The Origins of the Name 'Italy

Where does the name 'Italy' come from and how did Italy get populated over time?

In remote times, going back to the Bronze Age and dated between the 18th and 17th centuries B.C. there was the great maritime migration of the Arcadians from the Aegean towards Southern Italy. Guided by their mythical king Oenotro, these people were called Oenotrians. From their expansion and mixings with the local populations, and with some complicated integrations, derived the Ausonians (Ausones), the Chones, the Morgetes, of course, the Itali, and the Siculians. The Latins probably also descended from the Oenotrians, but instead were pushed a bit further North. It has been shown that between the 16th and the 15th centuries B.C. several populations speaking diverse Indoeuropean idioms had already penetrated in Italy. These populations represent the result of the overlapping and in many ways a blending of a first wave of Indoeuropea in Italy with an existing non-Indoeuropean sub-layer like that very ancient Iberian-Caucasian, who survived the presence, even in the Roman era both in Eastern Sardenia as well as Eastern Sicily, where one refers to the Sicanians, and like the Aegean-Asianic of the Pelasgic type. The Pelasgi were perhaps the first inhabitants of the Palatine, the hill on which Rome would later rise, and perhaps the very ancient town called "square Rome" is attributed to them. In addition, the ancient God of the Roman hill Janiculum, Janus, came from Tessalia. Although tradition attributes him Indoeuropean origins, some historians say he has Pelasgic origins, with his name coming from Inuus Pelasgic. Therefore the Central-Southern part of Italy outlines a scenario very similar to that verified previously in Greece, where the Pelasgi, an antique Mediterranean population who lived in Tessalia, the Peloponnesian, the Caria, and quite probably in Crete and Cyprus in addition to the many other small islands of the Aegean, overlapped or fused with their arrival the Indoeuropean Greeks. The Arcadi, originally from Peloponnesia, speaking an ancient Greek language, and therefore Indoeuropean, is the perfect example of this fusion between Indoeuropean people and pre-Indoeuropean populations, given that Peloponnesia is the region in which the Pelasgic presence lasted the longest. The Itali lived in the southern part of present-day Calabria, that is, within the "toe" of the boot called Italy. Their name came from Vitulus, meaning veal or calf, since the area was rich with bovine, and perhaps the Itali took the name symbolically since it identified them with their land. But in the times of the Magna Grecia, following the Greek colonization of the majority of their territory, the coastal regions were renamed Italoi, the Greek word for Vitulus. And so the name "Italoi" was inherited by the Romans upon conquering this territory which extended all the way down to the southernmost tip of the peninsula. Although for some time the land had been conquered by second-wave Indoeuropean populations such as a type of Sabellians called Bruttii.

the Sardinians. regional variations were well established. The other half was made up of Mediterranean populations very similar to the Pelasgi but not speaking proper Indoeuropean languages and identified as Maritime Populations. and the Mesolithic period. between the 13th and 12th centuries B. Excavations throughout Italy and Sicily have surfaced evidence of human activity dating back to the Paleolithic period (also called "Old Stone Age". its new techniques of bronze workings.rose to prominence. Osco-Umbrian. and Iapygian in Apulia. with some stock breeding and widespread use of stone implements and pottery. recognized by large agricultural and pastoral settlements. By the time of the introduction of iron into Italy (c. Venetic in Venetia—were formed in the 9th and 8th centuries . meaning the Tyrosine. The introduction of Indo-European languages (Latin. and its cremation rites. the terramare culture -known for building its villages on wooden piles. almost half of the Italic peninsula was made up of migrants from various places within the Aegean-Anatolic area. the late Bronze Age.1800-1000 BC). from which the Etruscans or Tusci come. most of central and southern Italy had unified to a culture known as the Apennine. After c. During that period. By the beginning of the Neolithic period (the period following the Mesolithic period during which men became herdsmen and cultivators. in 1180 B. in the northern Italian Po Valley .1000 BC). around the period of the Trojan war. Evidence found in Sicily and on the southeastern coast of Italy suggests the start of trading contacts with the Mycenaeans. that is.From this. that is the Tyrrhenians who perhaps originally came from Lydia in Asia Minor or from the Aegean island of Lemno. This half consisted partly of people speaking Indoeuropean idioms. The great cultural units of historical Italy —Etruscan. the small communities of hunters of earlier times had been replaced by agricultural settlements. referring to the period between 2. (Also called the "Middle Stone Age". By 2000 BC immigrants from the east had brought the art of metalworking to southern Italy and Sicily.5Million to 200. such as Sardens or Shardana. while northern Italian cultures of the same period developed strong links with cultures north of the Alps. the name "Italy" was extended by the Romans first to cover Southern Italy and later to include the entire peninsula. like Arcadians of Evandro.1500 BC. like Ulysses' Achei and Enea's Trojans. Venetic.C. and Messapian) into what is now "Italy" dates back to the late Neolithic age. meaning Sardanioi.C. Many tales about contacts between the Aegean world and the Italic world make references to more recent migrations than the first Arcadian immigration. Painted vessels that seem to have been influenced by contemporary styles in Greece have been found at Castellaro Vecchio on the island of Lipari. of whom the presence on the Roman hills of the Palatine would be dated to 60 years before the Trojan war or. Latin. and lasted until about 2700 BC. the word Mesolithic usually refers specifically to a development in northwestern Europe that began about 8000 BC. and modifiers of their environment and the social structure became more complex).000 years ago). and the Trs or Tursa. Sabellian. immediately after the Trojan war. During the Bronze Age (c.

Northern Latium is enclosed on the east by the foothills of the Apennines. Soon after this the Latin League was formed. Rome among them.BC. The adoption of writing. and intermigration. and a military alliance was made with Rome to defend the homeland against invading Aequi and Volsci. the Lepini Mountains mark the eastern boundary. they had a reputation at Rome for religious expertise. colonization. Greeks began settling around Italy's South Western shorelines and on Sicily. Roman preeminence in Latium ended abruptly with the expulsion of Etruscan kings in the late 6th century. They were also renowned for luxury. colonization. Etruscan dominance ended in the 5th century with their expulsion from Latium and the loss of the sea to Greeks. The economy was based on agriculture. of Campania to the Sabelli. The Etruscan cities were loosely united in a religious league of 12 but were politically independent with independent artistic traditions. The Etruscans influenced Roman institutions in various ways. During the 7th century BC. In a simultaneous development. A century of war left Latium free of invaders. Although still tied to each other by intercommunal rights and common cults. these Latin ―city states‖ became increasingly independent and competitive. From the 4th through the 1st centuries. By the late 6th century several of them had formed a political league centered around Aricia. at the time when Etruscan Rome was pursuing an aggressive policy. but Rome was again poised to dominate the other Latins. was extended through migration. In the historical period the Apennines were inhabited by Sabellian peoples who spoke a variety of OscoUmbrian languages and who periodically raided and sometimes conquered the fertile plains around them. contractual dealing. though never unified. and conquest. This was achieved by a Roman victory in the Latin War. maritime trade and piracy. because women were relatively free by the standards of classical Greece. The Greeks made their mark as savvy traders especially with their export of metals. Traditionally there were 50 small Latin communities which were united by common Latin cults and by the common Latin rights of intermarriage. By the 7th century. and in spite of the fact that many of their gods were different from those of Rome. The LATINS lived on the western (Tyrrhenian) coastal plain—Latium—that stretches from the Tiber in the north to Monte Circeo 65 miles to the south. the non-Indo-European ETRUSCANS became the dominant people of central Italy today known as Tuscany. Etruscans founded cities in the Po Valley and in Campania and subjugated various Latin communities. further south. contacts with Etruscans and Greeks had influenced the Latins to organize themselves into about a dozen communities resembling Greek poleis. an increasing trend of improved social structures and the urbanization became the foundation of a rapidly developing social and economic transformation in southern and coastal Etruria. and of the Po Valley to the Gauls. Etruscan power. 337–334 (343–338). and co-optation caused Etruscan civilization to decline and finally end. In historical times the Sabines had moved into Latium where they are said to have exerted a formative . Roman conquest.

and Marrucini—held sway.influence on early Rome. Naples. the Oscan-speaking Frentani dominated. who spoke an Oscan language and by the 4th century were united in a loose but formidable confederation. The East being the senior emperor. who invaded Latium c. Benevento. Vestini. Further east.also known as the "barracks emperors" . to A. and eastern Sicily later known as the Magna Graecia for the following two centuries. During the late 5th and early 4th centuries. Maximian was recalled in 306 AD by Galerius. The 7 emperors who reigned between 270 and 284 AD . The Roman Empire began effectively with AUGUSTUS' (the man who would later become Emperor) victory over Mark ANTHONY and CLEOPATRA in 31 BC. founded c. and Latin as the general language. however. There were a total of 39 claimants to the imperial title between 305 AD and 474 AD and only 5 emperors (Constantine I [312-337]. During the following centuries Roman possessions outside Italy substantially expanded.C. The first Greek colony was established at Cumae in 750. Inhabiting the south-central Apennines were the SAMNITES. Emperor CONSTANTINE I transferred the capital from Rome to Constantinople. Julian [361-363]. The other 5 emperors were killed by their own soldiers and generals. A growing number of emperors (whose allegiances lay elsewhere) were born outside Italy. Oscan-speaking peoples moved into Campania. 491 In 330. and Bruttium. where they came to be known as Campani. According to later Roman historians. the power of the Etruscans declined as the Romans began the unification of Italy. and Greeks continued founding colonies in Campania. After the expulsion of the last of these kings.was ruled by Etruscan kings from 616 BC. Only Numerianus who died during a march and Carus who was killed in battle died in an "ordinary" way. Italy's administrative autonomy was lost shortly afterwards when two dioceses were joined with that of Africa to form a single prefecture. GREEK COLONIZATION had a major influence on all the peoples of Italy and Sicily. Probus. Lucania. and when Caracalla (AD 212 or 213) proclaimed an Edict which extended Roman citizenship to nearly all free provincials throughout the empire. along the Adriatic coast. The territories of the Umbrians extended from the highlands east of the Arno and Tiber to the Adriatic coast between Rimini and Ancona. This process reached its final stage when the right of Roman citizenship was extended throughout Italy in 89 BC. and Bruttii. As of 286 AD. and with the subsequent diffusion of Roman institutions and culture from the Alps to Sicily. In an attempt to end the chaos of the "barracks emperors". Carus. Oscan speakers —the Paeligni. The central Apennines were also home to the Umbrian-speaking Marsi. 500 BC. Starting in the 2d Century AD several bishoprics were founded in Milan.D. was to some degree compensated for by the growing importance of Italy as a center of Christianity. Romulus Augustus ( 475-476).753 BC probably by local LATINS and SABINES. After 476. Another Osco-Umbrian-speaking people from the central Apennines were the Aequi. and elsewhere in addition to that of Rome. Both emperors abdicated in 305 AD. Jovian [363-364] and Theodosius I [392-395]) ruled both the East and the West. Apulia. Florianus. Click for a table of all Emperors of Rome 27 B. In Subsequent years. Constantius II [350-361]. the East and the West halves. Italy's special status had all but disappeared. and the complexity of the imperial bureaucracy resulted in a decline in the importance of Italy itself. .(Aurelian. to the southeast. Lucani. that succession rule was bitterly disputed both in the East and the West. The loss of temporal power. Ravenna. Carinus jointly with Numerianus and Carinus alone) were all chosen by the army. respectively. Diocletian as the Eastern emperor was joined by Maximian (286-305) in the West. emperor Diocletian (284305 AD) established an orderly succession process and divided the power and succession into two separate empires. when the Germanic chieftain ODOACER deposed the last Western emperor. the city of ROME. Tacitus. built on the site of Byzantium.

THEODORIC (493526). Subsequently. although the Byzantines gradually admitted the ecclesiastical primacy of Rome in the West. During Liutprand's reign. their law and administration reflected both Roman and Germanic influences. By this time they were accepting many other elements of Roman culture. Under the pretense of restoring to the papacy its lost territories. in spite of continuing theoretical ties with the BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Naples. In 568 -after the Ostrogoths. at the same time as the resurgence of Byzantium under the Macedonian dynasty. In 774 the Franks expelled the Lombard rulers. Peninsular Italy was administered from its capital at RAVENNA as merely one division of the empire. papal resistance had induced the Lombards to consolidate their power in central and northern Italy. Contrary to their original objective of assisting rebels against the Byzantine Empire. many of the Lombards converted from ARIANISM to Roman Catholicism. the Saracens remained to conquer Sicily (827-78). 752-57) persuaded the FRANKS (another Germanic tribe) to invade Italy. arrived in Italy. By the end of the 7th century. however. The collapse of the Carolingian empire in the 9th century. and established outposts throughout southern Italy. and in other regions. Italian ties with the "New Rome" of the East (Constantinople) were first threatened and later severed after a series of invasions from the west and north into Italy. By 553. Venice. extended their influence in spite of strong papal attempts at intervention. . and popular revolts broke out in Rome. The Lombards found heavy resistance by the popes -most notably by GREGORY I (r. The following century was marked by continual battles between Franks and Byzantines. however. military as well as ecclesiastical leaders in fact.712-44). Meanwhile. where they achieved political unification. Their control soon spread from the north to Tuscany and Umbria. internal feuds permitted the Byzantine emperor JUSTINIAN I to regain control. and in practical terms. which mostly benefited the SARACENS who had recently arrived from North Africa. the unrest in the Byzantine centers in the south reflected the disturbances taking place in Byzantium itself. although much of southern and eastern Italy remained in Byzantine hands. caused a brief return to eastern influence. During the early Middle Ages. 590-604). Pope Stephen II (r.who acted as political. Lombard territory passed into the hands of the Frankish ruler CHARLEMAGNE. The success of the Lombards. By 728. and held a band of land stretching across the peninsula that later became known as the Papal States. Italian political and social ties were with the West. was temporary.however. who was crowned emperor in Rome in 800. the LOMBARDS.another Germanic power. In 846 they launched an attack on Rome itself. The severing of ties with the East was confirmed by the emergence of the PAPACY and the Italian cities as powers in their own right. including the Latin language.emperor Zeno (474-491 AD) reunited the empire and continued to reign alone. the Lombards -under Liutprand (r. military control of Italy fell into barbarian hands under the Ostrogothic king.

most were chosen kings of Germany. the Spanish kingdoms and Spain's Empire in the "New World". he was crowned Holy Roman emperor in 962. Beginning in the 15th century. Henry V's nephews. the "Welf" family of Bavaria and Saxony. Hungary and Bohemia. Usually. The on-going struggle between these families and the intervention of the papacy drastically weakened the empire. 1650 the empire had lost virtually all power. Through a sequence of "strategic marriages" they gained (by inheritance) the Netherlands. By the year 1250. local insurrections started weakening the Saracens' hold on the southern coastal soon as he was crowned by the pope. Nevertheless. The first Saxonian to become king was Henry the Fowler (919-936).By papal invitation. 1138-1152 1152-1190 1190-1197 Conrad III Frederick I "Barbarossa" Henry VI 1440-1493 1440--1493 1493-1519 Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I . He was followed by his son Otto who became King Otto I in 936 and the first Holy Roman Emperor from 962 to 973. The (second) medieval revival of the Western Roman Empire was referred to as The Holy Roman Empire which lasted from 962 AD to 1806. The Hohenstaufen of Swabia were not always supported by the Church who favored candidates of the "Guelph" i. much of its power had vanished and by ca. Shortly after 1000 the Ottonian dynasty fell. leaving in the north a vacuum of power which was later exploited by the local small landowners and town merchants. The Dynasties Saxon Dynasty 962--973 973-983 983-1002 1002-1024 Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Franconian (Salian) Dynasty 1024-1039 1039-1056 1056-1106 1106-1125 1125-1137 Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Henry V Lothair II Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (who derived its name from their castle "Habichtsburg" in Switzerland). the Habsburgs became hereditary rulers of the Empire. was the most illustrious European dynasty. when it was abolished by Emperor Francis II. Francis II ruled thereafter as Francis I of the Austrian Empire (established in 1804). the German king OTTO I came to Italy and ended this constant alternation of power. the Empire endured until 1806. Meanwhile.e. the king of Germany became emperor -considered by Europeans the title of most prestige. culminating in the "Age of the Princes" in Germany and the "Great Interregnum" in the Holy Roman Empire. Given the many successes of the dukes of Saxony in fighting the Hungarians during the 10th century.

Vittorio Emanuele II (Victor Emmanuel the 2nd) of Savoy led the armies that conquered what is now known as Italy over the years 1858 through 1871. This line died out and a very distant cousin. Vittorio Emanuele was proclaimed King of Italy in 1861. Carlo Alberto (Charles Albert) came to the throne. many Italian cities began to assert their autonomy.1198-1208 Philip of Swabia 1519-1556 1556-1564 1564-1576 1576-1612 1612-1619 1619-1637 1637-1657 1658-1705 1705-1711 1711-1740 1740-1742 1742-1745 Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Interregnum Charles VII The Anti King Era 1198-1208 1208-1212 1212-1250 1250-1254 1254-1273 Otto IV (anti-king Welf) Otto IV Frederick II Conrad IV Interregnum When the Empire was restored in 1273. As a consequence.Lorraine 1745-1765 1765-1790 1790-1792 1792-1806 Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II House of Savoy-Carignano Piemonte. the princes refused to establish any one dynasty and during the following 150 years. candidates from four families were elected 1273-1291 1292-1298 1298-1308 1308-1313 1314-1346 1346-1378 1378-1400 1400-1410 Rudolf I (Habsburg) Adolf (Nassau) Albert I (Habsburg) Henry VII (Luxemburg) Louis IV (Wittelsbach) Charles IV (Luxemburg) Wenceslas (Luxemburg) Rupert (Wittelsbach) The Habsburgs . 1861-1878 1878-1900 1900-1946 1946 Victor Emmanuel II (Umberto) Humbert I Victor Emmanuel III Humbert II 1410-1437 Sigismund (Luxemburg) In this theatre of political fragmentation. During the 11th century an elaborate pattern of communal . Nice and Sardinia were ruled by the Dukes of Savoy until the year 1831. a dynasty that would fall with the end of WW2. His son.

however. with its network of vigorously independent urban centers. Starting c. Campania. Although the Norman territories remained an anchor of the papacy. Bands of these invaders arrived in Italy in the early years of the 11th century. The cities were often troubled by violent and divisive rivalries among their citizens. he assumed the title of King of Sicily in 1130. these "Comuni" promoted the end of feudalism in northern Italy replacing it with deeply rooted identification with the city as opposed to the larger region or country. Resisting the efforts of both the old nobles and the emperors to control them. to conquer Sicily. especially Milan.government began to evolve under the leadership of a burgher class grown wealthy in trade. Early in the 13th century the Hohenstaufen Frederick II succeeded in uniting the thrones of German and Norman Sicily. centering on his brilliant court at Palermo. Although Pope Inocentius III (r. they were then reunited under the title Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Pope Alexander III successfully supported an alliance of northern cities known as the Lombard League against the efforts of Emperor Frederick I of the Hohenstaufen dynasty to impose imperial authority over them. Florence. banking. . In 1077. and Pisa. Pope Gregorius VII humbled Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV at Canossa during the Investiture Controversy. king of Naples and Sicily. Charles. Robert Guiscard and his successors expelled the Saracens and Byzantines and established a powerful foothold in Apulia Calabria. and in 1282 a successful revolt (the Sicilian Vespers) resulted in the separation of Sicily from the mainland. Despite such divisions. social. Frederick established one of the wealthiest and most powerful states in Europe. Later.1045. papal over lordship became a mere formality in the 12th century. The papal-imperial conflict culminated in 1262 with a papal invitation to Charles of Anjou (brother of King Louis IX of France). in the 15th century both kingdoms became Spanish possessions. Many cities. 1198-1216) opposed the emperor and advanced far-reaching claims of political and religious supremacy. Peter III of Aragon was made king of Sicily while the former Norman domains on the mainland remained under Amgevin rule as the Kingdom of Naples. ruled from 1266 as Charles I. the most famous being the papalimperial struggle between the Guelphs (the supporters of the popes) and the Ghibellines (the supporters of the emperors). was highly unpopular. southern Italy experienced a significant consolidation after its conquest by the Normans. and when Roger II united the southern part of the peninsula with Sicily. with its great cultural innovations. which introduced feudalism to the south at a time when it was weakening elsewhere. became powerful and independent City-States. the founder of the Amgevin dynasty of Naples. and rising cultural energy of Italy. the cities contributed significantly to the economic. However. Venice. Unlike the north. French rule. the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire continued their struggle for dominance in northern and central Italy. While the Normans were consolidating their power in southern Italy. and such industries as woolen textiles. Genoa. and Sicily.

to build the magnificent castle Maschio Angioino. King of Sicily and Head of the Roman Empire commissions the first university: Università degli Studi. He was the third (living) son of King Charles II of Naples. 755: Naples becomes an independent Duchy. sent by the Eastern Emperor Justinian. also known as "The Great Captain". The Norman and Swabian Naples 1139: The Napolitans hand their city to Roger II. son of Louis VIII of France. commissions the construction of the first castle in Naples: Castel Capuano. he later switches his allegiance to the pope and is subsequently nominated Bishop. 902: After numerous attacks. Ercolano and Stabia. her body was washed ashore at Naples. an emissary of the Spanish Throne. the Napolitans defeat Saracen forces at the Garigliano river. 79 AD: Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys Pompei. The Aragonese Period 1443: Alfonso of Aragon. His kingdom is challenged repetedly by the Angevins. 1458: The reign passes from Alfonso of Aragon to Ferdinand I who is only 35 years old. conquers Naples and establishes a Byzantine Duchy. 90-89 BC: Rome grants the citizens of the Campania region roman citizenship. The Aragonese control also marked the beginning of a humanistic era and Southern culture. He becomes King under the name Charles I. 1485: Ferdinand I crushes a revolt of the Barons. 1309: Robert of Anjou is proclaimed King of Naples. 600 BC: The city of Neapolis (Greek for "new city") is formed . arrives in Naples to command the Spanish part of a French/Spanish coalition formed between Ferdinand . However a treaty allows Naples to continue as an independent city. Son in Law of Roger the Norman. The Angevin Dynasty 1266: Charles of Anjou. 1194: Power over the city is handed to Henry IV of Swabia (Bavaria). The original settlement is subsequently named Palepolis (old city). 1438: René of Anjou becomes King of Naples (René I of Naples). conquers the city. The Duchies of Naples 536: Belisarius. son of Ferdinand I of Aragon. King of Palermo who becomes the first monarch of the kingdom of Naples. 476: Romulus Augustus. son of Roger II of Sicily. the settlers establish a settlement and name it after "Parthenope" (in the Greek mythology Parthenope is one of the three Sirens who threw herself into the sea and drowned because her love for Ulysses was not returned. 1224: Frederick II Hohenstaufen.The Greco-Roman Era 9th Century BC: Settlers from the Greek island of Rhodes establish the first settlement on the small island of "Megaride" off the coast of today's Naples. Stephen II is appointed to Duke of Naples by Constans II. Naples rebuffs several attacks from the uncivilized Longobards. the last Western emperor is deposed and incarcerated in the Castrum Lucullianum (today known as Castel dell'Ovo) a castle/fortress on the small isle of Megaride. 1279: Charles of Anjou I commissions his architects Pierre de Chaulnes and Pierre d'Angincourt. enters the city. The Spanish Vice-Regency 1503: Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba. 600: Under Byzantine domination. 328 BC: Rome defeats Naples in a war. which was called Parthenope after her name). 1165: William I. With the support from the Greek colonies of nearby Cuma.

decided to send the monarchie into exile and become a Republic. even though Italians by referendum in 1946. playwright. The Austrian Vice- Regency 1707: Beginning of the short Austrian Vice Regency. brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte through marriage to Caroline Bonaparte. 1859: Following Ferdinand's death. 1647: Tommaso Aniello (abbreviated also called Masaniello) instigates and leads a revolt of the "malcontenti" (discontent i. the Italian Onassis and shipping magnate becomes Mayor of Naples. 1759: Carlos IV of Bourbon ascends to the Spanish Throne as Charles III of Spain and passes the throne of Naples to his eight years old son Ferdinand IV under the regency of Bernardo Tanucci. The French Decade 1806: Napoleon Bonaparte appoints his brother Giuseppe to King of Naples. the citizens errect a monumental obelisq and dedicate it to the city's patron San Gennaro. 2007: Wars between crime syndicats. Examples are the Corso Umberto and the Galleria Umberto I. The Re-Instatement of the Bourbons 1815: After the fall of Napoleon. The Republic only lasts six month and Ferdinand IV regains his throne. 1952: Commendatore Achille Lauro. and the uncontrollable petty crime surgeance reflect on Naples with a negative immage among Italians and the World. 1808: Joachim Murat. Ferdinand IV re-gains the throne of Naples. 1631: A violent eruption of mount Vesuvius threatens the population of Naples. Naples After Italian Unification 1860: Garibaldi seizes the opportunity of a Kingdom weakened by internal uprisings. He declares himself dictator of Sicily under Victor Emmanuel II. marks the beginning of a long list of successful Works by Eduardo De Filippo. King Ferdinand IV flees the City to avoid captivity by the French. 1994: Naples hosts the G7 and gains prestige on the word stage. his only son Francis II is proclaimed Kind of the two Sicilies. He is to be the last of the Bourbons of Naples. The Bourbon Era 1734: Carlos IV of Bourbon defeats the Austrians and ascends to King of Naples and Sicilies. a name given to the large scale re-planning and re-building of cities following Italy's Unification. 1980: A strong earthquake with the epicenter in Irpinia. In appreciation for having spared the city and its people. He takes control of the city and later of the remaining region.e. 1688: A devastating earthquake cause vast destruction of land marks and buildings. succeeds Giuseppe Bonaparte as King of Naples. 1799: A group of patriots and intellectuals proclaim the Parthenope Republic (Repubblica Partenopea). who was appointed Life Senator of the Italian Republic (1981). 1656: A severe epidemic of Pest breaks out in the city and eradicates one third of the population. devastates large parts of Naples.of Spain and Louis XII of France. an actor. author and poet. unhappy people) against the Kingdom. . Joachim Murat first joins Napoleon in Corsican exile and later attempts regaining Naples through an insurrection in Calabria. 1884: The city suffers a severe cholera epidemic 1885: After overcoming the epidemic. He was re-elected in 1956 and 1960. and assembles a group of thousand volunteers ("I Mille") known as the Redshirts. defeats the insurrection and orders Murat's execution. entire city blocks are demolished under a program called "Risanimento". He was one of the most vocal defenders of the monarchie until the mid seventies. Contemporary Naples 1943: After a four-day rebellion (le Quattro Giornate di Napoli). 1944: Last eruption of Mount Vesuvio 1945: The master piece Napoli Milionaria. Napolitans push the Germans out of the city and open the way to the Allied Forces. an unresolved waste disposal crisis.

Meanwhile the Este family ruled Ferrara from the 13th through the 16th century. at Avignon. they involved themselves in the complex international politics of the they tried to assert their authority in Europe. About the same time.After 1300 both the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire turned their attention away from Italy. stimulated in part by the freer atmosphere of the cities and in part by the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Latin writings. Italy was part of the latter's inheritance. and 1814. Under the patronage of the Medici. Following the restoration of European peace in . Italy itself. The frequent wars between city-states brought to Italy the mercenary leaders known as the Condottieri and ultimately resulted in foreign intervention. Although they subverted the political institutions of the communes. many Italians began to see the possibilities of forging a united country free of foreign control. when they withdrew. Spain remained the dominant power in Italy until Austria replaced it after the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14). Italian ideas and style influenced all of Europe. absorbing many of the smaller cities. in a series of wars that eventually involved Italy. marking the beginning of a period of foreign occupation that lasted until the 19th century. Several short-lived republics were proclaimed early in the period. for example. Simultaneous with the weakening of papal and imperial authority great intellectual changes took place in Italy. a few decades after the Medici family had seized control of Florence. During the 14th and 15th centuries. the entire peninsula was under French domination. dividing the Habsburg territories between his brother Emperor Ferdinand I and his son Philip II of Spain. however. gave rise to the humanist attitudes and ideas that formed the basis of the Renaissance. in southern France. profound changes took place in Italy. In 1494. when troops under General Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy. By 1550 almost all of Italy had been subjugated by the Habsburg ruler Charles V. The emperors concentrated on German affairs while the popes met increasing resistance -especially from the French. In the 18th century some areas of Italy achieved independence. Florence became the most magnificent and prestigious center of the arts in Italy. For much of the 14th century the papacy was situated outside Italy. who curbed their factionalism and became hereditary rulers. In Milan the Visconti family rose to power in the 13th century. As the larger cities expanded into the surrounding countryside. Europe was soon involved. to be succeeded by the Sforza family in the mid-15th century. who was both the Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain. many of the communal governments of the city-states fell under the rule of dictators called "signori". When Charles abdicated in 1555-56. no longer played a central role in European politics. with royal titles) were instrumental in advancing the cultural and civic life of Renaissance Italy. the signori (who became known as principi. An intellectual revival. Between 1796. however. After two decades of Napoleon's modern but harsh rule. Charles VIII of France invaded Italy. Savoy (the Kingdom of Sardinia after 1720) annexed Sardinia and portions of Lombardy. In 1735 the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies became an independent monarchy under the junior branch of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty.

Charles Albert abdicated in favor of his son. and the Congress of Vienna aggravated popular discontent. in alliance with the French emperor Napoleon III. Only Venetia and . the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (including Naples and Sicily). The repressive and reactionary policies imposed on Italy by the Austrian leader Klemens. Revolutionaries and patriots. These conditions gave rise to the Italian unification movement known as the Risorgimento. Sardinia led Italy to final unification. after gaining the support of France and England. Italy consisted of the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont. gave his people a constitution. and in 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed. conte di Cavour. Cavour. king of Sardinia (1831-49). began to work actively for unity and independence. seized Lombardy. along with some other Italian rulers. and Genoa). Charles Albert. and Tuscany and a series of smaller duchies in north central Italy. Venice. king of Sardinia (1831-49). gave his people a constitution. Charles Albert abdicated in favor of his son. led an expedition of 1. A series of unsuccessful revolts led in the 1820s by the Carbonari. Charles Albert. provided the background for the Revolution of 1848.000 "Red Shirts" to Sicily in the same year and subsequently seized the southern part of peninsular Italy. who retained the Sardinian constitution. However. a popular hero and guerrilla leader. Fürst von Metternich.1815. Victor Emmanuel II. and in the 1830s by Mazzini's Young Italy group. Victor Emmanuel II. felt in every major Italian city and throughout Europe. declared war on Austria and. and in 1860 all of Italy north of the Papal States. Lombardy and Venetia were now controlled by the Austrians. The repressive and reactionary policies imposed on Italy by the Austrian leader Klemens. the Papal States. and the expansion of Austrian control in Italy stimulated intense antiforeign sentiment. and Tuscany were crushed by Austria in 1849. A series of unsuccessful revolts led in the 1820s by the Carbonari. Garibaldi turned his conquests over to Victor Emmanuel. Fürst von Metternich. began to work actively for unity and independence. declared war on Austria and. which with Sicily constituted the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Savoy. except Venetia. Giuseppe Garibaldi. and the expansion of Austrian control in Italy stimulated intense antiforeign sentiment. felt in every major Italian city and throughout Europe. who retained the Sardinian constitution. and the Congress of Vienna aggravated popular discontent. These conditions gave rise to the Italian unification movement known as the Risorgimento. provided the background for the Revolution of 1848. Revolutionaries and patriots. liberal leadership of Camillo Benso. a conspiratorial nationalist organization. along with some other Italian rulers. both the war of liberation and the revolutionary republics set up in Rome. especially Giuseppe Mazzini. and in the 1830s by Mazzini's Young Italy group. both the war of liberation and the revolutionary republics set up in Rome. Venice. a conspiratorial nationalist organization. Under the progressive. Sardinia. However. especially Giuseppe Mazzini. was added to Sardinia. In 1859. and Tuscany were crushed by Austria in 1849.

Italians at last had their own country. such as the Kingdom of Sardinia. the ruling family of Austria) exercised absolute powers of government. and from 1789 the French Revolution became the genesis of "liberal Italians". The first revolution on the Italian peninsula took place in the Kingdom of Sicily. The Kingdom of Sardinia recovered Piedmont (Piemonte). that spread to Germany. which located at the French border had slowly expanded since the Middle Ages and was considered the most advanced state in Italy. Parma. Liberal ideas from France and Britain spread rapidly. Giuseppe Mazzini.e. Revolutionary cells formed throughout the Italian peninsula. and (c) the existence of various states that had maintained independence. During the 18th century. Lucca. The Congress had divided the territory among a number of European nations and the victors of the Napoleonic Wars. (a) the Austrian occupation of Lombardy and Venice in the north. Tuscany. intellectual changes began to dismantle traditional values and institutions. (b) the principality under the sovereignty of the pope. King Charles . Massive reforms that took place during the 1840s in the Papal States. Mazzini's ideology of an independent integrated republic spread quickly among large segments of the Italian people. an Italian patriot spearheaded a national revolutionary movement. the Papal States that controlled the center of the Italian peninsula. There were three major obstacles to unity at the time the congress took place. i. An insurrection in 1848 caused pope Pius IX to flee Rome and a republic was proclaimed. and the Kingdom of Sardinia were intended to slow the revolutionary movements. France. also called Piedmont-Sardinia.Rome were not included in the new state (the former was added in 1866 and the latter in 1870). The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the island of Sardinia and the region called Piedmont in northwestern Italy. the Austrian Empire. A series of political and military events resulted in a unified kingdom of Italy in 1861. In each of these states. Nice. The settlements reached in 1815 at the Vienna Congress had restored Austrian domination over the Italian peninsula but had left Italy completely fragmented .e. the monarchs (all relatives of the Habsburgs. and Savoy and acquired Genoa. i. The Kingdom of Sicily that occupied the island of Sicily and the entire southern half of the Italian peninsula . instead these reforms (1846 and 1847) only intensified the resolve of the revolutionary cells culminating in the Revolutions of 1848. which resulted in a constitution for the whole kingdom. Other small states were the duchies of Toscana (Tuscany). and Modena. and parts of northern Italy.

where French troops remained at the request of the pope. but the plot was discovered by police and he was condemned to death. in 1859. He escaped to South America. where he lived for 12 years. and Nice. As part of the "plan". Cavour rejected the ultimatum which led to the subsequent war with the Austrians.Albert of Sardinia mobilized his army and marched to the assistance of Lombardy and joined in the war to drive the Austrians from Italian soil. Cavour had caused a crisis that provoked the Austrians to send an ultimatum demanding Piedmontese disarmament. Finally. By early 1859. Giuseppe Garibaldi. joined the Kingdom of Sardinia. Napoleon transferred Lombardy to the sovereignty of Victor Emmanuel II. could not avoid Rome's destruction by the French in 1849. Only Sardinia held firm to their constitutional government Count Camillo di Cavour became prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia In 1852 . Cavour was able to persuade Napoleon to a secretly planned war against Austria. France. except Venetia. to Napoleon III. Napoleon's growing concern with respect to the sudden (large) size of his neighbor was resolved in part by the cessation of the Sardinian provinces of Savoy. His son. A new revolutionary leader. which was still part of Austria. The Austrians were forced to surrender Lombardy. Following elections during 1859 and 1860. There he . succeeded him in 1849. Victor Emmanuel II. near the Alps. with its great city of Milan (my home town). The French came to the aid of the Piedmontese and the Austrians were defeated in the two major battles of Magenta and Solferino. on the Mediterranean coast to France in 1860 . In 1834 Garibaldi was ordered to seize a warship. he joined Mazzini's movement in 1833. Born in 1807 in Nice. Giuseppe Garibaldi Italian nationalist revolutionary hero and leader in the struggle for Italian unification and independence. It was his leadership and accommodating policies that led to the unification of Italy in little more than a decade. the only French presence on the Italian peninsula was in the city of Rome. After 1860. the Austrians defeated the Piedmontese and Charles Albert had to abdicate. all northern states (of the Italian peninsula). While it initially looked as if the independence and unity of Italy was a realistic possibility.

By this time. 1797 Pope submits to Bonaparte. Garibaldi then conquered Naples. Cisalpine Republic established in Lombardy. a united Italy was finally established in 1861 with Victor Emmanuel as its king. Rome voted for union with Italy in October 1870 and. Alfieri and Genovesi ignite the fire of revolution. which was controlled by the Austrians. The Italian kingdom was missing Rome. in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War. which was still a papal possession. Garibaldi traveled to the United States settled in Staten Island. and Venice. In 1848. With the annexation of Umbria and Marches from the papal government. Given Garibaldi's popularity and large following. thousands of Italians gave their allegiance to the Sardinian monarch. and Ferrara). and Garibaldi had to flee Italy to save his life. Napoleon III withdrew his troops from Rome. Bologna. New York. Garibaldi's dream of a united Italy motivated his successful expedition against the Austrian forces in the Alps in 1859. which he then delivered to Victor Emmanuel in 1861 and returned to his home on Caprera. the line of retreat reached directly through Austrians controlled territory. and later became a US citizen. in July 1871. French enter Venice. Garibaldi had separated politically from Mazzini. In 1860 he conquered Sicily and set up a provisional insular government. the king of Sardinia. He organized a corps of volunteers. Garibaldi's force was killed. which became widely known as the Risorgimento (Italian for "revival"). However. Venice given to Austria. Uprisings against French in Verona. 1672-1803 Muratori. . against French forces. He was allowed to depart from Rome with about 5000 of his followers. or dispersed during his attempt to retreat. Garibaldi defended Rome. captured. Rome became the capital of a united Italy. He returned to Italy in 1854 where he settled down on the island of Caprera northeast of Sardinia. king of Sardinia. Conte Camillo Benso di Cavour. With the city of Rome and the remaining Papal States left unprotected. He unsuccessfully waged war against the Austrians in Lombardy and led his volunteers to Rome to support the Roman Republic established by Mazzini and others in 1849. Venice was its reward. and had formed an alliance with Victor Emmanuel II. which served under the Piedmontese ruler Charles Albert.displayed unusual qualities of military leadership while participating in the revolt of the state of Rio Grande do Sul against Brazil. as well as later in a civil war in Uruguay. initially successfully. but in the end was forced to "settle" with the French. Venice was added to Italy in 1866 after Prussia defeated Austria in the Seven Weeks' War. During the same year he returned to Italy and participated (again) in the movement for Italian freedom and unification. and his premier. Then. Italian troops moved into Rome without opposition. in which Italy sided with Prussia. 1796 Milan is occupied by the French under French General Napoleon Bonaparte who founds the Cispadane Republic (including Modena.

1820 Revolt in Naples. Union of Venetia and Piedmont declared. 1802 Cisalpine Republic called Italian Republic. Venice proclaimed a Republic. 1806 Venetia annexed to Kingdom of Italy. Constitution granted in Rome. Sardinia gains Lombardy. Austrians take Florence.1798 Roman Republic declared. King Charles Albert becomes King of Sardinia. Joseph Bonaparte declared King of the Two Sicilies. also Parma and Piacenza. banished to Elba. . Kingdom of Etruria founded by Napoleon in Tuscany. 1848 Uprisings in Palermo. Naples capitulates to Bourbons. 1849 Charles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor Emmanuel II. Successful revolution in Milan. 1821 Revolt in Piedmont. 1861 Sicily and Naples vote to join Kingdom of Italy. Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as head. Kingdom of Italy proclaimed. Austrians enter Turin. "Young Italy" founded by Mazzini. Abdication of Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy. Sicilian revolution crushed by Naples. 1859 War between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont. enters Naples Piemontese army under Victor Emmanuel take over from Garibaldi. 1814 Napoleon defeated. Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont. 1845 Pius IX becomes Pope. France annexes Piedmont. Venice surrenders to Austria. Ferdinand IV enters Rome (later retaken by French). 1808 Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples. Austria defeated by Piemontese and French. Garibaldi lands and is victorious. 1809 Napoleon annexes Rome and Papal States to French empire. 1852 Napoleon III becomes emperor of France. Battle of Custozza. 1831 Revolution in the Papal States. 1801 Napoleon occupies Milan. Charles Albert [Piedmont and Sardinia] invades Lombardy. Papal States partly annexed to Kingdom of Italy. 1799 French occupation of Naples. 1850 Cavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia-Piedmonte. 1860 Tuscany and Emilia declare for union with Sardinia-Piedmonte. Marche and Umbria vote for annexation to Piedmonte. Ligurian Republic annexed to France. Milan taken by Russians. Constitutional edict in Naples. Treaty of Florence between France and Naples. soon overthrown. 1858 Meeting of Cavour and Napoleon III. Naples constitution denied. Revolution in Sicily. Charles Albert defeated. invades Italy and gains victory. Tuscan forces invade Lombardy. 1805 Napoleon crowns himself King of Italy.

refused to recognize the Italian state. While extreme nationalists agitated for territorial expansion. and in 1911 it declared war on Turkey to obtain the North African territory of Libya. and the 1919 elections suddenly made the Socialist and the new Popular (Catholic) parties the largest in parliament. gains Venetia. In 1919. Benito Mussolini. King Victor . Moreover. Meanwhile during the 1880s a socialist movement began to develop among workers in the cities. and an uneven tax structure to weigh heavily on the Italian people. In the countryside. In 1915. material. which was often brutal. Italy suffered serious losses of men. In October 1922. the treaties that followed the war gave Italy only Trentino and Trieste. Italy was plunged into deep social and political crisis by the war. 1871 (July) Rome made Capital of Kingdom The new nation faced many serious problems. A large debt. strikes and threats of revolution unsettled the nation. after the Fascists had marched on Rome. the nation was governed by a series of coalitions of liberals to the left and right of center who were unable to form a clear-cut majority. Through a combination of shrewd political maneuvering and widespread violence perpetrated by Mussolini's Black Shirt squads. a high illiteracy rate. and a frightened middle class demanded changes. (The most notable leaders of the period were Francesco Crispi and Giovanni Giolitti. Veterans. The country was unprepared for a major war. banditry and peasant anarchism resulted in government repression. After the outbreak of World War I in 1914.1866 Italy joins Prussia in War against Austria. a former revolutionary socialist. the pope. in the midst of these unsettled conditions. and morale. Italy remained neutral for almost a year while the government negotiated with both sides. 1870 Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon city. few natural resources. angered over the loss of Rome and the papal lands. These disappointments produced a powerful wave of nationalist sentiment against the Allies and the Italian government. Italy finally joined the Allies. To make matters worse. however. after having been promised territories that it regarded as "Italia irredenta" (un-liberated Italy). unemployed workers. founded a new movement called " Fascismo". The profound differences between the impoverished south and the wealthier north widened. Italy during that time was a dissatisfied and crisis-ridden nation.) Despite the fact that some economic and social progress took place before World War I. the Fascists gained increasing support. Italy joined Germany and Austria in the Triple Alliance in 1882. desperate peasants. and only a fraction of the citizens had the right to vote. despite the efforts of Vittorio Emmanuele Orlando at the Paris Peace Conference. a small part of the territories it had expected. Parliament did little to resolve these problems: throughout this so-called Liberal Period (1870-1915). and almost no industry or transportation facilities combined with extreme poverty. aside from a few victories in 1918. Regionalism was still strong. during the 1890s Italy unsuccessfully tried to conquer Ethiopia. In an attempt to increase its international influence and prestige.

Italy took Albania. De Gasperi stressed industrial growth. Later that year Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. and the European Common Market (European Community) in 1958. Pietro Badoglio. Italy entered the conflict on Germany's side. The largest of these parties. and in April 1945 the partisans captured and executed Mussolini. the National Socialist dictator of Germany. aid. propaganda. and close cooperation with the United States and the Vatican. Mussolini escaped to Salo in northern Italy. Between 1945 and 1948 a new Italian nation emerged from the disaster of Fascism and war. militarism. a new constitution was adopted the next year. In 1935-36 the Italian army invaded and conquered Ethiopia. the Communists. the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. first under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi. The Fascist leadership turned against Mussolini. dominated the Italian government after 1948. Mussolini had become a dictator. Italy underwent a remarkable economic recovery that saw rapid industrial expansion and a sharp increase in the standard of living. In June 1940. Rescued by German paratroopers. where he established a puppet government (the Italian Social Republic) under German protection. outlawing all other political parties. and in 1936. nine months after the outbreak of World War II in Europe. based on aggression and expansion. and imposing a totalitarian regime on the country by means of terror and constitutional subversion. agricultural reform. Italy joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Public works projects. 1946 a popular election abolished the monarchy in favor of a republic. the king and his new prime minister.S. In the early 1970s the Italian Communists. and the appearance of order gained Mussolini considerable prestige. The Christian Democrats. In 1939. Italy sent troops to support Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. led by Enrico .Emmanuel III named Mussolini prime minister. and the two dictators then concluded a military alliance known as the Pact of Steel. The Allies pushed the German armies out of Italy with great difficulty. and the Lateran Treaty with the papacy in 1929 gave the "duce" (as he was called) a wide measure of popularity. On June 2nd. The 1960s were marked by continued prosperity and a lessening of tensions between right and left. Within four years. In July 1943 the Allies invaded Sicily. A fierce and heroic anti-Fascist resistance movement fought in the German-occupied north for two years while underground political leaders organized the anti-Fascists into the Committee of National Liberation (CLN). destroying civil liberties. and the Socialists became the leading political parties in the country. and the king forced him to resign. moved Italy closer to war during the 1930s. With massive U. established the Rome-Berlin Axis. Mussolini's foreign policy. the Christian Democrats. Mussolini's war effort met with setbacks and defeats on all fronts. In the south. surrendered to the Allies in September and then joined in the war against Germany.

Media mogul Silvio Berlusconi became premier. who kidnapped and murdered former premier Aldo Moro in 1978). leading a fragile conservative coalition called the Alliance for Freedom.Berlinguer. who demanded fundamental political reforms. and the violence of extremist groups (especially the left-wing Red Brigades terrorists. At the same time the government and the judiciary initiated a determined effort to break the power of the Mafia and other traditional criminal elements in southern Italy and Sicily. The postwar system was modified somewhat under the long premiership (198387) of Socialist Bettino Craxi and was shaken to its foundations by revelations of widespread corruption involving leaders of all the major parties during 1992-93. frequent government scandals. In the spring of 1994. New regional parties began to win support among the voters. all contributed to a volatile political situation. In the late 1970s and early 1980s labor unrest. . Italian voters rejected the traditional parties. became prominent advocates of Euro communism. a doctrine stressing independence of the USSR.

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