l2tc

w
PREFACE

ffi

P(lWER F(IR AIRCRAFT
Lesson XIU
(You hove

EXERCISE NO. I 5 minufes fo complefe lhis exercise.)

The exercises ond octivities prescribed in this workbook you ottoin the purposes of eoch lesson. These purposes

will

help

Ploce o I in the blonk spoce which precedes o lrue stotement; ploce on F in the,blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotement.

will

be brought

Without o dependoble power plont, the oirplone could not hove been put into procticol use.
..................

o. b.
c.

fo your ottention by your instructor. No excercise is to be otfempted

.....i.

Kitty Howk until your reoding ossignment
hos been

. . Before the Wright Brothers mqde their hisioric flight ot in 1903, men hod flown in mon corrying gliders.
From lhe outset, oircroft power plonls hove been relioble

completed. Do not ottempt the

..................

exercises until you hove mode preporotion ofter plonning with the

mochines.

instructor ond poying heed to his presentotion ot fhe first lesson session.
Do not hesitote to use every method ot your commond in order to obtoin essentiol informotion. Observe, reod, osk questions of your instructor ond fhe resource people thot visit your clossroom. you
lessons

The oircroft engine is o complele power unit ond does not depend on reloted syslems lo perform its function.

d.

t

..................

". colion to oircroft power plonts. f.
..................

. .i.-

The principles

of the six simple mochines hove no oppli-

The first tosk

of ony engine is to convert potentiol energy

will

note rhot

into kinelic

-energy.

ore numbered in occordonce with o noturol sequence ond not with

g. .................. Energy, kind of energy.
h.
engines.
..................

once creoted, connot be chonged inlo onother

reference to o porticulor workbook; for exomple, the first lesson of the

Procticolly

oll oircroft engines ore externol

combustion

workbook: Aircroft in Flight is Lesson Vll; fhot of the workbook:
Power for

Flight is Lesson

XlV.

This procedure is olso used to identify

i.......;....-.... Robert Boyle (1627-l69ll discovered thot the pressure of o confined gos is directly proportionol to its lemperoture.

fhe lesson plons of the severol booklets of the rnstructor Guide series.
By meons

of o key your instructor will help you correcl Exercises

i. .....1......... All internol combustion engines hove pistons lhot turn q cronk shoft by meons of o connecting rod.
EXERCISE
(You hove

l, 2,

ond 3 of eoch lesson. Since

it

hos not been possible to key thc

NO.

2

responses

to Exercise 4, the quolity of these should be opproised during

l0

minufes fo complefe lhis exercise.)

discussion by students ond instructor.

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complele

the stolement.
HAROLD E. MEHRENS, Ediror

o. When the by one-holf.

pressure of o gos is doubled, iis volume is

.i......................,....

b. The ...c.,....:........:........................., one of the six simple mochines, moy be regorded os on inclined plone wropped oround o shoft.
c. One chorocteristic of energy is thot olthough it connot be creoted
nor destroyed, it con be
..............1......

d. A mixture of fuel,
energy.

such os gosoline ond

oir,

hos

d. The internol combustion engine puts principles discovered by l. Orville ond Wilbur Wright 2. Generols Eoker ond Spootz 3. Robert Boyle ond Jocques Chorles 4. Chorles A. Lindbergh

to procticol use the

lwo

e. Work is defined os force times ....,...1......

e. The power generoted by on oircroft reciprocoting engine is productive only when hornessed to on oirplone propeller or helicopler rotor

byq
of
the

f,

The child's teeter totter on the ployground is on exomple

. :
g.

..

.:,

l. Control System 2. Corburetor

3. Tronsmission System 4. Pulley System
EXERCISE NO. 4 minules lo complele lhis exercise.)

.....,.........

The wedge is

o movoble

...1...,.....................

h. ln

....... 1....,......................

lhe then Moior Corl Spooiz ond Coptoin lro thot mokes sustoined

(Yov hove

l5

C. Eoker kept the

i. lt is lhe ..............;....
flight possible.

l. Write o

....

i.

Energy in oction is colled

..........................., energy.

i

2. -Write o porogroph exploining how the potentiol energy in oircroft fuels is converted into the thrust required for powered flight.

Boyle ond Jocques Chorles. How ore these principles put in tfrq r' interngl combustion engine? ; -' :ttr

porogroph exploining the principles discovered by Robert to procticol use

EXERCISE

NO.

3

(You hove 5 minules lo complele lhis exercise.) Drow o circle oround ihe number preceding the phrose thot mokes lhe
(You hove

Lesson

XU

EXERCISE NO. I 5 minufes lo complele lhis exercise.)

slolement most correct.

o. lt moy
wos to
cessful

be thot ihe greotest occomplishment of the Wright Brothers design ond build, with the help of Chorles Toylor, the first succompustion
plone.

Ploce o f in the blonk spoce which precedes o true stotement; ploce on F in the blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotement.
L

o.

,i........

Reciprocoting engines ore olso known os reoction engines.
The turbo-iet engine is in mony respects less complicoted

l. lnternol 2. Sooring
b.
ol

engine.

3. Aircroft power plont. 4. Commerciol oir field.

I

f
I

I

b.

;. .
.......

thon o reciprocoting engine.
c.

The cronk shoft
I

of on internol combuslion engine is on odoptotion

I

Most oircrqft reciprocoting engines ore

of the "four-

stroke-fi ve-event-cycle" iype.

. The screw. 2. fhe wheel ond
c.
The first mon ever

oxle.

3. The pulley. 4.'Ihe piston

rod.

d. .. . .. .
completed.
I

lgnition in the combustion chomber tokes ploce some iime
is

ofter the compression stroke is storted ond before the power stroke
!
I

to moke o bolloon oscension wos l. .f ocques Chorles 3. Octove Chonuie 2. Chorles Toylor 4. Orville Wright

A/

The diesel engine shows promise os

o future

oircroft

,t

engine.

f. .......i..... .... The volves of o two stroke cycle engine open ond close twice os fost os they do on o four-stroke cycle engine. S.
....,...... Normolly,

i. A common opplicotion of iet propulsion or similor device. i.
engines.
...........,.,......................

is the

..............................................i.,

in-line engines ore liquid-cooled while rodiol

engines ore eqsier to streomline thon

..11......................r...

engines ore oir-cooled.

h. .i in eoch row,
lows

Rodiol engines olwoys hove on odd number

of

cylinders

EXERCISE Newton's second ond

NO. 3

i. . i Jet propulsion is bosed on of molion. i. :t
l

third
been

(You hove 5 minutes fo complele lhis exercise.)
+

Drow

o circle oround the

number preceding the phrose thot mokes

Rocket engines like

the turbo-iet engines hove

the stotement most correcl.

developed to the point where they con be effectively used in lorge bomber

ond tronsport type oircroft.

o.

The first turbo-jet power plont wos designed by

EXERCISE
(You hove

NO.

2

l0

minutes

lo complefe lhis exercise.)

l. An ltolion nomed Compine 2. Chorles Toylor 3. Air Commodore Fronk Whittle 4. Roberi Boyle
b. A iet engine thot hos o device whereby extro fuel con be iniected into lhe escoping goses to give odded thrust is soid to be equipped with o

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complete the stotement.

l.
2.
I

Hot pipe
Afterthought

.3. Afterburner

4. Afterglow
the

o. The most simple reciprocoling engine consisls of ................,..... o .............,.......... o ...............:......... ond o ...........,

c. Most oir cooled engines ore of

.

ln-line type
type

b. Since on oircroft engine must be of comporotively ...,.,;.,......... little use is mode of the diesel os o power plont unit for oircroft.
c.
The principle odvontoge of iet propulsion of oircroft is
.............,..............

2. Rodiol

3. Four-stroke-cycle 4. None of these

type

d.
where

Both the intoke ond the exhoust volves in o four-stroke engine ore
I

closed on lhe

.

lntoke stroke
Power stroke

d. One type of turbo-iet engine hos on
extro fuel is iniected into the escoping goses, giving odded

2.

3. lgnition 4. Exhoust

stroke stroke

to the
by on

e. Thot port of the turbo-iet engine thqt does the some iob os the

engine.

]
............

piston in o reciprocoting engine is colled o
I

e. The first iet propelled oircroft thot octuolly flew wos developed

.

......1......

nomed

2.
{
l

Turbine Compressor

3. Turbo-superchorger 4. None of these
EXERCISE

f. lt

oppeors likely lhot reciprocoting engines

will be used os the

principol element of

........,............

....

ond

power plonls for mony yeors to come.
helps convert the stroight-line molion of ihe piston to lhe rotory motion of the cronkshoft.
The
..............

(You hove

l5

minules

NO. 4 to complele fhis

exercise.)

g.

.:.-........................

L

Show, by meons

direction

of o drowing, the position of the volves ond the of trovel of the piston during eoch of the four strokes of on

internol combustion engine.

h. The five events thot hoppen during the four-stroke cycle

ore

2.

Rodiol engines ore usuolly eosier to mointoin thon in-line engines.
cose?

Why is this the

lesson
EXERCISE (You have

XUI

b. The first tosk

of o corburetor is to .......i.........
of o cqrburetor is to
........,....:-,i..i)..;........

..............

fuel.

NO. I

c. The second tosk

....,,...........

the fuel.

5 minufes fo

complefe lhis exercise.J

d.

.t

The

... 1.....,

.

.......... . ,..,

helps breok the fuel into smoll

Ploce o r in the blonk spoce which precedes o true srotement; ploce on F in the blonk spoce which precedes o folse stolemenf. o...................

porticles os it is dischorged from the corburetor nozzle.

fuel with oir.

engine's combustion chomber, either o diophrogm-corburetor or on iniection-corburetor must be used lo meler ond otomize the fuel qnd mix the

ln order to get the proper fuel_oir mixture into

on

between e. An engine driven internol superchorger "locoted corburetor ond the intoke monifold is colled on ..,1..,,rr...,,.......

the

f. The .:,.i
reoches the corburetor.

compresses

the oir before it

b. c.

....j.............

A floot type corburetor is not offected by ony

unusuol

chonge in the oltitude of the oircroft os the diophrogm type corburetor is.
"1

g. .. ... . ....,..
h.
The

is coused by improper combustion.

When fuel is voporized in the corburetor decreose in oir temperoture of os much os 30o to 40o F.
..........i.......

it con couse

q

fuel-oir mixture entering the monifold for distribution to the cylinders'

lem

d. ..........,....... The fuel iniection system eliminotes completely the probof ice formotion, since fuel voporizotion tokes proce ot the intoke
e...................

i. ln

.r.....r..........:..................... is incorporoted in the oircroft cor-

buretor to ollow on oircroft engine to run while the throttle is fully closed.
.. is to tronsmit oir to i. The function of the the corburetor ond feed the resulting mixture to the cylinders in the proper omount ond ot the proper pressure ond temperoture.

volve where temperotures ore normolly quite high.

f.

........,.........

designed

for low oltitude operotion.

A superchorger is o port of the induction system. Superchorgers ore primorily used on oircroft engines

g. ................. A, iet engine uses o diophrogm type corburetor so thot it will funclion properly regordless of the oltitude of the oircroft. h. ................. A superchorger is o sort of oir compressor.
superchorgers operote on the some principle, i.e. revolving blodes press the oir inlo lhe corburetion system ond consequently build up monifold pressure.
.................

EXERCISE

NO.

3

(You hove 5 minules to complele lhis exercise.)

i.

All

Drqw

o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which mokes
type

lhe stotement most correct.

i.

I .. The economizer volve in o

tion with lhe occeleroting purnp.

corburetor works in coopero-

o. One of the following is not the proper nomencloture for o of oircroft corburetor. 3. Diophrogm tyPe l Rom oir type 4. Floot type 2. Fuel iniection type

EXERCISE
(You hove

NO.

2

l0

minules fo complefe lhrs exercise,)

the stotement.

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complere

b. When compored to seo level pressure, otmospheric pressure ot 15,000 feet is 3. About 15 times os much l. About twice os much 4. About the some 2. About holf os much
c. Which of the following is not o port of the corburetor

o. A corburetor is used with reciprocoiing type engines rhot do not employ lhe .................... ........... syslem.

. Venturi 2. ldle oir
I

bleed

3. lmpeller 4. Dischorge nozzle

d. ln o turbo-superchorger l. An ouxiliory motor

ihe turbine wheel is driven by

.. f.

::J-.:..........
.......;..........

An electric motor is o generotor operoting in reverse'

2. The cronkshoft (:) erftorrt goses from the 4. Air induction motor

Aircrqft using mognetos for ignition usuolly use the mog' nelo os o source of electricity to operote other oircroft systems.
engine

e. Jet engines use I . Rom oir type corburetors

of the iet engine is much less comengine' reciprocoting ihe plicoted thon thot of

g.

-1.-

The ignition system

2. 3. 4.

Fuel iniection systems Fuel iniection type corburetors Diophrogm type corburetors EXERCISE (You hove 15 min'ufes

A booster coil is used to build up the volioge for "spork-jump" when the engine is turning ot toke-oft RPM'
h......-i.........

the

l. ..- J-. . dn induction (secondoryl coil is used with eoch spork plug to obtoin voltoge needed for the "spork-iump" when low tension
mognetos ore used.

NO. 4
complele lhis exercise.)

lo

i.
mission

........,.........

. l.r
I .r

of

condenser does not provide on electricol current.

A

o poth for the trons-

list' the similorities ond difierences betw'een o turbo-superchorger
EXERCISE
dio-

odil o turbo iet engine.

NO.

2

2r)[ist the odvonioges of the fuel iniection corburetor over the

(You hove

l0

minutes

to

complele this exercise')
com-

phrb-fm ond flow type corburetors. Whot is the moin disodvontoge of the iniection type corburetor?

3. Drow schemoticolly the induction system of o lorge oircroft engine. Show the locotion of such ports of the system os internol superchorger, turbo superchorger, corbureior qnd inlqke monifold.

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly plete the stqtement'

o. One type of

mogneto, the .l

:.....:..

does not

"step up" the voltoge of ihe primory circuit.

b.

Electric storters use on electric motor whose source

Lesson XUll
(You hove

of electricity .............. ond stored in on electric
mognetic

EXERCISE NO. I 5 minules fo complefe fhis exercise.)

c. When o conductor of electricity is moved. through o field o current will flow through the..i-.1'......'..';.:.'...."." ":"""" "" "

spoce which precedes o irue stotemeni; ploce on F in the blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotemeni. Ploce

o f in the blonk

is o revolving contoct point which posses over o circle o{ other stotionory contoct points' r

d.

The

t'

."Lt,*-L-..........1....:..1,...i....

".........

..

....-1.....

.. lf o mognetic field is moved ocross o conductor, the

effect is the some os lhot which occurs when ihe conductor is moved
through the mognetic field.

e. An inducrion coil of o mogneto
thot steps up ihe

is reolly

.JtA-**u:J-.4)::-;.,r:r" v'li:

voltoge.

li

b. . i... .. .. lgnition systems ore of two types: generoior ond mogneto. f' c. .......fl... ... The purpose of o condenser in on ignition system is to
reduce the electricity ot the distributor.

t'

f. lf o primory

coil which hos 50 turns of wire produces 24 volts,
..,-,1...,.*,.-.................

its secondory coil which hos 500 turns will produce

volts.

g. The mogneto is o sPeciol kind of
in turn rototes the cronkshoft through o

d.

........t.........

a

Direct electric storting is the most widely used

of

oll

h. ln inertio storting the cronk

turns o

"

l

..........',.........r... .. . ..'........

., which

storting systems.

clutch orrcrhgement.

ilr

l

i. A current flowing through o conductor sets up d oround lhe conductot. i.
by meons of on occessory shoft geored to the

..r.;..................

:

Lesson XUlll
EXERCISE

ln on oircroft mogneto, mognets ore rotqted belween "pole shoes"
.:..................-....,...........,....

NO. I

(You hove 5 minufes lo complele lhis exercise.)

EXERCISE

NO.

3

I
u
mokes

(You hove 5 minUfes lo complefe lhis exercise.)

Drow

o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which
The voltoge produced by the overoge oircroft mognelo
is

Ploce o I in the blonk spoce which precedes o true stotement; ploce on F in ihe blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotement. -1-' o. . .l The principle of operotion of the oircroft engine is bosed upon the foct thot heot energy con be chonged inio mechonicol energy.

the stotement most correct.

b.

.......i,...... The

I.'.

first low of thermodynomics stotes thot olthough

o.

energy moy chonge its form, no energy is destroyed excepl thot lost
through friction.

l. 20 volts 2. 200 volts
b.

3. 2000 volts
_4. t2o,O0o volrs

r-

..
is
used.

.......1...... ln meosuring units of work, the British Thermol Unit (BTUI
^-1--

The most widely used storling system for oircroft is the

l. "Spinning the prop by hond" system 2. Electric inertio siorting system 3. Direct eleclric storting system 4. Hond cronk inertio storting system
c. One of the following
neto ignition
I. 2. system.

d.
e.

.......1..........

Mechonicol efiiciency is the rotio

of broke

horsepower

to indicoted

*':...

horsepower.

ln colculoting the indicoted horsepower of on engine, the horsepower produced vories directly with the length of the stroke.
.......r..........

is not considered o port

of on oircroft mog-

f.

!:
.. ........... .

.

About 20 "/.

ol

the heot produced in on oircroft combus-

lion chomber is corried owoy by the exhoust.

Distributor
Condenser

3. Bottery 4. Spork plug
mosl modern

d. The ignition system found on .-l . Duol mogneto type 2. Single mogneto type
ignition
"i/*\

g. . .. .1.... lf o iet propelled oirplone wos flown in o vocuum its forword velocity would equol the velocity of ihe iet its engine produced.
h. . . ..j .. Crude petroleum is the source of

--l.-

oircroft is the 3. Single bottery type 4. Duol bottery type
the

a

.modern

oviotion fuels.

e. One of the following is not used to increose the voltoge in
system

i. .......i........ ln reciprocoting engines, the more ropid the fuel vopor burns, the greoter power the engine will produce.

\,,11 Condenser 2. Mogneto

3. 4.
EXERCISE

Booster coil Distributor

I

i.

.

.il

i....

.

The obility

of on engine fuel to turn into vopor is colled

its froctionol distilloiion index.

I
EXERCISE NO. 2 (You hove 10 minutes to complele lhis exercise.)
Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, ihot properly complete the stqtement.

NO. 4
complele lhis exercise.)

(You hove 15 minules
I

fo

.

Drow schemoiicolly on oircroft ignition system depicting the essenriql

ports

of the

system.

2.

List the four most commonly used storter systems

for modern oircroft.

o. The .......... ............ quolity of the fuel.

.... ..,....1.............1....,....

is on index to the slow-burning

r0

ll

rll
I

l

I

1

b. An English physicist nomed ........J-:;'tf mony yeors ogo thot it wos possible to tronsform
work. into

demonstroted

o certoin

qmount of

l

the some omount of heot.
BTU could

c. One pound of thrust of o iet engine will equol two horsepower when the speed of the iet oircroft is:

r. 250 MPH
be solvoged,

c' lf oll the heoi energy in one
produce .....:7..1.;.....
.......

it

would

2.375

MPH

3. 500 MPH 4t 750 MPH

ft./lbs. of work.

......5.t/.rr........ of the totol heot produced by the reciprocoting engine is expended becouse of fricfion.

d. About

engine we con orrive
-_1,\ 2

d. ln colibroting the indicoted horsepower of o four-stroke-cycle ot the number of pressure strokes per minule by

dividing the RPM of the engine by:

e. One pound of gosoline hos o potentiol heot energy content of
I I

2.3

3.4 4.8

.?,:jr.:...i:..;.,)............ BTU.

f.

lndicoted horsepower minus broke horsepower equols
horsepowgr is equol

'

horsepower.

g. One
minute.

to

-1...,:,.i..i,,....:..."

" """'
'

ft.,/lbs. per

e. A British Thermol Unit is: I . The omount of heot necessory to roise I cc of woter I o C. 2. The omount of heot necessory to roise I ounce of woter I o F. 3.. The omount of heot necessory to roise I pound of woter I o C.

./;

The qmount of heot necessory to roise l,pound of woter I o F.

h. The letters m.e.p. in thermodynomics stond for 'tli "

\lr

I'-

i. The iet engine's rote of fuel compored lo q reciprocoting engine'

consumption

is .;:"'::'.il"i''Y"' .

EXERCISE
(You hove
I

when

l5

minules

NO. 4 lo complele lhis exercise.)
or the jet, hos the leost thermol

i. Too ropid burning of fuel vopors in the combustion chomber couses.;)..:;.\;:,...,...,"1'......,....r't.1......,., or o sudden rise followed by o ropid decreqse in pressure.

. Which

engine, the reciprocoting

efficiency. Why?

2, An ofterburner on o iet increoses the power output of the engine. Whot effect does the ofterburner hove on the thermol efficiency of the
engine.

EXERCISE

NO. 3

(You hove 5 rninufes fo complele lhis exercise')

Lesson XIX
(You have
Ploce o
-on

Drow o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which mokes lhe stotement most correci,

5

minules

EXERCISE NO. I lo complele lhis exercise.)
precedes

burns

o. The fuel-oir qt obout:

mixture in o reciprocoting engine combustion chomber

f in the blonk spoce which

o true stotementi ploce

F in the blonk spoce which precedes q folse stotement.

l. 2OOo Centigrode 2. 2OO' Fohrenheit
obout:

:3' 4' 2000'

2000o Fohrenheit
Centigrode
runs

o.
b.

....i............. .-' I ........i.........

Friction generotes heol.
Petroleum is

b. The thermol efficiency of on oircroft reciprocoting engine

q member of the hydrocorbon fomily.

l.

100%

2. 75y.
t2

6

3. 50"/"

c. .......;.......... The lower the viscosity of on oil, the greoter the weight it con support without breoking. d.
.......,..........

2s%

All crude oils (petroleum) ore ospholt
r3

bose.

1:''

e.

.....i............

molecules

Oil gets its lubricoting obility from the foct thot its ore greosier thon the molecules of other substonces except
up

i.
l.

Rodiol engines ore usuolly...,|..t..x.................. cooled.
I

pure greose.

ln oir cooled engines cowl flops ore used to scoop the qir thot is used to cool the engines.
.......1..........
,- "a

f.

--i

ore used to control the omount Of oir thot flows oround on oir cooled oircroft engine.
.....:......i;.i.......:.......r...i...::.:..................

l,; ln liquid cooled engines lhe octs os the cooloni in the cooling system. S.
h.
......i:........ Jet engines
.........,........ .?a"-.........i........

oil in the lubricotion

system

EXERCISE
(You hove

5

minutes

NO. 3 lo complefe lhis exercise.)
mokes

ore liquid cooled.

i.
engines.

Wet sump lubricoting systems ore usuolly found on lorge

Drqw o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which lhe slotement most correct.

One woy to help keep cylinder heod temperotures down is lo use o greoter rotio of fuel io oir in the combustion chomber.

i.

o. The best lubricoting oil for oircroft engines is: l. Animol oil 3. Minerol oil 2. Vegetoble oil 4. Wesson oil
lubricoting

(You hove

EXERCISE NO. 2 l0 minufes fo comp/efe lhis exercise.)

b. one of the iests not used to determine the chorocteristics of oil is the

l.
c.

Viscosity test
test

'Octone roting 2,.

3. 4.

Flosh point Sulphur content test

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complete

lhe slotement.

lndicote which of the following stotements is folse.

o. Oil, when ploced between moving ports, tends to form o
only one molecule deep; this is known os o
,, nl !..r.,-.

loyer

l.

tocl ore of different metols.

Friction between two metor ports is ress when the ports in con-

.1.I.;.1,...;....:....r.,......i:.,..,,.....:.1:...i\loyer.

b. An index lo on oil's obility to flow ot certqin

temperotures is

"',''","

1

2. Petroleum is o member of the greot hydrocorbon fomily. 3. oil of the oil system corries oft o greot omount of excess
engine heot.

c. The ........i..;i..,...,'.....................,.........,....... test discovers the temperoture ot which on oil gives off inflommoble vopor.

4. ln-line engines ore more difiicurt to streomrine becouse they ore usuolly liquid coored engines ond corry rodiotors ond
coolont pumps not found on rodiol engines,
estoblished viscosity rotings

d.

The*Cs,,1'll'.1i....i.ij.,,rr-,.',...t.....1-,r................

forces the oil

of on qircroft
bock

engine oil system from the sump'through into the storoge tonk.

o filter, o rodiotor ond

d. The s.A.E. hove
S.A.E. stonds for
I

for lubricoting

oils.

e. The .........,........,.,...r.,..1...
lines to the engine ports.

...... ..,.:..........

.. is used to feed the

oil through oil
They

f.
ore the

Two systems
.i
.....\.

of engine cooling ore used in oircroft engines.
system ond the
....r.i..1....r..............................

t...i.i..1..1 ..:..-i:.....,...,'...:t......,,

system.

. Society of Aeronouticol Engineers 2. Society of Automotive Engineers 3. Sigmc Alpho Epsilon 4. Society of Americon Engineers
e. The oil system consists of on oil storoge tonk, on lines, o sump ond scovenger pump, on oil filter ond o

g.
of o

Heot hos been defined qs the motion of the

.....i..l'....r.......r...............,....{."J.

substonce.

oil pump, oil

h. As o result of compression ond ignition, cylinder heod temperolures of on uncooled oircroft engine could reoch .........f..1..........:...... degrees F,
14

l.
2.

Coolont Rodiotor

3. Distributor 4. Mqnifold
l5

,l
ri
I I

EXERCISE
{You hove
I

NO. 4
(You hove

l5

EXERCISE

NO. 2

minufes lo complele lhis exercise.)

l0

minufes fo complefe fhis exercrse.)

Discuss ihe lhree methods of reducing friction belween moving ports. qn exomple in ihe oircroft engine of how the lhree melhods ore used Give in combinotion.

.

Fill in the blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complete

the stolement.

2. Moke o

schemotic sketch

of on oircrofi engine oil

syslem showing

o.

Like the rotor

of o

helicopter, the propeller,

in o

sense,

is

o

ils vorious componenl ports.

.t...-.......1...........:.....................r............'

Lesson XX
EXERCISE

__

b. ln flight the propeller

hos two motions,

\!

.r...i.,:..1..:-..........r...............
...n..:r.'..i...i....,..........r....

ond

............i...................1....,..........,

the poth of this motion is

(shoped

NO. I

like o corkscrewl.

(You hove 5 minules fo complefe lhis exercise.) Ploce q f in the blonk spoce which precedes q lrue stotement; ploce on F in the blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotement.

c. One clossificotion of propeller is bosed upon whether ihe tof the propeller blode is ..U.i],.I...1...:...',,1,."..;.. or ...............,...1................ d.
ond

pitch

convert it into thrust ore the plont. purposes power The oircrqft propeller virof the oircroft moior lwo iosks into one. luolly succeeds in combining these

o.

....t............

To develop power ond

lo

;......i..'..;...,..'..i...;l;.1..,.,...1..i,
e.
Constonl-speed propellers ore

There ore two lypes of vorioble-pitch propellers; 1i

..J.-..''.1.:...........:...-,..,...,"

l

i

of two principol types
system.

depending

oircroft wing is on oirfoil.

b. .. -l:. .. The blode of o propeller is o type of oirfoil iust os the
......I......... The

upon the system controlling their operotion. One type uses o
system; the other, on

.,,..........,,.......;.....,.

.....................

principle of propeller oclion is bosed on the fqct pressure in in ony direclion will couse the qir to produce lhot o decreose

..

f.
g.

Both types of constont-speed propellers use o

..*]..,.......;,,..1.....,..........j.......

o force in thot direciion. d. ......[-........ All wood

os lhe core

of the outomotic pitch control.
\ ,,,..."...r...:..1...i...;:.:..1;.i,.
t

propellers ore fixed-pitch ond

oll metol

pro-

pel!9rs ore vorioble-pitch propellers.

propellers.

Some propellers ore duol rototing, they ' ore colled

^,

/
in

e. ....1:.......... An odiustoble propeller con be odiusted by the pilot
flight.

f. ........: ...... Reversible pitch propellers ore used to reverse the direction of rototion of ihe propeller.
g.
f,.
....;..

h. Propellers thqt ore so constructed thot the pilot con chonge the blode ongle to creote o bockword thrust ore colled i....i..i*i.:...i...,,....r....................
propellers.

. . ln flight the propeller tip trovels

foster thon the pro-

i.

The governor

of o
|

hydroulic propeller octivotes
..u....,...,-,t.

o

control rod

peller hub.
.....i...........

lhot opens ond closes o ...ur..i....,...;..
The electric propeller uses on electric motor

lo govern

'\

s1.. ond olso operotes on

propeller speed.
i......f......... Blode pitch is defined os the ongle mode by the chord of the blode element ond the plone in which the propeller rotoies. pitch propeller is o compromise, its pitch setting is neither the best possible for toke-off nor for cruising.

..".:..i...:.......,..,....i.".,.1.i.:i.':..i...,....
i

which in turn vories the oil pressure on either side

of o

-

.,-...,..t.......1..-,r..r..\............
i

1r

in the dome section of the propeller
on electric propeller, through

ossembly..

j.
opens

The governor

of

the control rod,

i. ....-I. ... The fixed

or closes on electric switch to o l. ..;.....)..;...:,......i......;....................:...........-........ in the propeller hub. t7

t6

(You hove

5

minutes

EXERCISE NO. 3 fo complefe fhis exercise.)
mokes

Lesson
(You hove
on

Xil

Drow

o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which
Reduction geors

the stotement most correct,

EXERCISE NO. I 5 minules fo complele lhis exercise.)

o.
,

qre used in propeller systems, porticulorly

propellers with lorge diometers to:

Ploce o f in the blonk spoce which precedes o true stotement; ploce on F in the blonk spoce which precedes o folse stotement.

l. Reduce weor on the sYstem' 2. Keep propeller tip speed below the speed of 3. Help keep the engine cool. 4. Feother ihe propeller on "deod" engines.
Propellers ore feothered to:

sound.

r o. ......i... .

Engine designers hove been oble

to reduce the

humber

of engine instruments required required by eorlier engines.

for

modern oircroft engines under thot

b.

l. Help broke the oirplone ond lhereby shorien the londing run. 2. Reduce drog ond eliminote windmilling on deod engines. 3. Get more engine power for toke-off. 4. Utilize less gos during normol cruise operotions.
c. One type of vorioble pitch propeller is little better thon o fixedpitch one, it is the:
I

b. ....:..I........ The pupose of the engine instruments is to keep the pilot informed of the operoting conditions of his engine. c.
..........i

.......

Most oircroft engine pressure gouges ore

of the vopor-

pressure, thermometer lype.

d. .................. The tochometer on engines equipped with fixed pitch propellers gives on indicotion of the engine power output.
e, .......i.......... The vopor-pressure type, temperolure indicotor o bulb contoining o highly volotile liquid.
uses

.

2.

Electric propeller Hydroulic propeller

3. Adiustoble propeller 4. Controlloble propeller

f.

........:.........

Electronic mechonisms ore electric devices which employ

of the length of o propeller blode the speed of the propeller tip, in relotion to o section midwoy between the hub ond tip, will trovel: l. At ot rote equol to the mid-section 2. At o rote equol to 2 times the rote of the mid-seciion 3. At o rote one-holf times the mid-section 4. At o rote twice thot of the mid-section

d.

Regordless

vocuum lubes,

g. ......... ...... Jet engine controls ore much more complicqied thon reciprocoting engine conlrols.
h. .................. lt is by meons of the mixture control thot o proper rotio of fuel to oir is kept in the induction system.

i. i.

..................

All engine control systems operote on the "push-pull
Where outomotic controls ore used, some method of
system.

e. There is o certoin similority between ihree of the following from the stondpoint of function ond design. which one is the dissimilor one? 3. Helicopter rolor I . Aircroft propeller 4. Aircroft toil section 2. Aircroft wing
EXERCISE (You hove

lube control"

system,

....i..........

monuol control is olmost olwoys kepi os o sofeguord in the evenl of foilure

of lhe outomotic

NO. 4
o hydroulic
propeller thol

EXERCISE
(You hove

NO.

2

l5

minules fo complefe fhis exercise.)

l0

minules

lo comp/efe fhis exercise.)

l.

Moke o simple diogrom of the moior ports of
system.

Fill in rhe blonk spoces with the word, or words, thot properly complete

control

the stotement.

2. Exploin why o propeller blode is designed in such o woy
the comber, chord, ond pitch is difterent for eqch section.

o.

Pressure gouges operote either on the
........t....i..*.i.,...:....i.l...,...r.:.................

..ru)n,;.r,.i...;'l'i...'..,.,..,.....:....,r...!",..'i..';-.

principle or the

principle.

l8

l9

b.

Temperoture indicotors moy employ the principle

...i-..;...,..:,.............;......,...........,

the

.................,.....................t..............,

of the or the vopor-pressure

b.

Temperoture gouges

three types. Which one
peroture?

for oircroft instruments ore usuolly one of the following is not used to meosure lemof

type thermometer qnd Bourdon tube.

c. On lorge multi-engine oircroft where consideroble distonces seporote the point where o meosurement is to be mode, ond the instrumenl
ponel where the reoding is token i
systems ore

l. Wheotstone bridge 2. Thermocouple 3. Vopor-pressure type thermometer ond Bourdon tube 4. Aneroid
govern the power output

in common

use.
-....:.....

d.

The vopor-pressure type temperoture indicotor uses o

c. One of the most importont controls, the one thot helps the pilot of the engine ond the speed of the oirplone,

contoining o highly volotile liquid such os methyl chloride, o tube ond o Bourdon tube.

.'. .'.... ... ........."..i...

is

the:

l.
2.

Mixture control
Throttle

3. Propeller 4. Quodront

control

e. The principles underlying lhe operotion of ouiomotic controls ore or electronic. ... i.. ,. ... -...................:.....,
::.

is o frqme secured to the floor quodronts ond control mechonisms. of the cockpit which supports the control
The control
...,.....r.

f.

.-1....,-..

d. Which of the following engine instruments would you expect to find on on in-line engine but not on o rodiol engine? l. Cylinder heod temperoture gouge 2. Monifold pressure gouge 3, 4.
Coolont temperoture gouge Corburetor oir temperoture gouge

g. An outomotic mixture control lever hos four

posilions' They ore ond

e, On the control quodront of oirplones equipped with reciprocoting engines ore usuolly found levers morked "P", "T", ond "M". These
letters stond for l. Propeller, throttle, ond mogneto 2. Propeller, turbo-superchorger, ond mixture 3. Power, throttle, ond mogneto 4. Propeller, throttle, ond mixture

h, ,{ monuolly operoted mixture control hos ony
positions.

i. ln

terms

of operoting

method, there ore three clossificotions of

engine controls: the

...'..,..,....... .................r..................,

the

....r.......... '........,

qnd the qutomotic,

i. ln
I

terms

of

construction there ore two engine control systems.

EXERCISE

NO. 4

The .....,r.."..:..i..*:..'r.,.......:*..1...i..... ond the ..............,........ ...

EXERCISE (You hove

NO.

3
exercise.)

5 minufes fo complele lhis

At this point, if you should hove ony questions obout the moteriol covered in the previous seven closses, bring these to the oltention of the instructor. This period should be devoted to discussing oll questions which you ond other students desire to hove onswered.

Drow o circle oround the number preceding the phrose which mokes the stotement most correct.

o, One of the following is not normolly
instrument.

used os qn oircroft engine

L Oil pressure gouge 2. Fuel pressure gouge 3. Monifold pressure gouge 4. Cylinder heod pressure gouge
20

(,R,f. 1
21