The following are common tools and techniques for all the processes in the Project Integration Management knowledge area:
  

Project Management Methodology Expert Judgment (except Direct and Manage Project Execution) PMIS

2. After the Project management plan is developed, it is an input for all successive processes in the Project Integration Management knowledge area. 3. Activity Attributes Updates is a common output for all the processes in the Project Time Management knowledge area except the first process where activity attributes are created. 4. Requested Changes is a common output for all the processes in the Project Cost, Time, Quality & Scope Management knowledge area except the Activity Duration Estimating Process , Quality Planning and Scope Planning 5. Tools and techniques used in Risk Identification: 5. a. BIRDS (Information Gathering techniques) b. CSI (Diagramming techniques) B I R D S:
    

Brainstorming Interviewing Root cause identification Delphi technique SWOT Analysis

C S I:
  

Cause and Effect Analysis System or Process Flow charts Influence Diagrams

Strategies for Positive Risks / Threats: SEE    Share Enhance Exploit 8. PIE (Data gathering and representation techniques) b.6. a. Tornardo Diagram) 7. Strategies for Negative Risks / Threats: ATM:    Avoid Transfer Mitigate b. Tools and techniques used in Risk Response Planning: a. MEDS (Quantitative risk analysis and modeling) P I E: Probability Distributions Interviewing Expert Judgement MEDS: Modeling and Simulation (Eg Monte Carlo Analysis) EMV Analysis Decision tree analysis Sensitivity Analysis (Eg. Tools and techniques used in Quantitative Risk Analysis: 6. Tools and techniques used in Scope Definition: APES    Alternatives Identification Product Analysis Expert Judgement .

the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity. When the seller selection is based on PRICE. 16. Special causes are unusual events. Recommended Preventive action is used to bring the project into compliance with the project plan. its often called a tender / Bid / Quotation. Flow charting Run Chart Histogram Pareto Chart Scatter Diagram 17. Prevention is keeping errors out of the process. When the seller selection is based on technical skills / approach.a random causes) are normal process variations. 14.k. Constraints for human resource planning: CEO . Attribute sampling is whether the result conforms or not. Seven basic tools of quality: CCFRHPS Take a Cat Cat-Fish Runs on Horse Pony Stallion Cause and Effect Diagrams. Recommended corrective action is anything that needs to be done to bring the seller in compliance with the terms of the contract. The process is in control if it falls within the control limits. 10. The result is acceptable if it falls within the range specified by the tolerance control limits. Common causes (a. 12. its called a proposal. 11. In Variables sampling. 15. 13. There is only one Tool & Technique for Risk Management Planning: Planning meetings and analysis. Control Charts. Inspection is keeping errors out of the hands of the customer. Stakeholder Analysis 9.

given reasonable issues.   Collective bargaining agreements Economic conditions Organizational Structure 18. If the activity is having float. Project Selection Method : Benefit measurement and Constrained optimization. Risk Management and Project Planning. divided by the buyer's portion of the share ratio for that price range. PV – Today’s value of future cash flows. It is also known as the "most pessimistic cost" because it represents the highest point beyond which costs are not expected to rise. The PTA is the difference between the ceiling and target prices. 3. Any FPIF contract specifies a target cost. plus the target cost. they are assumed to be due to mis-management rather than a worst-case set of difficulties. 2. 7. In addition. a target profit. once the costs on an FPIF contract reach PTA. Project Statement of Work describes: BPS    Business Needed Product Scope Description Strategic Plan Point of Total Assumption The point of total assumption (PTA) is a price determined by a fixed price plus incentive fee contract (FPIF) above which the seller bears all the loss of a cost overrun. If costs go beyond the PTA. and one or more share ratios. 4. the maximum amount the buyer will pay is the ceiling price. a ceiling price. PTA = ((Ceiling Price . 6. Sunk cost are expended cost.Target Price)/buyer's Share Ratio) + Target Cost Integration Management 1. 5. . Value Analysis: Finding a less costly way to do the same scope of work direct cost: Attributes to an activity Historical records are Best for estimating. that means it is not in critical path. The seller bears all of the cost risk at PTA and beyond. a target price.

18. 3. 21. 23. quicker is better. SPI & CPI the better. 12. 15. 4. A product acceptance criterion is included in the project scope statement. WBS best be thought of an effective aid for stakeholder communication and also used to communicate with customers.8. 2. 11. WBS best be thought of an effective aid for stakeholder communication and also used to communicate with customers. Project management Plan: A formal. Project team is responsible for preparing scope baseline Customer approves product scope. . Types of project selection: 1. Team buying is direct results of WBS Process. WBS helps to understand the scope of the work. 9. 10. Team buying is direct results of WBS Process.IRR. NPV. Benefit cost ratio NPV == The project with great NPV will be selected. Payback period. Constrained Optimization Methods ( Mathematical Approach ) Economical Models for Project section: Present Value. RISK and RESOURCES. Lowest Level of decomposition is work package and It can be performed by many people. EVA (Economic Value Added) : Law of Diminishing Returns:???? Depreciation: Straight Line Depreciation Two types: Double Declining Balance Sum of Years Digits Scope: 1. Larger the BCR. 17. Double declining: A balance is a form of accelerated depreciation. Lowest Level of decomposition is work package and It can be performed by many people. 22. gives the project manager authority Performance is compared against the project management plan or the project baseline. 24. Integration is performed at key interface points ( Done by Project manager ) Project Charter. 14. 25. 16. 27. Scope control process integrates with other control process. IRR == More IRR the project selection Payback Period: it is like ROI. Benefit Cost Ratio: Benefits cost ratio is more than 1 means benefits are greater than cost. approved document used to control the project. 26. Different versions mean “Configuration management”. Influence the factors that affect change? ( Ans: Determing the score of change and fixing the root cause ) Returning the score of changes and fixing the root cause Product of the Project is completed at the end of the project. Benefit Measurement methods 2. QUALITY. 20. WBS helps to understand the scope of the work. not project scope. Proposed change may effect COST. 13. 19. High priority projects hold more senior management.

PMBOK 249 ( Very Important ) Rita Book: Page Number: 363 and read it couple of times. Formal Verbal. Define Activities: WBS -> Work Packages – > Activities 2.Confidential.Written.Cost reimburse Fixed Price ( FP. Procurement:                     Procurement: you are buying something RFP – Request for Proposal IFB – Invitation for Bid RFQ – Request for Quotation we could be seller or buyer we need to do procurement process each and every item you are procuring. Informal Written and Informal Verbal from Rita Page : 355 and do exercises in 356. 90 % of PM’s Job is Communication Read Power & Interest Topic. Communication Channels Formula : n(n-1)/2 ( Surely you will get question ) Communication occurs internally. 7. Project team is responsible for preparing scope baseline 6.Time and Material. 5. 6. Purchase – Product. Scope control process integrates with other control process. and horizontally.5. externally. 8. Who writes the contract: Centralized: These guys will handle all contracts in ur company decentralized. not project scope. 4./ should have formal contract. vertically. Customer approves product scope. Contract types: Fixed Price . Contract: It is a legal document.contract manager will be assigned to your project. 3. . Oligopoly: few seller exits Manage as a Project: seller manages contract as a project Contract should be there even for internal projects. Portion of a Project schedule network diagram are after referred to as sub network or fragment network. 7. Time: 1. Lump Sum / Firm Fixed Price ) Fixed Price Economic Price Adjustment = Fixed Price with Prospective Price redetermination Terms and conditions should reflect the findings of a risk analysis. 2. and Not to be disclosed. Services and Results Contract is Formal. Contract will reduce your risk. Rolling wave planning? 3. The kind of interface to alter your message is called NOISE Transfer the call is Medium Receives response to the message is called Feedback. Know about Formal Written. 9. Communication management: 1.

or account number. and grade are not same.making early scope definition critical. that is directly linked to the performing organizations accounting system. WBS component used for the project cost accounting is called the CONTROL ACCOUNT. PMP Notes QUALITY Plan Quality: Identifying Quality requirements and /or Standards for the project and product. CONTROL COST: Monitor project cost to manage the budget and changed to cost baseline. Quality. and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. Performance QA: The Process of auditing Quality requirement and the results from Quality Control Measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational are used. (CA) Each CA is assigned to unique code. DETERMINE BUDGET:: aggregates the cost of individual activities or work packages to establish the COSTBASELINE. Perform QC: The processes of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance. PMP Notes COST it involved in estimating . ESTIMATE COSTS: an estimate of the funds needed to complete the project. when the contract is no longer serves the needs of the contract it can be renegotiated if the appropriate parties agree to do so. Ability to to influence cost is greatest at the early stages of the project. Project cost management . SUNK COST: money you have already spent. cost management plan is an integral part of the overall PM pan. budgeting. thresholds are typically expressed in % of deviations from the baseline plan.

it integrates S. Total PV sometimes called as PMB ( Performance measurement Baseline). what effect today. planned Value ( PV ) : is authorized budget assigned to the work.’s decision will have over the life of the product.10 % Control Cost: TT: EVM is commonly used method of performance measurement. Estimate Costs: ROM ( Rough Order of Magnitude ) : +/. KPI::: ROI ROS PV NPV QRR BCR Payback Method COST : Cost to produce project result. EVM develops and monitors three key dimensions of the work packages and control account.50 % then +/.S.C and helps to measure and assess project performance and progress. Price: sales price to the customer. . Total Planned value for the project is known as ―Budget At Completion‖ (BAC). Earned value ( EV ): is often used to describe the % completion of a project.life cycle costing: Take into consideration .

CPI < 1 -> is cost overruns CPI >1 -> is cost under run CPI= EV/AC PMP notes Time Time management Define activities Sequence activities Estimate activity resources Estimate activity durations Develop schedule Control schedule Define activities: .actual cost ( AC ) Total cost actually incurred & recorded in accomplishing work performed for an activity or WBS. VARIANCE : Schedule variance : SV = EV – PV Cost Variance : CV = EV – AC SPI : is to measure progress achieved compared to progress planned. SPI > 1 -> More work was completed than was planned.Inputs from score and integration management goes to define activities - . SPI = EV/PV CPI – Value of the work completed compared to the actual cost Or Progress made on the project. SPI < 1 -> Less work was completed than was planned.

. milestone list Activity attributes . purposefully put a delay b/w the predecessor and successor. sequence activities: PDM ( Precedence Diagramming Method ) this is also called as Activity of Node. activity attributes. Discretionary dependencies: are sometimes referred as ―Preferred Logic‖ / Preferential Logic/Soft logic Predecessors: common one is F to S SS is less common lag time : A lag directs delay in the successor activity. lead time: A lead allows an acceleration of the successor activity. project scope statement ) Tools Decomposition.rolling wave planning. template. it often involve physical limitations. mandatory dependencies : Are also referred to as hard logic. give a successor task some time to get started before the predecessor finishes. includes known predecessors and successors.Rolling wave planning Plan as you go Inputs Scope baseline ( wbs. expert judgement Outputs Activity list . wbs dictionary .

Composite resource calendar includes the availability. Estimate Activity Duration: tools: analogous estimating : is also known as top down this is based on previous similar projects Parametric Estimating : this is more accuracy than analogous. FLOAT: float for any activity is the amount of the time that it can slip before it caused your project to be delayed. SLACK = FLOAT Early Start: is the earliest time that an activity can start. capabilities. the FLOAT for an activity on the CRITICAL path is ZERO. critical path is an important tool for keeping your projects on track. FLOAT tells you how much extra time you have. it is longest path. Three Point estimate : realistic — most likely occur optimistic — best case scenario pessimistic – worst case scenario critical path : is the string of activities that will delay the whole project if any one of them delayed.Estimate activity resources :‖ We need to know the resource calendar to estimate. schedule activities on critical path is called critical activities. and skills of human resources. .

Late finish : is the latest time that an activity can finish.Early Finish : is the earliest time that an activity can finish. when schedule changes. use BACKWARD PASS to add late start and finish. last start. and last finish for activity in a network diagram using forward pass and backward pass . Fast tracking may result in rework and increased risk. this is the CORE of CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS. Late start: is the latest time that an activity can start. MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS : is some kinf of What-If analysis. early finish. RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED CRITICAL PATH IS KNOWN A S THE CRITICAL CHAIN. the following documents has to update : ACTIVITY REQUIREMENTS CALENDAR ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES PROJECT DOCUMENT UPDATES RISK REGISTER Critical chain method: It scheduling network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. Develop schedule process is a core of time management CRASH THE SCHEDULE: schedule compression tools crashing / fast -tracking crashing : adding moe resources to critical path fast tracking: over lapping activities crashing is expensive and risky. . use FORWARDS PASS to add early start and finish . calculating early start.

Resource LEVELING : can often cause the original critical path to change. placed at the end of the critical chain is called project buffer. .the resulting schedule often has an altered critical path . ONCE BUFFER . Managing schedule change means keeping all of your schedule documents up to date.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.