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Sami Barmada, Member, IEEE, Antonino Musolino, and Rocco Rizzo

AbstractA wavelet approach to the analysis of transmission lines equations with frequency-dependent parameters is presented. The transmission line equations in the frequency domain are expanded on a wavelet basis, yielding an algebraic system in the wavelet-frequency domain. The algebraic system is then solved by the use of standard techniques; the results are inverse transformed yielding the behavior of voltage and current all along the line in the frequency domain. Inverse fast Fourier transform gives the time domain solution. The convenience of using the wavelet transform is that the matrices are sparse and of lower dimension if compared to standard techniques. The proposed method is characterized by low CPU times and low memory consumption. Index TermsFrequency-dependent parameters, transmission lines, wavelet expansion.

time, hence there is a tradeoff between CPU time and precision of the method. The method has been tested on several lines and has been demonstrated to require low memory space and low CPU time. II. WAVELETS ON THE INTERVAL AND OPERATORS The concepts of scaling functions, wavelets, time-scale analysis, and multiresolution analysis are here considered known ([5][8]); there are many wavelet basis available in the literature, and we chose the Daubechies Wavelets on the interval [9] for their numerical properties. In particular, the choice of wavelets that survive only on intervals is adopted because we are interested in the solution of boundary value problems. The wavelet expansion is used to transform a signal into a vector of coefficients according to (1) is the wavelet basis and is the vector of coefficients where constituting the wavelet expansion of the signal. The notation described in (1) will be used throughout the paper. Wavelets can also represent operators [10]; in particular, an operator in the wavelet domain is represented by a matrix of constant entries. The elements, of course, depend on the chosen basis and the chosen resolution. A representation of the differential operator for the Daubechies wavelets on the interval has been developed by the authors [11]. The representation of the differential operator in the wavelet domain is effective under a computational point of view; in particular, if we indicate by the matrix representing the differential operator in the wavelet is simply perdomain, the differentiation of the signal formed by the vector-matrix product , where the operator matrix is sparse. III. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION A single conductor TL is characterized by the following equations in the frequency domain: (2) and . with and are vectors repreFor a multiconductor line, and senting voltages and currents for each conductor, while are matrices. In the following subsections, we will obtain

I. INTRODUCTION UMERICAL techniques for the analysis of multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations with frequency-dependent parameters are an important issue, since an analytical solution is not available; on the other hand, the study of the behavior of transmission lines is fundamental for the correct operation of electronic devices, which are often important parts of more complex engineering systems. Several methods are available in the literature: time-domain convolution techniques [1]; time stepping methods i.e., based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) [2] or numerical inversion of the Laplace transform [3]; techniques based on FFT. i.e., waveform relaxation techniques [4]. Recently wavelet expansion (WE) has been successfully used in electromagnetics [5], and some applications to MTL have been studied by the authors [6], [7], in particular regarding nonuniform lines with linear and nonlinear loads. In this paper, frequency-dependent parameters are included. MTL equations in frequency domain are expanded in the wavelet domain (space domain wavelet expansion). By the use of this expansion the differential system becomes an algebraic system, which is solved with standard techniques. Then, inverse fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to obtain the solution in the time domain. The number of function composing the wavelet basis can be arbitrarily chosen; obviously, more wavelets (higher resolution) means higher precision but also higher CPU

Manuscript received June 18, 2002. The authors are with the Dipartimento Sistemi Elettrici e Automazione, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy (e-mail: sami.barmada@dsea.unipi.it). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2003.810164

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the formulations both with the differential and with the integral operator. It has to be noted that wavelets on the interval are defined over [0,1]; hence (2) needs to be rescaled in the space domain. It can be simply done by multiplying the per unit length parameters by the length of the line. So, from this point forward the parameters will be considered scaled. A. Differential Formulation be the wavelet basis in the Let space domain. We can write, according to (1), that

B. Integral Formulation By integrating (2), respectively, between 0 and , and between and , we obtain the two following systems: (9) and (10) Substituting (3) into (9) we obtain

(3) and are vectors of where phasors, i.e., the vector of coefficients of the wavelet expansion. Substituting (3) into (2) we obtain (4) and taking into account the By left multiplying by definition of the differential operator in the wavelet domain ) and the orthonormality of the ( ) we obtain basis ( (5) The following equations at the ports of the line must be considered: (6) where , , and are, respectively, the input impedance, the output impedance, and the input generator phasor at a certain frequency. We can write that (11) and performing the same substitution of (3) into (10) we obtain (12) and taking into account the defBy left multiplying by inition of the integral operator in the wavelet domain ( ) and the orthonormality of the basis we obtain for (9) and (10) (13) (14) The integral operator is transposed in (14) because the inteis gration is from to and not from 0 to . The quantity . the wavelet transform of the constant and the By multiplying the second equation of (13) by , adding them and considering second equation of (14) by the boundary conditions (7) we obtain the following system: (15) (7) and are vectors of constant elements being the where values of the function of the wavelet basis, respectively, at the left border and at the right border of the space interval. Taking into account (5)(7) we can write the following system: which can be written in a matrix form (16) System (16) is a square system and the solution is obtained directly. This comes from the fact that the boundary conditions are already included in the integral equations. IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS The proposed methods have been tested on several cases, both with and without frequency-dependent parameters and compared with other methods. In the following cases, only the results obtained by one of the two methods is shown, since they have proven to be equivalent. The use of an algorithm optimized for sparse matrices makes the method effective in terms of CPU time. In particular, the results reported here have been obtained considering a single conductor line, as shown in

(8)

, so it must be solved System (8) has dimension with a least square method; nevertheless, it yields good results as shown in the results section. Its solution gives the behavior of the unknowns along the line (function of ) in the wavelet domain for each frequency. The standard inverse FFT is used to obtain the time domain response. Then, the inverse wavelet transform in space has to be performed.

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Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 1, where the line itself is the RG-21 cable of length 9680 cm with the skin effect model described in [12]. The parameters of the cable under analysis are

where m cm S cm s cm. nH cm pF cm

Fig. 4. Comparison between frequency-dependent parameters at input port.

A. Comparison With Other Methods Without Skin Effect The method is first compared with the solution method proposed in [7] for the previously defined line without skin effect, . The value of the input and output impedances hence with . is Figs. 2 and 3, respectively, show the input and output voltages of the cable. The results indicated with reference are obtained as in [7], while the ones referenced as wav-fft are obtained by the use of the presented method. The perfect agreement between the two methods is clearly visible. In these simulations, the number of wavelets in space is equal to 128, and the number of frequency points is of 512. B. Frequency Dependent Parameters The results shown in Figs. 4 and 5 are obtained by comparing , with , the behavior of the cable with

Fig. 5. Comparison between frequency-dependent parameters at output port.

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Fig. 6.

Fig. 8.

V. CONCLUSION The method proposed here for the analysis of transmission line transients in presence of frequency-dependent paramenters is based on wavelet expansion in the space domain and FFT in the frequency domain. The tests performed on many cases have demonstrated that the method is efficient allowing the use of low memory space and low CPU time.

Fig. 7. Input port of the line.

REFERENCES

[1] A. Djordjevic and T. Sarkar, Analysis of time response of lossy multiconductor transmission line network, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 35, pp. 898907, Oct. 1987. [2] A. Orlandi and C. R. Paul, Fdtd analysis of lossy, multiconductor transmission lines terminated in arbitrary loads, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 38, pp. 388398, Aug. 1996. [3] S. L. Manney, M. S. Nakhla, and Q. Zhang, Time domain analysis of nonuniform frequency dependent high-speed interconnects, in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer-Aided Design, 1992, ICCAD-92, Dig. Tech. Papers, IEEE/ACM, 1992, 1992, pp. 449453. [4] F. Y. Chang, Transient simulation of nonuniform coupled transmission lines characterized with frequency dependent parameters, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 39, pp. 119129, Aug. 1992. [5] G. Pan, Orthogonal wavelets with application in electromagnetism, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 32, pp. 975983, May 1996. [6] M. Raugi, Wavelet transform solution of mtl transients, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 35, pp. 15541558, May 1999. [7] S. Barmada and M. Raugi, Transient numerical solutions of nonuniform mtl equations with nonlinear loads by wavelet expansion in time or space domain, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 47, pp. 11781190, Aug. 2000. [8] C. K. Chui, Wavelets: A Tutorial in Theory and Applications. New York: Academic, 1992. [9] A. Cohen, I. Daubechies, B. Jawerth, and P. Vial, Multiresolution analysis wavelets and fast algorithms on the interval, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris ser. i Math., vol. 316, pp. 417421, 1992. [10] G. Beylkin, Operators in base of compactly supported wavelets, in Proc. Symp. Applied Math., vol. XLIV, 1991, pp. 141183. [11] S. Barmada and M. Raugi, A general tool for circuit analysis based on wavelet transform, Proc. Int. J. Circuit Theory Applications, vol. 28, pp. 461480, Sept./Oct. 2000. [12] N. S. Nahman and D. R. Holt, Transient analysis of coaxial cables using the skin effect approximation a b s, IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, vol. 19, pp. 443451, Sept. 1972.

and with s cm. The number of wavelets and points in frequency is the one used in the previous section. The effect of factor (skin effect) on the behavior of the voltages at the ports is clearly visible. C. Comparison Between Frequency-Dependent Parameters at Output Port The method can be used with lines having arbitrary loads or input impedances. Tests have been performed with different impedances. In Fig. 6 a capacitive load has been considered, in particular M pF

which is the nominal value of the input impedance of a CMOS inverter corresponding to 1 m gate technology. The results shown in Figs. 7 and 8 show the input and output voltages. The number of wavelets in space and points in time is the same as the previous sections. Again, the effect of the inclusion of frequency dependency is evident in the results.

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