love."
:

And

in the second degree also
is

for languishing

when men

fail for

sickness,
fail

and they who
from
all

are in these

two degrees

the

covetousness of this world, and from lust and
liking of sinful
their
life,

and

set

their will

and

heart

to

the
"
I

love of

God — therefore
and

they

may

say

languish for love,"

much more
than
third degree

that are in the second degree

in the first.
is

But the
burning

soul that
fire,

is

in the

all

and

like the

50

Zbc

Jfortn of {Perfect Xiving.

nightingale that loves song and melody, and
fails for

great love

:

so that the soul

is only-

comforted in praising and loving
till

God

;

and

Death come,
in Jesus,

is

singing ghostly to Jesus,
;

and

and Jesus

not crying bodily

with the mouth
I

—of

that

manner

of singing
evil

speak not, for both good and

have

that song.

And

this

manner

of

song have

none unless they be
love
:

in this third degree of
it is

to the

which degree

impossible to

come, but in a great multitude of love.
fore,
if

There-

thou wilt wot what kind of joy that
I tell

song has,
he or she
loves

thee, that
feels
it,

no

man

wots, save

who

who has

it,

and who
tell

God

singing therewith.

One thing

I thee, it is of

heaven, and

God

gives

it

to

whom He
coming
the

will,

but not without great grace

before.

Who
all

has

it,

he thinks
of

all

song and but

the

minstrelsy

earth

naught
thereto.

sorrow

and

woe

(compared)

In sovereign rest shall they be

who

Zbc jform
get
of
it.

of ipcrfect Xiving.

51

Wanderers and brawlers, and keepers
late

comers and goers early and

night
sin

and day, or any who are seized with any
witfully
in

and

willingly, or

who have

delight

any earthly

thing, they are also farther
is
:

therefrom than heaven
the
first

from earth.
in

In

degree, are
full

many

the second

degree are

few
:

;

but in the third degree aye the greater
it

are scarcely

any

for

is

the

perfection the fewer followers
first

has.

In the

degree,

men

are likened to the stars, in

the second to the moon, in the third to the
sun.

Therefore says

S.

Paul

:

" Others of

the sun, others of the moon, others of the
stars," so
it is
if

of the lovers of

God.

In this

third degree,
shalt
yet.

thou mayst win thereto, thou
I

know

of

more joy than

have told thee

And among

other affections and songs,
this in thine

thou mayst, in thy longing, sing
heart to thy Lord Jesus^

when thou dost
going
:

covet His coming and

th}/

"

When

52

Zbc Jform
Thou come
and
to

of perfect Xtvinci.

wilt

comfort

me

:

and bring me

out of care,
see,
it

give

me

Thee,

Whom

I may
shall

having evermore ?

My

heart

when

hurst ? for love then languished I no more.
love

For

my

thought has fast, and I
still

am

fain

to

fare away. I stand
of lore
;

mourning for the
;

loveliest

...
day
;

* is love-longing

it

draws

me
for

to
it

my

The brand
aye
:

of sweet

burning

holds
:

me
I

From

place

and from
sweet One^
be
love

playing

till

may

get sight of

my

Who

never wends

away.
or

In wealth
night.

our
is

waking,

without hurt

My

everlasting,

and longs unto
*

that sight.''

The

text

is

imperfect here.

^be Jform

of perfect Xtving.

53

CHAPTER

IX.

IF

thou wilt be well with God, and have
grace to rule thy
life,

and come

to the
it

joy of love
fast in

:

this

name Jesus,
it

fasten

so of

thy heart that

come never out

thy thought.

And when thou
in

speakest to

Him, and through custom
shall

sayst,
;

Jesus,

it

be in thine ear, joy
;

thy mouth,
:

honey

and

in

thine

heart,

melody

for

men

shall think joy to hear that
it,

name be

named, sweetness to speak
to think
it.

mirth and song
(on)
it

If

thou

thinkest
it

Jesus
purges

continually,

and boldest

firmly,
;

thy

sin,

and kindles thine heart
it

it clarifies

thy soul,
slowness.
charity.

removes anger and does away

It
It

wounds

in

love

and

fulfils

chases the devil, and puts

out

54

Zbc jTorm
It

of IPcrfcct Xiving.

dread.

opens heaven^ and makes a con-

templative man.
that puts
all

Have Jesus

in

mind, for

vices

and phantoms out from

the lover.

and

night.

And often hail Mary, both day Much love and joy shalt thou
Thou
:

feel, if

thou wilt do after this teaching.

need'st not covet greatly

many books

hold

love in thine heart and work, and thou hast
all

that

we can say
is

or write

:

for fulness of

the law

charity

:

on that hangs everything.


Ebc jform
of perfect Xtving.
55

CHAPTER

X.

BUT now,
"
tell

thou mayst ask
so

Thou speakest
What
is

me and say, much of love
is

;

me
I

love,

and where
verily.

love.

And how
that

I shall

love

GOD
I
love

may know
I

that

love

And how Him. And in
These are

what

state

may most
am.

Him."

hard questions to teach, to a feeble
fleshly as I
I

man and
therefore,

But nevertheless

shall not delay that I shall

not shew

my

wit,

and as

I

think

it

may
is

be.

For

I

hope

in the help of Jesus,

who

the well of love

and peace and sweetness.
is
:

Thy

first
:

asking
is

What

is love ?

And

I

answer

Love

a burning yearning after God,' with a wonderful delight

and
Light

certainty.
clarifies

God

is

light
;

and

burning.

our reason

burn-

56

^he Jform

of perfect Xiving.

ing kindles our will, that

we

desire

naught

but Him.
the
loving

Love

is

a

life,

joining together

and the loved.
to

For meekness

makes us sweet
God.
is

God.

Purity joins us to

Love makes us one with God.
all

Love
is

the beauty of

virtues.

Love

the

thing through which

God

loves us,

and we

Him, and each one
is

of us loves others.

Love

the desire of the heart, aye thinking on
it it

that

loves

;

and when

it

has that

it

loves,

then

joys

and nothing can make

it

sorry.

(Love

is

yearning between two, with lasting-

ness of thoughts.)
soul for to love

Love

is

a stirring of the
Himself, and
all

God
;

for

other things for
it

God

the which love,
it

when
all

is

ordained in God,

does

away
is

in-

ordinate love in anything that

not good.

But

all

deadly sin
is

is

inordinate love for a
:

thing that
all

naught

then love puts out
a virtue which
soul.
is

deadly

sin.

Love

is

the

Tightest affection of

man's

Truth

may

Zbc form
be without love
it.
:

of perfect Xiving.

57

but

it

cannot help without

Love

is

a perfection of learning, virtue
fruit

of prophecy,

of

truth,

help of sacra;

ments, establishing of wit and knowledge
riches of pure

men
is.

;

life

of

dying men.

So,
;

how good
if

love
all
;

If

we

suffer to

be slain
to

we

give

that
if

we have, (down)
as

a

beggar's staff

we know

much
is

as

men

may know on
ask

earth, all this

naught but
If

ordained sorrow and torment.

thou wilt

how good
loves
;

is

he or she, ask

how much he
tell.

or she

and that no man can
folly to

For
that

I

hold

it

judge a man's heart

;

none

knows
turning

save

God.
all

Love

is

a

righteous

from

earthly

things,

and

is

joined to God, without departing, and
fire

kindled with the
far

of

the

Holy Ghost

:

from

defiling, far

from corruption, bound

to

no vice of

this

life.

High above

all fleshly

lusts,

aye ready and greedy for the conIn
all

templation of God.

things not over-

^bc Jform
come.

of IPerfcct Xivtng.

The

sum

of

all

good

affections.

Health of good manners

;

goal of the com;

mandments
virtues.

of

God

;

death of sins

life

of

Virtue whilst fighting

lasts,

crown

of

over-comers.
that,

Mirth*

to

holy

thoughts.

Without

no

man may
sins.
is

please

God

;

with that, no
in all

man

For

if

we

love

God

our heart, there
sin.
it

nothing in us through

which we serve
soul,

Very love cleanses the
from the pain
of hell,

and

delivers

and from the

foul service of sin,
;

and from the
and
(out) of

ugly fellowship of the devils

the fiend's son, makes God's son, and partner
of the heritage of heaven.

We

shall force

ourselves

to

clothe us in love,
fire,

as

iron

or

coal does in the

as the air does in the

sun, as the wool does in the dye. so clothes itself in
fire

The
fire.
it

coal

that

it

is

The
light.

air so clothes itself in the

sun that

is

*

Two MSS.

substitute

"arms"

for

"mirth."

Zbc Jform
And
that

o! perfect Xivin^,

59

the wool so substantially takes the dye
it

is

like

it.

In this manner shall a
Christ

true lover of Jesus
shall so

do

:

his

heart

burn
fire

in love, that it shall

be turned
all fire
;

into the

of love,

and be

as

it

were

and he
of

shall so shine in virtues that
shall

no part

him

be

murky

in vices.
is is
:

The second asking

Where

is

love ?

And
his

the answer

:

love
;

in thine heart,

and

in the will of

man
*'

not in his hand, nor in
to say, not in his work,

mouth

:

that

is

but

in his soul,

For

many

speak good and
:

do good, and love not

God

as hypocrites,
in

who

suffer great penance,
sight.

and seem holy

man's

But because they seek
of

praise

and honour
lost their

men, and favour, they have
:

meed

and

in the sight of

God,

they are devil's sons, and ravishing wolves.

But

if

a

man
God

give alms-deed,

and take him
a sign that

to poverty

and do penance,
:

it is

he loves

but therefore loves he

Him

6o

Zbc

iforni of ipcrfcct Xivino.

not, save
for

when he
love,

forsakes the world only
sets all his

God's

and
all

thought on
:

God, and loves

men
to

as himself

and

all

the good deeds that he

may

do,

he does
Christ,

them with

intent

please

Jesus

and to come
he loves

to the rest of heaven.
:

Then

God
his

and that love

is

in his soul,
If

and so

deeds

shew without.

thou

speakest good and doest good,
that thou lovest good
:

men suppose

therefore look well

that thy thought be in God, or else thou
deceivest
thyself,
I

and

deceivest

men.

Nothing that
that
I

do without (outside) proves

love God.

For a wicked
penance
as
I

in

body,

man might do as much as much waking and fasting
I

do.

How may

then ween that

I

love,

or hold myself better,

on account
?

of

that

which any

man may do
it

Certainly,

my
may

heart, whether

loves
for

my God

or not, wots

no one but God,

nought that they

Zbc Iform
see

of perfect Xiving.

6i

me

do.

Wherefore, love

is

in will verily,

not in work, but in a sign of love.

For he

that says he loves God, and will not do what
is

in

him
will

to

shew

love, tell

him that he

lies.

Love

not be
If
it

idle, it is

working some good
wit

evermore.
that
it

cease

working,

thou

cools

and goes away.
is
:

The
love

third asking
?
I

How
Very

shall

I

verily
is

God

answer
all

;

love

to
:

love
all

Him
thine

with

thy might, stalwartly
wisely
:

in

heart,

in

all

thy

soul,

devoutly

and sweetly.

Stalwartly

can

no
is

man

love

Him
who

save he be stalwart.
is

He

stalwart,

meek

;

for
;

all

ghostly

strength comes of meekness the Holy Ghost
ness
?

—on whom rests
soul.
in

in

a

meek

Meekall

governs

us

and keeps us

our

temptations, so that they overcome us not.

But the

devil deceives

many

that are meek,

through tribulations, and reproofs, and backbitings.

But

if

thou beest wroth for any

62

Zbc Jorm

of perfect XtviuG.

anguish of this world, or for any word that

men
love

say of thee, or for aught that

men

say

to thee, thou art not

meek, nor mayst thou

God

stalwartly.

For love

is

stalwart as

death,
earth,

which slays every

living

thing

on

and hard
are

as hell that spares not

them

And he who loves God perfectly grieves Him not, whatever shame but he has delight or anguish he may suffer
that dead.
;

and covets that he might be worthy
suffer

for to

torment and pain

for

Christ's

love

:

and he has joy that men reprove him and
speak
ill

of him.

Like a dead man, what so
Right-so,
are

men do
stirred

or say, he answers not.
perfectly,

whoso loves God
for

they

not
say.

any word that man may
love, that

For he or she cannot

cannot suffer

pain or anger for their friend's love.

For

whoso
or

loves, they

have no pain.

Proud men

women

love not stalwartly, for they are

so weak,

and they

fall

at every stirring of

Zbc jform
the wind that
is

of perfect Uivincj.

63

temptation.
;

They seek a
they
will

higher place than Christ
their will done,

for
it

have

whether

be with right or

with wrong

:

and Christ

wills that

nothing

but well be done, and without harm to other

men.
have

But who

is

verily

meek, they

will

not

their will in this world,

but that they
nothing

may have it in the other fully. In may men sooner overcome the devil
Meekness,

than

in

which he much hates.
fast

For he

may

wake, and

and

suffer
:

pain more

than any other creature

may

but meekness
it

and love may he not have.
thee to love

Also,

behoves

God

wisely,

and that thou canst

not do save thou beest wise.

Thou

art wise,

when thou

art poor without

desire

of this
:

world, and despisest thyself for love of Christ

and expendest
in

all

thy wit and

all th}/

might

His service.

For some who seem wise are

most

fools, for all their

wisdom they

spill in If

covetousness and care about the world.

64

Zbc ifonn

of Iperfcct Xivincj.

thou sawest a

man have

precious

stones
if

wherewith he might buy a kingdom,
gave them
for

he

an apple, as a child

will do,

rightly mightest thou say that he

was not

wise but a great fool.

Just
:

so,

if

we

will,

we

have

precious

stones

Poverty

and

penance and ghostly

travail,

with the which
For,

we may buy the kingdom
if

of heaven.

thou lovest poverty and despisest riches
delights of this world,
vile

and
self

and boldest thy-

and poor, and thinkest thou hast
sin
:

naught of thyself save

for this poverty,

thou shalt have riches without end.
if

And

thou hast sorrow

for thy sins,

and because

thou art so long in exile out of thy country,

and forsakest the solace
shalt

of this

life

:

thou

have
if

for this

sorrow the joy of heaven.
travail,

And

thou beest in

and punishest thy

body reasonably and
fastings,

wisely,

by wakings,

and

in

prayers

and meditations,
cold,

and

sufferest

heat

and

hunger

and

Zbc jform
thirst, privation

of perfect Utving,

65

and anguish
for this

for the love of

Jesus Christ

;

travail

thou shalt

come

to rest that lasts aye,

and

sit

on a

settle

of joy with angels.

But some there

are

who

love not wisely, like children

who love an apple,

more than a

castle.

So do

many

;

they give

the joy of heaven for a
flesh,

little

delight of their

that
see,

is

not worth a plum.

Now

canst
it

thou

that

whoso

will

love

wisely,

behoves him to love lasting things, lastingly

;

and passing

things,

passingly

;

so that his

heart be settled and fastened on nothing but

God.

And

if

thou wilt love Jesus verily,

thou shalt not only love
wisely, but also devoutly

Him
and
is

stalwartly
sweetly.

and

Sweet

love

is

when thy body

chaste and thy
is
;

thought clean.
offerest

Devout love

when thou
to

thy prayers and thy thoughts

God

with ghostly joy, and burning heart in
;

the heat of the Holy Ghost

so that

men
F

think that thy soul

is

as

it

were drunken for

66

Zbc form
and

of perfect OlivinG.

delight

solace of the sweetness of

Jesus

;

and thy heart conceivest so much of God's help
that

men

think thou mayst never be departed
:

from
rest

Him

and then thou comest into such
in soul,

and peace

and

quiet, without
if

thoughts of vanity,

(or) of vices, as

thou

wert in silence and sleep, and set in Noe's
ship, so that nothing

may
love.

hinder thee from

devotion

and sweet
'

For thou hast
life,

gotten His love

:

all

thy

until

death
art

come,

in

joy and comfort
:

:

and thou
rests in

verily Christ's lover

and he

peace

whose place

is

made

in peace.
:

The fourth asking was
know

how thou
and

mightest
I

that thou wast in love
:

charity.

answer

that no

man
;

wots on earth that
it

they are in charity

save

be through any

privilege or special grace that

God
all

has given

to

any man or woman

not take example by.

may Holy men and women
:

that

others

trow that they have truth and hope and

Zbc yorm
charity
:

of perfect Xiving.

67

and

in that

do as well as they may,
shall
if

and hope certainly that they
they wot
their
it

be safe

;

not so quickly

;

for

they wish,

merit
it is

were

the

less.

And Solomon
men and
in

says

so with righteous
their

wise

men, and that
hand.

works are
a

God's

And

nevertheless,

man

wots not
;

whether he be worthy hatred or love
all
is

but

reserved uncertain for another world.
if

Nevertheless,

any had grace that he might
love,

win to the third degree of
called Singular, he should
in
love.

which

is

know

that he was

But

in

such

manner were

the

knowing, that he might never bear himself
the higher, nor be in less care to love

God

;

but so

much

the more that he

is

secure of

love, will he be

busy to love

Him and
is

dread

Him,

Who

has

made him
;

so,

and done that
so high, he

goodness to
will

Him

and he that

not hold himself worthier than the sin-

fullest

man

that goes on earth.

Also seven

'

68

Hbc Jform

of perfect Hiving.

experiments are there, that a
charity.

man
all

be in

The

first

is

;

when
is

covetousin

ness of earthly things

quenched
is,

him.

For whereso covetousness
Christ.

is

no love of

Then,
that

if

he have no covetousness,

sign

is

he has love.
for

The second
For

is,

r

burning

yearning
felt

heaven.

when

men have

aught of that savour, the more
:

they love, the more they covet
that has not
felt,
is

and he

he desires not.

Therefore,
till

when anyone

given so much,

he love
life
:

thereof (so) that he can find no joy in his

token has he that he
is
;

is

in charity.

The

third

if

his

tongue be changed, that was wont
;

to speak of earth
of the life

now

speaks of God, and

that lasts aye.

The fourth
As
if

is

:

exercise of ghostly profit.

any man or
God's

woman
services,

give

themselves entirely to

and meddle with no earthly
:

business.

The
itself

fifth is

when

the thing that

is

hard of

seems

light for to

do

;

the which love

^bc Jfonn
makes.

of perfect Xtvtncj.
"

69

For as Austin says
far

:

Love

it

is

which brings the

thing

near-to-hand,
possible."

and the impossible

to the openly

The
all

sixth

is

:

hardness of thought to suffer

anguish and hurt that comes
all

—without
man

this,

the other suffices not.
shall not
is

For whatso

befalls

him

make

a righteous

sorry.

For he who
;

righteous, hates naught

but sin

he loves naught but God, before

God
he
is

:

he dreads naught but to anger God.
is
:

The seventh

delectability in soul,

when

in tribulation,

and makes praise
suffers.

to

God

in the anger that

he

And
love

this

shews

well that he loves

God, when no sorrow can
For
;

bring him down.

many
in

God

while

they are at ease
grumble, and
scarcely
fall

and

adversity they

into so great sorriness, that

may any man
God,

comfort them

:

and

so slander they

striving

and fighting
that
is

against His judgments.

And

caitiff
:

praise that an}^ wealth of the world

makes

/o

Zbc Jfoim

of perfect Xivin^.
that no

but that praise

is

of

great

price

violence of sorrow can do away.

The

fifth

asking was

:

In what

state

men

may
as
it

most love

be that

GOD ? men are
this

I

answer, in such state

in

most

rest of

body and

soul^

and

least occupied

with any needs or

business

of

world.

For the

thought

of the love of Jesus Christ, and of the joy

that lasts aye, seeks outward rest, so that
it

be not hindered

b}^

comers and goers, and
;

occupation of worldly things

and

it

seeks

within great silence from the annoyances of
desires,

and

of

vanities,

and

of

earthly

thoughts.

And
life

especially, all

who

love con-

templative
soul.

they seek rest in body and
great

For

a

Doctor

says

:

"
in

They
one
in

are

God's throne who dwell

still

place,

and are not running about, but

sweetness of Christ's love are fixed."
I

And

have loved

for to sit
I

:

for

no penance, nor

fantasy, nor that

wished

men

to talk of

Zbc jTorm
me, nor
I

of perfect Xivino*

71

for

no such thing
I

:

but only because
more, and longer
:

knew

that

loved
the

God

lasted

within

comfort of love

than
sitting

going, or standing, or kneeling.

For

am

I

in

most

rest,

and

my

heart most upit is

ward.

But

therefore,

peradventure,
sit,

not best that another should
will

as I did

and

do to

my

death, save he were disposed

in his soul, as I was.

72

Zbc jform

of perfect XiviuG.

CHAPTER XL

SEVEN

gifts

of the

Holy Ghost are

in

men and women who
world righteously.

are ordained to
life
:

the joy of heaven and lead their

in this

These they are
:

Wis:

dom

:

Understanding
:

Counsel

:

Strength
of

Knowledge

Pity

and the Fear
is

GOD.

Begin we at Counsel, for thereof
at

most need

the

beginning of our works, which
not
afterwards.

we

dislike
gifts,

With

these

seven

the Holy Ghost touches separate

men

separately.

Counsel

is

doing away with the
all

world's riches, delights, and

things with

which men
deed
:

may

be ensnared in thought or
(i.e.

and therewith

Counsel) be

drawn
Under-

inwardly to contemplation of God.
standing
is,

to

know what

is

for to do,

and

Zbc form
what
shall

of perfect Xivinc;.

73

to

leave

(undone)
it

:

and that which
to

be given, to give
not
is

them that have
have
no
need.

need,

to

others

that

Wisdom

forgetting of earthly things,

and
all

thinking of heaven,

with discretion in
gift,

men's deeds.
tion, that
is,

In this

shines contempla-

as S. Austen says "

A

ghostly

death of fleshly affection through the joy of
a raised

thought."

Strength

is it

;

enduring
left,

to fulfil

good purpose, that

be not
is :

neither for weal nor for woe.

Pity

that

a

man

be mild

:

and gainsay no holy Writ

when
stand

it it

smites his sins, whether he underor not
;

but with

all his

might that

he purge the vileness of
others.

sin, in

himself and in

Knowledge

is

that (which)

makes a

man
sin

in

good hope, not making him quake
but sorrowing for his

for his righteousness,
;

and that a man gather earthly good

only to the honour of God, and to other

men's

advantage

more than

to

his

own.

74

^bc JTorm
of

of perfect living.

The Fear

God

is

:

that

we turn not again
:

to our sin for

any egging on

and then

is

fear perfect in us

and

holy,

when we dread

to anger

God

in the least sin that

we can

know, and

flee it

as poison.

Zhe jform

of perfect Hiving.

75

CHAPTER

XII.

TWO
it
is

lives there are that Christian

men
for

hve.

One
in hfe,

is

called

Active Hfe,

more

bodily work.
for
it

Another, con-

templative
sweetness.

is
is

in

more ghostly
outward,
because

Active
travail

life

greatly

and

in

more

and

in

more

peril,

of the

temptations that are in the world.
life
is

Contemplative
fore
it
is

largely inward, therecertain,

more enduring and more more
delectable, loveher
it

restfuller,

and more

rewarding.

For,
in

has
life
it

joy in God's love,
that lasts
aye,
in

and savour

the
if

this present time,

be rightly

led.

And

that feeling of joy in the love of Jesus passes
all

other merits in earth.

For

it

is

so hard

to

come

to,

because of the frailty of our

flesh,

and the many temptations that we are
:

beset with, which hinder us night and day

aU other things that come

are light in regard

76

Zbc iTorm
;

of perfect Xiving.

thereof

for that
is

may

no

man

deserve, but

only

it

given of God's goodness to them

who
and

verily give themselves to contemplation
to quiet for Christ's love.

To men and
active life,

women who
two things

betake themselves to
befall.

One

:

to appoint their

household in fear and in the love of God,

and

to find

them

in necessaries,

and them-

selves

keep God's commandments entirely.
their neighbours as they will that

Doing to

they do to them.

Another

is

that they do,

so far as they can, the seven works of mercy.

The which

are

:

to feed the
;

hungry

:

to give

the thirsty a drink
to harbour

to clothe the

naked
:

:

them that have no housing
to comfort

to

visit the sick,

them that

are in

prison

;

to

bury dead men.

All that can

and who have property, they
;

may
but
will

not be quit with one or two of these
it

behoves them to do them

all,

if

they

on Dooms-Day have the benison that

vTbe jform of perfect OlivinQ.

77

Jesus
else

shall give

to all

who do them.
all

Or

they

may
will

dread the malison that
not do them,

men

have who

when they had

goods to do them with.
Contemplative
life

has two parts
is

:

a lower

and a higher.

The lower part
is

meditation
in

of holy writing, that

God's word, and

other good thoughts and sweet that

men
in

have of the grace of God, about the love of

Jesus
psalms

Christ,

and

also in praising

God

and hymns

and

in
is

prayers.

The

higher part of contemplation

beholding and

yearning

after

the

things
:

of

heaven,

and
oft,

joy in the Holy Ghost

that

men have

although

it

be so that they be not praying

with the mouth, but only thinking of God,

and

of

the beauty of angels,

and

of

holy

souls.
is

Then may

I

say that contemplation
]

a wonderful joy of God's love
is

the which
;

joy

praising

God, that cannot be told
is

and that wonderful praising

in the soul

:

78

Zbc jTorm
for

of perfect Oltving.

and

abundance of joy and sweetness,

it

ascends into the

mouth
God.

;

so that the heart

and the tongue agree
soul joy, hving in

in one,

and body and
or

A man
forsake

woman
world,

that

is

appointed to contemplative

life, first

God
and

inspires
all

them

to

this

the vanity and covetousness and vile

lust thereof.

Afterwards

He

leads

them by
and as
to suck
:

their lone

and speaks
'*

to their heart,

the prophet says

He

gives

them

of the sweetness of the beginning of love "

and then He

sets

them

in the will to give

themselves wholly to prayers and meditations

and

tears.

Afterwards,

when

they

have suffered many temptations, and when
the foul annoyances of thoughts that are
idle,

and

of vanities

which

will

encumber those

who cannot
them and

destroy them, are passing away,

He makes them
fasten

gather up their heart to
it

only in Him, and opens
:

to the eye of their souls the gates of heaven

Zbc form
and then the
heart,
fire

of perfect Xiving.

79

of love verily lies in their

and burns
all

therein,
filth,

and makes

it

clean

from

earthly

and afterwards they
in love.

are contemplative

men, and ravished
is

For contemplation
into

a sight

;

and they see

Heaven with

their

ghostly eye.

But

thou shalt wit that no

man

has perfect sight

of heaven, whilst they are living bodily here.

But

as soon as they die, they are brought

before God, and see
to eye,

Him

face to face,

and eye

and dwell with

Him they sought, and Him they loved,
For
Lo, Margaret,
the
I

Him and Him
with
all

without end.

they coveted,
their might.

have told thee shortly

Form

of Living,

and how thou mayst
to love
If it

come

to perfection,

and
to.

Him whom
for

thou hast taken thee

do thee good

and
me.
thee,

profit to thee,

thank God, and pray

The grace
and keep
*'

of

Jesus

Christ

be

with

thee.

Amen.

Ibere en&etb

XTbe 3fonn ot perfect Xiving."

®uv

2)ail^

Moth.

(a fB>irror of Btscipline.)

(a fIDirror of BiecipUnc.)

THREE things are needful to every man
to increase his reward,

;

through God's
him.

grace
first
;

helping,

Who

shall

lead

The

that

man

be in honest work, without

losing of his time.
his

The second

;

that he do

work with a freedom
in
;

of spirit, in place

and
third

time,

as

work

falls

to

each.

The

that his outward bearing, wheresofair,

ever he come, be so honest and
praise
is

that
of
:

(given)

to

God, a

stirring

up

good to

all

who

see him, as the Apostle bids
et
:

Omnia
-fiant,

in vobis honesti
is

secundum ordinem
be
it

that

"That ye do

done honestly

and

in order."
83

84

®ur Dail^

HClorft.

FIRST PART OF THE BOOK.

AT
God

the

first

:

man

shall

look that he

lose not his short time, nor
let
it

spend

it

wrongly, nor in idleness
has lent

pass away.

man

his time, to serve

God
to

in,

and to gather grace with good works,
heaven with.

buy
flies

Not only

this short

time

from
wise

us,

but also the time of our
says
:

life,

as the

man
S.

"

Our

life-time passes
:

And

Gregory says
;

— " Our

away."
like

life

is

a

man
wake
ship

in a ship

sit

he, stand he, sleep he,

he, ever he gets thitherward
is

where the

driving with the force of the weather.
in this short time,

So we,

whatsoever we do,

we

drive ever to our end."

And

our enemy,

Death, follows us ever at our back, with a
sharp spear to stick us through, therefore

®ur
says
Seneca,
S.

Bailie

Mor^.
death
is

85

"

life

flies,

follows."
else

And
there
lives

Augustine says " Life

nothing

but a swift running to death."
is
:

Therefore,

naught to

tell

by,

how

long

man
know

save
:

how

well.

Yet

this short life is
:

uncertain

wherefore says Job
I

—"
" I
I

I

not

how

long

may

endure, and whether

after a short space

my

Maker may take me
:

away."
the time

And
I

S.

Gregory says

wot not
shall

shall dwell,

nor when
to

be
S.

taken hence

Jerome says

:

— " Nothing
him
is

and

led

doom."
so

And

much

beguiles
of his

man,
life,

as that he

knows not the time
uncertain."
for himself,

that

to

And
as
if

yet

hopes he for long
might, at his
will,

life

he

drive

Death back.

Thus
speaks

was the

rich

man

deceived of
xvi.

whom

the Gospel of S.
the psalm
:

Luke

Therefore saith

"if riches increase, set not your

heart upon them."

For riches

fail

and

last

not

with man, but glide away

like a

phantom.

86

®ur Bail^ Mor[?.
got

But when men have

goods

together,

with right, or with wrong and poor men's
curses,

then suddenly, they go fromi their

goods, or else their goods from them.

And

Holy Writ says
and the

"

The world passe th away

lust thereo:^."

A man

that

is

fallen

in the water,

and through the
forth

force of the

water

is

borne
if

and torn from the

ground

;

he

may

get anything that has

good fastening

like a root or a stake,

he

may
;

hinder the water from carrying him

away

but by anything that
self,

fleets as
:

he does him-

he cannot fasten himself
life,

and

soothly,

willy nilly, in this

as

if

in water,

we

are
;

ever passing with the goods of this world

and there

is

naught

in this

world to fasten
:

by, so that

we

shall not pass

for the
like

Wise
water

Man
slip

saith, "

We
if

shall all die,

and

away

into the Earth."
as

And

therefore

Job speaks,

he said " Riches and friends
all

had

I

many, but they

could not hinder

me

; ;

®ur

2)ail^

Mor?^.

87

from going forth and not coming again."

And by what
shews
of
is
:

path,

man
is

shall go, the

prophet

" All flesh

grass,

and

all

the glory
flesh

it

as the flower of the field."

Man's

as hay,

and

all his

joy and splendour as the

flower of the
grass,

meadow.

Hay

is

first

green
:

and soon

after brings forth flowers

and a while
after
it is

after, the flowers

dry and

fall

mown down
to
it

with the scythe, and

dried
food.

and taken

a house to be beasts'

Thus

befalls

man
as

:

in his

childhood
does

he springs and grows
after,

the

grass

he comes to

manhood and

flowers in

fairness
of goods

and strength and wit
;

and

having

afterwards

:

he draws to age, and
that
are
his

then his flowers
fairness,

fall,

virtue,

strength,

wit

and

other

power
the

afterwards,

he

is

stricken

down with

scythe of Death, afterwards taken to a house
to beasts' food, that
is,

dug into the earth
says
the

to

feed

worms.

Therefore

holy

88

©ur
"
;

2)ail^ IKIlorl?,

man

when a man

dies,

he shall dwell

with serpents and beasts."

A

dead

man

is

so disgusting to the world, that one cannot
let

him be

in his

house three days together

;

but bears him forth, that he harm none with
the odour.
Therefore,
it is

now time
is

to

work

;

for in the time to

come there

no time to

work, but to receive rewards for deeds done
erewhile.

And

this
'*

the angel afhrms with

oath and says,

For the angel has sworn

that there will be no further time."

Do we
we have
as the
:

then as the Apostle says
time, let us

:

" While

work good
us,

to all."

And
himself

Apostle

counsels
first

he

did

for
fifth,
:

from the

hour of the day until the

he worked with his hands to win his food

and from the
to the people

fifth to
:

the tenth, he preached

from the tenth to even he

served the poor and pilgrims with such goods
as he

had

;

by night he was praying, and

thus spent he his time.


;

In three ways,
ness
;

man

loses his time

:

in idle-

or

in

works that no good comes

of

or in

good works, but not ordained as they
Against idleness, Solomon says

should be.

" Idleness teaches

much

evil "

;

and Holy
idleness,
is is

Writ

says

"

Whoso

followeth

most

foolish."

A
is,

great fool he

who

for-

bears not from the thing that harms him.

More

fool
:

he

because he wins himself no
fool

reward
himself
idle
:

most
pain.

he

is,

because he wins

Therefore

God blames
all

the

and says "
idle
?

Why

standest thou

the

day

"

Idleness wastes the goods that

are prudently gotten, to the house
is
:

and

entices the fiend

for as

by good works the

fiend

hindered

from entering man's heart, so

idleness

draws him thereto.

And Seneca
who
his
lives

says
for

:

"he

lives

not to himself
of

his

stomach and the ease
For Job

flesh
is

whenever he can."
born to labour."

says

"Man

To work was man bound

90
after he

©ur

2)ail^ XKHork.

had sinned, through God's bidding,

Who

said to

him

:

"In

the sweat of thy
till

face shalt thou eat thy bread,

thou

re-

turnest unto the ground from whence thou

wast taken
art,

;

because from the ground thou
shalt

and into the ground thou
shalt

go."

Thou
for

work stalwartly and not

faintly,

He

bids thee work, " with sweat of thy
till

face,

even
is,

thou returnest to the earth "
life

;

that

all

thy

time that thou losest no
Idleness smites a

time in idleness.
if

man

as

he were in a paralysis, and makes his limbs
that he
:

,dry

cannot work.
"

Therefore says

the Psalmist

They have hands and handle
;

not

;

feet

have they but they walk not
they

mouths

have

but

they
;

speak

not

;

eyes have they and see not

ears

have they

and

hear not "

;

for their limbs are so

bound

in sin, that to all

good things, they are as
Idleness

dead
is

;

and

to evil, they are easy.
all vices,

nurse to

and makes a man reck-

less

about
do.

not

doing
the

what he
fiend

is

bound
a

to

xA-nd

when

finds

man
may
eggs

idle,

he puts in
filth,

his

heart

foul

thoughts
that

of fleshly

and other
sin
;

follies

bring

him
to

to

afterwards,
indeed,

he

him on
does

do them

and thus he
:

against
to

the Apostle's bidding
place
to

" Will

not
idle

give

the

devil."

The

man makes
any
place
;

himself unworthy to dwell
hell.

in

but
for

In
is

heaven

he

cannot dwell
those

heaven

full

reward to

who

here spend their time in works

that they hope are pleasing to Christ.

In

purgatory the

idle

may

not dwell

;

for there

only the good are purged in that cleansing
fire, till

they be as clean of sin as when they
:

were christened
wright
:

therefore saith the Psalm-

In

Lahore

hominum non
:

sunt
is

et

cum

hominibus non flagellabuntur
to

that

thus for
;

say

;

"

The

idle

work not with men
they
shall

therefore

in

purgatory

not

be

92

©ur Bail^

IKHorl?.

pained with those
to heaven." *

men who

are on the

way

Great shame
of grace, in the

it

is

to be idle in this time
;

which we are hired to work
as

and

if

we work
us.

we ought,
us

great reward

awaits

God

gives

an

example of
:

work, by Himself, as the Apostle says

"

He
the
the

emptied Himself, and took upon

Him
in

form of a servant, and was made
likeness of
as a

men

;

and being found

in fashion

man, he humbled Himself, and became

obedient unto death, even the death of the
cross
:

wherefore

Him, and given

God hath also highly exalted Him a name which is above
name
of Jesus, every
in heaven,

every name, that at the

knee should bow, of things

and
;

things in earth, and things under the earth

and that every tongue should confess that
Jesus Christ
the Father."
*

is

Lord, to the glory of

God

RoUe's free rendering of the Latin

is

added here from the

Thornton

MS.

It does

not occur in the Arundel MS.

Over-proud then, and over-delicate
servant,

is

the

who

rests

in

battle,

and

sees

His

Lord

assailed

and

evil-wounded
to

by
in

His
this

enemies.

Also,
;

we ought
for

work

time of grace
thralls,

we

are

God's bought

with the price of His dear-worthy
:

Blood, to work in His vine-yard

and yet

He
do.

doth promise us reward,

if

we do with

good-will that which, as a debt,

we ought

to

To His

private friends, before the time

of grace,
if
if

God promised
;

only earthly goods,

they did well

to us the bliss of
It

Heaven,
before

we do

well.

was long
;

after,

they might come thereto
hell

for

they went to
years,
to

and abode

there,

some a thousand

some two, some
heaven.

three, before they

came

But now may men
as,
if if

in a little

time
is

win heaven,

any

die soon after he
full

christened, or
for his

he have done
;

penance

misdeeds

or be martyred for

God's

love.

The time

of supper that the gospel of

94
S.

®ur 2)aU^ MorK.
Luke speaks
of,

to the

which God bade
is

His servants

call all
;

that were bidden,
is

the

time of grace
all is

which

now,
is

in the

which
else to

ready

;

so that there

naught
is

do but wash and go to meat, that

cleanse

them

of all their sins that they

have done

since they were born.
it
is

What

losing of time

to travail about things that
of.

no

profit

comes

Man ought

to travail only to the

worship of God, and his soul-health.
shalt

Thou
long

not

deem the man has

lived

though he go with a
grey-haired
lived
to
well.
;

staff stooping,

and be

but deem him so old as he has
Therefore

answered

Barlaham

Josaphath, his disciple, when he asked
:

him how old he was
" of 45 years."

"I am," quoth

he,

" Master,"

quoth Josaphath,

" methinks thou art of 60 years

and more."

Then

said Barlaham, " Since
;

I

was born has
I

been 60 years
in idleness

but those years that
sin before I

spent

and

took

me

to this

life,

I

hold as years of death.
years of
life

But

all

those

I call

that

I

have served Jesus

Christ

my

Lord

in,

through His dear-worthy
himself what

grace."

Whoso would bethink
and

time steals from him in long eating and drinking, in excess

useless works, idle speech,

and

idle

and

foul thoughts, useless jests

and
he

other vanities that

men

delight

them

in,

may
the

soothly understand that though he be
little

old in years, that he has lived

time in
;

manner that he ought

to

have lived
nor

for he lived not to his profit,

won him
for

reward,
time.
It

but

peradventure

pain

losing

were a wonderful thing

if

the

man
in

who

gives himself to business of the world

more than he need, had no hindrance

prayer, in rest of heart, in soothfastness of

words, in perfection of good works, in love to

God and

all

Christian men.

Therefore, holy
their hindrances,

men, before now, who knew

96 they
it

®ur Dail^ Mork.
fled the

world with
;

all its vanities,
it

as

if

had been accursed

for
live

seemed
a

to

them
life

that

they could not
;

righteous

therein

and therefore went they

into the

wilderness, where they trowed to serve
in peace.

God
have
cruel,

Therefore says Seneca, "
avaricious,

I

become more

and more
I

and more inhuman because
men."

was among

Three manners of occupations there are
as,

:

various
;

and

much
much

brawling

;

raking
earthly

about

and

much

caring

about

things.

x\gainst

brawling,
is

Solomon

says "

The beginning

of strife

as

when one

letteth out water."

" Let the water out,"

that

is,

" let the tongue fleet out in quarrel-

ling."

But

to the

knowledge of God or of
his heart
:

himself
fleet

may no one come, who lets out with much useless speech
in himself for the fiend.

for he

makes a way
fore

There-

Solomon

likens such to a city without a

wall

:

"He

that hath no rule over his

own

spirit is like a city that is

broken down and
so

without

walls."

And
is

because

much
the

hindrance of good

in

much

speech,

philosopher binds his disciples with silence
(during) their
first

five

years.

Also,

Abbot

Agathon bore a stone
years to teach
those

in his

mouth
still.

for three

him

to

hold

Against

who

are ever raking about to feed their

wits with vanities
of the angel,

and

lusts

is

the teaching

and said

:

— " Arsenius,
:

who taught
keep
thee

holy Abbot Arsenius
the world and
rest,
its

flee

yearnings

in

bridle

thy

tongue," that
idle speech.

it fleet

not out in quarrelling nor
these three are
is

Where

a

way
It

to

God,
of

and

withdrawing from
(for)

evil.

tells

an x\bbot who

fully

20 years
his

sat in his school,

and never

lifted

up

head

to

see

the school-roof.

Against those

who

care over-much about worldly goods,

says this

:

— " Vain

Solomon
their

is

their hope,

and


98

©ur

2)aili?

Mork.

labour without

fruit,

because they can carry
This
is

away nothing

of all their labour."

seen every day, by the dead, who, be they

never so rich bear with them but a winding
cloth.

The

third

manner

of

men

are they that

have a liking to do good, but because they
do
it

not in the manner they should do
;

it in,

they lose their reward
fails in

for

when good

intent
fall

any deed, the reward that should
good work
fails.

to the
in

And

that

may

be

four

ways
;

;

first,

for the

wickedness of

the working

as the offering of Cain, that
of the fruit that
:

though he offered to God

was new, God would not look thereon
to the offering of Abel his brother,

but

God looked.
the heart's

Therefore says S. Gregory
will of

:

"

By

him that
:

offers is the gift received of

God

or rejected

and God was not pleased

with Abel for the offering, but pleased with
the offering for Abel,

who

in all his

works

was true and good
offering

;

but to Cain and to his
not look, for he

God would

who

made

the offering displeased

God

greatly."
is

And why
phet says
I will

our offering, or what we do that

in its nature good, displeases
:

God, the pro-

—" When
:

ye make

many

prayers,
full

not hear

because your hands are

of blood."

The second that reaves away a
for his

man's reward which
stirs

good deed,

is

vanity,

man
as

to do the

good because he

would
evil of

be

praised.
:

For

vain-glory
is

makes
good
in

good

if

alms-deed that
it

nature be done for praising,

wins only

sin.

The

third that
is

snatches a reward from a

good deed

boasting by him that does the
did, of

good deed, as the Pharisee
said
*'

whom God
Him,
for

to

the

folk

that

stood

before

Soothly, this
his

man

has

lost his
it

reward
is

all

good deed."

Needful

therefore

that a

man

do what good he can, and do not

pride himself thereof in thought or in

word

;

100

©lit Dail^

Mork.
good deed
of

for he has not the doing of a

himself, nor of his

own

desiring.
his
it

The fourth
reward
for a

that snatches from a

man

good deed

(is)

when he does

with the intent

to be holden better than others, or to lessen

the good deed of others, or to outdo
can.

it if

he

Of such,
:

S.

Gregory

tells

a tale in his

dialogues

That once on a time the holy

Bishop Fortunatus, chased the fiend out of
a

man

in

one evening

;

and the

fiend,

when
where

he was chased out, put on the likeness of a
pilgrim,

and went through the

city

the Bishop lived, weeping and yelling like a

poor wretch,

who was anxious
;

for

lodging

that night, and thus he said

" Lo,

what

your Bishop, done to

whom

ye consider so good, has
I

me

:

he came to the house where
lodging,
like a

had taken
force
:

my
;

and put me out by
seek lodging, and

and now
desirous

poor wretch, of lodging
all,

am
city

I

over

I

none

will

have ruth on me."

A man

of that

who heard him, took him

into his house,

Qnv Bail^
and
set

IKTlorh*

loi

him by the

fire

and eased him,

as he

wished.

When

the

of far-off things,

man had as men do
and
Of

inquired of him
to pilgrims, the

fiend leaped at the child in the cradle,

and

wrung
fire,

its

neck

in two,

cast

it

into the

and vanished away.

this S.

Gregory

speaks and says, "

Many

deeds seem good,

and are not good, because they are not done
with a good
will.

And

this

man harboured

the pilgrim for no pity of him, but because he

spake

evil of the

Bishop, and in order that

he " (the
of

man)
a

" should be held better

and

more pity than the Bishop."
is lost, if

Yet a good
it

deed

man

covet

by

to

have of

man,

riches, or position, or

honours or any
sin defiling, the

worldly good.

Yet through
lost
;

good deed

is

and here-unto accords

Holy Writ that
thing,
loses

says, "

who

sinneth in one

many good

things,"

which

is,

" he that in a deadly thing sins, he loses

many
and

goods," save he

amend him with

shrift,

do penance therefor.

102

®ur

2)ail^

Mori?.

SECOND PART OF THE BOOK.

T
dom

HE

second part of this book teaches
to

man

do

his

good work with

free-

of spirit, in place

and

in time, as falls

to each
to do
it

work

:

not compelled thereto, nor

with anger, nor with a dead heart.
''
:

For Holy Writ says
giver,"

God

loves a cheerful
gives

or

God

loves

him who
:

Him
God,

aught with a glad heart

and certainly the
of

works that turn out to the praise

and the health

of

man's

soul,

like

prayers

and holy thoughts, and a
God, and God's deeds
like
;

clear

mind about
and others
if

these

them

will allow of little rest,

they be

well (done).

Prayer
if

is

a sacrifice that greatly
it

pleases

God,
:

it

be made in the manner

ought to be

therefore

God

asks

it

of us as


®ur
a debt,
2)ail^

MorF;.
"

103

when He says

this

:

God
shall

created
;

the peoples for His praise and His glory "

and
Me."
to

" the

Sacrifice

of

praise

honour

And

the Apostle, "

we ought always
Therefore,
it

pray and not to faint."

behoves

man
men

ever to pray and never to

fail.

He

is

ever praying,

who

is

doing good.

And

certainly

of religion are

bound
of

to worship
;

God
for

with prayer, and
live

men

Holy Church
:

they

by alms and tenths

for all the

world labours to bring them what they need
close at hand, so that they
in
rest,

may

serve

God
make

and with

their holy prayers

reconciliation
also

between God and man.

And

maidens and widows who have taken
all

the oath of chastity,
others,

these,

more than
that
it

are

bound

to

pray.

He

will

please

God

with prayer will offer

to

God
will
:

with a free will and loving heart, and

prepare himself before, as Solomon counsels

" Before prayer, prepare thy soul, and be

104

®ur

Daili?

mov\{.

not as one that tempteth God."

He tempts

God who
he prays
:

yearns not to win that for which
or despairs to speed well therein
sin
;

and who makes

and

evil life

:

such

a

man

thinks not he loves.
:

speaks

— " What
are
"

Of such
if

S.

Gregory
our

wonder

tardily

prayers

heard by the Lord, when we

tardily or not at all hear the

commands
even thus
slothful,

?

And
the

Isidore

:

— " He
of

Lord when

He

cannot

have assured confidence
far in

in his prayers

who
is

commands
the

God

and

whom

remembrance
will

of

sinful

doing delights."

Whoever

speed
;

of his prayer, let
flee sin,

him do what good he can

call

his heart

from the world, and
the

keep
"

it

at

home

as

Gospel

teaches

;

When

thou prayest, enter into thy

closet,,

and shut thy door, and pray

to thy Father."
is,

" Enter," he says, " thy bed," that thine heart home,"

" call

and

" then

fasten

thy

door "

;

i.e.,

" hold thy wits in thee, that


®ur
none go out."
2)atli?

"Cmork.

105

For

it is

but

folly to

pray to

God

to

come

to us, poor

needy wretches, to

give us alms of His dear-worthy grace, and

not abide His coming, but turn our back on

Him.

S. Isidore

says that the soul must be
sin,

cleansed from the stain of

and the heart

be withdrawn from the provocations of the
world, in order that prayer

may
is

rise

without

hindrance to God.

For
so

far

that

man from
therefore
I

God, pray he never

much, whose prayers
:

are mixTed with worldly thoughts

says the Psalm "

Be

still,

and

see that

am

God."

This ought to

stir

us up to pray with

great dread and consideration for

we speak

with Almighty-GoD, when we are naught but

unworthy wretches.
God's private
to
friend,

For so did Abraham,

who

said

:

—"

I

speak

my

Lord which
:

am
"

but dust and ashes."
to

And

Isidore says

we ought

pray with
of our

sighings

and

tears,

and remembrance

grimly

sins,

and

of the

many

pains and bitter

io6

®ur
shall

Batli?

MorJ^.

we
us,

endure for them, unless we amend
us."

and He have pity on

Also, he

who

prays shall hope to speed well in that for

which he prays

;

for

Christ

Himself said,
:

" All things are possible to the believing "
therefore

we

shall

pray to

God

as
if

to

our
love

Father in that for which we pray,

we

Him

as

our Father, and be His children.
all

For He says to

His

....
to you."

He

says*

" Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in

My

Name, He

shall give

it

There are
first,

six things to

know
prepare

in

prayer
himself

:

how a
The

man
for

shall

before.
:

second, to

whom
ask
in
:

he shall pray
:

the third,

whom
shall

he shall pray
prayer

the fourth, what the
fifth,

he

:

what

hinders prayer
virtue

the sixth, what might and
is

prayer

of.

The
at,

first

is

written
prayer,

already,

and

begins

" Before

prepare thy soul," and lasts as far as here.
*

The MS.

is

defective.

0ur
The second,
Soothly, before
to

2)ail^

Morl^.
shalt

107

whom
Be
in

thou pray

?

all

others, to

God

Almighty,

as the prophet bids, "

subject to

God and God

pray to
says,

Him."

And

the

Gospel,

"Thou

shalt adore the

Lord thy God."
to,

Saints

we honour and pray

not as givers

of goodness, but as God's friends to help us
to

win from

Him

that

we pray

after.
all

There-

fore, let

us believe in

God with

our heart,
:

and certain hope, and perfect charity
Lord God
is

our
for

to

be loved.
?

The

third,

whom

shall

men pray

A
is

great clerk says,

" Every Christian

man

a living

member

of

Holy Church, therefore
for
all,

is

he bound to pray
of

but specially for

men

Holy Church,

as the Pope, Cardinals, Bishops, all

who have
and our

cure of men's souls
friends
;

:

also for our foes

and

all

who

are in deadly sin, that

they, through grace,
are in Purgatory,

may

rise

:

for all

who
;

whom

God's mercy awaits

and

after,

all

who have

occupations, both

io8

©ur

IDatl^

nmork.
Gregory says that

quick and dead.

And
all,

S.

he

who prays

for

the sooner shall be heard
:

and sped

of his prayer

and
all

S.

Ambrose

;

" If thou prayest for

all,

will

pray for

thee."

And
to

S.

Jerome

;

" Necessity binds

a

man

pray for himself, but charity of
stirs

brotherhood
charity,

him

to

pray

for all
stirs

:

and
to

more than

necessity,

God

hear."

The
?

fourth,

what
grace
;

shall

men

ask in

prayer

Certainly,

in

this

life,

and

endless joy in the other

for so

God

teaches

us and says

:

" Seek
justice,

first

the kingdom of
all

God and
shall

His

and

these things
is

be added unto you."

God

debtor

to those

who

are righteous, to find
:

them what

they need of earthly goods

for righteousness

makes men God's
his nature
is

children,

and a father by

bound

to find for his children.

Earthly goods are not to be asked in prayer,
for they

have done harm to many, therefore
"

Solomon says

How

long, ye fools, will ye

Qnv Dail^ Mork.
desire those things

109
"
?

which are hurtful to you
should ask of

Therefore, every
fear, that

man

God

with
if

he ask and pray his Lord that
his

He

see

that

prayer be necessary

and
if

reasonable, that

He

will fulfil

it

:

and

it

be not necessary and reasonable, that
will

He

withdraw

it

;

for

what may help and

what may harm, the Leech knows better than
the sick man.
trust to

But one

of these
;

two

shall

we

have through prayer
for,

either,

that

we pray
The
fifth,

or that which

is

better for us.

what hinders our prayer from being
?

heard by God
sin of

Six things
;

:

the

first is

the

him who prays

as

the prophet, "
I will

when ye
;

God says through make many prayers,
full

not hear

because your hands are
:

of blood."

And David

" If

I

have looked

upon iniquity with
not hear."

my

heart, the

Lord

will

And
His

the prophet
face

"
;

Our

sins

have
Gospel

hid
:

from

us."

And

the

"

Because we know

God

does not

;

no

®ur Datl^ Mork.
The second
is

hear Sinners."

the unworthi-

ness of that for which

men

pray, and that

God, through the prophet, forbids them to
pray
lift

for

:

" Pray not for this people, neither

up

(praise) nor prayer for

them

;

for I

will

not hear."

It tells in the life of the

holy

Fathers that one
to

who was bound
S.

in sin

came
said,

the

holy Abbot,

Anthony, and

" holy Father, have
for

mercy on me and pray
the holy

me
will

:

"

to

whom

Abbot said

"

I

have no mercy on thee, unless thou

helpest thyself
third
is

and leavest thy

sin."

The

foul

and

idle thoughts, that

hinder

us from thinking on our prayers.
false prayers,

Of such

Gods says through His prophet.
honour
far

" This people
their

Me

with their hps, but
It
is

heart

is

from Me."

great

wickedness of us unworthy wretches that

when we speak with prayer we
say.
also unwittingly

to

Almighty God,

hearken not to what we
displeasure

Soothly,

great

we do

to

God when we pray Him
and we
will

to hear our prayer,

not hear

it

ourselves

:

but

it

is

worse to waste our time in foul and
thoughts.
fice to

idle

Abraham, when he made a

sacri-

God, fowls

of the air lighted thereon,
defiled
it
;

and would have

and he cleared

those birds away, so that none durst

come

nigh

it,

till all

the time were passed, and the

sacrifice

made.

Let

us

do so with these
the sacrifice of
is

flying thoughts,

which

defile

our prayer.

This
it

sacrifice

agreeable

to

God, when
heart.

comes from a clean and loving
bids
:

God
shall

" send

prayer
;

to

Me,

and

I

send grace to thee
I

and whatso
not."

thou dost for Me,

forget

it

The

fourth, that hinders our prayer from being

heard,

is

hardness of heart
;

;

and that

is

in

two manners
the
"

first

hardness of heart against

poor

;

and thereof the prophet says

who

shuts his ear to the cry of the poor, he

may

call

and

I

will

not hear him."

The

112

®ur
is

2)ail^

Morl^,

other

the hardness of those

who

will

not
:

forgive to those
to

who have misdone them
says
:

such,

Solomon

— " Forgive

thy

neighbour who has injured thee while he
prays to thee, and thy sins shall be forgiven."

And

the

Gospel says:
if

"As thou
in

standest

praying, forgive

thou hast aught against
is

any, and your Father which
will

heaven
that

forgive

your

sins."

The

fifth,

hinders our prayer from being heard,

is little

yearning after the things that

men pray
stores
it

for

:

and

S.

Augustine says

:

"

God

this

up

for thee, that
;

with thy whole heart

may

be desired

" for

He

will

not to give to Thee

hastily, that so

thou mayst learn great things

greatly to desire."
"
if

And

S.

Gregory says

:

with our mouth we pray after the

bliss

of heaven,

and do not yearn
are crying
;

for

it

in

our

heart,

we

still."
is

The
and
for
if

sixth, that
idle speech,

hinders our prayer
that

foul
;

we

fill

our

lips

with

thou givest

®ur

2)ail^

MorF?.

113

a great lord drink in a slutty cup, were the drink never so good, he would
therewith,
thirst
feel

disgust
his

and bid throw
:

it

away, were

never so sore

so

God

does with a
;

prayer that comes from a foul mouth

He
lips

esteems

it

not, but turns therefrom.

There-

fore says S.

Gregory

:

"

The more our

are defiled with foolish talking, so
less are

much

the

they heard by

God

in prayer."
is

The
of.

sixth,

what might and virtue prayer
before
this

Men who were
themselves
in

age,

who kept
spoke

soothfastness,

and

nothing

idle,

won from God what they
and that was shewn to a holy

prayed

for

:

hermit Florentius,

who dwelt
So

in a wilderness

unknown
come

of

men.

much vermin was

there about this hermitage, that none durst
thither

by a long way.

A

deacon was

in that land,

who heard of

this hermit,

and he
this

came

at

the last to the place where
;

hermit was dwelling

but he saw so

much

114

®ui' Bail^

Mork.
:

vermin about that he durst not come near
but cried out for help
in fear.
it

The holy man
;

came out
he saw a

to

know who

was that cried

and

man standing there, and inquired what he would have. And the deacon said " holy
;

Father,

I

have sought thee from
I

far,

and

now

I

have found thee,
if I

should have joy
I

enough

might come to thee, but

cannot

for these

venomous beasts that

are here so
this,

many."
fell

When

the holy

man

heard

he

down on

his knees,

and prayed God that

He would
and slew

destroy

those

worms
Then

:

and

all

soon a grisly storm arose with a thunder,
all

the

worms.
;

said

the
lie

hermit to our Lord

" Lord, these beasts
I

here so thickly, that

cannot come to him

nor he to me, save we be poisoned by them.
Lo, Lord, they
lift

lie
?

here dead, but

who

shall

them away

"

At

his

word,
all

many

birds

came,

and carried them
S.

Hereof speaks

Gregory

:

— " Because God's

clean

away.

®ur

2)ail^

MorK.

115

servants withdraw themselves from the world

and

its

works, uselessly they cannot speak

:

so they bind

them

to silence that they dare
it

say no word save
praising

be teaching others or

God

:

and

therefore,
it

when they ask
But we,

God

aught,

He

grants

at once."

woful wretches,
that chatter
lie,

who

deal

with the world,
;

all

the day like magpies
evil,

now

now

twist,

now speak now swear

now
that

quarrel,

now
defile

backbite,

great oaths, these
it,

our prayer and hinder
;

it is

not

heard

for

our mouth

is

as far

from praying

God,

as

it is is

near the world with idle speech."
if

Prayer
that
it

so mightful

it

have

its

right,

masters the fiend, and hinders him
his will.

from doing

For so

it

did the fiend
to

whom
tidings

Julian

the

Emperor commanded

go to the other side of the v/orld to bring him

how

it

was

there.

When

he had

flown ten days' journey thitherward, he came

over the place that Publius the hermit dwelled

ii6

Qnx

2)aili?

Mork.
And
his

in,

who was praying
fuhy ten days

at that time.

prayer overtook the liend, and held him there
fast

— for
:

all

that time, the

hermit was in prayer

and when he ceased,

the fiend turned back, for he could no further
go, since prayer hindered him.

When
and
its

thou hast gathered home thine heart

wits,

and hast destroyed the things

that might hinder thee from praying, and

won

to that devotion

which God sends to

thee through His dear-worthy grace, quickly
rise

from thy bed at the bell-ringing
be there,
let

:

and
:

if
if

no

bell

the cock be thy bell
bell,
let

there

be neither cock nor

God's

love

wake
zeal,

thee, for that

most pleases God.

And

rooted in love, wakens before both
bell,

cock and

and has washed her face with
;

sweet love-tears
joy in

and her soul within has

God with devotion, and liking, and bidding Him good-morning, and with other heavenly gladness which God sends to His

®ur Dail^
lovers.

HOorF?.

117

Blessed are they above others
for

whom

God wakens,
them,
self

they have

many
for

joys while

others sleep, for they find that gladness before
rise

they never so soon
:

;

God Himand
at

thus says

"he

that early wakens to

Me, he shah

find ]\Ie to speak with him,

shall rejoice himself in
his will."

Me, and have
rise

Me

Be then a waker, and

quickly,
for the

and thank heartily thy Lord God,
rest

thou hast had, and for the care of angels.

Since a knight has great liking to be called
to

come and speak with the
it is

king,
:

when he

knows
reason,

for his great profit

with greater
is

ought God's knight, that

every

Christian
his Lord,

man,

to be ready at the calling of
calls
else.

Who

him

for his great profit,

and

for

nothing

Soberly, rise thou with

a good cheer, and think that thou hearest
call

God

thee

with

these

words

:

" Arise

My

love,

My
:

fair one,
I

and come and shew Me

thy face

yearn that the voice of thy

ii8

®ur
may

2)all^

J^ovK
ears."

prayer

ring in

Mine

Think

in

thy

rising,

how

that night
in soul,

many men
and some

perished
in

in Hfe,

and some
:

body

and

soul

some

burned,

some

drowned,

some suddenly dead without repentance or
shrift,

and

their
fallen

souls

drawn by
deadly
sin,

fiends

to

hell

;

some

into

as lust,

gluttony,

theft,
sins.

envy,

manslaughter,
all

and

other several

And from

these perils,

thy good

God hath
that

delivered thee, of His

goodness not of thy desert.

What

hast thou

done to
so,

God

He

should care for thee
others to be lost
?

and

suffer so

many

and peradventure thou hast done worse than
they have
done.

H

thou lookest well at
for

what God has done

thee though thou

hast not served Him, thou mayst find that

God

is

as

busy to do thee
else

profit as

if

He

had naught

to

do,

and

as

if

He had

forgotten this whole world, and thought only

on

thee.

When

thou hast

this thought,

lift

®ur
up thine heart
to

2)ail^

MorJ?«
say

119

God and

:

—"

I

thank
heart,

Thee, dear-worthy Lord, with

all

my

Who
so

hast thus cared this night for me, a
suffered

unworthy wretch, and hast
life

me

that with

and health

I

thus abide this
for
this

day.

I

thank Thee, Lord,

great

good, and
to

many
all

others that

Thou

hast done

me, a so unkind and unworthy wretch,
others
:

more than

that

Thou shewest me
evil deeds."

such kindness against put
thyself

my
:

And
God's
dear-

and

all

thy friends in
" Into

hands,

and say thus

Thy

worthy hands,
body,

and
:

my Lord, I yield my soul all my friends, kindred
all all

and and

stranger

and

who have done me good who have
for

bodily or ghostly, and
Christianity
:

received
love
of

that

Thou,

the

Thy Mother,
day or
soul,

that dear-worthy Maiden, and

the beseeching of
this night
all

Thy
from

Saints defend us this
all perils

of

body and

and from

deadly

sins,

from tempta-

120

®ur Dail^ Morf?.
of

tion

the

devil,

and sudden death, and
hell,

from the pains of
them.
of

and make us dread

Do Thou

hallow our hearts with grace

Thy Holy
we do

Ghost, and

make
will,

us,

whatso-

ever

here, do

Thy

that

we never
Amen."

separate

from

Thee,

dear

Lord.

When

thou hast done, go to the Church or
:

Oratory

and

if

thou canst win to none,
In the
is

make thy chamber thy Church.
church
is

most devotion

to pray, for then

God on
is

the altar to hear those that to

Him
what
in

pray, and grant
better
:

them what they ask
in presence of Saints,

or

and

and

worship of churches that are hallowed, protection of angels

who

are there to serve their
is

Lord and thee

for their ofhce
it

to receive

thy prayer, and bear

to

God, and bring
:

thee grace from Him, as S. Bernard says
" Rise then quickly, at
all

God's

call,

and put

heaviness from thee, and answer thy Lord

with the words which Samuel said to

God

®ur

2)ail^

Wlorh.
'

121

Who
for

called

him

in the night

:

Speak Lord,

Thy

servant heareth.'

"

For eight things we ought to wake and
ever be doing good
strait
:

this
:

short

life

:

the

way we have
:

to go

our good deeds

that are so few^

our sins that are so

many

:

death that we are sure of and wot not when
the strait and so hard
for

:

doom

of

Doom's-day,

every idle thought shall be shewed there,

then shall every foul word and sinful work
be greatly pressed, for
careless word." etc.
:

God
S.

says " For every

and

Anselm, " what
all

wilt thou do in that

day when
;

the time
it

expended

is

required of thee

how

has

been laid out by thee, even to the minutest
thought."
pain of hell

The seventh thing
:

is

the strong

the eighth,

is

the joy of heaven.

After thine uprising, pray for the souls that
are in pain of Purgatory,

and think that thou
of

hearest "

them cry on thee the words

Job

:

Have mercy on me, have mercy on me, my

122

®ur Dailv Mor[^»
for

friends,

the

hand

of

God

is

laid

upon

me/' and help them with De Profundis, and
Absolve.
After, greet our Lady, with Salve

Regina,

on

thy

knees.

Go then

to

the

Church,

and bid thy vain

thoughts

and
:

business of the world keep outside thereof

and

at

thine

incoming,

say

to

thy

soul,

" Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord,

and

thou shalt hear His Voice, and behold His
temple."

Holy Church

is

the entrance and

gate of Heaven.
Cross,

After, fall

down

before the
slain

and honour Him because He was
"

on the Cross, and say
Christ,

We

adore Thee,

O

and

bless Thee, because

by Thy holy

Cross

Thou

didst

redeem the world."

And

then before thou uprisest, have in thy mind

how
but

hotly His love burned. That died for
After, begin thy matins,

thee on the Cross.
first

cross thy lips
lips "
:

and say "

O

Lord,
lips

open
that

my
all

i.e.,

" Lord, open

my

night have been shut from praising

©ur Dall^ Mork.
Thee, and
help me."
torium,
I

123

cannot open them, except Thou

And

then say,
words,

Deus

in

adju-

with

these

pour out thine
;

heart before

God and

say
I

" Lord, as

my

Doom's-Man, before Thee
avenge
serving-

stand

:

do Thou

me

of

my

foes,

which hinder

me from

Thee, and they assail

me

keenly so

that

I

be soon overcome unless Thou dost

help me."

And

at Gloria Patri,

bow down
of

and say with thine
blessing,
I

heart,

" Lord,

Thy
and

beseech Thee."

Turn thee

to the

angels
help,

who stand about
as thy

to thy comfort

and

wardens to keep thee from
to

thy

foes,

and thus say

them Venite

exul-

temus, Domino.

Afterwards, cast thine eye
it

on somewhat, and keep
makest thy prayers,

there while thou

for this helps
;

much

to

the stabling of thine heart

and paint
;

there,

thy Lord, as

He was on

the cross

think on

His feet and hands that were nailed to the
tree
;

and on the wide wound

in

His

side.


124

®ur

2)ail\>

Work.
made
to thee, to

through the which way
His heart
;

is

win

thank thy Lord thereof, and love
:

Him may
seest

therefor

for these, they

who

thither

win, find treasure of love.

Think thou

His wounds streaming of blood, and

falling

down on
lick

the earth

;

and

fall

thou

down and
tears
for

up that blood sweetly, with
with remembrance

kissing

the earth,

that rich treasure,

which

for

thy sins
:

was shed, and say thus with thine heart
"

Why

lieth this

blood here as
?

if

lost,

and

I

Why drink I not of this rich payment that my Lord gives me to drink and cool my tongue, and hear what
perish for thirst

God

says to

me

:

He who
Thou
is
;

is thirsty,

let

him
how

come and drink.
pleasant the Lord

shalt taste

and

see

how

sweety

how mild,
angels

how

merciful.

With such meditations,

come

to thy soul,
:

to His lover

— " What
?

and God

is

there,

and says
I

wouldest thou that

should do for thee

"

and thou dost answer

;

®ur Batlp MorJ^.
" Lord
it

125

is

enough
of

for

me, a sinful wretch

and outcast

Thy

people, to praise
I

Thee

and love Thee,
If

if I

could, for so

well ought."

thou canst win to such thinkings in thy
it

prayers, thou shalt have such joys that
shall be a pain to thee to think of
S.

aught

else.

Bernard, for the liking that he had for

such stirrings desired that matins-time might
last
till

Dooms-day.
or
kneelest
in

Think,
prayer,

when
that

thou

standest
seest

thou

Jesus Christ come with angels and holy

Saints

on each

side,

and angels carrying
which
is

before

Him

basketsfull of help

left

from the feasts of Saints who dwell with

God
up
be

in

heaven

:

that

God bade them

gather

to help the poor with, that
lost.

naught might

This help

is

meat

to us poor wretches,
of
it,

who would

perish in

default

unless

God had
God
cry
:

pity on us.
"

Think thou hearest
of meat, put

Whoso has need
and have."

forth thine hand,

And bow thou

126

®ur Bailv Morh.

with thine head to God, and lament thy

poverty to
in

Him and
;

say " There
also say,

is

no bread

mine house "

and
I

" Lord, so
I

long meatless have

been,

that

die
;

of

hunger save Thou takest pity on

me

and

naught can hold
that

my

life

in

me, save meat

Thou

givest."

Stir

thyself

up with

such recollections, and by others that
kindle thy

may
Him,

devotion and raise

it

to

even until thou thinkest thou hearest
say to thee,
will
fill
''

Him
I

Open thy mouth wide, and

it."

And

then, through God's grace,

shalt thou feel something of that heavenly

food that feeds

all

Hallows, that thou mayest
is

with liking sing the Maiden's Song, that

God's

Mother's,
et

Magnificat
spiritus

anima
mens in
through
turn

mea

dominum
salutari

exultavit

DeO
His

meo.

When God,
thee

grace,

sends

such

likings,

thou

kindly to the angels

who stand

before thee,

and

to

them say

:

"I pray you

as

my

keepers

©ur

H)ail^

Mork.
ye

127

whom God

has sent to me^ that
for

thank

your good Lord

me."

And

turn thou

then to the altar, where

God truty is, and say, " Truly, O God, great is Thy mercy towards me," that is, " Soothly Lord, great is Thy
mercy that Thou shewest
such love-stirrings,
to

me."

With
:

God comes
midst,

to His lovers

and waits not
presses
in

till

the prayer be made, but

to

the

and softens the

languishing soul, with a bedewing of heavenly

sweetness

:

and
of

tears

and

sighings

are
are

messengers

God's coming.

Blessed
to

they
for

who

thus

mourn and languish

God,

they shall never separate from God, but

have

Him ever at their will. How God comes to His lovers ; and how sometimes He departs from them. God, when He comes to His lovers gives them to taste how sweet He is and before they can fully feel. He goes from them, and, as an Eagle,
;

\

spreads His wings, and rises above them, as

128

®ur
said
I
:

2)ail^

Mork.
how
your

if

He

"
:

Some
but
fly
if

part mayst thou feel

sweet
to

am
up

ye will
after
I

feel this

sweetness
lift

the

full,

up

Me, and

hearts

to Me,

where

am

sitting

on

My

Father's right hand, and there ye shall be
fulfilled in

joy of Me."

God comes
;

to His

lovers

to

comfort them

he departs from

them

so that they should

humble themselves,

and that they should not over-much pride
themselves for the joy that they have of His

coming
thee,

:

for

if

thy spouse were aye with

thou wouldest esteem thyself over well
:

and despise others

and

if

He were
it

aye with

thee thou wouldest impute

to nature

and

not to Grace.

Therefore, through His grace.
will,

He comes when He
dwelling

and to
:

whom He

will,

and departs when He

will

so that His long
;

makes one not more unworthy

but that after His departing. He be more
yearned
sighings
for

and sought with zealous love and
tears.

and

But beware thou, God's

®nr
lover,

S)alli?

MorF^.

129

though thy Spouse withdraw Himself
for a while,

from thee

He

sees all thy deeds,

and thou canst hide nothing from

Him

:

and
it

if

He

wit thou lovest any but
if

Him, unless

be for love of Him, or

thou makest any

love-semblance to other than Him, so soon

He

departs from thee.

Jealous
;

is

thy Spouse,

delicate, noble

and

rich

seven times brighter

than the sun

;

in fairness

and might

all
is

others
in

He

surpasses,

and what

so

He

wills
If

done

heaven and earth and
stain of filth in one

hell.

He

sees

any
dear.

who should be His

He He

turns from
see

him

soon, for uncleanness can

none.

Therefore,

be

thou chaste,

shame-full,

and mild
for

of heart,

and with
all

love-

longing

yearn

Him above

things.

And when God withdraws
likeness

this

heavenly
as some-

and sweetness from

thee,
life,

times need be in this deadly
thyself
to
fleshly
lusts

give not
of

and

likings

the

world

;

but to prayer and meditation, read-

I30

®ur
of

2)a(l^

Morl^.

ing
/

Holy Writ, or honest work.
after

And

ever
child

mourn thou

thy love, as a young

who

misses his Mother.

For he that,
tasting of His

after such

knowing

of

God and

sweetness, turns
sin,

him back and

gives

him

to

he has no defence for his sin against

God.

An unhappy

chance

it

is

and

full of

care to love the fellowship of

God and
and

of His

angels and Saints and to serve the fiend and
follow his counsel with lusts
likings

and

works

of sin

;

that heart which was hallowed

through the Holy Ghost to be God's temple,
that was raised here above his nature to have

heavenly likings and joy with God,

all

soon
foul

makes

itself
:

loathly

and

foul

with

thoughts
that
it

those ears that heard the words

is

allowable to speak to none, open

themselves to hear back-bitings and lyings

and other

idle

speech

;

those eyes that just

now were

baptized with tears, open them:

selves to see vanities

that tongue that just

®ur Dail^ Mor??.
now spake
to

131

God

in prayer, all

soon with

that dirty tongue, forswears, backbites, and

speaks foul words.

Pray we

to

God

that of

He keep us from these vices. Of God's coming men may know by this " When thou art that S. Bernard says
His goodness
:

stirred

of

man

in

outer or inner spirit to

care for righteousness
to be
in

and stand up

for

it,

meek and

patient, to love thy brothers
superiors, to love

God, to be buxom to thy

chastity

and cleanness
that Almighty
If

in

body and

soul,

token

is it

God comes
sin,

to visit

thy soul."

thou takest godly chastening
for

from thy friend
stir

thy

or words that

thee to virtues and good ways, this
for

makes

way
if

and token

of

God's coming.

Then

thou puttest from thee slowness and heavi-

ness,

and with a love-yearning
;

likest

such

words
hastes

then

dear-worthy

God thy Lord God

Him

to thee, for the desire that
;

has to thee

kindles

thy desires to have

132

®ur

2)ail^

Morl^.
bitterly

likings for such words,

and makes thee

repent thy sin and
at His incoming,
it

amend thy

life.

For,

He wakens
and washes

the soul, stirs

and softens

it,

its

wounds with
oil
;

wine,

and

softens

them with
it

that

is,

stirs it to

repent bitterly what
it

has misdone,
for-

and softens

with hope of mercy and

giveness of sins.
roots,

He

rives

sin

up by the

as

a gardener does evil weeds, and
trees,

grafts

good

and sows good

seed,
is

where
called
:

the weeds grew. a gardener while
rives

So does God, who

He

is

in

man's soul

He

up

sins

by the

roots,

and
:

grafts in that

soul virtues

and good ways
it

what was dry

He bedews
bound.

with grace
it

:

what was black
:

and mirk. He makes

white

what was

He

looses

:

what was

cold,

He makes
mayst
stirring of

warm

with love.

By
is

these stirrings,

thou know thy Lord

come

;

by

thy heart, destroying of vices, withdrawing

from

lusts,

amending

of

life,

repenting mis-

deeds, beginning of a

new man

in

God, every
this
;

day more and more.
thou wit, when

And by

mayst

He

goes from thee

the glad-

ness wanes, slow thou waxest dry
as a stone
;

and heavy,

love cools in thee like a pot that
fire

had been welded, and the

was withsoul
If

drawn therefrom.
to

But then needs the

mourn

sorely until

He come

again.

foul thoughts egg thee

on to leave the Lord
is

thy God, say this " Whose
superscription
is
?

this

image and

"

if

he says " Caesar's," that
is

the prince of this world, that

the fiend of

hell,

say to him, "
th}/

Go
:

again thou foul fiend

with

false
;

money

bear

it

again with

thee to hell

for

my

gates are shut,
I

and

my

Lord dwells herein, therefore have
to

no time

deal

with thee."

Think on that holy

greeting that Gabriel

made

to that maiden,

Mary

in Nazareth,
in that

how
;

joyful she

was

in

body

and soul

time

through that quieting,
fulfilled of grace, so

with her assent, she was

134

®ur

H)ail^ Wiot\\.

that she

won might and power,
and
hell
;

in

heaven,
all

and

earth,

and on her hangs

the

world's health and restoring of those that
fell.

Think on the birth

of her Child,

how

she bare
all

Him without sorrow and grief that other women have naturally in time of
;

birth

and she clean maiden
born, they laid

after.

Think

when He was

Him

in a crib

before an ox and an ass, other cradle

had He
with

none.

There was none to serve

Him
fire

the light of torches as
lords
:

men do

before great

therefore

there

came a

from

heaven that lighted the house

He was

in,

and

Bethlehem

;

and angels came from heaven
merry
voice.

to sing the child asleep with a

Think how Three Kings came from
through knowing of a
gold, incense
star,
:

far lands

and offered

Him

and myrrh

think

how

sweetly

the child smiled on them, and with His lovely eyes sweetly looked on them.

Think how
the Kings

poorly His Mother was clad

when

®ur
kneeled before her

2)ail^

Mori?.

135

:

for

on her she had but a

white smock as the clerks say, more to cover
herself

with than for shewing of pride.

Think
to

how His Mother came with Him
Temple
to

the

make
to

her offering of cleansing,
the

and bowed
sinful.

fulfil

Law

as

if

they were

Think how the old

priest

Symeon

took the Child in his arms, and blessed
for there,

God

:

through the stirring of the Holy
all

Ghost, he saw the Saviour of

this

world

between

His

hands,
of

and prayed that he
this

might pass out
eyes have seen

world,

" for

mine

Him Who

saves the folk."

Think

of that sorrow His

Mother had when

she missed

and then

Him and sought Him three days, found Him among the Masters,
of
vS.

hearing and inquiring of points of the Law.

Think how He came to be christened

John

:

how

the Holy Ghost lighted then on

Him

in the likeness of a

Dove, the Father

there with voice recorded that

He was His

136

®ur

2)ail\>

Morf^.
in

Son.

Think how He hallowed wedlock

the house of the Ruler of the Feast, and there,
to

show that He was Almighty God changed
In the wilderness,

water into wine.

how he
over:

fasted 40 days without

meat

;

how He

came the

fiend that

tempted

Him

with three

with gluttony, and covetousness, and vainglory,

and

of the
all

wonder men had

of

His

preaching, for

the words

He

spake to them

were

full of grace.

How He

healed the sick,

raised

the

dead,

gave sight to the blind,

speech to the dumb, health to the leper, with

touching of His hands

:

and many other

sicknesses that were in their nature incurable.

He
for

healed through the might of His words,

He

could do more than Nature.
of

How
Him Him
Then,

He was weary
at the well
;

much

going

;

rested

and then He bade give

water to drink for

He

thirsted sore.

open thine heart with sore sighings,

and

think on the passion and pains that Jesus

®ur Dail^
Christ
suffered,

XHflork.

137

as

they are written before

on the

xviii leaf.*

He may

ask grace of God, and certainly

trust to speed,

who

here stirs himself up with
likings
:

good works, and with devotion and
flavours

them
dear

so that they

may
of

be savoury
penance,
as

to

his

Lord.

Works

fasting,

waking,

hard

fighting,

forbearing

of fleshly lusts, prayers, almsdeed,

and other
likings

things that
in

we do with devotion and

God,

it

behoves that so they be done with

a glad heart,

and with a freedom

of spirit.

Devotion

is

a worthy affection that
it

God

sends

to the heart to gladden
is

with

:

but unworthy

he to have this

gift,

that will
it.

make no

dwelling-place in his heart for

We
it

seek

with our belief what
us not, for

is

above

us,

but

savours

we

are so full of earth that

we have

*

On
is

the

1

8th leaf of the MS. containing Our Daily Work

begins Richard RoUe's Meditations on the Passion.
of this

A
Love

rendering
of

given in Fr. R. H. Benson's

A Book

of the

JesUS.

138

®ur Ball^ Morfe.
our taste.
stirrings
his
I

lost

Why
that
so

do so

many men
forges,

feel

the

the

fiend

and

suffer

enemy

often

to

overthrow

him

?

see nothing that does this, save lack

of grace.

we

grieve

Among all God most,

other (things)

I

trow

because we will not

labour to win this grace of

God

:

and God

promises His grace to
if

all

that will to receive,

that their vessel be clean and
it

empty
:

to

receive

in.
is

But

S.

Bernard says

"

The

heart that
world,
in
it

loaded with covetousness of the

can have neither devotion nor liking
;

God

for

soothfastness
failing thing,

and vanity, a
a ghostly thing

lasting

and a

and a bodily cannot be brought together at
any time."
fort of

So worthy a thing
that
it

is

the com-

God

will
is.

not rest in a breast

where other comfort
liking in
it

So delicious

is

the

Him, that with no other

liking can

accord.

Whoso yearns

after other

com-

fort to glad himself with, witnesses against

himself
unless
it

that

he

withstands

God's

grace

:

be honest comfort betimes that he

may

thereby glad his nature with, and better
After thou hast spent thy time

serve God.
in prayers, in

and holy thoughts and good works,
for food
else

God's holy dread, prepare thyself

to strengthen thy nature
fail.

which would

And
clothe

to this intent shall every Christian

man
does.

and feed

his

body

;

that

it

may

the better serve his Lord, in whatsoever he

In the morning, thou shalt go to thy
;

meat, with soberness and measure

care for

thy

self in

thy meat-time
praising to thy

;

and

after meat,

make thou

Lord that He has

fed thee, and also before meat,

and

for all the
First,

good deeds that He has done to

thee.

or ever thou goest to meat, thou shalt
as holy

mourn
I

Job

did,

who thus

says,
is

" Before

eat

I

sigh," because

my

nature
sin
;

made weak

and

feeble for

Adam's

and every day

needs bodily meat to uphold the nature that


I40

Qnv
would
the
fail
life

2)ail^ 'Moxk.

else

in a little time.

And, as
;

it

tells in

of the holy Fathers

Isidore

that holy man,

when he

ate,

he wept sore

and

said, " I

am ashamed

of myself for I live

by beastly meat

as other beasts do that
;

have

no reason by nature
able
creature,

and
like

I,

God's reasonHimself, that

made

to

should have dwelt in Paradise, and there

have been fed with heavenly food."
thou findest delight or savour
in

When

meat and

drink, think on the heavenly Saints
all
till

whom
hear

likings pass by,

and we be never

satisfied

we

feel

thereof.

Men

of

religion

lessons of holy men's lives at their meat, so

that as the

body

is

fed with bodily food, so

the soul be fed with holy words.
is

Man's body

as a burning furnace,
;

and

specially in the

young
drinks

and

delicious

and

hot

meats and
:

make

that
:

fire

to

burn hotter

there-

fore says S.
is

John
fire."

" Plenty in time of

youth

double

Therefore

all

that kindles


®ur
sin in the flesh
is

2)atl^

Mork.

141

to be fled from.

The wise
" Fleshfleshly

man
meat

says,

" If

thou wilt abate the flame,

abate the brands."

And
are

S.

John

;

and

wine

kindling
;

of

stirrings."

And

S.

Austin
to be

" the flesh is as

a wild

colt,

which

is

tamed with
"
;

bridle

and hunger."
burden
flesh.
fall

And Solomon

Rod and
the
of

to the ass,"

that betokens our

Wisely should a

man

consider

meat that comes before him, and take

them
not,

in

such measure that they grieve him

but that through them, he
better.

may

serve
:

God

Therefore

S.

John

bids

" Ever

when thou

eatest, ever

hunger thou,

that after meat thou mayst read and pray

and serve God

better.

Holy men who have been before us enjoyed
strong

sharp
for

meat,

more

to

abate

hunger than
grass,

pleasure.
roots,

Some

lived

by
and
in

some by

some by

spices
:

herbs and fruit that the earth bore

and

142

Qiw

2)ail^

Mori?.
all

whatso they ate they destroyed

taste that

might

stir

them

to pleasure.

Also, S. Ger-

manus mixed ashes with
should
feel

his bread, that
in

he

no pleasure

his

meat-time.

Other sauce than hunger, they took none.
S.

Gregory says

:

" bread

made

of

bran and
is

water, with cold or other simple pottage

good food to the well-taught stomach, with
sauce of God's love
if

he have

it

therewith

:

without this sauce, no sustenance has savour
that

man
;

enjoys."

Some

eat no

meat before
;

the night
fast three

some only every other day
days together.
save

some
all

Machari fasted
Sundays,

the

Lenten-tide,

and

ate

naught but raw leaves.

Some take no heed

when they
fish
:

eat,

nor what they eat, flesh or

all

tasted alike to them, so that after-

wards, they wist not what they ate.

Some,

when they were

set

down

to meat,

and meat
to eat,

was brought before them, they forgot
for so

they spent the day and the night in

®ur
holy speech, that
else, till

2)aili?

MorJ?.

143

they thought of naught

the undern-tide* of the second day,

so that the brethren

came
:

to

them and asked
for the

why they
first

could not eat

and then,

time, thought they of meat,

and they ate
fear.

then as they thought good, in God's holy

When

thou art

set to

thy meat, make before
five

thee a cross on the board with
to stir thee

crumbs
died for
lies

up

to think
;

on

Him who

thee on the Cross

and think, here

His

head that was crowned with thorns, there
His hands, there His feet that were nailed
fast
;

full

there

was His sweet

side

that was

opened with the spear, from which came both
blood and water to heal

my
if

dirty wounds.

When
by
**

thou hast so done

thou canst, take
fish,

part of thy bread and of thy
itself,

and lay

it

and say thus quietly

in thine hearty

Lord, what wilt
*

Thou

give

me

for

this

A

meat-time between sunrise and noon, or between noon and

sunset.

144

®ur
I

H)atlp

Mori?.
?

pittance

make

to

Thee

how many
of

tears,

how many
Thee
?

love-yearnings and longings after

how many
how many

comforts
stirrings to

the

Holy

Ghost,

good things,
with

how many
lovely eyes
?

lookings towards

me

Thy
meat

Lord, wilt

Thou
shall

for this

that the poor hungry
sake,

man

have
?

for

Thy

give

me

the love of Thee

"

When
After

thou hast eaten what thou thinkest good,

thank thy Lord that He hath fed thee.

meat, be thou worthy, and keep thee from

much

speech and idle games, and hold thy

wits inward in fear of God.

Seemly

it is

to

man, and pleasing

to

God, that

his bearing

be more honourable and temperate after meat

than before

:

that

no

taking of excess be

seen in him, that the flesh
better in reading, praying

may

serve the soul

and other ghostly

works, that

may

help to good things.

Then

Even-song say, with the devotion that God
sends thee, in Church or Oratory, or where-

;

Qnv

IDail^

Mori?.
best,

145

soever thou mayst say
noise

it

away from

the
if

and throng

of
:

the

world.

After,

thou needest, go sup
time
:

and short be thy supper
\

so in
it

measure take thou meat and
be no burden nor grievance to

drink that

thy nature, nor hindrance to serve thy Lord
or in time of rest reave from thee thy sleep
;

or the
in

fiend defile
sleep, as

thee with foul temptations

thy

he often does him

who

goes
eat,

to

bed with a

full

stomach.

Every man
is

as S.

John

says, " according as he
is

strong

or old, or according as his body
less,

greater or
is

or whole or sick

;

take what

needful

for sustenance of nature,

and not

as pleasure

asks."

After supper, go to the Church or /

other place, where thou mayst be most at
rest,

and say thy Compline,

for in this

time

as S.

Ambrose

saith, " birds in their

language

praise their Lord,

and thank Him

after their

kind, for the goods

He

has sent them."

Call

thou then on thy

God and

say Converte nos

146

®ur

Daili^

Mork,
if

Deus

salutaris noster, as
this

he said, " Lord,

I

have been

day hindered by the world,

that has greatly hindered

me from
I

serving

Thee
of

;

through temptation of the fiend and
flesh oft this

my

day have

done amiss

;

therefore,

my

Lord, turn
all

world, and from
praising

that

me now from the may hinder me from
all

Thee with a pure heart and with

my

wits, so that
will."

they be intent on Thee to

work Thy

And

then, say forth thy

Compline, and
devotion that

after, other

prayers with the

God

sends thee.

And

after,

before thou goest to bed, hold a chapter with
thine heart,

and ask
it

it

in

what things

it

is

better than

was.

Hast thou shriven thee
?

of that sin that

thou didst then and there
?

of the

words that thou spakest there
?

of

that evil will that was in thee then

of that

wrong that thou

didst

and
?

saidst there to
of

him

?

of

that

handhng
?

that

blame

?

of that foul thought

of that thing left un-

Qnv

2)aili?

MorFi.
?

147

done that thou should'st have done
thou wiUing to leave
off

art

such vices

?

What
? ?

temptations withstood'st thou this day

in
in

what

art

thou meeker than thou wast
chaste,

what more

more

sober,

more

patient,
in

more temperate, more loving thy God
thy brother, or more liking in
than thou hadst
?

God

hast thou

Hast

left

that sin that
?

thou, through habit, fallest into so oft

and
and

other

many
the

vices that thou hast done fiend

pleased

with

:

and grieved thy

good God, and hast barred thyself against
the grace that should help thee.

And

then,

with a repenting of those sins that bite thy
conscience,
noster with

knock on thy breast and say a Pater

Ave Maria, on thy knees, and
sins.

soon in the morning shrive thee of those

And

if

thou doest thus,

I

hope the fiend

shall

be afeared to tempt thee, for thou art under

God's ward, whilst thou bearest thee thus.
After this reckoning, where-through thy soul

148

®ut

2)ail\)

Mork.

is

raised to a blessed hope to the Father of
flesh

mercy, and thy
rest
:

waxes heavy, go

to thy

for

if

thou hinderest thy
it

flesh of its
its

necessity,
faintly will

and work
it

beyond

might,

help thee, or hinder thee withal.

And

or ever thou goest to rest
friends into

commit

thyself
for

and thy

God's hands, who

us was nailed to the tree, and beseech
for His
perils of

Him,
all

mercy, that

He guard
for

thee from

body and

soul,
;

and arm thee with
where the fiend sees
Of
this

the token of the cross
this

mark soon he
life

flies.

mark,
:

it

is

written in the

of S.

Edmund
fair,

that as

he went one time alone, a child appeared to

him who was wonderfully
" Hail, m}/ friend,

and

said,
S.

whom

I

love in God."

Edmund was
not
"
?

surprised at this greeting,
"

and

the child said to him,
"

knowest thou

me

And
should

S.
I

Edmund
know

said to the child,
?

How

thee

I

never saw

thee before."

And

the child said to him.

©ur
"

2)ail^ XKIlork.

149

When

thou didst learn
side
;

in school, I sat ever

by thy
with
for

and ever

since

I

have been
dwelt
;

thee,

wheresoever

thou

hast

so
I

my

Lord has fastened me to
ne\'er part

thee,
is

that

might

from thee, such

my

Lord's

will.

But behold on

my

forehead,

and read what thou
as he told him,

seest there."

He

looked
letters,

and with heavenly

these four w^ords, he

saw there written, jESUS

Nazarenus
child,

Rex iudeorum.
is

Then

said

the

" This

my

Lord's

name,
I

thou
that

seest thus written.

This

name
it

will

thou have

in

mind, and print

in

thy soul,
;

and

cross thy front with this
;

name

before
of

thou goest to sleep
the fiend,
it

and from harassings

shall

protect thee that night,
all

and from sudden death, and

who

thus by

night cross themselves therewith."

And when
to

he

had spoken these words, he vanished
Carry some
holy

away.

thoughts
till

bed

with thee, and say thy prayers,

sleep fall

I50

®ur Bail^ MorF^*
thee.

on

To have
is

soft

sleep

and sweet,
in

a sovereign help

measure and soberness

meat and drink

:

with recollection of God's
;

law and Holy Writ
the prophet, "

as

God

says through

Keep

My

law and

My

counsel,
;

and
if

if

thou sleepest thou shalt not be afraid

thou dost rest thy sleep shall be sweet."
ever, as thou wakenest,
lift

And
to

thine heart
rise

God, with some holy thought, and
to thy

and pray

Lord that He grant

release

from pains to the dead, and grace to the
living,

and

life

without end.

If

temptation

of lust stir thee in bed, think that thy

good

Lord hung on the Rood
His
five
:

for thee

;

think on
of

wounds that streamed down

blood

think that His bed was the hard
tree,

knotty

and instead

of a pillow

He had

a crown of thorns.
sighing,
till

And

say then, with sore

thy desire cool, "

My

dear- worthy
;

Lord hanged on the Rood
in this soft bed.

for

and welter

me and I lie me in sin, like a

®ur Dail^ Moth.
foul

151

swine that loves but

iilth."

Rise then

quickly,
sighings

and hold thee with prayers, love-

and

tears.

Of three points beware.

The

first,

that the devotions thou hast through

grace stirring, be not

known

of others

:

hide

them, so

far as

thou mayest with

will

and

deed for fear of vain glory.
that thou thinkest not
it is

The second,
thy power to

in

have such devotions and
wilt
:

stirrings

when thou

but only through God's grace when
send them.

He

will

The

third,

that thou

thinkest
stirrings
;

not over-well of thyself for such

nor thinkest thou art therefore
;

God nor deem another more unworthy who does not as thou dost but when
dear to
;

thou hast done
thyself,

all
it

well,

think soothly by
;

and grant
do,
If

in

words

" It

is

nothing

worth
thrall."

I

Lord

:

for I

am

but a useless

thou wilt lose no reward, deem
;

none other, but hold thyself most unworthy
for
if

thou fastest or prayest more than

152

®ur Dailp Morl^.

another, perchance another surpasses thee in

meekness, and patience and loving.
fore think of of

There-

what thou
hast.

lackest,

and not only

what thou

Nevertheless,

God

wills

that thou should' st think on

those graces

and goods He has done

for thee, to stir thee

up

to

know

thyself indebted to

Him

for

them,
;

and serve Him and love Him the more
if

or

thou beest

in grief to glad thee with.

Someis

times,

it falls

out that in God's doom, one
evil

better

whom men deem
good.

than some that

men deem
and
dissolute,

Many

are

worthy without

unclean

within.

Some worldly and
friends within.

and God's private

And
as

some, in man's sight bear themselves
;

like angels

and

in

God's

sight,

they stink
sinful

sinful

wretches.

And some seem
full

to men's

doom, and are
for their

dear to
is

God
we
for

Almighty,
in

inward bearing

heavenly

God's bright

sight.

Therefore, judge

none other save ourselves.

And pray we

®ur
ourselves

S)ail^

Mork.
to

153

and

all

others
for us
is

Jesus

Christ,

Mary's Son,

Who

was nailed on the
in

Rood, that whoso
loose

bound

deadly
in

sin,

He
life,

them

;

and they who are

good

that

He

grant them end therein.

Two

messengers are come to thee to bring

thee tidings.

The one

is

called Fear,
of

who
:

comes from
the other

hell to

warn thee

thy danger

is

called

Hope

that comes from

Heaven
if

to tell thee of bliss thou shalt
well.

have

thou doest

Fear says he saw so
hell,

many betortured in of men were in one,
men with
poor
:

that

if all

the wits

he could not

tell

them

:

of gluttons, unchaste, robbers, thieves, rich
their

servants

who harmed
give

the

judges

who would not
:

judgment
subtilty

except for reward

treasurers
:

who by

maintained injustice

deemsters

who

con-

demned
thieves
;

loyal

men and delivered stark workmen who worked dishonestly
full

and took

hire

:

tillers

of the soil

who

;

154

®ur Dail^ Moii?.
badly
;

tilled

prelates, with the care of

men's

souls,

who
;

neither

punished

nor

taught

them

of all sorts of
;

men who have wrongly
saw want
;

wrought
it

then

I

saw that every one bought
I

bitterly.

For there
of pain

of all good,

and plenty
burning

and sorrow

as hot fire
:

ever,

brimstone

stinking
;

grisly

devils like dragons gaping ever
thirst

hunger and

for

ever

lasting,
sinful.

adders

and toads

gnawing on the
yelling

Such sorrow and
heard there,
wits.

and gnashing

of teeth, I
I

that nearly, for fear,

lost
I

my

Such
it
;

mirkness there was, that

could grip
it

and

so bitter

was the smoke that
shed

made

the woe-ful wretches

glowing tears

and

bitterly I heard

them ban the day when
to die,

they were born.
cannot.

Now, they long
which,

and
they

Death,

sometime

hated, were liefer to

them now than

all

the

good of

this world.

And

therefore I

warn

thee that thou

amend

thee of thy sins with

;

®ur Ball^ Mork,
shrift

155

and penance, and have a steadfast

will to leave

them

for ever

:

a seat
fire,

I

saw

made

for thee in hell of

burning

where

devils should pain thee ever unendingly.

That other messenger, who
says he
is

is

called

Hope

come from Heaven

to tell thee of

that untenable great joy that rules God's
friends
;

"to

tell

thereof as

it

is

may no

earthly
of steel.

man

speak though his tongue were
is

For there

a gracious fellowship

of all

God's

friends, orders of angels,

and

of

holy saints, and Almighty

God

above.
I

Who
saw
;

gladdens them
plenty
;

all.

Of

all

goodness,

beauty and riches that

last for ever

honour and power that never

shall

fail

wisdom and love and
I

everlasting joy.

Then

heard melody and song of bright angels.
is

So worthy

that joy and so great withal,
it

that whoso might taste of

a blessed drop,

he should be so ravished

in liking of

God, and

such yearning he should have to win thither.

156

®ur
all

I)ail\>

iKnork.

that

joys of the world were pain to

him.

With
in

so great a love he should be overtaken
bliss,

yearning to win to that
it

that by a

hundred times

should more

stir

him

to

love virtue and flee sin than any fear he

might have of the pain of
thee for sooth,
if

hell.

And

I tell

thou wilt leave

sin,

and

Him as thou oughtest, a rich and a fair seat God has made for thee wherein thou shalt dwell with Him
do God's bidding, and love
unendingly.

®ur Datl^ Mor??.

157

THIRD PART OF THE BOOK.

THE
that
it

third

and the

last part of this

book

teaches a

man

to bear himself, where:

soever he comes, and whatsoever he does

be to the praise of God, and an
to all
:

example of good

who

see

him

:

for thus

the Apostle counsels

" Let everything be
;

done honestly and

in order "
it

that

is

"

all

that ye do, look ye do

honestly and orderly."

Then

at the

first, let

every lover of

God

see

that ye yearn not to mingle with the world, that hinders and deceives
it,

all

who

deal with

and hinders them from the many good

deeds they might do.

And

the

man who
;

will

nowhere
see

rest

but aye rake about

their eyes

many

things, that the eye sends to the
easily

heart,

and such come not out

when they

®ur

Daili?

Mork.

are once imprinted.

S.
felt

Bernard complains of
in

the harms that he

the world whilst

he was therein, and says " the world sur-

rounded
is

"
;

me and weighed me down " The world has besieged me on
and through the gates
of

:

that

every

side
it

my

five wits

shot at

me and wounded me
sorry soul.

full

sore

;

and through the wounds, death presses
to slay

in,

my

Mine eyes look, and

my
I

thought changes and kindles

Mine ears hear and
smell with

my heart

me in sin. bows me thereto.
it

thoughts.

my nose, and With my mouth I
I

pleases

my
and

speak, and in
:

my
my
bow

speech
little
;

please or beguile others

with a

over-soft feeling, lust kindles in
fiend,

flesh

and the

my

foe,

whom

I

cannot

see,

stands ever against
Therefore,
if

me

with his

bent."

necessity

make

man

to go into this world,

where are so many

stirrings to sin,

with great fear shall he go,
It

as into a battle to fight his foes.

needs

®ur

2>ail^

Morh.

159

he be well armed against the arrows of his
foe,

that severely shoots at

him

;

and the

more may he dread him because he cannot
see

him

:

with foot-traps and snares
Therefore,
let

is

the
shall
fear.

way

set full.

him who

go forth,

arm him with God's holy

God warned
world when
world
tions."
shall

His disciples to be wary in the

He

said

thus

:

" Soothly

the

withstand
if

you

with

temptafor

Therefore,

thou must go out,

thine

own

profit

or that of others,

colour

not thy going with any false hue, to feign for
thyself an occasion to dally with the world,
for

pleasure or

command,

or to be

known

with praise before others

And
holy of

therefore

they make a show with

words and feign as they can, to be holden
all

who

see them, that give themselves

to dalliance with the world, as
to

more than needs,
about

buying,

selling

or

quarrelling

earthly things.

And

all their

outward bear-

i6o

Qm
:

2)ail^

Mork.

ing so accords with the world that David

says

"

They have mixed themselves with
;

the peoples

they partake of their works "

:

that

is,

they mingle them with the folk of the

world,

who have no knowledge

of

God, and

such works as they see them do, such works
they do.
Therefore,

when thou needest

to
of

go forth, cross thyself with the holy
Jesus, Mary's Son,
for

name

who

died on the

Rood
secure,

thee,

for

then

thou art

more
S.

whithersoever thou goest, as
to his brother,
S.

Austin said
forth.

when they went
'*

And

John says

:

Whitherso thou goest, and

whatsoever thou doest, thy forehead and thy
breast

mark thou with

the cross

;

for there

is

no other mark the fiend so greatly dreads."
See that thine outer-clothing be not overloathsome, nor over-curious, in shape nor in
hue.

Keep thy limbs

to their business,

to

which they were made, and do not cast
thine eyes about like a child
;

flourish not

thine

hands,

and leap not with thy

feet.

When

the heart of
fail

man

is

out of ward, the

hmbs sometimes

in their office.

And, as

thou orderest thine outward bearing when
thou goest forth, also look thou that thou
beest devout within,
to

and

specially in praying
If in

and praising the Lord.
rest

going out,

thou canst not
go the
softlier.

in saying

thy prayers,

Many
;

things hinder thee in
;

toiling to

pray

weariness of limbs
;

men

thou meetest who speak to thee
five

then thy

wits fleet out

of

ward, and then the
prays,
cools.

devotion of him

who
lift

When
to

walking thou hast said thy prayers that thou
art

bound

to say,

up thy heart

God,

and pray

to
:

Him

in

thy thoughts in a blessed

recollection

think on the good things
if

God

has done for thee, and shall do
servest

thou truly

Him

:

think on His biddings and do
to thy might, for so
:

them indeed according

God

bids thee
I

when He thus says

— " The
M

words which

command

thee shall be in

1

62

®ur Bail^
and thou

WovK
them
to

thine heart,

shalt relate

thy sons

:

and thou

shall

meditate on them,

sitting in thine house,

and walking on thy Or
in

journey, sleeping and arising."
ing, tell fair tales to

work-

thy fellows, or something

from Holy Writ that
or glad

you

in

God.

may soften your way, And sometimes say the
and the dead, and
rest to

Seven Psalms
that

for the quick

God

give grace to the quick

the dead.

When

thou comest to the town
thou mayst

to ease thy body, seek where

most worthily dwell

for

thy condition and in

most peace

:

and where thou mayst most

profit to thyself

and

others.
to

Let flesh-lust

and vanity

entice

thee
is

no place
loves

:

but

inquire where

any

who most

God,

and

thither

draw thou.

Seek not where thou
peradventure are

mayst be fed

best, for there

many stirrings to sin. Harbour thee with no woman unless thou knowest good of them for a long time. When thou art come

®ur

2)ail^

Morl^.

163

to the house thou shalt rest in, hold thy wits

inward

in

God's holy

fear

;

so

that thine
grace

outer bearing be so ruled with

that
seest,

thou mayst

stir to

good

all

whom

thou

and through God's grace destroy mirkness
of sin,

and
"

so
let

fulfil

God's teaching, who says
light shine before

thus,

So

your

men,

that they seeing your good works

your Father
Gregory says

Who
:

is

in

may glorify heaven." And S.
greatly praise-

" Neither

is it

worthy to be good with the good, but to be
good with the
evil
;

for

even as

it is

of

more

heinous guilt not to be good
so
is it

among

the good,

of

unwearied honour to have stood for

the good

among
from

the evil."

Keep

well thine eyes
all

when thou

art

come
kindle
did,

to harbour,
sin

things that

may
as

and make thine eyes forward,
said
lest

Job

who
eyes

"
I

I

make
should

a covenant with mine

think

upon

a

maid."

After sight, comes thought,

and thereafter

1

64

®ur Dail^ Mori?.
and therefore
said the prophet Jeremiah,

deed,
**

Mine eye hath

laid

waste m}^ soul."

When
who
oft

so holy a prophet lamented
sight, sorely

him

of his eye-

may

another complain
:

sins therewith.
is

Augustine
of

" Shameless eye
heart."

the
:

messenger
" It
is

shameless

Gregory

is

not lawful to look after that

which
" Turn
see

it

not lawful to desire."
eyes that they
also

David

:

away mine
Look

may

not

vanity."

that thou hearest
sin, as

nothing that
words,

may

stir

thee to

unclean
great

backbiting,

false

judgments,

oaths, controversy, striving
vices.

and other such

Also at thy meat, bear thyself orderly,
in

and hold thee
dainties,

measure, and seek after no

but be pleased with

common

meats.

Consider in speaking, to

whom, what, when,
:

how,
so

of

whom, and where
fulfil

and have
like

thyself

orderly that

thou beest not

other
;

worldly men, but
"

the Apostle's words

Be not conformed
is

to this world, because
in

your conversation

heaven."

®ur

'Bail^ MoxJi^*

165

Though our body be
clot

in this

world as a

of earth,

it

is

needful that our spirit

which was
blood of
will in

bought

with

the

dear-worthy

God Almighty be with mind and
soil itself

heaven, not

here with

sin, as

swine do in a ditch.
doest,

x\nd whatsoever thou

and wheresoever thou comest, do as
:

the Apostle teaches

"

Shew

thyself to all
for

men
and

as

an example of good works,"

through a good example
praised,

God

is

worshipped

men

are helped
belief.

and taught and
Bear thee so

strengthened in their
that

men who
as

dwell with you

may

say of

you

was said

of the Apostles

Paul and
like

Barnabas, " The gods are

made

men,

and have come down

to us."

DeO

gracias.

®n

(Brace.

©n

(Brace-

THREE degrees of grace there
first

are.

The
to

God

gives
;

to

all

creatures,

uphold them with

and
all

this is called
;

God's

help freely given to

creatures

and with-

out thi5

gift

of grace, creatures cannot do,
;

nor last in their kind
hot through
the
fire fire

for as

water

is

made
if

and becomes cold again
so, as S.

be withdrawn,

Austin says,

" All creatures that are

made

of naught, so

are they worth naught in a

little

time, unless

God
God,

upholds them with His grace."

Thereof

fore says the Apostle "
I

Through the grace
As
if

am what
that that
I

I

am."
that
I

he said, " That
see,

I live,

I feel,

speak or hear or

and

all

am

:

all this I

have only through

169

I70

®n

(Brace.

God's grace."
is

The second degree
:

of grace

more

special

that
is

God

gives freely to

every

man who
:

a good and reasonable
at the
free-

creature

and

this grace stands ever

gates of our hearts,
will,

and knocks on our
it

and bids

it

let

in.
I

This,

God

says

that

He

does

:

" Behold,
is,

stand at the door

knocking," that
thine heart
this grace
is

"

I

stand at the door of
;

and knock

deserves
self

it.

Me in." And given freely to man before he Then let every man make himlet

worthy and ready

to receive His gift of

the Holy Ghost,
will

Who

ever
it

stirs

man's
evil.

free-

to

good, and calls

from

Two

things are needful to the health of man's
soul.

The

first is this
is

grace that
free-will

I

speak of

:

the

second,

man's

according

thereto.

And

without these two, no

man
that
;

can

do

thoroughly

what

he

ought,

should help him to health of his soul

for

neither free-will, without this grace stirring.

®n

(Brace.

171

nor this grace without free-will assenting, can

do aught that pleases God.
Austin, "
will

Therefore, says S.

He Who made

thee without thee,
;

not justify thee without thee "

that

is,

He Who made thee without make thee righteous, save thou
unto."

"

thee, will not

helpest thereof in

And though
make
the

the

free-will

man
man,
and

cannot

grace

of

God
is

nevertheless, let

man

do what

in him,

prepare himself, that he
able to receive the grace,

may
when

be ready and
it

comes.

If

thou wert

in a

mirk house one day, and doors
:

and windows shut
the sun

if

thou wouldest not
to

let

come

in,

who was
Also

blame
none
S.

if

the

house were mirk.
thyself,
if

blame
For

save

thy grace be

less.

Anselm

says,

"
it

Man
to

lacks not this grace, for
;

God

gives

him

but he has

it

not, because

he does not make himself ready to receive
this grace as

he should."

God

is

not stingy
thereof
;

of His grace, for

He

has

enough

172

Qn
though He deal

(Brace.

for

it

out never so
less
;

far,

and

to so

many, He never has the

for

He
in.

only wants clean vessels, to put His grace
Therefore says
S.

Austin

"
;

God by
all

vast

freedom and abundance

fills

creatures
is,

according to their capacity "

:

that

"

God

through His great freedom of His great grace
fulfils all

creatures according as they are able

to receive His grace."

heart to this grace

man opened when God sends it
If
it

his

to

him, he would shew
Apostle,
in

in
it,

works
said, "
is

;

for the

when he had won

His grace

me was not in vain," that God has given me, is
for

that

" the grace

not useless in

me

"
;

he enjoyed

it

ever in work.
as

We

unite

with

God
:

in
for

His grace,

merchants do

together

God

sets

His grace against

our work

;

but for His grace and His death,
have) naught but our praising
wills that

He

wills (to

and thanking, and He
have
all

man

should
thereof.

the profit that

may

arise

®n
But they try

(Brace.

173

to reave

from God^ His part,

who would be
Against them,

praised of

men

for

good deeds.

God

says, " I will not give
;

My

glory to another "

that

is,

" Praising and give to no

worship that belong to Me,
other."
will of

I will

Thou

shalt

understand, that free-

man

is

to turn freely to

good or

ill.

Three states there are of
after

man's
is,

sin,

and

after
is

man man

;

before sin,

is

confirmed,

that

after
life,

man

departed out of this
to that joy that shall
place,

deadly

and come
In the

never end.
sinned,

first

before

man

was man's
:

will so free, that
it

he could

sin or not sin

in his free-will

was, to do good
is

or

ill.

In the last state, that

confirmed,

shall in

man
will

sin

no more.
sin,

In the second state,

which he
is

may

and may not but

sin,

man's

free to

ill, till it

be strengthened
will,

with grace
then
it is

:

and when grace leads the

free to

work the good.

Before

man

sinned,

no

hindering

had he from doing

174

®n

(Brace.

good^ nor no need to do

ill

:

but

now

has sin

joined with our flesh, and bred what S. Paul
calls

the " law of the flesh/' so that
flesh,

it

is

master of the
in all that
it

and withstands God's law
This hinders our will from

can.
;

assenting to good

and

stirs it to

ill

so that

it

may

not work good, unless grace helps and
sin.

accustoms him away from

Every man

before he sins, has a free will to do good or
ill,

but when he

is

bound

to the fiend, through

works
himself

of sin, he

may
of his

through no power of

come out

bonds

:

and then he
lost

fares like a ship that in a
all

tempest has
is

that could help

it,

and

cast from
it.

wave
Right

to
so,

wave whither the tempest
a

drives

man who

lacks God's grace, because
sin,

he be fallen into deadly

he does not what

he would, but aye wavers from hand to hand,
at the fiend's will,

and unless God give him
sin,

grace to rise out of his
to his
life's

he shall be in sin

end, and after, be lost

body and

®n
soul,

Grace.

175

and damned

to endless pain.

If

the

folk or the

common

people choose them a
in

king,

and he be confirmed
ill

his

kingdom,

he be never so
to him, unless

to them, they can do

naught

it

be through some other,
:

who

has more power than he

and

so, it

behoves
ill.

them
Right

suffer,
so,

do he them never so

much

man

before he sins, has a free will
will

to choose

whether he
;

be under
his

God
will,

or

the

fiend

and when,

with

he

chooses to serve the fiend, he cannot after,

when he would, come out
therefore, worldly

of his bonds.

And
in sin

men who
counsel

are

bound
to

say to them

who

them
rise,

amend

their lives, " fain

would we

but we can-

not."

No, they cannot through might of

themselves, but through God's grace helping

them they
special
;

can.
it

The
is

third

grace

is

most

for

given only to those
;

who

receive the second grace
will fulfil
it

and with

their free-

in deed,

and can say

as S. Paul

176

®n
The grace
of

(Brace.

said^ "

God was
*'
;

not in vain in

me."

And

S.

Austin says

God, working

with us,
stirring,

fulfils

that which He, through grace
in us."

began

For neither without

His helping can we do good to ourselves, nor
please

Him

:

as

God

says Himself " without

Me, thou canst no nothing."
stirring, goes before

God's grace

good

will,
ill.

and

stirs it to

do the good and leave the
Grace,
soul,

when

it

comes

first

to visit

man's

wakens him
of

as out of a slumbering

and
:

inquires

him with those
?

sharp words

"

Where

art thou

Whence comest thou
?

?

Whither
"

shalt
art thou

thou
?

"
if

First

he

says,

Where

" as

he said, " Bethink
foul

thee,

unhappy wretch, how
peril

thou art cast
in.

down, and what
thy

thou art

For, for

sm thou

art fallen into the

enemy's hands,

who above
woe
;

all

things dost covet to

work thy

and naught may

deliver thee out of

the foe's hands, but Almighty God, thy good

®n
Lord,
says
said,
:

(Brace-

177

Whom
*'

thou hast forsaken."
?

After he
as
if

Whence comest thou

"

he

" thou wretch, behold
in
sin
;

how thou

hast

wasted thy hfe

thou comest from
are
all

the fiend's tavern
that

—Where
?

the goods

God

has given thee to help thee with,

and

to worship

Him

Sorrily hast thou lost

them.
art

Thy Lord made

thee rich, and thou
After,
?

become a poor wretch.'

he in"

quires, "
ful

Whither wendest thou

"

Woe-

wretch thou wendest to the woeful doom,

that

God dooms men God

to

;

for as

thou hast So awful
shalt

served so shalt thou be judged.
shalt thou see
for fear

there,
;

that thou

be out of thy wits
hills

and

to the

moun-

tains
noise,

and

thou shalt cry with a grisly
to fall
not.

and pray them

on thee and hide

thee, that thou see

Him

Woeful wretch,

thou wendest to

hell, if

thou dost forth as
fire

thou hast begun, where thou shalt find
so hot

and so raging, that

all

the water in the
N

178

®n
though
it

(Brace.

sea,

ran through

it,

should not

slake

a spark thereof.

And

because thou
sin, there

stinkest here to

God,

for

thy foul
:

thou shalt

feel everlasting stink

and because

thou lovedst mirkness here, for aye to be in
sin,

there shalt thou feel such thick mirkness
it
;

that thou canst grip

and because here
God's

thou didst
will,

rest thyself in sin against

there shalt thou shed

more

tears than

there are motes in a sunbeam.

Thou

shalt

suffer pain ever after pain, ever to

renew thy

woe."

When God's
him
to

grace has stirred
three,
is in,

man and

wakened him with these

and has made
then he con:

know

the peril he

ceives a terror of

God's awful doom

and

therethrough, he begins to repent whatever

he did

ill,

and covets

to

amend himself through
him
to flee
ill

God's grace, that
himself
to

stirs
:

and give

good

and then comes grace

following, to help the goodwill of

man

to ful-

®n
fil

(Brace.

179

it

in deed.

For though

man have

a good

will

to

do the good, through grace before
the good
will,

stirring

yet can he not do

indeed without God's grace following and
helping
self
:

and

this the Apostle affirms of

him-

when he
in

says
"
;

"
;

But not
is,

I,

but the grace

of
I

God
do
"
;

me
if

that

" the

good which
it

is

naught, but God's grace does
as

with

me
is

he had said, "

I

can do no good,

unless

God's grace help me."

God's

will

also a

handmaiden

to grace, to
it

work

all

her

will.

God's grace, wherever

be, will not

be useless, but ever working and growing

more and more,
Therefore do
"

to

increase

thy

reward.

we

as the Apostle counsels us,

We

exhort you, brethren, that ye receive

not the grace of

God

in vain "

;

that

is,

"I

pray you and bid you,

my

brothers in God,

that ye receive not God's grace in vain."

He
it

receives

God's grace

in vain, that enjoys

not in good, when

God

sends

it

to

him

;

i8o

®n

(Brace.

and therefore perhaps, he shah never
win thereto.
is

after

Isidore tells of a little fly that

called Saura,

and

this fly

betokens grace
fly is said

stirring beforehand.

This kind of

to be the

enemy

of all

venomous worms,

so

that

when he
to

sees

any worm (going) toward
sleeps
in

man
lights

sting
;

him when he
flies

the

wilderness

he

before to the

man, and
little
;

upon

his face,

and

bites

him a

and therethrough he wakes before the beast

By this Saura is understood grace that God sends to man against the temptations of the fiend, who often stings
comes to sting him.

venomously

:

it

cries

unto

thee,

as

the

Apostle says

"
;

Awake, thou that

sleepest,
shall give

and

rise

from the dead, and Christ

thee light."
this grace,

But the unthankful act against
and ruin
it
:

as Virgil did with

this little fly that

saved him from death.

He
:

lay asleep,

and an adder came toward him

but this

fly

Saura flew before, and lighted on

®n
his forehead,

(Brace.

i8i

and pricked him a
;

HttlCj

and
;

therewith he wakened

also the

adder came

but this

Virgil, in his

waking,

felt his fore;

head smart, and smote himself on the face

and

so he slew the fly,

and

so repaid
life.

him

for his service,

who saved

his

Thereit

fore

do thou not ruin God's grace when
thee, to

comes to
stir

warn thee
Glad ought

of

harm and
to be of

thee to good.

man

God's grace, when God sends

it

to him,
:

and
for

to take care full warily of so rich a gift

grace

is is

earnest-money of that lasting joy
to come, as the Apostle says
:

which

" the

grace of grace
life."
is

God

is

eternal

life

"
;

that

is,

"

God's

like a help

and way to everlasting
sets grace before us as
:

Therefore,

He

the

way

that leads to everlasting joy
if

and
in

also a pledge,

we keep

it

well, to
;

make

us certainty of endless joy
says, "

as the Apostle

Who

gave us His Spirit as a pledge in
is

our bodies," that

"

God

has given us the

1

82

®n

(Brace.

Holy Ghost

as pledge of endless joy."

Hold

we then we
this
it

this

heavenly pledge

;

and enjoy

well in
if

work

;

for

it

is

well for us in
;

life,

God's grace lead us
us,

and when
welfare.

grace

leaves

we

fail

of

that

Therefore, through help of grace let us destroy
in ourselves everything that
is

against grace,
is

be

it

less

or more, that our reason says
is,

against God's will, that

all

that

is sin,

or

may
in

stir to sin

:

and

let

us have repentance

our heart,

shrift

in

mouth, and with-

standing, with will never to turn again.

an

lEpiatle

on Charity.

®n
By what
thine

Cbantig.

tokens thou shalt
:

know

if

thou lovest
shalt

enemy

and what example thou

take from Christ to love him.

AND
/j^
cheer,

if

thou beest

not

stirred
fell

against

the person

by anger or

outward

and have no privy hate

in thine heart

for to despise him, or

judge him, or for to

set

him

at

naught

:

and the more shame and

villany he does to thee in

word

or in deed,
of

the

more pity and compassion thou hast
as thou wouldest

him

have

of a

man who was

out of his mind, and thou thinkest thou canst not find in thine heart to hate him, for love

1

86

Qn
good
in itself,

Cbarit^.

is

so

but prayest for him, and

helpest him,

and

desirest his

amending, not

only with thy

mouth

as hypocrites do, but

with thy affection of love in thine heart, then
hast

thou

perfect

charity

to

thy
S.

fellow-

Christian.
perfectly,

This

charity

had

Stephen,

when he prayed

for

them who

stoned him to death.
counselled to
followers,
all

This charity, Christ
perfect

who would be His
said thus
:

when He

"

Love your

enemies, do good to

them that hate you,

pray for those who persecute and calumniate
you."

And

therefore,

if

thou wilt follow

Christ, be like

Him
and

in

power.

Learn to love
for all those

thine enemies,
are

sinful

men,

thy

fellow-Christians.

Look

and

be-

think thee

how

Christ loved Judas,

who was
caitiff
:

both His bodily enemy and a sinful

how goodly
how

Christ
;

was

to

him

;

how benign
to

;

courteous
to be

how humble
damnable
;

him whom

He knew

and nevertheless.

®n
He

Charity.

187

chose him for His Apostle, and sent him
;

to preach with the other Apostles

He gave
to
;

him power

to

work miracles
in

:

He shewed

him the same good cheer
also with His precious

word and deed
;

Body

and preached
:

to

him

as

He

did to the other Apostles

He condemned him

not openly, nor abused,
evil of
all
!

nor despised him, nor ever spake

him

:

and yet even though He had done

that,

He would
above
all,

but have said the truth

And
kissed
this

when Judas took Him, He
called

him and

him His

friend.

All

charity, Christ

shewed to Judas

whom He

knew

to

be damnable.

In no manner of

feigning or flattering, but in soothfastness of

good love and clean charity.

For though

it

were truth that Judas was unworthy to have

any
of

gift of

God, or any sign
;

of love, because
it

his

wickedness

nevertheless,

was

worthy and reasonable that our Lord should
appear as

He

is.

1

88

©n
He
is

Charity.

love

and goodness, and therefore
to

it

belongs to
all

Him

shew love and goodness

to

His creatures, as
after,

He
if

did to Judas.
;

Follow

somewhat

thou canst

for

though thou beest shut

in a

house with thy

body, nevertheless in thine heart, where the
place of love
is,

thou shalt be able to have

part of such a love to thy fellow Christians
as
I

speak

of.

Whoso deems
Jesus

himself to be a

perfect follower of

Christ's

teaching
be,

and

living, as

some men deem that they

inasmuch as one teaches and preaches, and
is

poor in worldly goods as Christ was, and

cannot follow Christ in His love and charity,
to love his fellow-Christians, every

man, good

and

ill,

friends

and

foes,

without feigning,

flattering,

despising in heart, angriness

and
be-

melancholious
guiles himself
:

reproving,

soothly,

he

the dearer he deems himself
is.

to be, the further he

For Christ said to
followers,

those

who would be His

thus

:

Q\\ (Tbarit^.
"

189

This

is

My commandment^
I

that

ye love

mutually as
" This
as
I is

have loved you."
that ye love together
I

My bidding,
if

love you, for

ye love as

loved, then
is

are

ye

My

disciples."

He

that

meek
his

soothfastly, or

would be meek, can love
:

fellow-Christians

and none save

he.

t
Contrition-

RICHARD
clerk Cesarius at Paris

HERMIT
tells.

rehearses

a

.

.

tale of perfect contrition that the

same

He tells that a scholar had done full many sins of which he
to

was ashamed

shrive him.

At the

last,

great sorrow of heart overcame his shame,

and when he was ready to shrive him
Prior of the
contrition

to the

Abbey
in

of

S.

Victor,

so great

was

his

heart, sighing in his

breast, sobbing in his throat that he could

not bring one word forth.
said to him, "

Then the Prior

Go and

write thy sins."

He

did so and came again to the Prior, and gave

him what he had

written, for

still

he could not

shrive himself with his mouth.

The Prior

saw the

sins

were so great, that with the
190

Contrition.
scholar's leave, he

191

shewed them

to the

Abbot

to have his counsel.

The Abbot took the
and looked

writing wherein they were written,
thereon.
to the

He found nothing written, and said Prior, " What can here be read where
is

naught

written

?

"

Then saw the

Prior

and wondered

greatly,

and said " Wit ye
I

that his sins were here written, and

read

them

:

but now

I

see that

God

has seen his
all his sins."

contrition

and has forgiven him

This the Abbot and the Prior told the scholar,

and

he, with great Joy,

thanked God.

Scraps from the Hrunbel ^S.

SINFUL
And
of

man
I

ruefully

look up and hung on rood
;

see,

how

my

penance have pity with sorrowful

heart and dreary
All this,

mood

:

man,

I

suffered for thee

:

My
;

flesh

Lift

was riven, all spilt My blood up thine heart, call thou on Me, forsake have mercy, God. thy sin
:

Think Think

oft

with sore heart of thy foul

sins,

oft of hell-woe, of wins *
;

heaven-kingdom's

Think of thine own death, of God's death on rood, The grim doom of Doom's-day have thou oft
in

mood

:

Think how
reward.

false is this world,

and what

its

Think what,

for

His good death, thou owest

thy Lord.

Richard Rolle.
*

Wins

=

joys.

192

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Rules and

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And

LIFE. TERESA'S Written
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Re

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13

CONSCIENCE
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...

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