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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 7, JULY 2013

Global Energy Scenario and Impact of Power Electronics in 21st Century
Bimal K. Bose, Life Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—Power electronics technology has gained significant maturity after several decades of dynamic evolution of power semiconductor devices, converters, pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques, electrical machines, motor drives, advanced control, and simulation techniques. According to the estimate of the Electric Power Research Institute, roughly 70% of electrical energy in the USA now flows through power electronics, which will eventually grow to 100%. In the 21st century, we expect to see the tremendous impact of power electronics not only in global industrialization and general energy systems, but also in energy saving, renewable energy systems, and electric/hybrid vehicles. The resulting impact in mitigating climate change problems is expected to be enormous. This paper, in the beginning, will discuss the global energy scenario, climate change problems, and the methods of their mitigation. Then, it will discuss the impact of power electronics in energy saving, renewable energy systems, bulk energy storage, and electric/hybrid vehicles. Finally, it will review several example applications before coming to conclusion and future prognosis. Index Terms—Climate change, electric/hybrid vehicles, energy, energy storage, future of power electronics, global warming, motor drives, power electronics, renewable energy systems.

I. I NTRODUCTION T IS well known that power electronics is based on high efficiency and fast-switching silicon power semiconductor switches, such as diode, thyristor, triac, gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), power MOSFET, insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), and integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT), and their applications include dc and ac regulated power supplies, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, electrochemical processes (such as electroplating, electrolysis, anodizing, and metal refining), heating and lighting control, electronic welding, power line static volt ampere reactive (VAR) compensators [SVC, static var generator, or static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)] and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), active harmonic filters (AHFs), HVdc systems, photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) converters, dc and ac circuit breakers, high-frequency heating, energy storage, and dc/ac motor drives. Motor drive area may include applications in computers and peripherals, solid-state motor starters, transportation
Manuscript received October 17, 2011; revised January 3, 2012 and March 28, 2012; accepted May 25, 2012. Date of publication June 8, 2012; date of current version February 28, 2013. This paper was presented in part as an invited keynote address in Qatar Workshop on Power Electronics in Industrial Applications and Renewable Energy (PEIA2011), Doha, November 3–4, 2011. The Workshop was sponsored by the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 USA (e-mail: bbose@utk.edu). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2012.2203771

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systems, home appliances, paper and textile mills, pumps and compressors, rolling and cement mills, machine tools and robotics, variable-speed constant-frequency systems, etc. The widespread applications of power electronics in global industrialization are bringing a kind of industrial revolution in the 21st century which has been somewhat unprecedented in history. We have already seen how computer, communication, and information technology advancements have turned geographically remote countries as close neighbors. In particular, the Internet communication has brought revolution in our society, bringing the whole world close together into a global village. Truly, we now live in a global society, where the nations in the world are being increasingly interdependent. What happens today in India or Egypt, for example, affects the USA and vice versa. In the present trend, it is expected that future wars in the world will be fought in economic front rather than in military front. In the global marketplace, free from trade barriers, all the nations in the world will face fierce industrial competitiveness for survival and prosperity of living standard. In such an environment, power electronics with motion control will play a dominant role in the 21st century. Moreover, as the energy price increases and environmental regulations are tightened, power electronics applications will spread in every corner of industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, aerospace, military, and utility systems. The role of power electronics in this era will be as important as that of computers, communication, and information technologies, if not more. It may be relevant to mention here that the author recently published two survey papers [1], [2] of which the first paper has no relevance to the content of this paper. This paper is comprehensive and mainly deals with the discussion of energy systems. The technology advancement and trends are briefly reviewed in the “Future Scenario” of Section VI which can be considered as supplementary to the second paper [2]. II. E NERGY S CENARIO Let us discuss, in the beginning, with the global energy scenario [6]–[9]. We have come a long way in the history of our industrial civilization. Prior to industrial revolution, which started in 1785, we were essentially in the muscle age when our energy primarily came from human and animal muscles. In those days, world population was small, life was simple and unsophisticated, and the environment was relatively clean. The mechanical age, or the age of steam and heat engines, started with industrial revolution. Then, the electrical age started in the late nineteenth century by the commercial availability of electricity and, particularly, by the invention of commercial

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1 shows the global energy generation (or consumption) scenario and the U. 18% from natural gas. 2% from oil. Then. the energy consumption in the world was growing by leaps and bounds to cater the need of growing global population and the quest for higher living standard. such as hydro. energy generation in the same perspective. and tidal power. Looking at the oil depletion curve. With proper conservation. Around 84% of the total energy in the world is generated by fossil fuels (coal. in the USA. because of competitive costs and extensive availability and because they are environmentally clean in nature. and the remaining 10% comes from renewables (mainly hydro). Note that Fig. electrical. oil is imported from outside of which a bulk is from the Middle East. 20% from nuclear plants. Of course. 1. For example. it is possible to generate new nuclear fuel in breeder reactor. Fig. About 41% of the U. 2 shows the idealized energy depletion curves of fossil and nuclear fuels of the world (updated from [10]). communication. How will we fly our airplanes and run our automobiles when oil gets totally exhausted? Of course. the USA consumes nearly 28% of global energy. this scenario is changing fast because of the rapid industrialization of China. The natural gas reserve is expected to last around 150 years. we live in the Internet age. solar. 2.e. wave.” Then gradually came the age of integrated circuits (ICs).BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2639 Fig. Commercial thyristor was introduced in 1958. biofuels. the exploration of which can be expensive. The world has enormous reserve of coal. With nearly 4% of the world population (313 million out of 7 billion). considering the present availability and the current rate of consumption. Natural uranium (U235) has very low reserve and is expected to last around 50 years. geothermal. fusion energy does not yet show any promise for the future. which will theoretically extend the energy depletion curve to infinity. In comparison. computers.. induction motor. 3% from nuclear plants. particularly offshore oil and gas.S. it appears to be near the peak now and is expected to be exhausted in 100 years. setting the age of modern solid-state power electronics or what we often call “The Second Electronics or Power Electronics Revolution.S. it is interesting to note that per capita energy consumption in the world is highest in the USA. energy comes from oil which is mainly used in automobile transportation. Recent study (will be discussed later) has indicated that renewable energy alone with adequate storage can supply all the energy needs of the world. 2 does not include renewable energy resources. China (now the world’s second largest economy) with nearly 20% of the world population (1. Fig. we hardly paid any attention to the adverse effect of energy consumption. and at the present consumption rate. Of course. and natural gas). and robotics—and now. The gas-generated electricity is being favored more (with the corresponding decrease from coal) because of the recent availability of cheap and abundant shale gas. Fig. and this reflects a very high living standard (Switzerland has now the highest living standard). 40% of the total energy is consumed in electrical form of which nearly 50% comes from coal. oil. Fig. and electronics ages. Again. The recent rise of oil price is natural because the demand is rising and the supply is dwindling. energy generation pattern is essentially similar. environmental pollution. Idealized fossil and nuclear energy depletion curves of the world (2008).S. wind. It is interesting to note that about 70% of the U. energy generation scenario (2008).3 billion) consumes almost the same total energy as that of the USA. Global and U. The U. but the recent . and this is the possible reason for so much turmoil there. 3 shows electricity generation by different fuel types for a few selected countries of the world. Again. some fossil fuels can be converted from one form to another which may be expensive. can provide new resources. and the remaining 13% comes from renewable sources. renewable sources are now getting so much emphasis all over the world. Discovery and exploration of new fuel resources. So far. It is no wonder that. i. the age of modern solid-state electronics started by the invention of the transistor in 1948.S. it is expected to last around 200 years. During the mechanical.S. Japan had 31% electricity from nuclear resource. the curves in the figure can be flattened. It is believed that the Arctic Ocean contains the world’s 25% oil and gas reserves.

and 50% of its automobiles run on renewable sugarcane-based biofuel. and CO2 ) that cause environmental pollution problems. in fact. The USA refuses to accept mandatory emission control unless China takes adequate remedial action. NO. However. it has large CO2 sinking Amazon rain forest. The standard of living in China is much lower than that of the USA. emphasizing more on renewable resources. as shown. nuclear accident in the Fukushima-Daiichi plant is altering the scenario. Interestingly. . its emission level is moderate. and Canada is very close.). because of large population. 4. Interestingly. and the European nations. 60. burning of fossil fuels (coal. Biofuels are said to have carbon neutralization effect because they absorb CO2 during plant growth but emit CO2 at burning. The horizontal axis shows the population of the countries. 7. Electricity generation by fuel types of some selected countries (2008). 3. exceeded that of the USA from 2006. The more dominant effect of fossil fuel burning is the climate change problem [6] that is mainly caused by CO2 [also methane (CH4 ) and other gases—called greenhouse gases (GHGs)]. Brazil has good standard of living but low per capita emission. are typically less than 50% of that of the USA. and its per capita emission is very low. Although Switzerland has the highest standard of living. In Brazil. CO. China blames the USA and other industrialized nations for creating this mess and is not willing to sacrifice its growing standard of living by reducing energy consumption. and HC). NOX . The United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has ascertained with 90% certainty that manmade burning of fossil fuels causes climate change problem. NOX . given by the area of the rectangle. and the vertical axis shows the CO2 emission per person (in tons/yr. and urban pollution is caused mainly by automobile exhaust gases (CO. III. the world’s two most fast developing economies (China and India) generate most of the electricity by burning coal. It is interesting to note that the USA has the highest per capita emission in the world (excluding some Middle-East countries). which traps solar heat in the atmosphere. Per capita CO2 emission versus population of some selected countries. VOL.2640 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. 4 shows the per capita CO2 emission versus population of some selected countries in the world. the total emission in China is large and. HC. C LIMATE C HANGE P ROBLEMS —M ETHODS OF M ITIGATION Unfortunately. typically 90% of energy (in electrical form) comes from hydro. Next is Australia. On the other hand. For example. The total emission in a country. JULY 2013 Fig. Fig. as well as Russia and Japan. oil. is very important. acid rain that destroys vegetation is caused by SO2 and NOX . and natural gas) generates pollutant gases (SO2 . Fig.

a few beneficial effects of climate change. which will displace 75 million people. which will be discussed next. Again. power electronics applications are proliferating in industrial. military. Considering the serious consequences. transmission. of course. Aside from sea level rise. and the performance improved. and spread diseases. In addition. This is very baffling to the scientists. Moreover. develop clean coal technology with CO2 capture and underground sequestration. Saving of energy gives the financial benefit directly. the Antarctic. Again. each member country is required to limit emission within a certain quota. As you know. The extra cost of power electronics can be recovered within a reasonable period. IV. Climate scientists are trying to model the climate system (extremely complex) and predict atmospheric temperature rise by extensive simulation study on supercomputers. The melting of polar ice caps will open new transoceanic shipping routes. 25% of the world’s oil and gas reserves below the Arctic Ocean will be available for exploration. and promote widespread forestation. which is getting strong emphasis recently. energy wastage must be prevented. 6) Promote the generation of environmentally clean energy. larger population means more energy consumption. In fact. In addition. and therefore. the melting of ice will recover new lands that will be available for habitation and agriculture. 7) Replace internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs)/hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). if all fossil fuel burning is completely stopped today. Nuclear power has usual safety and radioactive waste problems. For example. climate change will bring severe droughts in tropical countries (like Africa and India). the Kyoto Protocol implementation is not being very successful in the recent years.6 ft in the next 1000 years. 2) Cut down or eliminate coal-fired power generation. 10) Finally. distribution. power electronics helps productivity improvement with the improvement of product quality. for mitigating climate change problems. How can we solve or mitigate the climate change problems? The methods can be summarized as follows [7]. and its consumption should be economized to make the lifestyle simpler. It has been estimated that about 100 million people live within 3 ft of the sea level. The Arctic region will be virtually free from ice by 2070. The melting of the Arctic ice is removing the habitats of polar bears and penguins with the expected extinction of these species. Another important role of power electronics. Greenland. but carbon fertilization will offset it by 9%. 5) Control human and animal population since they exhale GHG. Under this treaty. Unfortunately. and they will experience flooding of their habitats. In addition. 1) Promote all of our energy consumption in electrical form. the efficiency of power electronic apparatus may approach as high as 98%–99%. particularly where the energy cost is high. The city of Manhattan in New York will be under 200-ft water if all the ice in two polar ice caps melts. heavy rains. and electric/hybrid vehicles is significant in solving our energy shortage [13]. utility. The carbon fertilization effect will benefit agriculture and plants. reduced consumption . power electronics deals with conversion and control of electrical power with the help of power semiconductor devices that operate in switching mode. the UN Kyoto Protocol emerged in 1997. 9) Save energy by more efficient generation. It has been estimated that almost 33% of energy in the world can be saved by this method. tornadoes. and thousands of glaciers around the world that will cause the inundation of low-lying areas. The most serious effect of global warming is the melting ice in the Arctic. A.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2641 What are the effects of climate change? As mentioned before. aerospace. the study has shown that Arctic ice shrank by 500 000 mi2 in 2006 alone. In industrial systems. commercial. [8]. The melting of ice is raising the sea level with the potential to flood the low-lying areas. and floods. bulk energy storage. if all the ice in Greenland and Antarctica melts. preserve rain forests in the world. 3) Increase nuclear power(?). Note that a significant amount of global warming is caused by water vapor and cloud that act as bias and help to sustain plant and animal life on Earth. India’s agricultural production is expected to decrease by 38% by 2080 due to drought. I MPACT OF P OWER E LECTRONICS Let us now fall back to power electronics and explain why it is so important today not only for industrialization and general energy systems but also for energy saving and. Energy Saving The high efficiency of power electronics-based energy systems has been discussed before. Else. is the energy saving. and utilization of electricity. All these climate change effects will bring tremendous unrest and instability in the world. the ocean level will rise by 4. Centralized fossil fuel power stations can use emission control strategy effectively. which is three times faster than the computer prediction by climate scientists. It has been predicted that. As mentioned before. [12]. GHG causes the Earth’s atmosphere to accumulate solar heat and raise its temperature that may be a few degrees in 100 years. (The trend is tending to reverse after the recent Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan. With the advancement of technology.) 4) Since trees absorb CO2 . This method is not easy. the Himalayas. There are. according to UN. bring hurricanes. size became smaller. the impact of power electronics in renewable energy systems. This will damage the agriculture and vegetation. This will be discussed separately. with the projected rise of the sea level. according to UN estimate. thus. which is the goal of future smart grid [11]. and transportation systems. it is estimated that 50% of Bangladesh will be under water in 300 years. the sea level will rise by 200 ft. 8) Promote mass electrical transportation. as the cost of power electronics decreased significantly. The highly sensitive corals in the sea are dying due to higher water temperature and acidity of dissolved CO2 . residential.

In many parts of the world. and they are the most economical “green energy. the traditional method of flow control is by variable throttle or damper opening. Wind and PV energy are particularly attractive to the one-third of the world population that lives outside the electric grid. such as hydro. and another 20% can be saved by preventing waste. Some countries have already banned incandescent lamps. In such applications. and tidal powers. Power electronics-based compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are typically four times more efficient than incandescent lamps. The IEEE has ambitious prediction that. both Japan and Germany (Germany will exit from nuclear power by 2022) are planning to heavily emphasize renewable energy. biofuels. Currently. the emerging solid-state LED lamps consume 50% less energy than CFLs and have five times longer life. The state of North Dakota alone has 2. and the USA occupies the second place (close to Germany and Spain) with a total penetration of slightly more than 3%. Note that solar energy can be two types: One is thermal through solar concentrators that generates steam and operates turbogenerators to generate electricity (like conventional steam power plant). the exploration of only 10% (Stanford University estimate is 20%) of the available resource can possibly supply all the electricity needs of the world. Of course. It has been estimated that the widespread efficiency improvement by power electronics and other methods with the existing technologies can save 20% of the global energy demand. It has been estimated that around 20% of grid energy in the USA is consumed in lighting. in the current state of the technology. According to the Electric Power Research Institute of the USA. However. One popular application of power electronics in recent years is variable-frequency drive in diesel-electric ship propulsion. The lifetime . The generated dc is then converted to ac and fed to the grid or used in autonomous load. The variable-voltage variable-frequency power is then converted to constant voltage and frequency by a converter system before feeding to the grid. are environmentally clean and abundant in nature and therefore are getting tremendous emphasis all over the world. wind. CdTe. PV will supply 11% of the global electricity demand. economical electricity to customers. which can save considerable amount of fuel compared with the traditional diesel-turbine drive. B. surplus wind generated energy can be stored (storage will be discussed later) for lean time utilization. higher reliability. High efficiency induction and microwave cooking also save a lot of energy. 60. for example. JULY 2013 means reduced generation that indirectly mitigates the environmental pollution and climate change problems.” According to the estimate of the European Wind Energy Association. currently. which are heavily dependent on power electronics for conversion and control. although their installation and maintenance are more expensive. and machine drives have made wind energy very competitive—almost equal to that of fossil fuel power. and compressor-type drives. solar. Again. by 2050. Recent technology advances in variable-speed wind turbines. and the other is PV generation of electricity by silicon semiconductor. indirectly.2642 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. The world has enormous wind energy resources. the energy from the wind is converted to electricity by a generator coupled to a variable-speed wind turbine. where an induction motor coupled to the pump runs at constant speed (in the USA. with the present trend of aggressive research. Offshore wind farms generally give higher energy output than onshore farms. besides having longer (ten times) life. The PV devices are static. variable-frequency motor speed control with fully open throttle can save around 20% energy at light load. In terms of installed capacity. Power electronicsbased load-proportional speed control of air conditioner/heat pump can save energy by up to 20%. PV energy is more expensive than that of solar thermal. Scientific American has recently published a paper [16] by Stanford University professors that predicts that renewable energies only with adequate storage can supply all the energy needs of the world. China and India have large expansion programs for wind energy. The USA has the ambitious goal of increasing it to 20% by 2030. but it truly depends on the utilization factor. 1) Wind Energy Scenario: In a modern wind generation system. This method causes a lot of energy wastage by fluid vortex. 96% of large drives still use this traditional method). rheostatic speed control of subway drives is still used. and improved system security. Denmark is the leader with 25% of wind energy. one goal of the smart grid is to gradually transition us toward future carbon-free society. The wind and solar resources. nearly 60%–65% of grid-generated energy in the USA is consumed by electrical motor drives. NO. and 75% of these are pump. which is expected to rise to 40% by 2030. and communication technologies and will permit optimum resource utilization. geothermal. Among the developing countries. higher energy efficiency. are particularly important to meet our growing energy needs and mitigate the climate change problems. Power electronic control instead of traditional rheostatic or motor/ generator set control is obviously more efficient. in terms of percentage energy consumption. The wind potential of the USA is so huge that it can meet more than twice its current electricity need. fan. 7. and copper indium gallium selenide) convert sunlight directly into electricity. wave. computers. Currently. renewable energy resources. One drawback of wind energy is that its availability is statistical in nature and may require backup power from fossil or nuclear power plants. In fact. converter-fed machine efficiency can be improved further by flux programming at light load. Another study by UN IPCC reports that 50% of the total world energy can be met by renewable resources by 2050. safe.5 times the total potential capacity of Germany. 2) PV Energy Scenario: PV devices (crystalline or amorphous Si. The smart or intelligent grid of tomorrow will extensively use state-of-the-art power electronics. power electronics. Although. the price is falling sharply to be more competitive in future. The PV energy is expected to have significant expansion around the world. In such applications. China is the leader. Renewable Energy Systems As mentioned before. PV energy is generally typically three times more expensive than wind energy. The majority of the pumps and fans are used in industrial environment for the control of fluid flow. reliable. VOL. and environmentally clean (green) and do not require any repair and maintenance like wind power systems. After the recent nuclear accident in Japan.

distributed power source for utility system. PV. there are ambitious plans to explore solar energy from the African deserts like Sahara and Kalahari through extensive PV installations [14] and tying to the European grid through HVdc transmission. as indicated. In an FC vehicle. The battery/UC also supplies power during acceleration because of sluggish FC response. phosphoric acid FC. All of them are available commercially. like wind power. It can also be generated from coal through coal gasification (integrated gasification combined cycle). Bulk Energy Storage As mentioned before. The dc voltage generated by FC is normally stepped up by a dc–dc converter and then converted to ac by an inverter for ac power supply. extensive R&D is recently reducing the cost of FC dramatically. FC is safe and static and has high efficiency (typically 54%). but PEMFC is the most economical with high power density and low temperature (60 ◦ C–100 ◦ C) and therefore is important for FC-based electric cars. renewable energy sources. PV is also sporadic and therefore requires backup energy sources or bulk storage. The FC types can be classified as proton exchange membrane FC (PEMFC). or nuclear. which is boosted by a dc–dc converter and then converted to variable-frequency variable-voltage power for driving an ac motor. The H2 fuel is supplied from a tank. An FC is characterized by high output resistance and sluggish transient response (due to polarization effect). or from environmentally clean source. The O2 for the FC is obtained from air through a compressor. direct methanol FC. and solid-state FC. Fig. Unfortunately. FC-based EV showing H2 generation methods. Since FC cannot absorb vehicle regenerative power.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2643 Fig. The FC stacks can be considered as equivalent to series-connected lowvoltage batteries. a PEMFC usually generates the dc power. Japan has very aggressive role in PV research and applications because it does not have much indigenous energy resources and energy is expensive there. and UPS system or as portable power source. such as wind and PV. a battery or ultracapacitor (UC) is needed at the FC terminal [through another dc–dc converter (not shown)]. are statistical in nature because of the dependence on weather conditions (and the time of the day) and . or else. such as wind. Currently. H2 is usually generated from water using electricity from the grid. 5 shows the principle of FC-based EV that also summarizes different methods of H2 generation. where it can be stored as cryogenically cooled liquid or compressed gas. PV power has been extensively used in space applications. of PV panel is typically 20 years. The recent accident in the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear reactors is now putting Japan’s emphasis shift from nuclear to PV resources. and it combines with oxygen to produce electricity and water. where the by-product CO2 gas is sequestered in underground storage. C. 3) FC Energy Scenario: In an FC. H2 can be generated from water by electrolysis or from hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline and methanol) through a reformer. H2 gas is the fuel. although their applications are recently expanding to rooftop installation and off-grid remote installations like wind power. FCs can also be used for building cogeneration. Although it is bulky and expensive in the present state of the technology. An FC can be defined as a clean energy source if H2 is generated from a clean energy source. 5. and conversion efficiency is typically 15% with the commonly used thin-film amorphous silicon. the recent smart grid concept can shift the energy demand curve to match with the available curve.

VOL. EV battery charger. electrical energy from the grid is converted to mechanical energy through a converter-fed drive system (operating in motoring mode) that charges a FW. SMES storage is yet very expensive. UCs are available with low-voltage rating (typically 2.5 V) and capacitor values up to several thousand farads. and depleted oil and gas fields are now being investigated. There are various methods of grid energy storage [19]–[22] which can be briefly summarized as follows. The FW can be placed in vacuum or in H2 medium.05/kWh) and has been used. salt domes. and large amount of power can cycle through it (see Fig. washer/dryer loads. As mentioned before. FW storage is more economical ($0.e. and magnetic bearing can be used to reduce the energy loss. 2) Battery storage—Historically. this has been the most common form of energy storage for the grid. 60. etc. which is lower than that of battery or pumped storage systems. The cycle efficiency can be higher than 95%. The power density (W/kg) of UC is very high. Either liquid helium (0 K) or high-temperature superconductor (HTS) in liquid nitrogen (77 K) can be used. Recently. but its energy storage density (Wh or 1/2 CV2 /kg) can be as much as 100 times higher than that of EC. which charges 5) 6) 7) 8) SMES coil to store energy in magnetic form (1/2 L I2 ). H2 gas storage—H2 gas can be used as bulk energy storage medium and then used in FC or burned as a fuel in IC engine. Lead–acid battery has been used extensively. The typical cycle energy efficiency may be 75%. and cost may be less than $0. 7. the smart grid concept can be used. battery storage is possibly the most expensive (typically > $0. The world’s largest battery storage was installed by ABB in Fairbank. Currently. NO. However. there is over 90 GW of pumped storage facility around the world. In the present state of technology. In this method. The idea of using wind turbines to compress air directly is floating around. The units can be connected in series–parallel for higher voltage and higher capacitance values.2644 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. For example. when electricity is cheaper. As mentioned before. A new concept in this method is to use wind turbines or solar cells to directly drive water pumps for energy storage. but recently. in 2003 that uses NiCd battery with a capacity of 27 MW for 15 min. H2 can be generated easily from abundantly available sporadic sources like wind and PV and stored as compressed or liquefied gas with high density amassable fuel. Li-ion. When electricity demand is high. the Wh/kg of UC is low compared to that of a battery (typically 6 : 120 ratio for a Li-ion battery). can be shifted to off-peak hours. During the peak demand. V2G technology can be used. 5) without causing any deterioration. 1) Pumped storage in hydroelectric plant—In this method. The coil is cooled cryogenically so that dissipation resistance tends to be zero. 3) Flywheel (FW) storage—In FW storage. it may be expensive. NaS. grid energy is rectified to dc. UCs are yet expensive for bulk grid energy storage. Otherwise. where off-peak or renewably generated electricity is used to compress air and store underground. the compressed air is heated with a small amount of natural gas and then burned in turboexpanders to generate electricity. turning each vehicle with its 20–50-kWh battery pack into a distributed loadbalancing device or emergency power source. UC storage—A UC (also called supercapacitor or electrical double layer capacitor) is an energy storage device like an electrolytic capacitor (EC). water heater. H2 as the future clean energy source. It is possibly the cheapest method of energy storage but is applicable only with proper site facilities. Of course. Steel or composite material can be used in FW to withstand high centrifugal force due to high speed. Flow batteries have fast response and can be more economical in large-scale storage. A plugged-in EV can sell electricity to the grid during peak demand and then charge the battery during off-peak hours. NiCd. Bulk H2 production using biomass and its underground storage in caverns.1/kWh). CAES system has been used in Europe. Although very convenient with high cycle efficiency (typically 90%). For example. but mechanical storage has the usual disadvantages. Compressed air energy storage (CAES)—CAES is another grid energy storage method. it can be generated also from hydrocarbon fuels with underground sequestration of undesirable CO2 gas. energy is retrieved by the reverse process. to avoid expensive grid energy storage. This idea has generated the recent concept of hydrogen economy. and the energy can be stored indefinitely.. However. where smart metering can condition the demand curve (demand-side energy management) to match with the available generation curve by offering lower tariff rate. the head water runs the generators to supply the demand. the stored energy is retrieved through the same converter system to feed the grid. Then. 4) Superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES)—In this method. Alaska. electrical energy from the grid is converted to dc and stored in a battery.. i. and then the energy is recovered by the same drive system operating in generating mode. wind turbines have been used with direct coupling to FW system to achieve better efficiency. . the main disadvantage is that the battery life is shortened by charge–discharge cycles. Then. JULY 2013 therefore require storage of surplus energy to match with the energy demand curve on the grid. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) storage—This is somewhat a new concept for bulk energy storage assuming that a large number of battery EVs are plugged in the grid. General Electric (GE) installed 10-MVA lead–acid battery storage in the Southern California Edison grid in 1988. and flow batteries (such as vanadium redox) are finding favor. The overall energy efficiency of H2 storage cycle may be 50% to 60%.01/kWh. hydrogenerators are used as motor pumps to pump water from “tail” to “head” and store at high level using the cheap off-peak grid energy.

i. The braking energy can easily be regenerated to recharge the battery.5-h charging. The dc is converted to variable-frequency variablevoltage ac to drive an ac motor (induction or synchronous). which is required to supply 79 kWh with a power line efficiency of 92%. and charging takes several hours. today’s battery technology is not yet mature in spite of prolonged R&D. Comparison of Battery EV With FC EV Since R&D for both battery EV and FC EV are progressing in parallel. Considering the disadvantages. HVDC System for Wind Park Interconnection Wind power can be available either from onshore or offshore installations. as indicated in the figure. Some examples of recent introductions in the market are Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt. It appears that Li-ion (or Li based) is the battery of the future. however. and drive train efficiency of 89%. Fig. and 245-mi range) at a price over $100 000 to rich people. The total energy efficiency of battery EV is calculated as 68%. the total energy efficiency is only 30%. battery charging efficiency of 89%. The estimated cost of the vehicle is $20 000 with battery cost of $0. Although Ni–metal hydride (MH) batteries are extensively used. The latter has more than twice the storage density than the former but is twice expensive. The battery life is typically 100 000 mi. The power electronics and motor drive technology for EV/HEV is somewhat mature with reasonably low cost. Note that auxiliary storage of FC EV has been ignored for simplicity. Typically. FC EV is 38% less efficient.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2645 Fig. currently. Among the HEVs. Leaf is pure EV (100-mi range) with a price of $32 780 of which the battery cost is around $18 000. Currently. While range is the main problem in pure EV. 6. Currently. its range is only 40 mi but can extend to 360 mi with ICE charging.2 kWh). 3. D. battery efficiency of 94%. Pure EV has a long history. The HEVs will disappear from the market when economical EVs with long range are available. and interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drive (50 kW) is the most popular in the market with an approximate price of $28 000. Soon. 6 kWh of regenerated energy has been considered in this calculation. The FC EV is also assumed to have primary energy from wind turbines. S OME E XAMPLE A PPLICATIONS A. More EVs/HEVs will be introduced in future. Unfortunately. both of which use Li-ion battery. FC-EV research has recently been backed down in the USA. has 43% more weight. gasoline engine (57 kW). In pure EV mode. In a HEV. 202 kWh is to be supplied from wind turbines. there is no such problem in HEV. where a cluster of wind turbine generator . it is worth making comparison between the two technologies. there is large emphasis for its research in the USA. generally. and is 50% more expensive. The battery EV is assumed to have the battery charging from clean wind energy (although. V. Li-ion batteries have penetrated in the market. It is expensive and bulky with large weight and has limited cycle life. In summary. Considering all the efficiency figures of FC-EV line.. E. it is mostly from coal or nuclear). Comparison of battery EV with FC EV (300-mi range). 215 kW. Tesla Roadstar in the USA sells EV (Li-ion battery.16/W and $250/kWh. a plug-in version with Li-ion battery will be introduced. where the battery is charged by an ICE. Toyota Prius II (non-plug-in) with Ni–MH battery (1. In an EV. battery is the energy storage device. a number of EVs and HEVs are commercially available in the market. Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Scenario Petroleum fuel price increase and environmental (particularly urban) pollution control are the main motivations for worldwide R&D activities in EV/HEV for more than the last three decades. and currently. recently. The corresponding cost figures for FC EV are indicated in the figure. 6 summarizes this comparison [23] in today’s technology for mass production with identical 300-mi range and assuming that both deliver 60 kWh to the wheels. battery is the energy storage device. This is assisted by a power device which is usually a gasoline IC engine.e. Volt is HEV (price of $40 280).

and feeds a back-to-back voltagefed PWM converter system (only the sending end is shown in simplified form) before connecting to the ac grid at the receiving station on the right. as indicated in the figure.ON1) [24] for the world’s largest offshore wind park (450 MW) in the North Sea that is interconnected to the German grid. where the voltage is boosted by a three-winding transformer (to supply auxiliary power). JULY 2013 converter uses sinusoidal PWM with zero sequence injection to maintain maximum modulation index so that the dc voltage is maximum and efficiency and power can be maximum. real power has to flow through CONV-2.0 kHz in this case). B. the line current is increased by equivalent series capacitance effect. less cost. Each converter unit is a three-phase two-level PWM voltage-fed IGBT module converter (only half-bridge is shown). which indicates that the arbitrary d and q component of voltage (within the total limited magnitude of Vi ) can be injected in series to control P and Q independently. Although IGBT conduction drop is higher. Generally. high-power STATCOMs have been developed using GTO-based multilevel (three-level) voltage-fed converters and applied in utility systems.e.e. The main diagram shows a transmission line with receiving terminal and sending terminal along with the FACTS equipment consisting of two STATCOMs (CONV-1 and CONV-2). CONV-2 controls the P and Q of the line but does not require any input dc power (S is open). the current lags the injected voltage by 90◦ . In (c). In recent years. and each consists of GTO-based three-level 48-stepped 100-MVA voltage-fed converter with capacitor on the dc side and coupled to the line by means of a transformer as shown. from the sending terminal voltage V3 . This flexible P and Q control features in a segment of a transmission system are extremely important. In such a case. The traditional STATCOM uses thyristor-controlled reactor with parallel capacitor and thyristor-switched capacitor-bank-type static VAR compensator (SVC). CONV-1 alone can be used to control the sending end bus voltage V3 or the flow of Q in the sending source. HVDC system with voltage-fed two-level IGBT converters for offshore wind park interconnection (simplified diagram) (ABB HVDC Light— NordE. wind parks are located away from load centers and therefore require highvoltage transmission before connecting to the grid. it can control the Q flow independently. respectively. Siemens uses such system (HVDC PLUS) using IGBT-based multilevel converters [25]. and absence of visual effect and the harmful effects of electric and magnetic fields compared to overhead transmission. Note that multilevel converters and IGCT devices (invented by ABB) are not used in the installation. It has been recently built by ABB using HVDC Light technology. The wind park feeds ac power at the sending station. higher switching frequency (2. In the absence of P. i. units (called wind farm or park) pool the power together and then are interconnected to the grid. which is a solid-state version of a rotating synchronous condenser. A number of wind power systems with HV transmission have been built around the world. CONV-1 is a shunt STATCOM that can operate as three-phase variable capacitor or inductor. as shown by the current Id on the dc side with the switch S closed. FACTS for P and Q Control The real (P) and the reactive (Q) power of a transmission system can be controlled by power electronics-based FACTS. This means that CONV-1 supplies the real power Vd Id which is circulated in CONV-2. where a large number of matched high-voltage devices (4. in (d). they can control transient stability and generator oscillation problems of the system.ON 1). 7. There are a number of such HVdc-based wind park installations around the world. as explained by the phasor diagrams (a) and (b) on the left. Therefore. The phasor diagrams on the right indicate that Vi is aligned perpendicular to the line current I1 but subtracts and adds.5 kV) are connected in series–parallel (multichip wafer) to share the large voltage and power. in either cases. and faster turn-on and turnoff capability to force the proper voltage and current sharing during switching. The universal-power-flow-control characteristics of CONV-2 are explained by the phasor diagrams of (e). Note that.. The intermediate double-circuit HVdc transmission system at ±150 kV is 200 km long (with 128 km undersea and 75 km underground). either sides can be used as a STATCOM. Both the CONVs are identical. With the switch S open. Fig. The CONV-2 injects series voltage Vi as a phasor so that V2 = V3 + Vi . 7 shows the simplified diagram of HVDC transmission system (NordE. the line current is reduced by equivalent series inductance effect. The cable transmission has the usual advantages of better efficiency. Fig. and mitigation of flicker or grid voltage instability by fast Q control. The voltage-fed converter system has the usual advantages of multiterminal capability. The transient response of the STATCOMs to supply and absorb energy pulses is very fast. it has the advantages of continuous current limiting.. 60. but in addition. i.2646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. and therefore. The . the current leads the injected voltage by 90◦ . and the phasor diagrams explain their operation. VOL. 8 shows the FACTS that has been recently installed by Siemens for New York Power Authority (NYPA) [26]. 7. control of active (±P) and reactive (±Q) power independently. The three-winding power transformer uses on-load tap changing to maintain the converter voltage maximum irrespective of supply voltage variation. On the other hand. NO. Fig. The basic power electronic unit of FACTS is STATCOM.

In DTC control [42]. Fig. the machine stator flux and torque are controlled simultaneously through respective hysteresis-band controls and selection of optimum space vector for PWM control of the inverter. Fig. Three-level diodeclamped IGCT converters are used for the drives.3 kV) high-power (3–27 MW) induction or synchronous motor drives which are normally used in mine hoists. Commercial DTC ac motor drive (ABB ACS6000). although there is pulsating torque problem. (Recently. pumps. The nonregenerative drives use 12 (or six) pulse diode rectifier in the front end (top figure). 9 shows the converter configurations for the ABB ACS6000 class of medium-voltage (up to 3. and its implementation is simple. The DTC control is fast (comparable to vector control). C. etc. either single motor or multimotor drive units with common dc link can be used. In both cases.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2647 Fig. marine propulsions. conveyors. FACTS (NYPA). Medium-Voltage High-Power DTC Drives (ACS6000) ABB Company in Europe commercially introduced direct torque and flux controlled (DTFC or DTC) induction motor drives in the mid-1990s as an improvement of traditional volts/hertz controlled drives. The converter system uses phase-leg power electronic building block with water cooling for size reduction. Recent R&D has made improvement of this problem. whereas the regenerative four-quadrant drives use PWM rectifier in the front end (bottom figure). AFPM Machine Direct Drive With Vector Control for EV Drive Axial flux permanent magnet (PM) (AFPM) synchronous machines are recently showing a lot of promise. particularly for . Depending on the application. 9. the line side satisfies the IEEE 519 and IEC61000 harmonic standards. the product has been withdrawn from the market. All the systems use fuseless and encoderless designs.) D. 8.

in EV/HEV applications. In constant torque region. these data permit satisfactory operation in constant torque as well as in field-weakening regions with current control mode. renewable energy systems. For EV/HEV application. C ONCLUSION AND F UTURE S CENARIO This paper gives a comprehensive review of the world’s energy scenario and the climate change problems due to manmade fossil fuel burning along with the possible mitigation methods. VI. Te = f (iqs . The machine has small armature reaction effect and therefore operates at nearly constant flux in efficiency-optimized lookup table on torque–speed curves (which are a function of dc link voltage Vd ). shown on the upper left. in addition to the general trends of global industrialization. 10. [35]. bulk storage of energy. Standard symbols are used in the figure [3]. Fig. of course. Then. The machine characteristics are similar to that of surface-PM radial flux sinusoidal permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). 10 shows an AFPM motor application for direct wheel drive of EV [34]. where the machine is coupled directly on the mechanical system. VOL. several example applications are described. and fed to the inverter that uses space-vector PWM (SVM). the machine has the usual size and weight penalty. less weight. This gives higher efficiency. NO. T e = f (iqs ). and improved reliability. These voltages are then vector rotated. JULY 2013 Fig. direct drive applications. Axial flux PMSM direct drive of EV with vector control. The machine cogging torque is reduced by short-pitched trapezoidal magnets and slot magnetic wedge. For direct drive. The ideal M∗ and actual M are calculated and controlled in close loop manner by injecting ids with the lookup table generated ids . as shown in the figure. For example. The latter increases stator inductance and helps in enhancing the field-weakening region. and electric/hybrid vehicles in the 21st century. ids ). . but with higher torque or power density and improved efficiency and reliability. whereas in field-weakening region. Finally. The iqs and ids current control (called synchronous or dc current control) loops generate the respective voltage commands (vqs and vds ) through proportional-integral (P-I) regulators. The rotor disk is annular with NdFeB magnets mounted on the surface. Ideally. The lower portion of the figure shows the modulation index (M) control to prevent saturation to square-wave mode and compensate motor parameter variation effect. which are added with the feedforward counter electromotive force signals to enhance the close loop responses. AFPM machines can be mounted on two or more wheels. converted to three phases. 60. 7. thus eliminating mechanical gears and differential which are used in single radial machine drive system. The drive system uses direct vector control with stator flux orientation. The stator disk of AFPM machine is usually toroidal in shape with radially mounted winding coils in slots. the drive should operate in four quadrants with constant torque and field-weakening modes. it discusses the growing impact of power electronics on energy saving.2648 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. The picture of the motor mounted on the EV wheel is shown on the top right.

for high-power applications. some advances and trends of power electronics can be summarized as follows. applications and applications. The majority of electrical machines will have converters in the front end in the present trend of decreasing converter cost. Evidently.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2649 Power electronics has now been established as a major discipline in electrical engineering. incremental research will continue on performance optimization. Electrical machines and drives. and with the maturing trend of the technology. With rising energy cost. if not more. and vector control will emerge as the universal controller. system analysis. It appears that the role of power electronics in our society in the future will be as important and versatile as computers and information technology today. 50 A) and power MOSFET half bridges (1200 V. AHF will tend to be obsolete in the future. zero-frequency sensorless PMSM drives have been commercialized recently. near-zero-speed (or zero-frequency) precision speed or position estimation remains a challenge because of the need for machine saliency. The future emphasis on converters will be mainly on modularization and system integration—similar to the trend of very large scale integration technology. its future promise appears to be low. SiC-based Schottky barrier diodes (1200 V. information technology. Again. With the present trend of . Of course. computers. and their emergence will create significant impact in high-power applications. In fact. and thin-film diamond in the long run) are expected to bring renaissance in power electronics. when available. the voltage-fed class is becoming universal. particularly in high power for drives and utility system applications [37]. Large bandgap devices (such as SiC. AHFs and static VAR compensators tend to mitigate these problems. What is the future scenario in power electronics technology? As the technology is maturing in recent years. the scalar control techniques (including DTC control) will be obsolete. The cost differential in the complex vector drive and simple scalar control is hardly noticeable because only the software is more complex in the former. complex signal processing with externally injected signal. and phase-controlled thyristors show the trend of obsolescence in the future. Silicon-based bipolar junction transistor and GTO devices are already obsolete. is getting more emphasis. GTO (up to 40 kV). In general. precision parameter estimation and fault diagnosis for fault-tolerant control. although practically a mature technology. whereas the control hardware essentially remains the same. 100 A) with bypass diodes are already available in the market. Among all the classes of converters. However. This trend is being evident by the new emergence of smart grid technology. although they are more expensive than induction machines. controlling 97% of the world supply) is restricting the world market supply and raising the price. power electronics. modeling. design. replacing the present current-fed and cycloconverter classes. and fault-tolerant operation will require extensive system studies [39]. Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) or half-bridge topology has the advantage of modularity and fault-tolerant applications. It is now tending to merge as a high tech frontier in the “classical” power engineering domain. and integrated machine-converter-controller (particularly in the lower end of power) remains a clear trend. particularly for electric vehicle and wind generation system. power electronics will play an important role in the smart grid. and currently. economical electricity supply to consumers. PMSMs will dominate over induction motors in general industrial applications. Evidently. Power quality and lagging displacement power factor (DPF) problems are making the phase-controlled classical power electronics obsolete. IGBT (up to 25 kV). high system reliability. SiC MOSFETS with voltage rating up to 6 kV. and power systems will tend to merge to eventually emerge as a complex interdisciplinary technology. The IGCT is tending to lose the race with IGBT in the high-power area. and p-i-n diodes (up to 10 kV) are yet in laboratory. particularly real-time simulation with hardware in the loop. Multilevel (particularly the three-level diode-clamped type) voltage-fed converters are showing increasing popularity in high-voltage high-power utility systems and drive applications. In fact. and in the author’s view. This trend is already evident in the recent conference and journal publications. whereas power MOSFET has become universal in low-power high-frequency applications. simulation. power electronics engineers have been very proud of their profession. as mentioned before. they will lose their identity and be identified as power engineers. For so long. PMSMs (with NdFeB magnet) will find increasing acceptance. In particular. junction barrier Schottky (JBS). Unfortunately. Although sensorless vector drive is already available commercially. In power semiconductor devices. With the dominance of distributed renewable energy sources and bulk energy storage devices. High-voltage high-power SiC MOSFET (up to 10 kV). high system energy efficiency. In the author’s view. Power electronics will eventually be an important element in the industrialization and energy policies of different nations of the world. Traditional matrix converters have been on and off many times since its invention in the 1980s. IGBT has now emerged as the dominant device in medium to high-power applications. GaN. MATLAB/Simulinkbased simulation. at present. will wipe out most of the silicon-based power devices from the market. soft-switched converters for motor drives and other high-power applications have lost the promise except for high-frequency-link applications. and parameter variation problem. IPMSM is more attractive for large field-weakening applications. China (which is the major source of NdFeB magnet. Attempts are now being made to replace high-power bulky 60-Hz transformer by solid-state high-frequency-link power transformer using SiC power devices [12]. but eventually. the 21st century will find tremendous emphasis on applications. and experimental evaluations. Axial flux PMSM will find application in direct drive. maintenance of system frequency and bus voltages with optimum resource utilization. we expect to see increasing emphasis on incremental application-oriented R&D in modularization. GaN-on-Si power devices have all the advantages of SiC devices but show significant potential for cost reduction. Among all the drive control techniques. The estimation is more complex for induction machines compared to PMSM (which has builtin saliency). If magnet cost is sufficiently low. wound-field SMs remain popular. SVM is being increasingly popular over sinusoidal PWM. In the author’s view. switched-reluctance-motor drives do not show any future promise in the majority of applications and have the clear trend of obsolescence. promoting the active PWM line-side converters. there is a trend of SVM algorithm simplification for multilevel converters.

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PWM techniques. where he was responsible for teaching and research program in power electronics. Bimal Bose and Celebrating His Contributions in Power Electronics. and invited seminars extensively throughout the world. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) Eugene Mittelmann Award (for lifetime achievement in power electronics and motor drives) (1994). patents. Prior to this. He held the Condra Chair of Excellence (Endowed Chair Professor) in Power Electronics at the University of Tennessee. Calcutta University Mouat Gold Medal (1970). Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives (Prentice Hall. Bose is a recipient of a number of awards. IEEE Millennium Medal (2000). Bose (S’59–M’60–SM’78–F’89–LF’96) received the B. 1997). degree from the University of Wisconsin. Madison. member of the IEEE Fellow Committee. an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. and the Ph. in 1966.BOSE: GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO AND IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS IN 21st CENTURY 2651 Bimal K. for 11 years (1976–1987). NY. 2006). and the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2003). he served as Distinguished Scientist (1989–2000) and Chief Scientist (1987–1989) of Electric Power Research Institute–Power Electronics Applications Center. member of Lamme Medal Committee. NY. Calcutta. Microcomputer Control of Power Electronics and Drives (IEEE Press. keynote presentations. etc. Vice-Chair of the IEEE Medals Council. IEEE IES Magazine published a special issue (June 2009) “Honoring Dr. specially including power converters. He has served as a Distinguished Lecturer of both the IAS and IES. 1992). Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives (Wiley/IEEE Press. Modern Power Electronics (IEEE Press. and a faculty member at BESU for 11 years (1960–1971). Power Electronics and AC Drives (Prentice Hall.E. including the IEEE Power Electronics Society Newell Award (2005). 2002). He is specialized in power electronics and motor drives. in 1956. IEEE Meritorius Achievement Award in Continuing Education (1997). He has served the IEEE in various capacities. 1986). he was a Research Engineer in the General Electric Corporate Research and Development (now GE Global Research Center). He has authored/edited seven books in power electronics: Power Electronics and Motor Drives—Advances and Trends (Academic Press. electric/hybrid vehicle drives. including Chairman of the IES Power Electronics Council. for five years (1971–1976). and a number of IEEE prize paper awards.D. He has given tutorials. 1987). microcomputer/DSP control. GE Publication Award (1985). IEEE Region 3 Outstanding Engineer Award (1994). IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) Outstanding Achievement Award (1993). He has been a power electronics consultant in a large number of industries. Calcutta. 1981). IEEE Lamme Medal (1996). He has authored more than 250 papers and is the holder of 21 U. IEEE-Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Power Electronics Chairman. Associate Editor of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON I NDUSTRIAL E LECTRONICS . degree from Calcutta University. IAS member of the Neural Network Council. X’ian Mining University (1998). and neural network) applications in power electronics and motor drives. Knoxville.S. He also received the Distinguished Alumnus Award (2006) from BESU.S. Chairman of the IAS Industrial Power Converter Committee. Dr. and artificial intelligence (expert system. He holds an Honorary Professorship in Shanghai University (1991). fuzzy logic.” . the China University of Mining and Technology (1996). degree from Bengal Engineering College (currently the Bengal Engineering and Science University) (BESU). GE Silver Patent Medal (1986). Knoxville (1987–2002). the M. particularly in IEEE-sponsored programs and conferences. member of IEEE-USA Energy Policy Committee. member of IEEE Power Engineering Medal Committee. and Adjustable Speed AC Drive Systems (IEEE Press. Concurrently. member of IEEE Awards Board. in 1960. renewable energy systems. Troy. India. Schenectady.