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Samer Alsadi Department of Electrical Engineering & Technology PTU-Kadoorie

Electrical Energy is Generated at few kV and stepped up. Transmitted through AC and HVDC lines. Stepped down and distributed at load centers. Its natural mode of synchronous operation knits the system together.

Why do we need protection? Electrical apparatus operates at various voltage levels and may be enclosed or placed in open. Under abnormal operating conditions protection is necessary for Safety of electrical equipments. Safety of human personnel.

Types of Protection

1.Apparatus Protection a) Transmission Line Protection b) Transformer Protection c) Generator Protection d) Motor Protection e) Busbar Protection 2.System Protection a) Out-of-Step Protection b) Under-frequency Relays c) Islanding Systems d) Rate of Change of Frequency Relays

What is a Relay? A relay is a logical element which process the inputs (mostly voltages and currents) from the system and issues a trip decision if a fault within its jurisdiction is detected. Inputs to a relay are Current from a current transformer. Voltage from a voltage transformer.

Evolution of Relays If we zoom into a relay, we can see three different types of realization: 1) Electromechanical Relays. 2) Solid State Relays. 3) Numerical Relays.

Electromechanical Relays First generation of relays. Uses the principle of electromechanical energy conversion. Immune to electromagnetic interference and rugged.

Solid State Relays

These relays were developed with the advent of transistors, operational amplifiers etc. Their functionality is through various operations like comparators etc.
1) More flexible. 2) Self checking facility. 3) Less power consumption and low burden. 4) Improved dynamic performance characteristics. 5) High seismic withstand capacity. 6) Reduced panel space.

Their advantages are

Numerical Relays

Operation of a numerical relay involves analog to digital conversion of voltage and currents obtained from VT and CTs. These samples are fed to the microprocessor or DSP where the protection algorithms process these signals and necessary decisions are taken.

The advantages of Numerical Relays are 1) Maximum flexibility. 2) Provides multiple functionality. 3) Self checking and communication facility. 4) It can be made adaptive.

1) 2) 3) 4)

A circuit breaker is basically a switch to interrupt the flow of current. It opens on relay command. It has to handle large voltages and currents. The inductive nature of power system results in arcing between the terminals of a CB. CBs are categorized based on the interrupting medium used. Air CB. SF6 CB. OIL CB VACUM CB

What is a Circuit Breaker?

Necessity of a protection system. Types of Protection. Three generations of relays. Role of circuit breakers.