Results, Analysis & Prototype

In this chapter, some of the results obtained from the laboratory testing are included, explained and analyzed accordingly. Apart from that, the step-by-step analysis and the overall progress of team can also be observed. Finally, at the end of this chapter, the final prototype of the project is also explained in brief.

Testing of the 4 Strain Gauge Sensors Separately
In the beginning of the project, the design team has to test out all the outputs from the 4 sensors before proceeding into the next stage. For this part, four multi-meters are used separately to measure four voltage differences produced from each sensor. Load of weight approximately 7 kg is added on the sensors to observe the difference output voltage produced and each time the results are recorded. Since the initial voltage offset is different for each sensor, the four voltage differences are recorded seperately. 3 results of the tests conducted are shown as in the tables below. Table: Result for 1st Test Load (kg) Sensor 1 (mV) 0 7 14 21 28 35 6.5 8.5 8.9 9.4 10.2 11.7 Sensor 2 (mV) 71.5 72.5 73.1 73.6 74.1 74.6 Sensor 3 (mV) 6.1 6.7 7.4 8.0 8.6 9.2 Sensor 4 ∆v (mV) 47.5 47.9 48.2 48.7 49.1 49.4 (mV) 4.0 2.0 1.5 2.9 2.9

Table : Result for 2nd Test Load (kg) Sensor 1 (mV) 0 7 50.0 50.8 Sensor 2 (mV) 9.3 9.9 Sensor 3 (mV) 10.8 11.3 Sensor 4 ∆v (mV) 72.8 73.3 (mV) 2.4

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14 21 28 35

51.5 52.4 53.3 54.2

10.6 11.2 11.8 12.5

11.8 12.3 12.7 13.0

73.9 74.4 74.9 75.3

2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3

Table : Result for 3rd Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 V1 50.0 50.9 51.7 52.2 52.8 53.3 V2 9.4 10.1 10.8 11.4 12.0 12.5 V3 10.8 11.8 12.1 12.4 12.8 13.3 V4 72.9 73.5 74.0 74.6 75.2 76.0 ∆v 3.0 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.3

Figure : Relationship between the output voltage and the load applied
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Testing the Output Of the Summing Amplifier Without Amplification
The voltage differences from the four sensors are summed up through a summing amplifier. The output of the summing amplifier shows the results below. Table : Result for 4th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 Output Voltage (mV) 162.8 165.0 167.2 169.5 171.8 174.0 Table : Result for 5th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 Output Voltage (mV) 129.0 131.5 133.9 136.5 138.8 141.1 Table : Result for 6th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 Output Voltage (mV) 148.5 150.8 153.0 155.2 157.4 159.5 Changes in Voltage, after load is added(mV) 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 Changes in Voltage, after load is added (mV) 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.3 Changes in Voltage, after load is added (mV) 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2

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Table : Result for 7th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 Output Voltage (mV) 142.2 144.5 146.8 149.0 151.1 153.3 Changes in Voltage, after load is added(mV) 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2

Figure : Relationship between the total output voltage from all the 4 sensors and the load applied

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Testing the Voltage Difference For Final Prototype After the Inverting Amplifier
The output of summing amplifier is then inverted and amplified by the inverting amplifier before going into the ADC port of the microcontroller. Then the output of inverting amplifier connected to a diode and capacitor to obtain the dc voltage alone. The final output voltage is shown as below: Table : Result for 8th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 Output Voltage (V) 1.89 1.96 2.02 2.09 2.15 2.22 2.28 2.34 Changes in Voltage, after load is added(V) 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06

Table : Result for 9th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 Voltage (V) 1.89 1.96 2.02 2.09 2.15 2.22 2.28 2.34 Change in Voltage, after load is added(V) 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06

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Table : Result for 10th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 Voltage (V) 1.89 1.95 2.01 2.08 2.15 2.22 2.28 2.35 Change in Voltage, after load is added(V) 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07

Figure : Relationship between the final output voltage from the inverting amplifier and the load applied

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Testing the Analog to Digital Conversion Results and the Load Applied
The voltage difference of the diode is then connected into the ADC which has programmed to PIC interfacing with LCD. The reading of ADC is shown as below. Table : Result for 11th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 Digital Value 0335 0348 0359 0369 0384 0393 0403 Difference in digital value after load is added 0 13 11 10 15 9 10

Table : Result for 12th Test Load (kg) 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 Digital Value 0335 0348 0356 0368 0380 0390 0399 Difference in digital value after load is added 0 13 8 12 12 10 9

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Figure : Relationship between the digital value converted and the load applied

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