Biologic Ecosystems(http://environment.about.com/od/petroleum/a/oil_spills_and_environm ent.

htm ) Oil Spills Kill Birds Oil-covered birds are practically a universal symbol of the environmental damage wreaked by oil spills. Any oil spill in the ocean is a death sentence for sea birds. Some species of shore birds may escape by relocating if they sense the danger in time, but sea birds that swim and dive for their food are sure to be covered in oil. Oil spills also damage nesting grounds, which can have serious long-term effects on entire species. They can even disrupt migratory patterns by contaminating areas where migrating birds normally stop. By coating the feathers, oil not only makes it impossible for birds to fly but also destroys their natural waterproofing and insulation, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia or overheating. As the birds frantically try to preen their feathers to restore their natural protections they often swallow some of the oil, which can severely damage their internal organs and lead to death. Oil Spills Kill Marine Mammals Oil spills frequently kill marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, seals and sea otters. The deadly damage can take several forms. The oil sometimes clogs the blow holes of whales and dolphins, making it impossible for the animals to breathe properly and disrupting their ability to communicate. Oil coats the fur of otters and seals, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia. Even when marine mammals escape the immediate effects, an oil spill can cause damage by contaminating their food supply. Oil Spills Kill Fish Oil spills often take a deadly toll on fish, shellfish and other marine life, particularly if large numbers of fish eggs or larvae are exposed to the oil. Oil Spills Destroy Wildlife Habitat and Breeding Grounds The long-term damage to various species, and to the habitat and nesting or breeding grounds those species depend upon for their survival, is one of the most far-reaching environmental effects caused by oil spills. The severity of environmental damages caused by a particular oil spill depends on many factors, including the amount of the oil spilled, the type and weight of the oil, the location of the spill, the species of wildlife in the area, the timing or breeding cycles and seasonal migrations, and even the weather at sea during and immediately after the oil spill. But one thing never varies: oil spills are always bad news for the environment. Environmental effects of oil spills on marine ecosystem (http://bushehrport.pmo.ir/en/maritimeenvironment/coastalmarine ) The impacts of oil pollution on marine ecosystem can be categorized into long term and short term effects. Suffocation cause by oil spills and oil poisoning are among the first group. Because oil floats on top of water, less light penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. Oil spills reduce oxygen

It has been observed that oil materials in sediments and cavities of sea floor will persist for 15 or more years. Suspended oil can gain weight by bonding with minerals and settle on the sea floor and harm the ecosystem tere. reducing its insulating ability. such as pesticides and heavy metals can be accumulated and finally will transfer to creatures used as food by humans and thus they will be accumulated in the human body. Animals living in rocky shores will be restored. Also causes sediments adherence to the sea floor. Worms. . At first a number of coastal inhabitants die but tides will help to clean the oil off the shore. Animals that come in touch with high concentrations of oil die of oil poisoning. microorganisms and young sea creatures are more sensitive. about 70 years are required for marine life to completely restore. Humans and other animals living near the sea are also threatened. It's been estimated in oil spilled areas. but in natural process it takes one or two years. An oil effect on coastal vegetation is also important. The oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds. These compounds. Algae and other local plants have been reported to be eradicated. destabilizing plants. effect of waves and temperature. sediments and their food. Effects of oil compounds on marine animals It's been proven that oil compounds will harm marine organisms even in low concentrations. Studies investigating the organic components entering food chains shows that they persists in living creatures and can pass through several food chains without changing. and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Decomposition of oil materials is done by bacteria but it's slow. Organisms accumulate oil compounds in their body through water. making it difficult or impossible to forage and escape from predators.absorption of the water. especially in cold waters Experience has shown that in these assisted conditions animals restoration process will begin in a few months. It also impairs birds' flight abilities. causing oxygen dissolution under oil spills to be even less than the deep sea levels. but it depends on various factors such as amount of oil. Oil compounds increase disease sensitivity in fishes and prevent growth of the phytoplankton. Usually it has been observed that sediments begin to move after oil settles on the sea floor.

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